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1

Adaptive Implicit Non-Equilibrium Radiation Diffusion  

SciTech Connect

We describe methods for accurate and efficient long term time integra- tion of non-equilibrium radiation diffusion systems: implicit time integration for effi- cient long term time integration of stiff multiphysics systems, local control theory based step size control to minimize the required global number of time steps while control- ling accuracy, dynamic 3D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to minimize memory and computational costs, Jacobian Free Newton-Krylov methods on AMR grids for efficient nonlinear solution, and optimal multilevel preconditioner components that provide level independent solver convergence.

Philip, Bobby [ORNL; Wang, Zhen [ORNL; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Manuel [ORNL; Pernice, Michael [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Electrolytes: transport properties and non-equilibrium thermodynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a review on the application of non-equilibrium thermodynamics to transport in electrolyte solutions, and some recent experimental work and results for mutual diffusion in electrolyte solutions.

Miller, D.G.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Excitation of superconducting qubits from hot non-equilibrium quasiparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Superconducting qubits probe environmental defects such as non-equilibrium quasiparticles, an important source of decoherence. We show that "hot" non-equilibrium quasiparticles, with energies above the superconducting gap, affect qubits differently from quasiparticles at the gap, implying qubits can probe the dynamic quasiparticle energy distribution. For hot quasiparticles, we predict a non-neligable increase in the qubit excited state probability P_e. By injecting hot quasiparticles into a qubit, we experimentally measure an increase of P_e in semi-quantitative agreement with the model and rule out the typically assumed thermal distribution.

J. Wenner; Yi Yin; Erik Lucero; R. Barends; Yu Chen; B. Chiaro; J. Kelly; M. Lenander; Matteo Mariantoni; A. Megrant; C. Neill; P. J. J. O'Malley; D. Sank; A. Vainsencher; H. Wang; T. C. White; A. N. Cleland; John M. Martinis

2012-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

4

Non-equilibrium dynamics of a system with Quantum Frustration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using flow equations, equilibrium and non-equilibrium dynamics of a two-level system are investigated, which couples via non-commuting components to two independent oscillator baths. In equilibrium the two-level energy splitting is protected when the TLS is coupled symmetrically to both bath. A critical asymmetry angle separates the localized from the delocalized phase. On the other hand, real-time decoherence of a non-equilibrium initial state is for a generic initial state faster for a coupling to two baths than for a single bath.

Heiner Kohler; Andreas Hackl; Stefan Kehrein

2013-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

5

Book review Title: Non-equilibrium thermodynamics for engineers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Book review Title: Non-equilibrium thermodynamics for engineers Authors: Signe Kjelstrup, Dick book represents a significant contribution to a better understanding of fundamental and applied non metrics" Krzysztof J. Ptasinski, member of EGY Book Review Panel 1. Review by Krzysztof J. Ptasinski

Kjelstrup, Signe

6

Stochastic Measures and Modular Evolution in Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an application of the theory of stochastic processes to model and categorize non-equilibrium physical phenomena. The concepts of uniformly continuous probability measures and modular evolution lead to a systematic hierarchical structure for (physical) correlation functions and non-equilibrium thermodynamical potentials. It is proposed that macroscopic evolution equations (such as dynamic correlation functions) may be obtained from a non-equilibrium thermodynamical description, by using the fact that extended thermodynamical potentials belong to a certain class of statistical systems whose probability distribution functions are defined by a stationary measure; although a measure which is, in general, different from the equilibrium Gibbs measure. These probability measures obey a certain hierarchy on its stochastic evolution towards the most probable (stationary) measure. This in turns defines a convergence sequence. We propose a formalism which considers the mesoscopic stage (typical of non-local dissipative processes such as the ones described by extended irreversible thermodynamics) as being governed by stochastic dynamics due to the effect of non-equilibrium fluctuations. Some applications of the formalism are described.

Enrique Hernandez-Lemus; Jesus K. Estrada-Gil

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

7

Non-equilibrium electromagnetic fluctuations: Heat transfer and interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Casimir force between arbitrary objects in equilibrium is related to scattering from individual bodies. We extend this approach to heat transfer and Casimir forces in non-equilibrium cases where each body, and the environment, is at a different temperature. The formalism tracks the radiation from each body and its scatterings by the other objects. We discuss the radiation from a cylinder, emphasizing its polarized nature, and obtain the heat transfer between a sphere and a plate, demonstrating the validity of proximity transfer approximation at close separations and arbitrary temperatures.

Matthias Krüger; Thorsten Emig; Mehran Kardar

2011-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

8

Ethanol reforming in non-equilibrium plasma of glow discharge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The results of a detailed kinetic study of the main plasma chemical processes in non-equilibrium ethanol/argon plasma are presented. It is shown that at the beginning of the discharge the molecular hydrogen is mainly generated in the reaction of ethanol H-abstraction. Later hydrogen is formed from active H, CH2OH and CH3CHOH and formaldehyde. Comparison with experimental data has shown that the used kinetic mechanism predicts well the concentrations of main species at the reactor outlet.

Levko, D

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics formalism for Marcus cross-exchange electron transfer reaction rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cross-exchange electron transfer expression arising from Marcus theory is deduced using Onsager's non-equilibrium Thermodynamics formalism.

Sethi, Richa

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Non-Equilibrium 2PI Potential and Its Possible Application to Evaluation of Bulk Viscosity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Within non-equilibrium Green's function technique on the real-time contour and the two-particle-irreducable (2PI) $\\Phi$-functional method, a non-equilibrium potential is introduced. It naturally generalizes the conventional thermodynamic potential with which it coincides in thermal equilibrium. Variations of the non-equilibrium potential over respective parameters result in the same quantities as those of the thermodynamic potential but in arbitrary non-equilibrium. In particular, for slightly non-equilibrium inhomogeneous configurations a variation of the non-equilibrium potential over volume is associated with the trace of the non-equilibrium stress tensor. The latter is related to the bulk viscosity. This provides a novel way for evaluation of the bulk viscosity.

Ivanov, Yu B

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Non-Equilibrium Ionization States of GRB Environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Iron spectral features are thought to be the best tracer of a progenitor of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The detections of spectral features such as an iron line and/or a Radiative Recombination edge and Continuum (RRC) were reported in four X-ray afterglows of GRBs. However their properties were different each other burst by burst. For example, Chandra observation of GRB 991216 reported both the strong H-like iron line together with its RRC. On the contrary, Yoshida et al. (2001) report only a detection of the strong RRC in GRB 970828 with ASCA. Since it is difficult to produce the strong RRC, we have to consider special condition for the line and/or the RRC forming region. In this paper, we point out a possibility of a ``non-equilibrium ionization state'' for the line and the RRC forming region.

Yonetoku, D; Masai, K; Yoshida, A; Kawai, N; Namiki, M

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Non-Equilibrium Ionization States of GRB Environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Iron spectral features are thought to be the best tracer of a progenitor of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The detections of spectral features such as an iron line and/or a Radiative Recombination edge and Continuum (RRC) were reported in four X-ray afterglows of GRBs. However their properties were different each other burst by burst. For example, Chandra observation of GRB 991216 reported both the strong H-like iron line together with its RRC. On the contrary, Yoshida et al. (2001) report only a detection of the strong RRC in GRB 970828 with ASCA. Since it is difficult to produce the strong RRC, we have to consider special condition for the line and/or the RRC forming region. In this paper, we point out a possibility of a ``non-equilibrium ionization state'' for the line and the RRC forming region.

D. Yonetoku; T. Murakami; K. Masai; A. Yoshida; N. Kawai; M. Namiki

2001-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

13

Generation of hydrogen-rich gas using non equilibrium plasma discharges.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation investigates Non equilibrium plasma discharges, particularly gliding arc plasma discharge and dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) as alternative techniques to thermal or catalytic conversion… (more)

Odeyemi, Olufela O.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Theory and simulation of quantum photovoltaic devices based on the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article reviews the application of the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism to the simulation of novel photovoltaic devices utilizing quantum confinement effects in low dimensional absorber structures. It covers well-known aspects of the fundamental ... Keywords: NEGF, Photovoltaics, Quantum dot, Quantum well

U. Aeberhard

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Weakly nonlocal non-equilibrium thermodynamics - variational principles and Second Law  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A general, uniform, rigorous and constructive thermodynamic approach to weakly nonlocal non-equilibrium thermodynamics is reviewed. A method is given to construct and restrict the evolution equations of physical theories according to the Second Law of thermodynamics and considering weakly nonlocal constitutive state spaces. The evolution equations of internal variables, the classical irreversible thermodynamics and Korteweg fluids are treated.

Ván, P

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Non-equilibrium structures: How can they be maintained? Signe Kjelstrup,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or by obtaining energy from the outside, of course! A non-equilibrium structure is maintained by supply of energy everywhere; in nature and in industry. Nature has evolved over billions of years, and only the fittest have in some sense. Can the understanding of natural structures be helpful for man-made designs of energy

Kjelstrup, Signe

17

Photon production from non-equilibrium QGP in heavy ion collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a calculation of thermal photon production i.e. photons from secondary interactions among particles produced in heavy ion collisions at collider energies. This is done within the framework of hydrodynamics. We take into account the lack of chemical equilibrium in QGP. It turns out that main effects from chemical non-equilibrium composition of QGP, reduction of particle number and increase in temperature, nearly cancel in photon spectrum.

F. Gelis; H. Niemi; P. V. Ruuskanen; S. S. Rasanen

2004-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

18

Non-equilibrium hydrogen ionization in 2D simulations of the solar atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ionization of hydrogen in the solar chromosphere and transition region does not obey LTE or instantaneous statistical equilibrium because the timescale is long compared with important hydrodynamical timescales, especially of magneto-acoustic shocks. We implement an algorithm to compute non-equilibrium hydrogen ionization and its coupling into the MHD equations within an existing radiation MHD code, and perform a two-dimensional simulation of the solar atmosphere from the convection zone to the corona. Analysis of the simulation results and comparison to a companion simulation assuming LTE shows that: a) Non-equilibrium computation delivers much smaller variations of the chromospheric hydrogen ionization than for LTE. The ionization is smaller within shocks but subsequently remains high in the cool intershock phases. As a result, the chromospheric temperature variations are much larger than for LTE because in non-equilibrium, hydrogen ionization is a less effective internal energy buffer. The actual shock temperatures are therefore higher and the intershock temperatures lower. b) The chromospheric populations of the hydrogen n = 2 level, which governs the opacity of Halpha, are coupled to the ion populations. They are set by the high temperature in shocks and subsequently remain high in the cool intershock phases. c) The temperature structure and the hydrogen level populations differ much between the chromosphere above photospheric magnetic elements and above quiet internetwork. d) The hydrogen n = 2 population and column density are persistently high in dynamic fibrils, suggesting that these obtain their visibility from being optically thick in Halpha also at low temperature.

J. Leenaarts; M. Carlsson; V. Hansteen; R. J. Rutten

2007-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

19

Space charge corrected electron emission from an aluminum surface under non-equilibrium conditions  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical study has been conducted of ultrashort pulsed laser induced electron emission from an aluminum surface. Electron emission fluxes retrieved from the commonly employed Fowler-DuBridge theory were compared to fluxes based on a laser-induced non-equilibrium electron distribution. As a result, the two- and three-photon photoelectron emission parameters for the Fowler-DuBridge theory have been approximated. We observe that at regimes where photoemission is important, laser-induced electron emission evolves in a more smooth manner than predicted by the Fowler-DuBridge theory. The importance of the actual electron distribution decreases at higher laser fluences, whereas the contribution of thermionic emission increases. Furthermore, the influence of a space charge effect on electron emission was evaluated by a one dimensional particle-in-cell model. Depending on the fluences, the space charge reduces the electron emission by several orders of magnitude. The influence of the electron emission flux profiles on the effective electron emission was found to be negligible. However, a non-equilibrium electron velocity distribution increases the effective electron emission significantly. Our results show that it is essential to consider the non-equilibrium electron distribution as well as the space charge effect for the description of laser-induced photoemission.

Wendelen, W.; Bogaerts, A. [Research Group PLASMANT, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Mueller, B. Y.; Rethfeld, B. [Department of Physics and Research Center OPTIMAS, University of Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger-Strasse, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Autrique, D. [Research Group PLASMANT, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Department of Physics and Research Center OPTIMAS, University of Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger-Strasse, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Trace formulae for non-equilibrium Casimir interactions, heat radiation and heat transfer for arbitrary objects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a detailed derivation of heat radiation, heat transfer and (Casimir) interactions for N arbitrary objects in the framework of fluctuational electrodynamics in thermal non-equilibrium. The results can be expressed as basis-independent trace formulae in terms of the scattering operators of the individual objects. We prove that heat radiation of a single object is positive, and that heat transfer (for two arbitrary passive objects) is from the hotter to a colder body. The heat transferred is also symmetric, exactly reversed if the two temperatures are exchanged. Introducing partial wave-expansions, we transform the results for radiation, transfer and forces into traces of matrices that can be evaluated in any basis, analogous to the equilibrium Casimir force. The method is illustrated by (re)deriving the heat radiation of a plate, a sphere and a cylinder. We analyze the radiation of a sphere for different materials, emphasizing that a simplification often employed for metallic nano-spheres is typically invalid. We derive asymptotic formulae for heat transfer and non-equilibrium interactions for the cases of a sphere in front a plate and for two spheres, extending previous results. As an example, we show that a hot nano-sphere can levitate above a plate with the repulsive non-equilibrium force overcoming gravity -- an effect that is not due to radiation pressure.

Matthias Krüger; Giuseppe Bimonte; Thorsten Emig; Mehran Kardar

2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Effects of jamming on non-equilibrium transport times in nano-channels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many biological channels perform highly selective transport without direct input of metabolic energy and without transitions from a 'closed' to an 'open' state during transport. Mechanisms of selectivity of such channels serve as an inspiration for creation of artificial nano-molecular sorting devices and bio-sensors. To elucidate the transport mechanisms, it is important to understand the transport on the single molecule level in the experimentally relevant regime when multiple particles are crowded in the channel. In this paper we analyze the effects of inter-particle crowding on the non-equilibrium transport times through a finite-length channel by means of analytical theory and computer simulations.

Anton Zilman; John Pearson; Golan Bel

2009-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

22

NON-EQUILIBRIUM THERMODYNAMIC PROCESSES: SPACE PLASMAS AND THE INNER HELIOSHEATH  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, empirical kappa distribution, commonly used to describe non-equilibrium systems like space plasmas, has been connected with non-extensive statistical mechanics. Here we show how a consistent definition of the temperature and pressure is developed for stationary states out of thermal equilibrium, so that the familiar ideal gas state equation still holds. In addition to the classical triplet of temperature, pressure, and density, this generalization requires the kappa index as a fourth independent thermodynamic variable that characterizes the non-equilibrium stationary states. All four of these thermodynamic variables have key roles in describing the governing thermodynamical processes and transitions in space plasmas. We introduce a novel characterization of isothermal and isobaric processes that describe a system's transition into different stationary states by varying the kappa index. In addition, we show how the variation of temperature or/and pressure can occur through an 'iso-q' process, in which the system remains in a fixed stationary state (fixed kappa index). These processes have been detected in the proton plasma in the inner heliosheath via specialized data analysis of energetic neutral atom (ENA) observations from Interstellar Boundary Explorer. In particular, we find that the temperature is highly correlated with (1) kappa, asymptotically related to isothermal ({approx}1,000,000 K) and iso-q ({kappa} {approx} 1.7) processes; and (2) density, related to an isobaric process, which separates the 'Ribbon', P Almost-Equal-To 3.2 pdyn cm{sup -2}, from the globally distributed ENA flux, P Almost-Equal-To 2 pdyn cm{sup -2}.

Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J., E-mail: glivadiotis@swri.edu [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

23

The Application of Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Enhanced NMR to Non-Equilibrium Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) yields remarkably detailed structural information about virtually any molecule. However, its application to non-equilibrium systems is hampered by a lack of sensitivity. To increase the amount of signal that can be obtained from a NMR experiment, various hyperpolarization schemes have been previously introduced. One such technique is dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), which can enhance NMR sensitivity by several orders of magnitude. The work detailed here focuses on the development of methods utilizing DNP to study non-equilibrium systems such as chemical and biochemical reactions in real-time. To work with hyperpolarized samples, we have designed and constructed a rapid injection and mixing system. This system allows samples to be transported between superconducting magnets used for polarization and for NMR spectroscopy in less than two seconds. Rapid transport is essential for successful use of samples with short spin-lattice relaxation times. For the study of reactions under non-equilibrium conditions, the system provides the additional capability for samples to be mixed with a second, unpolarized reagent. A chromogenic trypsin catalyzed ester hydrolysis reaction was used to validate the DNP-NMR technique as a tool for kinetic analysis. It is shown that the DNP-NMR method agrees with the conventional UV method within the uncertainty of the measurement. Hyperpolarization in this modality presents both challenges and opportunities, each of which motivate the development of new NMR techniques. In addition to the determination of kinetics, DNP-NMR is amenable to mechanistic analysis of a reaction. We have developed a technique based on selective inversion of spin-polarization, which allows for mapping of atoms between reactant and product of a reaction. This scheme was applied to a Grignard reaction, demonstrating applicability to organic reactions. Signal averaging, as it is applied for conventional multi-dimensional correlation spectroscopy cannot always be applied easily when using hyperpolarized sample. For the rapid measurement of heteronuclear correlation spectra, we have developed a technique utilizing the differential scaling of scalar coupling under off-resonance irradiation. Although DNP-NMR yields spectra of outstanding quality even with small quantities of sample, peak intensities are not quantitative. It is nevertheless possible to compare peak multiplets obtained from fractionally isotope labeled samples. Using biosynthetically labeled lipids from E. Coli cells, we showed that the resulting labeling patterns reflect their biosynthetic pathways. As a final case-study employing several of these newly developed methods, the uronate isomerase catalyzed isomerization of glucuronate into fructuronate was studied. The ability to follow the reaction in real-time while directly observing all anomeric forms of the reactant and product permits the independent determination of kinetics for each anomeric form of substrate and product. This study revealed the anomeric specificity of the enzyme.

Bowen, Sean Michael

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

A comparison of equilibrium and non-equilibrium cycle methods for Na-cooled ATW system.  

SciTech Connect

An equilibrium cycle method, embodied in the REBUS-3[1] code system, has generally been used in conventional fast reactor design activities. The equilibrium cycle method provides an efficient approach for modeling reactor system, compared to the more traditional non-equilibrium cycle fuel management calculation approach. Recently, the equilibrium analysis method has been utilized for designing Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW)[2,3,4] cores, in which a scattered-reloading fuel management scheme is used. Compared with the conventional fast reactors, the ATW core is significantly different in several aspects since its main mission is to incinerate the transuranic (TRU) fuels. The high burnup non-fertile fuel has large variations in composition and reactivity during its lifetime. Furthermore, a relatively short cycle length is utilized in the ATW design to limit the potentially large reactivity swing over a cycle, and consequently 7 or 8-batch fuel management is usually assumed for a high fuel burnup. The validity of the equilibrium analysis method for the ATW core, therefore, needed to be verified. The main objective of this paper is to assess the validity of the equilibrium analysis method for a Na-cooled ATW core[4], which is an alternative core design of the ATW system under development.

Kim, Y.; Hill, R. N.; Taiwo, T. A.

2002-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

25

Unruh Effect under Non-equilibrium conditions: Oscillatory motion of an Unruh-DeWitt detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Unruh effect refers to the thermal fluctuations a detector experiences while undergoing linear motion with uniform acceleration in a Minkowski vacuum. This thermality can be demonstrated by tracing the vacuum state of the field over the modes beyond the accelerated detector's event horizon. However, the event horizon is well-defined only if the detector moves with eternal uniform linear acceleration. This idealized condition cannot be fulfilled in realistic situations when the motion unavoidably involves periods of non-uniform acceleration. Many experimental proposals to test the Unruh effect are of this nature. Often circular or oscillatory motion, which lacks an obvious geometric description, is considered in such proposals. The proper perspective for theoretically going beyond, or experimentally testing, the Unruh-Hawking effect in these more general conditions has to be offered by concepts and techniques in non-equilibrium quantum field theory. In this paper we provide a detailed analysis of how an Unruh-DeWitt detector undergoing oscillatory motion responds to the fluctuations of a quantum field. Numerical results for the late-time temperatures of the oscillating detector are presented. We comment on the digressions of these results from what one would obtain from a naive application of Unruh's result.

Jason Doukas; Shih-Yuin Lin; B. L. Hu; Robert B. Mann

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

26

Radiation-induced non-equilibrium redox chemistry of plutonium: implications for environmental migration  

SciTech Connect

Static concentrations of plutonium oxidation states in solution and at surfaces in oxide-water systems are identified as non-equilibrium steady states. These kinetically controlled systems are described by redox cycles based on irreversible disproportionation of Pu(IV), Pu(V), and Pu(VI) in OH-bridged intermediate complexes and at OH-covered oxide surfaces. Steady state is fixed by continuous redox cycles driven by radioactivity-promoted electron-transfer and energetically favorable reactions of Pu(III) and Pu(VII) disproportionation products with H2O. A model based on the redox cycles accounts for the high steady-state [Pu] coexisting with Pu(IV) hydrous oxide at pH 0-15 and for predominance of Pu(V) and Pu(VI) in solution. The steady-state [Pu] depends on pH and the surface area of oxide in solution, but not on the initial Pu oxidation state. PuO{sub 2+x} formation is attributed to high Pu(V) concentrations existing at water-exposed oxide surfaces. Results infer that migration of Pu in an aqueous environment is controlled by kinetic factors unique to that site and that the predominant oxidation states in solution are Pu(V) and Pu(VI).

Haschke, J M; Siekhaus, W J

2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

27

A path integral formalism for non-equilibrium Hamiltonian statistical systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a near equilibrium statistical system the Onsager-Machlup path integral has a long and useful history. The situation far from equilibrium has remained less clear. In this contribution a new general formulation for path integrals is proposed based on mixtures of an appropriate family of quasi-equilibrium probability densities. The path integral introduced here uses a generalized Boltzmann principle to associate path likelihoods with a multiple of the information loss of a particular path with respect to Liouvillean evolution. The loss at a particular time is given by a Lagrangian function of the thermodynamical variables and their time derivatives. An important implication of the present formulation is that future thermodynamical evolution depends not just on the instantaneous thermodynamic variables but also on the particular mixture of quasi-equilibrium distributions present. This behaviour has been previously seen in direct numerical simulations of turbulent dynamical systems and is also a fundamental property of Wiener path integrals. The Lagrangian derived is formally identical to that used in quantum mechanics to describe a particle moving non-relativistically in a particular vector and scalar electromagnetic field and also within a manifold with a metric tensor equal to the Fisher information matrix of the exponential family manifold. It is shown that a simple transformation due to Roncadelli enables the derived Lagrangian to be recast into standard Onsager-Machlup form. This transformation thus enables a derivation of the thermodynamical trajectory which is the most likely path. Also revealed is a decomposition of the thermodynamical trajectory into a reversible and irreversible piece which takes the form of the non-equilibrium thermodynamical equations recently proposed by \\"Ottinger.

Richard Kleeman

2013-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

28

Tailored Porous Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tailoring of porous materials involves not only chemical synthetic techniques for tailoring microscopic properties such as pore size, pore shape, pore connectivity, and pore surface reactivity, but also materials processing techniques for tailoring the meso- and the macroscopic properties of bulk materials in the form of fibers, thin films and monoliths. These issues are addressed in the context of five specific classes of porous materials: oxide molecular sieves, porous coordination solids, porous carbons, sol-gel derived oxides, and porous heteropolyanion salts. Reviews of these specific areas are preceded by a presentation of background material and review of current theoretical approaches to adsorption phenomena. A concluding section outlines current research needs and opportunities.

BARTON,THOMAS J.; BULL,LUCY M.; KLEMPERER,WALTER G.; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; MCENANEY,BRIAN; MISONO,MAKOTO; MONSON,PETER A.; PEZ,GUIDO; SCHERER,GEORGE W.; VARTULI,JAMES C.; YAGHI,OMAR M.

1999-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

29

Contribution from the interaction Hamiltonian to the expectation value of particle number with the non-equilibrium quantum field theory  

SciTech Connect

We develop the method analyzing particle number non-conserving phenomena with non-equilibrium quantum field-theory. In this study, we consider a CP violating model with interaction Hamiltonian that breaks particle number conservation. To derive the quantum Boltzmann equation for the particle number, we solve Schwinger-Dyson equation, which are obtained from two particle irreducible closed-time-path (2PI CTP) effective action. In this calculation, we show the contribution from interaction Hamiltonian to the time evolution of expectation value of particle number.

Hotta, Ryuuichi; Morozumi, Takuya; Takata, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Tomsk state Pedagogical University Tomsk 634041 (Russian Federation)

2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

30

Experimental Analysis of the Effect of Vibrational Non-Equilibrium on the Decay of Grid-Generated Turbulence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The technical feasibility of hypersonic flight (i.e., re-entry, hypersonic flight vehicles, cruise missiles, etc.) hinges on our ability to understand, predict, and control the transport of turbulence in the presence of non-equilibrium effects. A theoretical analysis of the governing equations suggests a mechanism by which fluctuations in internal energy are coupled to the transport of turbulence. Numerical studies of these flows have been conducted, but limited computational power results in reduced fidelity. Experimental studies are exceedingly rare and, consequently, experimental data available to build and evaluate turbulence models is nearly non-existent. The Decaying Mesh Turbulence (DMT) facility was designed and constructed to generate a fundamental decaying mesh turbulent flow field with passive grids. Vibrational non-equilibrium was achieved via a capacitively-coupled radio-frequency (RF) plasma discharge which required an operating pressure of 30 Torr. The flow velocity was 30 m/s. Data was recorded with each grid at multiple plasma powers (Off, 150 W, and 300 W). Over two terabytes of highly resolved (3,450 image pairs) two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV) was acquired and archived. Temperature measurements were carried out using coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS). The primary objective of this study was to answer the fundamental scientific question: "Does thermal non-equilibrium alter the decay rate of turbulence?" The results of this study show that the answer is "Yes." The results demonstrate a clear coupling between thermal non-equilibrium and turbulence transport. The trends observed agree with those expected based on an analysis of the Reynolds stress transport equations, which provides confidence in transport equation-based modeling. A non-trivial reduction (~30%) in the decay rate downstream of the 300 W plasma discharge was observed. The data also show that the decay of TKE downstream of the plasma discharge was delayed (~20% downstream shift). In addition, the thermal non-equilbrium was observed to have no effect on the transverse stress. This suggests that, for this flow, the energy dilatation terms are small and unaffected by the plasma discharge, which simplifies modeling.

Fuller, T. J.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Mott-Insulator to Liquid Transition and Population Trapping in Ultracold Fermi Gases by Non-Equilibrium Modulation of the Optical Lattice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An ultracold gas of interacting fermionic atoms in a three dimensional optical lattice is considered, where the lattice potential strength is periodically modulated. This non-equilibrium system is nonperturbatively described by means of a Keldysh-Floquet-Green's function approach employing a generalized dynamical mean field theory (DMFT). Strong repulsive interactions between different atoms lead to a Mott-Insulator state for the equilibrium system, but the additional external driving yields a non-equilibrium density of Floquet-states and a transition to a liquid or conducting state.

Regine Frank

2011-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

32

Spectral tailoring device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A spectral tailoring device for altering the neutron energy spectra and flux of neutrons in a fast reactor thereby selectively to enhance or inhibit the transmutation rate of a target metrical to form a product isotope. Neutron moderators, neutron filters, neutron absorbers and neutron reflectors may be used as spectral tailoring devices. Depending on the intended use for the device, a member from each of these four classes of materials could be used singularly, or in combination, to provide a preferred neutron energy spectra and flux of the neutrons in the region of the target material. In one embodiment of the invention, an assembly is provided for enhancing the production of isotopes, such as cobalt 60 and gadolinium 153. In another embodiment of the invention, a spectral tailoring device is disposed adjacent a target material which comprises long lived or volatile fission products and the device is used to shift the neutron energy spectra and flux of neutrons in the region of the fission products to preferentially transmute them to produce a less volatile fission product inventory. 6 figs.

Brager, H.R.; Schenter, R.E.; Carter, L.L.; Karnesky, R.A.

1987-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

33

Non-equilibrium of Ionization and the Detection of Hot Plasma in Nanoflare-heated Coronal Loops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Impulsive nanoflares are expected to transiently heat the plasma confined in coronal loops to temperatures of the order of 10 MK. Such hot plasma is hardly detected in quiet and active regions, outside flares. During rapid and short heat pulses in rarified loops the plasma can be highly out of equilibrium of ionization. Here we investigate the effects of the non-equilibrium of ionization (NEI) on the detection of hot plasma in coronal loops. Time-dependent loop hydrodynamic simulations are specifically devoted to this task, including saturated thermal conduction, and coupled to the detailed solution of the equations of ionization rate for several abundant elements. In our simulations, initially cool and rarified magnetic flux tubes are heated to 10 MK by nanoflares deposited either at the footpoints or at the loop apex. We test for different pulse durations, and find that, due to NEI effects, the loop plasma may never be detected at temperatures above ~5 MK for heat pulses shorter than about 1 min. We discuss some implications in the framework of multi-stranded nanoflare-heated coronal loops.

Fabio Reale; Salvatore Orlando

2008-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

34

Transfer coefficients for the Gibbs surface in a two-phase mixture in the non-equilibrium square gradient model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we calculate the transfer coefficients for evaporation and condensation of mixtures. We use the continuous profiles of various thermodynamic quantities through the interface, obtained in our previous works using the square gradient model. Furthermore we introduce the Gibbs surface and obtain the excess entropy production for a surface. Following the traditional non-equilibrium thermodynamic approach we introduce the surface transfer coefficients which we are able to determine from the continuous solution. The knowledge of these coefficients is important for many industrial applications which involve transport through a surface, such as for instance distillation. In our approach the values of the local resistivities in the liquid and the vapor phases are chosen on the basis of experimental values. In the interfacial region there are small peaks in these resistivities. Three amplitudes control the magnitude of these peaks. Possible values of these amplitudes are found by matching the diagonal transfer coefficients to values predicted by kinetic theory. Using these amplitudes we find that the value of the cross resistivities is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher then the one from kinetic theory. The results of both kinetic theory and molecular dynamics simulations support the existence of small peaks in the local resistivities in the interfacial region. The square gradient approach gives an independent way to determine the transfer coefficients for surfaces. The results indicate that kinetic theory underestimates the interfacial transfer coefficients in real fluids.

K. S. Glavatskiy; D. Bedeaux

2009-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

35

Transport coefficients of n-butane into and through the surface of silicalite-1 from non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transport coefficients of n-butane into and through the surface of silicalite-1 from non dynamics Non-equilibrium thermodynamics Silicalite-1 n-Butane adsorption a b s t r a c t We have studied coupled heat and mass transfer of n-butane through a membrane of silicalite-1. A description

Kjelstrup, Signe

36

THE ABUNDANCE OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN AND ITS CORRELATION WITH MIDPLANE PRESSURE IN GALAXIES: NON-EQUILIBRIUM, TURBULENT, CHEMICAL MODELS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations of spiral galaxies show a strong linear correlation between the ratio of molecular to atomic hydrogen surface density R{sub mol} and midplane pressure. To explain this, we simulate three-dimensional, magnetized turbulence, including simplified treatments of non-equilibrium chemistry and the propagation of dissociating radiation, to follow the formation of H{sub 2} from cold atomic gas. The formation timescale for H{sub 2} is sufficiently long that equilibrium is not reached within the 20-30 Myr lifetimes of molecular clouds. The equilibrium balance between radiative dissociation and H{sub 2} formation on dust grains fails to predict the time-dependent molecular fractions we find. A simple, time-dependent model of H{sub 2} formation can reproduce the gross behavior, although turbulent density perturbations increase molecular fractions by a factor of few above it. In contradiction to equilibrium models, radiative dissociation of molecules plays little role in our model for diffuse radiation fields with strengths less than 10 times that of the solar neighborhood, because of the effective self-shielding of H{sub 2}. The observed correlation of R{sub mol} with pressure corresponds to a correlation with local gas density if the effective temperature in the cold neutral medium of galactic disks is roughly constant. We indeed find such a correlation of R{sub mol} with density. If we examine the value of R{sub mol} in our local models after a free-fall time at their average density, as expected for models of molecular cloud formation by large-scale gravitational instability, our models reproduce the observed correlation over more than an order-of-magnitude range in density.

Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Glover, Simon C. O., E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org, E-mail: glover@uni-heidelberg.de [Zentrum der Astrophysik der Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2012-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

37

THE DIAGNOSTIC O VI ABSORPTION LINE IN DIFFUSE PLASMAS: COMPARISON OF NON-EQUILIBRIUM IONIZATION STRUCTURE SIMULATIONS TO FUSE DATA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The nature of the interstellar O VI in the Galactic disk is studied by means of a multi-fluid hydrodynamical approximation, tracing the detailed time-dependent evolution of the ionization structure of the plasma. Our focus is to explore the signature of any non-equilibrium ionization condition present in the interstellar medium using the diagnostic O VI ion. A detailed comparison between the simulations and FUSE data is carried out by taking lines of sight (LOS) measurements through the simulated Galactic disk, covering an extent of 4 kpc from different vantage points. The simulation results bear a striking resemblance with the observations: (1) the N(O VI) distribution with distance and angle fall within the minimum and maximum values of the FUSE data; (2) the column density dispersion with distance is constant for all the LOS, showing a mild decrease at large distances; (3) O VI has a clumpy distribution along the LOS; and (4) the time-averaged midplane density for distances >400 pc has a value of (1.3-1.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} cm{sup -3}. The highest concentration of O VI by mass occurs in the thermally stable (10{sup 3.9} K < T {<=} 10{sup 4.2} K; 20%) and unstable (10{sup 4.2} K < T < 10{sup 5} K; 50%) regimes, both well below its peak temperature in collisional ionization equilibrium, with the corresponding volume filling factors oscillating with time between 8%-20% and 4%-5%, respectively. These results may also be relevant for intergalactic metal absorption systems at high redshifts.

De Avillez, Miguel A. [Department of Mathematics, University of Evora, R. Romao Ramalho 59, 7000 Evora (Portugal); Breitschwerdt, Dieter [Zentrum fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

38

Potential and flux decomposition for dynamical systems and non-equilibrium thermodynamics: Curvature, gauge field, and generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem  

SciTech Connect

The driving force of the dynamical system can be decomposed into the gradient of a potential landscape and curl flux (current). The fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT) is often applied to near equilibrium systems with detailed balance. The response due to a small perturbation can be expressed by a spontaneous fluctuation. For non-equilibrium systems, we derived a generalized FDT that the response function is composed of two parts: (1) a spontaneous correlation representing the relaxation which is present in the near equilibrium systems with detailed balance and (2) a correlation related to the persistence of the curl flux in steady state, which is also in part linked to a internal curvature of a gauge field. The generalized FDT is also related to the fluctuation theorem. In the equal time limit, the generalized FDT naturally leads to non-equilibrium thermodynamics where the entropy production rate can be decomposed into spontaneous relaxation driven by gradient force and house keeping contribution driven by the non-zero flux that sustains the non-equilibrium environment and breaks the detailed balance. On any particular path, the medium heat dissipation due to the non-zero curl flux is analogous to the Wilson lines of an Abelian gauge theory.

Feng Haidong [Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Wang Jin [Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States) and Department of Applied Mathematics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)

2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

39

Tailoring electron energy distribution functions through energy confinement in dual radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasmas  

SciTech Connect

A multi-scale numerical model based on hydrodynamic equations with semi-kinetic treatment of electrons is used to investigate the influence of dual frequency excitation on the effective electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in a radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasma. It is found that variations of power density, voltage ratio, and phase relationship provide separate control over the electron density and the mean electron energy. This is exploited to directly influence both the phase dependent and time averaged effective EEDF. This enables tailoring the EEDF for enhanced control of non-equilibrium plasma chemical kinetics at ambient pressure and temperature.

