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1

Local non-equilibrium thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Local Shannon entropy lies at the heart of modern thermodynamics, with much discussion of trajectory-dependent entropy production. When taken at both boundaries of a process in phase space, it reproduces the second law of thermodynamics over a finite time interval for small scale systems. However, given that entropy is an ensemble property, it has never been clear how one can assign such a quantity locally. Given such a fundamental omission in our knowledge, we construct a new ensemble composed of trajectories reaching an individual microstate, and show that locally defined entropy, information, and free energy are properties of the ensemble, or trajectory-independent true thermodynamic potentials. We find that the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution and Landauer's principle can be generalized naturally as properties of the ensemble, and that trajectory-free state functions of the ensemble govern the exact mechanism of non-equilibrium relaxation.

Jinwoo, Lee

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Non-equilibrium many body dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Riken BNL Research Center Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Many Body Physics was held on September 23-25, 1997 as part of the official opening ceremony of the Center at Brookhaven National Lab. A major objective of theoretical work at the center is to elaborate on the full spectrum of strong interaction physics based on QCD, including the physics of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, the parton structure of hadrons and nuclei, and the phenomenology of ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions related to the up-coming experiments at RHIC. The opportunities and challenges of nuclear and particle physics in this area naturally involve aspects of the many body problem common to many other fields. The aim of this symposium was to find common theoretical threads in the area of non-equilibrium physics and modern transport theories. The program consisted of invited talks on a variety topics from the fields of atomic, condensed matter, plasma, astrophysics, cosmology, and chemistry, in addition to nuclear and particle physics. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for contributions to this workshop.

Creutz, M.; Gyulassy, M.

1997-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

3

Non--Equilibrium Blunt Body Flow 1 Analysis of NonEquilibrium, Hypersonic Blunt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non--Equilibrium Blunt Body Flow 1 Analysis of Non­Equilibrium, Hypersonic Blunt Body Flow streamline quantities and the stagnation point heat transfer in hypersonic flows about spheres or cylinders, as two-- dimensional hypersonic flows about spheres or cylinders exhibit an approximate local similarity

4

Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics of Spacetime  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It has previously been shown that the Einstein equation can be derived from the requirement that the Clausius relation dS = dQ/T hold for all local acceleration horizons through each spacetime point, where dS is one quarter the horizon area change in Planck units, and dQ and T are the energy flux across the horizon and Unruh temperature seen by an accelerating observer just inside the horizon. Here we show that a curvature correction to the entropy that is polynomial in the Ricci scalar requires a non-equilibrium treatment. The corresponding field equation is derived from the entropy balance relation dS =dQ/T+dS_i, where dS_i is a bulk viscosity entropy production term that we determine by imposing energy-momentum conservation. Entropy production can also be included in pure Einstein theory by allowing for shear viscosity of the horizon.

Christopher Eling; Raf Guedens; Ted Jacobson

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Lithium-ion battery modeling using non-equilibrium thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The focus of this thesis work is the application of non-equilibrium thermodynamics in lithium-ion battery modeling. As the demand for higher power and longer lasting batteries increases, the search for materials suitable ...

Ferguson, Todd R. (Todd Richard)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Energy-exchange stochastic models for non-equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non-equilibrium steady states are subject to intense investigations but still poorly understood. For instance, the derivation of Fourier law in Hamiltonian systems is a problem that still poses several obstacles. In order to investigate non-equilibrium systems, stochastic models of energy-exchange have been introduced and they have been used to identify universal properties of non-equilibrium. In these notes, after a brief review of the problem of anomalous transport in 1-dimensional Hamiltonian systems, some boundary-driven interacting random systems are considered and the "duality approach" to their rigorous mathematical treatment is reviewed. Duality theory, of which a brief introduction is given, is a powerful technique to deal with Markov processes and interacting particle systems. The content of these notes is mainly based on the papers [10, 11, 12].

Chiara Franceschini; Cristian Giardina

2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

7

DSMC predictions of non-equilibrium reaction rates.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A set of Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) chemical-reaction models recently proposed by Bird and based solely on the collision energy and the vibrational energy levels of the species involved is applied to calculate nonequilibrium chemical-reaction rates for atmospheric reactions in hypersonic flows. The DSMC non-equilibrium model predictions are in good agreement with theoretical models and experimental measurements. The observed agreement provides strong evidence that modeling chemical reactions using only the collision energy and the vibrational energy levels provides an accurate method for predicting non-equilibrium chemical-reaction rates.

Gallis, Michail A.; Bond, Ryan Bomar; Torczynski, John Robert

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Steady quantum coherence in non-equilibrium environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the steady state of a three-level system in contact with a non-equilibrium environment, which is composed of two independent heat baths at different temperatures. We derive a master equation to describe the non-equilibrium process of the system. For the three level systems with two dipole transitions, i.e., the $\\Lambda$-type and V-type, we find that the interferences of two transitions in a non-equilibrium environment can give rise to non-vanishing steady quantum coherence, namely, there exist non-zero off-diagonal terms in the steady state density matrix (in the energy representation). Moreover, the non-vanishing off-diagonal terms increase with the temperature difference of the two heat baths. Such interferences of the transitions were usually omitted by secular approximation, for it was usually believed that they only take effect in short time behavior and do not affect the steady state. Here we show that, in non-equilibrium systems, such omission would lead to the neglect of the steady quantum coherence.

Sheng-Wen Li; C. Y. Cai; C. P. Sun

2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

9

Non-equilibrium Condensation Process in a Holographic Superconductor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the non-equilibrium condensation process in a holographic superconductor. When the temperature T is smaller than a critical temperature T_c, there are two black hole solutions, the Reissner-Nordstrom-AdS black hole and a black hole with a scalar hair. In the boundary theory, they can be regarded as the supercooled normal phase and the superconducting phase, respectively. We consider perturbations on supercooled Reissner-Nordstrom-AdS black holes and study their non-linear time evolution to know about physical phenomena associated with rapidly-cooled superconductors. We find that, for Tsuperconducting order parameter. Finally, we study the time evolution of event and apparent horizons and discuss their correspondence with the entropy of the boundary theory. Our result gives a first step toward the holographic understanding of the non-equilibrium process in superconductors.

Keiju Murata; Shunichiro Kinoshita; Norihiro Tanahashi

2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

10

Non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach to open quantum systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Open quantum systems are studied from the thermodynamical point of view unifying the principle of maximum informational entropy and the hypothesis of relaxation times hierarchy. The result of the unification is a non-Markovian and local in time master equation that provides a direct connection of dynamical and thermodynamical properties of open quantum systems. The power of the approach is illustrated with the application to the damped harmonic oscillator and the damped driven two-level system resulting in analytical expressions for the non-Markovian and non-equilibrium entropy and inverse temperature.

Vitalii Semin; Francesco Petruccione

2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

11

Non-equilibrium Statistical Approach to Friction Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A geometric approach to the friction phenomena is presented. It is based on the holographic view which has recently been popular in the theoretical physics community. We see the system in one-dimension-higher space. The heat-producing phenomena are most widely treated by using the non-equilibrium statistical physics. We take 2 models of the earthquake. The dissipative systems are here formulated from the geometric standpoint. The statistical fluctuation is taken into account by using the (generalized) Feynman's path-integral.

Shoichi Ichinose

2014-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

12

Ethanol reforming in non-equilibrium plasma of glow discharge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The results of a detailed kinetic study of the main plasma chemical processes in non-equilibrium ethanol/argon plasma are presented. It is shown that at the beginning of the discharge the molecular hydrogen is mainly generated in the reaction of ethanol H-abstraction. Later hydrogen is formed from active H, CH2OH and CH3CHOH and formaldehyde. Comparison with experimental data has shown that the used kinetic mechanism predicts well the concentrations of main species at the reactor outlet.

Levko, D

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Is Soret equilibrium a non-equilibrium effect?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent thermophoretic experiments on colloidal suspensions revived an old debate, namely whether the Soret effect is properly described by thermostatics, or necessarily requires non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Based on colloidal transport theory and the entropy production of the related viscous flow, our analysis leads to the conclusion that the equilibrium approach may work for small ions, yet fails for colloidal particles and polymers. Regarding binary molecular mixtures, our results shed some doubt on the validity of thermostatic approaches that derive the Soret coefficient from equilibrium potentials.

Alois Würger

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

14

Non-Equilibrium Conformal Field Theories with Impurities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a construction of non-equilibrium steady states within conformal field theory. These states sustain energy flows between two quantum systems, initially prepared at different temperatures, whose dynamical properties are represented by two, possibly different, conformal field theories connected through an impurity. This construction relies on a real time formulation of conformal defect dynamics based on a field scattering picture parallelizing - but yet different from - the Euclidean formulation. We present the basic characteristics of this formulation and give an algebraic construction of the real time scattering maps that we illustrate in the case of SU(2)-based conformal field theories.

D. Bernard; B. Doyon; J. Viti

2015-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

15

Multiple temperature kinetic model and gas-kinetic method for hypersonic non-equilibrium flow computations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multiple temperature kinetic model and gas-kinetic method for hypersonic non-equilibrium flow. For the non-equilibrium flow computations, i.e., the nozzle flow and hypersonic rarefied flow over flat plate-kinetic method; Hypersonic and rarefied flows 1. Introduction The development of aerospace technology has

Xu, Kun

16

Strongly interacting Fermi gases : non-equilibrium dynamics and dimensional crossover  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experiments using ultracold atomic gases address fundamental problems in many-body physics. This thesis describes experiments on strongly-interacting gases of fermionic atoms, with a focus on non-equilibrium physics and ...

Sommer, Ariel T. (Ariel Tjodolv)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 26, 052001 (2014) Capturing non-equilibrium phenomena in rarefied  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 26, 052001 (2014) Capturing non-equilibrium phenomena in rarefied polyatomic: 142.104.86.60 On: Mon, 05 May 2014 20:27:14 #12;052001-2 B. Rahimi and H. Struchtrup Phys. Fluids 26

Struchtrup, Henning

18

The Application of Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Enhanced NMR to Non-Equilibrium Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) yields remarkably detailed structural information about virtually any molecule. However, its application to non-equilibrium systems is hampered by a lack of sensitivity. To increase the amount of signal that can...

Bowen, Sean Michael

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

19

Note: Local thermal conductivities from boundary driven non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of heat transport in models of molecular fluids. We show that the “local” thermal conductivities obtained from non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations agree within numerical accuracy with equilibrium Green-Kubo computations. Our results support the local equilibrium hypothesis for transport properties. We show how to use the local dependence of the thermal gradients to quantify the thermal conductivity of molecular fluids for a wide range of thermodynamic states using a single simulation.

Bresme, F., E-mail: f.bresme@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, Chemical Physics Section, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Armstrong, J., E-mail: j.armstrong@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, Chemical Physics Section, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

20

The unreasonable effectiveness of equilibrium-like theory for interpreting non-equilibrium experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There has been great interest in applying the results of statistical mechanics to single molecule experiements. Recent work has highlighted so-called non-equilibrium work-energy relations and Fluctuation Theorems which take on an equilibrium-like (time independent) form. Here I give a very simple heuristic example where an equilibrium result (the barometric law for colloidal particles) arises from theory describing the {\\em thermodynamically} non-equilibrium phenomenon of a single colloidal particle falling through solution due to gravity. This simple result arises from the fact that the particle, even while falling, is in {\\em mechanical} equilibrium (gravitational force equal the viscous drag force) at every instant. The results are generalized by appeal to the central limit theorem. The resulting time independent equations that hold for thermodynamically non-equilibrium (and even non-stationary) processes offer great possibilities for rapid determination of thermodynamic parameters from single molecule experiments.

R. Dean Astumian

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Non-equilibrium solidification and ferrite in d-TRIP steel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non-equilibrium solidification and ferrite in d-TRIP steel H. L. Yi1 , S. K. Ghosh1 , W. J. Liu1, designed on the basis of equilibrium to contain substantial amounts of d-ferrite, reveal zero or much transformation of d-ferrite into austenite occurs without the required partitioning of solutes

Cambridge, University of

22

Thermal recovery from a fractured medium in local thermal non-equilibrium Rachel Geleta,b,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

effective stress is tensile near the injection well, illustrating the thermal contraction of the rock, whileThermal recovery from a fractured medium in local thermal non-equilibrium Rachel Geleta, Australia Abstract Thermal recovery from a hot dry rock reservoir viewed as a deformable fractured medium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

23

Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) under non-equilibrium conditions R. C. Oberthr  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

663 Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) under non-equilibrium conditions R. C. Oberthür Institut with the times obtained from quasi- elastic neutron and light scattering, which yield information about neutrons aux petits angles (DNPA) pour l'étude des systèmes hors d'équi- libre thermodynamique est

Boyer, Edmond

24

Transient Analysis of Data Traffic in Cognitive Radio Networks: A Non-equilibrium Statistical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

efficiency of spectrum utilization. In cognitive radio systems, a secondary user (without license) can access a licensed spectrum channel if there is no primary user (with license) transmitting over this channel. When1 Transient Analysis of Data Traffic in Cognitive Radio Networks: A Non-equilibrium Statistical

Li, Husheng

25

Radiation transport and density effects in non-equilibrium plasmas Vladimir I. Fisher*, Dimitri V. Fisher, Yitzhak Maron  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation transport and density effects in non-equilibrium plasmas Vladimir I. Fisher*, Dimitri V populations and the radiation field in transient non-equilibrium plasmas. In this model, the plasma density to a self-consistent treatment of the radiative transfer. For non-Maxwellian plasmas, the atomic

26

Experimental Analysis of the Effect of Vibrational Non-Equilibrium on the Decay of Grid-Generated Turbulence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the fundamental scientific question: ?Does thermal non-equilibrium alter the decay rate of turbulence?? The results of this study show that the answer is ?Yes.? The results demonstrate a clear coupling between thermal non-equilibrium and turbulence transport... ................................................................... 86 2.70 Macor-aluminum test section (exploded view) ....................................... 87 2.71 Upwind flange .......................................................................................... 88 2.72 Macor slab...

Fuller, T. J.

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

27

Non-equilibrium thermodynamics of damped Timoshenko and damped Bresse systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we cast damped Timoshenko and damped Bresse systems into a general framework for non-equilibrium thermodynamics, namely the GENERIC (General Equation for Non-Equilibrium Reversible-Irreversible Coupling) framework. The main ingredients of GENERIC consist of five building blocks: a state space, a Poisson operator, a dissipative operator, an energy functional, and an entropy functional. The GENERIC formulation of damped Timoshenko and damped Bresse systems brings several benefits. First, it provides alternative ways to derive thermodynamically consistent models of these systems by construct- ing building blocks instead of invoking conservation laws and constitutive relations. Second, it reveals clear physical and geometrical structures of these systems, e.g., the role of the energy and the entropy as the driving forces for the reversible and irreversible dynamics respectively. Third, it allows us to introduce a new GENERIC model for damped Timoshenko systems that is not existing in the literature.

Manh Hong Duong

2015-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

28

Heating of thermal non-equilibrium ions by Alfvén wave via nonresonant interaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pickup of thermal non-equilibrium ions by Alfvén wave via nonresonant wave-particle interaction is investigated by means of analytical test-particle theory. Some interesting and new results are found. No matter what the initial velocity distribution is, if the background magnetic field, the Alfvén speed, and the Alfvén magnetic field are fixed, the average parallel velocity never changes when t??. Heating effects in the perpendicular and parallel direction just depend on the initial temperature, and the perpendicular temperature increase is more prominent. It is noted that the heating effect of thermal non-equilibrium ions (Kappa ions) is weaker than that of the Maxwellian. This phenomenon may be relative to the heating of ions in the solar corona as well as in some toroidal confinement fusion devices.

Liu, Hai-Feng; Wang, Shi-Qing [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China) [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); The Engineering and Technical College of Chengdu University of Technology, Leshan 614000 (China); Li, Ke-Hua [The Engineering and Technical College of Chengdu University of Technology, Leshan 614000 (China)] [The Engineering and Technical College of Chengdu University of Technology, Leshan 614000 (China)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

29

Strongly anisotropic non-equilibrium phase transition in Ising models with friction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The non-equilibrium phase transition in driven two-dimensional Ising models with two different geometries is investigated using Monte Carlo methods as well as analytical calculations. The models show dissipation through fluctuation induced friction near the critical point. We first consider high driving velocities and demonstrate that both systems are in the same universality class and undergo a strongly anisotropic non-equilibrium phase transition, with anisotropy exponent \\theta=3. Within a field theoretical ansatz the simulation results are confirmed. The crossover from Ising to mean field behavior in dependency of system size and driving velocity is analyzed using crossover scaling. It turns out that for all finite velocities the phase transition becomes strongly anisotropic in the thermodynamic limit.

Sebastian Angst; Alfred Hucht; Dietrich E. Wolf

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

30

Non-equilibrium phase transition in an exactly solvable driven Ising model with friction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A driven Ising model with friction due to magnetic correlations has recently been proposed by Kadau et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 137205 (2008)). The non-equilibrium phase transition present in this system is investigated in detail using analytical methods as well as Monte Carlo simulations. In the limit of high driving velocities $v$ the model shows mean field behavior due to dimensional reduction and can be solved exactly for various geometries. The simulations are performed with three different single spin flip rates: the common Metropolis and Glauber rates as well as a multiplicative rate. Due to the non-equilibrium nature of the model all rates lead to different critical temperatures at $v>0$, while the exact solution matches the multiplicative rate. Finally, the cross-over from Ising to mean field behavior as function of velocity and system size is analysed in one and two dimensions.

Alfred Hucht

2009-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

31

Dynamic scaling for the growth of non-equilibrium fluctuations during thermophoretic diffusion in microgravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diffusion processes are accompanied by the appearance of non-equilibrium fluctuations, whose size distribution on Earth is strongly affected by the gravity force. In microgravity and at steady state, these fluctuations exhibit generic scale invariance and their size is only limited by the finite dimension of the system. In this work, we investigate experimentally and computationally the development of non-equilibrium fluctuations during a thermophoretic process in microgravity. Both experiments and simulations show that during the onset of fluctuations the scale invariance is present at large wave vectors. In a broader range of wave vectors simulations predict a spinodal-like growth of fluctuations, where the amplitude and length scale of the dominant mode are determined by the thickness of the diffuse layer.

Roberto Cerbino; Yifei Sun; Aleksandar Donev; Alberto Vailati

2015-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

32

Trace formulae for non-equilibrium Casimir interactions, heat radiation and heat transfer for arbitrary objects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a detailed derivation of heat radiation, heat transfer and (Casimir) interactions for N arbitrary objects in the framework of fluctuational electrodynamics in thermal non-equilibrium. The results can be expressed as basis-independent trace formulae in terms of the scattering operators of the individual objects. We prove that heat radiation of a single object is positive, and that heat transfer (for two arbitrary passive objects) is from the hotter to a colder body. The heat transferred is also symmetric, exactly reversed if the two temperatures are exchanged. Introducing partial wave-expansions, we transform the results for radiation, transfer and forces into traces of matrices that can be evaluated in any basis, analogous to the equilibrium Casimir force. The method is illustrated by (re)deriving the heat radiation of a plate, a sphere and a cylinder. We analyze the radiation of a sphere for different materials, emphasizing that a simplification often employed for metallic nano-spheres is typically invalid. We derive asymptotic formulae for heat transfer and non-equilibrium interactions for the cases of a sphere in front a plate and for two spheres, extending previous results. As an example, we show that a hot nano-sphere can levitate above a plate with the repulsive non-equilibrium force overcoming gravity -- an effect that is not due to radiation pressure.

Matthias Krüger; Giuseppe Bimonte; Thorsten Emig; Mehran Kardar

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

33

Non-equilibrium hydrogen ionization in 2D simulations of the solar atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ionization of hydrogen in the solar chromosphere and transition region does not obey LTE or instantaneous statistical equilibrium because the timescale is long compared with important hydrodynamical timescales, especially of magneto-acoustic shocks. We implement an algorithm to compute non-equilibrium hydrogen ionization and its coupling into the MHD equations within an existing radiation MHD code, and perform a two-dimensional simulation of the solar atmosphere from the convection zone to the corona. Analysis of the simulation results and comparison to a companion simulation assuming LTE shows that: a) Non-equilibrium computation delivers much smaller variations of the chromospheric hydrogen ionization than for LTE. The ionization is smaller within shocks but subsequently remains high in the cool intershock phases. As a result, the chromospheric temperature variations are much larger than for LTE because in non-equilibrium, hydrogen ionization is a less effective internal energy buffer. The actual shock temperatures are therefore higher and the intershock temperatures lower. b) The chromospheric populations of the hydrogen n = 2 level, which governs the opacity of Halpha, are coupled to the ion populations. They are set by the high temperature in shocks and subsequently remain high in the cool intershock phases. c) The temperature structure and the hydrogen level populations differ much between the chromosphere above photospheric magnetic elements and above quiet internetwork. d) The hydrogen n = 2 population and column density are persistently high in dynamic fibrils, suggesting that these obtain their visibility from being optically thick in Halpha also at low temperature.

J. Leenaarts; M. Carlsson; V. Hansteen; R. J. Rutten

2007-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

34

Phase-field investigation on the non-equilibrium interface dynamics of rapid alloy solidification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research program reported here is focused on critical issues that represent conspicuous gaps in current understanding of rapid solidification, limiting our ability to predict and control microstructural evolution (i.e. morphological dynamics and microsegregation) at high undercooling, where conditions depart significantly from local equilibrium. More specifically, through careful application of phase-field modeling, using appropriate thin-interface and anti-trapping corrections and addressing important details such as transient effects and a velocity-dependent (i.e. adaptive) numerics, the current analysis provides a reasonable simulation-based picture of non-equilibrium solute partitioning and the corresponding oscillatory dynamics associated with single-phase rapid solidification and show that this method is a suitable means for a self-consistent simulation of transient behavior and operating point selection under rapid growth conditions. Moving beyond the limitations of conventional theoretical/analytical treatments of non-equilibrium solute partitioning, these results serve to substantiate recent experimental findings and analytical treatments for single-phase rapid solidification. The departure from the equilibrium solid concentration at the solid-liquid interface was often observed during rapid solidification, and the energetic associated non-equilibrium solute partitioning has been treated in detail, providing possible ranges of interface concentrations for a given growth condition. Use of these treatments for analytical description of specific single-phase dendritic and cellular operating point selection, however, requires a model for solute partitioning under a given set of growth conditions. Therefore, analytical solute trapping models which describe the chemical partitioning as a function of steady state interface velocities have been developed and widely utilized in most of the theoretical investigations of rapid solidification. However, these solute trapping models are not rigorously verified due to the difficulty in experimentally measuring under rapid growth conditions. Moreover, since these solute trapping models include kinetic parameters which are difficult to directly measure from experiments, application of the solute trapping models or the associated analytic rapid solidification model is limited. These theoretical models for steady state rapid solidification which incorporate the solute trapping models do not describe the interdependency of solute diffusion, interface kinetics, and alloy thermodynamics. The phase-field approach allows calculating, spontaneously, the non-equilibrium growth effects of alloys and the associated time-dependent growth dynamics, without making the assumptions that solute partitioning is an explicit function of velocity, as is the current convention. In the research described here, by utilizing the phase-field model in the thin-interface limit, incorporating the anti-trapping current term, more quantitatively valid interface kinetics and solute diffusion across the interface are calculated. In order to sufficiently resolve the physical length scales (i.e. interface thickness and diffusion boundary length), grid spacings are continually adjusted in calculations. The full trajectories of transient planar growth dynamics under rapid directional solidification conditions with different pulling velocities are described. As a validation of a model, the predicted steady state conditions are consistent with the analytic approach for rapid growth. It was confirmed that rapid interface dynamics exhibits the abrupt acceleration of the planar front when the effect of the non-equilibrium solute partitioning at the interface becomes signi ficant. This is consistent with the previous linear stability analysis for the non-equilibrium interface dynamics. With an appropriate growth condition, the continuous oscillation dynamics was able to be simulated using continually adjusting grid spacings. This oscillatory dynamics including instantaneous jump of interface velocities are consistent

Choi, Jeong

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

35

Fundamental Properties of Non-equilibrium Laser-Supported Detonation Wave  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For developing laser propulsion, it is very important to analyze the mechanism of Laser-Supported Detonation (LSD), because it can generate high pressure and high temperature to be used by laser propulsion can be categorized as one type of hypersonic reacting flows, where exothermicity is supplied not by chemical reaction but by radiation absorption. I have numerically simulated the 1-D and Quasi-1-D LSD waves propagating through an inert gas, which absorbs CO2 gasdynamic laser, using a 2-temperature model. Calculated results show the fundamental properties of the non-equilibrium LSD Waves.

Shiraishi, Hiroyuki [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Daido Institute of Technology, 10-3 Taki-haru-cho, Minami-ku, Nagoya (Japan)

2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

36

Similarity of coupled non-equilibrium flows behind normal shock waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at constant pressure Dissociation energy per molecule Average energy gained by vibra- tion due to recombination (per unit mass) Average energy lost from vibra- tion due to dissociation (per unit mass) Vibrational energy per unit mass Same as E (T... reverse reaction-rate cons tant N [N&] p Length of non-equilibrium zone Mach number Mass of an atom of nitrogen Number of vibrational levels in- cluded in dissociation energy Concentration of ni trogen Pressure moles/cc dynes/cmE vii Dei R...

Dalton, James Verne

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Potential and flux field landscape theory. II. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics of spatially inhomogeneous stochastic dynamical systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have established a general non-equilibrium thermodynamic formalism consistently applicable to both spatially homogeneous and, more importantly, spatially inhomogeneous systems, governed by the Langevin and Fokker-Planck stochastic dynamics with multiple state transition mechanisms, using the potential-flux landscape framework as a bridge connecting stochastic dynamics with non-equilibrium thermodynamics. A set of non-equilibrium thermodynamic equations, quantifying the relations of the non-equilibrium entropy, entropy flow, entropy production, and other thermodynamic quantities, together with their specific expressions, is constructed from a set of dynamical decomposition equations associated with the potential-flux landscape framework. The flux velocity plays a pivotal role on both the dynamic and thermodynamic levels. On the dynamic level, it represents a dynamic force breaking detailed balance, entailing the dynamical decomposition equations. On the thermodynamic level, it represents a thermodynamic force generating entropy production, manifested in the non-equilibrium thermodynamic equations. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and more specific examples, the spatial stochastic neuronal model, in particular, are studied to test and illustrate the general theory. This theoretical framework is particularly suitable to study the non-equilibrium (thermo)dynamics of spatially inhomogeneous systems abundant in nature. This paper is the second of a series.

Wu, Wei [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Wang, Jin, E-mail: jin.wang.1@stonybrook.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 130022 Changchun, China and College of Physics, Jilin University, 130021 Changchun (China)

2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

38

THERMAL NON-EQUILIBRIUM REVISITED: A HEATING MODEL FOR CORONAL LOOPS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The location and frequency of events that heat the million-degree corona are still a matter of debate. One potential heating scenario is that the energy release is effectively steady and highly localized at the footpoints of coronal structures. Such an energy deposition drives thermal non-equilibrium solutions in the hydrodynamic equations in longer loops. This heating scenario was considered and discarded by Klimchuk et al. on the basis of their one-dimensional simulations as incapable of reproducing observational characteristics of loops. In this paper, we use three-dimensional simulations to generate synthetic emission images, from which we select and analyze six loops. The main differences between our model and that of Klimchuk et al. concern (1) dimensionality, (2) resolution, (3) geometrical properties of the loops, (4) heating function, and (5) radiative function. We find evidence, in this small set of simulated loops, that the evolution of the light curves, the variation of temperature along the loops, the density profile, and the absence of small-scale structures are compatible with the characteristics of observed loops. We conclude that quasi-steady footpoint heating that drives thermal non-equilibrium solutions cannot yet be ruled out as a viable heating scenario for EUV loops.

Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Mikic, Zoran [Predictive Science, Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Rd., Ste. 170, San Diego, CA 92121-2910 (United States); Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Mok, Yung, E-mail: lionel@predsci.com, E-mail: linkerj@predsci.com, E-mail: mikicz@predsci.com, E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov, E-mail: ymok@uci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, 4129 Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

39

A definition of thermodynamic entropy valid for non-equilibrium states and few-particle systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

From a new rigorous formulation of the general axiomatic foundations of thermodynamics we derive an operational definition of entropy that responds to the emergent need in many technological frameworks to understand and deploy thermodynamic entropy well beyond the traditional realm of equilibrium states of macroscopic systems. The new definition is achieved by avoiding to resort to the traditional concepts of "heat" (which restricts $a$ $priori$ the traditional definitions of entropy to the equilibrium domain) and of "thermal reservoir" (which restricts $in$ $practice$ our previous definitions of non-equilibrium entropy to the many-particle domain). The measurement procedure that defines entropy is free from intrinsic limitations and can be applied, $in$ $principle$, even to non-equilibrium states of few-particle systems, provided they are separable and uncorrelated. The construction starts from a previously developed set of carefully worded operational definitions for all the basic concepts. Then, through a new set of fully spelled-out fundamental hypotheses (four postulates and five assumptions) we derive the definitions of energy and entropy of any state, and of temperature of any stable equilibrium state. Finally, we prove the principle of entropy non-decrease, the additivity of entropy differences, the maximum entropy principle, and the impossibility of existence of a thermal reservoir.

Gian Paolo Beretta; Enzo Zanchini

2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

40

Lower bounds for ballistic current and noise in non-equilibrium quantum steady states  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Let an infinite, homogeneous, many-body quantum system be unitarily evolved for a long time from a state where two halves are independently thermalized. One says that a non-equilibrium steady state emerges if there are nonzero steady currents in the central region. In particular, their presence is a signature of ballistic transport. We analyze the consequences of the current observable being a conserved density; near equilibrium this is known to give rise to linear wave propagation and a nonzero Drude peak. Using the Lieb-Robinson bound, we derive, under a certain regularity condition, a lower bound for the non-equilibrium steady-state current determined by equilibrium averages. This shows and quantifies the presence of ballistic transport far from equilibrium. The inequality suggests the definition of "nonlinear sound velocities", which specialize to the sound velocity near equilibrium in non-integrable models, and "generalized sound velocities", which encode generalized Gibbs thermalization in integrable models. These are bounded by the Lieb-Robinson velocity. The inequality also gives rise to a bound on the energy current noise in the case of pure energy transport. We show that the inequality is satisfied in many models where exact results are available, and that it is saturated at one-dimensional criticality.

Benjamin Doyon

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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41

Will there be future deceleration? A study of particle creation mechanism in non-equilibrium thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The paper deals with non-equilibrium thermodynamics based on adiabatic particle creation mechanism with the motivation of considering it as an alternative choice to explain the recent observed accelerating phase of the universe. Using Friedmann equations, it is shown that the deceleration parameter ($q$) can be obtained from the knowledge of the particle production rate ($\\Gamma$). Motivated from thermodynamical point of view, cosmological solutions are evaluated for the particle creation rates in three cosmic phases, namely, inflation, matter dominated and present late time acceleration. The deceleration parameter ($q$) is expressed as a function of the redshift parameter ($z$), and its variation is presented graphically. Also, statefinder analysis has been presented graphically in three different phases of the universe. Finally, two non-interacting fluids with different particle creation rates are considered as cosmic substratum, and deceleration parameter ($q$) is evaluated. It is examined whether more than one transition of $q$ is possible or not by graphical representations.

Supriya Pan; Subenoy Chakraborty

2015-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

42

Dilution and resonance enhanced repulsion in non-equilibrium fluctuation forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In equilibrium, forces induced by fluctuations of the electromagnetic field between electrically polarizable objects (microscopic or macroscopic) in vacuum are always attractive. The force may, however, become repulsive for microscopic particles coupled to thermal baths with different temperatures. We demonstrate that this non-equilibrium repulsion can be realized also between macroscopic objects, as planar slabs, if they are kept at different temperatures. It is shown that repulsion can be enhanced by (i) tuning of material resonances in the thermal region, and by (ii) reducing the dielectric contrast due to "dilution". This can lead to stable equilibrium positions. We discuss the realization of these effects for aerogels, yielding repulsion down to sub-micron distances at realistic porosities.

Giuseppe Bimonte; Thorsten Emig; Matthias Kruger; Mehran Kardar

2011-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

43

Dilution and resonance enhanced repulsion in non-equilibrium fluctuation forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In equilibrium, forces induced by fluctuations of the electromagnetic field between electrically polarizable objects (microscopic or macroscopic) in vacuum are always attractive. The force may, however, become repulsive for microscopic particles coupled to thermal baths with different temperatures. We demonstrate that this non-equilibrium repulsion can be realized also between macroscopic objects, as planar slabs, if they are kept at different temperatures. It is shown that repulsion can be enhanced by (i) tuning of material resonances in the thermal region, and by (ii) reducing the dielectric contrast due to "dilution". This can lead to stable equilibrium positions. We discuss the realization of these effects for aerogels, yielding repulsion down to sub-micron distances at realistic porosities.

Bimonte, Giuseppe; Kruger, Matthias; Kardar, Mehran

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Exponential approach to, and properties of, a non-equilibrium steady state in a dilute gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate a kinetic model of a system in contact with several thermal reservoirs at different temperatures $T_\\alpha$. Our system is a spatially uniform dilute gas whose internal dynamics is described by the nonlinear Boltzmann equation with Maxwellian collisions. Similarly, the interaction with reservoir $\\alpha$ is represented by a Markovian process that has the Maxwellian $M_{T_\\alpha}$ as its stationary state. We prove existence and uniqueness of a non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) and show exponential convergence to this NESS in a metric on probability measures introduced into the study of Maxwellian collisions by Gabetta, Toscani and Wenberg (GTW). This shows that the GTW distance between the current velocity distribution to the steady-state velocity distribution is a Lyapunov functional for the system. We also derive expressions for the entropy production in the system plus the reservoirs which is always positive.

Eric A. Carlen; Joel L. Lebowitz; Clement Mouhot

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

45

Manipulating shear-induced non-equilibrium transitions by feedback control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using Brownian Dynamics (BD) simulations we investigate non-equilibrium transitions of sheared colloidal films under controlled shear stress $\\sigma_{\\mathrm{xz}}$. In our approach the shear rate $\\dot\\gamma$ is a dynamical variable, which relaxes on a timescale $\\tau_c$ such that the instantaneous, configuration-dependent stress $\\sigma_{\\mathrm{xz}}(t)$ approaches a pre-imposed value. Investigating the dynamics under this "feedback-control" scheme we find unique behavior in regions where the flow curve $\\sigma_{\\mathrm{xz}}(\\dot\\gamma)$ of the uncontrolled system is monotonic. However, in non-monotonic regions our method allows to {\\em select} between dynamical states characterized by different in-plane structure and viscosities. Indeed, the final state strongly depends on $\\tau_c$ relative to an {\\em intrinsic} relaxation time of the uncontrolled system. The critical values of $\\tau_c$ are estimated on the basis of a simple model.

Tarlan A. Vezirov; Sascha Gerloff; Sabine H. L. Klapp

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

46

Interacting dark fluid in the universe bounded by event horizon : A non-equilibrium prescription  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A non-equilibrium thermodynamic analysis has been done for the interacting dark fluid in the universe bounded by the event horizon.From observational evidences it is assumed that at present the matter in the universe is dominated by two dark sectors-dark matter and dark energy. The mutual interaction among them results in spontaneous heat flow between the horizon and the fluid system and the thermal equilibrium will no longer hold.In the present work,the dark matter is chosen in the form of dust while the dark energy is chosen as a perfect fluid with constant equation in one case and holographic dark energy model is chosen in the other.Finally,validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics has been examined in both cases.

Subenoy Chakraborty; Atreyee Biswas

2014-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

47

NON-EQUILIBRIUM THERMODYNAMIC PROCESSES: SPACE PLASMAS AND THE INNER HELIOSHEATH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently, empirical kappa distribution, commonly used to describe non-equilibrium systems like space plasmas, has been connected with non-extensive statistical mechanics. Here we show how a consistent definition of the temperature and pressure is developed for stationary states out of thermal equilibrium, so that the familiar ideal gas state equation still holds. In addition to the classical triplet of temperature, pressure, and density, this generalization requires the kappa index as a fourth independent thermodynamic variable that characterizes the non-equilibrium stationary states. All four of these thermodynamic variables have key roles in describing the governing thermodynamical processes and transitions in space plasmas. We introduce a novel characterization of isothermal and isobaric processes that describe a system's transition into different stationary states by varying the kappa index. In addition, we show how the variation of temperature or/and pressure can occur through an 'iso-q' process, in which the system remains in a fixed stationary state (fixed kappa index). These processes have been detected in the proton plasma in the inner heliosheath via specialized data analysis of energetic neutral atom (ENA) observations from Interstellar Boundary Explorer. In particular, we find that the temperature is highly correlated with (1) kappa, asymptotically related to isothermal ({approx}1,000,000 K) and iso-q ({kappa} {approx} 1.7) processes; and (2) density, related to an isobaric process, which separates the 'Ribbon', P Almost-Equal-To 3.2 pdyn cm{sup -2}, from the globally distributed ENA flux, P Almost-Equal-To 2 pdyn cm{sup -2}.

Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J., E-mail: glivadiotis@swri.edu [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

48

Effect of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators on non-equilibrium hypersonic Ankush Bhatia, Subrata Roy, and Ryan Gosse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators on non-equilibrium hypersonic flows Ankush-equilibrium hypersonic flows Ankush Bhatia,1 Subrata Roy,1 and Ryan Gosse2 1 Applied Physics Research Group, Department for a cylindrical body in Mach 17 hypersonic flow is presented. This application focuses on using sinusoidal

Roy, Subrata

49

2-D Hypersonic Non-equilibrium Flow Simulation using r-p Adaptive Time-Implicit Discontinuous Galerkin Method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2-D Hypersonic Non-equilibrium Flow Simulation using r-p Adaptive Time-Implicit Discontinuous Aerospace Sciences Meeting #12;1 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 2-D Hypersonic Non Galerkin (DG) methods to 2-D hypersonic flow problems. Previous applications of DG method were limited

Roy, Subrata

50

A thermo-hydro-mechanical coupled model in local thermal non-equilibrium for fractured HDR reservoir  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A thermo-hydro-mechanical coupled model in local thermal non-equilibrium for fractured HDR of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia. Abstract The constitutive thermo-hydro-mechanical equations is next applied to simulate circulation tests at the Fenton Hill HDR reservoir. The finer thermo-hydro

Boyer, Edmond

51

Cosmological QCD phase transition in steady non-equilibrium dissipative Ho?ava–Lifshitz early universe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the phase transition from quark–gluon plasma to hadrons in the early universe in the context of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. According to the standard model of cosmology, a phase transition associated with chiral symmetry breaking after the electro-weak transition has occurred when the universe was about 1–10 ?s old. We focus attention on such a phase transition in the presence of a viscous relativistic cosmological background fluid in the framework of non-detailed balance Ho?ava–Lifshitz cosmology within an effective model of QCD. We consider a flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker universe filled with a non-causal and a causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid respectively and investigate the effects of the running coupling constants of Ho?ava–Lifshitz gravity, ?, on the evolution of the physical quantities relevant to a description of the early universe, namely, the temperature T, scale factor a, deceleration parameter q and dimensionless ratio of the bulk viscosity coefficient to entropy density (?)/s . We assume that the bulk viscosity cosmological background fluid obeys the evolution equation of the steady truncated (Eckart) and full version of the Israel–Stewart fluid, respectively. -- Highlights: •In this paper we have studied quark–hadron phase transition in the early universe in the context of the Ho?ava–Lifshitz model. •We use a flat FRW universe with the bulk viscosity cosmological background fluid obeying the evolution equation of the steady truncated (Eckart) and full version of the Israel–Stewart fluid, respectively.

Khodadi, M., E-mail: M.Khodadi@sbu.ac.ir; Sepangi, H.R., E-mail: hr-sepangi@sbu.ac.ir

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

52

Cosmological QCD phase transition in steady non-equilibrium dissipative Ho?ava-Lifshitz early universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the phase transition from quark-gluon plasma to hadrons in the early universe in the context of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. According to the standard model of cosmology, a phase transition associated with chiral symmetry breaking after the electro-weak transition has occurred when the universe was about $1-10\\mu s$ old. We focus attention on such a phase transition in the presence of a viscous relativistic cosmological background fluid in the framework of non-detailed balance Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz cosmology within an effective model of QCD. We consider a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe filled with a non-causal and causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid respectively and investigate the effects of the running coupling constants of Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity, $\\lambda$, on the evolution of the physical quantities relevant to a description of the early universe, namely, the temperature $T$, scale factor $a$, deceleration parameter $q$ and dimensionless ratio of the bulk viscosity coefficient to entropy density $\\frac{\\xi}{s}$. We assume that the bulk viscosity cosmological background fluid obeys the evolution equation of the steady truncated (Eckart) and full version of the Israel-Stewart fluid, respectively.

M. Khodadi; H. R. Sepangi

2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

53

Non-equilibrium quantum systems: Divergence between global and local descriptions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Even photosynthesis -- the most basic natural phenomenon underlying Life on Earth -- involves the non-trivial processing of excitations at the pico- and femtosecond scales during light-harvesting. The desire to understand such natural phenomena, as well as interpret the output from ultrafast experimental probes, creates an urgent need for accurate quantitative theories of open quantum systems. However it is unclear how best to generalize the well-established assumptions of an isolated system, particularly under non-equilibrium conditions. Here we compare two popular approaches: a description in terms of a direct product of the states of each individual system (i.e. a local approach) versus the use of new states resulting from diagonalizing the whole Hamiltonian (i.e. a global approach). We show that their equivalence fails when the system is open, in particular under the experimentally ubiquitous condition of a temperature gradient. By solving for the steady-state populations and calculating the heat flux as a test observable, we uncover stark differences between the formulations. This divergence highlights the need to establish rigorous ranges of applicability for such methods in modeling nanoscale transfer phenomena -- including during the light-harvesting process in photosynthesis.

Pedro D. Manrique; Ferney Rodriguez; Luis Quiroga; Neil F. Johnson

2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

54

Non-equilibrium structure and dynamics in a microscopic model of thin film active gels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the presence of ATP, molecular motors generate active force dipoles that drive suspensions of protein filaments far from thermodynamic equilibrium, leading to exotic dynamics and pattern formation. Microscopic modelling can help to quantify the relationship between individual motors plus filaments to organisation and dynamics on molecular and supra-molecular length scales. Here we present results of extensive numerical simulations of active gels where the motors and filaments are confined between two infinite parallel plates. Thermal fluctuations and excluded-volume interactions between filaments are included. A systematic variation of rates for motor motion, attachment and detachment, including a differential detachment rate from filament ends, reveals a range of non-equilibrium behaviour. Strong motor binding produces structured filament aggregates that we refer to as asters, bundles or layers, whose stability depends on motor speed and differential end-detachment. The gross features of the dependence of the observed structures on the motor rate and the filament concentration can be captured by a simple one-filament model. Loosely bound aggregates exhibit super-diffusive mass transport, where filament translocation scales with lag time with non-unique exponents that depend on motor kinetics. An empirical data collapse of filament speed as a function of motor speed and end-detachment is found, suggesting a dimensional reduction of the relevant parameter space. We conclude by discussing the perspectives of microscopic modelling in the field of active gels.

D. A. Head; W. J. Briels; G. Gompper

2014-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

55

Non-equilibrium steady state and subgeometric ergodicity for a chain of three coupled rotors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider a chain of three rotors (rotators) whose ends are coupled to stochastic heat baths. The temperatures of the two baths can be different, and we allow some constant torque to be applied at each end of the chain. Under some non-degeneracy condition on the interaction potentials, we show that the process admits a unique invariant probability measure, and that it is ergodic with a stretched exponential rate. The interesting issue is to estimate the rate at which the energy of the middle rotor decreases. As it is not directly connected to the heat baths, its energy can only be dissipated through the two outer rotors. But when the middle rotor spins very rapidly, it fails to interact effectively with its neighbors due to the rapid oscillations of the forces. By averaging techniques, we obtain an effective dynamics for the middle rotor, which then enables us to find a Lyapunov function. This and an irreducibility argument give the desired result. We finally illustrate numerically some properties of the non-equilibrium steady state.

Noé Cuneo; Jean-Pierre Eckmann; Christophe Poquet

2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

56

Influence of Penning effect on the plasma features in a non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is a cold plasma source that promises various innovative applications. The influence of Penning effect on the formation, propagation, and other physical properties of the plasma bullets in APPJ remains a debatable topic. By using a 10?cm wide active electrode and a frequency of applied voltage down to 0.5?Hz, the Penning effect caused by preceding discharges can be excluded. It was found that the Penning effect originating in a preceding discharge helps build a conductive channel in the gas flow and provide seed electrons, thus the discharge can be maintained at a low voltage which in turn leads to a smaller propagation speed for the plasma bullet. Photographs from an intensified charge coupled device reveal that the annular structure of the plasma plume for He is irrelevant to the Penning ionization process arising from preceding discharges. By adding NH{sub 3} into Ar to introduce Penning effect, the originally filamentous discharge of Ar can display a rather extensive plasma plume in ambient as He. These results are helpful for the understanding of the behaviors of non-equilibrium APPJs generated under distinct conditions and for the design of plasma jet features, especially the spatial distribution and propagation speed, which are essential for application.

Chang, Zhengshi; Zhang, Guanjun [School of Electrical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Jiang, Nan; Cao, Zexian, E-mail: zxcao@iphy.ac.cn [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

57

Spectral tailoring device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A spectral tailoring device for altering the neutron energy spectra and flux of neutrons in a fast reactor thereby selectively to enhance or inhibit the transmutation rate of a target metrical to form a product isotope. Neutron moderators, neutron filters, neutron absorbers and neutron reflectors may be used as spectral tailoring devices. Depending on the intended use for the device, a member from each of these four classes of materials could be used singularly, or in combination, to provide a preferred neutron energy spectra and flux of the neutrons in the region of the target material. In one embodiment of the invention, an assembly is provided for enhancing the production of isotopes, such as cobalt 60 and gadolinium 153. In another embodiment of the invention, a spectral tailoring device is disposed adjacent a target material which comprises long lived or volatile fission products and the device is used to shift the neutron energy spectra and flux of neutrons in the region of the fission products to preferentially transmute them to produce a less volatile fission product inventory. 6 figs.

Brager, H.R.; Schenter, R.E.; Carter, L.L.; Karnesky, R.A.

1987-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

58

Non-Newtonian behavior and molecular structure of Cooee bitumen under shear flow: a non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The rheology and molecular structure of a model bitumen (Cooee bitumen) under shear is investigated in the non-Newtonian regime using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The shear viscosity and normal stress differences of the bitumen mixture are computed at different shear rates and different temperatures. The model bitumen is shown to be a shear-thinning fluid. The corresponding molecular structure is studied at the same shear rates and temperatures. The Cooee bitumen is able to reproduce experimental results showing the formation of nanoaggregates composed of stacks of flat aromatic molecules. These nanoaggregates are immersed in a solvent of saturated hydrocarbon molecules. The nanoaggregates are shown to break up at very high shear rates, leading only to a minor effect on the viscosity of the mixture. At low shear rates, bitumen can be seen as a colloidal suspension of nanoaggregates in a solvent. The slight anisotropy of the whole sample due to the nanoaggregates is considered and quantified...

Lemarchand, Claire A; Todd, Billy D; Daivis, Peter J; Hansen, Jesper S

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Comparative analysis of quantum cascade laser modeling based on density matrices and non-equilibrium Green's functions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the operation of an 8.5??m quantum cascade laser based on GaInAs/AlInAs lattice matched to InP using three different simulation models based on density matrix (DM) and non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formulations. The latter advanced scheme serves as a validation for the simpler DM schemes and, at the same time, provides additional insight, such as the temperatures of the sub-band carrier distributions. We find that for the particular quantum cascade laser studied here, the behavior is well described by simple quantum mechanical estimates based on Fermi's golden rule. As a consequence, the DM model, which includes second order currents, agrees well with the NEGF results. Both these simulations are in accordance with previously reported data and a second regrown device.

Lindskog, M., E-mail: martin.lindskog@teorfys.lu.se; Wacker, A. [Mathematical Physics, Lund University, Box 118, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Wolf, J. M.; Liverini, V.; Faist, J. [ETH Institute for Quantum Electronics, ETH-Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Trinite, V.; Maisons, G.; Carras, M. [III-V Lab, 1 Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Aidam, R.; Ostendorf, R. [Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Tullastrasse 72, 79108 Freiburg (Germany)

2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

60

Tailoring PDC speckle structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Speckle structure of parametric down conversion light has recently received a large attention due to relevance in view of applications to quantum imaging The possibility of tailoring the speckle size by acting on the pump properties is an interesting tool for the applications to quantum imaging and in particular to the detection of weak object under shot-noise limit. Here we present a systematic detailed experimental study of the speckle structure produced in type II PDC with particular attention to its variation with pump beam properties.

G. Brida; M. Genovese; A. Meda; I. Ruo-Berchera; E. Predazzi

2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Tailoring PDC speckle structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Speckle structure of parametric down conversion light has recently received a large attention due to relevance in view of applications to quantum imaging The possibility of tailoring the speckle size by acting on the pump properties is an interesting tool for the applications to quantum imaging and in particular to the detection of weak object under shot-noise limit. Here we present a systematic detailed experimental study of the speckle structure produced in type II PDC with particular attention to its variation with pump beam properties

Brida, G; Meda, A; Predazzi, E; Ruo-Berchera, I

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Non-equilibrium dynamics of an ultracold Bose gas under a multi-pulsed quantum quench in interaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the nonequilibrium dynamical properties of a weakly-interacting Bose gas at zero temperature under the multi-pulsed quantum quench in interaction by calculating one-body, two-body correlation functions and Tan's contact of the model system. The multi-pulsed quench is represented as follows: first suddenly quenching the interatomic interaction from $g_{i}$ to $g_{f}$ at time $t=0$, holding time $t$, and then suddenly quenching interaction from $g_{f}$ back to $g_{i}$, holding the time $t$ sequence $n$ times. In particular, two typical kinds of quenching parameters are chosen, corresponding to $(g_{i}/g_{f}>1)$ and $(g_{i}/g_{f}powerful way of studying the non-equilibrium dynamics of many-body quantum system than the `one-off' quantum quench. Finally, we discuss the ultra-short-range properties of the two-body correlation function after the $n$th quenching, which can be used to probe the `Tan'scontact' in experiments. All our calculations can be tested in current cold atom experiments.

Lei Chen; Zhidong Zhang; Zhaoxin Liang

2015-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

63

Non-Newtonian behavior and molecular structure of Cooee bitumen under shear flow: a non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The rheology and molecular structure of a model bitumen (Cooee bitumen) under shear is investigated in the non-Newtonian regime using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The shear viscosity and normal stress differences of the bitumen mixture are computed at different shear rates and different temperatures. The model bitumen is shown to be a shear-thinning fluid. The corresponding molecular structure is studied at the same shear rates and temperatures. The Cooee bitumen is able to reproduce experimental results showing the formation of nanoaggregates composed of stacks of flat aromatic molecules. These nanoaggregates are immersed in a solvent of saturated hydrocarbon molecules. The nanoaggregates are shown to break up at very high shear rates, leading only to a minor effect on the viscosity of the mixture. At low shear rates, bitumen can be seen as a colloidal suspension of nanoaggregates in a solvent. The slight anisotropy of the whole sample due to the nanoaggregates is considered and quantified. The alignment of docosane molecules due to form and intrinsic birefringence and its effect on the rheological properties of the mixture are discussed. The stress optical rule is shown to be valid only in a limited range of shear rates at high temperatures, because this rule neglects the presence of other molecule types than docosane at high shear rates and the effect of intermolecular alignment, which gets more pronounced at high shear rates.

Claire A. Lemarchand; Nicholas P. Bailey; Billy D. Todd; Peter J. Daivis; Jesper S. Hansen

2015-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

64

Predicting the stellar and non-equilibrium dust emission spectra of high-resolution simulated galaxies with DART-Ray  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe the calculation of the stochastically heated dust emission using the 3D ray-tracing dust radiative transfer code DART-Ray, which is designed to solve the dust radiative transfer problem for galaxies with arbitrary geometries. In order to reduce the time required to derive the non-equilibrium dust emission spectra from each volume element within a model, we implemented an adaptive SED library approach, which we tested for the case of axisymmetric galaxy geometries. To show the capabilities of the code, we applied DART-Ray to a high-resolution N-body+SPH galaxy simulation to predict the appearance of the simulated galaxy at a set of wavelengths from the UV to the sub-mm. We analyse the results to determine the effect of dust on the observed radial and vertical profiles of the stellar emission as well as on the attenuation and scattering of light from the constituent stellar populations. We also quantify the proportion of dust re-radiated stellar light powered by young and old stellar populations, bo...

Natale, Giovanni; Tuffs, Richard J; Debattista, Victor P; Fischera, Jörg; Grootes, Meiert W

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Modeling of non-equilibrium phenomena in expanding flows by means of a collisional-radiative model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of non-equilibrium in a quasi-one-dimensional nozzle flow are investigated by means of a collisional-radiative model. The gas undergoing the expansion is an air plasma and consists of atoms, molecules, and free electrons. In the present analysis, the electronic excited states of atomic and molecular species are treated as separate pseudo-species. Rotational and vibrational energy modes are assumed to be populated according to Boltzmann distributions. The coupling between radiation and gas dynamics is accounted for, in simplified manner, by using escape factors. The flow governing equations for the steady quasi-one-dimensional flow are written in conservative form and discretized in space by means of a finite volume method. Steady-state solutions are obtained by using a fully implicit time integration scheme. The analysis of the evolution of the electronic distribution functions reveals a substantial over-population of the high-lying excited levels of atoms and molecules in correspondence of the nozzle exit. The influence of optical thickness is also studied. The results clearly demonstrate that the radiative transitions, within the optically thin approximation, drastically reduce the over-population of high-lying electronic levels.