O'Neill, C.; Waskoenig, J. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Maths and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Gans, T. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Maths and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

2012-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

40

Tailored Materials Corp | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Zip 85706 Sector Carbon, Solar Product String representation "Tailored Materi ... ng solar cells." is too long. References Tailored Materials Corp1 LinkedIn Connections...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Modelling transient heat conduction in solids at multiple length and time scales: A coupled non-equilibrium molecular dynamics/continuum approach  

SciTech Connect

A method for controlling the thermal boundary conditions of non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations is presented. The method is simple to implement into a conventional molecular dynamics code and independent of the atomistic model employed. It works by regulating the temperature in a thermostatted boundary region by feedback control to achieve the desired temperature at the edge of an inner region where the true atomistic dynamics are retained. This is necessary to avoid intrinsic boundary effects in non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Three thermostats are investigated: the global deterministic Nose-Hoover thermostat and two local stochastic thermostats, Langevin and stadium damping. The latter thermostat is introduced to avoid the adverse reflection of phonons that occurs at an abrupt interface. The method is then extended to allow atomistic/continuum models to be thermally coupled concurrently for the analysis of large steady state and transient heat conduction problems. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated for the example of heat flow down a three-dimensional atomistic rod of uniform cross-section subjected to a variety of boundary conditions.

Jolley, Kenny [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Gill, Simon P.A. [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: spg3@le.ac.uk

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

42

Cold atmospheric pressure plasma jets: Interaction with plasmid DNA and tailored electron heating using dual-frequency excitation  

SciTech Connect

Recent progress in plasma science and technology has enabled the development of a new generation of stable cold non-equilibrium plasmas operating at ambient atmospheric pressure. This opens horizons for new plasma technologies, in particular in the emerging field of plasma medicine. These non-equilibrium plasmas are very efficient sources for energy transport through reactive neutral particles (radicals and metastables), charged particles (ions and electrons), UV radiation, and electro-magnetic fields. The effect of a cold radio frequency-driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet on plasmid DNA has been investigated. The formation of double strand breaks correlates well with the atomic oxygen density. Taken with other measurements, this indicates that neutral components in the jet are effective in inducing double strand breaks. Plasma manipulation techniques for controlled energy delivery are highly desirable. Numerical simulations are employed for detailed investigations of the electron dynamics, which determines the generation of reactive species. New concepts based on nonlinear power dissipation promise superior strategies to control energy transport for tailored technological exploitations.

Niemi, K.; O'Neill, C.; Cox, L. J.; Waskoenig, J.; Hyland, W. B.; McMahon, S. J.; Reuter, S.; Currell, F. J.; Graham, W. G.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T. [Centre for Plasma Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

43

Betatron radiation from density tailored plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Betatron radiation from density tailored plasmas K. Tathe resulting betatron radiation spectrum can therefore bepro?le, the betatron radiation emitted by theses electrons

Ta Phuoc, Kim

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Tailoring the Content of Dynamically Generated Explanations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes briefly an approach for tailoring the content of automatically generated hypertext explanations. The implemented pilot system hylite+ has a dynamically updated user model, which is used by the language generation modules to adapt ...

Kalina Bontcheva

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Tailored displays to compensate for visual aberrations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce tailored displays that enhance visual acuity by decomposing virtual objects and placing the resulting anisotropic pieces into the subject's focal range. The goal is to free the viewer from needing wearable ...

Pamplona, Vitor F.

46

Tailoring engineered cementitious composites for impact resistance  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results of deliberate tailoring of engineered cementitious composites (ECC) for impact resistance. Microstructure control involving fiber, matrix and fiber/matrix interface was based on steady-state dynamic crack growth analyses accounting for rate dependence of composite phases. Uniaxial tensile stress-strain curves of the resulting impact resistant ECC were experimentally determined for strain rates ranging from 10{sup -5} s{sup -1} to 10{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Low speed drop weight tower test on ECC panels and beams was also conducted. Damage characteristics, load and energy dissipation capacities, and response to repeated impacts, were studied.

Yang, En-Hua [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Li, Victor C., E-mail: vcli@umich.edu [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

47

Tailored edge-ray reflectors for illumination  

SciTech Connect

The edge-ray principle can be used to tailor a reflector. However, one set of edge rays already fully determines the reflector profile. We present a design method for tailoring compact compound elliptical concentrator (CEC)-type reflectors to a given source and a desired angular power distribution. Two reflected images of the source, one on each side of the source, contribute together with the direct radiation from the source to produce the desired power distribution. We determine the reflector profile by numerically solving a differential equation. No optimization is required. Beyond the angular region in which the power distribution can be strictly controlled, the power drops to zero in a finite decay range. This decay range becomes narrower as the reflector increases in size. We show a reflector for producing a strictly constant irradiance from [minus] 43 to 43 deg from a cylindrical source of constant brightness. The reflector extends to a maximum distance of 8 source diameters. No power is radiated beyond [plus minus] 50 deg.

Ries, H.R.; Winston, R. (Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States))

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Tailored Working Fluids for Enhanced Binary Geothermal Power...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

conversion efficiency of systems employed by: - Tailoring the subcritical andor supercritical glide of enhanced working fluids to best match thermal resources. - Identifying...

49

A New Class of Molecularly-tailored Nanomaterials and Interfaces ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, A New Class of Molecularly-tailored Nanomaterials and Interfaces For Energy Conversion and Thermal Management. Author(s), Ganpati  ...

50

Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam Print Researchers at the ALS have demonstrated a new method to generate tunable, coherent, broadband terahertz...

51

Refrigerator Efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an Appliance Market...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Refrigerator Efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an Appliance Market Transformation Program Design for Africa Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-61251 Year of...

52

Innovations through Ceramic Processing by Tailoring Solid-Liquid ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Tailoring the solid-gas and solid-liquid interfaces of particles by ... By using principles found in natural composites, layered polymer/ceramic ...

53

Non-Equilibrium Nanoscale Self-Organization  

SciTech Connect

Self-organized one- and two-dimensional arrays of nanoscale surface features ("ripples" and "dots") sometimes form spontaneously on initially flat surfaces eroded by a directed ion beam in a process called "sputter patterning". Experiments on this sputter patterning process with focused and unfocused ion beams, combined with theoretical advances, have been responsible for a number of scientific advances. Particularly noteworthy are (i) the discovery of propagative, rather than dissipative, behavior under some ion erosion conditions, permitting a pattern to be fabricated at a large length scale and propagated over large distances while maintaining, or even sharpening, the sharpest features; (ii) the first demonstration of guided self-organization of sputter patterns, along with the observation that defect density is minimized when the spacing between boundaries is near an integer times the natural spatial period; and (iii) the discovery of metastability of smooth surfaces, which contradicts the nearly universally accepted linear stability theory that predicts that any surface is linearly unstable to sinusoidal perturbations of some wave vector.

Aziz, Michael J

2006-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

54

Entanglement Production in Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We define and analyse the concept of entanglement production during the evolution of a general quantum mechanical dissipative system. While it is important to minimise entropy production in order to achieve thermodynamical efficiency, maximising the rate of change of entanglement is important in quantum information processing. Quantitative relations are obtained between entropy and entanglement productions, under specific assumptions detailed in the text. We apply these to the processes of dephasing and decay of correlations between two initially entangled qubits. Both the Master equation treatment as well as the higher Hilbert space analysis are presented. Our formalism is very general and contains as special cases many reported individual instance of entanglement dynamics, such as, for example, the recently discovered notion of the sudden death of entanglement.

V. Vedral

2007-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

55

Atomic physics and non-equilibrium plasmas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Three lectures comprise the report. The lecture, Atomic Structure, is primarily theoretical and covers four topics: (1) Non-relativistic one-electron atom, (2) Relativistic one-electron atom, (3) Non-relativistic many-electron atom, and (4) Relativistic many-electron atom. The lecture, Radiative and Collisional Transitions, considers the problem of transitions between atomic states caused by interactions with radiation or other particles. The lecture, Ionization Balance: Spectral Line Shapes, discusses collisional and radiative transitions when ionization and recombination processes are included. 24 figs., 11 tabs.

Weisheit, J.C.

1986-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

56

Polymers with Tailored Electronic Structure for High Capacity Lithium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Polymers with Tailored Electronic Structure for High Capacity Lithium Polymers with Tailored Electronic Structure for High Capacity Lithium Battery Electrodes Title Polymers with Tailored Electronic Structure for High Capacity Lithium Battery Electrodes Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2011 Authors Liu, Gao, Shidi Xun, Nenad Vukmirovic, Xiangyun Song, Paul Olalde-Velasco, Honghe Zheng, Vince S. Battaglia, Linwang Wang, and Wanli Yang Journal Advanced Materials Volume 23 Start Page 4679 Issue 40 Pagination 4679 - 4683 Date Published 10/2011 Keywords binders, conducting polymers, density funcational theory, lithium batteries, X-ray spectroscopy Abstract A conductive polymer is developed for solving the long-standing volume change issue in lithium battery electrodes. A combination of synthesis, spectroscopy and simulation techniques tailors the electronic structure of the polymer to enable in situ lithium doping. Composite anodes based on this polymer and commercial Si particles exhibit 2100 mAh g-1 in Si after 650 cycles without any conductive additive.

57

TEST & MOTION SIMULATION SYSTEMSSERVOTEST Tailored Solutions For Your Servohydraulic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TEST & MOTION SIMULATION SYSTEMSSERVOTEST SERVOTEST ACTUATORS Tailored Solutions For Your Servohydraulic Test And Motion Simulation System Requirements #12;TEST & MOTION SIMULATION SYSTEMSSERVOTEST qualified engineers · Founded in 1958 as a Consultancy to service the growing test market · International

58

Tailored Materials for High Efficiency CIDI Engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall goal of the project, Tailored Materials for High Efficiency Compression Ignition Direct Injection (CIDI) Engines, is to enable the implementation of new combustion strategies, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), that have the potential to significantly increase the energy efficiency of current diesel engines and decrease fuel consumption and environmental emissions. These strategies, however, are increasing the demands on conventional engine materials, either from increases in peak cylinder pressure (PCP) or from increases in the temperature of operation. The specific objective of this project is to investigate the application of a new material processing technology, friction stir processing (FSP), to improve the thermal and mechanical properties of engine components. The concept is to modify the surfaces of conventional, low-cost engine materials. The project focused primarily on FSP in aluminum materials that are compositional analogs to the typical piston and head alloys seen in small- to mid-sized CIDI engines. Investigations have been primarily of two types over the duration of this project: (1) FSP of a cast hypoeutectic Al-Si-Mg (A356/357) alloy with no introduction of any new components, and (2) FSP of Al-Cu-Ni alloys (Alloy 339) by physically stirring-in various quantities of carbon nanotubes/nanofibers or carbon fibers. Experimental work to date on aluminum systems has shown significant increases in fatigue lifetime and stress-level performance in aluminum-silicon alloys using friction processing alone, but work to demonstrate the addition of carbon nanotubes and fibers into aluminum substrates has shown mixed results due primarily to the difficulty in achieving porosity-free, homogeneous distributions of the particulate. A limited effort to understand the effects of FSP on steel materials was also undertaken during the course of this project. Processed regions were created in high-strength, low-alloyed steels up to 0.5 in. deep that showed significant grain refinement and homogeneous microstructures favorable to increased fracture toughness and fatigue performance. The final tasks of the project demonstrated that the FSP concept can be applied to a relevant part geometry by fabricating diesel piston crowns with FSP regions applied selectively to the edge of the bowl rim. This area of the piston typically suffers from conditions at high PCP that cause severe thermal fatigue issues. It is expected that, given the data from coupon testing, the durability of pistons modified by FSP will allow much higher fatigue lifetime and potentially also greater resistance to elevated stress-level effects on fatigue.

Grant, G.J.; Jana, S.

2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

59

Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam Print Wednesday, 29 November 2006 00:00 Researchers at the ALS have demonstrated a new method to generate tunable, coherent, broadband terahertz radiation from a relativistic electron beam modulated by a femtosecond laser. Interaction of the ALS electron beam with a femtosecond laser pulse as they co-propagate through a wiggler modulates the electron energies within a short slice of the electron bunch with about the same duration as the laser pulse. This causes a dispersion of the electron trajectories, and the bunch develops a hole that emits short pulses of temporally and spatially coherent terahertz pulses synchronized to the laser. The technique allows tremendous flexibility in shaping the terahertz pulses by appropriate modulation of the laser pulse.

60

Physical and chemical characteristics of candidate wastes for tailored ceramics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tailored Ceramics offer a potential alternative to glass as an immobilization form for nuclear waste disposal. The form is applicable to the wide variety of existing wastes and may be tailored to suit the diverse environments being considered as disposal sites. Consideration of any waste product form, however, require extensive knowledge of the waste to be incorporated. A varity of waste types are under consideration for incorporation into a Tailored Ceramic form. This report integrates and summarizes chemical and physical characteristics of the candidate wastes. Included here are data on Savannah River Purex Process waste; Hanford bismuth phosphate, uranium recovery, redox, Purex, evaporator and residual liquid wastes; Idaho Falls calcine; Nuclear Fuel Services Purex and Thorex wastes and miscellaneous waste including estimated waste stream compositions produced by possible future commercial fuel reprocessing.

Mitchell, M.E.

1980-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Aeroelastic tailoring in wind-turbine blade applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper reviews issues related to the use of aeroelastic tailoring as a cost-effective, passive means to shape the power curve and reduce loads. Wind turbine blades bend and twist during operation, effectively altering the angle of attack, which in turn affects loads and energy production. There are blades now in use that have significant aeroelastic couplings, either on purpose or because of flexible and light-weight designs. Since aeroelastic effects are almost unavoidable in flexible blade designs, it may be desirable to tailor these effects to the authors advantage. Efforts have been directed at adding flexible devices to a blade, or blade tip, to passively regulate power (or speed) in high winds. It is also possible to build a small amount of desirable twisting into the load response of a blade with proper asymmetric fiber lay up in the blade skin. (Such coupling is akin to distributed {delta}{sub 3} without mechanical hinges.) The tailored twisting can create an aeroelastic effect that has payoff in either better power production or in vibration alleviation, or both. Several research efforts have addressed different parts of this issue. Research and development in the use of aeroelastic tailoring on helicopter rotors is reviewed. Potential energy gains as a function of twist coupling are reviewed. The effects of such coupling on rotor stability have been studied and are presented here. The ability to design in twist coupling with either stretching or bending loads is examined also.

Veers, P.; Lobitz, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bir, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). National Wind Technology Center

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Recent progress in tailoring trap-based positron beams  

SciTech Connect

Recent progress is described to implement two approaches to specially tailor trap-based positron beams. Experiments and simulations are presented to understand the limits on the energy spread and pulse duration of positron beams extracted from a Penning-Malmberg (PM) trap after the particles have been buffer-gas cooled (or heated) in the range of temperatures 1000 {>=} T {>=} 300 K. These simulations are also used to predict beam performance for cryogenically cooled positrons. Experiments and simulations are also presented to understand the properties of beams formed when plasmas are tailored in a PM trap in a 5 tesla magnetic field, then non-adiabatically extracted from the field using a specially designed high-permeability grid to create a new class of electrostatically guided beams.

Natisin, M. R.; Hurst, N. C.; Danielson, J. R.; Surko, C. M. [Physics Department, University of California, San Diego La Jolla CA 92093-0319 (United States)

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

63

Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam Print Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam Print Researchers at the ALS have demonstrated a new method to generate tunable, coherent, broadband terahertz radiation from a relativistic electron beam modulated by a femtosecond laser. Interaction of the ALS electron beam with a femtosecond laser pulse as they co-propagate through a wiggler modulates the electron energies within a short slice of the electron bunch with about the same duration as the laser pulse. This causes a dispersion of the electron trajectories, and the bunch develops a hole that emits short pulses of temporally and spatially coherent terahertz pulses synchronized to the laser. The technique allows tremendous flexibility in shaping the terahertz pulses by appropriate modulation of the laser pulse.

64

Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam Print Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam Print Researchers at the ALS have demonstrated a new method to generate tunable, coherent, broadband terahertz radiation from a relativistic electron beam modulated by a femtosecond laser. Interaction of the ALS electron beam with a femtosecond laser pulse as they co-propagate through a wiggler modulates the electron energies within a short slice of the electron bunch with about the same duration as the laser pulse. This causes a dispersion of the electron trajectories, and the bunch develops a hole that emits short pulses of temporally and spatially coherent terahertz pulses synchronized to the laser. The technique allows tremendous flexibility in shaping the terahertz pulses by appropriate modulation of the laser pulse.

65

Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam Print Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam Print Researchers at the ALS have demonstrated a new method to generate tunable, coherent, broadband terahertz radiation from a relativistic electron beam modulated by a femtosecond laser. Interaction of the ALS electron beam with a femtosecond laser pulse as they co-propagate through a wiggler modulates the electron energies within a short slice of the electron bunch with about the same duration as the laser pulse. This causes a dispersion of the electron trajectories, and the bunch develops a hole that emits short pulses of temporally and spatially coherent terahertz pulses synchronized to the laser. The technique allows tremendous flexibility in shaping the terahertz pulses by appropriate modulation of the laser pulse.

66

Bio-inspired tailored hydroxyapatite-based powder composites for dental applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to functionally graded implant for bio-medical application.DIEGO STATE UNIVERSITY Bio-inspired Tailored Hydroxyapatite-processing of HAP-based bio-composites.

Lin, Yen-Shan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Model for the Fabrication of Tailored Materials for Lithium-Ion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Model for the Fabrication of Tailored Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: Safe, stable and high-capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries...

68

High gain photoconductive semiconductor switch having tailored doping profile zones  

SciTech Connect

A photoconductive semiconductor switch with tailored doping profile zones beneath and extending laterally from the electrical contacts to the device. The zones are of sufficient depth and lateral extent to isolate the contacts from damage caused by the high current filaments that are created in the device when it is turned on. The zones may be formed by etching depressions into the substrate, then conducting epitaxial regrowth in the depressions with material of the desired doping profile. They may be formed by surface epitaxy. They may also be formed by deep diffusion processes. The zones act to reduce the energy density at the contacts by suppressing collective impact ionization and formation of filaments near the contact and by reducing current intensity at the contact through enhanced current spreading within the zones.

Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Loubriel, Guillermo M. (Albuquerque, NM); Mar, Alan (Albuquerque, NM); Zutavern, Fred J (Albuquerque, NM); Hjalmarson, Harold P. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Edgewood, NM); O' Malley, Martin W. (Edgewood, NM); Helgeson, Wesley D. (Albuquerque, NM); Denison, Gary J. (Sandia Park, NM); Brown, Darwin J. (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, Charles T. (Albuquerque, NM); Hou, Hong Q. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Strong-field spatial interference in a tailored electromagnetic bath  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Light scattered by a regular structure of atoms can exhibit interference signatures, similar to the classical double-slit. These first-order interferences, however, vanish for strong light intensities, restricting potential applications. Here, we show how to overcome these limitations to quantum interference in strong fields. First, we recover the first-order interference in strong fields via a tailored electromagnetic bath with a suitable frequency dependence. At strong driving, the optical properties for different spectral bands are distinct, thus extending the set of observables. We further show that for a two-photon detector as, e.g., in lithography, increasing the field intensity leads to twice the spatial resolution of the second-order interference pattern compared to the weak-field case.

M. Macovei; J. Evers; G. -x. Li; C. H. Keitel

2006-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

70

Tailoring Relaxation Time Spectrum in Soft Glassy Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Physical properties of out of equilibrium soft materials depend on time as well as deformation history. In this work we propose to transform this major shortcoming into gain by applying controlled deformation field to tailor the rheological properties. We take advantage of the fact that deformation field of a certain magnitude can prevent particles in an aging soft glassy material from occupying energy wells up to a certain depth, thereby populating only the deeper wells. We employ two soft glassy materials with dissimilar microstructures and demonstrate that increase in strength of deformation field while aging leads to narrowing of spectrum of relaxation times. We believe that, in principle, this philosophy can be universally applied to different kinds of glassy materials by changing nature and strength of impetus.

Manish Kaushal; Yogesh M. Joshi

2013-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

71

Tunable Laser Plasma Accelerator based on Longitudinal Density Tailoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser plasma accelerators have produced high-quality electron beams with GeV energies from cm-scale devices and are being investigated as hyperspectral fs light sources producing THz to {gamma}-ray radiation and as drivers for future high-energy colliders. These applications require a high degree of stability, beam quality and tunability. Here we report on a technique to inject electrons into the accelerating field of a laser-driven plasma wave and coupling of this injector to a lower-density, separately tunable plasma for further acceleration. The technique relies on a single laser pulse powering a plasma structure with a tailored longitudinal density profile, to produce beams that can be tuned in the range of 100-400 MeV with percent-level stability, using laser pulses of less than 40 TW. The resulting device is a simple stand-alone accelerator or the front end for a multistage higher-energy accelerator.

Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Lin, Chen; Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shiraishi, Satomi; Sokollik, Thomas; Benedetti, Carlo; Schroeder, Carl; Geddes, Cameron; Tilborg, Jeroen van; Osterhoff, Jens; Esarey, Eric; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

72

Tailored ceramic consolidation forms for ICPP waste compositions. Draft  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A polyphase tailored ceramic simulated waste consolidation form for ICPP type high Zr content high-level waste (HLW) calcines. The ceramic is specifically designed to provide chemically stable host phases for each species present in the HLW and to maximize waste volume reduction through high loadings and form density. The ceramic is designed for a 73 wt% waste loading with a density of 3.35 {plus_minus} 0.5(9/cm{sup 3}). The major phase in the ceramic is a highsilica glass, which contains the neutron poison boron as well as the majority of the non-refractory species in the waste. The primary crystalline phases are calcium fluoride, calcium-yttrium stabilized cubic zirconia, an apatite type silicate containing the plutonium simulant Ce, and a Cd metal phase. Minor phase include zircon, zirconolite, and a sphene type phase. Leach testing and microscopic analysis shows the ceramic form to chemically durable, with only the glass phase showing any detectable dissolution in deionized water at 90{degree}C.

Harker, A.B.; Flintoff, J.F. [Rockwell International Corp., Thousand Oaks, CA (United States). Science Center

1989-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

73

Tailored ceramic consolidation forms for ICPP waste compositions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A polyphase tailored ceramic simulated waste consolidation form for ICPP type high Zr content high-level waste (HLW) calcines. The ceramic is specifically designed to provide chemically stable host phases for each species present in the HLW and to maximize waste volume reduction through high loadings and form density. The ceramic is designed for a 73 wt% waste loading with a density of 3.35 {plus minus} 0.5(9/cm{sup 3}). The major phase in the ceramic is a highsilica glass, which contains the neutron poison boron as well as the majority of the non-refractory species in the waste. The primary crystalline phases are calcium fluoride, calcium-yttrium stabilized cubic zirconia, an apatite type silicate containing the plutonium simulant Ce, and a Cd metal phase. Minor phase include zircon, zirconolite, and a sphene type phase. Leach testing and microscopic analysis shows the ceramic form to chemically durable, with only the glass phase showing any detectable dissolution in deionized water at 90{degree}C.

Harker, A.B.; Flintoff, J.F. (Rockwell International Corp., Thousand Oaks, CA (United States). Science Center)

1989-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

74

Chemical tailoring of steam to remediate underground mixed waste contaminents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method to simultaneously remediate mixed-waste underground contamination, such as organic liquids, metals, and radionuclides involves chemical tailoring of steam for underground injection. Gases or chemicals are injected into a high pressure steam flow being injected via one or more injection wells to contaminated soil located beyond a depth where excavation is possible. The injection of the steam with gases or chemicals mobilizes contaminants, such as metals and organics, as the steam pushes the waste through the ground toward an extraction well having subatmospheric pressure (vacuum). The steam and mobilized contaminants are drawn in a substantially horizontal direction to the extraction well and withdrawn to a treatment point above ground. The heat and boiling action of the front of the steam flow enhance the mobilizing effects of the chemical or gas additives. The method may also be utilized for immobilization of metals by using an additive in the steam which causes precipitation of the metals into clusters large enough to limit their future migration, while removing any organic contaminants.

Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Udell, Kent S. (Berkeley, CA); Bruton, Carol J. (Livermore, CA); Carrigan, Charles R. (Tracy, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

TENTATIVE COURSE OUTLINE PY542: NON-EQUILIBRIUM STATISTICAL PHYSICS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-infinite systems ­Smoluchowski theory of chemical kinetics (e) First Passage in Confined Geometries ­survival) 1) Elementary Kinetic Theory (1.5 lectures) (a) The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution (b) Molecular (c) The Detailed Balance Condition and Applications (d) The Ising-Glauber Model ­exact solution

Redner, Sidney

76

Non-equilibrium effects and multiphase flow in porous media.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??We encounter flow in porous media, knowingly or otherwise, on a daily basis; percolation of precipitation into top soil, ground-water supplies obtained from aquifers (ground-water… (more)

Aryana, Saman Afqahi.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Non-equilibrium Lorentz gas on a curved space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The periodic Lorentz gas with external field and iso-kinetic thermostat is equivalent, by conformal transformation, to a billiard with expanding phase-space and slightly distorted scatterers, for which the trajectories are straight lines. A further time rescaling allows to keep the speed constant in that new geometry. In the hyperbolic regime, the stationary state of this billiard is characterized by a phase-space contraction rate, equal to that of the iso-kinetic Lorentz gas. In contrast to the iso-kinetic Lorentz gas where phase-space contraction occurs in the bulk, the phase-space contraction rate here takes place at the periodic boundaries.

Felipe Barra; Thomas Gilbert

2007-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

78

Facilitated oriented spin models:some non equilibrium results  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the relaxation to equilibrium for kinetically constrained spin models (KCSM) when the initial distribution $\

Nicoletta Cancrini; Fabio Martinelli; Roberto H. Schonmann; Cristina Toninelli

2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

79

Focused Ion Beam Fabricated Non-equilibrium Superconducting Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

high-density SNS junction arrays, dc-SQUIDs, and related devices. A simple model is devised to explain the normal-state resistance and critical current of a junction. The model is based on the geometry of a junction as defined by the FIB instrument... and phonon energy distributions....................... 37 2.6.2. Quasiparticle recombination .............................................................................. 39 2.6.3. Knock-on effects of changes in the energy distribution of quasiparticles...

Moseley, Richard William

80

Equilibrium and non-equilibrium emission of complex fragments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Complex fragment emission (Z{gt}2) has been studied in the reactions of 50, 80, and 100 MeV/u {sup 139}La + {sup 12}C, and 80 MeV/u {sup 139}La + {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Cu, and {sup 197}Au. Charge, angle, and energy distributions were measured inclusively and in coincidence with other complex fragments, and were used to extract the source rapidities, velocity distributions, and cross sections. The experimental emission velocity distributions, charge loss distributions, and cross sections have been compared with calculations based on statistical compound nucleus decay. The binary signature of the coincidence events and the sharpness of the velocity distributions illustrate the primarily 2-body nature of the {sup 139}La + {sup 12}C reaction mechanism between 50 and 100 MeV/u. The emission velocities, angular distributions, and absolute cross sections of fragments of 20{le}Z{le}35 at 50 MeV/u, 19{le}Z{le}28 at 80 MeV/u, and 17{le}Z{le}21 at 100 MeV/u indicate that these fragments arise solely from the binary decay of compound nuclei formed in incomplete fusion reactions in which the {sup 139}La projectile picks up about one-half of the {sup 12}C target. In the 80 MeV/u {sup 139}La + {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Cu, and {sup 197}Au reactions, the disappearance of the binary signature in the total charge and velocity distributions suggests and increase in the complex fragment and light charged particle multiplicity with increasing target mass. As in the 80 and 100 MeV/u {sup 139}La + {sup 12}C reactions, the lighter complex fragments exhibit anisotropic angular distributions and cross sections that are too large to be explained exclusively by statistical emission. 143 refs., 67 figs.

Bowman, D.R.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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81

Symmetries and relaxations in non-equilibrium thermodynamics.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Static thermodynamic susceptibilities obey symmetries that have been known for a very long time. These are the Maxwell relations. Less well-known are the symmetry properties… (more)

DeSimone, Anthony Joseph Jr

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

EXC-12-0007 - In the Matter of Tailored Lighting, Inc. | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EXC-12-0007 - In the Matter of Tailored Lighting, Inc. EXC-12-0007 - In the Matter of Tailored Lighting, Inc. EXC-12-0007 - In the Matter of Tailored Lighting, Inc. On October 23, 2012, OHA issued a decision considering an Application for Exception filed by Tailored Lighting, Inc. (TLI) for relief from the provisions of 10 C.F.R. Part 430, Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for General Service Fluorescent Lamps and Incandescent Reflector Lamps (Lighting Efficiency Standards). In its exception request, TLI requests exception relief for its principal product, a PAR-shaped daylight incandescent reflector lamp known as the SoLux PAR. The company maintains that it has been unable to develop a more efficient alternative that offers the same utility as the SoLux PAR and, as

83

EXC-12-0007 - In the Matter of Tailored Lighting, Inc. | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

07 - In the Matter of Tailored Lighting, Inc. 07 - In the Matter of Tailored Lighting, Inc. EXC-12-0007 - In the Matter of Tailored Lighting, Inc. On October 23, 2012, OHA issued a decision considering an Application for Exception filed by Tailored Lighting, Inc. (TLI) for relief from the provisions of 10 C.F.R. Part 430, Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for General Service Fluorescent Lamps and Incandescent Reflector Lamps (Lighting Efficiency Standards). In its exception request, TLI requests exception relief for its principal product, a PAR-shaped daylight incandescent reflector lamp known as the SoLux PAR. The company maintains that it has been unable to develop a more efficient alternative that offers the same utility as the SoLux PAR and, as a result, will suffer serious hardship, gross inequity, and an unfair

84

Hard and tough electrodeposited aluminum-manganese alloys with tailored nanostructures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tailoring the nanostructure of electrodeposited Al-Mn films to achieve high hardness and toughness is the overarching goal of this thesis. Binary Al-Mn alloys are electrodeposited using a conventional current waveform in ...

Ruan, Shiyun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Advanced commercial survey methods (COMSURV). Volume 1. Demonstration of tailored versus general questionnaires. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report discusses the results of a demonstration to assess the effects of questionnaire design on response rates, data quality, and general questionnaire performance in commercial sector surveys. With the cooperation of the Virginia Power Company (VEPCO), the concept of tailoring the questionnaire to specific types of commercial establishments was tested in a survey of food stores and office buildings. Tailoring involves the use of trade-specific language, questions about specialized equipment, and special instructions. One result of this study was the demonstration that it is possible to collect detailed trade-specific information with a tailored mail survey instrument. It was also expected that tailoring would improve both overall response rates and question-specific response rates, but this does not appear to be the case. In fact, the results indicate that tailored questionnaires may decrease overall response rates since misclassified units are less likely to respond. In view of this, some guidelines for the use of tailored survey instruments are presented. This report also contains numerous comparisons of the VEPCO survey results with results from the Nonresidential Building Energy Consumption Survey (NBECS). The comparisons reveal that the mail survey technique did provide estimates which compared reasonably with larger-scale on-site surveys.

McCarthy, P.M.; Bernstein, H.M.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Nano Sensor Networks for Tailored Operation of Highly Efficient Gas-To-Liquid Fuels Catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nano Sensor Networks for Tailored Operation of Highly Efficient Gas-To-Liquid Fuels Catalysts Eisa Engineering at University of New South Wales. #12;1 Introduction Gas-to-liquid (GTL) compounds are clean fuels for converting natural gas to the liquid hydrocarbons [1]. However, the reaction is a complex network of many

New South Wales, University of

87

Anthraquinone with Tailored Structure for Nonaqueous Metal-Organic Redox Flow Battery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A nonaqueous, hybrid metal-organic redox flow battery based on tailored anthraquinone structure is demonstrated to have an energy efficiency of {approx}82% and a specific discharge energy density similar to aqueous redox flow batteries, which is due to the significantly improved solubility of anthraquinone in supporting electrolytes.

Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

88

Tailoring feedback to users' actions in a persuasive game for household electricity conservation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent work has begun to focus on the use of games as a platform for energy awareness and eco-feedback research. While technical advancements (wireless sensors, fingerprinting) make timely and tailored feedback an objective within easy reach, we argue ... Keywords: adaptive, context aware, design, energy awareness, feedback, persuasive technology, smart advice, sustainability

Luciano Gamberini; Anna Spagnolli; Nicola Corradi; Giulio Jacucci; Giovanni Tusa; Topi Mikkola; Luca Zamboni; Eve Hoggan

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution Aurélien David of photonic crystal PhC -assisted gallium nitride light-emitting diodes LEDs to the existence of unextracted a promising but challenging solution towards efficient solid-state lighting. Conventional GaN-based light-emitting

Recanati, Catherine

90

Spectrum tailoring of the neutron energy spectrum in the context of delayed neutron detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the purpose of measuring plutonium mass in spent fuel, a delayed neutron instrument is of particular interest since, if properly designed, the delayed neutron signal from {sup 235}U is significantly stronger than the signature from {sup 239}Pu or {sup 241}Pu. A key factor in properly designing a delayed neutron instrument is to minimize the fission of {sup 238}U. This minimization is achieved by keeping the interrogating neutron spectrum below {approx} 1 MeV. In the context of spent fuel measurements it is desirable to use a 14 MeV (deuterium and tritium) neutron generator for economic reasons. Spectrum tailoring is the term used to describe the inclusion of material between the 14 MeV neutrons and the interrogated object that lower the neutron energy through nuclear reactions and moderation. This report quantifies the utility of different material combination for spectrum tailoring.

Koehler, William E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Steve J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Nathan P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fensin, Mike L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Compact high-flux two-stage solar collectors based on tailored edge-ray concentrators  

SciTech Connect

The recently-invented tailored edge-ray concentrator (TERC) approach permits the design of compact two-stage high-flux solar collectors, with a focusing primary reflector and a non-imaging TERC secondary reflector. We present a new primary reflector shape based on the TERC approach and a secondary TERC tailored to its particular flux map, such that more compact concentrators emerge at flux concentration levels in excess of 90% of the thermodynamic limit. Calculations and raytrace simulation results are also offered which demonstrate that V-cone approximations to a wide variety of TERCs attain the concentration of the TERC to within a few percent. These V-cones represent practical secondary concentrators that may be superior to corresponding compound parabolic concentrator or trumpet secondaries. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Friedman, R.P. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede Boqer Campus (Israel); Gordon, J.M. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede Boqer Campus (Israel)]|[Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheva (Israel); Ries, H. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Formation of electron bunches with tailored current profiles using multi-frequency linacs  

SciTech Connect

Tailoring an electron bunch with specific current profile can provide substantial enhancement of the transformer ratio in beam-driven acceleration methods. We present a method relying on the use of a linac with accelerating sections operating at different frequencies followed by a magnetic bunch compressor. The experimental verfification of the technique in a two-frequency linac is presented. The compatibility of the proposed technique with the formation and acceleration of a drive and witness bunches is numerically demonstrated.

Piot, P.; Behrens, C.; Gerth, C.; Lemery, F.; Mihalcea, D.; Stoltz, P. [Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development and Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States) and Accelerator Physics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85 D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development and Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

93

Material system for tailorable white light emission and method for making thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of processing a composite material to tailor white light emission of the resulting composite during excitation. The composite material is irradiated with a predetermined power and for a predetermined time period to reduce the size of a plurality of nanocrystals and the number of a plurality of traps in the composite material. By this irradiation process, blue light contribution from the nanocrystals to the white light emission is intensified and red and green light contributions from the traps are decreased.

Smith, Christine A. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Howard W. H. (Fremont, CA)

2009-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

94

Computational model, method, and system for kinetically-tailoring multi-drug chemotherapy for individuals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and system for tailoring treatment regimens to individual patients with diseased cells exhibiting evolution of resistance to such treatments. A mathematical model is provided which models rates of population change of proliferating and quiescent diseased cells using cell kinetics and evolution of resistance of the diseased cells, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models. Cell kinetic parameters are obtained from an individual patient and applied to the mathematical model to solve for a plurality of treatment regimens, each having a quantitative efficacy value associated therewith. A treatment regimen may then be selected from the plurlaity of treatment options based on the efficacy value.