Munafò, A.; Lani, A. [Aeronautics and Aerospace Department, von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Chaussée de Waterloo 72, 1640 Rhode-Saint-Genèse (Belgium)] [Aeronautics and Aerospace Department, von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Chaussée de Waterloo 72, 1640 Rhode-Saint-Genèse (Belgium); Bultel, A. [CORIA, UMR CNRS 6614, Universitè de Rouen, Site universitaire du Madrillet, Avenue de l'Universitè 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray Cedex (France)] [CORIA, UMR CNRS 6614, Universitè de Rouen, Site universitaire du Madrillet, Avenue de l'Universitè 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray Cedex (France); Panesi, M. [Aerospace Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 306 Talbot Lab, 104 S. Wright St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)] [Aerospace Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 306 Talbot Lab, 104 S. Wright St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

66

THE ABUNDANCE OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN AND ITS CORRELATION WITH MIDPLANE PRESSURE IN GALAXIES: NON-EQUILIBRIUM, TURBULENT, CHEMICAL MODELS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Observations of spiral galaxies show a strong linear correlation between the ratio of molecular to atomic hydrogen surface density R{sub mol} and midplane pressure. To explain this, we simulate three-dimensional, magnetized turbulence, including simplified treatments of non-equilibrium chemistry and the propagation of dissociating radiation, to follow the formation of H{sub 2} from cold atomic gas. The formation timescale for H{sub 2} is sufficiently long that equilibrium is not reached within the 20-30 Myr lifetimes of molecular clouds. The equilibrium balance between radiative dissociation and H{sub 2} formation on dust grains fails to predict the time-dependent molecular fractions we find. A simple, time-dependent model of H{sub 2} formation can reproduce the gross behavior, although turbulent density perturbations increase molecular fractions by a factor of few above it. In contradiction to equilibrium models, radiative dissociation of molecules plays little role in our model for diffuse radiation fields with strengths less than 10 times that of the solar neighborhood, because of the effective self-shielding of H{sub 2}. The observed correlation of R{sub mol} with pressure corresponds to a correlation with local gas density if the effective temperature in the cold neutral medium of galactic disks is roughly constant. We indeed find such a correlation of R{sub mol} with density. If we examine the value of R{sub mol} in our local models after a free-fall time at their average density, as expected for models of molecular cloud formation by large-scale gravitational instability, our models reproduce the observed correlation over more than an order-of-magnitude range in density.

Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Glover, Simon C. O., E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org, E-mail: glover@uni-heidelberg.de [Zentrum der Astrophysik der Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2012-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

67

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE CoZZoque C7, supplgment au n07, Tome 40, J u i l l e t 1:979, page C7-871 SOME REMARKSON THE NON-EQUILIBRIUM PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REMARKSON THE NON-EQUILIBRIUM PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS E.F. Gippius, 6.1. Iljukhin and V.N. Kolesnikov. Lebedev of our investigations The main peculiarities of such plasma diagnostics m e discussed i n review re t o the development of the physical base of non-equilibrium plasma spectroscopy. The transient dense

Boyer, Edmond

68

Numerical study of atomic production rate in hydrogen negative ion sources with the effect of non-equilibrium electron energy distribution function  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spatial non-uniformity of the dissociative hydrogen atom (H{sup 0}) production has been investigated in a large negative ion source (JAEA 10 A source) with the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) obtained by a Monte-Carlo simulation code for electron transport in 3D3V (three dimensional real and velocity) space. It has been shown that the H{sup 0} production rate becomes larger in the upper region (one side in the longitudinal direction) of the source chamber. This spatial non-uniformity of the H{sup 0} production profile is mainly explained by the non-equilibrium features of the EEDF in the upper region, i.e., the EEDF consists of thermal electron component with kinetic energy ? < 25 eV and fast electron component with energy ? > 25 eV in the upper region, while the EEDF mainly consists of only thermal electrons in the bottom region. These characteristics for the EEDF and the energy dependence of cross-sections for dissociation and dissociative ionization processes lead to the non-uniform profile of the H{sup 0} production. The above numerical results of the spatial H{sup 0} non-uniformity are validated and confirmed by comparisons with those by spectroscopic measurement. It has been clarified that the non-equilibrium (fast electron) component of the EEDF has a large contribution to the non-uniformity of the H{sup 0} production rate.

Shibata, T.; Hatayama, A. [Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)] [Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Kashiwagi, M.; Inoue, T.; Hanada, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukouyama, Naka 311-0193 (Japan)] [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukouyama, Naka 311-0193 (Japan)

2013-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

69

On Tailoring PDC speckle structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Speckle structure of parametric down conversion light has recently received a large attention due to relevance in view of applications to quantum imaging The possibility of tailoring the speckle size by acting on the pump properties is an interesting tool for the applications to quantum imaging and in particular to the detection of weak object under shot-noise limit. Here we present a systematic detailed experimental study of the speckle structure produced in type II PDC with particular attention to its variation with pump beam properties.

Brida, G; Meda, A; Ruo-Berchera, I; Predazzi, E

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Betatron radiation from density tailored plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Betatron radiation from density tailored plasmas K. Tathe resulting betatron radiation spectrum can therefore bepro?le, the betatron radiation emitted by theses electrons

Ta Phuoc, Kim

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Spin-polarization and spin-dependent logic gates in a double quantum ring based on Rashba spin-orbit effect: Non-equilibrium Green's function approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spin-dependent electron transport in an open double quantum ring, when each ring is made up of four quantum dots and threaded by a magnetic flux, is studied. Two independent and tunable gate voltages are applied to induce Rashba spin-orbit effect in the quantum rings. Using non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, we study the effects of electron-electron interaction on spin-dependent electron transport and show that although the electron-electron interaction induces an energy gap, it has no considerable effect when the bias voltage is sufficiently high. We also show that the double quantum ring can operate as a spin-filter for both spin up and spin down electrons. The spin-polarization of transmitted electrons can be tuned from ?1 (pure spin-down current) to +1 (pure spin-up current) by changing the magnetic flux and/or the gates voltage. Also, the double quantum ring can act as AND and NOR gates when the system parameters such as Rashba coefficient are properly adjusted.

Eslami, Leila, E-mail: Leslami@iust.ac.ir; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi, E-mail: mahdi@iust.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16846 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

72

Tailored displays to compensate for visual aberrations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce tailored displays that enhance visual acuity by decomposing virtual objects and placing the resulting anisotropic pieces into the subject's focal range. The goal is to free the viewer from needing wearable ...

Pamplona, Vitor F.

73

Tailoring UNITY to Distributed Program Design ?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tailoring UNITY to Distributed Program Design ? Michel Charpentier, Mamoun Filali, Philippe Mauran. As a general framework, UNITY does not offer any specific facility for the design of distributed systems to help the design of distributed systems in UNITY. 1 Introduction UNITY is intended to be a general

Charpentier, Michel

74

Tailoring UNITY to Distributed Program Design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tailoring UNITY to Distributed Program Design Michel Charpentier, Mamoun Filali, Philippe Mauran, G. As a general framework, UNITY does not offer any specific facility for the design of distributed systems to help the design of distributed systems in UNITY. 1 Introduction UNITY is intended to be a general

Grigoras, .Romulus

75

Tailored Materials Corp | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov Pty LtdSteen,Ltd Jump to: navigation,Open EnergyFacilityTEP AsiaTTPTai YuanTailored

76

Tailored Materials for High Efficiency CIDI Engines (Caterpillar...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

High Efficiency CIDI Engines (Caterpillar CRADA) Tailored Materials for High Efficiency CIDI Engines (Caterpillar CRADA) 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program...

77

Engineering Property Prediction Tools for Tailored Polymer Composite...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Peer Evaluation Meeting lm068nguyen2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Engineering Property Prediction Tools for Tailored Polymer Composite Structures Property...

78

Property Prediction Tools for Tailored Polymer Composite Structures...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

"Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. merit08smith2.pdf More Documents & Publications Property Prediction Tools for Tailored Polymer...

79

Property Prediction Tools for Tailored Polymer Composite Structures...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

"Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. merit08smith1.pdf More Documents & Publications Engineering Property Prediction Tools for Tailored...

80

Tailoring the properties of organic aerogels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have recently succeeded in producing a new class of organic (or carbon) aerogels whose electrical, mechanical, and other properties are superior to those of the metal alkoxides. By tailoring properties to specific applications, we hope to achieve aerogels with even better performance. We have already tested carbon aerogels for use in inertial-confinement fusion targets and are currently studying applications to other technologies, such as battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. In several of these applications, the permeability of the carbon aerogels-that is, their resistance to fluid flow-is crucial to their performance. Here, we describe briefly the synthesis of organic aerogels and present the results of our permeability studies.

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: Analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 ± 0.07 eV (= 11400 ± 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core.

Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B. [Grupo de Descargas Eléctricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecánica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto (2600) Santa Fe (Argentina)] [Grupo de Descargas Eléctricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecánica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto (2600) Santa Fe (Argentina); Kelly, H. [Grupo de Descargas Eléctricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecánica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto (2600) Santa Fe (Argentina) [Grupo de Descargas Eléctricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecánica, Facultad Regional Venado Tuerto (UTN), Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto (2600) Santa Fe (Argentina); Instituto de Física del Plasma (CONICET), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (UBA) Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

82

Engineering Property Prediction Tools for Tailored Polymer Composite...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. lm11smith.pdf More Documents & Publications Property Prediction Tools for Tailored Polymer...

83

Non-equilibrium thermodynamics of gravitational screens  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the Einstein gravity equations projected on a timelike surface, which represents the time evolution of what we call a gravitational screen. We show that such a screen possesses a surface tension and an internal energy, and that the Einstein equations reduce to the thermodynamic equations of a viscous bubble. We also provide a complete dictionary between gravitational and thermodynamical variables. In the non-viscous cases there are three thermodynamic equations which characterise a bubble dynamics: These are the first law, the Marangoni flow equation and the Young-Laplace equation. In all three equations the surface tension plays a central role: In the first law it appears as a work term per unit area, in the Marangoni flow its gradient drives a force, and in the Young-Laplace equation it contributes to a pressure proportional to the surface curvature. The gravity equations appear as a natural generalization of these bubble equations when the bubble itself is viscous and dynamical. In particular, it shows that the mechanism of entropy production for the viscous bubble is mapped onto the production of gravitational waves. We also review the relationship between surface tension and temperature, and discuss the usual black-hole thermodynamics from this point of view.

Laurent Freidel; Yuki Yokokura

2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

84

Problems on Non-Equilibrium Statistical Physics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy functional, similar to the problem in dimensional scaling in the H-atom. For the C-atom, we got the ground state energy -37:82 eV with a relative error less than 6 %. The simplest molecular ion, H+ 2 , has been investigated by the quasi...

Kim, Moochan

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

85

Tailored Materials for High Efficiency CIDI Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of the project, Tailored Materials for High Efficiency Compression Ignition Direct Injection (CIDI) Engines, is to enable the implementation of new combustion strategies, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), that have the potential to significantly increase the energy efficiency of current diesel engines and decrease fuel consumption and environmental emissions. These strategies, however, are increasing the demands on conventional engine materials, either from increases in peak cylinder pressure (PCP) or from increases in the temperature of operation. The specific objective of this project is to investigate the application of a new material processing technology, friction stir processing (FSP), to improve the thermal and mechanical properties of engine components. The concept is to modify the surfaces of conventional, low-cost engine materials. The project focused primarily on FSP in aluminum materials that are compositional analogs to the typical piston and head alloys seen in small- to mid-sized CIDI engines. Investigations have been primarily of two types over the duration of this project: (1) FSP of a cast hypoeutectic Al-Si-Mg (A356/357) alloy with no introduction of any new components, and (2) FSP of Al-Cu-Ni alloys (Alloy 339) by physically stirring-in various quantities of carbon nanotubes/nanofibers or carbon fibers. Experimental work to date on aluminum systems has shown significant increases in fatigue lifetime and stress-level performance in aluminum-silicon alloys using friction processing alone, but work to demonstrate the addition of carbon nanotubes and fibers into aluminum substrates has shown mixed results due primarily to the difficulty in achieving porosity-free, homogeneous distributions of the particulate. A limited effort to understand the effects of FSP on steel materials was also undertaken during the course of this project. Processed regions were created in high-strength, low-alloyed steels up to 0.5 in. deep that showed significant grain refinement and homogeneous microstructures favorable to increased fracture toughness and fatigue performance. The final tasks of the project demonstrated that the FSP concept can be applied to a relevant part geometry by fabricating diesel piston crowns with FSP regions applied selectively to the edge of the bowl rim. This area of the piston typically suffers from conditions at high PCP that cause severe thermal fatigue issues. It is expected that, given the data from coupon testing, the durability of pistons modified by FSP will allow much higher fatigue lifetime and potentially also greater resistance to elevated stress-level effects on fatigue.

Grant, G.J.; Jana, S.

2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

86

Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAboutManus Site-Inactive TWPCarbon intensityTailoredTailored

87

Aeroelastic tailoring in wind-turbine blade applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reviews issues related to the use of aeroelastic tailoring as a cost-effective, passive means to shape the power curve and reduce loads. Wind turbine blades bend and twist during operation, effectively altering the angle of attack, which in turn affects loads and energy production. There are blades now in use that have significant aeroelastic couplings, either on purpose or because of flexible and light-weight designs. Since aeroelastic effects are almost unavoidable in flexible blade designs, it may be desirable to tailor these effects to the authors advantage. Efforts have been directed at adding flexible devices to a blade, or blade tip, to passively regulate power (or speed) in high winds. It is also possible to build a small amount of desirable twisting into the load response of a blade with proper asymmetric fiber lay up in the blade skin. (Such coupling is akin to distributed {delta}{sub 3} without mechanical hinges.) The tailored twisting can create an aeroelastic effect that has payoff in either better power production or in vibration alleviation, or both. Several research efforts have addressed different parts of this issue. Research and development in the use of aeroelastic tailoring on helicopter rotors is reviewed. Potential energy gains as a function of twist coupling are reviewed. The effects of such coupling on rotor stability have been studied and are presented here. The ability to design in twist coupling with either stretching or bending loads is examined also.

Veers, P.; Lobitz, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bir, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). National Wind Technology Center

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Dynamic Tailoring and Tuning for Space-Based Precision Optical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

management and testing. The telescope optics must meet stringent positional tolerances in the presence integrated system test prior to launch. In the early stages of the mission the design is tailored. In addition, fully integrated system tests are cost-prohibitive due to the size and flexibility of the system

89

Tailoring The Microwave Permittivity And Permeability Of Composite Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Tailoring The Microwave Permittivity And Permeability Of Composite Materials Kenneth M. Bober/Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854 ABSTRACT The microwave permittivity( r ) and permeability( r ) of composite materials. Polynomials are also used for the ferrite composites because it was determined that the MG theory was unable

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

90

TAILORING HEALTH MESSAGES 123 Delivering Automated Health Monitoring via Telephone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

can be tailored by a health care provider, using predefined dialog schemata that make it possible a problem during a conversation, then it connects the patient to a health care provider who can attend from the health care provider and the manner of its delivery (Burley and Hampton 2003; Gorney

Dale, Robert

91

Tailored Working Fluids for Enhanced Binary Geothermal Power Plants  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project Objective: To improve the utilization of available energy in geothermal resources and increase the energy conversion efficiency of systems employed by a) tailoring the subcritical and/or supercritical glide of enhanced working fluids to best match thermal resources, and b) identifying appropriate thermal system and component designs for the down-selected working fluids.

92

Recent progress in tailoring trap-based positron beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent progress is described to implement two approaches to specially tailor trap-based positron beams. Experiments and simulations are presented to understand the limits on the energy spread and pulse duration of positron beams extracted from a Penning-Malmberg (PM) trap after the particles have been buffer-gas cooled (or heated) in the range of temperatures 1000 {>=} T {>=} 300 K. These simulations are also used to predict beam performance for cryogenically cooled positrons. Experiments and simulations are also presented to understand the properties of beams formed when plasmas are tailored in a PM trap in a 5 tesla magnetic field, then non-adiabatically extracted from the field using a specially designed high-permeability grid to create a new class of electrostatically guided beams.

Natisin, M. R.; Hurst, N. C.; Danielson, J. R.; Surko, C. M. [Physics Department, University of California, San Diego La Jolla CA 92093-0319 (United States)

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

93

Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security AdministrationcontrollerNanocrystallineForeign ObjectOUR TableE9.security Tag: securityTailored

94

Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAboutManus Site-Inactive TWPCarbon intensityTailored

95

Supporting Multiple Cognitive Processing Styles Using Tailored Support Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

According to theories of cognitive processing style or cognitive control mode, human performance is more effective when an individual’s cognitive state (e.g., intuition/scramble vs. deliberate/strategic) matches his/her ecological constraints or context (e.g., utilize intuition to strive for a "good-enough" response instead of deliberating for the "best" response under high time pressure). Ill-mapping between cognitive state and ecological constraints are believed to lead to degraded task performance. Consequently, incorporating support systems which are designed to specifically address multiple cognitive and functional states e.g., high workload, stress, boredom, and initiate appropriate mitigation strategies (e.g., reduce information load) is essential to reduce plant risk. Utilizing the concept of Cognitive Control Models, this paper will discuss the importance of tailoring support systems to match an operator's cognitive state, and will further discuss the importance of these ecological constraints in selecting and implementing mitigation strategies for safe and effective system performance. An example from the nuclear power plant industry illustrating how a support system might be tailored to support different cognitive states is included.

Tuan Q. Tran; Karen M. Feigh; Amy R. Pritchett

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Active, Tailorable Adhesives for Dissimilar Material Bonding, Repair and Assembly  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by Michigan State University at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Active, tailorable...

97

Tailoring of Pore Structures and Surface Properties of Syndiotactic Polystyrene Aerogels.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This work focused on tailoring of pore structures and properties of syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS) aerogels, using proper selection of materials and preparation techniques, and further… (more)

Wang, Xiao

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminium tailored blanks Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

France from 3-5 September 2008 1 Summary: : Superplastic Forming, SPF, Friction Stir Welding, FSW, titanium, 6Al-4V, aluminium, 5083, tailored blank... , Mechanical Properties of...

99

Tailoring dielectric properties of ferroelectric-dielectric multilayers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We develop a nonlinear thermodynamic model for multilayer ferroelectric heterostructures that takes into account electrostatic and electromechanical interactions between layers. We concentrate on the effect of relative layer fractions and in-plane thermal stresses on dielectric properties of Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3}-, BaTiO{sub 3}-, and PbZr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} (PZT)-SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) multilayers on Si and c-sapphire. We show that dielectric properties of such multilayers can be significantly enhanced by tailoring the growth/processing temperature and the STO layer fraction. Our computations show that large tunabilities (?90% at 400?kV/cm) are possible in carefully designed barium strontium titanate-STO and PZT-STO even on Si for which there exist substantially large in-plane strains.

Kesim, M. T.; Zhang, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Cole, M. W. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005 (United States); Misirlioglu, I. B. [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanc? University, Orhanl?/Tuzla, 34956 Istanbul (Turkey); Alpay, S. P., E-mail: p.alpay@ims.uconn.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States)

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

100

Tunable Laser Plasma Accelerator based on Longitudinal Density Tailoring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser plasma accelerators have produced high-quality electron beams with GeV energies from cm-scale devices and are being investigated as hyperspectral fs light sources producing THz to {gamma}-ray radiation and as drivers for future high-energy colliders. These applications require a high degree of stability, beam quality and tunability. Here we report on a technique to inject electrons into the accelerating field of a laser-driven plasma wave and coupling of this injector to a lower-density, separately tunable plasma for further acceleration. The technique relies on a single laser pulse powering a plasma structure with a tailored longitudinal density profile, to produce beams that can be tuned in the range of 100-400 MeV with percent-level stability, using laser pulses of less than 40 TW. The resulting device is a simple stand-alone accelerator or the front end for a multistage higher-energy accelerator.

Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Lin, Chen; Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shiraishi, Satomi; Sokollik, Thomas; Benedetti, Carlo; Schroeder, Carl; Geddes, Cameron; Tilborg, Jeroen van; Osterhoff, Jens; Esarey, Eric; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

High gain photoconductive semiconductor switch having tailored doping profile zones  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photoconductive semiconductor switch with tailored doping profile zones beneath and extending laterally from the electrical contacts to the device. The zones are of sufficient depth and lateral extent to isolate the contacts from damage caused by the high current filaments that are created in the device when it is turned on. The zones may be formed by etching depressions into the substrate, then conducting epitaxial regrowth in the depressions with material of the desired doping profile. They may be formed by surface epitaxy. They may also be formed by deep diffusion processes. The zones act to reduce the energy density at the contacts by suppressing collective impact ionization and formation of filaments near the contact and by reducing current intensity at the contact through enhanced current spreading within the zones.

Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Loubriel, Guillermo M. (Albuquerque, NM); Mar, Alan (Albuquerque, NM); Zutavern, Fred J (Albuquerque, NM); Hjalmarson, Harold P. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Edgewood, NM); O'Malley, Martin W. (Edgewood, NM); Helgeson, Wesley D. (Albuquerque, NM); Denison, Gary J. (Sandia Park, NM); Brown, Darwin J. (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, Charles T. (Albuquerque, NM); Hou, Hong Q. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Spectrally tailored supercontinuum generation from single-mode-fiber amplifiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spectral filtering of an all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped fiber laser was demonstrated effective for broadband supercontinuum generation in the picosecond time region. The picosecond pump pulses were tailored in spectrum with 1 nm band-pass filter installed between two single-mode fiber amplifiers. By tuning the spectral filter around 1028?nm, four-wave mixing was initiated in a photonic crystal fiber spliced with single-mode fiber, as manifested by the simultaneous generation of Stokes wave at 1076?nm and anti-Stokes wave at 984?nm. Four-wave mixing took place in cascade with the influence of stimulated Raman scattering and eventually extended the output spectrum more than 900?nm of 10?dB bandwidth. This technique allows smooth octave supercontinuum generation by using simple single-mode fiber amplifiers rather than complicated multistage large-mode-area fiber amplifiers.

Hao, Qiang; Guo, Zhengru; Zhang, Qingshan [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Optical System, Engineering Research Center of Optical Instrument and System (Ministry of Education), School of Optical-Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, 516 Jungong Road, Shanghai 200093 (China); Liu, Yang; Li, Wenxue [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, 3663 Zhongshan North Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Zeng, Heping, E-mail: hpzeng@phy.ecnu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Optical System, Engineering Research Center of Optical Instrument and System (Ministry of Education), School of Optical-Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, 516 Jungong Road, Shanghai 200093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, 3663 Zhongshan North Road, Shanghai 200062 (China)

2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

103

Tailored Displays to Compensate for Visual Aberrations Vitor F. Pamplona1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

optics are performed. We propose tailored displays for daily tasks where using eyeglasses are unfeasible-order aberrations that eyeglasses are not able to. Keywords: tailored displays, optics, light-field displays Links-standard eyesight. Acuity enhance- ment options range from simple eyeglasses to laser eye surgery. Wearable optical

Aliaga, Daniel G.

104

Fuel Source Isotopic Tailoring Impact on ITER Design, Operation and Safety  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Fuel Source Isotopic Tailoring and Its Impact on ITER Design, Operation and Safety M. J. Gouge, W. The isotopic tailoring concept consists of utilizing a tritium-rich pellet source for core fueling and a deuterium- rich gas source for edge fueling. Because of the improved particle confinement associated

105

Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks at Superplastic Temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes an investigation of the mechanical properties of weld material in aluminum tailor welded blanks (TWB) at superplastic temperatures and discusses the potential application of TWBs in superplastic forming operations. Aluminum TWBs consist of multiple sheet materials of different thickness or alloy that are butt-welded together into a single, variable thickness blank. To evaluate the performance of the weld material in TWBs, a series of tensile tests were conducted at superplastic temperatures with specimens that contained weld material in the gage area. The sheet material used in the study was Sky 5083 aluminum alloy, which was joined to produce the TWBs by gas tungsten arc welding using an AA5356 filler wire. The experimental results show that, in the temperature range of 500?C to 550?C and at strain rates ranging from 10-4 sec-1 to 10-2 sec-1, the weld material has a higher flow stress and lower ductility than the monolithic sheet material. The weld material exhibited elongations of 40% to 60% under these conditions, whereas the monolithic sheet achieved 220% to 360% elongation. At the same temperatures and strain rates, the weld material exhibited flow stresses 1.3 to 4 times greater than the flow stress in the monolithic sheet. However, the weld material did show a substantial increase in the strain rate sensitivity and ductility when compared to the same material formed at room temperature.

Davies, Richard W.; Vetrano, John S.; Smith, Mark T.; Pitman, Stan G.

2002-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

106

Chemical tailoring of steam to remediate underground mixed waste contaminents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method to simultaneously remediate mixed-waste underground contamination, such as organic liquids, metals, and radionuclides involves chemical tailoring of steam for underground injection. Gases or chemicals are injected into a high pressure steam flow being injected via one or more injection wells to contaminated soil located beyond a depth where excavation is possible. The injection of the steam with gases or chemicals mobilizes contaminants, such as metals and organics, as the steam pushes the waste through the ground toward an extraction well having subatmospheric pressure (vacuum). The steam and mobilized contaminants are drawn in a substantially horizontal direction to the extraction well and withdrawn to a treatment point above ground. The heat and boiling action of the front of the steam flow enhance the mobilizing effects of the chemical or gas additives. The method may also be utilized for immobilization of metals by using an additive in the steam which causes precipitation of the metals into clusters large enough to limit their future migration, while removing any organic contaminants.

Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Udell, Kent S. (Berkeley, CA); Bruton, Carol J. (Livermore, CA); Carrigan, Charles R. (Tracy, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Experimental and numerical investigations on tailored tempering process of a U-channel component with tailored mechanical properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hot stamping of quenchenable ultra high strength steels currently represents a promising forming technology for the manufacturing of safety and crash relevant parts. For some applications, such as B-pillars and other structural components that may undergo impact loading, it may be desirable to create regions of the part with tailored mechanical properties. In the paper, a laboratory-scale hot stamped U-channel was manufactured by using a segmented die, which was heated by cartridge heaters and cooled by water channels independently. Local hardness values as low as 289 HV can be achieved using a heated die temperature of 400°C while maintaining a hardness level of 490 HV in the fully cooled region. If the die temperature was increased to 450°C, the Vickers hardness of elements in the heated region was 227 HV, with a reduction in hardness of more than 50%. Optical microscopy was used to verify the microstructure of the as-quenched phases with respect to the heated die temperatures. The FE model of the lab-scale process was developed to capture the overall hardness trends that were observed in the experiments.

Tang, B. T., E-mail: tbtsh@hotmail.com [Shandong Jianzhu University, Fengming Rd., Jinan, 250101 (China); Bruschi, S.; Ghiotti, A.; Bariani, P. F. [University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, Padova, 35131 (Italy)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

108

Tailoring Silica-alumina Supported Pt-Pd As Poison Tolerant Catalyst...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the efficiency of the catalyst in the presence of sulfur. Citation: Yu Y, OY Gutierrez, GL Haller, RJ Colby, BC Kabius, JA Rob van Veen, A Jentys, and JA Lercher.2013."Tailoring...

109

Hard and tough electrodeposited aluminum-manganese alloys with tailored nanostructures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tailoring the nanostructure of electrodeposited Al-Mn films to achieve high hardness and toughness is the overarching goal of this thesis. Binary Al-Mn alloys are electrodeposited using a conventional current waveform in ...

Ruan, Shiyun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Towards a Tailored Sensor Network for Fire Emergency Monitoring in Large buildings   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this presentation, we describe some of the ongoing efforts in developing a wireless sensor network tailored specifically for fire emergency monitoring. Network simulations of a dense sensor network with a flat architecture ...

Upadhyay, Rochan

2007-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

111

Equilibrium and non-equilibrium emission of complex fragments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Complex fragment emission (Z{gt}2) has been studied in the reactions of 50, 80, and 100 MeV/u {sup 139}La + {sup 12}C, and 80 MeV/u {sup 139}La + {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Cu, and {sup 197}Au. Charge, angle, and energy distributions were measured inclusively and in coincidence with other complex fragments, and were used to extract the source rapidities, velocity distributions, and cross sections. The experimental emission velocity distributions, charge loss distributions, and cross sections have been compared with calculations based on statistical compound nucleus decay. The binary signature of the coincidence events and the sharpness of the velocity distributions illustrate the primarily 2-body nature of the {sup 139}La + {sup 12}C reaction mechanism between 50 and 100 MeV/u. The emission velocities, angular distributions, and absolute cross sections of fragments of 20{le}Z{le}35 at 50 MeV/u, 19{le}Z{le}28 at 80 MeV/u, and 17{le}Z{le}21 at 100 MeV/u indicate that these fragments arise solely from the binary decay of compound nuclei formed in incomplete fusion reactions in which the {sup 139}La projectile picks up about one-half of the {sup 12}C target. In the 80 MeV/u {sup 139}La + {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Cu, and {sup 197}Au reactions, the disappearance of the binary signature in the total charge and velocity distributions suggests and increase in the complex fragment and light charged particle multiplicity with increasing target mass. As in the 80 and 100 MeV/u {sup 139}La + {sup 12}C reactions, the lighter complex fragments exhibit anisotropic angular distributions and cross sections that are too large to be explained exclusively by statistical emission. 143 refs., 67 figs.

Bowman, D.R.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Non-Equilibrium Pathways during Electrochemical Phase Transformations...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

level, where incomplete reactions and failure are prone to occur. Micrometric-sized lithium-manganese spinel cathode material - Li1+xMn2-xO4 - is one of the state-of-the-art...

113

Non-equilibrium Lorentz gas on a curved space  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The periodic Lorentz gas with external field and iso-kinetic thermostat is equivalent, by conformal transformation, to a billiard with expanding phase-space and slightly distorted scatterers, for which the trajectories are straight lines. A further time rescaling allows to keep the speed constant in that new geometry. In the hyperbolic regime, the stationary state of this billiard is characterized by a phase-space contraction rate, equal to that of the iso-kinetic Lorentz gas. In contrast to the iso-kinetic Lorentz gas where phase-space contraction occurs in the bulk, the phase-space contraction rate here takes place at the periodic boundaries.

Felipe Barra; Thomas Gilbert

2007-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

114

Non-equilibrium electroweak baryogenesis from preheating after inflation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a novel scenario for baryogenesis in a hybrid inflation model at the electroweak scale, in which the Standard Model Higgs field triggers the end of inflation. One of the conditions for successful baryogenesis, the departure from thermal equilibrium, is naturally achieved at the stage of preheating after inflation. The inflaton oscillations induce large occupation numbers for long-wavelength configurations of Higgs and gauge fields, which leads to a large rate of sphaleron transitions. We estimate this rate during the first stages of reheating and evaluate the amount of baryons produced due to a particular type of higher dimensional CP violating operator. The universe thermalizes through fermion interactions, at a temperature below critical, $T_{rh} < 100$ GeV, preventing the wash-out of the produced baryon asymmetry. Numerical simulations in (1+1) dimensions support our theoretical analysis.

Juan Garcia-Bellido; Dmitri Grigoriev; Alexander Kusenko; Mikhail Shaposhnikov

1999-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

115

Supersonic turbulent boundary layers with periodic mechanical non-equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. It was documented that proper roughness selection coupled with a sufficiently strong favorable pressure gradient produced regions of �negative� production in the transport of turbulent stress. This led to localized areas of significant turbulence stress...

Ekoto, Isaac Wesley

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

116

Thermal non-equilibrium transport in colloids Alois Wrger  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to an Onsager cross coefficient that describes the coupling between heat and particle flows. In the last decade. Boundary layer approximation 6 B. Double-layer forces 7 C. Transport velocity 8 D. Non-uniform electrolyte condition 15 I. Size dependence 16 III. Dispersion and depletion forces 18 A. Colloid-polymer mixtures 18 B

Boyer, Edmond

117

Is Soret Equilibrium a Non-Equilibrium Effect? Alois Wrger  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

'Aquitaine, Université de Bordeaux & CNRS, 351 cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence, France Recent thermophoretic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

118

The Principle of Minimal Resistance in Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analytical models describing the motion of colloidal particles in given velocity fields are presented. In addition to local approaches, leading to well known master equations such as the Langevin and the Fokker-Planck equations, a global description based on path integration is reviewed. This shows that under very broad conditions, during its evolution a dissipative system tends to minimize its energy dissipation in such a way to keep constant the Hamiltonian time rate, equal to the difference between the flux-based and the force-based Rayleigh dissipation functions. At steady state, the Hamiltonian time rate is maximized, leading to a minimum resistance principle. In the unsteady case, we consider the relaxation to equilibrium of harmonic oscillators and the motion of a Brownian particle in shear flow, obtaining results that coincide with the solution of the Fokker-Planck and the Langevin equations.

Mauri, Roberto

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Non-Equilibrium Pathways during Electrochemical Phase Transformations in  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Regionat Cornell BatteriesArchives Events/NewsYou are here Home

120

Tailoring double Fano profiles with plasmon-assisted quantum interference in hybrid exciton-plasmon system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose tailoring of the double Fano profiles via plasmon-assisted quantum interference in a hybrid exciton-plasmon system. Tailoring is performed by the interference between two exciton channels interacting with a common localized surface plasmon. Using an applied field of low intensity, the absorption spectrum of the hybrid system reveals a double Fano lineshape with four peaks. For relatively large field intensity, a broad flat window in the absorption spectrum appears which results from the destructive interference between excitons. Because of strong constructive interference, this window vanishes as intensity is further increased. We have designed a nanometer bandpass optical filter for visible light based on tailoring of the optical spectrum. This study provides a platform for quantum interference that may have potential applications in ultracompact tunable quantum devices.

Zhao, Dongxing; Wu, Jiarui [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gu, Ying, E-mail: ygu@pku.edu.cn; Gong, Qihuang [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Parameter sensitivity analysis of tailored-pulse loading stimulation of Devonian gas shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An evaluation of three tailored-pulse loading parameters has been undertaken to access their importance in gas well stimulation technology. This numerical evaluation was performed using STEALTH finite-difference codes and was intended to provide a measure of the effects of various tailored-pulse load configurations on fracture development in Devonian gas shale. The three parameters considered in the sensitivity analysis were: loading rate; decay rate; and sustained peak pressures. By varying these parameters in six computations and comparing the relative differences in fracture initiation and propagation the following conclusions were drawn: (1) Fracture initiation is directly related to the loading rate aplied to the wellbore wall. Loading rates of 10, 100 and 1000 GPa/sec were modeled. (2) If yielding of the rock can be prevented or minimized, by maintaining low peak pressures in the wellbore, increasing the pulse loading rate, to say 10,000 GPa/sec or more, should initiate additional multiple fractures. (3) Fracture initiation does not appear to be related to the tailored-pulse decay rate. Fracture extension may be influenced by the rate of decay. The slower the decay rate, the longer the crack extension. (4) Fracture initiation does not appear to be improved by a high pressure plateau in the tailored-pulse. Fracture propagation may be enhanced if the maintained wellbore pressure plateau is of sufficient magnitude to extent the range of the tangential tensile stresses to greater radial distances. 26 figures, 2 tables.

Barbour, T.G.; Mihalik, G.R.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

The automated generation of Web documents that are tailored to the individual reader  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the management and presentation of Web documents would be a very important enhance- ment of the Web's current in a system for the manage- ment and presentation of Web documents would be a very important enhancementThe automated generation of Web documents that are tailored to the individual reader Chrysanne Di

DiMarco, Chrysanne

123

FAME-DBMS: Tailor-made Data Management Solutions for Embedded Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FAME-DBMS: Tailor-made Data Management Solutions for Embedded Systems Marko Rosenm¨uller1 , Norbert our ongoing work on FAME-DBMS, a re- search project that explores techniques to implement highly line ap- proach. With this approach a concrete instance of a DBMS is derived by composing features

Apel, Sven

124

Tailoring insoluble nanobelts into soluble anti-UV nanopotpourris Jinmin Wang,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

procedures NaV3O8$0.9H2O nanobelts were synthesized by a hydrothermal process similar to our previously of the as-synthesized nanobelts under an applied mechanical action. The developed tailoring process of nanobelts is a general top-down secondary processing of layered nanostructures at the nanoscale level, which

Demir, Hilmi Volkan

125

TAILORING OF NANO-AND MICROSTRUCTURE IN BIOMIMETICALLY SYNTHESIZED CERAMIC FILMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TAILORING OF NANO- AND MICROSTRUCTURE IN BIOMIMETICALLY SYNTHESIZED CERAMIC FILMS Guangneng Zhang University of New York at Binghamton Binghamton, NY 13902-6000 ABSTRACT A novel ceramic thin film deposition approach through which inorganic materials were deposited on a functionalized organic matrix from aqueous

Cho, Junghyun

126

EDUCATION: Energy capital's colleges tailor new programs to oil and gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

find is that any course we offer in the energy arena gets an enormous number of students wanting EDUCATION: Energy capital's colleges tailor new programs to oil and gas industry (Wednesday University laboratory here allows computer talent to test how their models and complex formulas may work

Alvarez, Pedro J.

127

Computational Nanophotonics: Model Optical Interactions and Transport in Tailored Nanosystem Architectures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The program is directed toward development of new computational approaches to photoprocesses in nanostructures whose geometry and composition are tailored to obtain desirable optical responses. The emphasis of this specific program is on the development of computational methods and prediction and computational theory of new phenomena of optical energy transfer and transformation on the extreme nanoscale (down to a few nanometers).

Stockman, Mark [Georgia State University Research Foundation] [Georgia State University Research Foundation; Gray, Steven [Argon National Laboratory] [Argon National Laboratory

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

128

Effectiveness of computer-tailored Smoking Cessation Advice in Primary Care (ESCAPE): a Randomised Trial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is to evaluate the effect of personally tailored feedback reports, sent to smokers identified from general practitioners lists on quit rates and quitting activity. The trial uses a modified version of a computer-based system developed by two of the authors...

Gilbert, Hazel; Nazareth, Irwin; Sutton, Stephen; Morris, Richard; Godfrey, Christine

2008-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

129

Inhibition of Aurora-kinases for Tailored Risk Adapted Treatment of Multiple Myeloma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inhibition of Aurora-kinases for Tailored Risk Adapted Treatment of Multiple Myeloma Dirk Hose1 associated with Aurora-kinase expression in several cancer entities, including multiple myeloma. Therefore, the expression of Aurora-A, -B and -C was determined by Affymetrix DNA-microarrays in 784 samples including two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

130

Blood. Author manuscript Inhibition of aurora kinases for tailored risk-adapted treatment of multiple  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Blood. Author manuscript Page /1 14 Inhibition of aurora kinases for tailored risk.hose@med.uni-heidelberg.de> Abstract Genetic instability and cellular proliferation have been associated with Aurora-kinase expression by Affymetrix DNA-microarrays in 784 samplesAurora-A -B -C including two independent sets of 233 and 345 CD138

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

131

Flexible hybrid membrane treatment systems for tailored nutrient management: A new paradigm in urban wastewater treatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in urban wastewater treatment D. Vuono a , J. Henkel a , J. Benecke a , T.Y. Cath a , T. Reid b , L: Sequencing batch reactor Membrane bioreactor Water reclamation Distributed wastewater treatment Tailored, decentralized, and satellite wastewater treatment systems into existing urban water infrastructure

132

Anthraquinone with Tailored Structure for Nonaqueous Metal-Organic Redox Flow Battery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A nonaqueous, hybrid metal-organic redox flow battery based on tailored anthraquinone structure is demonstrated to have an energy efficiency of {approx}82% and a specific discharge energy density similar to aqueous redox flow batteries, which is due to the significantly improved solubility of anthraquinone in supporting electrolytes.

Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

133

Oce@Nyd: A new Tailorable Groupware for Digital Media collection for Underwater Virtual Environments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oce@Nyd: A new Tailorable Groupware for Digital Media collection for Underwater Virtual architecture devoted to the collection of Digital media for underwater virtual environ- ments. The proposed- ferent digital media (image, video, audio, 3D models, etc.), and on the other hand, certain services can

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

134

Policy Levers Tailoring Patent Law to Biotechnology: Comparing U.S. and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

435 Policy Levers Tailoring Patent Law to Biotechnology: Comparing U.S. and European Approaches Geertrui Van Overwalle* In their animated book The Patent Crisis and How the Courts Can Solve It, Dan Burk and Mark Lemley give an account of their quest into the judicial treatment of patents in different industry

Loudon, Catherine

135

Spectrum tailoring of the neutron energy spectrum in the context of delayed neutron detection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the purpose of measuring plutonium mass in spent fuel, a delayed neutron instrument is of particular interest since, if properly designed, the delayed neutron signal from {sup 235}U is significantly stronger than the signature from {sup 239}Pu or {sup 241}Pu. A key factor in properly designing a delayed neutron instrument is to minimize the fission of {sup 238}U. This minimization is achieved by keeping the interrogating neutron spectrum below {approx} 1 MeV. In the context of spent fuel measurements it is desirable to use a 14 MeV (deuterium and tritium) neutron generator for economic reasons. Spectrum tailoring is the term used to describe the inclusion of material between the 14 MeV neutrons and the interrogated object that lower the neutron energy through nuclear reactions and moderation. This report quantifies the utility of different material combination for spectrum tailoring.

Koehler, William E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Steve J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Nathan P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fensin, Mike L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Material system for tailorable white light emission and method for making thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of processing a composite material to tailor white light emission of the resulting composite during excitation. The composite material is irradiated with a predetermined power and for a predetermined time period to reduce the size of a plurality of nanocrystals and the number of a plurality of traps in the composite material. By this irradiation process, blue light contribution from the nanocrystals to the white light emission is intensified and red and green light contributions from the traps are decreased.

Smith, Christine A.; Lee, Howard W.

2004-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

137

Material system for tailorable white light emission and method for making thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of processing a composite material to tailor white light emission of the resulting composite during excitation. The composite material is irradiated with a predetermined power and for a predetermined time period to reduce the size of a plurality of nanocrystals and the number of a plurality of traps in the composite material. By this irradiation process, blue light contribution from the nanocrystals to the white light emission is intensified and red and green light contributions from the traps are decreased.

Smith, Christine A. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Howard W. H. (Fremont, CA)

2009-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

138

Post-Synthesis Crystallinity Tailoring of Water-Soluble Polymer Encapsulated CdTe Nanoparticles using Rapid Thermal Annealing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Post-Synthesis Crystallinity Tailoring of Water-Soluble Polymer Encapsulated CdTe Nanoparticles CdTe NPs have been demonstrated suitable for use in applications involving efficient solar cells

139

A Lightweight and Flexible Mobile Agent Platform Tailored to Management Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mobile Agents (MAs) represent a distributed computing technology that promises to address the scalability problems of centralized network management. A critical issue that will affect the wider adoption of MA paradigm in management applications is the development of MA Platforms (MAPs) expressly oriented to distributed management. However, most of available platforms impose considerable burden on network and system resources and also lack of essential functionality. In this paper, we discuss the design considerations and implementation details of a complete MAP research prototype that sufficiently addresses all the aforementioned issues. Our MAP has been implemented in Java and tailored for network and systems management applications.

Gavalas, Damianos

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

The EPRI state-of-the-art cooling water treatment research project: A tailored collaboration program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The EPRI Tailored Collaboration State-of-the-Art Cooling Water Treatment Research Program has been initiated with several electric utility participants. Started in January 1995, the program provides O&M cost reduction through improved cooling water system reliability and operation,. This effort is discussed along with the objectives and goals, the participants and project timetable. The program will provide three (3) main results to the participating utilities: cost effective optimization of cooling water treatment, production of a new Cooling Water Treatment Manual and updating of two (2) EPRI software products - SEQUIL and COOLADD. A review of the specific objectives, project timetable and results to date will be presented. 1 tab.

Zammitt, K. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Selby, K.A. [Puckorius & Associates, Inc., Evergreen, CO (United States); Brice, T. [Entergy Operations - River Bend Station, St. Francisville, LA (United States)] [and others

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Design and Testing of a Boron Carbide Capsule for Spectral Tailoring in Mixed-Spectrum Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A boron carbide capsule has been designed and used for spectral-tailoring experiments at the TRIGA reactor at Washington State University. Irradiations were conducted in pulsed mode and in continuous operation for up to 4 hours. A cadmium cover was used to reduce thermal heating. The neutron spectrum calculated with MCNP was found to be in good agreement with reactor dosimetry measurements using the STAY'SL computer code. The neutron spectrum resembles that of a fast reactor. Design of a capsule using boron carbide enriched in {sup 10}B shows that it is possible to produce a neutron spectrum similar to {sup 235}U fission.

Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Wittman, Richard S.; Pierson, Bruce D.; Metz, Lori A.; Payne, Rosara F.; Finn, Erin C.; Friese, Judah I.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

The use of isotopically tailored boron for advanced neutron shielding and moderating applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cm. The incident neutron flux was measured first without any shielding slab between the source and the detector. The first slab of shielding material was then placed nearest to the source and the transmitted intensity was measured by the detector... effects of nuclear radiation. This analysis examined the use of isotopically tailored boron for the purpose of moderating, reflecting and shielding neutrons. The source of neutrons in this study varied in energy from 0. 2 keV to 14 MeV. The material...

Deere, Laura Marie

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

143

Computational model, method, and system for kinetically-tailoring multi-drug chemotherapy for individuals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system for tailoring treatment regimens to individual patients with diseased cells exhibiting evolution of resistance to such treatments. A mathematical model is provided which models rates of population change of proliferating and quiescent diseased cells using cell kinetics and evolution of resistance of the diseased cells, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models. Cell kinetic parameters are obtained from an individual patient and applied to the mathematical model to solve for a plurality of treatment regimens, each having a quantitative efficacy value associated therewith. A treatment regimen may then be selected from the plurlaity of treatment options based on the efficacy value.

Gardner, Shea Nicole (San Leandro, CA)

2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

144

Tailoring Silica-alumina Supported Pt-Pd As Poison Tolerant Catalyst For  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security AdministrationcontrollerNanocrystallineForeign ObjectOUR TableE9.security Tag: securityTailoredAromatics

145

Tailoring the index of refraction of nanocrystalline hafnium oxide thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) films were grown by sputter-deposition by varying the growth temperature (T{sub s}?=?25–700?°C). HfO{sub 2} films grown at T{sub s}?tailoring the optical quality is possible by tuning T{sub s} and the microstructure of HfO{sub 2} films.

Vargas, Mirella [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States)] [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Murphy, N. R. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate (RX), 3005 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Dayton, Ohio 45433 (United States)] [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate (RX), 3005 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), Dayton, Ohio 45433 (United States); Ramana, C. V., E-mail: rvchintalapalle@utep.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States)

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

146

Polarization-selective vortex-core switching by tailored orthogonal Gaussian-pulse currents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We experimentally demonstrate low-power-consumption vortex-core switching in magnetic nanodisks using tailored rotating magnetic fields produced with orthogonal and unipolar Gaussian-pulse currents. The optimal width of the orthogonal pulses and their time delay are found, from analytical and micromagnetic numerical calculations, to be determined only by the angular eigenfrequency {omega}{sub D} for a given vortex-state disk of polarization p, such that {sigma}=1/{omega}{sub D} and ?{Delta}t={pi}/2 p/{omega}{sub D} . The estimated optimal pulse parameters are in good agreement with the experimental results. This work lays a foundation for energy-efficient information recording in vortex-core cross-point architecture.

Jung, H.; Choi, Y. -S.; Yoo, M. -W.; Im, M. -Y.; Kim, S. -K.

2010-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

147

Tailoring of unipolar strain in lead-free piezoelectrics using the ceramic/ceramic composite approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electric-field-induced strain response mechanism in a polycrystalline ceramic/ceramic composite of relaxor and ferroelectric materials has been studied using in situ high-energy x-ray diffraction. The addition of ferroelectric phase material in the relaxor matrix has produced a system where a small volume fraction behaves independently of the bulk under an applied electric field. Inter- and intra-grain models of the strain mechanism in the composite material consistent with the diffraction data have been proposed. The results show that such ceramic/ceramic composite microstructure has the potential for tailoring properties of future piezoelectric materials over a wider range than is possible in uniform compositions.

Khansur, Neamul H.; Daniels, John E. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia); Groh, Claudia; Jo, Wook; Webber, Kyle G. [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Reinhard, Christina [Diamond Light Source, Beamline I12 JEEP, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Kimpton, Justin A. [The Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia)

2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

148

Tailoring broadband light trapping of GaAs and Si substrates by self-organised nanopatterning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the formation of high aspect ratio anisotropic nanopatterns on crystalline GaAs (100) and Si (100) substrates exploiting defocused Ion Beam Sputtering assisted by a sacrificial self-organised Au stencil mask. The tailored optical properties of the substrates are characterised in terms of total reflectivity and haze by means of integrating sphere measurements as a function of the morphological modification at increasing ion fluence. Refractive index grading from sub-wavelength surface features induces polarisation dependent anti-reflection behaviour in the visible-near infrared (VIS-NIR) range, while light scattering at off-specular angles from larger structures leads to very high values of the haze functions in reflection. The results, obtained for an important class of technologically relevant materials, are appealing in view of photovoltaic and photonic applications aiming at photon harvesting in ultrathin crystalline solar cells.

Martella, C.; Chiappe, D.; Mennucci, C.; Buatier de Mongeot, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy)

2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

149

Tailoring the surface plasmon resonance of embedded silver nanoparticles by combining nano- and femtosecond laser pulses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate that the broad surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of a single layer of near-coalescence silver nanoparticles (NPs), embedded in a dielectric matrix can be tailored by irradiation with a single nanosecond laser pulse into a distribution featuring a sharp resonance at 435?nm. Scanning electron microscopy studies reveal the underlying mechanism to be a transformation into a distribution of well-separated spherical particles. Additional exposure to multiple femtosecond laser pulses at 400?nm or 800?nm wavelength induces polarization anisotropy of the SPR, with a peak shift that increases with laser wavelength. The spectral changes are measured in-situ, employing reflection and transmission micro-spectroscopy with a lateral resolution of 4??m. Spectral maps as a continuous function of local fluence can be readily produced from a single spot. The results open exciting perspectives for dynamically tuning and switching the optical response of NP systems, paving the way for next-generation applications.

Doster, J.; Baraldi, G.; Gonzalo, J.; Solis, J.; Hernandez-Rueda, J.; Siegel, J., E-mail: j.siegel@io.cfmac.csic.es [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Optica, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

150

Abstract. Tailored porous media is a proposed method of achieving higher heat transfer coefficients while seeking to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract. Tailored porous media is a proposed method of achieving higher heat transfer coefficients general porous flow model (MERLOT [1]). The Model of Energy- transfer Rate for fLow in Open transfer performance. The low heat capacities and low heat transfer coefficients, h, of gas coolants

Raffray, A. René

151

Inhomogeneity Mitigation at 7 Tesla using Sparsity-Enforced Spatially-Tailored Slice-Selective Excitation Pulses A. C. ZELINSKI  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In Vivo B1 + Inhomogeneity Mitigation at 7 Tesla using Sparsity-Enforced Spatially-Tailored Slice's duration & B1 + is in Tesla/volt. Let R(r) (r)·B1 - (r). With a reset pulse [5], IV(r) = c·R(r)·[1-E1(r

Goyal, Vivek K

152

Ultra-High Performance Concrete with Tailored Properties Cementitious materials comprise a large portion of domestic structures and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ultra-High Performance Concrete with Tailored Properties Cementitious materials comprise a large portion of domestic structures and infrastructure. The development of ultra-high performance concrete of buildings or structures to dynamic loading and fire. Overview of research program on UHPC or CEP (concrete

Li, Mo

153

Dry particle coating of polymer particles for tailor-made product properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Disperse polymer powders with tailor-made particle properties are of increasing interest in industrial applications such as Selective Laser Beam Melting processes (SLM). This study focuses on dry particle coating processes to improve the conductivity of the insulating polymer powder in order to assemble conductive devices. Therefore PP particles were coated with Carbon Black nanoparticles in a dry particle coating process. This process was investigated in dependence of process time and mass fraction of Carbon Black. The conductivity of the functionalized powders was measured by impedance spectroscopy. It was found that there is a dependence of process time, respectively coating ratio and conductivity. The powder shows higher conductivities with increasing number of guest particles per host particle surface area, i.e. there is a correlation between surface functionalization density and conductivity. The assembled composite particles open new possibilities for processing distinct polymers such as PP in SLM process. The fundamentals of the dry particle coating process of PP host particles with Carbon Black guest particles as well as the influence on the electrical conductivity will be discussed.

Blümel, C., E-mail: karl-ernst.wirth@fau.de; Schmidt, J., E-mail: karl-ernst.wirth@fau.de; Dielesen, A., E-mail: karl-ernst.wirth@fau.de; Sachs, M., E-mail: karl-ernst.wirth@fau.de; Winzer, B., E-mail: karl-ernst.wirth@fau.de; Peukert, W., E-mail: karl-ernst.wirth@fau.de; Wirth, K.-E., E-mail: karl-ernst.wirth@fau.de [Institute of Particle Technology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

Electrodeposition of InSb branched nanowires: Controlled growth with structurally tailored properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this article, electrodeposition method is used to demonstrate growth of InSb nanowire (NW) arrays with hierarchical branched structures and complex morphology at room temperature using an all-solution, catalyst-free technique. A gold coated, porous anodic alumina membrane provided the template for the branched NWs. The NWs have a hierarchical branched structure, with three nominal regions: a “trunk” (average diameter of 150?nm), large branches (average diameter of 100?nm), and small branches (average diameter of sub-10?nm to sub-20?nm). The structural properties of the branched NWs were studied using scanning transmission electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. In the as-grown state, the small branches of InSb NWs were crystalline, but the trunk regions were mostly nanocrystalline with an amorphous boundary. Post-annealing of NWs at 420?°C in argon produced single crystalline structures along ?311? directions for the branches and along ?111? for the trunks. Based on the high crystallinity and tailored structure in this branched NW array, the effective refractive index allows us to achieve excellent antireflection properties signifying its technological usefulness for photon management and energy harvesting.

Das, Suprem R.; Mohammad, Asaduzzaman; Janes, David B., E-mail: janes@ecn.purdue.edu [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Akatay, Cem [School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Khan, Mohammad Ryyan; Alam, Muhammad A. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Maeda, Kosuke [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta–cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Advanced Device Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Deacon, Russell S.; Ishibashi, Koji [Advanced Device Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Chen, Yong P. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Sands, Timothy D. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

155

Strong, Tough Ceramics Containing Microscopic Reinforcements: Tailoring In-Situ Reinforced Silicon Nitride Ceramics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ceramics with their hardness, chemical stability, and refractoriness could be used to design more efficient energy generation and conversion systems as well as numerous other applications. However, we have needed to develop a fundamental understanding of how to tailor ceramics to improve their performance, especially to overcome their brittle nature. One of the advances in this respect was the incorporation of very strong microscopic rod-like reinforcements in the form of whiskers that serve to hold the ceramic together making it tougher and resistant to fracture. This microscopic reinforcement approach has a number of features that are similar to continuous fiber-reinforced ceramics; however, some of the details are modified. For instance, the strengths of the microscopic reinforcements must be higher as they typically have much stronger interfaces. For instance, single crystal silicon carbide whiskers can have tensile strengths in excess of {ge}7 GPa or >2 times that of continuous fibers. Furthermore, reinforcement pullout is limited to lengths of a few microns in the case of microscopic reinforcement due as much to the higher interfacial shear resistance as to the limit of the reinforcement lengths. On the other hand, the microscopic reinforcement approach can be generated in-situ during the processing of ceramics. A remarkable example of this is found in silicon nitride ceramics where elongated rod-like shape grains can be formed when the ceramic is fired at elevated temperatures to form a dense component.

Becher, P.F.