Gardner, Shea Nicole (San Leandro, CA)

2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

95

Evaluation of Aeroelastically Tailored Small Wind Turbine Blades Final Project Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Evaluation of Aeroelastically Tailored Small Wind Turbine Blades Final Report Global Energy Concepts, LLC (GEC) has performed a conceptual design study concerning aeroelastic tailoring of small wind turbine blades. The primary objectives were to evaluate ways that blade/rotor geometry could be used to enable cost-of-energy reductions by enhancing energy capture while constraining or mitigating blade costs, system loads, and related component costs. This work builds on insights developed in ongoing adaptive-blade programs but with a focus on application to small turbine systems with isotropic blade material properties and with combined blade sweep and pre-bending/pre-curving to achieve the desired twist coupling. Specific goals of this project are to: (A) Evaluate and quantify the extent to which rotor geometry can be used to realize load-mitigating small wind turbine rotors. Primary aspects of the load mitigation are: (1) Improved overspeed safety affected by blades twisting toward stall in response to speed increases. (2) Reduced fatigue loading affected by blade twisting toward feather in response to turbulent gusts. (B) Illustrate trade-offs and design sensitivities for this concept. (C) Provide the technical basis for small wind turbine manufacturers to evaluate this concept and commercialize if the technology appears favorable. The SolidWorks code was used to rapidly develop solid models of blade with varying shapes and material properties. Finite element analyses (FEA) were performed using the COSMOS code modeling with tip-loads and centripetal accelerations. This tool set was used to investigate the potential for aeroelastic tailoring with combined planform sweep and pre-curve. An extensive matrix of design variables was investigated, including aerodynamic design, magnitude and shape of planform sweep, magnitude and shape of blade pre-curve, material stiffness, and rotor diameter. The FEA simulations resulted in substantial insights into the structural response of these blades. The trends were used to identify geometries and rotor configurations that showed the greatest promise for achieving beneficial aeroelastic response. The ADAMS code was used to perform complete aeroelastic simulations of selected rotor configurations; however, the results of these simulations were not satisfactory. This report documents the challenges encountered with the ADAMS simulations and presents recommendations for further development of this concept for aeroelastically tailored small wind turbine blades.

Griffin, Dayton A.

2005-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

96

Design Optimisation Of An Offshore Wind Energy Converter By Means Of Tailored Dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tailoring the dynamics of an offshore wind energy converter can offer an effective design optimisation during the successive stages of the design process. Concerning the particular problem of fatigue due to combined wind and wave loading two simplified approaches are proposed and demonstrated which are well suited for the early design stages when integrated, non-linear time domain simulations are too cumbersome. This enables the use of standard design tools from the wind energy and offshore technology communities by superposition of separate analyses of hydrodynamic fatigue in the frequency domain and aerodynamic fatigue in the time domain.

M. Kühn

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Electrochemical and spectroscopic evaluation of lithium intercalation in tailored polymethacrylonitrile carbons  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Disordered polymethacrylonitrile (PMAN) carbon monoliths have been studied as potential tailored electrodes for lithium ion batteries. A combination of electrochemical and surface spectroscopic probes have been used to investigate irreversible loss mechanisms. Voltammetric measurements show that Li intercalates readily into the carbon at potentials 1V positive of the reversible Li potential. The coulometric efficiency rises rapidly from 50% for the first potential cycle to greater than 85% for the third cycle, indicating that solvent decomposition is a self-limiting process. Surface film composition and thickness, as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), does not vary substantially when compared to more ordered carbon surfaces. Li{sup +} profiles are particularly useful in discriminating between the bound states of Li at the surface of solution permeable PMAN carbons.

Zavadil, K.R.; Guidotti, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Even, W.R. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Tailoring properties of carbon-nanotube-based foams by ion bombardment  

SciTech Connect

Particle irradiation is an effective method for manipulating properties of individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs). This potential, however, remains unexplored for macroscopic assemblies of cross-linked CNTs. Here, we study structural and electrical properties of ultralow-density cross-linked CNT-based nanofoams exposed to ion irradiation at room temperature over a wide range of ion masses and fluences. For all irradiation conditions studied, the electrical resistance of nanofoams initially increases with a rate that scales with the number of ballistically generated displacements. This process is attributed to the buildup of defects in graphitic nanoligaments. Irradiation with Ne and heavier ions leads to a decrease in the electrical resistance at large fluences, which is attributed to radiation-induced foam densification. In addition, heavy-ion bombardment causes amorphization of CNTs and smoothing of ligament surfaces. These results demonstrate that ion bombardment can be used for tailoring density, ligament morphology, and electrical properties of CNT-based foams.

Charnvanichborikarn, S.; Shin, S. J.; Worsley, M. A.; Kucheyev, S. O. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2012-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

99

DNA-based Self-Assembly of Chiral Plasmonic Nanostructures with Tailored Optical Response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surface plasmon resonances generated in metallic nanostructures can be utilized to tailor electromagnetic fields. The precise spatial arrangement of such structures can result in surprising optical properties that are not found in any naturally occurring material. Here, the designed activity emerges from collective effects of singular components equipped with limited individual functionality. Top-down fabrication of plasmonic materials with a predesigned optical response in the visible range by conventional lithographic methods has remained challenging due to their limited resolution, the complexity of scaling, and the difficulty to extend these techniques to three-dimensional architectures. Molecular self-assembly provides an alternative route to create such materials which is not bound by the above limitations. We demonstrate how the DNA origami method can be used to produce plasmonic materials with a tailored optical response at visible wavelengths. Harnessing the assembly power of 3D DNA origami, we arranged metal nanoparticles with a spatial accuracy of 2 nm into nanoscale helices. The helical structures assemble in solution in a massively parallel fashion and with near quantitative yields. As a designed optical response, we generated giant circular dichroism and optical rotary dispersion in the visible range that originates from the collective plasmon-plasmon interactions within the nanohelices. We also show that the optical response can be tuned through the visible spectrum by changing the composition of the metal nanoparticles. The observed effects are independent of the direction of the incident light and can be switched by design between left- and right-handed orientation. Our work demonstrates the production of complex bulk materials from precisely designed nanoscopic assemblies and highlights the potential of DNA self-assembly for the fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures.

Anton Kuzyk; Robert Schreiber; Zhiyuan Fan; Günther Pardatscher; Eva-Maria Roller; Alexander Högele; Friedrich C. Simmel; Alexander O. Govorov; Tim Liedl

2011-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

100

Inhomogeneity Mitigation at 7 Tesla using Sparsity-Enforced Spatially-Tailored Slice-Selective Excitation Pulses A. C. ZELINSKI  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In Vivo B1 + Inhomogeneity Mitigation at 7 Tesla using Sparsity-Enforced Spatially-Tailored Slice's duration & B1 + is in Tesla/volt. Let R(r) (r)·B1 - (r). With a reset pulse [5], IV(r) = c·R(r)·[1-E1(r

Goyal, Vivek K

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Can tailoring increase elaboration of health messages delivered via an adaptive educational site on adolescent sexual health and decision making?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tailoring, the development of health messages based on assessment of key psychosocial variables that influence a prescribed behavior, has been gaining ground as an effective health education approach. The efficacy of this approach is based on the assumption ... Keywords: human computer interaction, information processing

Juliann Cortese; Mia Liza A. Lustria

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Design and implementation of a web-based Tailored Gymnasium to enhance self-management of Fibromyalgia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of this article is to describe the design and development of an online gymnasium that proposes personalized exercise videos to users affected by fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia syndrome is a chronic condition characterized by widespread pain in muscles, ... Keywords: Fibromyalgia, Health technology, Personalized online information system, Self-management, Tailoring health communication

Luca Camerini; Michele Giacobazzi; Marco Boneschi; Peter J. Schulz; Sara Rubinelli

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Tailoring the plateau burning rates of composite propellants by the use of nanoscale additives  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Composite propellants are composed of a solid oxidizer that is mixed into a hydrocarbon binder that when polymerized results in a solid mass capable of self-sustained combustion after ignition. Plateau propellants exhibit burning rate curves that do not follow the typical linear relationship between burning rate and pressure when plotted on a log-log scale, and because of this deviation their burning behavior is classified as anomalous burning. It is not unusual for solid-particle additives to be added to propellants in order to enhance burning rate or other properties. However, the effect of nano-size solid additives in these propellants is not fully understood or agreed upon within the research community. The current project set out to explore what possible variables were creating this result and to explore new additives. This thesis contains a literature review chronicling the last half-century of research to better understand the mechanisms that govern anomalous burning and to shed light on current research into plateau and related propellants. In addition to the review, a series of experiments investigating the use of nanoscale TiO2-based additives in AP-HTPB composite propellants was performed. The baseline propellant consisted of either 70% or 80% monomodal AP (223 ?m) and 30% or 20% binder composed of IPDI-cured HTPB with Tepanol. Propellants’ burning rates were tested using a strand bomb between 500 and 2500 psi (34.0-170.1 atm). Analysis of the burning rate data shows that the crystal phase and synthesis method of the TiO2 additive are influential to plateau tailoring and to the apparent effectiveness of the additive in altering the burning rate of the composite propellant. Some of the discrepancy in the literature regarding the effectiveness of TiO2 as a tailoring additive may be due to differences in how the additive was produced. Doping the TiO2 with small amounts of metallic elements (Al, Fe, or Gd) showed additional effects on the burning rate that depend on the doping material and the amount of the dopant.

Stephens, Matthew Aaron

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

TAILORING THE PLATEAU BURNING RATES OF COMPOSITE PROPELLANTS BY THE USE OF NANOSCALE ADDITIVES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Composite propellants are composed of a solid oxidizer that is mixed into a hydrocarbon binder that when polymerized results in a solid mass capable of selfsustained combustion after ignition. Plateau propellants exhibit burning rate curves that do not follow the typical linear relationship between burning rate and pressure when plotted on a log-log scale, and because of this deviation their burning behavior is classified as anomalous burning. It is not unusual for solid-particle additives to be added to propellants in order to enhance burning rate or other properties. However, the effect of nano-size solid additives in these propellants is not fully understood or agreed upon within the research community. The current project set out to explore what possible variables were creating this result and to explore new additives. This thesis contains a literature review chronicling the last half-century of research to better understand the mechanisms that govern anomalous burning and to shed light on current research into plateau and related propellants. In addition to the review, a series of experiments investigating the use of nanoscale TiO2-based additives in AP-HTPB composite propellants was performed. The baseline propellant consisted of either 70% or 80% monomodal AP (223 ?m) and 30% or 20% binder composed of IPDI-cured HTPB with Tepanol. Propellants’ burning rates were tested using a strand bomb between 500 and 2500 psi (34.0-170.1 atm). Analysis of the burning rate data shows that the crystal phase and synthesis method of the TiO2 additive are influential to plateau tailoring and to the apparent effectiveness of the additive in altering the burning rate of the composite propellant. Some of the discrepancy in the literature regarding the effectiveness of TiO2 as a tailoring additive may be due to differences in how the additive was produced. Doping the TiO2 with small amounts of metallic elements (Al, Fe, or Gd) showed additional effects on the burning rate that depend on the doping material and the amount of the dopant.

Stephens, Matthew

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Development of Nb and Alternative Material Thin Films Tailored for SRF Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the years, Nb/Cu technology, despite its shortcomings due to the commonly used magnetron sputtering, has positioned itself as an alternative route for the future of superconducting structures used in accelerators. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of energetic vacuum deposition techniques, showing promise for the production of thin films tailored for SRF applications. JLab is pursuing energetic condensation deposition via techniques such as Electron Cyclotron Resonance and High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering. As part of this project, the influence of the deposition energy on the material and RF properties of the Nb thin film is investigated with the characterization of their surface, structure, superconducting properties and RF response. It has been shown that the film RRR can be tuned from single digits to values greater than 400. This paper presents results on surface impedance measurements correlated with surface and material characterization for Nb films produced on various substrates, monocrystalline and polycrystalline as well as amorphous. A progress report on work on NbTiN and AlN based multilayer structures will also be presented.

Valente-Feliciano, A -M; Reece, C E; Spradlin, J K; Xiao, B; Zhao, X; Gu, Diefeng; Baumgart, Helmut; Beringer, Douglas; Lukaszew, Rosa

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Tailoring Lignocelluloses for a Sustainable Energy Future (462nd Brookhaven Lecture)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Today, the world relies on fossil fuels as a primary energy resource. This resource, however, is limited and associated with rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. In consequence, the search for renewable biofuels has become increasingly vital. Solutions thus far have focused on first-generation biofuels, such as corn ethanol and biodiesel. But this is not enough. Chang-Jun Liu of the Biology Department discusses how he and his colleagues are studying a more abundant and environmentally friendly renewable energy source — lignocellulosic biomass — found in plant cell walls. Liu explaines, plant cell walls provide unlimited quantities of renewable biomass. However, the intertwined lignin and cellulose that make up the cell walls resist decomposition, so obtaining energy from cellulosic biomass is a challenge. Liu and his colleagues are exploring the biosynthesis and molecular regulation of plant cell walls, particularly that of the most formidable polymer — lignin. With this knowledge, they will develop novel strategies to tailor plant cell wall’s structure and composition for efficient biofuel and biomaterial production.

Liu, Chang-Jun (BNL Biology Dept)

2010-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

107

Composition-tailored synthesis of gradient transition metal precursor particles for lithium-ion battery cathode materials.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report the tailored synthesis of particles with internal gradients in transition metal composition aided by the use of a general process model. Tailored synthesis of transition metal particles was achieved using a coprecipitation reaction with tunable control over the process conditions. Gradients in the internal composition of the particles was monitored and confirmed experimentally by analysis of particles collected during regularly timed intervals. Particles collected from the reactor at the end of the process were used as the precursor material for the solid-state synthesis of Li{sub 1.2}(Mn{sub 0.62}Ni{sub 0.38}){sub 0.8}O{sub 2}, which was electrochemically evaluated as the active cathode material in a lithium battery. The Li{sub 1.2}(Mn{sub 0.62}Ni{sub 0.38}){sub 0.8}O{sub 2} material was the first example of a structurally integrated multiphase material with a tailored internal gradient in relative transition metal composition as the active cathode material in a lithium-ion battery. We believe our general synthesis strategy may be applied to produce a variety of new cathode materials with tunable interior, surface, and overall relative transition metal compositions.

Koenig, G. M.; Belharouak, I.; Deng, H.; Amine, K.; Sun, Y. K. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

2011-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

108

Search for the Neutrino Magnetic Moment in the Non-Equilibrium Reactor Antineutrino Energy Spectrum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the time evolution of the typical nuclear reactor antineutrino energy spectrum during reactor ON period and the decay of the residual antineutrino spectrum after reactor is stopped. We find that relevant variations of the soft recoil electron spectra produced via weak and magnetic ${\\widetilde {\

V. I. Kopeikin; L. A. Mikaelyan; V. V. Sinev

1999-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

109

Non-equilibrium fluctuations and mechanochemical couplings of a molecular motor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate theoretically the violations of Einstein and Onsager relations, and the efficiency for a single processive motor operating far from equilibrium using an extension of the two-state model introduced by Kafri {\\em et al.} [Biophys. J. {\\bf 86}, 3373 (2004)]. With the aid of the Fluctuation Theorem, we analyze the general features of these violations and this efficiency and link them to mechanochemical couplings of motors. In particular, an analysis of the experimental data of kinesin using our framework leads to interesting predictions that may serve as a guide for future experiments.

A. W. C. Lau; D. Lacoste; K. Mallick

2007-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

110

Non-equilibrium fluctuations in frictional granular motor: experiments and kinetic theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the study of a new experimental granular Brownian motor, inspired to the one published in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 248001 (2010)], but different in some ingredients. As in that previous work, the motor is constituted by a rotating pawl whose surfaces break the rotation-inversion symmetry through alternated patches of different inelasticity, immersed in a gas of granular particles. The main novelty of our experimental setup is in the orientation of the main axis, which is parallel to the (vertical) direction of shaking of the granular fluid, guaranteeing an isotropic distribution for the velocities of colliding grains, characterized by a variance $v_0^2$. We also keep the granular system diluted, in order to compare with Boltzmann-equation-based kinetic theory. In agreement with theory, we observe for the first time the crucial role of Coulomb friction which induces two main regimes: (i) rare collisions (RC), with an average drift $\\ \\sim v_0^3$, and (ii) frequent collisions (FC), with $\\ \\sim v_0$. We also study the fluctuations of the angle spanned in a large time interval, $\\Delta \\theta$, which in the FC regime is proportional to the work done upon the motor. We observe that the Fluctuation Relation is satisfied with a slope which weakly depends on the relative collision frequency.

Andrea Gnoli; Alessandro Sarracino; Alberto Petri; Andrea Puglisi

2013-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

111

Spectral-Lagrangian methods for collisional models of non-equilibrium statistical states  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a new spectral Lagrangian based deterministic solver for the non-linear Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) in d-dimensions for variable hard sphere (VHS) collision kernels with conservative or non-conservative binary interactions. The method ... Keywords: Boltzmann transport equation, Conservative/non-conservative deterministic method, FFT, Lagrangian optimization, Spectral method

Irene M. Gamba; Sri Harsha Tharkabhushanam

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Crowding effects in non-equilibrium transport through nano-channels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transport through nano-channels plays an important role in many biological processes and industrial applications. Gaining insights into the functioning of biological transport processes and the design of man-made nano-devices requires an understanding of the basic physics of such transport. A simple exclusion process has proven to be very useful in ex- plaining the properties of several artificial and biological nano-channels. It is particularly useful for modeling the influence of inter-particle interactions on transport characteristics. In this paper, we explore several models of the exclusion process using a mean field approach and computer simulations. We examine the effects of crowding inside the channel and its immediate vicinity on the mean flux and the transport times of single molecules. Finally, we discuss the robustness of the theory's predictions with respect to the crucial characteristics of the hindered diffusion in nano-channels that need to be included in the model.

Anton Zilman; Golan Bel

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

113

Representing equilibrium and non-equilibrium convection in large-scale models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new diagnostic convective closure, which is dependent on the convective available potential energy (CAPE), is derived under the quasi-equilibrium assumption for the free troposphere subject to boundary-layer forcing. The closure involves a ...

Peter Bechtold; Noureddine Semane; Philippe Lopez; Jean-Pierre Chaboureau; Anton Beljaars; Niels Bormann

114

Study of Methane Reforming in Warm Non-Equilibrium Plasma Discharges  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Utilization of natural gas in remote locations necessitates on-site conversion of methane into liquid fuels or high value products. The first step in forming high value products is the production of ethylene and acetylene. Non-thermal plasmas, due to their unique nonequilibrium characteristics, offer advantages over traditional methods of methane reforming. Different kinds of non-thermal plasmas are being investigated for methane reforming. Parameters of these processes like flow rate, discharge size, temperature and other variables determine efficiency of conversion. An efficient process is identified by a high yield and low specific energy of production for the desired product. A study of previous work reveals that higher energy density systems are more efficient for methane conversion to higher hydrocarbons as compared to low energy density systems. Some of the best results were found to be in the regime of warm discharges. Thermal equilibrium studies indicate that higher yields of ethylene are possible with an optimal control of reaction kinetics and fast quenching. With this idea, two different glow discharge reactor systems are designed and constructed for investigation of methane reforming. A counter flow micro plasma discharge system was used to investigate the trends of methane reforming products and the control parameters were optimized to get best possible ethylene yields while minimizing its specific energy. Later a magnetic glow discharge system is used and better results are obtained. Energy costs lower than thermal equilibrium calculations were achieved with magnetic glow discharge systems for both ethylene and acetylene. Yields are obtained from measurements of product concentrations using gas chromatography and power measurements are done using oscilloscope. Energy balance and mass balances are performed for product measurement accuracy and carbon deposition calculations. Carbon deposition is minimized through control of the temperature and residence time conditions in magnetic glow discharges. Ethylene production is observed to have lower specific energies at higher powers and lower flow rates in both reactors. An ethylene selectivity of 40 percent is achieved at an energy cost of 458MJ/Kg and an input energy cost of 5 MJ/Kg of methane.

Parimi, Sreekar

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

The Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamic Environment and Prigogine’s Dissipative Structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This essay is based on the fundmental assumption that any physical system of synergetic parts is a thermodynamic system. The universality of thermodynamics is due to the fact that thermodynamic homogeneous properties, such as pressure, temperature and their analogs, do not depend upon size or shape. That is, thermodynamics is a topological (not a geometrical) theory. By use of Cartan’s methods of exterior differential forms and their topological properties of closure, it is possible to define and construct examples for the universal concepts of: [1] Continuous Topological Evolution of topological properties- which in effect is a dynamical version of the First Law. [2] Topological Torsion and Pfaff Topological Dimension- which distinguishes equilibrium (PTD 2, TT 6 = 0). [3] A Topological Thermodynamic Environment- of PTD = 4. [4] Thermodynamic irreversible processes, which cause self-similar evolution in the environment, and emergence of self-organized states of PTD = 3 as topological defects

R. M. Kiehn

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

High-Efficiency Solid State Cooling Technologies: Non-Equilibrium Asymmetic Thermoelectrics (NEAT) Devices  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Sheetak is developing a thermoelectric-based solid state cooling system to replace typical air conditioners that use vapor compression to cool air. With noisy mechanical components, vapor compression systems use a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. With no noisy moving parts or polluting refrigerants, thermoelectric systems rely on an electrical current being passed through the junction of the two different conducting materials to change temperature. Using advanced semiconductor technology, Sheetak is improving solid state cooling systems by using proprietary thermoelectric materials along with other innovations to achieve significant energy efficiency. Sheetak’s new design displaces compressor-based technology; improves reliability; and decreases energy usage. Sheetak’s use of semiconductor manufacturing methods leads to less material use—facilitating cheaper production.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

AIAA 2002-3663 A Non-Equilibrium Numerical Study of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by comparing the results of Fig. 2 with the Rechester­ Rosenbluth model, QeR ve(B~ /B0)2 L . Using the spectrum

Choueiri, Edgar

118

Multiple temperature kinetic model and gas-kinetic method for hypersonic non-equilibrium flow computations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is well known that for increasingly rarefied flowfields, the predictions from continuum formulation, such as the Navier-Stokes equations lose accuracy. For the high speed diatomic molecular flow in the transitional regime, the inaccuracies are partially ... Keywords: Gas-kinetic method, Hypersonic and rarefied flows, Multiple temperature kinetic model

Kun Xu; Xin He; Chunpei Cai

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Understanding the response behavior of potentiometric gas sensors for non-equilibrium gas mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many applications of gas sensors require concentration measurements of reactive gases in mixtures that are out of thermodynamic equilibrium. These applications include: hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuel gas sensors operating in ambient air for explosion hazard detection, carbon monoxide detection in ambient air for health protection, combustion efficiency sensors for stoichiometry control, and nitric oxide sensors for air pollution monitoring. Many potentiometric and amperometric electrochemical sensor technologies have been developed for these applications. A class of the potentiometric sensors developed for gas mixtures are the non-Nerstian sensors. This presentation defines a categorization and theoretical analysis of three distinct electrochemical processes that can produce a non-Nernstian sensor response.

Garzon, F. H. (Fernando H.); Mukundan, R. (Rangachary); Brosha, E. L. (Eric L.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

The Development of a Non-Equilibrium Dispersed Flow Film Boiling Heat Transfer Modeling Package.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The dispersed flow film boiling (DFFB) heat transfer regime is important to several applications including cryogenics, rocket engines, steam generators, and in the safety analysis… (more)

Meholic, Michael

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Thermophysical properties of nitrogen plasmas under thermal equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions  

SciTech Connect

Calculated thermophysical properties of nitrogen plasmas in and out of thermal equilibrium are presented. The cut-off of the partition functions due to the lowering of the ionization potential has been taken into account, together with the contributions from different core excited electronic states. The species composition and thermodynamic properties are determined numerically using the Newton-Raphson iterative method, taking into account the corrections due to Coulomb interactions. The transport properties including diffusion coefficient, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity are calculated using the most recent collision interaction potentials by adopting Devoto's electron and heavy particle decoupling approach, expanded to the third-order approximation (second-order for viscosity) in the framework of Chapman-Enskog method. Results are presented in the pressure range of 0.1 atm-10 atm and in electron temperature range from 300 to 40 000 K, with the ratio of electron temperature to heavy-particle temperature varied from 1 to 20. Results are compared with those from previous works, and the influences of different definitions of the Debye length are discussed.

Wang Weizong [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an Shaanxi 710049 (China); Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Rong Mingzhe [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an Shaanxi 710049 (China); Yan, J. D.; Spencer, Joseph W. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Murphy, A. B. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield NSW 2070 (Australia)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

122

Non-equilibrium raft-like membrane domains under continuous recycling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a model for the kinetics of spontaneous membrane domain (raft) assembly that includes the effect of membrane recycling ubiquitous in living cells. We show that the domains have a broad power-law distribution with an average radius that scales with the 1/4 power of the domain lifetime when the line tension at the domain edges is large. For biologically reasonable recycling and diffusion rates the average domain radius is in the tens of nm range, consistent with observations. This represents one possible link between signaling (involving rafts) and traffic (recycling) in cells. Finally, we present evidence that suggests that the average raft size may be the same for all scale-free recycling schemes.

Matthew S. Turner; Pierre Sens; Nicholas D. Socci

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

123

Elliptic Flow from Non-equilibrium Initial Condition with a Saturation Scale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A current goal of relativistic heavy ion collisions experiments is the search for a Color Glass Condensate as the limiting state of QCD matter at very high density. In viscous hydrodynamics simulations, a standard Glauber initial condition leads to estimate $4\\pi \\eta/s \\sim 1$, while a Color Glass Condensate modeling leads to at least a factor of 2 larger $\\eta/s$. Within a kinetic theory approach based on a relativistic Boltzmann-like transport simulation, we point out that the out-of-equilibrium initial distribution proper of a Color Glass Condensate reduces the efficiency in building-up the elliptic flow. Our main result at RHIC energy is that the available data on $v_2$ are in agreement with a $4\\pi \\eta/s \\sim 1$ also for Color Glass Condensate initial conditions, opening the possibility to describe self-consistently also higher order flow, otherwise significantly underestimated, and to pursue further the search for signatures of the Color Glass Condensate.

M. Ruggieri; F. Scardina; S. Plumari; V. Greco

2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

124

Tailor-Made Projects I N S I D E T H I S I S S U E P R O J E  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tailor-Made Projects Tailor-Made Projects I N S I D E T H I S I S S U E : P R O J E C T M A N A G E M E N T C A R E E R D E V E L O P M E N T P R O G R A M Pathways to Project Success D E C E M B E R 2 0 1 1 Brian Kong, PE, PMP, CCE, LEED AP Your project is unique and is tailor-made to ensure its success. While the end product may be the same, the acquisition process can be tailored to effectively and efficiently manage the multi- tude of factors that you and your project team face. Some compliance factors cannot be ig- nored or changed, but the requirements within DOE Order 413.3B can be tailored. Properly tai- lored and initiated early on, the path to the end product may be a better fit for your project. Documenting the tailoring strategy and obtaining the Acquisition Executive's approval prior to

125

Particle-in-cell simulation of ion energy distributions on an electrode by applying tailored bias waveforms in the afterglow of a pulsed plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Particle-in-cell simulation of ion energy distributions on an electrode by applying tailored bias voltage waveforms with selected amplitudes and durations resulted in ion energy distributions (IED Control of the ion energy distribution (IED) and ion angular distribution (IAD) on the substrate

Economou, Demetre J.

126

Modeling of species and charge transport in Li-Ion batteries based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to improve the design of Li ion batteries the complex interplay of various physical phenomena in the active particles of the electrodes and in the electrolyte has to be balanced. The separate transport phenomena in the electrolyte and in the ...

Arnulf Latz; Jochen Zausch; Oleg Iliev

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Chemical freeze-outs of strange and non-strange particles and residual chemical non-equilibrium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose an elaborate version of the hadron resonance gas model with the combined treatment of separate chemical freeze-outs for strange and non-strange hadrons and with an additional \\gamma_{s} factor which accounts for the remaining strange particle non-equilibration. Two sets of chemical freeze-outs parameters are connected by the conservation laws of entropy, baryonic charge, isospin projection and strangeness. The developed approach enables us to perform a high-quality fit of the hadron multiplicity ratios for AGS, SPS and RHIC energies with total \\chi^2/dof \\simeq 1.05. A special attention is paid to a complete description of the Strangeness Horn. A well-known \\bar p, \\bar \\Lambda and \\bar \\Xi selective suppression problem is also discussed.

K. A. Bugaev; D. R. Oliinychenko; V. V. Sagun; A. I. Ivanytskyi; J. Cleymans; E. G. Nikonov; G. M. Zinovjev

2013-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

128

Chapter 6: Simulation of ... absorbers: the behaviour of methanol and non-equilibrium stage modeling. Simulation of industrial formaldehyde absorbers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

jobshavebeenwrittenonourVB6UHR EWF lithography tool during the past year. Working with industry Working through the James

Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit

129

Homogeneous Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Methods for Calculating the Heat Transport Coefficient of Solids and Mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heat Conduction in an ElasticHeat Conduction in Liquid Mixtures . . . . . . .1 Introduction Heat conduction is a process involving

Mandadapu, Kranthi Kiran

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Homogeneous Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Methods for Calculating the Heat Transport Coefficient of Solids and Mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of flexible molecules - Butane. Molecular Physics, 81(6):in polyatomic fluids: n-Butane as an illustration. Chemicalfor two models of liquid Butane. Chemical Physics, 198(1-2):

Mandadapu, Kranthi Kiran

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Homogeneous Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Methods for Calculating the Heat Transport Coefficient of Solids and Mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

b k ? ? T versible processes of heat transfer and diffusion,irreversible process of diffusion and heat transfer in theIntroduction Heat conduction is a process involving transfer

Mandadapu, Kranthi Kiran

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

High Metallicity and Non-Equilibrium Chemistry in the Dayside Atmosphere of Hot-Neptune Gj 436b  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a detailed analysis of the dayside atmosphere of the hot-Neptune GJ 436b, based on recent Spitzer observations. We report statistical constraints on the thermal and chemical properties of the planetary atmosphere, ...

Madhusudhan, Nikku

133

Application of Semi-Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (SGMC) methods to describe non-equilibrium polymer systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding the structure of materials, and how this structure affects their properties, is an important step towards the understanding that is necessary in order to apply computational methods to the end of designing ...

Bernardin, Frederick E

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Vibro-acoustic products from re-cycled raw materials using a cold extrusion process. A continuous cold extrusion process has been developed to tailor a porous structure from polymeric waste, so that the final material possesses particular vibro-acoustic properties.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A cold extrusion process has been developed to tailor a porous structure from polymeric waste. The use of an extruder to manufacture acoustic materials from… (more)

Khan, Amir

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Is It Time to Tailor the Prediction of Radio-Induced Toxicity in Prostate Cancer Patients? Building the First Set of Nomograms for Late Rectal Syndrome  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Development of user-friendly tools for the prediction of single-patient probability of late rectal toxicity after conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: This multicenter protocol was characterized by the prospective evaluation of rectal toxicity through self-assessed questionnaires (minimum follow-up, 36 months) by 718 adult men in the AIROPROS 0102 trial. Doses were between 70 and 80 Gy. Nomograms were created based on multivariable logistic regression analysis. Three endpoints were considered: G2 to G3 late rectal bleeding (52/718 events), G3 late rectal bleeding (24/718 events), and G2 to G3 late fecal incontinence (LINC, 19/718 events). Results: Inputs for the nomogram for G2 to G3 late rectal bleeding estimation were as follows: presence of abdominal surgery before RT, percentage volume of rectum receiving >75 Gy (V75Gy), and nomogram-based estimation of the probability of G2 to G3 acute gastrointestinal toxicity (continuous variable, which was estimated using a previously published nomogram). G3 late rectal bleeding estimation was based on abdominal surgery before RT, V75Gy, and NOMACU. Prediction of G2 to G3 late fecal incontinence was based on abdominal surgery before RT, presence of hemorrhoids, use of antihypertensive medications (protective factor), and percentage volume of rectum receiving >40 Gy. Conclusions: We developed and internally validated the first set of nomograms available in the literature for the prediction of radio-induced toxicity in prostate cancer patients. Calculations included dosimetric as well as clinical variables to help radiation oncologists predict late rectal morbidity, thus introducing the possibility of RT plan corrections to better tailor treatment to the patient's characteristics, to avoid unnecessary worsening of quality of life, and to provide support to the patient in selecting the best therapeutic approach.

Valdagni, Riccardo [Prostate Program, Scientific Directorate, Fondazione IRCCS-Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Radiotherapy, Fondazione IRCCS - Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Kattan, Michael W. [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Rancati, Tiziana, E-mail: tiziana.rancati@istitutotumori.mi.it [Prostate Program, Scientific Directorate, Fondazione IRCCS-Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Yu Changhong [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Vavassori, Vittorio [Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Ospedale di Circolo, Varese (Italy); Department of Radiotherapy, Humanitas - Gavazzeni, Bergamo (Italy); Fellin, Giovanni [Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Ospedale Santa Chiara, Trento (Italy); Cagna, Elena [Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Ospedale Sant'Anna, Como (Italy); Gabriele, Pietro [Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Candiolo (Italy); Mauro, Flora Anna; Baccolini, Micaela [Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Ospedale Villa Maria Cecilia, Lugo (Italy); Bianchi, Carla [Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Ospedale di Circolo, Varese (Italy); Menegotti, Loris [Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Ospedale Santa Chiara, Trento (Italy); Monti, Angelo F. [Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Ospedale Sant'Anna, Como (Italy); Stasi, Michele [Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Candiolo (Italy); Giganti, Maria Olga [Prostate Program, Scientific Directorate, Fondazione IRCCS-Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Dept. of Oncology, Ospedale Niguarda, Milan (Italy); and others

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Tailor Made: Adapting Psychotherapeutic Interventions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With increased diversity and globalization, there is increased emphasis on awareness of cultural influences on functioning and in fostering cultural competence. This is particularly important in the context of intervention planning and acceptability. The standard approach is through didactic coursework; however the extent to which the content of the courses is ‘universal’ and includes relevance for intervention is unknown. The purpose of this content analysis was to determine whether or not cultural competence is addressed in psychotherapeutic intervention coursework. Direct intervention syllabi from APA accredited school psychology doctoral programs were analyzed. Findings suggest that cultural competence is minimally addressed in intervention courses. Similarly, the mechanisms for culturally adapting interventions are rarely addressed. Findings further suggest that when addressing cultural competence intervention courses focus on applying knowledge to the delivery of services. Understanding the content of current curricula may provide trainers with information to aid in designing their curriculum so that pre service school psychologists may matriculate with a broader basic therapy skill set.

Henry-Smith, Latanya Sherone

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Welding Methods for Tailored Blanks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...methods both with and without filler wire by Toyota since 1986. Filler wire is used for applications that have an exposed weld in the finished product, such as body side frames. Filler wire welds are ground flush to improve surface appearance after welding. Welds that do not require a flush surface...

138

Evaluation of technical feasibility of closed-cycle non-equilibrium MHD power generation with direct coal firing. Final report, Task 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Program accomplishments in a continuing effort to demonstrate the feasibility of direct coal fired, closed cycle, magnetohydrodynamic power generation are detailed. These accomplishments relate to all system aspects of a CCMHD power generation system including coal combustion, heat transfer to the MHD working fluid, MHD power generation, heat and cesium seed recovery and overall systems analysis. Direct coal firing of the combined cycle has been under laboratory development in the form of a high slag rejection, regeneratively air cooled cyclone coal combustor concept, originated within this program. A hot bottom ceramic regenerative heat exchanger system was assembled and test fired with coal for the purposes of evaluating the catalytic effect of alumina on NO/sub x/ emission reduction and operability of the refractory dome support system. Design, procurement, fabrication and partial installation of a heat and seed recovery flow apparatus was accomplished and was based on a stream tube model of the full scale system using full scale temperatures, tube sizes, rates of temperature change and tube geometry. Systems analysis capability was substantially upgraded by the incorporation of a revised systems code, with emphasis on ease of operator interaction as well as separability of component subroutines. The updated code was used in the development of a new plant configuration, the Feedwater Cooled (FCB) Brayton Cycle, which is superior to the CCMHD/Steam cycle both in performance and cost. (WHK)

Not Available

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Evaluation of technical feasibility of closed-cycle non-equilibrium MHD power generation with direct coal firing. Final report, Task I  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Program accomplishments in a continuing effort to demonstrate the feasibility of direct coal-fired, closed-cycle MHD power generation are reported. This volume contains the following appendices: (A) user's manual for 2-dimensional MHD generator code (2DEM); (B) performance estimates for a nominal 30 MW argon segmented heater; (C) the feedwater cooled Brayton cycle; (D) application of CCMHD in an industrial cogeneration environment; (E) preliminary design for shell and tube primary heat exchanger; and (F) plant efficiency as a function of output power for open and closed cycle MHD power plants. (WHK)

Not Available

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

SiO{sub 2} nanospheres with tailorable interiors by directly controlling Zn{sup 2+} and NH{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O species in an emulsion process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

SiO{sub 2} nanospheres with tailorable interiors were synthesized by a facile one-spot microemulsion process using TEOS as silica source, wherein cyclohexane including triton X-100 and n-octanol as oil phase and Zn{sup 2+} or NH{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O aqueous solution as dispersive phase, respectively. The products were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Powder Diffraction. It was suggested that the as-synthesized silica nanospheres possessed grape-stone-like porous or single hollow interior, and also found that the ammonia dosage and aging time played key roles in controlling the size and structure of silica nanospheres. Furthermore, the comparative results confirmed that in-situ zinc species [ZnO/Zn(OH){sub 2}] acted as the temporary templates to construct grape-stone-like interior, and a simultaneously competing etching process occurred owing to the soluble Zn(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}{sup 2+} complex formation while the additional excessive ammonia was introduced. With the aging time being extended, the in-situ nanocrystals tended to grow into bigger ones by Ostwald Ripening, producing single hollow interior. - Graphical Abstract: Formation process of SiO{sub 2} nanospheres with porous and single hollow interior. Highlights: > ZnO/Zn(OH){sub 2} nanocrystals as the temporary templates shape the interior structures of SiO{sub 2} nanospheres. > Fabrication of porous and single hollow interiors needs no additional processes such as roasting or dissolving. > Tailorable interiors can be easily obtained through adjusting the aging time of temporary templates.

Liao Yuchao [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu Xiaofeng [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang Zhen [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen Yunfa, E-mail: yfchen@home.ipe.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Nanophotonics for tailoring light-matter interaction/  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, we will theoretically explore three nanophotonics phenomena which enable strong light-matter interaction. The first phenomenon is plasmonic resonance, where the surface plasmon mode at metal and dielectric ...

Qiu, Wenjun

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Design and Characterization of Tailored Photo Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

challenge for the scientific community is to leverage the many recent advances in nano materials synthesis, simulation, and characterization to produce pronounced benefits to...

143

Tailoring persuasive health games to gamer type  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Persuasive games are an effective approach for motivating health behavior, and recent years have seen an increase in games designed for changing human behaviors or attitudes. However, these games are limited in two major ways: first, they are not based ... Keywords: behavior theory, hbm, player typology, gamer types, games design, health, persuasive game, serious games

Rita Orji; Regan L. Mandryk; Julita Vassileva; Kathrin M. Gerling

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Tailoring photonic metamaterial resonances for thermal radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Selective solar absorbers generally have limited effectiveness in unconcentrated sunlight, because of reradiation losses over a broad range of wavelengths and angles. However, metamaterials offer the potential to limit ...

Bermel, Peter A.

145

Tailoring Cosmopolitanism in the Italian Nordest  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

selling power of a cosmopolitan imaginary, the provincialorganization. The cosmopolitan experience of global citiespromoted a multi-ethnic and cosmopolitan image of the brand.

Brazzale, Claudia

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Advanced Superalloys and Tailored Microstructures for Integrally ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

inputs to this trade study were wheel casting costs, wheel life, and wheel airfoil temperature capability. Six variants were compared to the production Mar-M246 ...

147

Tailored fischer-tropsch synthesis product distribution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel methods of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are described. It has been discovered that conducting the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over a catalyst with a catalytically active surface layer of 35 microns or less results in a liquid hydrocarbon product with a high ratio of C.sub.5-C.sub.20:C.sub.20+. Descriptions of novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts and reactors are also provided. Novel hydrocarbon compositions with a high ratio of C.sub.5-C.sub.20:C.sub.20+ are also described.

Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Cao, Chunshe (Kennewick, WA); Li, Xiaohong Shari (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

148

Grain Boundaries Galore: Tailoring the Composition, Processing ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, experimental design of mechanically alloyed nanocrystalline systems has been augmented with simulations and analytical models to understand ...

149

Tailoring couple therapy techniques to client needs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research illuminating which therapist techniques are used in care-as-usual couple therapy, and under what circumstances, can contribute to a fuller understanding of how therapy works. The overall goal of the present study was to better understand care-as-usual couple therapy by investigating session-by-session techniques and session content to determine how therapists modify them based on the timing of the session and couples? pre-treatment characteristics. A total of 123 heterosexual couples were examined. Therapists frequently used acceptance techniques and discussion of recent or ongoing conflict or problem. Therapists typically used the same levels of techniques and session contents over a course of therapy. In addition, there were relatively few predictors of change in therapy techniques and session content.

Hsueh, Annie C.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Tailoring the Properties of Magnetic Nanostructures | Advanced...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

One Giant Leap for Radiation Biology? What's in the Cage Matters in Iron Antimonide Thermoelectric Materials Novel Experiments on Cement Yield Concrete Results Science...

151

Tailoring Plastics at the Molecular Level  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of step strain shear. Plants currently operating above the revealed optimum deformation rates are thereby enabled to save substantial electrical and environmental costs by...

152

PROPERTIES AND NANOSTRUCTURES OF MATERIALS PROCESSED BY SPD TECHNIQUES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metallic materials usually exhibit higher strength but lower ductility after being plastically deformed by conventional techniques such as rolling, drawing and extrusion. In contrast, nanostructured metals and alloys processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD) have demonstrated both high strength and high ductility. This extraordinary mechanical behavior is attributed to the unique nanostructures generated by SPD processing. It demonstrates the possibility of tailoring the microstructures of metals and alloys by SPD to obtain superior mechanical properties. The SPD-generated nanostructures have many features related to deformation, including high dislocation densities, and high- and low-angle grain boundaries in equilibrium or non-equilibrium states. This paper reviews the mechanical properties and the defect structures of SPD-processed nanostructured materials. Keywords: strength, ductility, nanostructures, SPD, non-equilibrium grain boundary

Liao, Xiaoshan; Huang, J. (Jianyu); Zhu, Y. T. (Yuntian Theodore)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Tailoring Laser Propulsion for Future Applications in Space  

SciTech Connect

Pulsed laser propulsion may turn out as a low cost alternative for the transportation of small payloads in future. In recent years DLR investigated this technology with the goal of cheaply launching small satellites into low earth orbit (LEO) with payload masses on the order of 5 to 10 kg. Since the required high power pulsed laser sources are yet not at the horizon, DLR focused on new applications based on available laser technology. Space-borne, i.e. in weightlessness, there exist a wide range of missions requiring small thrusters that can be propelled by laser power. This covers space logistic and sample return missions as well as position keeping and attitude control of satellites.First, a report on the proof of concept of a remote controlled laser rocket with a thrust vector steering device integrated in a parabolic nozzle will be given. Second, the road from the previous ground-based flight experiments in earth's gravity using a 100-J class laser to flight experiments with a parabolic thruster in an artificial 2D-zero gravity on an air cushion table employing a 1-J class laser and, with even less energy, new investigations in the field of laser micro propulsion will be reviewed.

Eckel, Hans-Albert; Scharring, Stefan [German Aerospace Center (DLR)-Institute of Technical Physics, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

154

Biological detection and tagging using tailorable, reactive, highly fluorescent chemosensors.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This program was focused on the development of a fluorogenic chemosensor family that could tuned for reaction with electrophilic (e.g. chemical species, toxins) and nucleophilic (e.g. proteins and other biological molecules) species. Our chemosensor approach utilized the fluorescent properties of well-known berberine-type alkaloids. In situ chemosensor reaction with a target species transformed two out-of-plane, weakly conjugated, short-wavelength chromophores into one rigid, planar, conjugated, chromophore with strong long wavelength fluorescence (530-560 nm,) and large Stokes shift (100-180 nm). The chemosensor was activated with an isourea group which allowed for reaction with carboxylic acid moieties found in amino acids.

Shepodd, Timothy J.; Zifer, Thomas; McElhanon, James Ross; Rahn, Larry A.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Passive aeroelastic tailoring of wind turbine blades : a numerical analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This research aims to have an impact towards a sustainable energy supply. In wind power generation losses occur at tip speed ratios which the rotor was not designed for. Since the ideal blade shape changes nonlinearly with ...

Deilmann, Christian

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Tailoring the Third Dimension in Layered Materials: Direct Synthesis ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On-Site Speaker (Planned), Luyi Sun. Abstract ... Enhancement of Catalytic Performance in the Pt Nanoparticle by Doping Zirconia Support with Y or Ce: A DFT ...

157

Tailoring Interface Structure in Highly Strained YSZ/STO Heterostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heterostructures combining transition metal oxides, as compared to other materials, are able to accommodate very large amounts of epitaxial strain without breaking into islands or structural domains. Coherently strained interfaces are an interesting playground for the search of materials with enhanced ion diffusivities, of interest in devices for energy generation and storage. In this work we highlight the importance of the interface structure of highly strained YSZ/STO superlattices in determining an enhancement of their ionic conductivity. We show the role of growth orientation in controlling the structure and morphology of the interface. Results of density functional theory calculations are discussed, showing that the incompatibility of the oxygen positions at the interface planes plays a key role in stabilizing the high values of ionic conductivities.

Rivera-Calzada, Alberto [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Diaz-Guillen, M R [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain; Dura, O J [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain; Sanchez Santolino, Gabriel [ORNL; Pennycook, Timothy J [Vanderbilt University; Schmidt, R [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain; Bruno, Flavio Y. [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Garcia-Barriocanal, Javier [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Sefrioui, Z. [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Nemes, Norbert [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Garcia-Hernandez, M [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM); Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL; Leon, C. [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Pantelides, Sokrates T. [Vanderbilt University; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Santamaria, J. [Universidad Complutense, Spain

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Gasifier feed - Tailor-made from Illinois coals  

SciTech Connect

The main purpose of this project is to produce a feedstock from preparation plant fines from an illinois coal that is ideal for a slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow coal gasifier. The high sulfur content and high Btu value of Illinois coals are particularly advantageous in such a gasifier; preliminary calculations indicate that the increased cost of removing sulfur from the gas from a high sulfur coal is more than offset by the increased revenue from the sale of the elemental sulfur; additionally the high Btu Illinois coal concentrates more energy into the slurry of a given coal to water ratio. The Btu is higher not only because of the higher Btu value of the coal but also because Illinois coal requires less water to produce a pumpable slurry than western coal, i.e., as little as 30--35% water may be used for Illinois coal as compared to approximately 45% for most western coals.

Ehrlinger, H.P. III (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)); Lytle, J.; Frost, R.R.; Lizzio, A.; Kohlenberger, L.; Brewer, K. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States) DESTEC Energy (United States) Williams Technology, (United States) Illinois Coal Association (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Rapid Solidification of Tailored Aluminum Alloys to Obtained Nano ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Proper combinations of deposition parameters and alloy compositions must be ... Frequency Modulation Effect on the Solidification of Alloy 718 Fusion Zone.

160

Select actions for analysis and tailor to country contexts |...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Assistance Network Geothermal Incentives and Policies International Clean Energy Analysis Low Emission Development Strategies Oil & Gas Smart Grid Solar U.S. OpenLabs...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

100 femtoseconds, synchronization to another ultrafast source ranging from infrared to x-ray wavelengths, and the ability to shape the time envelope of the pulse. Among the...

162

Tailored hospital supply chain for greater return on investment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cost of healthcare has been increasing over the past several years. From 1997 to 2002, the average cost for hospital stays increased 24 percent. The increase in healthcare cost can be explained by malpractice law suits ...

Jan, Paul Jenq-Haw

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Experiments with Oval: A Radically Tailorable Tool for Cooperative Work  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-333), Cambridge, MA 02139; email: malone@eagle.mit. edu; K.-Y. Lai, McKinsey & Company, 18/F Two Exchange Square

164

New OLED Cathode Materials with Tailored Low Work Function  

offer a viable alternative to the standard metal cathode technology. ... energy than the conventional technology available today. Features and Benefits

165

New OLED Cathode Materials with Tailored Low Work Function  

Colorado State University offer a viable alternative to the standard metal cathode ... The metal complex can be specifically chosen to match the energy and

166

New OLED Cathode Materials with Tailored Low Work Function ...  

The requirements of the cathode and anode limit the types of organic material that can be used for the light emitting ... Energy-saving displays on televisions, ...

167

Tailoring of Magnetic Properties and GMI Effect in Thin Amorphous ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fabrication of Nanocrystalline Magnetic Materials for Use in Energy-efficient Distribution Transformers · Fabrication of ?”-Fe16N2 Bulk Magnets by ...

168

Laser beam temporal and spatial tailoring for laser shock processing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Techniques are provided for formatting laser pulse spatial shape and for effectively and efficiently delivering the laser energy to a work surface in the laser shock process. An appropriately formatted pulse helps to eliminate breakdown and generate uniform shocks. The invention uses a high power laser technology capable of meeting the laser requirements for a high throughput process, that is, a laser which can treat many square centimeters of surface area per second. The shock process has a broad range of applications, especially in the aerospace industry, where treating parts to reduce or eliminate corrosion failure is very important. The invention may be used for treating metal components to improve strength and corrosion resistance. The invention has a broad range of applications for parts that are currently shot peened and/or require peening by means other than shot peening. Major applications for the invention are in the automotive and aerospace industries for components such as turbine blades, compressor components, gears, etc.

Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA); Dane, C. Brent (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Aluminum Tailor-welded Blanks for High Volume Automotive ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Strength Aluminum Brazing Sheets for Condenser Fins of Automotive Heat Exchangers · High Temperature Creep Characterization of A380 Cast ...

170

Tailoring the Shape and Structure of Supported Metal Nanocrystals ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Material processing methods are developed to control nanocrystal size and shape in order to tune their physical and chemical properties.We observed that Pd ...

171

Tailoring the air plasma with a double laser pulse  

SciTech Connect

We present a comprehensive model of plasma dynamics that enables a detailed understanding of the ways the air plasma induced in the atmosphere in the wake of a laser-induced filament can be controlled by an additional laser pulse. Our model self-consistently integrates plasma-kinetic, Navier-Stokes, electron heat conduction, and electron-vibration energy transfer equations, serving to reveal laser-plasma interaction regimes where the plasma lifetime can be substantially increased through an efficient control over plasma temperature, as well as suppression of attachment and recombination processes. The model is used to quantify the limitations on the length of uniform laser-filament heating due to the self-defocusing of laser radiation by the radial profile of electron density. The envisaged applications include sustaining plasma guides for long-distance transmission of microwaves, standoff detection of impurities and potentially hazardous agents, as well as lightning control and protection.

Shneider, M. N.; Miles, R. B. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-5263 (United States); Zheltikov, A. M. [Physics Department, International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

172

Utilizing Nanoscale Interfacial Films to Tailor Battery and Other Ionic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Such nanoscale intergranular and surficial films can be utilized to engineer lithium-ion battery cathode and anode materials, as well as solid-state ionic ...

173

Semiconductor laser devices having lateral refractive index tailoring  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A broad-area semiconductor laser diode includes an active lasing region interposed between an upper and a lower cladding layer, the laser diode further comprising structure for controllably varying a lateral refractive index profile of the diode to substantially compensate for an effect of junction heating during operation. In embodiments disclosed the controlling structure comprises resistive heating strips or non-radiative linear junctions disposed parallel to the active region. Another embodiment discloses a multi-layered upper cladding region selectively disordered by implanted or diffused dopant impurities. Still another embodiment discloses an upper cladding layer of variable thickness that is convex in shape and symmetrically disposed about a central axis of the active region. The teaching of the invention is also shown to be applicable to arrays of semiconductor laser diodes.

Ashby, C.I.H.; Hadley, G.R.; Hohimer, J.P.; Owyoung, A.

1989-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

Tailoring the prototyping process to achieve customer value  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main objective for prototyping is to get the most value out of the opportunity. Value may take the form of information, performance, displaying production readiness or proving capability for the amount of resources ...

Jordan, Brian Lane

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

SciTech Connect: "smart grid"  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Fe Atomic Data for Non-equilibrium Ionization Plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fe Atomic Data for Non-equilibrium Ionization Plasmas...

176

Tailored ramp-loading via shock release of stepped-density reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The concept of a gradient piston drive has been extended from that of a single component reservoir, such as a high explosive, to that of a multi-component reservoir that utilizes low density foams and large shocks to achieve high pressures ({approx}3.5 mbar) and controlled pressure vs. time profiles on a driven sample. Simulated and experimental drives shaped through the use of multiple component (including carbonized resorcinol formaldehyde and SiO{sub 2} foam) reservoirs are compared. Individual density layers in a multiple component reservoir are shown to correlate with velocity features in the measured drive which enables the ability to tune a pressure drive by adjusting the components of the reservoir. Pre-shot simulations are shown to be in rough agreement with the data, but post-shot simulations involving the use of simulated plasma drives were needed to achieve an exact match. Results from a multiple component reservoir shot ({approx}3.5 mbar) at the National Ignition Facility are shown.

Prisbrey, Shon T.; Park, Hye-Sook; Remington, Bruce A.; Cavallo, Robert; May, Mark; Pollaine, Stephen M.; Rudd, Robert; Maddox, Brian; Comley, Andrew; Fried, Larry; Blobaum, Kerri; Wallace, Russ; Wilson, Mike; Swift, David; Satcher, Joe; Kalantar, Dan; Perry, Ted [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Giraldez, Emilio; Farrell, Michael; Nikroo, Abbas [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

177

LBMD : a layer-based mesh data structure tailored for generic API infrastructures.  

SciTech Connect

A new mesh data structure is introduced for the purpose of mesh processing in Application Programming Interface (API) infrastructures. This data structure utilizes a reduced mesh representation to increase its ability to handle significantly larger meshes compared to full mesh representation. In spite of the reduced representation, each mesh entity (vertex, edge, face, and region) is represented using a unique handle, with no extra storage cost, which is a crucial requirement in most API libraries. The concept of mesh layers makes the data structure more flexible for mesh generation and mesh modification operations. This flexibility can have a favorable impact in solver based queries of finite volume and multigrid methods. The capabilities of LBMD make it even more attractive for parallel implementations using Message Passing Interface (MPI) or Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). The data structure is associated with a new classification method to relate mesh entities to their corresponding geometrical entities. The classification technique stores the related information at the node level without introducing any ambiguities. Several examples are presented to illustrate the strength of this new data structure.

Ebeida, Mohamed S.; Knupp, Patrick Michael

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

B24: Tailoring the Porosity and Shrinkage of Extruded MGO Support ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Similar flow behavior and linear shrinkage for both materials are crucial to ... Route to Synthesize Multielement Ferrites and Their Magnetic Properties .... E25: Laboratory Activities Relates to Marine Corrosion: Search for Damages Causes ... G9: The Protection of Iron Reducing Bacteria (IRB) against the Corrosion of API 5L ...

179

Flexible hybrid membrane treatment systems for tailored nutrient management: A new paradigm in urban wastewater treatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the clay and glaze waste that previously was washed down the drain, reclaiming 15 gallons of glaze and 300 with a student team. Over 90% of irrigation systems are automated and connected to a weather station

180

Manganese Doping of Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Tailoring Surface Reactivity for a Regenerable Heavy Metal Sorbent  

SciTech Connect

A method for tuning the analyte affinity of magnetic, inorganic nanostructured sorbents for heavy metal contaminants is described. The manganese-doped iron oxide nanoparticle sorbents have a remarkably high affinity compared to the precursor material. Sorbent affinity can be tuned toward an analyte of interest simply by adjustment of the dopant quantity. The results show that following the Mn doping process there is a large increase in affinity and capacity for heavy metals (i.e., Co, Ni, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Hg, and Tl). Capacity measurements were carried out for the removal of cadmium from river water and showed significantly higher loading than the relevant commercial sorbents tested for comparison. The reduction in Cd concentration from 100 ppb spiked river water to 1 ppb (less than the EPA drinking water limit of 5 ppb for Cd) was achieved following treatment with the Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles. The Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles were able to load 1 ppm of Cd followed by complete stripping and recovery of the Cd with a mild acid wash. The Cd loading and stripping is shown to be consistent through multiple cycles with no loss of sorbent performance.

Warner, Cynthia L.; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Mackie, Katherine E.; Neiner, Doinita; Saraf, Laxmikant; Droubay, Timothy C.; Warner, Marvin G.; Addleman, Raymond S.

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Tailoring Selectivity for Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution on Ruthenium Oxides by Zn Substitution  

SciTech Connect

Controlling gas emissions: Versatile control of the selectivity of an oxide electrocatalyst in the oxygen- and chlorine-evolution reactions was demonstrated by Zn substitution in RuO{sub 2}. The incorporation of Zn into the rutile structure alters the cation sequence along the [001] direction and modifies the structure of the active sites for both gas-evolution processes.

Petrykin, V.; Macounova, K; Shlyakhtin, O; Krtil, P

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Trimming the tree: tailoring adaptive huffman coding to wireless sensor networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nodes in wireless sensor networks are generally designed to operate on a limited energy budget, and must consciously use the available charge to allow for long lifetimes. As the radio transceiver is the predominant power consumer on current node platforms, ...

Andreas Reinhardt; Delphine Christin; Matthias Hollick; Johannes Schmitt; Parag S. Mogre; Ralf Steinmetz

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Highly Hydrophilic Thin-Film Composite Forward Osmosis Membranes Functionalized with Surface-Tailored Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in spiral-wound membrane modules. J. Membr. Sci. 2008, 319, 286-297. (31) Guillen, G.; Hoek, E. M. V

Elimelech, Menachem

184

Refrigerator Efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an appliance markettransformation program design for Africa  

SciTech Connect

A simple replication of developed country applianceefficiency labels and standards is unlikely to be feasible in Ghana andmany other countries in Africa. Yet by creatively modifying the developedcountry appliance efficiency market transformation model, it should bepossible to achieve dramatic energy use reductions. As was true indeveloped countries in the previous two decades, refrigeration efficiencyimprovements provide the greatest energy savings potential in theresidential electricity sector in Ghana. Although Ghana, like manyAfrican countries may impose standards on imports since Ghana does nothave manufacturing facilities for appliances in country. This approachmay hurt some consumers who patronize a very diverse market of usedappliances imported from Europe. We discuss how meeting the challenges ofthe Ghanaian market will require modification of the usual energyefficiency labeling and standards paradigm. But once a refrigeratormarket transformation is accomplished in Ghana, we estimate an averageenergy savings potential of 550 kWh/refrigerator/year, and a monetarysavings of more than $35/refrigerator/year. We discuss how this modifiedrefrigerator efficiency market transformation may occur in the Ghanaiancontext. If successful, this market transformation is likely to be anexample for many other African countries.

Ben Hagan, Essel; Van Buskirk, Robert; Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Alfred; McNeil, Michael A.

2006-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

185

Model for the Fabrication of Tailored Materials for Lithium-Iion ...  

Creates a gradient of different materials for increased safety and stability; ... Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles; Portable electronic devices;

186

Tailoring interfacial exchange coupling with low-energy ion beam bombardment: Tuning the interface roughness  

SciTech Connect

By ascertaining NiO surface roughness in a Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}/NiO film system, we were able to correlate the effects of altered interface roughness from low-energy ion-beam bombardment of the NiO layer and the different thermal instabilities in the NiO nanocrystallites. From experiment and by modelling the temperature dependence of the exchange bias field and coercivity, we have found that reducing the interface roughness and changing the interface texture from an irregular to striped conformation enhanced the exchange coupling strength. Our results were in good agreement with recent simulations using the domain state model that incorporated interface mixing.

Lin, K.-W.; Shueh, C.; Huang, H.-R.; Hsu, H.-F. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Tiachung 402, Taiwan (China); Mirza, M.; Lierop, J. van [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

2012-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

187

Refrigerator Efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an appliance market transformation program design for Africa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy policy formulation and change within relevant governmentenergy policy formulation and change within relevant government

Ben Hagan, Essel; Van Buskirk, Robert; Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Alfred; McNeil, Michael A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Refrigerator Efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an appliance market transformation program design for Africa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

U.S. household electricity consumption of 10,656 kWh/year/electricity consumption of slightly less than 1000 kWh/year/year. Furthermore we used a sample distribution of monthly household electricity consumption

Ben Hagan, Essel; Van Buskirk, Robert; Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Alfred; McNeil, Michael A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

AN ADVANCED STRATEGY FOR ENERGY EFFICIENT LIGHTING INCORPORATING DISTRIBUTED SENSING AND TAILORED CONTROLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as energy security and the stability and condition of the distribution infrastructure. The building sector impact on the aging electricity grid system. The daily peak window also coincides with maximum daylight and actuators within their zones and use the provided information to create a zone energy use utility curve

Stanford University

190

Fuel Source Isotopic Tailoring Impact on ITER Design, Operation and Safety  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

USA D. Petti Idaho National Engineering Laboratory P. O. Box 1625 Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415-3523 USA O

191

Femtosecond-laser irradiation as a platform for tailoring the optoelectronic properties of silicon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Silicon is the most abundant semiconductor on earth and benefits from decades of technological development driven by the integrated circuit industry. Furthermore, silicon allows for facile n-type and p-type doping, has a ...

Smith, Matthew John, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Army Equipment Modernization Strategy Versatile and Tailorable, yet Affordable and Cost Effective  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;04 March 2013 For more information contact: Headquarters, Department of the Army, Office Energy 33 Annex M: Army Medicine 35 Annex N: Science and Technology 37 Annex O: References 39 Annex P in various terrains, in cold and hot weather, in energy and water constrained environments and only support

US Army Corps of Engineers

193

Implementation of New Process Models for Tailored Polymer Composite Structures into Processing Software Packages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the work conducted under the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) (Nr. 260) between the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Autodesk, Inc. to develop and implement process models for injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs) in processing software packages. The structure of this report is organized as follows. After the Introduction Section (Section 1), Section 2 summarizes the current fiber orientation models developed for injection-molded short-fiber thermoplastics (SFTs). Section 3 provides an assessment of these models to determine their capabilities and limitations, and the developments needed for injection-molded LFTs. Section 4 then focuses on the development of a new fiber orientation model for LFTs. This model is termed the anisotropic rotary diffusion - reduced strain closure (ARD-RSC) model as it explores the concept of anisotropic rotary diffusion to capture the fiber-fiber interaction in long-fiber suspensions and uses the reduced strain closure method of Wang et al. to slow down the orientation kinetics in concentrated suspensions. In contrast to fiber orientation modeling, before this project, no standard model was developed to predict the fiber length distribution in molded fiber composites. Section 5 is therefore devoted to the development of a fiber length attrition model in the mold. Sections 6 and 7 address the implementations of the models in AMI, and the conclusions drawn from this work is presented in Section 8.

Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Jin, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jin; Phelps, Jay; Tucker III, Charles L.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Bapanapalli, Satish K.; Smith, Mark T.

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

194

Bio-inspired tailored hydroxyapatite-based powder composites for dental applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

scales are composed of plywood structure with collagendifferent layers to form the plywood structure. The diameterscales are composed of plywood structure with collagen

Lin, Yen-Shan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Tailored Force Fields for Space-Based Construction Narayanan M. Komerath, Sameh S. Wanis, Joseph Czechowski  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Such a project draws upon several technologies such as lunar-based solar power plants, in situ resource. Standing- wave fields offer important advantages - the radiation force in a standing wave field can be 3/electromagnetic and acoustic radiation is used to extend a microgravity flight result from acoustic standing wave fields

196

Tailoring the absorption in a photonic crystal membrane: A modal Romain Peretti*a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

crystal, absorption enhancement, photovoltaic solar cell, indoor solar cell, sensor 1. INTRODUCTION is of prime importance for solar [1] and indoor [2] photovoltaic cells or for sensors [3]. Parallel to this photovoltaic devices and sensors, we propose to implement photonic crystals on thin absorbing layers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

197

Tailoring optical properties of light-emitting diodes by nanostructuring with nanospheres.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

???III-V nitride based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have experienced rapid developments during past decade, proving their potential to substitute conventional incandescent bulbs and fluorescent lamps to… (more)

??

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

TAILORING INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR SRS STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS: MODIFIED MONOSODIUM TITANATE PHASE III FINAL REPORT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document provides a final report of Phase III testing activities for the development of modified monosodium titanate (mMST), which exhibits improved strontium and actinide removal characteristics compared to the baseline MST material. The activities included characterization of the crystalline phases present at varying temperatures, solids settling characteristics, quantification of the peroxide content; evaluation of the post-synthesis gas release under different conditions; the extent of desorption of {sup 85}Sr, Np, and Pu under washing conditions; and the effects of age and radiation on the performance of the mMST. Key findings and conclusions include the following. The peroxide content of several mMST samples was determined using iodometric titration. The peroxide content was found to decrease with age or upon extended exposure to elevated temperature. A loss of peroxide was also measured after exposure of the material to an alkaline salt solution similar in composition to the simulated waste solution. To determine if the loss of peroxide with age affects the performance of the material, Sr and actinide removal tests were conducted with samples of varying age. The oldest sample (4 years and 8 months) did show lower Sr and Pu removal performance. When compared to the youngest sample tested (1 month), the oldest sample retained only 15% of the DF for Pu. Previous testing with this sample indicated no decrease in Pu removal performance up to an age of 30 months. No loss in Np removal performance was observed for any of the aged samples, and no uptake of uranium occurred at the typical sorbent loading of 0.2 g/L. Additional testing with a uranium only simulant and higher mMST loading (3.0 g/L) indicated a 10% increase of uranium uptake for a sample aged 3 years and 8 months when compared to the results of the same sample measured at an age of 1 year and 5 months. Performance testing with both baseline-MST and mMST that had been irradiated in a gamma source to a total dose of 3.95 x 10{sup 6} R, indicated little to no affect on the performance of the material to remove Sr and actinides. Previous testing established that mMST releases oxygen gas during the synthesis, and continues to off-gas during storage post synthesis. The post-synthesis gas release rate was measured under several conditions, including varying the pH of the wash water and at elevated temperature (49 C, typical of bounding summertime storage without air conditioning). Results indicated that a high pH (basic) wash reduced the initial gas release rate, but after 2 days the release rates from all different pH washed samples were not statistically different. The gas release rate at 49 C, a temperature at which the material may be exposed to during shipping and storage, was consistently about 2.5 times higher than the rate at room temperature. All gas release results indicated that vented containers would be necessary for shipping and storage of large quantities of material. Suspension of sorbate-loaded solids into diluted solutions representing intermediate and final stages of washing for 24-hours revealed no evidence of desorption of Sr, Pu or Np from the mMST solids. Based on the results of the Phase III testing as well as that from earlier studies (Phases I and II), SRNL researchers recommend adopting the use of the mMST material for the removal of strontium and actinides from the SRS HLW supernatant liquids in the Actinide Removal Process and Salt Waste Processing Facility. Given the decrease in Sr and Pu removal performance for the mMST having an age of 4 years and 8 months, we recommend that mMST be used within 30 months of production. Furthermore we recommend that DOE provide funding to conduct pilot-scale testing of the mixing and settling characteristics of the mMST and impact, if any, on the generation of hydrogen during processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF).

Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Dynamic tailoring and tuning for space-based precision optical structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Next-generation space telescopes in NASA's Origins missions require use of advanced imaging techniques to achieve high optical performance with limited launch mass. Structurally-connected Michelson interferometers meet ...

Masterson, Rebecca A. (Rebecca Ann)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Enhancing hydrogen evolution activities in water splitting by tailoring Li+/Ni(OH){<_2}/Pt interfaces.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Improving the sluggish kinetics for the electrochemical reduction of water to molecular hydrogen in alkaline environments is one key to reducing the high overpotentials and associated energy losses in water-alkali and chlor-alkali electrolyzers. We found that a controlled arrangement of nanometer-scale Ni(OH){sub 2} clusters on platinum electrode surfaces manifests a factor of 8 activity increase in catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction relative to state-of-the-art metal and metal-oxide catalysts. In a bifunctional effect, the edges of the Ni(OH){sub 2} clusters promoted the dissociation of water and the production of hydrogen intermediates that then adsorbed on the nearby Pt surfaces and recombined into molecular hydrogen. The generation of these hydrogen intermediates could be further enhanced via Li{sup +}-induced destabilization of the HO-H bond, resulting in a factor of 10 total increase in activity.

Subbaraman, S.; Tripkovic, D.; Strmcnik, D.; Chang, K-C.; Uchimura, M.; Paulikas, A. P.; Stamenkovic, V.; Markovic, N. M. (Materials Science Division); ( NE); (Nissan Res. Ctr.)

2011-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Tailoring anisotropic magnetoresistance and giant magnetoresistance hysteresis loops with spin-polarized current injection  

SciTech Connect

Current pulses were injected into magnetic nanowires. Their effect on the magnetoresistance hysteresis loops was studied for three morphologies: homogeneous Ni wires, copper wires containing five cobalt/copper bilayers, and hybrid structures composed of a homogeneous Ni half wire and a multilayered Co/Cu half wire. The characteristic features of the action of the current on the magnetization are shown and discussed. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Wegrowe, J.-E.; Kelly, D.; Hoffer, X.; Guittienne, Ph.; Ansermet, J.-Ph.

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Solvent tailoring in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, August 1982-November 1982  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A gradientless, high-pressure, continuous reaction system equipped with a carberry-type catalyst basket, was designed and built for hydrotreating liquid feedstocks. A model reaction system (naphthalene dissolved in a carrier vehicle) was used to verify the key results of the simulation study. Investigation of the sensitivity of hydrotreater performance to variations in the volatility of the feedstream were continued. Hydrogenation activity was found to be highly sensitive to differences in the volatility of feedstreams. As part of the sensitivity analyses with respect to feedstream volatility, the reactor was simulated to study the highly interactive effects of hydrogen flowrate, feed concentration, temperature, and pressure. With the use of heavy carrier solvents (e.g. hexadecane or white oil) naphthalene conversion was insensitive to increases in hydrogen flowrate (above the theoretical minimum) or increases in hydrogen flowrate (above the theoretical minimum) or increases in feed concentration. However, with the use of a light carrier solvent (e.g. toluene or cyclohexane) naphthalene conversion was sensitive to both increases in hydrogen flowrate and increases in feedstream concentration. The sensitivity of conversion to reactor pressure was found to be greater for the heavier feed system. It is thus worth noting that the failure to account for liquid vaporization effects could lead to false activation energies and frequency factors. A possible disadvantage to concentrating the reactants and increasing their residence time, with the use of a highly volatile vehicle medium, could be accelerated catalyst deactivation.

Tarrer, A.R.; Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Williams, D.C.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

PageTailor: reusable end-user customization for the mobile web  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most pages on the Web are designed for the desktop environment and render poorly on the small screens available on handheld devices. We introduce Reusable End-User Customization (REUC), a technique that lets end users adapt the layout of Web pages by ... Keywords: customization, end-user, mobile web, small screen

Nilton Bila; Troy Ronda; Iqbal Mohomed; Khai N. Truong; Eyal de Lara

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Tailoring Fe-Base Alloys for Intermediate Temperature SOFC Interconnect Application  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarized the research efforts and major conclusions for our SECA Phase I and II project focused on Cr-free or low Cr Fe-Ni based alloy development for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect application. Electrical conductivity measurement on bulk (Fe,Ni){sub 3}O{sub 4} coupons indicated that this spinel phase possessed a higher electrical conductivity than Cr{sub 1.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} spinel and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which was consistent with the low area specific resistance (ASR) of the oxide scale formed on these Fe-Ni based alloys. For Cr-free Fe-Ni binary alloys, although the increase in Ni content in the alloys improved the oxidation resistance, and the Fe-Ni binary alloys exhibited adequate CTE and oxide scale ASR, their oxidation resistance needs to be further improved. Systematic alloy design efforts have led to the identification of one low-Cr (6wt.%) Fe-Ni-Co based alloy which formed a protective, electrically-conductive Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} inner layer underneath a Cr-free, highly conductive spinel outer layer. This low-Cr, Fe-Ni-Co alloy has demonstrated a good CTE match with other cell components; high oxidation resistance comparable to that of Crofer; low oxide scale ASR with the formation of electrically-insulating phases in the oxide scale; no scale spallation during thermal cycling; adequate compatibility with cathode materials; and comparable mechanical properties with Crofer. The existence of the Cr-free (Fe,Co,Ni){sub 3}O{sub 4} outer layer effectively reduced the Cr evaporation and in transpiration testing resulted in a 6-fold decrease in Cr evaporation as compared to a state-of-the-art ferritic interconnect alloy. In-cell testing using an anode supported cell with a configuration of Alloy/Pt/LSM/YSZ/Ni+YSZ indicates that the formation of the Cr-free spinel layer via thermal oxidation was effective in blocking the Cr migration and thus improving the cell performance stability. Electroplating of the Fe-Ni-Co alloys as precursor to synthesize a protective spinel layer on commercial ferritic steels has been initiated to facilitate the utilization of the Cr-free spinel as a surface seal to block Cr evaporation. It is suggested that low-cost Fe-Ni-Co alloy coating on commercial ferritic steels might be the best approach to completely eliminate the Cr poisoning problem in SOFC stacks, while maintaining the relatively low overall cost of the interconnect component.