1999-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

156

Highlights from theHighlights from the YamboYambo project:project: Excitonic polarons and non-equilibriumExcitonic polarons and non-equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in noble metals, PRL 88,Quasiparticles in noble metals, PRL 88, 016409 (2002)016409 (2002) 2002 At the end is coded. Bound excitons in TDDFT,Bound excitons in TDDFT, PRL 91, 256402 (2003)PRL 91, 256402 (2003) Bethe-Salpeter equation is coded. DynamicalDynamical excitons in metals, PRL 91, 176402 (2003)excitons in metals, PRL 91

Marini, Andrea

157

Passive tailoring of laser-accelerated ion beam cut-off energy by using double foil assembly  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A double foil assembly is shown to be effective in tailoring the maximum energy produced by a laser-accelerated proton beam. The measurements compare favorably with adiabatic expansion simulations, and particle-in-cell simulations. The arrangement proposed here offers for some applications a simple and passive way to utilize simultaneously highest irradiance lasers that have best laser-to-ion conversion efficiency while avoiding the production of undesired high-energy ions.

Chen, S. N., E-mail: sophia.chen@polytechnique.edu; Brambrink, E.; Mancic, A.; Romagnani, L.; Audebert, P.; Fuchs, J., E-mail: julien.fuchs@polytechnique.fr [Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, UMR 7605 CNRS-CEA-École Polytechnique-Université Paris VI, Palaiseau (France); Robinson, A. P. L. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)] [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Antici, P. [Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, UMR 7605 CNRS-CEA-École Polytechnique-Université Paris VI, Palaiseau (France) [Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, UMR 7605 CNRS-CEA-École Polytechnique-Université Paris VI, Palaiseau (France); Dipartimento SBAI, Università di Roma « La Sapienza », Via Scarpa 14-16, 00165 Roma (Italy); INRS-Énergie et Matériaux, 1650 bd. L. Boulet, Varennes, J3X1S2 Québec (Canada); D'Humières, E. [Physics Department, MS-220, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States) [Physics Department, MS-220, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Centre de Physique Théorique, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); University of Bordeaux—CNRS—CEA, CELIA, UMR5107, 33405 Talence (France); Gaillard, S. [Physics Department, MS-220, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States)] [Physics Department, MS-220, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Grismayer, T.; Mora, P. [Centre de Physique Théorique, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)] [Centre de Physique Théorique, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Pépin, H. [INRS-Énergie et Matériaux, 1650 bd. L. Boulet, Varennes, J3X1S2 Québec (Canada)] [INRS-Énergie et Matériaux, 1650 bd. L. Boulet, Varennes, J3X1S2 Québec (Canada)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

158

Composition-tailored synthesis of gradient transition metal precursor particles for lithium-ion battery cathode materials.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the tailored synthesis of particles with internal gradients in transition metal composition aided by the use of a general process model. Tailored synthesis of transition metal particles was achieved using a coprecipitation reaction with tunable control over the process conditions. Gradients in the internal composition of the particles was monitored and confirmed experimentally by analysis of particles collected during regularly timed intervals. Particles collected from the reactor at the end of the process were used as the precursor material for the solid-state synthesis of Li{sub 1.2}(Mn{sub 0.62}Ni{sub 0.38}){sub 0.8}O{sub 2}, which was electrochemically evaluated as the active cathode material in a lithium battery. The Li{sub 1.2}(Mn{sub 0.62}Ni{sub 0.38}){sub 0.8}O{sub 2} material was the first example of a structurally integrated multiphase material with a tailored internal gradient in relative transition metal composition as the active cathode material in a lithium-ion battery. We believe our general synthesis strategy may be applied to produce a variety of new cathode materials with tunable interior, surface, and overall relative transition metal compositions.

Koenig, G. M.; Belharouak, I.; Deng, H.; Amine, K.; Sun, Y. K. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

2011-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

159

Preoperative Portal Vein Embolization Tailored to Prepare the Liver for Complex Resections: Initial Experience  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of preoperative portal vein embolization (PVE) tailored to prepare the liver for complex and extended resections. During the past 5 years, 12 PVEs were performed in noncirrhotic patients with liver metastases from colon cancer (n = 10), choroidal melanoma (n = 1), and leiomyosarcoma (n = 1) to prepare complex anatomical liver resections in patients with small future remnant livers. These liver resections planned to preserve only segment IV in four patients, segments IV, V, and VIII in four patients, segments II, III, VI, and VII in three patients, and segments V and VI in one patient. PVE was performed under general anesthesia with a flow-guided injection of a mixture of cyanoacrylate and Lipiodol using a 5-Fr catheter. All portal branches feeding the liver segments to be resected were successfully embolized with cyanoacrylate except one, which was occluded with coils due to the risk of reflux with cyanoacrylate. After a mean of 32 days, CT volumetry revealed a mean hypertrophy of the unembolized liver of 47 {+-} 25% (range, 21-88%). Liver resections could be performed in 10 patients but were canceled in 2, due to the occurrence of a new hepatic tumor in one and an insufficiently increased volume in the other. Among the 10 patients who underwent the liver resection, 1 died of postoperative sepsis, 3 died 3 to 32 months after surgery, including 1 death unrelated to cancer, and 6 were alive after 6 to 36 months after surgery. In conclusion, in this preliminary report, PVE appears to be feasible and able to induce hypertrophy of the future remnant liver before a complex and extended hepatectomy. Further evaluation is needed in a larger cohort.

Baere, T. de, E-mail: debaere@igr.fr; Robinson, J. M.; Deschamps, F.; Rao, P.; Teriitheau, C.; Goere, D.; Elias, D. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Department of Radiology (France)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

160

AN ANALYTICAL MODEL OF INTERSTELLAR GAS IN THE HELIOSPHERE TAILORED TO INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The stationary distribution of interstellar neutral gas in the heliosphere subject to solar gravity, solar radiation pressure, photoionization, and charge exchange is investigated analytically assuming ionization rates and radiation pressure that are proportional to R{sup -2}, where R is the heliocentric radius. The collisionless hyperbolic trajectories of the individual atoms including ionization losses are combined with Liouville's Theorem to construct the heliospheric phase-space distribution function of an interstellar gas species in the solar reference frame under the assumption that the distribution is a drifting Maxwellian at large distances from the Sun. The distribution is transformed to the Earth (essentially Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX)) frame as a function of solar longitude. The expression is then tailored to the latitudinal scan of IBEX as a function of longitude using the fact that IBEX detects each atom close to perihelion in its hyperbolic orbit. The distribution is further adapted to IBEX by integrating the differential intensity over the entrance aperture solid angle of the IBEX-Lo collimator, and over energy to predict the IBEX count rate of helium. The major features of the predicted count rate are described, including a peak in longitude, a peak in latitude at each longitude, and the widths of the major peak in both latitude and longitude. Analytical formulae for these features are derived for comparison with IBEX observations in order to determine the temperature and bulk velocity of the gas in interstellar space. Based in part on these formulae, the results for helium are presented in the companion paper by Moebius et al.

Lee, Martin A.; Kucharek, Harald; Moebius, Eberhard; Wu Xian [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Bzowski, Maciej [Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); McComas, David, E-mail: marty.lee@unh.edu [Engineering and Space Science Division, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

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161

Design and Testing of a 10B4C Capsule for Spectral-Tailoring in Mixed-Spectrum Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A boron carbide capsule highly enriched in 10B has been designed and used for spectral-tailoring experiments at the TRIGA reactor at Washington State University. New experiments show that enriching the boron to 96% B-10 results in additional absorption of neutrons in the resonance region thereby producing a neutron spectrum that is much closer to a pure 235U fission spectrum. A cadmium outer cover was used to reduce thermal heating. The neutron spectrum calculated with MCNP was found to be in very good agreement with measured activation rates from neutron fluence monitors.

Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Wittman, Richard S.; Metz, Lori A.; Finn, Erin C.; Friese, Judah I.

2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

162

Tailorable optical scattering properties of the V-shaped plasmonic nano-antennas: a computationally efficient and fast analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce an efficient computational scheme based on Macro Basis Function (MBF) method, to analyze the scattering of a plane wave by the V-shaped plasmonic optical nano-antennas. The polarization currents and the scattered fields for symmetric and anti-symmetric excitations are investigated. We investigate how the resonant frequency of the plasmonic V-shaped nanoantenna is tailored by engineering the geometrical parameters and by changing the polarization state of the incident plane wave. The computational model presented herein is faster by orders of magnitude than commercially available finite methods and is capable to characterize also other nanoantennas comprising of junctions and bends of nanorods.

Rashidi, Arash; Anagnostou, Dimitris E

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Chemistry of SOFC Cathode Surfaces: Fundamental Investigation and Tailoring of Electronic Behavior  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

1) Electron tunneling characteristics on La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSM) thin-film surfaces were studied up to 580oC in 10-3mbar oxygen pressure, using scanning tunneling microscopy/ spectroscopy (STM/STS). A threshold-like drop in the tunneling current was observed at positive bias in STS, which is interpreted as a unique indicator for the activation polarization in cation oxygen bonding on LSM cathodes. Sr-enrichment was found on the surface at high temperature using Auger electron spectroscopy, and was accompanied by a decrease in tunneling conductance in STS. This suggests that Sr-terminated surfaces are less active for electron transfer in oxygen reduction compared to Mn-terminated surfaces on LSM. 2) Effects of strain on the surface cation chemistry and the electronic structure are important to understand and control for attaining fast oxygen reduction kinetics on transition metal oxides. Here, we demonstrate and mechanistically interpret the strain coupling to Sr segregation, oxygen vacancy formation, and electronic structure on the surface of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSM) thin films as a model system. Our experimental results from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling spectroscopy are discussed in light of our first principles-based calculations. A stronger Sr enrichment tendency and a more facile oxygen vacancy formation prevail for the tensile strained LSM surface. The electronic structure of the tensile strained LSM surface exhibits a larger band gap at room temperature, however, a higher tunneling conductance near the Fermi level than the compressively strained LSM at elevated temperatures in oxygen. Our findings suggest lattice strain as a key parameter to tune the reactivity of perovskite transition metal oxides with oxygen in solid oxide fuel cell cathodes. 3) Cation segregation on perovskite oxide surfaces affects vastly the oxygen reduction activity and stability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes. A unified theory that explains the physical origins of this phenomenon is therefore needed for designing cathode materials with optimal surface chemistry. We quantitatively assessed the elastic and electrostatic interactions of the dopant with the surrounding lattice as the key driving forces for segregation on model perovskite compounds, LnMnO3 (host cation Ln=La, Sm). Our approach combines surface chemical analysis with X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy on model dense thin films, and computational analysis with density functional theory (DFT) calculations and analytical models. Elastic energy differences were systematically induced in the system by varying the radius of the selected dopants (Ca, Sr, Ba) with respect to the host cations (La, Sm) while retaining the same charge state. Electrostatic energy differences were introduced by varying the distribution of charged oxygen and cation vacancies in our models. Varying the oxygen chemical potential in our experiments induced changes in both the elastic energy and electrostatic interactions. Our results quantitatively demonstrate that the mechanism of dopant segregation on perovskite oxides includes both the elastic and electrostatic energy contributions. A smaller size mismatch between the host and dopant cations and a chemically expanded lattice were found to reduce the segregation level of the dopant and to enable more stable cathode surfaces. Ca-doped LaMnO3 was found to have the most stable surface composition with the least cation segregation among the compositions surveyed. The diffusion kinetics of the larger dopants, Ba and Sr, was found to be slower, and can kinetically trap the segregation at reduced temperatures despite the larger elastic energy driving force. Lastly, scanning probe image-contrast showed that the surface chemical heterogeneities made of dopant oxides upon segregation were electronically insulating. The consistency between the results obtained from experiments, DFT calculations and analytical theory in this work provides a predictive capability to tailor the cathode surface compositions for high-performance SO

Yildiz, Bilge; Heski, Clemens

2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

164

Risk Assessment and Monitoring of Stored CO2 in Organic Rocks Under Non-Equilibrium Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The USA is embarking upon tackling the serious environmental challenges posed to the world by greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO2). The dimension of the problem is daunting. In fact, according to the Energy Information Agency, nearly 6 billion metric tons of CO2 were produced in the USA in 2007 with coal-burning power plants contributing about 2 billion metric tons. To mitigate the concerns associated with CO2 emission, geological sequestration holds promise. Among the potential geological storage sites, unmineable coal seams and shale formations in particular show promise because of the probability of methane recovery while sequestering the CO2. However. the success of large-scale sequestration of CO2 in coal and shale would hinge on a thorough understanding of CO2's interactions with host reservoirs. An important parameter for successful storage of CO2 reservoirs would be whether the pressurized CO2 would remain invariant in coal and shale formations under reasonable internal and/or external perturbations. Recent research has brought to the fore the potential of induced seismicity, which may result in caprock compromise. Therefore, to evaluate the potential risks involved in sequestering CO2 in Illinois bituminous coal seams and shale, we studied: (i) the mechanical behavior of Murphysboro (Illinois) and Houchin Creek (Illinois) coals, (ii) thermodynamic behavior of Illinois bituminous coal at - 100oC ? T ? 300oC, (iii) how high pressure CO2 (up to 20.7 MPa) modifies the viscosity of the host, (iv) the rate of emission of CO2 from Illinois bituminous coal and shale cores if the cores, which were pressurized with high pressure (? 20.7 MPa) CO2, were exposed to an atmospheric pressure, simulating the development of leakage pathways, (v) whether there are any fractions of CO2 stored in these hosts which are resistance to emission by simply exposing the cores to atmospheric pressure, and (vi) how compressive shockwaves applied to the coal and shale cores, which were pressurized with high pressure CO2, determine the fate of sequestered CO2 in these cores. Our results suggested that Illinois bituminous coal in its unperturbed state, i.e., when not pressurized with CO2, showed large variations in the mechanical properties. Modulus varied from 0.7 GPa to 3.4 GPa even though samples were extracted from a single large chunk of coal. We did not observe any glass transition for Illinois bituminous coal at - 100oC ? T ? 300oC, however, when the coal was pressurized with CO2 at ambient ? P ? 20.7 MPa, the viscosity of the coal decreased and inversely scaled with the CO2 pressure. The decrease in viscosity as a function of pressure could pose CO2 injection problems for coal as lower viscosity would allow the solid coal to flow to plug the fractures, fissures, and cleats. Our experiments also showed a very small fraction of CO2 was absorbed in coal; and when CO2 pressurized coals were exposed to atmospheric conditions, the loss of CO2 from coals was massive. Half of the sequestered gas from the coal cores was lost in less than 20 minutes. Our shockwave experiments on Illinois bituminous coal, New Albany shale (Illinois), Devonian shale (Ohio), and Utica shale (Ohio) presented clear evidence that the significant emission of the sequestered CO2 from these formations cannot be discounted during seismic activity, especially if caprock is compromised. It is argued that additional shockwave studies, both compressive and transverse, would be required for successfully mapping the risks associated with sequestering high pressure CO2 in coal and shale formations.

Malhotra, Vivak

2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

165

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Kinetic Effects of Non-Equilibrium Plasma on Partially  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and more attention for its potential to enhance combustion performance in gas turbines and scramjet engines

Ju, Yiguang

166

Flux-difference split parabolized Navier-Stokes algorithm for non-equilibrium chemically reacting flows  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A flux-difference split explicit finite-difference algorithm is presented for solving the parabolized form of the equations governing three-dimensional nonequilibrium chemically reacting flows. The algorithm is based on an explicit noniterative, upwind space-marching scheme developed by Korte, but differs in that the unsteady Riemann problem, rather than the steady Riemann problem, is solved. The algorithm allows either a second or an approximately third-order accurate upwind treatment of the convection terms by employing the unsteady approximate Riemann solver of Roe. The source terms of the species transport equations are treated in either an explicit or implicit manner, and the species diffusion terms are modeled with either a Fickian or a multicomponent model. A validation of the algorithm is performed by comparing computational results with the 2-D Mach 14, 15 degree compression-corner data of Holden. The three-dimensional capability of the algorithm is demonstrated by computing Mach 2.7 flow over a swept wedge scramjet fuel injector, and three-dimensional reacting flow capability is demonstrated by a computing a shock-jet interaction concept for mixing and combustion enhancement. 34 refs.

White, J.A.; Korte, J.J.; Gaffney, R.L. Jr. (Analytical Services and Materials, Inc., Hampton, VA (United States) NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Thermo-chemical dynamics and chemical quasi-equilibrium of plasmas in thermal non-equilibrium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We examine both processes of ionization by electron and heavy-particle impact in spatially uniform plasmas at rest in the absence of external forces. A singular perturbation analysis is used to study the following physical scenario, in which thermal relaxation becomes much slower than chemical reactions. First, electron-impact ionization is investigated. The dynamics of the system rapidly becomes close to a slow dynamics manifold that allows for defining a unique chemical quasi-equilibrium for two-temperature plasmas and proving that the second law of thermodynamics is satisfied. Then, all ionization reactions are taken into account simultaneously, leading to a surprising conclusion: the inner layer for short time scale (or time boundary layer) directly leads to thermal equilibrium. Global thermo-chemical equilibrium is reached within a short time scale, involving only chemical reactions, even if thermal relaxation through elastic collisions is assumed to be slow.

Massot, Marc [Laboratoire EM2C, UPR 288 CNRS - Ecole Centrale Paris (France); Graille, Benjamin [Laboratoire de Mathematiques d'Orsay, UMR 8628 CNRS - Universite Paris-Sud (France); Magin, Thierry E. [Aeronautics and Aerospace Department, von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics (Belgium)

2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

168

Non-Equilibrium Magnetohydrodynamic Behavior of Plasmas having Complex, Evolving Morphology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our main activity has been doing lab experiments where plasmas having morphology and behavior similar to solar and astrophysical plasmas are produced and studied. The solar experiment is mounted on one end of a large vacuum chamber while the astrophysical jet experiment is mounted on the other end. Diagnostics are shared between the two experiments. The solar experiment produces arched plasma loops that behave very much like solar corona loops. The astrophysical jet experiment produces plasma jets that are very much like astrophysical jets. We have also done work on plasma waves, including general wave dispersions, and specific properties of kinetic Alfven waves and of whistler waves.

Bellan, Paul M. [Caltech] [Caltech

2014-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

169

Non-equilibrium self-assembly of a filament coupled to ATP/GTP hydrolysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the stochastic dynamics of growth and shrinkage of single actin filaments or microtubules taking into account insertion, removal, and ATP/GTP hydrolysis of subunits. The resulting phase diagram contains three different phases: a rapidly growing phase, an intermediate phase and a bound phase. We analyze all these phases, with an emphasis on the bound phase. We also discuss how hydrolysis affects force-velocity curves. The bound phase shows features of dynamic instability, which we characterize in terms of the time needed for the ATP/GTP cap to disappear as well as the time needed for the filament to reach a length of zero, i.e., (to collapse) for the first time. We obtain exact expressions for all these quantities, which we test using Monte Carlo simulations.

Padinhateeri Ranjith; David Lacoste; Kirone Mallick; Jean-Francois Joanny

2008-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

170

Geometry and temperature dependent thermal conductivity of diamond nanowires: A non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

plasma etching of polycrystalline diamond films [7], microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition. For theoretical calculations of proper- ties of nanosized diamond materials, polycrystalline diamond thin filmsGeometry and temperature dependent thermal conductivity of diamond nanowires: A non

Melnik, Roderick

171

Non-equilibrium coherent vortex states and subharmonic giant Shapiro steps in Josephson junction arrays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This is a review of recent work on the dynamic response of Josephson junction arrays driven by dc and ac currents. The arrays are modeled by the resistively shunted Josephson junction model, appropriate for proximity effect junctions, including self-induced magnetic fields as well as disorder. The relevance of the self-induced fields is measured as a function of a parameter $\\kappa=\\lambda_L/a$, with $\\lambda_L$ the London penetration depth of the arrays, and $a$ the lattice spacing. The transition from Type II ($\\kappa>1$) to Type I ($\\kappa <1$) behavior is studied in detail. We compare the results for models with self, self+nearest-neighbor, and full inductance matrices. In the $\\kappa=\\infty$ limit, we find that when the initial state has at least one vortex-antivortex pair, after a characteristic transient time these vortices unbind and {\\it radiate} other vortices. These radiated vortices settle into a parity-broken, time-periodic, {\\em axisymmetric coherent vortex state} (ACVS), characterized by alternate rows of positive and negative vortices lying along a tilted axis. The ACVS produces subharmonic steps in the current voltage (IV) characteristics, typical of giant Shapiro steps. For finite $\\kappa$ we find that the IV's show subharmonic giant Shapiro steps, even at zero external magnetic field. We find that these subharmonic steps are produced by a whole family of coherent vortex oscillating patterns, with their structure changing as a function of $\\kappa$. In general, we find that these patterns are due to a break down of translational invariance produced, for example, by disorder or antisymmetric edge-fields. The zero field case results are in good qualitative agreement with experiments

Daniel Domínguez; Jorge V. José

1994-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

172

The behavior of matter under non-equilibrium conditions: Fundamental aspects and applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report briefly discusses concepts of chaotic systems. The topics discusses are: Bernoulli maps; mathematical aspects of the complex spectral representations; and large poincare systems. (LSP)

Prigogine, I.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Finite-Temperature Non-equilibrium Quasicontinuum Method based on Langevin Dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The concurrent bridging of molecular dynamics and continuum thermodynamics presents a number of challenges, mostly associated with energy transmission and changes in the constitutive description of a material across domain boundaries. In this paper, we propose a framework for simulating coarse dynamic systems in the canonical ensemble using the Quasicontinuum method (QC). The equations of motion are expressed in reduced QC coordinates and are strictly derived from dissipative Lagrangian mechanics. The derivation naturally leads to a classical Langevin implementation where the timescale is governed by vibrations emanating from the finest length scale occurring in the computational cell. The equations of motion are integrated explicitly via Newmark's ({beta} = 0; {gamma} = 1/2) method, leading to a robust numerical behavior and energy conservation. In its current form, the method only allows for wave propagations supported by the less compliant of the two meshes across a heterogeneous boundary, which requires the use of overdamped dynamics to avoid spurious heating due to reflected vibrations. We have applied the method to two independent crystallographic systems characterized by different interatomic potentials (Al and Ta) and have measured thermal expansion in order to quantify the vibrational entropy loss due to homogenization. We rationalize the results in terms of system size, mesh coarseness, and nodal cluster diameter within the framework of the quasiharmonic approximation. For Al, we find that the entropy loss introduced by mesh coarsening varies linearly with the element size, and that volumetric effects are not critical in driving the anharmonic behavior of the simulated systems. In Ta, the anomalies of the interatomic potential employed result in negative and zero thermal expansion at low and high temperatures, respectively.

Marian, J; Venturini, G; Hansen, B; Knap, J; Ortiz, M; Campbell, G

2009-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

174

A non-equilibrium model for fixed-bed multi-component adiabatic adsorption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to enter the bed. Solutions along a z ~ constant char- acteristic are the history of the. volumn element of the bed located a s constant, This physical interpretat1on is a physical approximation of the real world where adsorber discontinuities... 1 3. 3. 2 3e3e3 3. 3. 4 3. 3. 5 Solution of the multi-component adiabatic adsorption equation, . ~ ~ ~ Fluid phase equations. Fixed-bed solid phase equations. , ~ Construction of the solution surface by stepwise integra- tion...

Harwell, Jeffrey Harry

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Oblique and conical shock similarity laws for non-equilibrium flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. IV. VI. INTRODUCTION REVIEN OF PREVIOUS WORK. OBl I'VE SHOCK VIBRATIONAL SIMILITUDE CHEilllCAL iNOZ -EQUILI BRIIVl EXTENSIOiN TO CONICAL FLON. RE1IARKS AND CONCLUSIONS. REFERENCES APPENDIX Page 12 22 31 37 39 LIST OF FIGUWHS Figure... Normal Shock Vibrational Similarity Param ter Normal Shock Dissociation Similarity Parameter Page 10 Oblique Shock Vibrational Similarity Law 19 Oblique Shock Dissociation Similarity Parameter Conical Shock Dissociation Similarity Parameter...

Holster, Jesse Louis

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Mixing from Fickian Diffusion and Natural Convection in Binary Non-Equilibrium Fluid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to as secondary recovery mechanisms. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions to hold back climate changes represents one of applications such as improved oil recovery and carbon sequestration. Gas injection into oil reservoirs has long been used to maintain the pressure needed for recovery processes. The subsequent mixing between the gas

Firoozabadi, Abbas

177

Adjoint-Based Aerothermodynamic Shape Design of Hypersonic Vehicles in Non-Equilibrium Flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

geometries with aerothermodynamic considerations in the presence of high-enthalpy, chemically reactive gas terms R Governing equation residual S Control surface T Temperature U Vector of conserved variables u. The hypersonic vehicle design process requires the synthesis of aerothermodynamic, structural, TPS material

Alonso, Juan J.

178

Stochastic thermodynamics of fluctuating density fields: Non-equilibrium free energy differences under coarse-graining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We discuss the stochastic thermodynamics of systems that are described by a time-dependent density field, for example, simple liquids and colloidal suspensions. For a time-dependent change of external parameters, we show that the Jarzynski relation connecting work with the change of free energy holds if the time evolution of the density follows the Kawasaki-Dean equation. Specifically, we study the work distributions for the compression and expansion of a two-dimensional colloidal model suspension implementing a practical coarse-graining scheme of the microscopic particle positions. We demonstrate that even if coarse-grained dynamics and density functional do not match, the fluctuation relations for the work still hold albeit for a different, apparent, change of free energy.

Leonard, T.; Lander, B.; Seifert, U. [II. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany)] [II. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Speck, T. [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Universitätsstraße 1, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)] [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Universitätsstraße 1, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)

2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

179

Radiative transfer within non Beerian porous media with semitransparent and opaque phases in non equilibrium;  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

equilibrium; Application to reflooding of a nuclear reactor. Miloud Chahlafia,b,c , Fabien Belleta,b , Florian Transfer 55, 13-14 (2012) 3666-3676" DOI : 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2012.02.067 #12;nuclear reactor flux Indexes - At the calculation point -+ Dimensionless 3 hal-00680676,version1-19Mar2012 #12;-(j) jth

Boyer, Edmond

180

Thermal non-equilibrium in dispersed flow film boiling in a vertical tube  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The departure from thermal equilibrium between a dispersed liquid phase and its vapor at high quality during film boiling is investigated, The departure from equilibruim is manifested by the high resistance to heat transfer ...

Forslund, Robert Paul

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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181

Boiling Crisis as a Non-Equilibrium Drying V. S. Nikolayev, D. A. Beysens, J. Hegseth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

crisis is the formation of a vapor film between the heater and the liquid when the heat supply exceeds in the coordinates heat supply ­ heater temperature is sketched in Fig. 1 for the case of stationary boiling experiment, the so called "pool boiling". When the heat supply to the fluid pool is small, only a fluid

Nikolayev, Vadim S.

182

CHF as a Non-Equilibrium Drying Transition V. S. Nikolayev  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

film between the heater and the liquid when the heat supply exceeds a critical value, the critical heat

Nikolayev, Vadim S.