J.H. Zhu; M.P. Brady; H.U. Anderson

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

205

Nuclear forward scattering vs. conventional Mossbauer studies of atomically tailored Eu-based materials.  

SciTech Connect

With the decrease in size of devices, rapid characterization of nano-devices is an inevitable necessity. It is shown that Moessbauer spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation from the advanced photon source provides such a tool of investigation. Results are presented and compared for conventional Moessbauer and Nuclear Forward Scattering for {sup 151}Eu-doped magnesium sulfide as an example, especially at low concentrations.

Konjhodzic, A.; Adamczyk, A.; Hasan, Z.; Alp, E. E.; Sturhahn, W.; Zhao, J.; Carroll, J. J.; Vagizov, F.; Univ. of Philadelphia; Youngstown State Univ.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

AIAA-2000-1331 Active Aeroelastic Tailoring of High Aspect Ratio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the device to be embedded...........................................53 3.2.2 Preparation and layup.1.1 Actuation, sensing, and dynamic measurements.......................106 4.1.2 Mathematical model of the plant multiplication of a nx2n matrix by a 2nx1 state vector, resulting in NC operations: 22 #12;Control Plant

Patil, Mayuresh

207

Tailored Macroporous SiCN and SiC Structures for High-Temperature Fuel Reforming**  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The catalytic reforming of hydrocarbons in a microreformer is an attractive approach to supply hydrogen to fuel

Kenis, Paul J. A.

208

Integrating instructional and study materials to tailor a student-specific resource  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Courses about various software engineering practices, e.g. testing and architecture, all ultimately relate to a process for applying the practice. We have used that process as the organizing principle for undergraduate and graduate software engineering ...

J. Yates Monteith; John D. McGregor

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Refrigerator Efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an appliance market transformation program design for Africa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Guidebood for Appliances, Equipment, and Lighting, 2ndCollaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (the Potential Impact of Appliance Performance Standards in

Ben Hagan, Essel; Van Buskirk, Robert; Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Alfred; McNeil, Michael A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Tailoring the filamentation of intense femtosecond laser pulses with periodic lattices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We show numerically that by using periodic lattices the filamentation of intense femtosecond laser pulses, otherwise a result of competing nonlinear effects, can be well controlled with respect to its properties. The diffraction induced by the lattice provides a regularizing mechanism to the nonlinear self-action effects involved in filamentation. We demonstrate a new propagation regime of intense lattice solitons bridging the field of spatial solitons with that of femtosecond laser filamentation. The effective filamentation control is expected to have an important impact on numerous applications.

Panagiotopoulos, P.; Tzortzakis, S. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, P.O. Box 1527, GR-71110 Heraklion (Greece); Efremidis, N. K. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Papazoglou, D. G. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, P.O. Box 1527, GR-71110 Heraklion (Greece); Department of Materials Science and Technology, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Couairon, A. [Centre de Physique Theorique, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau (France)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

211

Characterization for fusion first-wall damage studies of using tailored D-T neutron fields  

SciTech Connect

The approximation required to apply the Bullough-Haynes results to the present calculations is somewhat crude and may imply that the details of the results contain considerable error. However, when the results for each neutron source are viewed in a relative context, several valid and important observations can be made. The almost identical swelling results obtained for the intense neutron source (INS) with a standard blanket and the fusion first wall are most striking. A further comparison with a fusion reactor shows that even the spatial and energy distributions of the neutron flux are similar. In both the INS with blanket and at the first wall of a fusion reactor, there is a radial source flux component of 14-MeV neutrons and a more or less isotropic flux component of low energy (< 14-MeV) neutrons. One must therefore conclude that from the point-of-view of neutron radiation damage, the INS with a blanket, unlike all other types of neutron sources, is not a simulation environment. It is, in fact, a small scale fusion device, and data obtained from INS irradiation experiments would represent fusion reactor results. Such data could then be used to develop correlative procedures for applying data obtained from other simulation sources to fusion reactor conditions.

Dierckx, R.; Emigh, C.R.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Technology@TMS: Online Article  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Molar volume, density, and thermal expansion; Scheil-Gulliver (non-equilibrium) solidification simulations; Thermochemical data such as enthalpies, heat ...

213

Engineering model reduction of bio-chemical kinetic David Csercsik, Katalin M. Hangos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Hydrosystems Chemical and Thermal Non-Equilibrium: Kinetic Mass & Energy Transfer Motivation Modeling Non is actually driven by difference in chemical potential influence of thermal non-equilibrium on kinetic mass situation of clear non-equilibrium extending range of applicability Support of the German Research

Gorban, Alexander N.

214

Improvement of Laser Damage Resistance and Diffraction Efficiency of Multilayer Dielectric Diffraction Gratings by HF-Etchback Linewidth Tailoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multilayer dielectric (MLD) diffraction gratings for Petawatt-class laser systems possess unique laser damage characteristics. Details of the shape of the grating lines and the concentration of absorbing impurities on the surface of the grating structures both have strong effects on laser damage threshold. It is known that electric field enhancement in the solid material comprising the grating lines varies directly with the linewidth and inversely with the line height for equivalent diffraction efficiency. Here, they present an overview of laser damage characteristics of MLD gratings, and describe a process for post-processing ion-beam etched grating lines using very dilute buffered hydrofluoric acid solutions. This process acts simultaneously to reduce grating linewidth and remove surface contaminants, thereby improving laser damage thresholds through two pathways.

Nguyen, H T; Larson, C C; Britten, J A

2010-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

215

Controlling the structure of two-dimensional nanoparticle supracrystals from long-range order to anisotropy by tailoring ligand interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ligand-stabilized nanoparticles (NPs) assembled into long-range ordered arrays, also known as "nanoparticle supracrystals (NPSCs)", are expected to provide a powerful general platform for designing new types of solids. In ...

Kim, Jin Young, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

An aspartate and a water molecule mediate efficient acid-base catalysis in a tailored antibody pocket  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Design of catalysts featuring multiple functional groups is a desirable, yet formidable goal. Antibody 13G5, which accelerates the cleavage of unactivated benzisoxazoles, is one of few artificial enzymes that harness an acid and a base to achieve efficient proton transfer. X-ray structures of the Fab-hapten complexes of wild-type 13G5 and active-site variants now afford detailed insights into its mechanism. The parent antibody preorganizes Asp{sup H35} and Glu{sup L34} to abstract a proton from substrate and to orient a water molecule for leaving group stabilization, respectively. Remodeling the environment of the hydrogen bond donor with a compensatory network of ordered waters, as seen in the Glu{sup L34} to alanine mutant, leads to an impressive 10{sup 9}-fold rate acceleration over the nonenzymatic reaction with acetate, illustrating the utility of buried water molecules in bifunctional catalysis. Generalization of these design principles may aid in creation of catalysts for other important chemical transformations.

Debler, Erik W.; Müller, Roger; Hilvert, Donald; Wilson, Ian A.; (Scripps); (ETH Zurich)

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

AB 811 enables you to tailor a program that makes sense for your community and constituents. You determine the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

information please contact: City of Palm Desert Office of Energy Management 73-710 Fred Waring Drive, Suite

Kammen, Daniel M.

218

Evolutionary algorithms, chaotic excitations, and structural health monitor : on global search methods for improved damage detection via tailored inputs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of detecting damage to offshore oil platforms were lessincreases. If an offshore oil platform is modeled as a 1DOFto monitor offshore oil platforms: feature selection,

Olson, Colin C.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Mitigation of the electron-cloud effect in the PSR and SNS proton storage rings by tailoring the bunch profile  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CLOUD EFFECT IN THE PSR AND SNS PROTON STORAGE RINGS BYSpallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, and for theparameters for the PSR and SNS. Parameter Symbol,unit PSR

Pivi, M.; Furman, M.A.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Tailoring the Neutron Spectrum from a 14-MeV Neutron Generator to Approximate a Spontaneous-Fission Spectrum  

SciTech Connect

Many applications of neutrons for non-invasive measurements began with isotopic sources such as AmBe or Cf-252. Political factors have rendered AmBe undesirable in the United States and other countries, and the supply of Cf-252 is limited and significantly increasing in price every few years. Compact and low-power deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generators can often provide sufficient flux, but the 14-MeV neutron spectrum is much more energetic (harder) than an isotopic neutron source. A series of MCNP simulations were run to examine the extent to which the 14-MeV DT neutron spectrum could be softened through the use of high-Z and low-Z materials. Some potential concepts of operation require a portable neutron generator system, so the additional weight of extra materials is also a trade-off parameter. Using a reference distance of 30 cm from the source, the average neutron energy can be lowered to be less than that of either AmBe or Cf-252, while obtaining an increase in flux at the reference distance compared to a bare neutron generator. This paper discusses the types and amounts of materials used, the resulting neutron spectra, neutron flux levels, and associated photon production.

James Simpson; David Chichester

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

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221

Slide 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

* Thermodynamics in confinement * Non-equilibrium analysis * Kinetics in confinement * Multiphase transport Keys: Energy Forms + Scales + Sediment Mineral surface 1D - interface...

222

Present and Future Computing Requirements Radiative Transfer...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

radiative shock (e.g., ensman 1994) gas temperature radiation temperature Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) non-equilibrium (NLTE) CaII microphysics 1GB atomic data...

223

ARPA-E Technology Showcase: Project Spotlight | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

that use half the energy and avoid using potent greenhouse gas coolants of traditional vapor-compression refrigeration systems. Sheetak's Non-Equilibrium Asymmetric...

224

Interface Role in the Shock Response of Cu/Nb Metallic Multilayers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Non-equilibrium MD simulations of the shock loading of Cu/Nb multilayers containing exclusively one interface structure or the other confirm the key role which ...

225

Long-term Atomistic Simulation of Heat Conduction and Mass ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This non-equilibrium thermodynamics model is then coupled with discrete kinetic models of Onsager type which governs heat conduction and mass transport at ...

226

NSLS II: Growth and Processing of Advanced Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is a non-equilibrium phenomenon governed by a competition between kinetics and thermodynamics. The figure illustrates common themes in thin film growth processes and methods....

227

Microsoft PowerPoint - Malhotra-ARRA-February-2011.pptx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MONITORING OF STORED CO 2 IN ORGANIC ROCKS UNDER NON- EQUILIBRIUM CONDITIONS Southern Illinois University-Carbondale Presenter: Vivak (Vik) Malhotra Department of Physics...

228

Study of thermal properties of graphene-based structures using the force constant method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thermal properties of graphene-based materials are theoretically investigated. The fourth-nearest neighbor force constant method for phonon properties is used in conjunction with both the Landauer ballistic and the non-equilibrium Green's function ... Keywords: Force constant method, Graphene, Graphene antidots, Non-equilibrium Green's function, Thermal properties

Hossein Karamitaheri; Neophytos Neophytou; Mahdi Pourfath; Hans Kosina

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Trial Protocol: Using genotype to tailor prescribing of nicotine replacement therapy: a randomised controlled trial assessing impact of communication upon adherence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and research 2003, 27:205-222. 21. Marteau T, Senior V, Humphries SE, Bobrow M, Cranston T, Crook MA, Day L, Fernandez M, Horne R, Iversen A, Jackson Z, Lynas J, Middleton- Price H, Savine R, Sikorski J, Watson M, Weinman, J, Wierzbicki AS, Wray R... , Biomarkers & Prevention 2002, 11:521-528. 25. Wu JR, Moser DK, Lennie TA, Burkhart PV: Medication adherence in patients who have heart failure: A review of the literature. Nursing Clinics of North America 2008, 43:133-153. 26. Shiffman S: Use of more nicotine...

Marteau, Theresa M; Munafo, Marcus R; Aveyard, Paul; Hill, Chloe; Whitwell, Sophia C L; Willis, Thomas A; Crockett, Rachel A; Hollands, Gareth J; Johnstone, Elaine C; Wright, Alison J; Prevost, A Toby; Armstrong, David; Sutton, Stephen; Kinmonth, Ann Louise

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

230

The influence of helium on mechanical properties of model austenitic alloys, determined using sup 59 Ni isotopic tailoring and fast reactor irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this effort is to study the separate and synergistic effects of helium and other important variables on the evolution of microstructure and macroscopic properties during irradiation of structural metals. The alloys employed in this study were nominally Fe-15Cr-25Ni, Fe-15Cr-25Ni-0.04P and Fe-15Cr-45Ni (wt %) in both the cold worked and annealed conditions. Tensile testing and microscopy continue on specimens removed from the first, second and third discharges of the {sup 59}Ni isotopic doping experiment. The results to date indicate that helium/dpa ratios typical of fusion reactors (4 to 19 appm/dpa) do not lead to significant changes in the yield strength of model Fe-Cr-Ni alloys. Measurements of helium generated in undoped specimens from the second and third discharges show that the helium/dpa ratio increases during irradiation in FFTF due to the production of {sup 59}Ni. In specimens doped with {sup 59}Ni prior to irradiation, the helium/dpa ratio can increase, decrease or remain the same during the second irradiation interval. This behavior occurs because the cross sections for the production and burnout of {sup 59}Ni are very sensitive to core location and the nature of neighboring components. 14 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Hamilton, M.L.; Garner, F.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Oliver, B.M. (Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (USA))

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Targeted versus tailored multimedia patient engagement to enhance depression recognition and treatment in primary care: randomized controlled trial protocol for the AMEP2 study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Roseville, 2025 Morse Avenue, Sacramento, CA 95825, USA. 8Avenue, Suite 400, Sacramento, CA 95816, USA. University ofSuite 2400 PSSB, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA. Received: 1

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

EFf!!$L, . United States Government Department of Energy  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

903-8 149) SJRJECT: The Former Atomic Energy Commission and the Manhattan Engineer District Sites in Dayton, Ohio TO: W . Dennison. GC-5 1 I a m attaching two copies of the...

233

Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics of Porous Electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We reformulate and extend porous electrode theory for non-ideal active materials, including those capable of phase transformations. Using principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, we relate the cell voltage, ionic ...

Ferguson, Todd Richard

234

--No Title--  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

I will discuss the possibilities to reveal non-equilibrium states behind merger shock fronts in galaxy clusters from X-ray observations, the 3D temperature structure of...

235

Thermodynamics with 3 Spins  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Glauber dynamics, applied to the one-dimensional Ising model, provides a tractable model for the study of non-equilibrium, many-body processes driven by a heat bath

Eward May; Jack L. Uretsky

2009-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

236

The Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium Approach to Far-From-Local-Equilibrium Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium (RCCE) method for the description of the time-dependent behavior of dynamical systems in non-equilibrium states is a general, effective, physically based method for model order ...

Beretta, Gian Paolo

237

Synthesis, Properties and Applications of Noble Metal Nanostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

And such non-equilibrium growth process is affected by many factors, such as size ... Improved Field Emission Characteristics of Nano-Structured Carbon Based Thin Films ... Synthesis and Structural Analysis of Nickel-Doped Titanium Dioxide ...

238

Study protocol for iQuit in Practice: a randomised controlled trial to assess the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of tailored web- and text-based facilitation of smoking cessation in primary care  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

,5*, Susan Smith1, James Jamison1, Sue Boase2, Dan Mason1, A Toby Prevost3, James Brimicombe1, Melanie Sloan1, Hazel Gilbert4 and Felix Naughton1 Abstract Background: Primary care is an important setting for smoking cessation interventions. There is evidence... . West R, McNeill A, Raw M: Smoking cessation guidelines for health professionals: an update. Thorax 2000, 55:987–999. 5. Rice VH, Stead LF: Nursing interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008, 1:CD001188. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD...

Sutton, Stephen; Smith, Susan; Jamison, James; Boase, Sue; Mason, Dan; Prevost, A Toby; Brimicombe, James; Sloan, Melanie; Gilbert, Hazel; Naughton, Felix

2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

239

Protocol for the ADDITION-Plus study: a randomised controlled trial of an individually-tailored behaviour change intervention among people with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes under intensive UK general practice care  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is projected to rise from 285 million in 2010 to 438 million in 2030 [1]. More than 2.5 million people in the UK are estimated to have diabetes, and the condi- tion is the leading cause of kidney failure, blindness in adults, and amputations in the UK [2... medication regularly difficult, particularly for multiple drugs in asymptomatic conditions [25,26], emphasising the need for interven- tions to support medication taking as prescribed along- side other health-related behaviours. A major limitation of studies...

Griffin, Simon J; Simmons, Rebecca K; Williams, Kate M; Prevost, A Toby; Hardeman, Wendy; Grant, Julie; Whittle, Fiona; Boase, Sue; Hobbis, Imogen; Brage, Soren; Westgate, Kate; Fanshawe, Tom; Sutton, Stephen; Wareham, Nicholas J; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; ADDITION-Plus Study team

2011-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

240

Unlocking the potential for efficiency and demand response through advanced metering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy information Dynamic tariffs Enhanced billing information Societal Applications Rates tailored to market

Levy, Roger; Herter, Karen; Wilson, John

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Breakdown of Cell Wall Nanostructure in Dilute Acid Pretreated Sai Venkatesh Pingali,*,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Weave Composite ~ 1 dpa, HFIR irradiation ORNL / Kyoto U. A science-based program involving tailored

242

CMS Procedure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Tabletop Exercise. Tailoring. Tape Management System. Technical Safeguard. Tempest. Test Plan. Test. Threat Agent. Threat Analysis. ...

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

243

Teaching the Environment to Control Quantum Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A non-equilibrium, generally time-dependent, environment whose form is deduced by optimal learning control is shown to provide a means for incoherent manipulation of quantum systems. Incoherent control by the environment (ICE) can serve to steer a system from an initial state to a target state, either mixed or in some cases pure, by exploiting dissipative dynamics. Implementing ICE with either incoherent radiation or a gas as the control is explicitly considered, and the environmental control is characterized by its distribution function. Simulated learning control experiments are performed with simple illustrations to find the shape of the optimal non-equilibrium distribution function that best affects the posed dynamical objectives.

Alexander Pechen; Herschel Rabitz

2006-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

244

RussiaSNL2-web.indd  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Extending Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Extending Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Simulation Methods Principal Investigators: John Aidun (SNL) and Genri Norman (JIHT) Project Description Novel nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulation methods are being extended and applied in four areas of mutual interest to Sandia and Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences (JIHT RAS). NEMD is being applied to (1) understanding relaxation and equilibration in non-ideal, nondegenerate plasmas; (2) characterizing melting or cavitation of condensed matter systems that are super-heated or under hydrostatic tension; (3) devising classical interaction potentials that can represent changing bonding character as a system evolves; and (4) investigating the mechanisms of

245

Heavy ions and string theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review a selection of recent developments in the application of ideas of string theory to heavy ion physics. Our topics divide naturally into equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena. On the non-equilibrium side, we discuss generalizations of Bjorken flow, numerical simulations of black hole formation in asymptotically anti-de Sitter geometries, equilibration in the dual field theory, and hard probes. On the equilibrium side, we summarize improved holographic QCD, extraction of transport coefficients, inclusion of chemical potentials, and approaches to the phase diagram. We close with some possible directions for future research.

Oliver DeWolfe; Steven S. Gubser; Christopher Rosen; Derek Teaney

2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

246

Resistances for heat and mass transfer through a liquid-vapor interface in a binary mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we calculate the interfacial resistances to heat and mass transfer through a liquid-vapor interface in a binary mixture. We use two methods, the direct calculation from the actual non-equilibrium solution and integral relations, derived earlier. We verify, that integral relations, being a relatively faster and cheaper method, indeed gives the same results as the direct processing of a non-equilibrium solution. Furthermore we compare the absolute values of the interfacial resistances with the ones obtained from kinetic theory. Matching the diagonal resistances for the binary mixture we find that kinetic theory underestimates the cross coefficients. The heat of transfer is as a consequence correspondingly larger.

Kirill Glavatskiy; Dick Bedeaux

2010-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

247

Resistances for heat and mass transfer through a liquid-vapor interface in a binary mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we calculate the interfacial resistances to heat and mass transfer through a liquid-vapor interface in a binary mixture. We use two methods, the direct calculation from the actual non-equilibrium solution and integral relations, derived earlier. We verify, that integral relations, being a relatively faster and cheaper method, indeed gives the same results as the direct processing of a non-equilibrium solution. Furthermore we compare the absolute values of the interfacial resistances with the ones obtained from kinetic theory. Matching the diagonal resistances for the binary mixture we find that kinetic theory underestimates the cross coefficients. The heat of transfer is as a consequence correspondingly larger.

Glavatskiy, Kirill

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

LFS Exhibit A General Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Page 1 of 31 Page 1 of 31 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR (Jun 2009) ............................................................................. 4 GC-4 SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jun 2009) ...................................................................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011)............................................................................................. 4

249

Supporting Material for: Capillary-like Fluctuations of a Solid-Liquid Interface in a Non-Cohesive Granular System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this supplementary paper we present some details on the solid-liquid interface detection, the deduction of the non-equilibrium free energy, the analysis of the granular temperature and energy per mode, a validation of the small slope approximation, a description of the Langevin dynamics, and the error analysis.

Li-Hua Luu; Gustavo Castillo; Nicolás Mujica; Rodrigo Soto

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

250

Boundary stability under nonequilibrium conditions. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Summaries of research accomplished are given for the following areas: Morphological (Diffusional) Stability; A New Algorithm for Numerical Modeling of Non-equilibrium Materials Behavior; A Unified Treatment of Single and Microcrystalline Film Edge Instabilities; and Validation of the Structure Based Grain Boundary Diffusion/Migration Model.

Hackney, S.A.; Lee, J.K.; Plichta, M.R.

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

The effect of grain boundary segregation of boron in cast alloy 718 on HAZ microfissuring -- a SIMS analysis  

SciTech Connect

Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) has been used to examine grain boundary segregation in cast alloy 718. The relationship between the boron segregation and the microfissuring tendency in heat affected zones (HAZ) around electron beam welds is discussed in this study. It is concluded that two types of segregation, namely equilibrium and non-equilibrium segregation, occurred during the homogenization heat treatment of the base material. Water quenching after the homogenization treatment inhibited non-equilibrium segregation of boron and other trace elements owing to insufficient time for diffusion of solute-vacancy complexes to occur. Intermediate cooling rates such as air cooling enhanced both non-equilibrium and equilibrium segregation, since equilibrium segregation occurred during holding at the heat treatment temperature. The value of net segregation produced by a combination of equilibrium segregation and non-equilibrium segregation varied with temperature in a U-shape. The nature of the grain boundary in the cast alloy was examined by using an electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) technique and it was found that 93% of the grain boundaries were of the random type ({Sigma} > 49). The weldability of this alloy was found to be closely related to the grain boundary segregation of boron, i.e., the variation of HAZ total crack length (TCL) with pre-welding heat treatment temperatures has a trend similar to that of boron segregation with temperature after air cooling. Mechanisms for the effect of boron on HAZ microfissuring have been proposed.

Huang, X.; Chaturvedi, M.C. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Richards, N.L. [Bristol Aerospace Ltd., Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Jackman, J. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Heat conduction in relativistic systems: alternatives and perspectives  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The non-equilibrium thermodynamics of relativistic systems have a rich phenomenology. The simplest phenomenon in the class of dissipative processes is that of heat. This letter presents a brief summary of the efforts made to tackle the problem of relativistic heat conduction. In particular, we focus on the multi-fluid approach to relativistic dissipation.

Lopez-Monsalvo, C S

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

A Model of Heat Conduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We define a deterministic ``scattering'' model for heat conduction which is continuous in space, and which has a Boltzmann type flavor, obtained by a closure based on memory loss between collisions. We prove that this model has, for stochastic driving forces at the boundary, close to Maxwellians, a unique non-equilibrium steady state.

Collet, Pierre

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Heat conduction in relativistic systems: alternatives and perspectives  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The non-equilibrium thermodynamics of relativistic systems have a rich phenomenology. The simplest phenomenon in the class of dissipative processes is that of heat. This letter presents a brief summary of the efforts made to tackle the problem of relativistic heat conduction. In particular, we focus on the multi-fluid approach to relativistic dissipation.

C. S. Lopez-Monsalvo

2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

255

1 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Parameter Range Investigated by the Fusion Materials Program appm He RTNS-II FFTF He DHCE He ORR/HFIR spec. tailor He HFIR isotopic tailor He HFIR target/RB He appmHe displacement damage (dpa) ffuussiioonn

256

NIST Releases Preliminary Cybersecurity Framework, Will ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... other accountable for strong cyber protections while allowing flexibility for specific approaches tailored to each business' market and regulatory ...

2013-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

257

Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - CNMS User Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

tailored from nanostructures as building blocks, are the foundations for constructing nano- and microdevices. However, assembling nanostructures into ordered micronetworks...

258

Office Of NONprOliferatiON  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

objectives for nonproliferation and arms control treaties and agreements; Develop technologies tailored for monitoring compliance with nonproliferation and arms control...

259

Microbially Mediated Method for Making Semiconductor Nanoparticles ...  

Energy Analysis; Energy Storage; Geothermal; Hydrogen and Fuel Cell; Hydropower, ... Scalable production scenario; Structure and size can be tailored; Applications ...

260

Fermentative Method for Making Nonoxide Fluorescent Nanoparticles ...  

Energy Analysis; Energy Storage; Geothermal; Hydrogen and Fuel Cell; Hydropower, ... Scalable production scenario; Structure & size can be tailored; Applications and ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Functional And Interface Requirements For Advanced Public Transportation Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

company produces Better able to tailor product to individual customer’s needs Other - Safety Other - Performance I Number

Hickman, Mark D.; Tabibnia, Sam; Day, Theodore

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

double-sided arc welding of az31b magnesium alloy sheet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 20, 2012... tailor-welded blanks for forming automotive structural components. ... initial investigations suggest that visually acceptable symmetrical welds ...

263

Argonne TDC: Superconductive Components, Inc.  

High-Performance Tailored Materials for Levitation Permanent Magnet Technologies Making materials to help advance flywheel energy storage. Superconductive Components ...

264

Laser Ultrasonics as a New Research Tool for the In-Situ ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have purchased the first laser ultrasonic sensor system dedicated and tailored ... Measurements were validated with classical metallographic microstructure ...

265

SFS Exhibit A General Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions 2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 16 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR (Jun 2009) ............................................................................. 4 GC-4 SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jun 2009) ...................................................................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011)............................................................................................. 4

266

IDIQ BS Ex A (Rev. 3.2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions 2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 19 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) ......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ....... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR (Jun 2009) ............................................................................ 4 GC-4 SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jun 2009) .................................................................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011) ........................................................................................... 4 GC-6 ORDER OF PRECEDENCE (Jun 2009) ................................................................................... 5

267

Time and Materials Exhibit A General Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions 2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 20 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR (Jun 2009) ............................................................................. 4 GC-4 SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jun 2009) ...................................................................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011)............................................................................................. 4

268

D-B CONST Ex A (Rev. 4.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions 1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 40 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2 AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Apr 2013) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR (Jun 2009) ............................................................................. 4 GC-4 SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jun 2009) ...................................................................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011)............................................................................................. 4

269

CPFFS Exhibit A General Conditions (Rev. 8.3, 9-27-13)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3, 9/27/13) Exhibit A General Conditions 3, 9/27/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 21 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR (Jun 2009) ............................................................................. 4 GC-4 SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jun 2009) ...................................................................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011) ............................................................................................

270

CPFFS Exhibit A General Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions 2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 20 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR (Jun 2009) ............................................................................. 4 GC-4 SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jun 2009) ...................................................................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011)............................................................................................. 4

271

LFS Exhibit A General Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dated 5-20-13 Dated 5-20-13 Subcontract No. 241314 Page 1 of 19 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012 - Deviation) ........................................................................................ 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 4 GC-3 INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR (Jun 2009) ............................................................................. 4 GC-4 SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jun 2009) ...................................................................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011)............................................................................................. 4

272

EFS Exhibit A General Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions 2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 26 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2 AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Apr 2013) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR (Jun 2009) ............................................................................. 4 GC-4 SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jun 2009) ...................................................................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011)............................................................................................. 4

273

R&D Ex A (Rev. 3.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions 1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 31 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR (Jun 2009) ............................................................................. 4 GC-4 SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jun 2009) ...................................................................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011)............................................................................................. 4

274

EFS Exhibit A General Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions 1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 39 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2 AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Apr 2013) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR (Jun 2009) ............................................................................. 4 GC-4 SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jun 2009) ...................................................................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011)............................................................................................. 4

275

AES Exhibit A General Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions 2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 18 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR (Jun 2009) ............................................................................. 4 GC-4 SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jun 2009) ...................................................................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011)............................................................................................. 4

276

TM Exhibit A General Conditions (Rev. 7.3, 9-27-13)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3, 9/27/13) Exhibit A General Conditions 3, 9/27/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 20 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR (Jun 2009) ............................................................................. 4 GC-4 SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jun 2009) ...................................................................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011) ............................................................................................

277

CONST Ex A (Rev. 5.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions 1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 39 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2 AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Apr 2013) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR (Jun 2009) ............................................................................. 4 GC-4 SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jun 2009) ...................................................................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011)............................................................................................. 4

278

Thormod Henriksen og Ingolf Kanestrm In my view, we are not doing as well as we could  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

periodicity during the Holocene period has been disputed (e.g. Schulz and Paul, 2002; Risebro- bakken et al composition of planktonic foraminifers (Duplessy et al., 2001; Risebro- bakken et al., 2003; Sarnthein et al core (LBC; 0.4 m long; Ã? 40 cm), a giant gravity (GGC; 2.7 m; Ã? 30 cm), and a gravity core (GC; 5.6 m

Sahay, Sundeep

279

IDIQ BS Ex A (Rev. 3.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions 1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 31 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) ......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ....... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR (Jun 2009) ............................................................................ 4 GC-4 SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jun 2009) .................................................................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011) ........................................................................................... 4 GC-6 ORDER OF PRECEDENCE (Jun 2009) ................................................................................... 5

280

SFS Exhibit A General Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions 1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 29 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR (Jun 2009) ............................................................................. 4 GC-4 SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jun 2009) ...................................................................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011)............................................................................................. 4

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

On the Accuracy of Explicit Finite-Volume Schemes for Fluctuating Hydrodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the development and analysis of finite-volume methods for the Landau-Lifshitz Navier-Stokes (LLNS) equations and related stochastic partial differential equations in fluid dynamics. The LLNS equations incorporate thermal fluctuations into macroscopic hydrodynamics by the addition of white-noise fluxes whose magnitudes are set by a fluctuation-dissipation relation. Originally derived for equilibrium fluctuations, the LLNS equations have also been shown to be accurate for non-equilibrium systems. Previous studies of numerical methods for the LLNS equations focused primarily on measuring variances and correlations computed at equilibrium and for selected non-equilibrium flows. In this paper, we introduce a more systematic approach based on studying discrete equilibrium structure factors for a broad class of explicit linear finite-volume schemes. This new approach provides a better characterization of the accuracy of a spatio-temporal discretization as a function of wavenumber and frequency, ...

Donev, A; García, A L; Bell, J B

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Abstract for Gouranga C. Nayak  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gouranga C. Nayak Gouranga C. Nayak Gluon Propagator and Magnetic Screening Mass at One Loop Level in Non-Equilibrium QCD Using closed-time path integral formalism I will show for the first time that the magnetic screening mass at one loop level in QED and QCD is non-zero as long as the distribution function is anisotropic in momentum space. For isotropic distribution function such as the thermal distribution function the magnetic screening mass at one loop level is zero which is consistent with finite temperature field theory results. I will also show that the same non-zero magnetic screening results is also obtained by using transport equation approach. I will present a resummed (at one loop level of self energy) gluon propagator in any arbitary covariant gauge in non-equilibrium in any arbitary moving frame which can be used in the

283

Electro-hydrodynamics of binary electrolytes driven by modulated surface potentials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the electro-hydrodynamics of the Debye screening layer that arises in an aqueous binary solution near a planar insulating wall when applying a spatially modulated AC-voltage. Combining this with first order perturbation theory we establish the governing equations for the full non-equilibrium problem and obtain analytic solutions in the bulk for the pressure and velocity fields of the electrolyte and for the electric potential. We find good agreement between the numerics of the full problem and the analytics of the linear theory. Our work provides the theoretical foundations of circuit models discussed in the literature. The non-equilibrium approach also reveals unexpected high-frequency dynamics not predicted by circuit models.

N. A. Mortensen; L. H. Olesen; L. Belmon; H. Bruus

2004-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

284

Quantification of Order in the Lennard-Jones System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We conduct a numerical investigation of structural order in the shifted-force Lennard-Jones system by calculating metrics of translational and bond-orientational order along various paths in the phase diagram covering equilibrium solid, liquid, and vapor states. A series of non-equilibrium configurations generated through isochoric quenches, isothermal compressions, and energy minimizations are also considered. Simulation results are analyzed using an ordering map representation [Torquato et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2064 (2000); Truskett et al., Phys. Rev. E 62, 993 (2000)] that assigns to both equilibrium and non-equilibrium states coordinates in an order metric plane. Our results show that bond-orientational order and translational order are not independent for simple spherically symmetric systems at equilibrium. We also demonstrate quantitatively that the Lennard-Jones and hard sphere systems sample the same configuration space at supercritical densities. Finally, we relate the structural order found in fast-quenched and minimum-energy configurations (inherent structures).

Jeffrey R. Errington; Pablo G. Debenedetti; Salvatore Torquato

2002-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

285

Holographic Ricci dark energy and generalized second law  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore the validity of the generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics in flat FRW universe with apparent horizon and event horizon as the boundary. We found that in a universe with holographic Ricci dark energy and dark matter, interacting with each other, the GSL is satisfied at the apparent horizon and partially satisfied at the event horizon under thermal equilibrium conditions. We also analyses the GSL under non-equilibrium conditions and shows that the fulfillment of GSL at the apparent horizon implies that the temperature of the dark energy is greater than that of the horizon. Thus there occurs a flow of dark energy towards the apparent horizon. As a result the entropy of the dark energy decreases and that of horizon increases. This is verified by finding the evolution of the dark energy entropy and horizon entropy in a dark energy dominated universe under non-equilibrium conditions.

Titus K Mathew; P. Praseetha

2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

286

Repeated interactions in open quantum systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analyzing the dynamics of open quantum systems has a long history in mathematics and physics. Depending on the system at hand, basic physical phenomena that one would like to explain are, for example, convergence to equilibrium, the dynamics of quantum coherences (decoherence) and quantum correlations (entanglement), or the emergence of heat and particle fluxes in non-equilibrium situations. From the mathematical physics perspective, one of the main challenges is to derive the irreversible dynamics of the open system, starting from a unitary dynamics of the system and its environment. The repeated interactions systems considered in these notes are models of non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. They are relevant in quantum optics, and more generally, serve as a relatively well treatable approximation of a more difficult quantum dynamics. In particular, the repeated interaction models allow to determine the large time (stationary) asymptotics of quantum systems out of equilibrium.

Laurent Bruneau; Alain Joye; Marco Merkli

2013-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

287

Transport Characteristics of Molecular Motors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Properties of transport of molecular motors are investigated. A simplified model based on the concept of Brownian ratchets is applied. We analyze a stochastic equation of motion by means of numerical methods. The transport is systematically studied with respect to its energetic efficiency and quality expressed by an effective diffusion coefficient. We demonstrate the role of friction and non-equilibrium driving on the transport quantifiers and identify regions of a parameter space where motors are optimally transported.

Machura, Lukasz; Luczka, Jerzy; 10.1016/j.biosystems.2008.05.033

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Entropy production along a stochastic trajectory and an integral fluctuation theorem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For stochastic non-equilibrium dynamics like a Langevin equation for a colloidal particle or a master equation for discrete states, entropy production along a single trajectory is studied. It involves both genuine particle entropy and entropy production in the surrounding medium. The integrated sum of both $\\Delta s\\t$is shown to obey a fluctuation theorem $ =1$ for arbitrary initial conditions and arbitrary time-dependent driving over a finite time interval.

Udo Seifert

2005-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

289

Generalized Kraus Operators and Generators of Quantum Dynamical Semigroups  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantum dynamical semigroups play an important role in the description of physical processes such as diffusion, radiative decay or other non-equilibrium events. Taking strongly continuous and trace preserving semigroups into consideration, we show that, under a special criterion, the generator of such a group admits a certain generalized standard form, thereby shedding new light on known approaches in this direction. Furthermore, we illustrate our analysis in concrete examples.