183

Effects of non-equilibrium plasma discharge on counterflow diffusion flame extinction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA b U.S. Air Force and resulted in an increase of extinction strain rates through the coupling between thermal and kinetic effects produces heat, rad- icals, excited species, ions/electrons, and other intermediate species simultaneously

Ju, Yiguang

184

Kinetic effects of non-equilibrium plasma-assisted methane oxidation on diffusion flame extinction limits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

08544, USA b US Air Force Research Laboratory, Propulsion Directorate, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 plasma assisted combustion resulted in fast chemical heat release and extended the extinction limits processes in plasma­flame interactions [1­17]. However, plasma assisted combustion involves strong coupling

Ju, Yiguang

185

NON-EQUILIBRIUM DYNAMICS OF MANY-BODY QUANTUM SYSTEMS: FUNDAMENTALS AND NEW FRONTIER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rapid progress in nanotechnology and naofabrication techniques has ushered in a new era of quantum transport experiments. This has in turn heightened the interest in theoretical understanding of nonequilibrium dynamics of strongly correlated quantum systems. This project has advanced the frontiers of understanding in this area along several fronts. For example, we showed that under certain conditions, quantum impurities out of equilibrium can be reformulated in terms of an effective equilibrium theory; this makes it possible to use the gamut of tools available for quantum systems in equilibrium. On a different front, we demonstrated that the elastic power of a transmitted microwave photon in circuit QED systems can exhibit a many-body Kondo resonance. We also showed that under many circumstances, bipartite fluctuations of particle number provide an effective tool for studying many-body physics—particularly the entanglement properties of a many-body system. This implies that it should be possible to measure many-body entanglement in relatively simple and tractable quantum systems. In addition, we studied charge relaxation in quantum RC circuits with a large number of conducting channels, and elucidated its relation to Kondo models in various regimes. We also extended our earlier work on the dynamics of driven and dissipative quantum spin-boson impurity systems, deriving a new formalism that makes it possible to compute the full spin density matrix and spin-spin correlation functions beyond the weak coupling limit. Finally, we provided a comprehensive analysis of the nonequilibrium transport near a quantum phase transition in the case of a spinless dissipative resonant-level model. This project supported the research of two Ph.D. students and two postdoctoral researchers, whose training will allow them to further advance the field in coming years.

DeMille, David; LeHur, Karyn

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

186

SciTech Connect: Fe Atomic Data for Non-equilibrium Ionization Plasmas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBi (2) Sr (2) Ca (2) Cu (3) O (10+delta)NeutronFIXATIION IN

187

Non-equilibrium raft-like membrane domains under continuous recycling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a model for the kinetics of spontaneous membrane domain (raft) assembly that includes the effect of membrane recycling ubiquitous in living cells. We show that the domains have a broad power-law distribution with an average radius that scales with the 1/4 power of the domain lifetime when the line tension at the domain edges is large. For biologically reasonable recycling and diffusion rates the average domain radius is in the tens of nm range, consistent with observations. This represents one possible link between signaling (involving rafts) and traffic (recycling) in cells. Finally, we present evidence that suggests that the average raft size may be the same for all scale-free recycling schemes.

Matthew S. Turner; Pierre Sens; Nicholas D. Socci

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

188

High-Efficiency Solid State Cooling Technologies: Non-Equilibrium Asymmetic Thermoelectrics (NEAT) Devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

BEETIT Project: Sheetak is developing a thermoelectric-based solid state cooling system to replace typical air conditioners that use vapor compression to cool air. With noisy mechanical components, vapor compression systems use a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. With no noisy moving parts or polluting refrigerants, thermoelectric systems rely on an electrical current being passed through the junction of the two different conducting materials to change temperature. Using advanced semiconductor technology, Sheetak is improving solid state cooling systems by using proprietary thermoelectric materials along with other innovations to achieve significant energy efficiency. Sheetak’s new design displaces compressor-based technology; improves reliability; and decreases energy usage. Sheetak’s use of semiconductor manufacturing methods leads to less material use—facilitating cheaper production.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Study of Methane Reforming in Warm Non-Equilibrium Plasma Discharges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, temperature and other variables determine efficiency of conversion. An efficient process is identified by a high yield and low specific energy of production for the desired product. A study of previous work reveals that higher energy density systems are more...

Parimi, Sreekar

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

190

The effect of fusion-relevant helium levels on the mechanical properties of isotopically tailored ferritic alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The yield and maximum strengths of an irradiated series of isotopically tailored ferritic alloys were evaluated using the shear punch test. The composition of three of the alloys was Fe-12Cr-1.5Ni. Different balances of nickel isotopes were used in each alloy in order to produce different helium levels. A fourth alloy, which contained no nickel, was also irradiated. The addition of nickel at any isotopic balance to the Fe-12Cr base alloy significantly increased the shear yield and maximum strengths of the alloys, and as expected, the strength of the alloys decreased with increasing irradiation temperature. Helium itself, up to 75 appm over 7 dpa appears to have little effect on the mechanical properties of the alloys.

Hankin, G.L. [Loughborough Univ. (United Kingdom); Hamilton, M.L.; Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Isotopic Tailoring to Improve the Breeding Capability of the Sn-Li Eutectic in Liquid First Wall Fusion Blanket Concepts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to its low vapor pressure, the Sn-Li eutectic has been identified as a potential breeder for deployment in the liquid first wall (FW)/Blanket concepts under investigation in the APEX study for high power density fusion reactors. However, its breeding capability is limited. This drawback is rather improved due to the neutron multiplication via Sn(n,2n) reactions. However, the 'local' tritium breeding ratio (TBR) was found to be still on the marginal side (even with 90%Li-6 enrichment). Aside from using a beryllium multiplier, other means to improve the capability of Sn-Li for breeding are explored. In this paper, we show that by isotopic tailoring of Tin in the Sn-Li breeder, one can achieve substantial improvement in TBR in addition to attaining significant reduction in the activation level in this material.

Youssef, Mahmoud Z. [University of California-Los Angeles (United States)

2003-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

192

Cotton gauze bearing non-diffusible quaternary ammonium salts and featuring anti-microbial activity: An example of single-use articles tailored to self-sterilize  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cotton gauze bearing non-diffusible quaternary ammonium salts and featuring anti-microbial activity envisaged in which single-use cotton gauze could be chemically tailored to display anti-microbial activity as AEM 5700, into the cotton matrix and polymerizing the monomers about the fibers. In a second approach

Taralp, Alpay

193

The conformational evolution of elongated polymer solutions tailors the polarization of light-emission from organic nanofibers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polymer fibers are currently exploited in tremendously important technologies. Their innovative properties are mainly determined by the behavior of the polymer macromolecules under the elongation induced by external mechanical or electrostatic forces, characterizing the fiber drawing process. Although enhanced physical properties were observed in polymer fibers produced under strong stretching conditions, studies of the process-induced nanoscale organization of the polymer molecules are not available, and most of fiber properties are still obtained on an empirical basis. Here we reveal the orientational properties of semiflexible polymers in electrospun nanofibers, which allow the polarization properties of active fibers to be finely controlled. Modeling and simulations of the conformational evolution of the polymer chains during electrostatic elongation of semidilute solutions demonstrate that the molecules stretch almost fully within less than 1 mm from jet start, increasing polymer axial orientation at the jet center. The nanoscale mapping of the local dichroism of individual fibers by polarized near-field optical microscopy unveils for the first time the presence of an internal spatial variation of the molecular order, namely the presence of a core with axially aligned molecules and a sheath with almost radially oriented molecules. These results allow important and specific fiber properties to be manipulated and tailored, as here demonstrated for the polarization of emitted light.

Andrea Camposeo; Israel Greenfeld; Francesco Tantussi; Maria Moffa; Francesco Fuso; Maria Allegrini; Eyal Zussman; Dario Pisignano

2014-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

194

Tailored Recovery of Carbons from Waste Tires for Enhanced Performance as Anodes in Lithium-ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Morphologically tailored pyrolysis-recovered carbon black is utilized in lithium-ion batteries as a potential solution for adding value to waste tire-rubber-derived materials. Micronized tire rubber was digested in a hot oleum bath to yield a sulfonated rubber slurry that was then filtered, washed, and compressed into a solid cake. Carbon was recovered from the modified rubber cake by pyrolysis in a nitrogen atmosphere. The chemical pretreatment of rubber produced a carbon monolith with higher yield than that from the control (a fluffy tire-rubber-derived carbon black). The carbon monolith showed a very small volume fraction of pores of widths 3 4 nm, reduced specific surface area, and an ordered assembly of graphitic domains. Electrochemical studies on the recovered-carbon-based anode revealed an improved Li-ion battery performance with higher reversible capacity than that of commercial carbon materials. Anodes made with a sulfonated tire-rubber-derived carbon and a control tire-rubber-derived carbon, respectively, exhibited an initial coulombic efficiency of 80% and 45%, respectively. The reversible capacity of the cell with the sulfonated carbon as anode was 400 mAh/g after 100 cycles, with nearly 100% coulombic efficiency. Our success in producing higher performance carbon material from waste tire rubber for potential use in energy storage applications adds a new avenue to tire rubber recycling.

Naskar, Amit K [ORNL; Bi, [ORNL; Saha, Dipendu [ORNL; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Bridges, Craig A [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Non-equilibrium and local detection of the normal fraction of a trapped two-dimensional Bose gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-dimensional Bose gas, a quantity that generally differs from the Bose-Einstein condensed fraction. The idea-Einstein condensation [7]. A possibil- ity explored in [8] is to look at the response of a gas in a toroidal trap for atomic samples, as the superfluid core co-exists with an external ring of normal gas [10]. In p

196

Non-equilibrium Quantum Many-Body Green Function Formalism in the light of Quantum Information Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The following issues are discussed inspired by the recent paper of Kadanoff (arXiv: 1403:6162): (a) Construction of a generalized one-particle Wigner distribution (GWD) function (analog of the classical distribution function) from which the quantum kinetic equation due to Kadanoff and Baym (KB) is derived, often called the Quantum Boltzmann Equation (QBE); (b) The equation obeyed by this has a collision contribution in the form of a two-particle Green function. This term is manipulated to have Kinetic Entropy in parallel to its counterpart in the classical Boltzmann kinetic equation for the classical distribution function. This proved to be problematic in that unlike in the classical Boltzmann kinetic equation, the contribution from the kinetic entropy term was non-positive; (3) Kadanoff surmised that this situation could perhaps be related to quantum entanglement that may not have been included in his theory. It is shown that GWD is not positive everywhere (indicating dynamical quantumness) just like the commonly recognized property of the Wigner function (negative property indicating quantumness of the state). The issue of non-positive feature appearing in approximate evaluation of patently positive entities in many particle systems is here pointed to an early discussion of this issue (Phys. Rev. A10, 1852 (1974)) in terms of a theorem on truncation of cumulant expansion of a probability distribution function due to Marcinkeiwicz. The last issue of presence or absence of entanglement in an approximate evaluation of a many particle correlation poses a new problem; it is considered here in terms of fermionic entanglement theory in the light of density matrix and Green function theory of many-fermion systems. The clue comes from the fact that the Hartree-Fock approximation exhbits no entantanglement in two-particle fermion density matrix and hence also in two-particle Green function.

A. K. Rajgaopal

2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

197

A parallel multistate framework for atomistic non-equilibrium reaction dynamics of solutes in strongly interacting organic solvents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe a parallel linear-scaling computational framework developed to implement arbitrarily large multi-state empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) calculations within CHARMM. Forces are obtained using the Hellman-Feynmann relationship, giving continuous gradients, and excellent energy conservation. Utilizing multi-dimensional Gaussian coupling elements fit to CCSD(T)-F12 electronic structure theory, we built a 64-state MS-EVB model designed to study the F + CD3CN -> DF + CD2CN reaction in CD3CN solvent. This approach allows us to build a reactive potential energy surface (PES) whose balanced accuracy and efficiency considerably surpass what we could achieve otherwise. We use our PES to run MD simulations, and examine a range of transient observables which follow in the wake of reaction, including transient spectra of the DF vibrational band, time dependent profiles of vibrationally excited DF in CD3CN solvent, and relaxation rates for energy flow from DF into the solvent, all of which agree well with experime...

Glowacki, David R; Harvey, Jeremy N

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Steady-state film-boiling data in rod-bundle geometry and non-equilibrium correlation assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of 22 steady-state, rod bundle, dispersed flow film boiling experiments has been performed in the Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF), a pressurized-water loop containing 64 full-length electrically heated rods. Test parameters in the upflow experiments cover a wide range of conditions typical of those which might be encountered during a nuclear reactor loss-of-coolant accident. Local equilibrium fluid conditions were calculated using mass and energy conservation considerations. Experimentally determined heat transfer coefficients were compared to several available film boiling heat transfer correlations: Dougall-Rohsenow, Groeneveld 5.7, Groeneveld-Delorme, Chen, Jones-Zuber, and Yoder-Rohsenow. The Groeneveld 5.7 correlation tended to predict the data better than any other correlation tested. The Dougall-Rohsenow correlation tends to overpredict the data while the Yoder-Rohsenow correlation predicted the data better than the other nonequilibrium correlations examined. However, all of the nonequilibrium correlations generally underpredict the heat transfer.

Yoder, G.L.; Morris, D.G.; Mullins, C.B.; Ott, L.J.; Reed, D.A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Application of Semi-Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (SGMC) methods to describe non-equilibrium polymer systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Understanding the structure of materials, and how this structure affects their properties, is an important step towards the understanding that is necessary in order to apply computational methods to the end of designing ...

Bernardin, Frederick E

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Temporal and Dose Kinetics of Tunnel Relaxation of Non-Equilibrium Near-Interfacial Charged Defects in Insulators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper is devoted mainly to mathematical aspects of modeling and simulation of tunnel relaxation of nonequilibrium charged oxide traps located at/near the interface insulator - conductive channel, for instance in irradiated MOS devices. The generic form of the tunnel annealing response function was derived from the rate equation for the charged defect buildup and annealing as a linear superposition of the responses of different defects with different time constants. Using this linear response function, a number of important practical problems are analyzed and discussed. Combined tunnel and thermal or RICN annealing, power-like temporal relaxation after a single ion strike into the gate oxide, are described in context of general approach.

Zebrev, Gennady I

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Materials Science and Engineering A 449451 (2007) 1217 Non-equilibrium solidification of concentrated FeGe alloys  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the interface diffusive speed (VD) for diffusion-limited or speed of sound (Vs) for collision-limited growth phase change like peritectic reaction during liquid to solid transformation. The Fe-rich part of Fe-equilibrium conditions. The deviation of the chemical equilibrium at the solid­liquid interface and the kinetic

Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

202

Non-equilibrium deposition of phase pure Cu{sub 2}O thin films at reduced growth temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) is actively studied as a prototypical material for energy conversion and electronic applications. Here we reduce the growth temperature of phase pure Cu{sub 2}O thin films to 300?°C by intentionally controlling solely the kinetic parameter (total chamber pressure, P{sub tot}) at fixed thermodynamic condition (0.25 mTorr pO{sub 2}). A strong non-monotonic effect of P{sub tot} on Cu-O phase formation is found using high-throughput combinatorial-pulsed laser deposition. This discovery creates new opportunities for the growth of Cu{sub 2}O devices with low thermal budget and illustrates the importance of kinetic effects for the synthesis of metastable materials with useful properties.

Subramaniyan, Archana, E-mail: asubrama@mymail.mines.edu [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Perkins, John D.; Lany, Stephan; Stevanovic, Vladan; Ginley, David S.; Zakutayev, Andriy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); O’Hayre, Ryan P. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Indirect heating of Pt by non-equilibrium electrons in Au in a nanoscale Pt/Au bilayer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-line equivalent-circuit. For optical exciation of either the Pt or Au side of the bilayer, the majority of energy excitations which are then driven out of thermal equilibrium with the vibrations of the atomic lattice.1

Cahill, David G.

204

Single crystalline Pr{sub 2-x}Y{sub x}O{sub 3} (x=0-2) dielectrics on Si with tailored electronic and crystallographic structure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crystalline oxides on Si with tailored electronic and crystallographic properties are of importance for the integration of functional oxides or alternative semiconductors to enable novel device concepts in Si microelectronics. We present an electronic band gap study of single crystalline Pr{sub 2-x}Y{sub x}O{sub 3} (0{<=}x{<=}2) heterostructures on Si(111). The perfect solubility of the isomorphic bixbyites Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} during molecular beam epitaxy thin film growth on Si enables a linear band gap tuning. Special focus is devoted to the determination of the electronic band offsets across the dielectric/Si interface. In addition, the composition x allows to control the crystallographic lattice parameter where, for example, Pr{sub 0.8}Y{sub 1.2}O{sub 3} enables the growth of fully lattice matched oxide heterostructures on Si.

Seifarth, O.; Schubert, M. A.; Giussani, A.; Schroeder, T. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Klenov, D. O. [FEI, Achtseweg Noord 5, 5651 GG Eindhoven (Netherlands); Schmeisser, D. [BTU Cottbus, Konrad Wachsmann Allee 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

Water Resources Management Degree Program Examples The tables below show some of the ways in which a student can tailor the Water Resources Management curriculum to fit their interests and needs.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Resources Management Degree Program Examples The tables below show some of the ways in which a student can tailor the Water Resources Management curriculum to fit their interests and needs. Each Hydrogeology Category B - Water Resources Institutions and Public Decision Making Processes Journalism 315

Sheridan, Jennifer

206

Growth mechanisms study of microcrystalline silicon deposited by SiH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} plasma using tailored voltage waveforms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of Tailored Voltage Waveforms is a technique wherein one uses non-sinusoidal waveforms with a period equivalent to RF frequencies to excite a plasma. It has been shown to be an effective technique to decouple maximum Ion Bombardment Energy (IBE) from the ion flux at the surface of the electrodes. In this paper, we use it for the first time as a way to scan through the IBE in order to study the growth mechanism of hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon using a SiH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} chemistry. We find that at critical energies, a stepwise increase in the amorphous to microcrystalline transition thickness is observed, as detected by Real Time Spectroscopic Ellipsometry. The same energy thresholds (30?eV and 70?eV) are found to be very influential on the final surface morphology of the samples, as observed by Atomic Force Microscopy. These thresholds correspond to SiH{sub x}{sup +} bulk displacement (30?eV) and H{sub x}{sup +} (70?eV) surface displacement energies. A model is therefore proposed to account for the impact of these ions on the morphology of ?c-Si:H growth.

Bruneau, B., E-mail: bastien.bruneau@polytechnique.edu; Johnson, E. V. [LPICM-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Wang, J. [LPICM-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); ICARE China-Europe Institute for Clean and Renewable Energy at Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, 430074 Wuhan (China); Dornstetter, J.-C. [LPICM-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); TOTAL New Energies, 24 cours Michelet, 92069 Paris La Défense Cedex (France)

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

207

Novel chemically stable Ba3Ca1.18Nb1.82-xYxO9- proton conductor: improved proton conductivity through tailored cation ordering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simple perovskite-structured proton conductors encounter significant challenges to simultaneously achieving excellent chemical stability and proton conductivity that are desirable for many important applications in energy conversion and storage. This work demonstrates that Y-doped complex-perovskite-structured Ba3Ca1.18Nb1.82 xYxO9 materials possess both improved proton conductivity and exceptional chemical stability. Neutron powder diffraction refinement revealed a Fm3 m perovskite-structure and increased oxygen vacancy concentration due to the Y doping. High-resolution TEM analysis confirmed the perturbation of the B site cation ordering in the structure for the Ba3Ca1.18Nb1.82 xYxO9 materials. Such combined effects led to improved proton conductivity with a value of 5.3 10 3 S cm 1 at 600 C for Ba3Ca1.18Nb1.52Y0.3O9 (BCNY0.3), a value 2.4 times higher compared with that of the undoped Ba3Ca1.18Nb1.82O9 . The Ba3Ca1.18Nb1.82 xYxO9 materials showed remarkable chemical stability toward water and demonstrated no observable reactions to CO2 exposure. Ionic transport number studies showed that BCNY0.3 had predominantly proton conduction below 600 C. Solid oxide fuel cells using BCNY0.3 as an electrolyte demonstrated cell power output of 103 mW cm 2 at 750 C. These results suggest that a doping strategy that tailors the cation ordering in complex perovskites provides a new direction in the search for novel proton conducting ceramics.

Wang, Siwei [University of South Carolina, Columbia] [University of South Carolina, Columbia; Chen, Yan [ORNL] [ORNL; Fang, Shumin [University of South Carolina, Columbia] [University of South Carolina, Columbia; Zhang, Lingling [University of South Carolina, Columbia] [University of South Carolina, Columbia; Tang, Ming [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); An, Ke [ORNL] [ORNL; Brinkman, Dr. Kyle S. [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), Aiken, S.C.] [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), Aiken, S.C.; Chen, Fanglin [University of South Carolina, Columbia] [University of South Carolina, Columbia

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Tailored Ceramics for Laser Applications /  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was released from the hydraulic press. While they seem farwas then placed in a hydraulic press, and a rotary vane pumpthe sample volume. The hydraulic press was used to apply a

Hollingsworth, Joel Philip

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Tailor Made: Adapting Psychotherapeutic Interventions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

..................................................................................................... 7 CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................................... 8 Multicultural Psychology ............................................................................................... 9 Cultural... set of congruent behaviors, attitudes and policies that come together in a system, agency or among professionals and enable that system, agency or those professions to work effectively in cross-cultural situations? (p. 7). Roberts et al., (1990...

Henry-Smith, Latanya Sherone

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

210

Aeroelastic tailoring of composite materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the liquid, in this case water and dissolved air or gas [25]. Since propeller blades are designed to produce thrust by the development of positive and negative differential pressures on the airfoil surfaces (see Figure 26), 54 cavitation often occurs... for single point propeller blade design 22 Efficiency curves for propeller 5868-9 for nominal blade setting of 20' and 40" 23 Efficiency curves for propeller 5868-9 24 "Scimitar blade" 25 Principal steady loads 26 Pressure distribution over an airfoil...

Rogers, Jesse Byron

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Tailored Ceramics for Laser Applications /  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

diffusion kinetics of rare-earth elements in YAG. . . .values for rare- earth elements in YAG. . . . . . . . . .6] D. J. Cherniak, “Rare earth element and gallium diffusion

Hollingsworth, Joel Philip

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

J. fhys. D:Appl. fhys. 28 (1995)1903-1918.Printed in he UK 1 Non-equilibrium coupled kinetics in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

equation coupled to the rate balance equationsfor the vibrationally excited molecules N2(X 'E;, v) and 02(X are studied with the purpose of material treatments or in order to test coating materials for space vehicles

Guerra, Vasco

213

Non-Equilibrium Beta Processes in Neutron Stars: A Relationship between the Net Reaction Rate and the Total Emissivity of Neutrinos  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Several different processes could be changing the density in the core of a neutron star, leading to a departure from $\\beta$ equilibrium, quantified by the chemical potential difference $\\delta\\mu\\equiv\\mu_n-\\mu_p-\\mu_e$. The evolution of this quantity is coupled to that of the star's interior temperature $T$ by two functions that quantify the rate at which neutrino-emitting reactions proceed: the net reaction rate (difference between $\\beta$ decay and capture rates), $\\Gamma_{\\rm net}(T,\\delta\\mu)$, and the total emissivity (total energy emission rate in the form of neutrinos and antineutrinos), $\\epsilon_{\\rm tot}(T,\\delta\\mu)$. Here, we present a simple and general relationship between these variables, ${\\partial\\epsilon_{\\rm tot}/\\partial\\delta\\mu=3\\Gamma_{\\rm net}}$, and show that it holds even in the case of superfluid nucleons. This relation may simplify the numerical calculation of these quantities, including superfluid reduction factors.

Sergio Flores-Tulian; Andreas Reisenegger

2006-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

214

The behavior of matter under non-equilibrium conditions: Fundamental aspects and applications. Progress report, July 15, 1991--July 14, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report briefly discusses concepts of chaotic systems. The topics discusses are: Bernoulli maps; mathematical aspects of the complex spectral representations; and large poincare systems. (LSP)

Prigogine, I.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Evaluation of technical feasibility of closed-cycle non-equilibrium MHD power generation with direct coal firing. Final report, Task 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Program accomplishments in a continuing effort to demonstrate the feasibility of direct coal fired, closed cycle, magnetohydrodynamic power generation are detailed. These accomplishments relate to all system aspects of a CCMHD power generation system including coal combustion, heat transfer to the MHD working fluid, MHD power generation, heat and cesium seed recovery and overall systems analysis. Direct coal firing of the combined cycle has been under laboratory development in the form of a high slag rejection, regeneratively air cooled cyclone coal combustor concept, originated within this program. A hot bottom ceramic regenerative heat exchanger system was assembled and test fired with coal for the purposes of evaluating the catalytic effect of alumina on NO/sub x/ emission reduction and operability of the refractory dome support system. Design, procurement, fabrication and partial installation of a heat and seed recovery flow apparatus was accomplished and was based on a stream tube model of the full scale system using full scale temperatures, tube sizes, rates of temperature change and tube geometry. Systems analysis capability was substantially upgraded by the incorporation of a revised systems code, with emphasis on ease of operator interaction as well as separability of component subroutines. The updated code was used in the development of a new plant configuration, the Feedwater Cooled (FCB) Brayton Cycle, which is superior to the CCMHD/Steam cycle both in performance and cost. (WHK)

Not Available

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Frequency upconversion in Er{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanophosphor:Yb{sup 3+} sensitization and tailoring effect of Li{sup +} ion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Dual mode luminescence behavior of Er{sup 3+} in oxide phosphor. • Sensitization through Yb{sup 3+} codoping, and tailoring effect of lithium ion. • Phosphors for lighting and display applications. - Abstract: Er{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanophosphor has been synthesized using solution combustion technique and further characterized for structure and optical properties. Optical properties of Er{sup 3+} ion have been studied both through frequency upconversion (UC) as well as through fluorescence (excitation, emission, and CIE co-ordinate analysis) processes. Further to enhance the UC emission of Er{sup 3+} ions, a two step process has been used. In the first step, Yb{sup 3+} ion has been co-doped, which acts as the sensitizer for Er{sup 3+} through energy transfer process. In the second step, different concentrations of Li{sup +} ions have been co-doped in the Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. Fourier transform infrared analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) followed by Le-Bail refinement of the XRD data reveal that the co-doping of Li{sup +} ion decreases unit cell parameter, increases the particle size, and removes the quenching centers (like OH, NO{sub x}, etc.), which all together causes a significant enhancement in UC emission. Optimum UC luminescence is attained for 5 mol% Li{sup +} doping concentration beyond which a quenching in UC emission is observed. This combined approach, i.e. Yb{sup 3+} sensitization and Li{sup +} ion tailoring simultaneously enhances the UC emission intensity of Er{sup 3+} several times in yttria matrix effectively. The strategy can be generalized in other hosts also which could help in the development of efficient photonic materials for lighting and display devices.

Mishra, K. [Laser and Spectroscopy Laboratory, Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Singh, S.K., E-mail: sunilcfsl@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Singh, A.K. [School of Materials Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Rai, S.B., E-mail: sbrai49@yahoo.co.in [Laser and Spectroscopy Laboratory, Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

217

Low energy isomers of (H2O)25 from a hierarchical method based on Monte Carlo Temperature Basin Paving and Molecular Tailoring Approaches benchmarked by full MP2 calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report new global minimum candidate structures for the (H2O)25 cluster that are lower in energy than the ones reported previously and correspond to hydrogen bonded networks with 42 hydrogen bonds and an interior, fully coordinated water molecule. These were obtained as a result of a hierarchical approach based on initial Monte Carlo Temperature Basin Paving (MCTBP) sampling of the cluster’s Potential Energy Surface (PES) with the Effective Fragment Potential (EFP), subsequent geometry optimization using the Molecular Tailoring fragmentation Approach (MTA) and final refinement at the second order Møller Plesset perturbation (MP2) level of theory. The MTA geometry optimizations used between 14 and 18 main fragments with maximum sizes between 11 and 14 water molecules and average size of 10 water molecules, whose energies and gradients were computed at the MP2 level. The MTA-MP2 optimized geometries were found to be quite close (within < 0.5 kcal/mol) to the ones obtained from the MP2 optimization of the whole cluster. The grafting of the MTA-MP2 energies yields electronic energies that are within < 5×10-4 a.u. from the MP2 results for the whole cluster while preserving their energy order. The MTA-MP2 method was also found to reproduce the MP2 harmonic vibrational frequencies in both the HOH bending and the OH stretching regions.

Sahu, Nityananda; Gadre, Shridhar R.; Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta; Miliordos, Evangelos; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

218

Low energy isomers of (H{sub 2}O){sub 25} from a hierarchical method based on Monte Carlo temperature basin paving and molecular tailoring approaches benchmarked by MP2 calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report new global minimum candidate structures for the (H{sub 2}O){sub 25} cluster that are lower in energy than the ones reported previously and correspond to hydrogen bonded networks with 42 hydrogen bonds and an interior, fully coordinated water molecule. These were obtained as a result of a hierarchical approach based on initial Monte Carlo Temperature Basin Paving sampling of the cluster's Potential Energy Surface with the Effective Fragment Potential, subsequent geometry optimization using the Molecular Tailoring Approach with the fragments treated at the second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation (MTA-MP2) and final refinement of the entire cluster at the MP2 level of theory. The MTA-MP2 optimized cluster geometries, constructed from the fragments, were found to be within <0.5 kcal/mol from the minimum geometries obtained from the MP2 optimization of the entire (H{sub 2}O){sub 25} cluster. In addition, the grafting of the MTA-MP2 energies yields electronic energies that are within <0.3 kcal/mol from the MP2 energies of the entire cluster while preserving their energy rank order. Finally, the MTA-MP2 approach was found to reproduce the MP2 harmonic vibrational frequencies, constructed from the fragments, quite accurately when compared to the MP2 ones of the entire cluster in both the HOH bending and the OH stretching regions of the spectra.

Sahu, Nityananda; Gadre, Shridhar R., E-mail: gadre@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: sotiris.xantheas@pnnl.gov [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Rakshit, Avijit; Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta [School of Computational and Integrative Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Miliordos, Evangelos; Xantheas, Sotiris S., E-mail: gadre@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: sotiris.xantheas@pnnl.gov [Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999, MS K1-83, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

219

?Linear Gas Jet with Tailored Density Profile"  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Supersonic, highly collimated gas jets and gas-filled capillary discharge waveguides are two primary targets of choice for Laser Plasma Accelerators (LPA) . Present gas jets have lengths of only 2-4 mm at densities of 1-4E19 cm-3, sufficient for self trapping and electron acceleration to energies up to ~150 MeV. Capillary structures 3 cm long have been used to accelerate beams up to 1 GeV. Capillary discharges used in LPAs serve to guide the pump laser and optimize the energy gain. A wall-stabilized capillary discharge provides a transverse profile across the channel that helps guide the laser and combat diffraction. Gas injection via a fast nozzle at one end provides some longitudinal density control, to improve the coupling. Gas jets with uniform or controlled density profiles may be used to control electron bunch injection and are being integrated into capillary experiments to add tuning of density. The gas jet for electron injection has not yet been optimized. Our Ph-I results have provided the LPA community with an alternative path to realizing a 2-3GeV electron bunch using just a gas jet. For example, our slit/blade combination gives a 15-20mm long acceleration path with tunable density profile, serving as an alternative to a 20-mm long capillary discharge with gas injection at one end. In Ph-II, we will extend these results to longer nozzles, to see whether we can synthesize 30 or 40-mm long plasma channels for LPAs.

KRISHNAN, Mahadevan

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

220

Tailoring Cosmopolitanism in the Italian Nordest  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

creating a distinct brand identity and image. 6 Prioritizingethnic and cosmopolitan image of the brand. Metropolitan

Brazzale, Claudia

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Tailoring couple therapy techniques to client needs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

have limited the accuracy of client reports on therapy. More research on therapeutic change processes in couple therapy is needed (Heatherington, Friedlander, & Greenberg, 2005) to better understand what therapy is rather than just what it does... (Orlinsky, Grawe, & Parks, 1994). In psychotherapy literature, there has been a longstanding debate centered on two components of therapy (Goldfried & Davila, 2005). One perspective focuses on ?common? or, ?nonspecific? factors such as therapeutic...

Hsueh, Annie C.

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

222

Tailoring Magnetic Properties in Bulk Nanostructured Solids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

9 2.2.2: Rare earth elements and dysprosium oxide (Dy 2 Ooxide structures. The rare earth elements Dy, Tb, and Ho are0K [22]. 2.2.2: Rare earth elements and dysprosium oxide (Dy

Morales, Jason R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Clare M. Wilkinson-Weber TAILORING EXPECTATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

liberalisation in India (Mazzarella, 2003, p. 5; Virdi, 2003, p. 201). My approach to consumption proceeds

224

Tailoring hydrocarbon streams for asphaltene removal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oilfield production is often hindered by asphaltene precipitation which tends to fill the pores of the reservoir rocks and plug the wellbore tubing as well as the other auxiliary equipment used during crude oil recovery. Several remedies to remove these deposits have been proposed and patented but the injection of aromatic solvents such as toluene and light petroleum distillates is normally preferred. Previous studies with a number of pure aromatic hydrocarbons have shown that the solvent capacity of these molecules may be very different and that the degree of condensation plays an important role. In this regard, tetralins and naphthalenes are superior to alkylbenzenes. However, because the use of pure compounds is not economically feasible, the authors examined various industrial streams and the authors correlated their chemical composition to the solvent capacity. This work allowed the identification of the pseudo-components whose relative concentration is crucial for evaluating the solvent performances. Based on these data, the authors were able to find new products with ideal characteristics. The efficiency of one of these products was confirmed by the analysis of the data obtained when using this new solvent to remove asphaltene in damaged wells of an Italian field.

Del Bianco, A.; Stroppa, F.; Bertero, L.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Tailored Acicular Mullite Substrates for Multifunctional Diesel...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

"New Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters for Catalyzed and Non-Catalyzed Applications," Proceedings of the 9th Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction Conference August 24-28, 2003,...

226

Tailoring photonic metamaterial resonances for thermal radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Selective solar absorbers generally have limited effectiveness in unconcentrated sunlight, because of reradiation losses over a broad range of wavelengths and angles. However, metamaterials offer the potential to limit ...

Bermel, Peter A.

227

Tailoring Magnetic Properties in Bulk Nanostructured Solids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

permanent magnets). Under specific temperature and applied magnetic field conditions, exchange coupling

Morales, Jason R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Non-equilibrium vibrational and electron energy distributions functions in atmospheric nitrogen ns pulsed discharges and \\mus post-discharges: the role of electron molecule vibrational excitation scaling-laws  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The formation of the electron energy distribution function in nanosecond atmospheric nitrogen discharges is investigated by means of self-consistent solution of the chemical kinetics and the Boltzmann equation for free electrons. The post-discharge phase is followed to few microseconds. The model is formulated in order to investigate the role of the cross section set, focusing on the vibrational-excitation by electron-impact through resonant channel. Four different cross section sets are considered, one based on internally consistent vibrational-excitation calculations which extend to the whole vibrational ladder, and the others obtained by applying commonly used scaling-laws.

Colonna, Gianpiero; Celiberto, Roberto; Capitelli, Mario; Tennyson, Jonathan

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Abbreviations: IEF, isoelectric focussing; NEPHGE, non-equilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis; PAGE, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; pI, isoelectric point; SDS, sodium dodecyl sulphate; SI, self-incompatibility; 1-D, 1 dimensional; 2-D, 2 dimensional  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; PAGE, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; pI, isoelectric point; SDS, sodium dodecyl sulphate; SI, self-incompatibility@yorku.ca Keywords: cysteine protease, -expansin, mass spectrometry, self-incompatibility ABSTRACT Distylous species of Turnera are strongly self-incompatible, therefore they provide an excellent system for investigations

Shore, Joel S.

230

Tunable Laser Plasma Accelerator based on Longitudinal Density Tailoring  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dot line), which increases to ? 3.5 compared with the vacuum focal value of ? 1.5, producing a bubble

Gonsalves, Anthony

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Tailoring the Thermoelectric Behavior of Electrically Conductive Polymer Composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fabrication temperatures. These concerns have led research efforts into electrically conductive polymer composites prepared in ambient conditions from aqueous solutions. By combining polymer latex with carbon nanotubes (CNT), electrical conductivity can...

Moriarty, Gregory P.

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

232

Laser beam temporal and spatial tailoring for laser shock processing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Techniques are provided for formatting laser pulse spatial shape and for effectively and efficiently delivering the laser energy to a work surface in the laser shock process. An appropriately formatted pulse helps to eliminate breakdown and generate uniform shocks. The invention uses a high power laser technology capable of meeting the laser requirements for a high throughput process, that is, a laser which can treat many square centimeters of surface area per second. The shock process has a broad range of applications, especially in the aerospace industry, where treating parts to reduce or eliminate corrosion failure is very important. The invention may be used for treating metal components to improve strength and corrosion resistance. The invention has a broad range of applications for parts that are currently shot peened and/or require peening by means other than shot peening. Major applications for the invention are in the automotive and aerospace industries for components such as turbine blades, compressor components, gears, etc.

Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA); Dane, C. Brent (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Tailoring Topology Optimization to Composite Pressure Vessel Design with Simultaneous  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;Introduction ­ CNG Pressure Vessels Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Pressure Vessels CNG Cargo Containment System

Paulino, Glaucio H.

234

Recent Results for the Ferritics Isotopic Tailoring (FIST) Experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An alloy of F82H prepared using the isotope 54 Fe in order to encourage H and He production in a fission reactor has been irradiated in the HFIR JP20 experiment at three temperatures to 7 dpa as TEM disks. Irradiated disks were shear punch tested, examined by TEM, analyzed for He and H content, and compared with previous results in order to quantify irradiation hardening due to transmutation-induced H and He. Hardening due to irradiation is found following irradiation at 300 and 400 C, that is intermediate between that at lower and higher dose, but hardening is negligible following irradiation at 500 C. Microstructural examinations show typical behavior of irradiation as a function of irradiation temperature, with moderate swelling after 400 C irradiation but few bubbles after irradiation at 300 C. Correlations of change in hardening with He and H content show little indication of transmutation-induced hardening, but measured H levels do not agree with predictions and therefore H production and analysis requires further study.

Gelles, David S.; Hamilton, M L.; Oliver, Brian M.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Ohnuki, Somei; Shiba, K; Kohno, Yutaka; Kohyama, Akira; Robertson, J P.

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Public Housing: A Tailored Approach to Energy Retrofits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over one million HUD-supported public housing units provide rental housing for eligible low-income families across the country. A survey of over 100 PHAs across the country indicated that there is a high level of interest in developing low cost solutions that improve energy efficiency and can be seamlessly included in the refurbishment process. Further, PHAs, have incentives (both internal and external) to reduce utility bills. ARIES worked with two public housing authorities (PHAs) to develop packages of energy efficiency retrofit measures the PHAs can cost effectively implement with their own staffs in the normal course of housing operations at the time when units are refurbished between occupancies. The energy efficiency turnover protocols emphasized air infiltration reduction, duct sealing and measures that improve equipment efficiency. ARIES documented implementation in ten housing units. Reductions in average air leakage were 16-20% and duct leakage reductions averaged 38%. Total source energy consumption savings was estimated at 6-10% based on BEopt modeling with a simple payback of 1.7 to 2.2 years. Implementation challenges were encountered mainly related to required operational changes and budgetary constraints. Nevertheless, simple measures can feasibly be accomplished by PHA staff at low or no cost. At typical housing unit turnover rates, these measures could impact hundreds of thousands of unit per year nationally.

Dentz, J.; Conlin, F.; Podorson, D.; Alaigh, K.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Aeroelastic Tailoring of Composite Box Beams Mayuresh J. Patil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sectional stiffness matrix g = artificial damping parameter h = airfoil plunge motion [K] = stiffness matrix ¯L = aerodynamic lift ¯M = aerodynamic pitching moment [M] = mass matrix q,¯q,~q = generalized with static aeroelas- tic problems including spanwise lift redistribution, lift effectiveness and aileron

Patil, Mayuresh

237

Tailored net-shape powder composites by spark plasma sintering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

stainless steels). Hydrogen embrittlement is a destructivebeen shown to reduce hydrogen embrittlement when used as an

Khaleghi, Evan Aryan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Self-Assembling Process for Fabricating Tailored Thin Films  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

A simple, economical nanotechnology coating process that enables the development of nanoparticle thin films with architectures and properties unattainable by any other processing method. 2007 R&D 100 winner (SAND2007-1878P)

Sandia

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Self-Assembling Process for Fabricating Tailored Thin Films  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

A simple, economical nanotechnology coating process that enables the development of nanoparticle thin films with architectures and properties unattainable by any other processing method. 2007 R&D 100 winner (SAND2007-1878P)

None

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

240

Development of novel polymeric nanoparticles with tailored architectures and functionalities/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Developing a modular synthetic route to a combinatorial library of functional nanoparticles for applications like drug delivery is one of the main interests of our group. To this end, we have envisioned a novel nanoparticle ...

Burts, Alan O. (Alan Omar)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Understanding and Tailoring the Mechanical Properties of LIGA Fabricated Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

LIGA fabricated materials and components exhibit several processing issues affecting their metallurgical and mechanical properties, potentially limiting their usefulness for MEMS applications. For example, LIGA processing by metal electrodeposition is very sensitive to deposition conditions which causes significant processing lot variations of mechanical and metallurgical properties. Furthermore, the process produces a material with a highly textured lenticular rnicrostructural morphology suggesting an anisotropic material response. Understanding and controlling out-of-plane anisotropy is desirable for LIGA components designed for out-of-plane flexures. Previous work by the current authors focused on results from a miniature servo-hydraulic mechanical test frame constructed for characterizing LIGA materials. Those results demonstrated microstructural and mechanical properties dependencies with plating bath current density in LIGA fabricated nickel (LIGA Ni). This presentation builds on that work and fosters a methodology for controlling the properties of LIGA fabricated materials through processing. New results include measurement of mechanical properties of LIGA fabricated copper (LIGA Cu), out-of-plane and localized mechanical property measurements using compression testing and nanoindentation of LIGA Ni and LIGA Cu.

Buchheit, T.E.; Christenson, T.R.; Lavan, D.A.; Schmale, D.T.

1999-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

242

High Speed Joining of Dissimilar Alloy Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

243

Tailored net-shape powder composites by spark plasma sintering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structure in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells," Jour. Am. Cer.Pore Structure in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells, International

Khaleghi, Evan Aryan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

New system enables fleets to tailor maintenance programs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Lubrizol Corporation has developed FluiPak and FluiPak Lite systems to pull engine oils and sample them continuously, helping to maintain mining equipment between oil change intervals. The FluiPak system has a control box, a sensor box and a reserve system. FluiPak Lite is simply a cut-down version of FluiPak. The article explains how the system works to detect in real time oil quality and contaminants and hence optimize drain intervals and also prolong engine component life and reduce waste oil disposal costs. 100 units are currently installed in coal operations. 5 figs., 5 photos.

Fiscor, S.

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

245

Tailoring the slow light behavior in terahertz metasurfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We experimentally study the effect of near field coupling on the transmission of light in terahertz metasurfaces, possessing slightly distinctive SRR resonances. Our results show that the interplay between the strengths of electric and magnetic dipoles, modulates the amplitude of resulting electromagnetically induced transmission, probed under different types of asymmetries in the coupled system. We employ a two-particle model to theoretically study the influence of the near field coupling between bright and quasi-dark modes on the transmission properties of the coupled system and we find an excellent agreement with our observed results. Adding to the enhanced transmission characteristics, our results provide a deeper insight into the metamaterial analogues of atomic electromagnetically induced transparency and offer an approach to engineer slow light devices, broadband filters and attenuators at terahertz frequencies.

Manjappa, Manukumara; Cong, Longqing; Bettiol, Andrew A; Zhang, Weili; Singh, Ranjan

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Tailored Ink For Piston-Driven Electrostatic Liquid Drop Modulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to an ink composition including water, a solvent, a solvent-soluble dye, and a surfactant, where the ink exhibits a stable liquid microemulsion phase at a first temperature and a second temperature higher than the first temperature and has a conductivity of at most about 200 .mu.S/cm and a dielectric constant of at least about 60, and methods of making such ink compositions. The present invention also relates to a method of making an ink composition for use in a microelectromechanical system-based fluid ejector. The method involves providing a solution or dispersion including a dye or a pigment and adding to the solution or dispersion an additive which includes a material that enhances dielectric permittivity and/or reduces conductivity under conditions effective to produce an ink composition having a conductivity of at most about 200 .mu.S/cm and a dielectric constant of at least about 60.

Wong, Raymond W. (Mississauga, CA); Breton, Marcel P. (Mississauga, CA); Bedford, Christine E. (Toronto, CA); Carreira, Leonard M. (Penfield, NY); Gooray, Arthur M. (Penfield, NY); Roller, George J. (Penfield, NY); Zavadil, Kevin (Benalillo, NM); Galambos, Paul (Albuquerque, NM); Crowley, Joseph (Morgan Hill, CA)

2005-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

247

Passive aeroelastic tailoring of wind turbine blades : a numerical analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This research aims to have an impact towards a sustainable energy supply. In wind power generation losses occur at tip speed ratios which the rotor was not designed for. Since the ideal blade shape changes nonlinearly with ...

Deilmann, Christian

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Anomalous phenomena and spectral tailoring in photonic crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photonic crystals are recently discovered meta-materials whose optical properties arise from periodic refractive index variations. In this thesis I examine various aspects of photonic crystals including a self-assembled ...

Ghebrebrhan, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Tailoring room temperature photoluminescence of antireflective silicon nanofacets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, a fluence-dependent antireflection performance is presented from ion-beam fabricated nanofaceted-Si surfaces. It is also demonstrated that these nanofacets are capable of producing room temperature ultra-violet and blue photoluminescence which can be attributed to inter-band transitions of the localized excitonic states of different Si-O bonds at the Si/SiO{sub x} interface. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements further confirm defect-induced radiative emission from the surface of silicon nanofacets. It is observed that the spectral characteristics remain unchanged, except an enhancement in the photoluminescence intensity with increasing ion-fluence. The increase in photoluminescence intensity by orders of magnitude stronger than that of a planar Si substrate is due to higher absorption of incident photons by nanofaceted structures.

Basu, Tanmoy; Kumar, M.; Ghatak, J.; Som, T., E-mail: tsom@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Schivalaya Marg. Bhubaneswar 751 005 (India); Kanjilal, A. [Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Gautam Budh Nagar, Uttar Pradesh 201 314 (India); Sahoo, P. K. [National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar 751 005 (India)

2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

250

Phased laser array with tailored spectral and coherence properties  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Architectures for coherently combining an array of fiber-based lasers are provided. By matching their lengths to within a few integer multiples of a wavelength, the spatial and temporal properties of a single large laser are replicated, while extending the average or peak pulsed power limit.

Messerly, Michael J; Dawson, Jay W; Beach, Raymond J

2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

251

Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

100 femtoseconds, synchronization to another ultrafast source ranging from infrared to x-ray wavelengths, and the ability to shape the time envelope of the pulse. Among the...

252

Understanding and Tailoring Metal-Support Interactions in Heterogeneous  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layeredof2014National Nuclear23, 2014Cell Imaging. |from motion

253

Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security AdministrationcontrollerNanocrystallineForeign ObjectOUR TableE9.security Tag: security

254

New OLED Cathode Materials with Tailored Low Work Function - Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions andDataNational Library

255

Property Prediction Tools for Tailored Polymer Composite Structures |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Careerlumens_placard-green.epsEnergy1.pdfMarket |21,-CommitteeItemsHiTekPROJECTS FUNDEDPhoto

256

Property Prediction Tools for Tailored Polymer Composite Structures |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Careerlumens_placard-green.epsEnergy1.pdfMarket |21,-CommitteeItemsHiTekPROJECTS

257

Tailored Acicular Mullite Substrates for Multifunctional Diesel Particulate  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of Energy StrainClient updateTRI-STATE GENERATION 1. PhysicalTackling

258

Tailored Materials for Advanced CIDI Engines | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of Energy StrainClient updateTRI-STATE GENERATION 1. PhysicalTackling1 DOE

259

Tailored Materials for Advanced CIDI Engines | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of Energy StrainClient updateTRI-STATE GENERATION 1. PhysicalTackling1

260

Tailored Materials for High Efficiency CIDI Engines (Caterpillar CRADA) |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of Energy StrainClient updateTRI-STATE GENERATION 1.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Engineering Property Prediction Tools for Tailored Polymer Composite  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCof Energy 12, 2004DepartmentWaste HeatStructures | Department

262

Engineering Property Prediction Tools for Tailored Polymer Composite  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCof Energy 12, 2004DepartmentWaste HeatStructures |

263

Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAboutManus Site-Inactive TWPCarbon

264

ADVANCES IN FORCE FIELD TAILORING FOR CONSTRUCTION IN SPACE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

economy. The complete validation and refinement of the technique for large-scale construction in deep

265

Thermal Trap for DNA Replication Christof B. Mast and Dieter Braun*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and simultaneously accumulates the replicated molecules in an efficient thermophoretic trap. The non- equilibrium

Kersting, Roland

266

Stimuli-Tailored Dispersion State of Aqueous Carbon Nanotube Suspensions and Solid Polymer Nanocomposites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanoparticles (such as, carbon nanotubes, carbon black, clay etc.) have one or more dimensions of the order of 100 nm or less. Owing to very high van der Waals force of attraction, these nanoparticles exist in a highly aggregated state. It is often...

Etika, Krishna

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

267

Developing & tailoring multi-functional carbon foams for multi-field response  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As technological advances occur, many conventional materials are incapable of providing the unique multi-functional characteristics demanded thus driving an accelerated focus to create new material systems such as carbon and graphite foams...

Sarzynski, Melanie Diane

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

A Programmable Beam Shaping System for Tailoring the Profile of High Fluence Laser Beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Customized spatial light modulators have been designed and fabricated for use as precision beam shaping devices in fusion class laser systems. By inserting this device in a low-fluence relay plane upstream of the amplifier chain, 'blocker' obscurations can be programmed into the beam profile to shadow small isolated flaws on downstream optical components that might otherwise limit the system operating energy. In this two stage system, 1920 x 1080 bitmap images are first imprinted on incoherent, 470 nm address beams via pixilated liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) modulators. To realize defined masking functions with smooth apodized shapes and no pixelization artifacts, address beam images are projected onto custom fabricated optically-addressable light valves. Each valve consists of a large, single pixel liquid cell in series with a photoconductive Bismuth silicon Oxide (BSO) crystal. The BSO crystal enables bright and dark regions of the address image to locally control the voltage supplied to the liquid crystal layer which in turn modulates the amplitude of the coherent beams at 1053 nm. Valves as large as 24 mm x 36 mm have been fabricated with low wavefront distortion (<0.5 waves) and antireflection coatings for high transmission (>90%) and etalon suppression to avoid spectral and temporal ripple. This device in combination with a flaw inspection system and optic registration strategy represents a new approach for extending the operational lifetime of high fluence laser optics.

Heebner, J; Borden, M; Miller, P; Stolz, C; Suratwala, T; Wegner, P; Hermann, M; Henesian, M; Haynam, C; Hunter, S; Christensen, K; Wong, N; Seppala, L; Brunton, G; Tse, E; Awwal, A; Franks, M; Marley, E; Williams, K; Scanlan, M; Budge, T; Monticelli, M; Walmer, D; Dixit, S; Widmayer, C; Wolfe, J; Bude, J; McCarty, K; DiNicola, J

2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

269

Control of ionization processes in high band gap materials via tailored  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Ultrafast Electron Dynamics in Femtosecond Optical Breakdown of Dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5182­5182

Kassel, Universität

270

Femtosecond-laser irradiation as a platform for tailoring the optoelectronic properties of silicon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Silicon is the most abundant semiconductor on earth and benefits from decades of technological development driven by the integrated circuit industry. Furthermore, silicon allows for facile n-type and p-type doping, has a ...

Smith, Matthew John, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Relaxed active space: Fixing tailored-CC with high order coupled cluster. II  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to the steep increase in computational cost with the inclusion of higher-connected cluster operators in coupled-cluster applications, it is usually not practical to use such methods for larger systems or basis sets without an active space partitioning. This study generates an active space subject to unambiguous statistical criteria to define a space whose size permits treatment at the CCSDT level. The automated scheme makes it unnecessary for the user to judge whether a chosen active space is sufficient to correctly solve the problem. Two demanding applications are presented: twisted ethylene and the transition states for the bicyclo[1,1,0]butane isomerization. As bi-radicals both systems require at least a CCSDT level of theory for quantitative results, for the geometries and energies.

Melnichuk, Ann, E-mail: melnichu@qtp.ufl.edu; Bartlett, Rodney J. [Quantum Theory Project, Department of Chemistry and Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

272

Investigation of an isotopically tailored boron-aluminum alloy's neutronic properties for application in neutron shielding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . Uss and U ss overlapping resonances at 6. 5 and 21. 1 eV. . . 13 Base assembly square dimensions modeled as a cylinder 19 Alboron poisoned spent fuel storage rack using aluminum load bearing structures. . . . . . . . 41 Assembly model surrounded... PROCEDURE. 43 Sensitivity Analysis Absorber Evaluation Modeling Square Assembly With Poison Modeling . Alboron Model . Spent Fuel Storage Rack Model . VI RESULTS 46 47 48 50 51 52 Alboron Comparison Spent Fuel Storage Rack . Result Summary...

Schleyer, William Charles

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

273

Manganese Doping of Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Tailoring Surface Reactivity for a Regenerable Heavy Metal Sorbent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for tuning the analyte affinity of magnetic, inorganic nanostructured sorbents for heavy metal contaminants is described. The manganese-doped iron oxide nanoparticle sorbents have a remarkably high affinity compared to the precursor material. Sorbent affinity can be tuned toward an analyte of interest simply by adjustment of the dopant quantity. The results show that following the Mn doping process there is a large increase in affinity and capacity for heavy metals (i.e., Co, Ni, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Hg, and Tl). Capacity measurements were carried out for the removal of cadmium from river water and showed significantly higher loading than the relevant commercial sorbents tested for comparison. The reduction in Cd concentration from 100 ppb spiked river water to 1 ppb (less than the EPA drinking water limit of 5 ppb for Cd) was achieved following treatment with the Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles. The Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles were able to load 1 ppm of Cd followed by complete stripping and recovery of the Cd with a mild acid wash. The Cd loading and stripping is shown to be consistent through multiple cycles with no loss of sorbent performance.

Warner, Cynthia L.; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Mackie, Katherine E.; Neiner, Doinita; Saraf, Laxmikant; Droubay, Timothy C.; Warner, Marvin G.; Addleman, Raymond S.

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

274

Tailoring hydrodynamics of non-wetting droplets with nano-engineered surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Considering that contacts between liquid and solid are ubiquitous in almost all energy processes, including steam turbines, oil pumping, condensers and boilers, the efficiency of energy transportation can be maximized such ...

Kwon, Hyuk-Min

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Entangled-State Lithography: Tailoring any Pattern with a Single State  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate a systematic approach to Heisenberg-limited lithographic image formation using four-mode reciprocal binominal states. By controlling the exposure pattern with a simple bank of birefringent plates, any pixel pattern on a $(N+1) \\times (N+1)$ grid, occupying a square with the side half a wavelength long, can be generated from a $2 N$-photon state.