Sabina Alazzawi; Bernhard Baumgartner

2013-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

290

Aging of a Homogeneously Quenched Colloidal Glass-forming Liquid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The non-equilibrium self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory of colloid dynamics is used to describe the non-stationary aging processes occurring in a suddenly quenched model colloidal liquid with hard-sphere plus short-ranged attractive interactions, whose static structure factor and van Hove function evolve irreversibly from the initial conditions before the quench to a final, dynamically arrested state. The comparison of our numerical results with available simulation data are highly encouraging.

Pedro Ramírez-González; Magdaleno Medina-Noyola

2010-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

291

From shock waves to Brownian motion and 1/f-noise in gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A formally exact relation is derived which connects thermodynamically non-equilibrium evolution of gas density distribution after its arbitrary strong spatially non-uniform perturbation and evolution of many-particle correlations between path of some marked particle and its surroundings in equilibrium gas. This relation directly confirms significance of the many-particle correlations even under the Boltzmann-Grad limit and thus validates the earlier suggested revision of kinetics.

Yuriy E. Kuzovlev

2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

292

Weak coupling limits in a stochastic model of heat conduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the Brownian momentum process, a model of heat conduction, weakly coupled to heat baths. In two different settings of weak coupling to the heat baths, we study the non-equilibrium steady state and its proximity to the local equilibrium measure in terms of the strength of coupling. For three and four site systems, we obtain the two-point correlation function and show it is generically not multilinear.

Redig, Frank

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

MPhil initiatives summary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) Sustainable development for large infrastructure projects (50% input from CU, 50% from MIT) Planning for sustainable development (MIT course tailored for CU) Sustainable energy (MIT course tailored for CU) Design for developing countries (MIT course tailored... & Policy (TP3) Leadership, Negotiation and Consensus (TP4) Political Economy of Technology Policy (TP7) Risk Management & Real Options (TP6) Distribution Networks: Economics, Market Structure and Strategies (TP5) M.Phil in Engineering for Sustainable...

2009-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

294

Technology Commercialization and Partnerships | BSA 08-23, 12 ...  

Vapor-liquid-solid growth of nanowires is tailored to achieve complex one-dimensional material geometries using phase diagrams determined for nanoscale materials.

295

Real Time Grid Reliability Management 2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the frequency and voltage requirements for the effect of ans revised voltage- VAR requirements. Prototype tailoring andVoltage Stability Requirements .

Eto, Joe

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

CX-010298: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination Tailoring Catalyst Composition and Architecture for Conversion of Pollutants from Low Temperature CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 05022013...

297

Bacterial Production of Mixed Metal Oxide Nanoparticles ...  

... on the selection and tailoring of bacterial strains Applications and Industries • Production of fine particulates of ceramic powders used by indus ...

298

Nano Scale Energetic Materials: Theoretical and Experimental ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This talk will summarize our current progress towards developing a framework of principles for design and fabrication of nano-tailored energetic materials for ...

299

Multi-scale electrical and thermal properties of aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their composites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a potential new component to be incorporated into existing aerospace structural composites for multi-functional (mechanical, electrical, thermal, etc.) property enhancement and tailoring. ...

Yamamoto, Namiko

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

PNIC.F:F2a U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Center STATE: CT PROJECT TITLE : Tailored Working Fluids for Enhanced Binary Geothermal Power Plants Funding Opportunity Announcement Number Procurement Instrument Number...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

seari.mit.edu 2008 Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1 RESEARCH PROFILE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-oriented construct, by tailoring MIL-HDBK 881A and ANSI/EIA 632 Six Functions: 1. Systems Engineering 2. Software

de Weck, Olivier L.

302

Final Report Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores in California: predicted indoor air quality and energy consumption using a matrix of ventilation scenarios  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

=2_california_climate_zones/cname=California %20Climate%tailoring for specific climate zones and seasonal variationsaving for the ten climate zones studied, which represents a

Apte, Michael G.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Fermilab Today  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

can run multiple virtual machines, each of which is tailored for a specific science investigation, allowing extremely effective use of available computing resources. "You can...

304

Bring Your Green to Work: "Lunch & learn" email invitation (Industrial...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

employee "lunch and learn" session at your industrial site? Tailor this email invitation from EPA's "Bring Your Green to Work with ENERGY STAR" suite of employee education tools....

305

Executive nformation Sysytems (EIS) 1 - U.S. Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... Characteristics of an EIS Tailored to executive’s information needs Reports Analysis and graphics “Drill-down” process Easy to use ... Safety and Health ...

306

Combining Positive and Negative Thermal Expansion Materials to ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Combining Positive and Negative Thermal Expansion Materials to Tailor the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion in Metal/Ceramic Composites.

307

Production of Materials with Superior Properties Utilizing High Magnetic Field  

Processing materials in a magnetic field is an innovative and revolutionary means to change materials and structural properties by tailoring the ...

308

NETL F 451.1-1/1 Categorical Exclusion (CX) Designation Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Systems Division 11 Briggs White (304) 285-5437 9302008 - 3302013 Cambridge, MA Chemistry of Cathode Surfaces: Fundamental Investigation and Tailoring of Electronic Behavior...

309

NETL F 451.1-1/1 Categorical Exclusion (CX) Designation Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Systems Division 11 Briggs White (304) 285-5437 9302008 - 3302013 Las Vegas, NV Chemistry of Cathode Surfaces: Fundamental Investigation and Tailoring of Electronic Behavior...

310

S&TR | April 2007: Patents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a purified aqueous or vapor stream. The species-specific adsorption occurs because aerogels are tailored toward specific material. After adsorption, the composites can be...

311

Sandia National Laboratories: Careers: Materials Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Science Materials science worker Sandia materials scientists are creating scientifically tailored materials for U.S. energy applications and critical defense needs....

312

Place Construction, Identity, and Capital Investment: An investigation of two tourist landscapes in Michigan.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Tourist communities exist all over the world. They are areas that are focused on tourism and are often tailored to resemble specific regions or themes… (more)

Stawarski, Andrew

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Bioactive Coatings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 10, 2012 ... Tailoring the Surface Properties of Parylene Biocompatible Coating: Martina Cihova1; Quoc Nguyen2; Varshni Singh2; 1Karlsruhe Institute of ...

314

Design and Applications of Nanostructured Energy Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new class of molecularly-tailored nanomaterials and interfaces for energy conversion and thermal management · Atomic-Scale Understanding of Deformation ...

315

Novel Fission-Product Separation Based on Room Temperature ...  

macrocyclic extractants and transport in new ... Future Research Plans 1. Synthesis and Optimization of ILs Tailored for Solvent Extraction of Fission ...

316

Available Technologies: Microsystems for Biomass Treatment ...  

For biofuel technology to advance, tailored research tools are needed to quickly and accurately evaluate the efficacy of biomass pretreatment options. ...

317

Building Energy Codes Resource Guide: Commerical Buildings for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Guide: Commerical Buildings for Architects This guide provides key information on energy codes tailored for architects and provides guidance on how they can support the adoption of...

318

Why sequence inbred Brachypodium lines?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

journal Nature to help researchers develop grasses tailored to serve as feedstocks for biofuel production. Led by John Vogel of the US Department of Agriculture Agricultural...

319

Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of Ti6Al4V Lattice ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EBM opens up new degrees of freedom in design of complex 3D geometries, e.g. the possibility to produce parts with tailored porosity (lattice structures). Lattice ...

320

Molecular Foundry  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

efficient energy storage and conversion. Electron donors and acceptors at interfaces Molecular level design and synthesis has created tailor-made electron donors and acceptors...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Energy Absorbing Material  

To overcome limitations with cellular silicone foams, LLNL innovators have developed a new 3D energy absorbing material with tailored/engineered ...

322

Research | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Division focus on research that addresses grand challenges in nanoscience and nanotechnology and advances the division's user mission. Further, we are exploring ways to tailor...

323

Contract DE-AC36-99GO10337, Modification M098  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

practices. The use of external standards, combined with tailoring of existing and new DOE directives, provides the Contractor substantial flexibility to structure its...

324

Giant Magnetocaloric Materials Could Have Large Impact on the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tracking the Origins of Fossil Fuels Tailoring the Properties of Magnetic Nanostructures X-ray Holograms Expose Secret Magnetism How Dissolved Metal Ions Interact in Solution One...

325

A New Picture of Earth's Lower Mantle? | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Could Have Large Impact on the Environment Tracking the Origins of Fossil Fuels Tailoring the Properties of Magnetic Nanostructures Science Highlights...

326

Capture, Separation and Triggered Release of CO2 with Metal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Capture, Separation and Triggered Release of CO2 with Metal ... pores can be tailored to act as high capacity sites for carbon dioxide capture.

327

Highlights from Research Conducted at LR | ORNL Neutron Sciences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LR Neutron Reflectometry Helps Clarify Particle Interactions for Clean Drinking Water Biofuels Development for Energy Alternatives Building a Road Map for Tailoring Multilayer...

328

2011 Accomplishments & Opportunities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The nature of this magnetic structure can be tailored through the use of strain (for example, by growing the film on different substrate surfaces). ...

2012-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

329

3-2 Instrument Development Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

* Tailor work to suit the needs of the EMSL scientific community * Maintain code modules (controls) within a library that holds both commercially and locally developed software...

330

1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tailoring work to suit the needs of EMSL scientific community * Maintaining code modules (controls) within a software library, developed commercially and within the group *...

331

10 Questions for an Automotive Engineer: Thomas Wallner | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wallner and his colleagues have tailored to efficiently run on blends of gasoline, ethanol and butanol. | Courtesy of: Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne mechanical engineer...

332

TIP Project Briefs - Complete File  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and more reliable flood-control infrastructure ... Adding tailored nanocrystals to polymers can result ... Polymer nanocomposites can be designed that are ...

2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

333

Reactive Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Switching in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, In the search of new memory devices, conductive bridge random .... Ultra-long and Noble Copper Nanowires Tailored by Various Structure ...

334

Nanoparticle-Based Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 28, 2009 ... Agricultural-waste biomass is carbonized and utilized as a template to tailor nano -structured adsorption materials for solid state atomic ...

335

Secretary Moniz Dedicates New Supercomputer at the National Energy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

development. This is a unique tool tailored for engineering calculations in support of fossil energy research. "This new capacity will give us the computational muscle to...

336

Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF), Accompanying R&D  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Materials Program RTNS-II FFTF DHCE-V alloy HFIR Ni-doped F/M steel ORR/HFIR spectral tailor HFIR isotopic tailor steels HFIR target/RB 316 SS appmHe displacement damage (dpa) ffuussiioonn rreeaaccttoorr 1980

337

CI-ON Exhibit A General Conditions (Rev 0.3, 9-27-13)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3, 9/27/13) Exhibit A General Conditions 3, 9/27/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 12 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-A1 COMMERCIAL ITEMS (Mar 2012) ........................................................................................... 2 GC-1B DEFINITIONS (Mar 2012) ......................................................................................................... 4 GC-2B CORRESPONDENCE AND SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jan 2010) ....................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011) ........................................................................................... 4 GC-6A ORDER OF PRECEDENCE (Jan 2010) ................................................................................... 5 GC-11 NEW MEXICO GROSS RECEIPTS TAX (Jun 2009) ................................................................ 5

338

CI-ON Ex A (Rev. 0.2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions 2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 12 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-A1 COMMERCIAL ITEMS (Mar 2012)............................................................................................ 2 GC-1B DEFINITIONS (Mar 2012) ......................................................................................................... 4 GC-2B CORRESPONDENCE AND SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jan 2010) ....................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011) ........................................................................................... 4 GC-6A ORDER OF PRECEDENCE (Jan 2010) ................................................................................... 5 GC-11 NEW MEXICO GROSS RECEIPTS TAX (Jun 2009)................................................................ 5

339

CI-ON Ex A (Rev. 0.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions 1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 24 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-A1 COMMERCIAL ITEMS (Mar 2012)............................................................................................ 2 GC-1B DEFINITIONS (Mar 2012) ......................................................................................................... 4 GC-2B CORRESPONDENCE AND SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jan 2010) ....................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011) ........................................................................................... 4 GC-6A ORDER OF PRECEDENCE (Jan 2010) ................................................................................... 5 GC-11 NEW MEXICO GROSS RECEIPTS TAX (Jun 2009)................................................................ 5

340

Particle production in matter at extreme conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study particle production and its density evolution and equilibration in hot dense medium. One type of hot dense medium, which we study, is hadronic gas produced at quark gluon plasma hadronization in heavy ions collisions in SPS, RHIC and LHC experiments. We study hadron production at non-equilibrium quark gluon plasma hadronization and their evolution in thermal hadronic gas phase. We use non-equilibrium hadronization as the initial condition in the study of hadronic kinetic phase. During this time period some hadronic resonances can be produced in lighter hadrons fusion. Production of resonances is dominant over decay if there is non-equilibrium excess of decay products. Within this model we explain apparently contradictory experimental results reported in RHIC experiments: Sigma(1385) yield is enhanced while Lambda(1520) yield is suppressed compared to the statistical hadronization model expectation obtained without kinetic phase. We also predict Delta(1232) enhancement. The second type of plasma medium we consider is the relativistic electron positron photon plasma drop. This plasma is expected to be produced in decay of supercritical field created in ultrashort laser pulse. We study at what conditions this plasma drop is opaque for photons and therefore may reach thermal and chemical equilibrium. Further we consider muon and pion production in this plasma also as a diagnostic tool. Finally all these theoretical developments can be applied to begin a study of particles evolution in early universe in temperatures domain from QGP hadronization (160 MeV) to nucleosynthesis (0.1 MeV). The first results on pion equilibration are presented here.

Inga Kuznetsova

2009-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Soft Modes, Resonances and Quantum Transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of the propagation of particles, which have a finite life-time and an according width in their mass spectrum, are discussed in the context of transport description. First, the importance of coherence effects (Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect) on production and absorption of field quanta in non-equilibrium dense matter is considered. It is shown that classical diffusion and Langevin results correspond to re-summation of certain field-theory diagrams formulated in terms of full non-equilibrium Green's functions. Then the general properties of broad resonances in dense and hot systems are discussed in the framework of a self-consistent and conserving Phi-derivable method of Baym at the examples of the rho-meson in hadronic matter and the pion in dilute nuclear matter. Further we address the problem of a transport description that properly accounts for the damping width of the particles. The Phi-derivable method generalized to the real-time contour provides a self-consistent and conserving kinetic scheme. We derive a generalized expression for the non-equilibrium kinetic entropy flow, which includes corrections from fluctuations and mass-width effects. In special cases an H-theorem is proved. Memory effects in collision terms give contributions to the kinetic entropy flow that in the Fermi-liquid case recover the famous bosonic type T^3 ln T correction to the specific heat of liquid Helium-3. At the example of the pion-condensate phase transition in dense nuclear matter we demonstrate important part played by the width effects within the quantum transport.

Yu. B. Ivanov; J. Knoll; H. van Hees; D. N. Voskresensky

2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

342

Nonequilibrium mesoscopic superconductors in a fluctuational regime.  

SciTech Connect

We develop a non-equilibrium Ginzburg-Landau-type theory of the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of superconductors in a fluctuational regime and apply our approach to quantitative description of a superconductor island in a stationary nonequilibrium state. We derive the effective temperature of the nonequilibrium state and find fluctuational contributions to the magnetic susceptibility showing that it becomes a singular function of {radical}V-V{sub c}, where V is the external drive and V{sub c} is its 'critical' value at which the nonequilibrium phase transition takes place.

Chtchelkatchev, N.; Vinokur, V.; Materials Science Division; Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

The maximum energy dissipation principle and phenomenological cooperative and collective effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The collective phenomena in physics and cooperative phenomena in biology/chemistry is compared in terms of the variational description. The maximum energy dissipation principle is employed and the cost-like functional is chosen according to an optimal control based formulation (Moroz, 2008; Moroz, 2009). Using this approach, the variational outline has been considered for non-equilibrium thermodynamic conditions. The differences between the application of the proposed approach to the description of cooperative phenomena in chemical/biochemical kinetics and the Landau free energy approach to collective phenomena in physics have been investigated.

Moroz, Adam

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

NERC | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NERC NERC Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events Publications Contact BES Home Centers NERC Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page Non-equilibrium Energy Research Center (NERC) Director(s): Bartosz A. Grzybowski Lead Institution: Northwestern University Mission: To understand self-organization in dissipative, far-from-equilibrium systems and to use this knowledge to synthesize adaptive, reconfigurable materials for energy storage and transduction. Research Topics: catalysis (homogeneous), catalysis (heterogeneous), thermal conductivity, thermoelectric, bio-inspired, energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), superconductivity, mechanical behavior, charge transport, materials and chemistry by design, synthesis (novel materials), synthesis

345

Hadron production and QGP Hadronization in Pb--Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that all central rapidity hadron yields measured in Pb--Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV are well described by the chemical non-equilibrium statistical hadronization model (SHM), where the chemically equilibrated QGP source breaks up directly into hadrons. SHM parameters are obtained as a function of centrality of colliding ions, and we compare CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with Brookhaven National Laboratory Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) results. We predict yields of unobserved hadrons and address anti-matter production. The physical properties of the quark--gluon plasma fireball particle source show universality of hadronization conditions at LHC and RHIC.

Michal Petran; Jean Letessier; Vojtech Petracek; Johann Rafelski

2013-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

346

Comparative Study of Ultimate Saturation Velocity in Zigzag and Chiral Carbon Nanotubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Charge transfer mechanism in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from the scattering-limited Ohmic transport to high-field-initiated ballistic transport is studied. It is shown that the electrons changes their motion from randomness (in equilibrium) to streamlined one (in non-equilibrium) when high electric field is applied. The intrinsic velocity is discussed in non-parabolic semiconducting limits considering the nondegenerate and degenerate situations. The results obtained are significant in extracting carrier transport properties from experimental data on CNTs and in understanding the fundamental processes controlling the charge transport in nanoscale devices.

Chek, Desmond C. Y.; Hashim, Abdul Manaf [Faculty of Electrical Eng., Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Tan, Michael Loong Peng [Faculty of Electrical Eng., Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Electrical Engineering Division, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, 9 J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Arora, Vijay K. [Faculty of Electrical Eng., Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Division of Engineering and Physics, Wilkes University, Wilkes-Barre, PA 18766 (United States)

2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

347

Method and apparatus for chemically altering fluids in continuous flow  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a continuous flow fluid reactor for chemically altering fluids. The reactor operates on standard frequency (50 to 60 Hz) electricity. The fluid reactor contains particles that are energized by the electricity to form a corona throughout the volume of the reactor and subsequently a non-equilibrium plasma that interacts with the fluid. Particles may form a fixed bed or a fluid bed. Electricity may be provided through electrodes or through an inductive coil. Fluids include gases containing exhaust products and organic fuels requiring oxidation. 4 figures.

Heath, W.O.; Virden, J.W. Jr.; Richardson, R.L.; Bergsman, T.M.

1993-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

348

Method and apparatus for chemically altering fluids in continuous flow  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a continuous flow fluid reactor for chemically altering fluids. The reactor operates on standard frequency (50 to 60 Hz) electricity. The fluid reactor contains particles that are energized by the electricity to form a corona throughout the volume of the reactor and subsequently a non-equilibrium plasma that interacts with the fluid. Particles may form a fixed bed or a fluid bed. Electricity may be provided through electrodes or through an inductive coil. Fluids include gases containing exhaust products and organic fuels requiring oxidation.

Heath, William O. (Richland, WA); Virden, Jr., Judson W. (Richland, WA); Richardson, R. L. (West Richland, WA); Bergsman, Theresa M. (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Heat conduction in 2D strongly-coupled dusty plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We perform non-equilibrium simulations to study heat conduction in two-dimensional strongly coupled dusty plasmas. Temperature gradients are established by heating one part of the otherwise equilibrium system to a higher temperature. Heat conductivity is measured directly from the stationary temperature profile and heat flux. Particular attention is paid to the influence of damping effect on the heat conduction. It is found that the heat conductivity increases with the decrease of the damping rate, while its magnitude confirms previous experimental measurement.

Hou, Lu-Jing

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Validation of IVA Computer Code for Flow Boiling Stability Analysis  

SciTech Connect

IVA is a computer code for modeling of transient multiphase, multi-component, non-equilibrium flows in arbitrary geometry including flow boiling in 3D nuclear reactors. This work presents part of the verification procedure of the code. We analyze the stability of flow boiling in natural circulation loop. Experimental results collected on the AREVA/FANP KATHY loop regarding frequencies, mass flows and decay ratio of the oscillations are used for comparison. The comparison demonstrates the capability of the code to successfully simulate such class of processes. (author)

Ivanov Kolev, Nikolay [Framatome-ANP, PO Box 3220, D-91058, Erlangen (Germany)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

The many-body Green function of degenerate systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A rigorous non perturbative adiabatic approximation of the evolution operator in the many-body physics of degenerate systems is derived. This approximation is used to solve the long-standing problem of the choice of the initial states of H0 leading to eigenstates of H0+V for degenerate systems. These initial states are eigenstates of P0 V P0, where P0 is the projection onto a degenerate eigenspace of H0. This result is used to give the proper definition of the Green function, the statistical Green function and the non-equilibrium Green function of degenerate systems. The convergence of these Green functions is established.

Christian Brouder; Gianluca Panati; Gabriel Stoltz

2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

352

Macroscopic fluctuations theory of aerogel dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the thermodynamic potential describing the macroscopic fluctuation of the current and local energy of a general class of Hamiltonian models including aerogels. We argue that this potential is neither analytic nor strictly convex, a property that should be expected in general but missing from models studied in the literature. This opens the possibility of describing in terms of a thermodynamic potential non-equilibrium phase transitions in a concrete physical context. This special behaviour of the thermodynamic potential is caused by the fact that the energy current is carried by particles which may have arbitrary low speed with sufficiently large probability.

Raphael Lefevere; Mauro Mariani; Lorenzo Zambotti

2010-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

353

Directed transport in equilibrium : analysis of the dimer model with inertial terms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have previously shown an analysis of our dimer model in the over-damped regime to show directed transport in equilibrium. Here we analyze the full model with inertial terms present to establish the same result. First we derive the Fokker-Planck equation for the system following a Galilean transformation to show that a uniformly translating equilibrium distribution is possible. Then, we find out the velocity selection for the centre of mass motion using that distribution on our model. We suggest generalization of our calculations for soft collision potentials and indicate to interesting situation with possibility of oscillatory non-equilibrium state within equilibrium.

A. Bhattacharyay

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

Aging and Holography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aging phenomena are examples of `non-equilibrium criticality' and can be exemplified by systems with Galilean and scaling symmetries but no time translation invariance. We realize aging holographically using a deformation of a non-relativistic version of gauge/gravity duality. Correlation functions of scalar operators are computed using holographic real-time techniques, and agree with field theory expectations. At least in this setup, general aging phenomena are reproduced holographically by complexifying the bulk space-time geometry, even in Lorentzian signature.

Juan I. Jottar; Robert G. Leigh; Djordje Minic; Leopoldo A. Pando Zayas

2010-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

355

Fabrication of large-area ultra-thin single crystal silicon membranes  

SciTech Connect

Perfectly, crystalline, 55 nm thick silicon membranes have been fabricated over several square millimeters and used to observe transmission ion channeling patterns showing the early evolution of the axially channeled beam angular distribution for small tilts away from the [011] axis. The reduced multiple scattering through such thin layers allows fine angular structure produced by the highly non-equilibrium transverse momentum distribution of the channeled beam during its initial propagation in the crystal to be resolved. The membrane crystallinity and flatness were measured by using proton channeling measurements and the surface roughness of 0.4 nm using atomic force microscopy.

Dang, Z. Y.; Motapothula, M.; Ow, Y. S. [Center for Ion Beam Applications, Physics Department, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Venkatesan, T. [NanoCore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Breese, M. B. H. [Center for Ion Beam Applications, Physics Department, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Singapore Synchrotron Light Source (SSLS), National University of Singapore, 5 Research Link, Singapore 117603 (Singapore); Rana, M. A. [Physics Division, Directorate of Science, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Osman, A. [National Centre for Physics (NCP), Shahdara Valley Road, Islamabad (Pakistan)

2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

356

Experimental evidence for the separability of compound-nucleus and fragment properties in fission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The large body of experimental data on nuclear fission is analyzed with a semi-empirical ordering scheme based on the macro-microscopic approach and the separability of compound-nucleus and fragment properties on the fission path. We apply the statistical model to the non-equilibrium descent from saddle to scission, taking the influence of dynamics into account by an early freeze out. The present approach reveals a large portion of common features behind the variety of the complex observations made for the different systems. General implications for out-of-equilibrium processes are mentioned.

Karl-Heinz Schmidt; Aleksandra Kelic; Maria Valentina Ricciardi

2007-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

357

Duality, thermodynamics, and the linear programming problem in constraint-based models of metabolism  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is shown that the dual to the linear programming problem that arises in constraint-based models of metabolism can be given a thermodynamic interpretation in which the shadow prices are chemical potential analogues, and the objective is to minimise free energy consumption given a free energy drain corresponding to growth. The interpretation is distinct from conventional non-equilibrium thermodynamics, although it does satisfy a minimum entropy production principle. It can be used to motivate extensions of constraint-based modelling, for example to microbial ecosystems.

Patrick B. Warren; Janette L. Jones

2007-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

358

NONEQUILIBRIUM FLUCTUATIONS IN SHOCK COMPRESSION OF POLYCRYSTALLINE ALPHA-IRON  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report a numerical study of heterogeneous and nonequilibrium fluctuations in shock compression of {alpha}-iron at the grain level. A quasi-molecular code called DM2 is used to model the interactions of a plane shock wave with grain boundaries and crystal anisotropy over the pressure range of 5-45 GPa. Highly transient eddies that were reported earlier are again observed. We show new features through an elementary statistical analysis. They are (1) a characteristic decay constant for the non-equilibrium fluctuation on the order of 20ns, (2) a resonance phenomenon at an intermediate shock pressure, and (3) a more uniform shock structure for very high pressures.

Y. HORIE; K. YANO

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

QCD plasma instability and thermalisation at heavy ion collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Under suitable non-equilibrium conditions QCD plasma can develop plasma instabilities, where some modes of the plasma grow exponentially. It has been argued that these instabilities can play a significant role in the thermalisation of the plasma in heavy-ion collision experiments. We study the instability in SU(2) plasmas using the hard thermal loop effective lattice theory, which is suitable for studying real-time evolution of long wavelength modes in the plasma. We observe that under suitable conditions the plasma can indeed develop an instability which can grow to a very large magnitude, necessary for the rapid thermalisation in heavy-ion collisions.

Dietrich Bodeker; Kari Rummukainen

2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

360

Coupling atomistic and continuum hydrodynamics through a mesoscopic model: application to liquid water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have conducted a triple-scale simulation of liquid water by concurrently coupling atomistic, mesoscopic, and continuum models of the liquid. The presented triple-scale hydrodynamic solver for molecular liquids enables the insertion of large molecules into the atomistic domain through a mesoscopic region. We show that the triple-scale scheme is robust against the details of the mesoscopic model owing to the conservation of linear momentum by the adaptive resolution forces. Our multiscale approach is designed for molecular simulations of open domains with relatively large molecules, either in the grand canonical ensemble or under non-equilibrium conditions.

Rafael Delgado-Buscalioni; Kurt Kremer; Matej Praprotnik

2009-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

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361

Probing molecular free energy landscapes by periodic loading  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single molecule pulling experiments provide information about interactions in biomolecules that cannot be obtained by any other method. However, the reconstruction of the molecule's free energy profile from the experimental data is still a challenge, in particular for the unstable barrier regions. We propose a new method for obtaining the full profile by introducing a periodic ramp and using Jarzynski's identity for obtaining equilibrium quantities from non-equilibrium data. Our simulated experiments show that this method delivers significant more accurate data than previous methods, under the constraint of equal experimental effort.

Oliver Braun; Andreas Hanke; Udo Seifert

2004-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

362

Length dependence of heat conduction in one-dimensional lattices with asymmetric inter-particle interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have numerically studied heat conduction in a few one-dimensional momentum conserving lattices with asymmetric inter-particle interactions by the non-equilibrium heat bath method, the equilibrium Green-Kubo method, and the heat current power spectra analysis. Very strong finite-size effects are clearly observed. Such effects make the heat conduction obey a Fourier-like law in a wide regime of lattice lengths. However, in yet longer lattice lengths, the heat conductivity regains its power-law divergence. Therefore the power-law divergence of the heat conductivity in the thermodynamic limit is verified, as is expected by many existing theories.

Wang, Lei; Li, Baowen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Thermodynamics of discrete quantum processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We define thermodynamic configurations and identify two primitives of discrete quantum processes between configurations for which heat and work can be defined in a natural way. This allows us to uncover a general second law for any discrete trajectory that consists of a sequence of these primitives, linking both equilibrium and non-equilibrium configurations. Moreover, in the limit of a discrete trajectory that passes through an infinite number of configurations, i.e. in the reversible limit, we recover the saturation of the second law. Finally, we show that for a discrete Carnot cycle operating between four configurations one recovers Carnot's thermal efficiency.

Janet Anders; Vittorio Giovannetti

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Thermodynamics for individual quantum systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a framework for extending thermodynamics to individual quantum systems, including explicitly a thermal bath and work-storage device (essentially a 'weight' that can be raised or lowered). We then prove that the second law of thermodynamics holds in our framework, and give a simple protocol to extract the optimal amount of work from the system (equal to its change in free energy). Our results apply to any quantum system in an arbitrary initial state, in particular including non-equilibrium situations. The optimal protocol is essentially reversible, similar to classical Carnot cycles, and indeed, we can use it to construct a quantum Carnot engine.

Paul Skrzypczyk; Anthony J. Short; Sandu Popescu

2013-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

365

Microscopic origin of the second law of thermodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We proved when random-variable fluctuations obey the central limit theorem the equality of the uncertainty relation corresponds to the thermodynamic equilibrium state. The inequality corresponds to the thermodynamic non-equilibrium state. The uncertainty relation is a quantum-mechanics expression of the second law of thermodynamics originated in wave-particle duality. Formulas of mean square-deviations changes adjusted by random fluctuations under the minimal uncertainty relation are obtained. Finally, an assumption is made which is waiting for examination. We except phase transitions in our discussion.

You-gang Feng

2005-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

366

Pulsed Electrical Spin Injection into InGaAs Quantum Dots: Studies of the Electroluminescence Polarization Dynamics  

SciTech Connect

We present time-resolved studies of the spin polarization dynamics during and after initialization through pulsed electrical spin injection into InGaAs quantum dots embedded in a p-i-n-type spin-injection light-emitting diode. Experiments are performed with pulse widths in the nanosecond range and a time-resolved single photon counting setup is used to detect the subsequent electroluminescence. We find evidence that the achieved spin polarization shows an unexpected temporal behavior, attributed mainly to many-carrier and non-equilibrium effects in the device.

Asshoff, P.; Loeffler, W.; Fluegge, H.; Zimmer, J.; Mueller, J.; Westenfelder, B.; Hu, D. Z.; Schaadt, D. M.; Kalt, H.; Hetterich, M. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik and DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Universitaet Karlsruhe, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2010-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

367

An Exact Calculation of Electron-Ion Energy Splitting in a Hot Plasma  

SciTech Connect

In this brief report, I summarize the rather involved recent work of Brown, Preston, and Singleton (BPS). In Refs. [2] and [3], BPS calculate the energy partition into ions and electrons as a charged particle traverses a non-equilibrium two-temperature plasma. These results are exact to leading and next-to-leading order in the plasma coupling g, and are therefore extremely accurate in a weakly coupled plasma. The new BPS calculations are compared with the more standard work of Fraley et al. [12]. The results differ substantially at higher temperature when T{sub I} {ne} T{sub e}.

Singleton, Robert L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

368

Natural time analysis of the Centennial Earthquake Catalog  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By using the most recent version (1900-2007) of the Centennial Earthquake Catalog, we examine the properties of the global seismicity. Natural time analysis reveals that the fluctuations of the order parameter {kappa}{sub 1} of seismicity exhibit for at least three orders of magnitude a characteristic feature similar to that of the order parameter for other equilibrium or non-equilibrium critical systems-including self-organized critical systems. Moreover, we find non-trivial magnitude correlations for earthquakes of magnitude greater than or equal to 7.

Sarlis, N. V.; Christopoulos, S.-R. G. [Physics Department, Solid State Section and Solid Earth Physics Institute, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos 157 84, Athens (Greece)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

369

Integration through transients for Brownian particles under steady shear  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. Starting from the microscopic Smoluchowski equation for interacting Brownian particles under stationary shearing, exact expressions for shear– dependent steady–state averages, correlation and structure functions, and susceptibilities are obtained, which take the form of generalized Green–Kubo relations. They require integration of transient dynamics. Equations of motion with memory effects for transient density fluctuation functions are derived from the same microscopic starting point. We argue that the derived formal expressions provide useful starting points for approximations in order to describe the stationary non–equilibrium state of steadily sheared dense colloidal dispersions.

M. Fuchs; M. E. Cates

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Manipulation of Colloids by Nonequilibrium Depletion Force in Temperature Gradient  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The non-equilibrium distribution of colloids in a polymer solution under a temperature gradient is studied experimentally. A slight increase of local temperature by a focused laser drives the colloids towards the hot region, resulting in the trapping of the colloids irrespective of their own thermophoretic properties. An amplification of the trapped colloid density with the polymer concentration is measured, and is quantitatively explained by hydrodynamic theory. The origin of the attraction is a migration of colloids driven by a non-uniform polymer distribution sustained by the polymer's thermophoresis. These results show how to control thermophoretic properties of colloids.

Hong-Ren Jiang; Hirofumi Wada; Natsuhiko Yoshinaga; Masaki Sano

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

371

Influence of cooling rate on the development of multiple generations of {gamma}' precipitates in a commercial nickel base superalloy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The compositional and microstructural evolution of different generations of {gamma}' precipitates during the continuous cooling of a commercial nickel base superalloy, Rene88DT, has been characterized by three dimensional atom probe tomography coupled with energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy studies. After solutionizing in the single {gamma} phase field, continuous cooling at a very high rate results in a monomodal size distribution of {gamma}' precipitates with a high nucleation density and non-equilibrium compositions. In contrast, a relatively slower cooling rate ({approx} 24 deg. C/min) results in a multi-modal size distribution of {gamma}' precipitates with the larger first generation primary precipitates exhibiting close to equilibrium composition, along with the smaller scale secondary {gamma}' precipitates, exhibiting non-equilibrium composition (excess of Co and Cr, depleted in Al and Ti). The composition of the {gamma} matrix near these precipitates also exhibits similar trends with the composition being closer to equilibrium near the primary precipitates as compared to the secondary precipitates. - Highlights: {yields} Effect of cooling rate on the precipitation of {gamma}' particles in commercial nickel base superalloy. {yields} Couples EFTEM and 3DAP studies to determine the composition and morphology of {gamma}' precipitates. {yields} Determination of near and far field compositional variations within the gamma matrix leading to subsequent precipitation.

Singh, A.R.P. [Center for Advanced Research and Technology and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Nag, S., E-mail: nag.soumya@gmail.com [Center for Advanced Research and Technology and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Hwang, J.Y. [Center for Advanced Research and Technology and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Viswanathan, G.B.; Tiley, J. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Dayton, OH (United States); Srinivasan, R. [ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, NJ (United States); Fraser, H.L. [Center for the Accelerated Maturation of Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Banerjee, R. [Center for Advanced Research and Technology and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

372

Disk magnetohydrodynamic power conversion system for NERVA reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The combination of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator of the disk type with a NERVA reactor yields an advanced power system particularly suited to space applications with the capability of producing up to gigawatt pulses and multi-megawatt continuous operation. Several unique features result from the combination of this type of reactor and a disk MHD generator in which hydrogen serves as the plasma working fluid. Cesium seedings is utilized under conditions which enable the generator to operate stably in the non-equilibrium electrical conduction mode. In common with all practical MHD generators, the disk output is DC and voltages in the range 20--100 kV are attainable. This leads to a simplification of the power conditioning system and a major reduction in specific mass. Taken together with the high performance capabilities of the NERVA reactor, the result is an attractively low overall system specific mass. Further, the use of non-equilibrium ionization enables system specific enthalpy extractions in excess of 40% to be attained. This paper reports the results of a study to establish the basis for the design of a cesium seeded hydrogen MHD disk generator. Generator performance results are presented in terms of a stability factor which is related to cesium seeded hydrogen plasma behavior. It is shown that application of the results already obtained with cesium seeded noble gases (argon and helium) to the case of hydrogen as the working fluid in a disk MHD generator enables a high performance power system to be defined.

Jackson, W.D. (HMJ Corporation. 10400 Connecticut Ave., Kensington, Maryland 20895 (United States)); Bernard, F.E. (Westinghouse Corp., P.O. Box 355, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15230 (United States)); Holman, R.R. (HMJ Corporation, 10400 Connecticut Ave., Kensington, Maryland 20895 (United States)); Maxwell, C.D. (STD Research Corp., P.O. Box C, Arcadia, California 91006 (United States)); Seikel, G.R. (SeiTec, Inc., P.O. Box 81264, Cleveland, Ohio 44181 (United States))

1993-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

373

On the minimum temperature of the quiet solar chromosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

aims: We aim to provide an estimate of the minimum temperature of the quiet solar chromosphere. methods: We perform a 2D radiation-MHD simulation spanning the upper convection zone to the lower corona. The simulation includes non-LTE radiative transfer and {an equation-of-state that includes non-equilibrium ionization of hydrogen and non-equilibrium H_2 molecule formation}. We analyze the reliability of the various assumptions made in our model in order to assess the realism of the simulation. results: Our simulation contains pockets of cool gas with down to 1660 K from 1 Mm up to 3.2 Mm height. It overestimates the radiative heating, and contains non-physical heating below 1660 K. Therefore we conclude that cool pockets in the quiet solar chromosphere might have even lower temperatures than in the simulation, provided that there exist areas in the chromosphere without significant magnetic heating. We suggest off-limb molecular spectroscopy to look for such cool pockets and 3D simulations including a local dy...

Leenaarts, Jorrit; Hansteen, Viggo; Gudiksen, Boris V

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

High-Throughput Thin Film Approach for Screening of Temperature-Pressure-Composition Phase Space  

SciTech Connect

Many solar energy technologies, for example CIGS and CdTe photovoltaics, utilize materials in thin film form. The equilibrium phase diagrams for these and other more novel solar energy materials are not known or are irrelevant because of the non-equilibrium character of the thin film growth processes. We demonstrate a high-throughput thin film approach for screening of temperature-pressure-composition phase diagrams and phase spaces. The examples in focus are novel solar absorbers Cu-N, Cu-O and p-type transparent conductors in the Cr2O3-MnO system. The composition axis of the Cr2O3-MnO phase diagram was screened using a composition spread method. The temperature axis of the Mn-O phase diagram was screened using a temperature spread method. The pressure axes of the Cu-N and Cu-O phase diagrams were screened using rate spread method with the aid of non-equilibrium growth phenomena. Overall these three methods constitute an approach to high-throughput screening of inorganic thin film phase diagrams. This research is supported by U.S. Department of Energy as a part of two NextGen Sunshot projects and an Energy Frontier Research Center.

Zakutayev, A.; Subramaniyan, A.; Caskey, C. M.; Ndione, P. F.; Richards, R. M.; O'Hayre, R.; Ginley, D. S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Kinetic phenomena in charged particle transport in gases and plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The key difference between equilibrium (thermal) and non-equilibrium (low temperature - a.k.a. cold) plasmas is in the degree in which the shape of the cross sections influences the electron energy distribution function (EEDF). In this paper we will discuss the issue of kinetic phenomena from two different angles. The first will be how to take advantage of the strong influence and use low current data to obtain the cross sections. This is also known as the swarm technique and the product of a ''swarm analysis'' is a set of cross sections giving good number, momentum and energy balances of electrons or other charged particles. At the same time understanding the EEDF is based on the cross section data. Nevertheless sometimes the knowledge of the cross sections and even the behaviour of individual particles are insufficient to explain collective behaviour of the ensemble. The resulting ''kinetic'' effects may be used to favour certain properties of non-equilibrium plasmas and even may be used as the basis of some new plasma applications.

Petrovic, Zoran Lj.; Dujko, Sasa; Sasic, Olivera; Stojanovic, Vladimir; Malovic, Gordana [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, POB 68 11080 Zemun (Serbia); Faculty of Traffic Engineering, University of Belgrade Belgrade (Serbia); Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, POB 68 11080 Zemun (Serbia)

2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

376

The fundamental role of quantized vibrations in coherent light harvesting by cryptophyte algae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The influence of fast vibrations on energy transfer and conversion in natural molecular aggregates is an issue of central interest. This article shows the important role of high-energy quantized vibrations and their non-equilibrium dynamics for energy transfer in photosynthetic systems with highly localized excitonic states. We consider the cryptophyte antennae protein phycoerythrin 545 and show that coupling to quantized vibrations which are quasi-resonant with excitonic transitions is fundamental for biological function as it generates non-cascaded transport with rapid and wider spatial distribution of excitation energy. Our work also indicates that the non-equilibrium dynamics of such vibrations can manifest itself in ultrafast beating of both excitonic populations and coherences at room temperature, with time scales in agreement with those reported in experiments. Moreover, we show that mechanisms supporting coherent excitonic dynamics assist coupling to selected modes that channel energy to preferential sites in the complex. We therefore argue that, in the presence of strong coupling between electronic excitations and quantized vibrations, a concrete and important advantage of quantum coherent dynamics is precisely to tune resonances that promote fast and effective energy distribution.

Avinash Kolli; Edward J. O'Reilly; Gregory D. Scholes; Alexandra Olaya-Castro

2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

377

Laser-assisted scanning probe alloying nanolithography (LASPAN) and its application in gold-silicon system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanoscale science and technology demand novel approaches and new knowledge to further advance. Nanoscale fabrication has been widely employed in both modern science and engineering. Micro/nano lithography is the most common technique to deposit nanostructures. Fundamental research is also being conducted to investigate structural, physical and chemical properties of the nanostructures. This research contributes fundamental understanding in surface science through development of a new methodology. Doing so, experimental approaches combined with energy analysis were carried out. A delicate hardware system was designed and constructed to realize the nanometer scale lithography. We developed a complete process, namely laser-assisted scanning probe alloying nanolithography (LASPAN), to fabricate well-defined nanostructures in gold-silicon (Au-Si) system. As a result, four aspects of nanostructures were made through different experimental trials. A non-equilibrium phase (AuSi3) was discovered, along with a non-equilibrium phase diagram. Energy dissipation and mechanism of nanocrystalization in the process have been extensively discussed. The mechanical energy input and laser radiation induced thermal energy input were estimated. An energy model was derived to represent the whole process of LASPAN.

Peng, Luohan

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

A reaction-based river/stream water quality model Part I: Model development and numerical schemes  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the conceptual and mathematical development of a numerical model of sediment and reactive chemical transport in river/streams. The distribution of mobile suspended sediments and immobile bed sediments is controlled by hydrologic transport as well as erosion and deposition processes. The fate and transport of water quality constituents involving a variety of chemical and physical processes is mathematically described by a system of reaction equations for immobile constituents and advective-dispersive-reactive transport equations for constituents. To circumvent stiffness associated with equilibrium reactions, matrix decomposition is performed via Gauss-Jordan column reduction. After matrix decomposition, the system of water quality constituent reactive transport equations is transformed into a set of thermodynamic equations representing equilibrium reactions and a set of transport equations involving no equilibrium reactions. The decoupling of equilibrium and kinetic reactions enables robust numerical integration of the partial differential equations for non-equilibrium-variables. Solving non-equilibrium-variable transport equations instead of individual water quality constituent transport equations also reduces the number of PDEs. A variety of numerical methods are investigated for solving the mixed differential and algebraic equations. Two verification examples are compared with analytical solutions to demonstrate the correctness of the code and to illustrate the importance of employing application-dependent numerical methods to solve specific problems.

Zhang, Fan [ORNL; Gour-Tsyh, Yeh [University of Central Florida, Orlando; Parker, Jack C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Jardine, Philip M [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Kubo formulas for relativistic fluids in strong magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

Magnetohydrodynamics of strongly magnetized relativistic fluids is derived in the ideal and dissipative cases, taking into account the breaking of spatial symmetries by a quantizing magnetic field. A complete set of transport coefficients, consistent with the Curie and Onsager principles, is derived for thermal conduction, as well as shear and bulk viscosities. It is shown that in the most general case the dissipative function contains five shear viscosities, two bulk viscosities, and three thermal conductivity coefficients. We use Zubarev's non-equilibrium statistical operator method to relate these transport coefficients to correlation functions of the equilibrium theory. The desired relations emerge at linear order in the expansion of the non-equilibrium statistical operator with respect to the gradients of relevant statistical parameters (temperature, chemical potential, and velocity.) The transport coefficients are cast in a form that can be conveniently computed using equilibrium (imaginary-time) infrared Green's functions defined with respect to the equilibrium statistical operator. - Highlights: > Strong magnetic fields can make charged fluids behave anisotropically. > Magnetohydrodynamics for these fluids contains 5 shear, 2 bulk viscosities, and 3 heat conductivities. > We derive Kubo formulas for these transport coefficients.

Huang Xuguang, E-mail: xhuang@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Sedrakian, Armen [Institute for Theoretical Physics, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Rischke, Dirk H. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

380

Modeling Degradation in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells - Volume II  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Idaho National Laboratory has an ongoing project to generate hydrogen from steam using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). To accomplish this, technical and degradation issues associated with the SOECs will need to be addressed. This report covers various approaches being pursued to model degradation issues in SOECs. An electrochemical model for degradation of SOECs is presented. The model is based on concepts in local thermodynamic equilibrium in systems otherwise in global thermodynamic non-equilibrium. It is shown that electronic conduction through the electrolyte, however small, must be taken into account for determining local oxygen chemical potential,, within the electrolyte. The within the electrolyte may lie out of bounds in relation to values at the electrodes in the electrolyzer mode. Under certain conditions, high pressures can develop in the electrolyte just near the oxygen electrode/electrolyte interface, leading to oxygen electrode delamination. These predictions are in accordance with the reported literature on the subject. Development of high pressures may be avoided by introducing some electronic conduction in the electrolyte. By combining equilibrium thermodynamics, non-equilibrium (diffusion) modeling, and first-principles, atomic scale calculations were performed to understand the degradation mechanisms and provide practical recommendations on how to inhibit and/or completely mitigate them.

Manohar Motwani

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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381

Accommodating subject and instrument variations in spectroscopic determinations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for measuring a biological attribute, such as the concentration of an analyte, particularly a blood analyte in tissue such as glucose. The method utilizes spectrographic techniques in conjunction with an improved instrument-tailored or subject-tailored calibration model. In a calibration phase, calibration model data is modified to reduce or eliminate instrument-specific attributes, resulting in a calibration data set modeling intra-instrument or intra-subject variation. In a prediction phase, the prediction process is tailored for each target instrument separately using a minimal number of spectral measurements from each instrument or subject.

Haas, Michael J. (Albuquerque, NM); Rowe, Robert K. (Corrales, NM); Thomas, Edward V. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

382

D&D Engineering & Design Guidance  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tailoring Deactivation & Decommissioning Tailoring Deactivation & Decommissioning Engineering/Design Activities to the Requirements of DOE Order 413.3A Volume I Prepared By U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering, EM-44 Revision 1 8/11/2010 Tailoring D&D Engineering/Design to the Requirements of DOE O 413.3A i Contents 1.Introduction.............................................................................................................................................. 1 1.1 Purpose.......................................................................................................................................... 1 1.2 Differences between D&D Engineering/Design and Design-Build Projects ................................ 3

383

D&D Engineering & Design Guidance  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tailoring Deactivation & Decommissioning Tailoring Deactivation & Decommissioning Engineering/Design Activities to the Requirements of DOE Order 413.3A Volume II Prepared By U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering, EM-44 Revision 1 8/11/2010 Tailoring D&D Engineering/Design to the Requirements of DOE O 413.3A II-i Volume II Contents II - 1. D&D Project Activities Requiring Engineering/Design ......................................................... 3 Activity #1 Alternatives Analyses and Selection .................................................................................. 4 Activity #2 Deactivation End State and End Points.............................................................................. 6

384

Introduction to Computing and Algorithms, 1st edition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From the Publisher:Features: Introduces basic computing ideas, including essential algorithm constructs, software engineering, and certain foundational aspects of theory, tailored to students at a beginning level. Using a "Java-like" pseudo-code, ...

Russell L. Shackelford

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Peer Effects, Teacher Incentives, and the Impact of Tracking: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation in Kenya  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To the extent that students benefit from high-achieving peers, tracking will help strong students and hurt weak ones. However, all students may benefit if tracking allows teachers to better tailor their instruction level. ...

Duflo, Esther

386

Evaluating the controlled release properties of inhaled nanoparticles using isolated, perfused, and ventilated lung models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polymeric nanoparticles meet the increasing interest for inhalation therapy and hold great promise to improve controlled drug delivery to the lung. The synthesis of tailored polymeric materials and the improvement of nanoparticle preparation techniques ...

Moritz Beck-Broichsitter; Thomas Schmehl; Werner Seeger; Tobias Gessler

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Electronic tools for designing charts and graphs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis explores the issues involved in designing an interactive chart and graph making system, especially tailored to the needs of the graphic designer. It defines a set of user interface requirements and describe the ...

Jones, Mary, M.S.V.S. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is generated in electron storage rings when femtosecond lasers are used to carve out ultrafast x-ray pulses by femtoslicing (see "Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated...

389

Oil-Fired Combustion Turbine SCR NOx Control Testing and Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains results of a Tailored Collaboration project to determine the technical feasibility and cost of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) as applied to 0.4%-sulfur fuel oil-fired combustion turbines.

1997-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

390

EM Corporate Performance Measures- Site Office Level  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Office of Environmental Management assigns specific measures to each site that is tailored to the unique nature and scope of each area’s contamination and cleanup work.

391

Prediction of Rice Production in the Philippines Using Seasonal Climate Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Predictive skills of retrospective seasonal climate forecasts (hindcasts) tailored to Philippine rice production data at national, regional, and provincial levels are investigated using precipitation hindcasts from one uncoupled general ...

Naohisa Koide; Andrew W. Robertson; Amor V. M. Ines; Jian-Hua Qian; David G. DeWitt; Anthony Lucero

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Controlled Volume Fraction Si 3 N 4 /SiC Composites from Polymer ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is possible to form dense Si3N4/SiC composites with little to no liquid phase and grain sizes <100 nm. By tailoring the chemistry of the polymer precursor, the

393

Kinetics of Silica Polymerization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

All toge tion and energy conversion system design strategiesthe overall energy extraction and conversion system must beenergy conversion process may be tailored to reduce or eliminate The benefits of a binary system

Weres, Oleh

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

--No Title--  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0, 2009 11:00 am Iran Thomas Auditorium, 8600 "Tailor-Made Polymer Surfaces for Microsystems Engineering -From Computer Hard Disks to DNA-chips" Jrgen Rhe Laboratory for...

395

Technical Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 16, 2009 ... fundamental comparison between the two structures. Thermal ... the handling of hot and abrasive bulk materials demands tailor-made solutions ..... calculated isotherms from this source and Metals Handbook are different. The.

396

The Transcription Factors T-bet and GATA-3 Control Alternative Pathways of T-cell Differentiation Through a Shared Set of Target Genes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Upon detection of antigen, CD4+ T helper (Th) cells can differentiate into a number of effector types that tailor the immune response to different pathogens. Alternative Th1 and Th2 cell fates are specified by the transcription ...

Young, Richard A.

397

Synthesis and Spectroscopic Characterization of Si(B)CN ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol Jet® Material Deposition for High Resolution Printed Electronic Applications ... Carbon Nanotube Coatings Laser Power and Energy Measurements ... Rational Tailoring of 1-D (Nanowires), 2-D (Graphene) and 3-D (Ceramic/Carbon ...

398

Kaolinite Effects on Sintering of Freeze-Cast Kaolinite-Silica ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol Jet® Material Deposition for High Resolution Printed Electronic Applications ... Carbon Nanotube Coatings Laser Power and Energy Measurements ... Rational Tailoring of 1-D (Nanowires), 2-D (Graphene) and 3-D (Ceramic/Carbon ...

399

Nanocomposites by Phase Separation in TiO2/SnO2 System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol Jet® Material Deposition for High Resolution Printed Electronic Applications ... Carbon Nanotube Coatings Laser Power and Energy Measurements ... Rational Tailoring of 1-D (Nanowires), 2-D (Graphene) and 3-D (Ceramic/Carbon ...

400

Silicon Nitride Nanowire Papers Synthesized by Silica ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol Jet® Material Deposition for High Resolution Printed Electronic Applications ... Carbon Nanotube Coatings Laser Power and Energy Measurements ... Rational Tailoring of 1-D (Nanowires), 2-D (Graphene) and 3-D (Ceramic/Carbon ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Synthesis of TiO2/SnO2 Bifunctional Nanocomposites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol Jet® Material Deposition for High Resolution Printed Electronic Applications ... Carbon Nanotube Coatings Laser Power and Energy Measurements ... Rational Tailoring of 1-D (Nanowires), 2-D (Graphene) and 3-D (Ceramic/Carbon ...

402

Highly Ordered TiO2 Nanotube Arrays with Novel Arrangements by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol Jet® Material Deposition for High Resolution Printed Electronic Applications ... Carbon Nanotube Coatings Laser Power and Energy Measurements ... Rational Tailoring of 1-D (Nanowires), 2-D (Graphene) and 3-D (Ceramic/Carbon ...

403

Nanoparticle Formation Utilizing the Interaction of Femtosecond ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol Jet® Material Deposition for High Resolution Printed Electronic Applications ... Carbon Nanotube Coatings Laser Power and Energy Measurements ... Rational Tailoring of 1-D (Nanowires), 2-D (Graphene) and 3-D (Ceramic/Carbon ...

404

Direct Synthesis of ZnO Nanorod Field Emitters on Metal Electrodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol Jet® Material Deposition for High Resolution Printed Electronic Applications ... Carbon Nanotube Coatings Laser Power and Energy Measurements ... Rational Tailoring of 1-D (Nanowires), 2-D (Graphene) and 3-D (Ceramic/Carbon ...

405

PermaDAQ: A scientific instrument for precision sensing and data recovery in environmental extremes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The PermaSense project has set the ambitious goal of gathering real-time environmental data for high-mountain permafrost in unattended operation over multiple years. This paper discusses the specialized sensing and data recovery architecture tailored ...

Jan Beutel; Stephan Gruber; Andreas Hasler; Roman Lim; Andreas Meier; Christian Plessl; Igor Talzi; Lothar Thiele; Christian Tschudin; Matthias Woehrle; Mustafa Yuecel

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis develops a platform for deposition of polymer thin films that can be further tailored by chemical surface modification. First, we explore chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran films using ...

Olsson, Ylva Kristina

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Enhanced Hydrogen Dipole Physisorption, Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

at nominal pressure. The work we have performed over the past five years has been tailored to address the outstanding issues associated with weak hydrogen sorbent interactions in order to find an adequate solution for storage tank technology.

Ahn, Channing

2014-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

408

Generation of Infrasound by Evaporating Hydrometeors in a Cloud Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamical core of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System has been tailored to simulate the infrasound of vortex motions and diabatic cloud processes in a convective storm. Earlier studies have shown that the customized model (c-RAMS) ...

David A. Schecter; Melville E. Nicholls

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Guides: Design/Engineering for Deactivation & Decommissioning  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

To ensure development of appropriate levels of engineering detail, DOE-EM’s Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering (EM-13) has prepared this guidance for  tailoring a D...

410

EFFICIENT SCHEMES FOR ROBUST IMRT TREATMENT ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) allows tailored doses of radiation to ... dose calculation methods can be found in the report of (Intensity Modulated Radia- tion Therapy ..... a quantity s for purposes of a termination test. This quantity ...

411

Adoption and Use of Internet Technologies in Health Communication: Examining Disparities in Diffusion Patterns, Health Information Sources, and Patient-Provider Encounters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

scale. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2006;8(4):e27.RE, Katz JE, editors. The Internet and Health Communication:117. Dillman DA. Mail and Internet Surveys: The Tailored

Massey, Philip Minter

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

FWP executive summaries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document is a compilation of the Field Work Proposals (FWP) for the DOE BES Materials Sciences Program. The program is directed toward Scientifically Tailored Materials, specifically for energy applications.

Samara, G.A.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Weather pattern classification to represent the urban heat island in present and future climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A classification of weather patterns (WP) is derived that is tailored to best represent situations relevant for the urban heat island (UHI). Three different types of k-means-based cluster methods are conducted. The explained cluster variance is ...

Peter Hoffmann; K. Heinke Schlünzen

414

NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Management Programs that are based on the tailoring authorities prescribed in 48 C.F.R. 970.5204.2. NNSA Headquarters and field sites shall have Standards Management Programs...

415

Smart customization : making evidence-based environmental decisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis examines the environmental benefits created by the manufacture, distribution, and consumer use of products that are mass customized (MC) or produced "on-demand" and tailored to individual end-user preferences. ...

Chin, Ryan C. C., 1974-

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Review of Radiosonde Humidity and Temperature Errors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An attempt is made to provide a brief but comprehensive summary of sources of error in National Weather Service upper air data, and a guide to the relevant literature. Error analysis must be tailored for particular applications. Temperature ...

Robert W. Pratt

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

A hardware efficient random number generator for nonuniform distributions with arbitrary precision  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nonuniform random numbers are key for many technical applications, and designing efficient hardware implementations of nonuniform random number generators is a very active research field. However, most state-of-the-art architectures are either tailored ...

Christian De Schryver; Daniel Schmidt; Norbert Wehn; Elke Korn; Henning Marxen; Anton Kostiuk; Ralf Korn

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Design of the Local Spin Polarization at the Organic-Ferromagnetic Interface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By means of ab initio calculations and spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy experiments the creation of a complex energy dependent magnetic structure with a tailored spin-polarized interface is demonstrated. We ...

Lazic, Predrag

419

untitled  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tailoring of electron flow current in magnetically insulated transmission lines J. P. Martin, 2,3 M. E. Savage, 1 T. D. Pointon, 1 and M. A. Gilmore 2 1 Sandia National...

420

Developing Advanced Weather Technologies for the Power Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Severe Storms Laboratory, the Salt River Project (SRP), and the Electric Power Research Institute have been involved in a multiyear tailored collaboration (TC) research project. The project was jointly supported by all three agencies ...

Charles L. Dempsey; Kenneth W. Howard; Robert A. Maddox; Daniel H. Phillips

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL/TP-580-24190  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in crop yield using transgenic plants; the work extends to algae (yields doubled) tailored to be directly-balanced chemical reaction of coal, involving gasification, carbonization, and calcination, can double present coal

Kudela, Raphael M.

422

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination Tailored Working Fluids for Enhanced Binary Geothermal Power Plants CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6, B5.1 Date: 12282009 Location(s): Connecticut Office(s):...

423

Taking Formal into areas unaccustomed to it Ganesh Gopal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

performance optimizations. Our interest is in contributing formal methods for high performance computing, his group has tailored Formal Methods to benefit High Performance Computing practitioners. Specific technical challenges in building large-scale high- performance and reliable high performance computing

424

Assessing the technical, economic and policy-centered feasibility of a proposed satellite communication system for the developing world  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Satellite communication systems remain one of the most under utilized development mediums in less industrialized countries. This research proposes to establish a low cost satellite communications system tailored specifically ...

Samuels, Ayanna Terehas

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Design and synthesis of organic chromophores for imaging, lithography and organic electronics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The absorption and emission maxima, photostabilities and photoreactivities of small-molecule organic chromophores can be tailored by (a) the choice of an appropriate parent structure and (b) the deliberate introduction of ...

Andrew, Trisha Lionel

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Encoded hydrogel microparticles for high-throughput molecular diagnostics and personalized medicine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ability to accurately detect and quantify biological molecules in complex mixtures is crucial in basic research as well as in clinical settings. Advancements in genetic analysis, molecular diagnostics, and patient-tailored ...

Chapin, Stephen Clifford

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Microsoft PowerPoint - CompProg.ppt  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

control by increasing CO 2 viscosity (tailored surfactants) In-situ production of oil shale: Improved heating of kerogen by tuned microwave and CO 2 Oil production in fractured...

428

Radiation Detection: Resistivity Responses in Functional Poly(Olefin Sulfone)/Carbon Nanotube Composites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detection of gamma rays is shown using a non-scintillating organic-based sensor composed of poly(olefin sulfone)/carbon nanotube blends. Functionalization of the polymers can be performed after polymerization to tailor ...

Swager, Timothy Manning

429

Design and fabrication of the MesoMill : a five-axis milling machine for meso-scaled parts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the increased prevalence of meso-scaled products, new tools are being developed to bridge the gap between fabrication processes tailored for micrometer and millimeter sized features. Compared to its traditional ...

Werkmeister, Jaime Brooke, 1977-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

A Quasi-Equilibrium Tropical Circulation Model—Implementation and Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The quasi-equilibrium tropical circulation model (QTCM1) is implemented and tested. The formulation, described by Neelin and Zeng, uses a Galerkin framework in the vertical, but with basis functions tailored to quasi-equilibrium deep convective ...

Ning Zeng; J. David Neelin; Chia Chou

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Cray T3E Performances of a Parallel Code for a Stochastic Dynamic Assets and Liabilities Management Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A parallel Asset & Liability Management (ALM) code was developed by SMART and Prometeia Calcolo for the EC project PALMA (Parallel Asset and Liability MAnagement). The code implements a stochastic approach based on a dynamic ALM model specially tailored ...

G. Zanghirati; F. Cocco; F. Taddei; G. Paruolo

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Energy Absorbing Material  

To overcome limitations with cellular silicone foams, LLNL innovators have developed a new 3D energy absorbing material with tailored/engineered bulk-scale properties. The energy absorbing material has 3D patterned architectures specially designed for ...

433

Mechanical stiffness-defined matrices for stem cell research and drug screening  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synthetic polymer matrices or subtrata with tailored elastic properties provide a powerful method to direct biological cell' differentiation and foster cell multiplication. By changing the stiffness of the substrate, human ...

Ha, Vu Nguyen Tuan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Development and Evaluation of Low-Cost Sorbents for Removal of Mercury Emissions from Coal Combustion Flue Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Determining how physical and chemical properties of sorbents affect vapor-phase mercury adsorption has led to potential approaches for tailoring the properties of sorbents for more effective mercury removal.

1998-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

435

Reply to comment | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

2013-08-30 07:29 FY2010-cendi-jordan Slide12 STI Access in the Information Age * Single Query Access * Tailored Product Functionalities * Customer Driven Services * Non-Text Media...

436

Slide12 | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Slide12 Slide12 STI Access in the Information Age * Single Query Access * Tailored Product Functionalities * Customer Driven Services * Non-Text Media * Web 2.0 Capabilities Add...

437

Analysis of advanced conceptual designs for single-family-size absorption chillers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research study is the development of radically new fluid systems, specifically tailored to the needs and requirements of solar-absorption cooling for single-family-size residences. Progress is reported.

Macriss, R.A.; Zawacki, T.S.; Kouo, M.T.; Sneed, D.M.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Sliding contact at plastically graded surfaces and applications to surface design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tailored gradation in elastic-plastic properties is known to offer avenues for suppressing surface damage during normal indentation and sliding contact. These graded materials have potential applications in diverse areas ...

Prasad, Anamika, 1979-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Design and Test of a Variable Speed Wind Turbine System Employing a Direct Drive Axial Flux Synchronization Generator: 29 October 2002 - 31 December 2005  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this funded research project is the definition, analytical investigation, modeling, and prototype realization of a current-source conversion topology tailored to high-power wind turbines.

Lipo, T. A.; Tenca, P.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

A hardware accelerator for speech recognition algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes two custom architectures tailored to a speech recognition beam search algorithm. Both architectures have been simulated using real data and the results of the simulation are presented. The paper also describes the design process ...

T. S. Anantharaman; R. Bisiani

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

A HIGH PERFORMANCE/LOW COST ACCELERATOR CONTROL SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LOW COST ACCELERATOR CONTROL SYSTEM S. Hagyary, J. Glat£» H.LOW COST ACCELERATOR CONTROL SYSTEM S. Magyary, J. Glatz, H.a high performance computer control system tailored to the

Magyary, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Reply to comment | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

can specify to really tailor and refine your search. I want to see records where the terms "switchgrass" or "wood" specifically appear in the title of a document. I could have...

443

CX-007031: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Chemistry of Cathode Surfaces: Fundamental Investigation and Tailoring of Electronic BehaviorCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 09/20/2011Location(s): Las Vegas, NevadaOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

444

CX-007030: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Chemistry of Cathode Surfaces: Fundamental Investigation and Tailoring of Electronic BehaviorCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 09/20/2011Location(s): Cambridge, MassachusettsOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

445

CX-010501: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

SynTec-Synthetic Biology for Tailored Enzyme Cocktails CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 06/14/2013 Location(s): California, North Carolina, Michigan Offices(s): Golden Field Office

446

Prospects for Industrial Meteorology in the 1980s  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industrial meteorology has been growing rapidly in the past few years as a result of an improved business climate and increased receptivity on the part of business to specially tailored weather information. It is probable that this trend will ...

R. L. Carnahan

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Reconfigurable Computing: The Theory and Practice of FPGA-Based Computation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main characteristic of Reconfigurable Computing is the presence of hardware that can be reconfigured to implement specific functionality more suitable for specially tailored hardware than on a simple uniprocessor. Reconfigurable computing systems ... Keywords: Applied, Computer Science, Electricity

Scott Hauck; Andre DeHon

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Slide09 | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Slide09 Slide09 Advanced Search This screen displays the different fields you can specify to really tailor and refine your search. I want to see records where the terms...

449

Fabrication of a Nanobiomaterial from Renewable Resources as a ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We believe our nanohybrid platform not only could expand the biomedical applications ... Fibronectin Adhesion on Polystyrene Tissue Culture Plates ... Biomolecules on Surfaces: Tailoring the Self-Assembled Peptides on Graphite/

450

Fermilab Today  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to optimize network layer The EC-GIN team, pictured here at a July 2007 conference in Greece, are working to develop tailored network technology dedicated support of grid...

451

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Materials Program RTNS-II FFTF DHCE-V alloy HFIR Ni-doped F/M steel ORR/HFIR spectral tailor HFIR isotopic tailor steels HFIR target/RB 316 SS appmHe displacement damage (dpa) fusionfusion reactorreactor 1980/dpa ratios G.R. Odette et al., UCSB; Ni-injector foil irradiation in HFIR fission reactor ~10-6 dpa/s #12

Abdou, Mohamed

452

Kenneth Gray - Argonne National Laboratories, Materials Sicence Division  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EM > Kenneth Gray EM > Kenneth Gray Kenneth Gray Group Leader, Sr. Physicist Bldg. 223, A-125 Phone: 630-252-9595 This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Biography Kenneth E. Gray is a Senior Scientist in the Materials Science Division. His experimental thesis involved tunneling studies of superconductors and non-equilibrium effects. He joined Argonne's superconductivity group as a post-doc, and in 1972 became a staff member specializing in non-equilibrium effects in superconductors. He is presently the group leader of the Emerging Materials Group. He was the Director for the NATO Advanced Study Institute "Nonequilibrium Superconductivity, Phonons and Kapitza Boundaries" Maratea, Italy, August 25-September 5, 1980 and Chairman of the "1992 Applied Superconductivity Conference" Chicago, Illinois, August 23-28, 1992. He was the Thin Film Research Area Coordinator for the NSF Science and Technology Center for Superconductivity (University of Illinois, Urbana), Feb. 1989-Jan. 1992. He edited Nonequilibrium Superconductivity, Phonons and Kapitza Boundaries, (Plenum Publishing Corporation, 1981). He holds 5 patents, and Research and Development Magazine recognized two of his inventions as among the 100 most significant technical products of their year. These are the Superconducting Tunnel Junction Transistor in 1979 and the 3He/4He Dilution Refrigerator (with P. Roach) in 1988. He received the 1989 Significant Implication for Department of Energy Related Technologies in Solid State Physics - "Thin-Film Superconducting Device Concepts and Development". He has co-authored 250 publications (5300 citations) and is known for research collaborations on flux dynamics and point-contact tunneling in high-temperature superconductors and transport measurements in the highly anisotropic colossal magnetoresistive layered manganites. He is a Senior Scientist and the Group Leader for the Emerging Materials Group at Argonne. His current research interests include tunneling in exotic superconductors, phase diagrams of layered manganites and non-equilibrium effects in complex electronic oxides. He was also an integral part of the recent development of a compact solid-state source for THz radiation.

453

Numerical Investigation of Fractured Reservoir Response to Injection/Extraction Using a Fully Coupled Displacement Discontinuity Method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In geothermal reservoirs and unconventional gas reservoirs with very low matrix permeability, fractures are the main routes of fluid flow and heat transport, so the fracture permeability change is important. In fact, reservoir development under this circumstance relies on generation and stimulation of a fracture network. This thesis presents numerical simulation of the response of a fractured rock to injection and extraction considering the role of poro-thermoelasticity and joint deformation. Fluid flow and heat transport in the fracture are treated using a finite difference method while the fracture and rock matrix deformation are determined using the displacement discontinuity method (DDM). The fractures response to fluid injection and extraction is affected both by the induced stresses as well as by the initial far-field stress. The latter is accounted for using the non-equilibrium condition, i.e., relaxing the assumption that the rock joints are in equilibrium with the in-situ stress state. The fully coupled DDM simulation has been used to carry out several case studies to model the fracture response under different injection/extractions, in-situ stresses, joint geometries and properties, for both equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions. The following observations are made: i) Fluid injection increases the pressure causing the joint to open. For non-isothermal injection, cooling increases the fracture aperture drastically by inducing tensile stresses. Higher fracture aperture means higher conductivity. ii) In a single fracture under constant anisotropic in-situ stress (non-equilibrium condition), permanent shear slip is encountered on all fracture segments when the shear strength is overcome by shear stress in response to fluid injection. With cooling operation, the fracture segments in the vicinity of the injection point are opened due to cooling-induced tensile stress and injection pressure, and all the fracture segments experience slip. iii) Fluid pressure in fractures increases in response to compression. The fluid compressibility and joint stiffness play a role. iv) When there are injection and extraction in fractured reservoirs, the cooler fluid flows through the fracture channels from the injection point to extraction well extracting heat from the warmer reservoir matrix. As the matrix cools, the resulting thermal stress increases the fracture apertures and thus increases the fracture conductivity. v) Injection decreases the amount of effective stress due to pressure increase in fracture and matrix near a well. In contrast, extraction increases the amount of effective stress due to pressure drop in fracture and matrix.

Lee, Byungtark

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Project Title  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

RISK ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING OF RISK ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING OF STORED CO 2 IN ORGANIC ROCKS UNDER NON- EQUILIBRIUM CONDITIONS DOE (NETL) Award Number: DE-FE0002423 Investigator: Vivak (Vik) Malhotra DOE supported undergraduate student participants: Jacob Huffstutler, Ryan Belscamper, Stephen Hofer, Kyle Flannery,, Bradley Wilson, Jamie Pfister, Jeffrey Pieper, Joshua T. Thompson, Collier Scalzitti-Sanders, and Shaun Wolfe Southern Illinois University-Carbondale Carbondale, Illinois 62901-4401 U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Carbon Storage R&D Project Review Meeting Developing the Technologies and Building the Infrastructure for CO 2 Storage August 21-23, 2012 2 Benefit to the Carbon Storage Program * Program goals being addressed: - To attempt to answer whether CO

455

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

41 - 4150 of 8,172 results. 41 - 4150 of 8,172 results. Download CX-003453: Categorical Exclusion Determination Nebraska - Tribe - Winnebago Tribe CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B5.1 Date: 08/10/2010 Location(s): Nebraska Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-003453-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-004918: Categorical Exclusion Determination Sheetak -Non-Equilibrium Asymmetric Thermoelectric Devices CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 08/10/2010 Location(s): Austin, Texas Office(s): Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-004918-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-003176: Categorical Exclusion Determination Chicago Area Alternative Fuels Deployment Project (Summary Categorical Exclusion) CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, B3.6, B5.1

456

Физическая природа долговечности металлов в явлении динамического разрушения  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Materials Ejecta, Spallation and Damage Materials Ejecta, Spallation and Damage Physical Nature of Metals Longevity in the Dynamic Failure Phenomenon A.Ya.Uchaev*, S.S. Sokolov*, N.I. Sel'chenkova*, E.V.Kosheleva*, and L.V. Zhabyka* * Russian Federal Nuclear Center - VNIIEF, Russia, 607188, Nizhni Novgorod region, Sarov, Mira Avenue 37 Summary: At present acute is the knowledge of time boundary of maintaining functional metal properties under extreme conditions, when the equilibrium state deviation value is comparable, for example, with phase transition energy. Results and Discussion As a rule, relaxation of strongly non-equilibrium states is accompanied by destruction processes [1], [2]. Capabilities of modern high-energy impulse scientific technology are directly associated with

457

Joint Institute for High Temperatures  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Joint Institute for High Temperatures of Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology Extended title Extended title Excited state of warm dense matter or Exotic state of warm dense matter or Novel form of warm dense matter or New form of plasma Three sources of generation similarity: solid state density, two temperatures: electron temperature about tens eV, cold ions keep original crystallographic positions, but electron band structure and phonon dispersion are changed, transient but steady (quasi-stationary for a short time) state of non-equilibrium, uniform plasmas (no reference to non-ideality, both strongly and weakly coupled plasmas can be formed) spectral line spectra are emitted by ion cores embedded in plasma environment which influences the spectra strongly,

458

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY - NETL CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION (CX) DESIGNATION FORM  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

23 23 V. M. Malhotra FE DE-FE0002423 Sequestration Division 10 Darin Damiani 12/01/2009 - 11/30/2012 Carbondale, Illinois Risk Assessment and Monitoring of Stored of Non-Equilibrium Conditions on CO2 Stored in Organic Rocks This project involves laboratory research at bench-scale level with the aim to understand how carbon dioxide interacts with coal and how dynamic pressure waves modulate these interactions. Darin Damiani Digitally signed by Darin Damiani DN: cn=Darin Damiani, o=NETL, ou=Sequestration Division, email=darin.damiani@netl.doe.gov, c=US Reason: I am approving this document Date: 2009.12.02 14:55:14 -05'00' 12 02 2009 john ganz Digitally signed by john ganz DN: cn=john ganz, o=NETL- DOE, ou=140 OPFC, email=john.ganz@netl.doe.gov, c=US Date: 2009.12.11 10:03:44

459

Staggered Schemes for Fluctuating Hydrodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop numerical schemes for solving the isothermal compressible and incompressible equations of fluctuating hydrodynamics on a grid with staggered momenta. We develop a second-order accurate spatial discretization of the diffusive, advective and stochastic fluxes that satisfies a discrete fluctuation-dissipation balance, and construct temporal discretizations that are at least second-order accurate in time deterministically and in a weak sense. Specifically, the methods reproduce the correct equilibrium covariances of the fluctuating fields to third (compressible) and second (incompressible) order in the time step, as we verify numerically. We apply our techniques to model recent experimental measurements of giant fluctuations in diffusively mixing fluids in a micro-gravity environment [A. Vailati et. al., Nature Communications 2:290, 2011]. Numerical results for the static spectrum of non-equilibrium concentration fluctuations are in excellent agreement between the compressible and incompressible simula...

Balboa, F; Delgado-Buscalioni, R; Donev, A; Fai, T; Griffith, B; Peskin, C S

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Fluctuating hydrodynamics of multispecies mixtures. I. Non-reacting Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we discuss the formulation of the fluctuating Navier-Stokes (FNS) equations for multi-species, non-reactive fluids. In particular, we establish a form suitable for numerical solution of the resulting stochastic partial differential equations. An accurate and efficient numerical scheme, based on our previous methods for single species and binary mixtures, is presented and tested at equilibrium as well as for a variety of non-equilibrium problems. These include the study of giant nonequilibrium concentration fluctuations in a ternary mixture in the presence of a diffusion barrier, the triggering of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability by diffusion in a four-species mixture, as well as reverse diffusion in a ternary mixture. Good agreement with theory and experiment demonstrates that the formulation is robust and can serve as a useful tool in the study of thermal fluctuations for multi- species fluids. The extension to include chemical reactions will be treated in a sequel paper.

Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Donev, Aleksandar; Bell, John B

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Symmetry Relations for Trajectories of a Brownian Motor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Brownian Motor is a nanoscale or molecular device that combines the effects of thermal noise, spatial or temporal asymmetry, and directionless input energy to drive directed motion. Because of the input energy, Brownian motors function away from thermodynamic equilibrium and concepts such as linear response theory, fluctuation dissipation relations, and detailed balance do not apply. The {\\em generalized} fluctuation-dissipation relation, however, states that even under strongly thermodynamically non-equilibrium conditions the ratio of the probability of a transition to the probability of the time-reverse of that transition is the exponent of the change in the internal energy of the system due to the transition. Here, we derive an extension of the generalized fluctuation dissipation theorem for a Brownian motor for the ratio between the probability for the motor to take a forward step and the probability to take a backward step.

R. Dean Astumian

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Survey of Morphologies Formed in the Wake of an Enslaved Phase-Separation Front in Two Dimensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A phase-separation front will leave in its wake a phase-separated morphology that differs markedly from homogeneous phase-separation morphologies. For a purely diffusive system such a front, moving with constant velocity, will generate very regular, non-equilibrium structures. We present here a numerical study of these fronts using a lattice Boltzmann method. In two dimensions these structures are regular stripes or droplet arrays. In general the kind and orientation of the selected morphology and the size of the domains depends on the speed of the front as well as the composition of the material overtaken by the phase-separation front. We present a survey of morphologies as a function of these two parameters. We show that the resulting morphologies are initial condition dependent. We then examine which of the potential morphologies is the most stable. An analytical analysis for symmetrical compositions predicts the transition point from orthogonal to parallel stripes.

E. M. Foard; A. J. Wagner

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

463

Stochastic Dynamical Structure (SDS) of Nonequilibrium Processes in the Absence of Detailed Balance. II: construction of SDS with nonlinear force and multiplicative noise  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is a whole range of emergent phenomena in non-equilibrium behaviors can be well described by a set of stochastic differential equations. Inspired by an insight gained during our study of robustness and stability in phage lambda genetic switch in modern biology, we found that there exists a classification of generic nonequilibrium processes: In the continuous description in terms of stochastic differential equations, there exists four dynamical elements: the potential function $\\phi$, the friction matrix $ S$, the anti-symmetric matrix $ T $, and the noise. The generic feature of absence of detailed balance is then precisely represented by $T$. For dynamical near a fixed point, whether or not it is stable or not, the stochastic dynamics is linear. A rather complete analysis has been carried out (Kwon, Ao, Thouless, cond-mat/0506280; PNAS, {\\bf 102} (2005) 13029), referred to as SDS I. One important and persistent question is the existence of a potential function with nonlinear force and with multiplicati...

Ao, P

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Modeling for Process Control: High-Dimensional Systems  

SciTech Connect

Most of other technologically important systems (among them, powders and other granular systems) are intrinsically nonlinear. This project is focused on building the dynamical models for granular systems as a prototype for nonlinear high-dimensional systems exhibiting complex non-equilibrium phenomena. Granular materials present a unique opportunity to study these issues in a technologically important and yet fundamentally interesting setting. Granular systems exhibit a rich variety of regimes from gas-like to solid-like depending on the external excitation. Based the combination of the rigorous asymptotic analysis, available experimental data and nonlinear signal processing tools, we developed a multi-scale approach to the modeling of granular systems from detailed description of grain-grain interaction on a micro-scale to continuous modeling of large-scale granular flows with important geophysical applications.

Lev S. Tsimring

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

465

Nonlinear Dynamical Model of Regime Switching Between Conventions and Business Cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce and study a non-equilibrium continuous-time dynamical model of the price of a single asset traded by a population of heterogeneous interacting agents in the presence of uncertainty and regulatory constraints. The model takes into account (i) the price formation delay between decision and investment by the second-order nature of the dynamical equations, (ii) the linear and nonlinear mean-reversal or their contrarian in the form of speculative price trading, (iii) market friction, (iv) uncertainty in the fundamental value which controls the amplitude of mispricing, (v) nonlinear speculative momentum effects and (vi) market regulations that may limit large mispricing drifts. We find markets with coexisting equilibrium, conventions and business cycles, which depend on (a) the relative strength of value-investing versus momentum-investing, (b) the level of uncertainty on the fundamental value and (c) the degree of market regulation. The stochastic dynamics is characterized by nonlinear geometric rando...

Yukalov, V I; Yukalova, E P

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion Determination Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Agency - Agency - Energy Pro-iectTitle: 0289-1600 Sheetak - Non-EquilibriumAsymmetric Thermoelectric Devices Location: Tennessee Proposed Action or Project Description: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Funding will support bench-scale research proposed work is consistent with the goals save energy and reduce GHG emissions. and development on a novel thermoelectric device for use in various air conditioning applications. The of BEETIT: the development of energy efficient cooling technologies and air conditioners for buildings, to Proposed work consists entirely of RD&D work to be completed in Sheetak's facilities in Austin, TX and the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network on the campus of the University of Texas - Austin in Austin, TX. The work performed will be limited

467

Slide 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Recovery from Recovery from Hydrate-bearing Sediments Prime Recipients J. Carlos Santamarina Georgia Tech Costas Tsouris ORNL/Georgia Tech Carolyn Ruppel USGS (no cost) Agreement Number DE-PS26-06NT42820 NETL Project Manager Timothy Grant Methane Hydrates Kick-Off Meeting Objective - Expected Benefits Hydrates * Seafloor instability [gigaton] [USGS] [Kvenvolden and Lorenson, 2001; www.pet.hw.ac.uk; Ballough et al.)] * Energy resource * Climate change: green house effect Challenge Methane production from hydrate-bearing sediments Understanding Prediction * Sediment properties * Hydrate formation history * Phases/fluids fronts * Effects of driving forces * Thermodynamics in confinement * Non-equilibrium analysis * Kinetics in confinement * Multiphase transport Keys: Energy Forms + Scales + Sediment

468

Albany, OR * Anchorage, AK * Morgantown, WV * Pittsburgh, PA * Sugar Land, TX  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rodosta Rodosta Carbon Storage Technology Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 3610 Collins Ferry Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507 304-285-1345 traci.rodosta@netl.doe.gov Darin Damiani Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 3610 Collins Ferry Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507 304-285-4398 darin.damiani@netl.doe.gov Vivak Malhotra Principal Investigator Southern Illinois University Neckers 483A Mailcode: 4401 Carbondale, IL 62901 618-453-2643 Fax: 618-453-1056 vmalhotra@physics.siu.edu PARTNERS None Risk Assessment and Monitoring of Stored CO2 in Organic Rock under Non-Equilibrium Conditions Background Fundamental and applied research on carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS)

469

Science for the Future of RHIC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

77334-2006-IR 77334-2006-IR Future Science at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider December 30, 2006 Summary of the 2004 - 2005 RHIC II Science Working Groups 1 2 Table of contents 1. Overview 4 2. Summary of the first 5 years at RHIC 9 2..1. Heavy ion physics 9 2..2. Spin physics 18 3. The RHIC facility - evolution and future 22 4. Fundamental questions for the next ten years at RHIC 25 4.1. What are the phases of QCD matter? 25 4.2. What is the wave function of a heavy nucleus. 26 4.3. What is the wave function of the proton? 26 4.4. What is the nature of non-equilibrium processes in a fundamental theory? 27 5. The future physics program at RHIC 28 5.1. Equation of state and the QCD phase diagram 29 5.1.1. Dynamical considerations 29

470

Marius Stan | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Marius Stan Senior Scientist - Nuclear Engineering Dr. Marius Stan is a physicist and a chemist interested in non-equilibrium thermodynamics, heterogeneity, and multi-scale computational science for energy applications. He came to Argonne and the University of Chicago in 2010, from Los Alamos National Laboratory. Marius is a Senior Fellow at the University of Chicago's Computation Institute. The goal of his research is to discover or design materials, structures, and device architectures for nuclear energy and energy storage. To that end, Marius develops theory-based (as opposite to empirical) mathematical models of thermomechanical and chemical properties of imperfect materials. The imperfection comes from defects or deviations from stoichiometry (e.g.,

471

Thermodynamics in Modified Gravity Theories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate that there does exist an equilibrium description of thermodynamics on the apparent horizon in the expanding cosmological background for a wide class of modified gravity theories with the Lagrangian density $f(R, \\phi, X)$, where $R$ is the Ricci scalar and $X$ is the kinetic energy of a scalar field $\\phi$. This comes from a suitable definition of an energy momentum tensor of the "dark" component obeying the local energy conservation law in the Jordan frame. It is shown that the equilibrium description in terms of the horizon entropy $S$ is convenient because it takes into account the contribution of the horizon entropy $\\hat{S}$ in non-equilibrium thermodynamics as well as an entropy production term.

Kazuharu Bamba; Chao-Qiang Geng; Shinji Tsujikawa

2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

472

Phase transitions in the early and the present Universe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The evolution of the Universe is the ultimate laboratory to study fundamental physics across energy scales that span about 25 orders of magnitude: from the grand unification scale through particle and nuclear physics scales down to the scale of atomic physics. The standard models of cosmology and particle physics provide the basic understanding of the early and present Universe and predict a series of phase transitions that occurred in succession during the expansion and cooling history of the Universe. We survey these phase transitions, highlighting the equilibrium and non-equilibrium effects as well as their observational and cosmological consequences. We discuss the current theoretical and experimental programs to study phase transitions in QCD and nuclear matter in accelerators along with the new results on novel states of matter as well as on multi- fragmentation in nuclear matter. A critical assessment of similarities and differences between the conditions in the early universe and those in ultra- relat...

Boyanovsky, D; Schwarz, Dominik J

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Spinor Bose gases: Explorations of symmetries, magnetism and quantum dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spinor Bose gases form a family of quantum fluids manifesting both magnetic order and superfluidity. This article reviews experimental and theoretical progress in understanding the static and dynamic properties of these fluids. The connection between system properties and the rotational symmetry properties of the atomic states and their interactions are investigated. Following a review of the experimental techniques used for characterizing spinor gases, their mean-field and many-body ground states, both in isolation and under the application of symmetry-breaking external fields, are discussed. These states serve as the starting point for understanding low-energy dynamics, spin textures and topological defects, effects of magnetic dipole interactions, and various non-equilibrium collective spin-mixing phenomena. The paper aims to form connections and establish coherence among the vast range of works on spinor Bose gases, so as to point to open questions and future research opportunities.

Stamper-Kurn, Dan M

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Resonant Relaxation in Electroweak Baryogenesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compute the leading, chiral charge-changing relaxation term in the quantum transport equations that govern electroweak baryogenesis using the closed time path formulation of non-equilibrium quantum field theory. We show that the relaxation transport coefficients may be resonantly enhanced under appropriate conditions on electroweak model parameters and that such enhancements can mitigate the impact of similar enhancements in the CP-violating source terms. We also develop a power counting in the time and energy scales entering electroweak baryogenesis and include effects through second order in ratios $\\epsilon$ of the small and large scales. We illustrate the implications of the resonantly enhanced ${\\cal O}(\\epsilon^2)$ terms using the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, focusing on the interplay between the requirements of baryogenesis and constraints obtained from collider studies, precision electroweak data, and electric dipole moment searches.

Lee, C; Ramsey-Musolf, M J; Lee, Christopher; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Resonant Relaxation in Electroweak Baryogenesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compute the leading, chiral charge-changing relaxation term in the quantum transport equations that govern electroweak baryogenesis using the closed time path formulation of non-equilibrium quantum field theory. We show that the relaxation transport coefficients may be resonantly enhanced under appropriate conditions on electroweak model parameters and that such enhancements can mitigate the impact of similar enhancements in the CP-violating source terms. We also develop a power counting in the time and energy scales entering electroweak baryogenesis and include effects through second order in ratios $\\epsilon$ of the small and large scales. We illustrate the implications of the resonantly enhanced ${\\cal O}(\\epsilon^2)$ terms using the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, focusing on the interplay between the requirements of baryogenesis and constraints obtained from collider studies, precision electroweak data, and electric dipole moment searches.

Christopher Lee; Vincenzo Cirigliano; Michael J. Ramsey-Musolf

2004-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

476

Aging, phase ordering and conformal invariance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a variety of systems which exhibit aging, the two-time response function scales as $R(t,s)\\approx s^{-1-a} f(t/s)$. We argue that dynamical scaling can be extended towards conformal invariance, obtaining thus the explicit form of the scaling function $f$. This quantitative prediction is confirmed in several spin systems, both for $Tnon-equilibrium critical dynamics). The 2D and 3D Ising models with Glauber dynamics are studied numerically, while exact results are available for the spherical model with a non-conserved order parameter, both for short-ranged and long-ranged interactions, as well as for the mean-field spherical spin glass.

Malte Henkel; Michel Pleimling; Claude Godreche; Jean-Marc Luck

2001-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

477

Exploring the mechanisms of protein folding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Neither of the two prevalent theories, namely thermodynamic stability and kinetic stability, provides a comprehensive understanding of protein folding. The thermodynamic theory is misleading because it assumes that free energy is the exclusive dominant mechanism of protein folding, and attributes the structural transition from one characteristic state to another to energy barriers. Conversely, the concept of kinetic stability overemphasizes dominant mechanisms that are related to kinetic factors. This article explores the stability condition of protein structures from the viewpoint of meso-science, paying attention to the compromise in the competition between minimum free energy and other dominant mechanisms. Based on our study of complex systems, we propose that protein folding is a meso-scale, dissipative, nonlinear and non-equilibrium process that is dominated by the compromise between free energy and other dominant mechanisms such as environmental factors. Consequently, a protein shows dynamic structures,...

Xu, Ji; Ren, Ying; Li, Jinghai

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Absolute atomic oxygen and nitrogen densities in radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure cold plasmas: Synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet high-resolution Fourier-transform absorption measurements  

SciTech Connect

Reactive atomic species play a key role in emerging cold atmospheric pressure plasma applications, in particular, in plasma medicine. Absolute densities of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen were measured in a radio-frequency driven non-equilibrium plasma operated at atmospheric pressure using vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted on the DESIRS synchrotron beamline using a unique VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer. Measurements were carried out in plasmas operated in helium with air-like N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} (4:1) admixtures. A maximum in the O-atom concentration of (9.1 {+-} 0.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} was found at admixtures of 0.35 vol. %, while the N-atom concentration exhibits a maximum of (5.7 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} at 0.1 vol. %.

Niemi, K.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L. [Synchrotron Soleil, l'Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Booth, J. P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

479

Rate-dependent morphology of Li2O2 growth in Li-O2 batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Compact solid discharge products enable energy storage devices with high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities, but solid deposits on active surfaces can disturb charge transport and induce mechanical stress. In this Letter we develop a nanoscale continuum model for the growth of Li2O2 crystals in lithium-oxygen batteries with organic electrolytes, based on a theory of electrochemical non-equilibrium thermodynamics originally applied to Li-ion batteries. As in the case of lithium insertion in phase-separating LiFePO4 nanoparticles, the theory predicts a transition from complex to uniform morphologies of Li2O2 with increasing current. Discrete particle growth at low discharge rates becomes suppressed at high rates, resulting in a film of electronically insulating Li2O2 that limits cell performance. We predict that the transition between these surface growth modes occurs at current densities close to the exchange current density of the cathode reaction, consistent with experimental observations.

Horstmann, B; Mitchell, R; Bessler, W G; Shao-Horn, Y; Bazant, M Z

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Sedimentation of a two-dimensional colloidal mixture exhibiting liquid-liquid and gas-liquid phase separation: a dynamical density functional theory study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present dynamical density functional theory results for the time evolution of the density distribution of a sedimenting model two-dimensional binary mixture of colloids. The interplay between the bulk phase behaviour of the mixture, its interfacial properties at the confining walls, and the gravitational field gives rise to a rich variety of equilibrium and non-equilibrium morphologies. In the fluid state, the system exhibits both liquid-liquid and gas-liquid phase separation. As the system sediments, the phase separation significantly affects the dynamics and we explore situations where the final state is a coexistence of up to three different phases. Solving the dynamical equations in two-dimensions, we find that in certain situations the final density profiles of the two species have a symmetry that is different from that of the external potentials, which is perhaps surprising, given the statistical mechanics origin of the theory. The paper concludes with a discussion on this.

Alexandr Malijevsky; Andrew J. Archer

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

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481

Oscillatory motion of sheared nanorods beyond the nematic phase  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the role of the control parameter triggering nematic order (temperature or concentration) on the dynamical behavior of a system of nanorods under shear. Our study is based on a set of mesoscopic equations of motion for the components of the tensorial orientational order parameter. We investigating these equations via a systematic bifurcation analysis based on a numerical continuation technique, focusing on spatially homogeneous states. Exploring a wide range of parameters we find, unexpectedly, that states with oscillatory motion can exist even under conditions where the equilibrium system is isotropic. These oscillatory states are characterized by wagging motion of the paranematic director, and they occur if the tumbling parameter is sufficiently small. We also present full non-equilibrium phase diagrams, in the plane spanned by the concentration and the shear rate.

David A. Strehober; Harald Engel; Sabine H. L. Klapp

2013-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

482

Entropy production for mechanically or chemically driven biomolecules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Entropy production along a single stochastic trajectory of a biomolecule is discussed for two different sources of non-equilibrium. For a molecule manipulated mechanically by an AFM or an optical tweezer, entropy production (or annihilation) occurs in the molecular conformation proper or in the surrounding medium. Within a Langevin dynamics, a unique identification of these two contributions is possible. The total entropy change obeys an integral fluctuation theorem and a class of further exact relations, which we prove for arbitrarily coupled slow degrees of freedom including hydrodynamic interactions. These theoretical results can therefore also be applied to driven colloidal systems. For transitions between different internal conformations of a biomolecule involving unbalanced chemical reactions, we provide a thermodynamically consistent formulation and identify again the two sources of entropy production, which obey similar exact relations. We clarify the particular role degenerate states have in such a description.

Tim Schmiedl; Thomas Speck; Udo Seifert

2006-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

483

Critical dynamics and decoherence  

SciTech Connect

We study dynamics of decoherence in a generic model where the environment is driven and undergoes a quantum phase transition. We model the environment by the Ising chain in the transverse field, and assume that the decohering system is a central spin-1/2. We found that when the environment is quenched slowly through the critical point, the decoherence factor of the central spin undergoes rapid decay that encodes the critical exponents of the environment. We also found that decoherence in a non-equilibrated, kink-contaminated, environment can be stronger than in a vacuum one. We derived a remarkably simple analytical expression that describes post-transition decoherence and predicts periodicities involving all system parameters. This research connects the fields of decoherence, quantum phase transitions, and Kibble-Zurek non-equilibrium dynamics.

Damski, Bogdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Quan, Haitao T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zurek, Wojciech H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Introductory statistical mechanics for electron storage rings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

These lectures introduce the beam dynamics of electron-positron storage rings with particular emphasis on the effects due to synchrotron radiation. They differ from most other introductions in their systematic use of the physical principles and mathematical techniques of the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of fluctuating dynamical systems. A self-contained exposition of the necessary topics from this field is included. Throughout the development, a Hamiltonian description of the effects of the externally applied fields is maintained in order to preserve the links with other lectures on beam dynamics and to show clearly the extent to which electron dynamics in non-Hamiltonian. The statistical mechanical framework is extended to a discussion of the conceptual foundations of the treatment of collective effects through the Vlasov equation.

Jowett, J.M.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Simulating fermion production in 1+1 dimensional QED  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate fermion--anti-fermion production in 1+1 dimensional QED using real-time lattice techniques. In this non-perturbative approach the full quantum dynamics of fermions is included while the gauge field dynamics can be accurately represented by classical-statistical simulations for relevant field strengths. We compute the non-equilibrium time evolution of gauge invariant correlation functions implementing 'low-cost' Wilson fermions. Introducing a lattice generalization of the Dirac-Heisenberg-Wigner function, we recover the Schwinger formula in 1+1 dimensions in the limit of a static background field. We discuss the decay of the field due to the backreaction of the created fermion--anti-fermion pairs and apply the approach to strongly inhomogeneous gauge fields. The latter allows us to discuss the striking phenomenon of a linear rising potential building up between produced fermion bunches after the initial electric pulse ceased.

Florian Hebenstreit; Jürgen Berges; Daniil Gelfand

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

486

Geometric universality of currents in an open network of interacting particles  

SciTech Connect

We discuss a non-equilibrium statistical system on a graph or network. Identical particles are injected, interact with each other, traverse, and leave the graph in a stochastic manner described in terms of Poisson rates, possibly dependent on time and instantaneous occupation numbers at the nodes of the graph. We show that under the assumption of the relative rates constancy, the system demonstrates a profound statistical symmetry, resulting in geometric universality of the particle currents statistics. The phenomenon applies broadly to many man-made and natural open stochastic systems, such as queuing of packages over internet, transport of electrons and quasi-particles in mesoscopic systems, and chains of reactions in bio-chemical networks. We illustrate the utility of the general approach using two enabling examples from the two latter disciplines.

Sinitsyn, Nikolai A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chernyak, Vladimir Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Weak Viscoelastic Nematodynamics of Maxwell Type  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A constitutive theory for weak viscoelastic nematodynamics of Maxwell type is developed using the standard local approach of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Along with particular viscoelastic and nematic kinematics, the theory uses the weakly elastic potential proposed by de Gennes for nematic solids and the LEP constitutive equations for viscous nematic liquids, while ignoring the Frank (orientation) elasticity and inertia effects. In spite of many basic parameters, algebraic properties of nematic operations investigated in Appendix, allowed us to reveal a general group structure of the theory and present it in a simple form. It is shown that the evolution equation for director is also viscoelastic. An example of magnetization clarifies the situation with non-symmetric stresses. When the sources of stress asymmetry are absent, the theory is simplified and its relaxation properties are described by a symmetric subgroup of nematic algebraic operations. A purely linear constitutive behavior exemplifies the symmetric situation.

Arkady I. Leonov; Valery S. Volkov

2004-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

488

Spin-blockade effect and coherent control of DNA-damage by free radicals: a proposal on bio-spintronics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coherent control of OH-free radicals interacting with the spin-triplet state of a DNA molecule is investigated. A model Hamiltonian for molecular spin singlet-triplet resonance is developed. We illustrate that the spin-triplet state in DNA molecules can be efficiently populated, as the spin-injection rate can be tuned to be orders of magnitudes greater than the decay rate due to small spin-orbit coupling in organic molecules. Owing to the nano-second life-time of OH free radicals, a non-equilibrium free energy barrier induced by the injected spin triplet state that lasts approximately longer than one-micro second in room temperature can efficiently block the initial Hydrogen abstraction and DNA damage. For a direct demonstration of the spin-blockade effect, a molecular simulation based on an {\\em ab-initio} Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics is deployed.

Abolfath, Ramin M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Spontaneous emergence of a metabolism  

SciTech Connect

Networks of catalyzed reactions with nonlinear feedback have been proposed to play an important role in the origin of life. We investigate this possibility in a polymer chemistry with catalyzed cleavage and condensation reactions. We study the properties of a well-stirred reactor driven away from equilibrium by the flow of mass. Under appropriate non-equilibrium conditions. The nonlinear feedback of the reaction network focuses the material of the system into a few specific polymer species. The network of catalytic reactions digests'' the material of its environment, incorporating it into its own form. We call the result an autocatalytic metabolism. Under some variations it persists almost unchanged, while in other cases it dies. We argue that the dynamical stability of autocatalytic metabolisms gives them regenerative properties that allow them to repair themselves and to propagate through time. 43 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

Bagley, R.J.; Farmer, J.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Santa Fe Inst., NM (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Two-phase jet loads. [PWR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two-phase jets are currently being studied to improve engineering models for the prediction of loads on pipes and structures during LOCAs. Multi-dimensional computer codes such as BEACON/MOD2, CSQ, and TRAC-P1A are being employed to predict flow characteristics and flow-structure loading. Our ultimate goal is to develop a new approximate engineering model which is superior to the F.J. Moody design model. Computer results are compared with data obtained from foreign sources, and a technique for using the TRAC-P1A vessel component as a containment model is presented. In general, good agreement with the data is obtained for saturated stagnation conditions; however, difficulties are encountered for subcooled stagnation conditions, possibly due to nucleation delay and non-equilibrium effects.

Tomasko, D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Statistical physics ""Beyond equilibrium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The scientific challenges of the 21st century will increasingly involve competing interactions, geometric frustration, spatial and temporal intrinsic inhomogeneity, nanoscale structures, and interactions spanning many scales. We will focus on a broad class of emerging problems that will require new tools in non-equilibrium statistical physics and that will find application in new material functionality, in predicting complex spatial dynamics, and in understanding novel states of matter. Our work will encompass materials under extreme conditions involving elastic/plastic deformation, competing interactions, intrinsic inhomogeneity, frustration in condensed matter systems, scaling phenomena in disordered materials from glasses to granular matter, quantum chemistry applied to nano-scale materials, soft-matter materials, and spatio-temporal properties of both ordinary and complex fluids.

Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Glassy Aging with Modified Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts Form  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this report we address the question whether aging in the non equilibrium glassy state is controlled by the equilibrium alpha-relaxation process which occur at temperatures above Tg. Recently Lunkenheimer et. al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 055702 (2005)] proposed a model for the glassy aging data of dielectric relaxation using a modified Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) form. The aging time dependence of the relaxation time is defined by these authors through a functional relation involving the corresponding frequency but the stretching exponent is same as the alpha-relaxation stretching exponent. We present here an alternative functional form directly involving the relaxation time itself. The proposed model fits the data of Lunkenheimer et. al. perfectly with a stretching exponent different from the alpha-relaxation stretching exponent.

Bhaskar Sen Gupta; Shankar P. Das

2007-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

493

Optimal and robust energy transport in light-harvesting complexes: (II) A quantum interplay of multichromophoric geometries and environmental interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Today, the physical principles for the high efficiency of excitation energy transfer in light-harvesting complexes are still not fully understood. Notably, the degree of robustness of these systems for transporting energy is not known considering their realistic interactions with vibrational and radiative environments within the surrounding solvent and scaffold proteins. In this work, we employ an efficient technique to simulate ultrafast quantum dynamics of such complex excitonic systems in their non-equilibrium environment in the non-perturbative and non-Markovian regimes. We demonstrate that the natural dynamics of the FMO complex leads to optimum and stable energy transport due to a convergence of energy/time scales among important internal and external parameters. In particular, we show that the FMO energy transfer efficiency is optimal and robust with respect to all the relevant parameters of environmental interactions and Frenkel-exciton Hamiltonian including reorganization energy \\lambda, bath frequen...

Mohseni, Masoud; Lloyd, Seth; Rabitz, Herschel

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Economic benefits of decarbonising the global electricity sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conventional economic analyses of stringent climate change mitigation have generally concluded that economic austerity would result from carbon austerity. These analyses however rely critically on the assumption of an economic equilibrium, which dismisses established notions on behavioural heterogeneity, path dependence and technology transitions. Here we show that on the contrary, the decarbonisation of the electricity sector globally can lead to improvements in economic performance. By modelling the process of innovation-diffusion and non-equilibrium dynamics, we establish how climate policy instruments for emissions reductions alter economic activity through energy prices, government spending, enhanced investment and tax revenues. While higher electricity prices reduce income and output, this is over-compensated by enhanced employment generated by investments in new technology. We stress that the current dialogue on the impacts of climate policies must be revisited to reflect the real complex dynamics invo...

Mercure, J F; Foley, A; Chewpreecha, U; Pollitt, H; Holden, P B; Edwards, N R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Toward the AdS/CFT Gravity Dual for High Energy Collisions: II. The Stress Tensor on the Boundary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this second paper of the series we calculate the stress tensor of excited matter, created by ``debris'' of high energy collisions at the boundary. We found that massive objects (``stones'') falling into the AdS center produce gravitational disturbance which however has $zero$ stress tensor at the boundary. The falling open strings, connected to receeding charges, do produce a nonzero stress tensor which we found analytically from time-dependent linearized Einstein equations in the bulk. It corresponds to exploding non-equilibrium matter: we discuss its behavior in some detail, including its internal energy density in a comoving frame and the ``freezeout surfaces''. We then discuss what happens for the ensemble of strings.

Shu Lin; Edward Shuryak

2007-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

496

Ultrasfast Dynamics in Dense Hydrogen Explored at Flash  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The short pulse duration and high intensity of the FLASH (Free-electron LASer in Hamburg) allows us to generate and probe homogeneous warm dense non-equilibrium hydrogen within a single extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light pulse. By analyzing the spectrum of the 13.5 nm Thomson scattered light we determine the plasma temperature and density. We find that classical models of this interaction are in good agreement with our dense plasma conditions. In a FEL-pump FEL-probe experiment droplets of liquid hydrogen and their scattering behavior for different pump-probe setups were observed under 20{sup o} and 90{sup o}. We find that the scattering behavior of the scattered intensity depends on the scattering angle.

Hilbert, V; Zastrau, U; Neumayer, P; Hochhaus, D; Toleikis, S; Harmand, M; Przystawik, A; Tschentscher, T; Glenzer, S H; Doeppner, T; Fortmann, C; White, T; Gregori, G; Gode, S; Tiggesbaumker, J; Skruszewicz, S; Meiwes-Broer, K H; Sperling, P; Redmer, R; Forster, E

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Scaling Relations for Turbulence in Multiphase Interstellar Medium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We simulate the dynamics of phase transition in radiatively cooling interstellar gas in three dimensions with a high order hydrodynamic method. We have previously shown (Kritsuk & Norman 2002a) in simulations with non-equilibrium initial conditions that thermal instability induces supersonic turbulence as a by-product of the phase transition which leads to formation of multiphase medium. We rely on a generalization of the She & Leveque (1994) model to study velocity scaling relations in this decaying turbulence and compare those with analogous results for compressible isothermal turbulence. Since radiative cooling promotes nonlinear instabilities in highly supersonic flows, turbulence in our simulations tends to be more intermittent than in the isothermal case. Hausdorff dimension of the most singular dissipative structures, D, can be as high as 2.3, while in supersonic isothermal turbulence D is limited by a more primitive nature of dissipation (shocks): D<=2. We also show that single-phase veloci...

Kritsuk, A G; Kritsuk, Alexei G.; Norman, Michael L.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Phantom dark energy as an effect of bulk viscosity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a homogeneous and isotropic universe bulk viscosity is the unique viscous effect capable to modify the background dynamics. Effects like shear viscosity or heat conduction can only change the evolution of the perturbations. The existence of a bulk viscous pressure in a fluid, which in order to obey to the second law of thermodynamics is negative, reduces its effective pressure. We discuss in this study the degeneracy in bulk viscous cosmologies and address the possibility that phantom dark energy cosmology could be caused by the existence of non-equilibrium pressure in any cosmic component. We establish the conditions under which either matter or radiation viscous cosmologies can be mapped into the phantom dark energy scenario with constraints from multiple observational data-sets

Hermano Velten; Jiaxin Wang; Xinhe Meng

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

499

Dissipation in a Quantum Wire: Fact and Fantasy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Where, and how, does energy dissipation of electrical energy take place in a ballistic wire? Fully two decades after the advent of the transmissive phenomenology of electrical conductance, this deceptively simple query remains unanswered. We revisit the quantum kinetic basis of dissipation and show its power to give a definitive answer to our query. Dissipation leaves a clear, quantitative trace in the non-equilibrium current noise of a quantum point contact; this signature has already been observed in the laboratory. We then highlight the current state of accepted understandings in the light of well-known yet seemingly contradictory measurements. The physics of mesoscopic transport rests not in coherent carrier transmission through a perfect and dissipationless metallic channel, but explicitly in their dissipative inelastic scattering at the wire's interfaces and adjacent macroscopic leads.

Das, Mukunda P. [Department of Theoretical Physics, IAS, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Green, Frederick [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

500

The dynamics of technology diffusion and the impacts of climate policy instruments in the decarbonisation of the global electricity sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents an analysis of possible uses of climate policy instruments for the decarbonisation of the global electricity sector in a non-equilibrium economic and technology innovation-diffusion perspective. Emissions reductions occur through changes in technology and energy consumption; in this context, investment decision-making opportunities occur periodically, which energy policy can incentivise in order to transform energy systems and meet reductions targets. Energy markets are driven by innovation, dynamic costs and technology diffusion; yet, the incumbent systems optimisation methodology in energy modelling does not address these aspects nor the effectiveness of policy onto decision-making since the dynamics modelled take their source from the top-down `social-planner' assumption. This leads to an underestimation of strong technology lock-ins in cost-optimal scenarios of technology. Our approach explores the global diffusion of low carbon technology in connection to a highly disaggregated sector...

Mercure, J -F; Foley, A M; Chewpreecha, U; Pollitt, H

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z