Gunnar Bjork; Luis L. Sanchez-Soto; Jonas Soderholm

2000-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

276

The consequences of helium production and nickel additions on microstructure development in isotopically tailored ferritic alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of alloys have been made adding various isotopes of nickel in order to vary the production of helium during irradiation by a two step nuclear reaction in a mixed spectrum reactor. The alloys use a base composition of Fe-12Cr with an addition of 1.5% nickel, either in the form of {sup 60}Ni which produces no helium, {sup 59}Ni which produces helium at a rate of about 10 appm He/dpa, or natural nickel which provides an intermediate level of helium due to delayed development of {sup 59}Ni. Specimens were irradiated in the HFIR at Oak Ridge, TN to 7.5 dpa at 300 and 400 C. Microstructural examinations indicated that nickel additions promote precipitation in all alloys, but the effect appears to be much stronger at 400 C than at 300 C. There is sufficient dose by 7 dpa (and with 2 appm He) to initiate void swelling in ferritic/martensitic alloys. Little difference was found between response from {sup 59}Ni and natural nickel. Also, helium bubble development for high helium generation conditions appeared to be very different at 300 and 400 C. At 300 C, it appeared that high densities of bubbles formed whereas at 400 C, bubbles could not be identified, possibly because of the complexity of the microstructure, but more likely because helium accumulated at precipitate interfaces.

Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

The consequences of helium production on microstructural development in isotopically tailored ferritic alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of alloys have been made adding various isotopes of nickel in order to vary the production of helium during irradiation by a two step nuclear reaction in a mixed spectrum reactor. The alloys use a base composition of Fe-12Cr with an addition of 1.5% nickel, either in the form of {sup 60}Ni which produces no helium, {sup 59}Ni which produces helium at a rate of about 10 appm He/dpa, or natural nickel ({sup Nat}Ni) which provides an intermediate level of helium due to delayed development of {sup 59}Ni. Specimens were irradiated in the HFIR at Oak Ridge, TN to {approx}7 dpa at 300 and 400{degrees}C. Microstructural examinations indicated that nickel additions promote precipitation in all alloys, but the effect appears to be much stronger at 400{degrees}C than at 300{degrees}C. There is sufficient dose by 7 dpa (and with 2 appm He) to initiate void swelling in ferritic/martensitic alloys. Little difference was found between response from {sup 59}Ni and {sup Nat}Ni. Also, helium bubble development for high helium generation conditions appeared to be very different at 300 and 400{degrees}C. At 300{degrees}C, it appeared that high densities of bubbles formed whereas at 400{degrees}C, bubbles could not be identified, possibly because of the complexity of the microstructure, but more likely because helium accumulated at precipitate interfaces.

Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Tailored Materials for Improved Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency (Agreement ID:23725)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

279

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Tailored Materials for Improved Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about...

280

DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402244 Chemocatalytic Upgrading of Tailored Fermentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for blending with gasoline,[7­9] production of longer chain alcohols for jet and diesel blendstocks suffers reported a chemical catalysis route to generate aliphatic ketones (C5­C19) that are components of gasoline

Toste, Dean

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Nuclear forward scattering vs. conventional Mossbauer studies of atomically tailored Eu-based materials.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the decrease in size of devices, rapid characterization of nano-devices is an inevitable necessity. It is shown that Moessbauer spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation from the advanced photon source provides such a tool of investigation. Results are presented and compared for conventional Moessbauer and Nuclear Forward Scattering for {sup 151}Eu-doped magnesium sulfide as an example, especially at low concentrations.

Konjhodzic, A.; Adamczyk, A.; Hasan, Z.; Alp, E. E.; Sturhahn, W.; Zhao, J.; Carroll, J. J.; Vagizov, F.; Univ. of Philadelphia; Youngstown State Univ.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Tailoring the absorption in a photonic crystal membrane: A modal Romain Peretti*a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

crystal, absorption enhancement, photovoltaic solar cell, indoor solar cell, sensor 1. INTRODUCTION is of prime importance for solar [1] and indoor [2] photovoltaic cells or for sensors [3]. Parallel to this photovoltaic devices and sensors, we propose to implement photonic crystals on thin absorbing layers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

283

Tailored ramp-loading via shock release of stepped-density reservoirs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The concept of a gradient piston drive has been extended from that of a single component reservoir, such as a high explosive, to that of a multi-component reservoir that utilizes low density foams and large shocks to achieve high pressures ({approx}3.5 mbar) and controlled pressure vs. time profiles on a driven sample. Simulated and experimental drives shaped through the use of multiple component (including carbonized resorcinol formaldehyde and SiO{sub 2} foam) reservoirs are compared. Individual density layers in a multiple component reservoir are shown to correlate with velocity features in the measured drive which enables the ability to tune a pressure drive by adjusting the components of the reservoir. Pre-shot simulations are shown to be in rough agreement with the data, but post-shot simulations involving the use of simulated plasma drives were needed to achieve an exact match. Results from a multiple component reservoir shot ({approx}3.5 mbar) at the National Ignition Facility are shown.

Prisbrey, Shon T.; Park, Hye-Sook; Remington, Bruce A.; Cavallo, Robert; May, Mark; Pollaine, Stephen M.; Rudd, Robert; Maddox, Brian; Comley, Andrew; Fried, Larry; Blobaum, Kerri; Wallace, Russ; Wilson, Mike; Swift, David; Satcher, Joe; Kalantar, Dan; Perry, Ted [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Giraldez, Emilio; Farrell, Michael; Nikroo, Abbas [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

Solvent tailoring in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, August 1982-November 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A gradientless, high-pressure, continuous reaction system equipped with a carberry-type catalyst basket, was designed and built for hydrotreating liquid feedstocks. A model reaction system (naphthalene dissolved in a carrier vehicle) was used to verify the key results of the simulation study. Investigation of the sensitivity of hydrotreater performance to variations in the volatility of the feedstream were continued. Hydrogenation activity was found to be highly sensitive to differences in the volatility of feedstreams. As part of the sensitivity analyses with respect to feedstream volatility, the reactor was simulated to study the highly interactive effects of hydrogen flowrate, feed concentration, temperature, and pressure. With the use of heavy carrier solvents (e.g. hexadecane or white oil) naphthalene conversion was insensitive to increases in hydrogen flowrate (above the theoretical minimum) or increases in hydrogen flowrate (above the theoretical minimum) or increases in feed concentration. However, with the use of a light carrier solvent (e.g. toluene or cyclohexane) naphthalene conversion was sensitive to both increases in hydrogen flowrate and increases in feedstream concentration. The sensitivity of conversion to reactor pressure was found to be greater for the heavier feed system. It is thus worth noting that the failure to account for liquid vaporization effects could lead to false activation energies and frequency factors. A possible disadvantage to concentrating the reactants and increasing their residence time, with the use of a highly volatile vehicle medium, could be accelerated catalyst deactivation.

Tarrer, A.R.; Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Williams, D.C.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Tailoring the Flow of Soft Glasses by Soft Additives E. Zaccarelli,1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, such as their use as viscosity modifiers in the oil industry [3] or their novel applications as drug-delivery agents mode coupling theory (MCT) framework [

Zaccarelli, Emanuela

286

OrganicInorganic Nanohybrids through the Direct Tailoring of Semiconductor Nanocrystals with Conjugated Polymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in photovoltaic cells.[17­19] This indicates that an interpenetrated network of CP/NC on the scale of the exciton with Conjugated Polymers Zhiqun Lin*[a] 2008 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim Chem. Eur. J. 2008, 14- gated polymers (CPs; i.e., forming the CP/NC hybrids). Hybrids of electroactive CPs with NCs inherit

Lin, Zhiqun

287

Tailored magnetic nanoparticles for in vitro, in vivo and in situ magnetorelaxometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Josephson junction .scope, is based on the Josephson junction, the interruptionV, across two parallel Josephson junctions, according to the

Pisanic, Thomas R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Tailoring the Lasing Modes in Semiconductor Nanowire Cavities Using Intrinsic Self-Absorption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

groundbreaking work on utilizing semiconductor NW cavities to compensate the damping loss and amplify Division of Microelectronics, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 § Energy Research Institute @ NTU (ERI@N), Nanyang Technological University, 50

Xiong, Qihua

289

Tailoring Structure Property Relationships and Elastic Phenomenon in Native and Polymer Reinforced Silica Aerogels.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The focus of this work was to study the effects of flexible silica backbones on elastic properties of silica aerogels. Two routes were examined.… (more)

Randall, Jason P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Bio-inspired tailored hydroxyapatite-based powder composites for dental applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

can reinforce the ceramic matrix composites; however, thean HAP matrix because it exhibits both ceramic and metallic

Lin, Yen-Shan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

automotive tailor-welded blank: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with Ttic5ms, Tcycle40ms. lic scheduling on automotive Navet, Nicolas 285 2001-01-0308 FMEA-based Design for Remanufacture using Automotive- Engineering Websites Summary: . The...

292

Spatio-Temporal Ultrafast Laser Tailoring for Bulk Functionalization of Transparent Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of bulk photowriting of light guides, the con- trol of the irradiation outcome and the machining of more that the domain of photowriting can be extended to deep focusing despite of the associated optical distortions optimization loop based on the evaluation of the irradiation outcome in fused silica and borosilicate Crown

293

Tailoring plasmon resonances in the deep-ultraviolet by size-tunable fabrication of aluminum nanostructures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Localized surface plasmon resonances were controlled at deep-ultraviolet (DUV) wavelengths by fabricating aluminum (Al) nanostructures in a size-controllable manner. Plasmon resonances were obtained at wavelengths from near-UV down to 270 nm (4.6 eV) depending on the fabricated structure size. Such precise size control was realized by the nanosphere lithography technique combined with additional microwave heating to shrink the spaces in a close-packed monolayer of colloidal nanosphere masks. By adjusting the microwave heating time, the sizes of the Al nanostructures could be controlled from 80 nm to 50 nm without the need to use nanosphere beads of different sizes. With the outstanding controllability and versatility of the presented fabrication technique, the fabricated Al nanostructure is promising for use as a DUV plasmonic substrate, a light-harvesting platform for mediating strong light-matter interactions between UV photons and molecules placed near the metal nanostructure.

Taguchi, Atsushi [Nanophotonics Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Saito, Yuika; Watanabe, Koichi; Yijian, Song [Department of Applied Physics, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kawata, Satoshi [Nanophotonics Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Applied Physics, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

294

AN ADVANCED STRATEGY FOR ENERGY EFFICIENT LIGHTING INCORPORATING DISTRIBUTED SENSING AND TAILORED CONTROLS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

accounts for 41 percent of total energy use in the United States with 46 percent of this energy consumed by the commercial sector. With 78 percent of commercial building energy use coming from electricity and heavy use decisions on the relative energy cost of quantified performance improvements across the building enables

Stanford University

295

Nanostructured Ni-Co Alloys with Tailorable Grain Size and Twin Density  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

grain sizes and twin densities in the Ni-Co binary system. Using electrodeposition with various applied nanocrystalline nickel. I. INTRODUCTION BULK nanocrystalline materials are characterized by a large volume

Ferreira, Paulo J.

296

Tailor-Made Onion-Like Stereocomplex Crystals in Incompatible Enantiomeric Polylactide Containing Block Copolymer Blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stereocomplexes formed by blending enantiomeric PLA block copolymers have demonstrated great potential for applications in biomedical devices. Here, we successfully synthesized well-defined enantiomeric PLA containing block copolymers by living ring-opening polymerization of L- and D-lactides from hydroxyl-terminated hydrophilic [poly(ethylene oxide) or PEO] and hydrophobic [poly(ethylene-co-1,2-butylene) or PEB] oligomers. Quantitative stereocomplex formation was achieved by equimolar mixing of the incompatible PEO-b-PLLA and PEB-b-PDLA. Intriguingly, in the blend of PEB-b-PDLA and PEO-b-PLLA with different PEB and PEO molecular weights, onion-like stereocomplex crystals were observed because of unbalanced surface stresses caused by different PEO and PEB molecular weights.

Sun,L.; Zhu, L.; Rong, L.; Hsiao, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Computational Nanophotonics: modeling optical interactions and transport in tailored nanosystem architectures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes research by George Schatz and Mark Ratner that was done over the period 10/03-5/09 at Northwestern University. This research project was part of a larger research project with the same title led by Stephen Gray at Argonne. A significant amount of our work involved collaborations with Gray, and there were many joint publications as summarized later. In addition, a lot of this work involved collaborations with experimental groups at Northwestern, Argonne, and elsewhere. The research was primarily concerned with developing theory and computational methods that can be used to describe the interaction of light with noble metal nanoparticles (especially silver) that are capable of plasmon excitation. Classical electrodynamics provides a powerful approach for performing these studies, so much of this research project involved the development of methods for solving Maxwell’s equations, including both linear and nonlinear effects, and examining a wide range of nanostructures, including particles, particle arrays, metal films, films with holes, and combinations of metal nanostructures with polymers and other dielectrics. In addition, our work broke new ground in the development of quantum mechanical methods to describe plasmonic effects based on the use of time dependent density functional theory, and we developed new theory concerned with the coupling of plasmons to electrical transport in molecular wire structures. Applications of our technology were aimed at the development of plasmonic devices as components of optoelectronic circuits, plasmons for spectroscopy applications, and plasmons for energy-related applications.

Schatz, George; Ratner, Mark

2014-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

298

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Speed Joining of Dissimilar Alloy Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high...

299

Refrigerator Efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an appliance market transformation program design for Africa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

also purchases electricity from private generators throughof electricity supply organizations (i.e. private, public,

Ben Hagan, Essel; Van Buskirk, Robert; Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Alfred; McNeil, Michael A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

High-performance Computing for Topology Optimization Tailored iterative solvers for topology optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with fine resolutions, for instance for 3D printing, requires solving very large finite element models

Vuik, Kees

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 15 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NMAT3026 Tailoring organic heterojunction interfaces in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. However, in most cases, heat and pressure are applied to transfer the films, which can also induce be connected by a simple film-transfer method without disturbing their flat surfaces. Each film can further moments that were selected to align the energy levels at the heterojunction. The open-circuit voltages

Weeks, Eric R.

302

Dynamic tailoring and tuning for space-based precision optical structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Next-generation space telescopes in NASA's Origins missions require use of advanced imaging techniques to achieve high optical performance with limited launch mass. Structurally-connected Michelson interferometers meet ...

Masterson, Rebecca A. (Rebecca Ann)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Nano Sensor Networks for Tailored Operation of Highly Efficient Gas-To-Liquid Fuels Catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

than hitherto possible by re- ducing the rate of Hydrogenation To Paraffin (HTP) reactions. Our numerical and simulation results reveal an exponential relationship be- tween reduction in rates of HTP

New South Wales, University of

304

Novel Membranes for Water Technologies "Formation of Aligned Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) with Tailored Physical and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water worldwide for industrial, agricultural and municipal usage need to be well preserved by efficient-microbial polymeric film over the vertically embedded CNTs on the membrane surface PES PET Single walled Double Walled

305

Quinone tailored selective oxidation of methane over palladium catalyst with molecular oxygen as an oxidantw  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

quinones such as 2-alkyl anthraquinone, together with Pd catalyst, are used for industrial production of H2

Bao, Xinhe

306

Tailoring of electron flow current in magnetically insulated transmission lines J. P. Martin,2,3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Security Administration's Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, Missouri 64141, USA (Received 16 September 2008) flowing electrons generally do not deliver energy to (or even reach) most loads, and thus constitute a balance of the two. While magnetically insulated systems are generally forgiving, there are times when

307

E-Print Network 3.0 - aeroelastically tailored small Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences, University of Notre Dame Collection: Engineering 23 Journal of Fluids and Structures (2002) 16(8), 11271144 doi:10.1006...

308

Towards a Tailored Sensor Network for Fire Emergency Monitoring in Large Buildings   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modern fire emergency systems are slowly moving from the traditional data-logging systems to a heterogeneous and dense network of wired/wireless sensors that can give a more complete view of the phenomenon. When the density ...

Tsertou, Athanasia; Upadhyay, Rochan; McLaughlin, Stephen; Laurenson, David I

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Controlling a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector using tailored bright illumination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We experimentally demonstrate that a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector is deterministically controllable by bright illumination. We found that bright light can temporarily make a large fraction of the nanowire length normally-conductive, can extend deadtime after a normal photon detection, and can cause a hotspot formation during the deadtime with a highly nonlinear sensitivity. In result, although based on different physics, the superconducting detector turns out to be controllable by virtually the same techniques as avalanche photodiode detectors. As demonstrated earlier, when such detectors are used in a quantum key distribution system, this allows an eavesdropper to launch a detector control attack to capture the full secret key without being revealed by to many errors in the key.

Lars Lydersen; Mohsen K. Akhlaghi; A. Hamed Majedi; Johannes Skaar; Vadim Makarov

2011-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

310

Strain analysis of compositionally tailored interfaces in InAs/GaSb superlattices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of interface composition control on interfacial strain distribution in InAs/GaSb superlattices on (100)-GaSb substrates is investigated by atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. The interface composition was controlled by either depositing InSb at each interface or soaking the GaSb-on-InAs interface under Sb{sub 2} atmosphere. The strain profiles reveal a distinct difference in the extent to which the superlattice strain is balanced using the two methods. In particular, they indicate that the degree of strain balance achievable with soaking is inherently limited by the arsenic surface coverage during GaSb-on-InAs interface formation, emphasizing the influence of V/III flux ratio at this interface. The results also explain observed X-ray diffraction profiles.

Mahalingam, Krishnamurthy; Haugan, Heather J.; Brown, Gail J.; Aronow, Andrew J. [AFRL/RXAN, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7707 (United States)] [AFRL/RXAN, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7707 (United States)

2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

311

Tailoring the energy level alignment at the Co/Alq3 interface by controlled cobalt oxidation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

has established an extremely promising basis for low-cost logical devices.1 The prototypical organic in the work function and to a continuous energetic shift of the molecular orbitals towards higher binding. These high quality spinterfaces are not always reproducible in device fabrication and investigation of real

Aeschlimann, Martin

312

Chromatic acclimation and population dynamics of green sulfur bacteria grown with spectrally tailored light  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Living organisms have to adjust to their surrounding in order to survive in stressful conditions. We study this mechanism in one of most primitive creatures - photosynthetic green sulfur bacteria. These bacteria absorb photons very efficiently using the chlorosome antenna complexes and perform photosynthesis in extreme low-light environments. How the chlorosomes in green sulfur bacteria are acclimated to the stressful light conditions, for instance, if the spectrum of light is not optimal for absorption, is unknown. Studying Chlorobaculum tepidum cultures with far-red to near-infrared light-emitting diodes, we found that these bacteria react to changes in energy flow by regulating the amount of light-absorbing pigments and the size of the chlorosomes. Surprisingly, our results indicate that the bacteria can survive in near-infrared lights capturing low-frequency photons by the intermediate units of the light-harvesting complex. The latter strategy may be used by the species recently found near hydrothermal ve...

Saikin, Semion K; Huh, Joonsuk; Hannout, Moataz; Wang, Yaya; Zare, Farrokh; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan; Tang, Joseph Kuo-Hsiang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Refrigerator Efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an appliance market transformation program design for Africa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the residential electricity sector in Ghana. Althoughprice of electricity for the residential sector is zero forprice of electricity for the commercial sector is $0.093/kWh

Ben Hagan, Essel; Van Buskirk, Robert; Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Alfred; McNeil, Michael A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Tailoring magnetic properties of core/shell nanoparticles and Shouheng Sun  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in electromagnetic and permanent magnetic applications.10,11 In such a system, the intimate contact be- tween the core and shell leads to effective exchange coupling and therefore cooperative magnetic switching coupled and magneti- zation of both core and shell reverses cooperatively. As a result, the magnetic

Liu, J. Ping

315

Tailoring next-generation biofuels and their combustion in next-generation engines.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasing energy costs, the dependence on foreign oil supplies, and environmental concerns have emphasized the need to produce sustainable renewable fuels and chemicals. The strategy for producing next-generation biofuels must include efficient processes for biomass conversion to liquid fuels and the fuels must be compatible with current and future engines. Unfortunately, biofuel development generally takes place without any consideration of combustion characteristics, and combustion scientists typically measure biofuels properties without any feedback to the production design. We seek to optimize the fuel/engine system by bringing combustion performance, specifically for advanced next-generation engines, into the development of novel biosynthetic fuel pathways. Here we report an innovative coupling of combustion chemistry, from fundamentals to engine measurements, to the optimization of fuel production using metabolic engineering. We have established the necessary connections among the fundamental chemistry, engine science, and synthetic biology for fuel production, building a powerful framework for co-development of engines and biofuels.

Gladden, John Michael; Wu, Weihua; Taatjes, Craig A.; Scheer, Adam Michael; Turner, Kevin M.; Yu, Eizadora T.; O'Bryan, Greg; Powell, Amy Jo; Gao, Connie W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA] [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Tailoring Wavelets for Chaos Control G.W. Wei,1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Mathematics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 2 Department of Computational Science), electronics (Chua-Matsumoto circuit), fluid dynamics (Rayleigh- Be´nard convention), meteorology, solar system

317

Refrigerator Efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an appliance market transformation program design for Africa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and organizational long-term commitment to furthering energy efficiency.organizational environment. The approach for appliance energy efficiency

Ben Hagan, Essel; Van Buskirk, Robert; Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Alfred; McNeil, Michael A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Model for the Fabrication of Tailored Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment SurfacesResource Program PreliminaryA3,0StatementsMixing Up aSTANDARDS OFArgonne

319

EXC-12-0007 - In the Matter of Tailored Lighting, Inc. | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.Program - LibbyofThisStatement Tuesday, September 25--ContractJune

320

Synthetic Biology for Tailored Enzyme Cocktails Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of Energy Strain Rate4SuperhardSuspectEngines | DepartmentandMarch 2015

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Tailoring the microstructure and mechanical properties of arrays of aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes by utilizing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of different hydrogen concentrations on the micro- structure and mechanical properties of the resulting material. We show that a lower hydro- gen concentration during synthesis results in the growth of stiffer with predeposited catalyst (neither as a bulk material nor in the form of micro pillars) [8,10,11], with a re- cent

Daraio, Chiara

322

Refrigerator Efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an appliance market transformation program design for Africa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

households fall into which rate category, and on this based calculated a weighted average marginal price of electricityhousehold in 2001 (EIA, 2005a). Recent data from Ghana indicates that the average marginal price of electricity (

Ben Hagan, Essel; Van Buskirk, Robert; Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Alfred; McNeil, Michael A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

E-Print Network 3.0 - active dispersion tailored Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

L. Mitchelmore, Ph.D. Before the House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure Summary: today to highlight some of the issues concerning the effects of...

324

Supporting Application-Tailored Grid File System Sessions with WSRF-Based Services  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

}@acis.ufl.edu Abstract This paper presents novel service-based Grid data management middleware that leverages standards defined by WSRF specifications to create and manage dynamic Grid file system sessions. A unique aspect features (file system copy-on-write checkpointing to aid recovery of client-side failures; replication

Figueiredo, Renato J.

325

TAILORING THE PLATEAU BURNING RATES OF COMPOSITE PROPELLANTS BY THE USE OF NANOSCALE ADDITIVES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(223 ?m) and 30% or 20% binder composed of IPDI-cured HTPB with Tepanol. Propellants’ burning rates were tested using a strand bomb between 500 and 2500 psi (34.0-170.1 atm). Analysis of the burning rate data shows that the crystal phase and synthesis...

Stephens, Matthew

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

326

Tailoring the plateau burning rates of composite propellants by the use of nanoscale additives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(223 ?m) and 30% or 20% binder composed of IPDI-cured HTPB with Tepanol. Propellants’ burning rates were tested using a strand bomb between 500 and 2500 psi (34.0-170.1 atm). Analysis of the burning rate data shows that the crystal phase and synthesis...

Stephens, Matthew Aaron

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

327

TAILORING INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR SRS STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS: OPTIMIZED MONOSODIUM TITANATE PHASE II FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a final report of Phase II testing activities for the development of a modified monosodium titanate (MST) that exhibits improved strontium and actinide removal characteristics compared to the baseline MST material. The activities included determining the key synthesis conditions for preparation of the modified MST, preparation of the modified MST at a larger scale by a commercial vendor, demonstration of the strontium and actinide removal characteristics with actual tank waste supernate and measurement of filtration characteristics. Key findings and conclusions include the following. Testing evaluated three synthetic methods and eleven process parameters for the optimum synthesis conditions for the preparation on an improved form of MST. We selected the post synthesis method (Method 3) for continued development based on overall sorbate removal performance. We successfully prepared three batches of the modified MST using Method 3 procedure at a 25-gram scale. The laboratory prepared modified MST exhibited increased sorption kinetics with simulated and actual waste solutions and similar filtration characteristics to the baseline MST. Characterization of the modified MST indicated that the post synthesis treatment did not significantly alter the particle size distribution, but did significantly increase the surface area and porosity compared to the original MST. Testing indicated that the modified MST exhibits reduced affinity for uranium compared to the baseline MST, reducing risk of fissile loading. Shelf-life testing indicated no change in strontium and actinide performance removal after storing the modified MST for 12-months at ambient laboratory temperature. The material releases oxygen during the synthesis and continues to offgas after the synthesis at a rapidly diminishing rate until below a measurable rate after 4 months. Optima Chemical Group LLC prepared a 15-kilogram batch of the modified MST using the post synthesis procedure (Method 3). Performance testing with simulated and actual waste solutions indicated that the material performs as well as or better than batches of modified MST prepared at the laboratory-scale. Particle size data of the vendor-prepared modified MST indicates a broader distribution centered at a larger particle size and microscopy shows more irregular particle morphology compared to the baseline MST and laboratory prepared modified MST. Stirred-cell (i.e., dead-end) filter testing revealed similar filtration rates relative to the baseline MST for both the laboratory and vendor-prepared modified MST materials. Crossflow filtration testing indicated that with MST-only slurries, the baseline MST produced between 30-100% higher flux than the vendor-prepared modified MST at lower solids loadings and comparable flux at higher solids loadings. With sludge-MST slurries, the modified MST produced 1.5-2.2 times higher flux than the baseline MST at all solids loadings. Based on these findings we conclude that the modified MST represents a much improved sorbent for the separation of strontium and actinides from alkaline waste solutions and recommend continued development of the material as a replacement for the baseline MST for waste treatment facilities at the Savannah River Site.

Hobbs, D; Thomas Peters, T; Michael Poirier, M; Mark Barnes, M; Major Thompson, M; Samuel Fink, S

2007-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

328

Nonequilibrium quantum kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper contains viewgraphs on non-equilibrium quantum kinetics of nuclear reactions at the intermediate and high energy ranges.

Danielewicz, P.

1997-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

329

E-Print Network 3.0 - accurate chemical equilibrium Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Green's function Continuum Non- Equilibrium ... Source: Walker, D. Greg - Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vanderbilt University Collection: Engineering 72 Experimental...

330

Tailoring the Neutron Spectrum from a 14-MeV Neutron Generator to Approximate a Spontaneous-Fission Spectrum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many applications of neutrons for non-invasive measurements began with isotopic sources such as AmBe or Cf-252. Political factors have rendered AmBe undesirable in the United States and other countries, and the supply of Cf-252 is limited and significantly increasing in price every few years. Compact and low-power deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generators can often provide sufficient flux, but the 14-MeV neutron spectrum is much more energetic (harder) than an isotopic neutron source. A series of MCNP simulations were run to examine the extent to which the 14-MeV DT neutron spectrum could be softened through the use of high-Z and low-Z materials. Some potential concepts of operation require a portable neutron generator system, so the additional weight of extra materials is also a trade-off parameter. Using a reference distance of 30 cm from the source, the average neutron energy can be lowered to be less than that of either AmBe or Cf-252, while obtaining an increase in flux at the reference distance compared to a bare neutron generator. This paper discusses the types and amounts of materials used, the resulting neutron spectra, neutron flux levels, and associated photon production.

James Simpson; David Chichester

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Center for Electrical Energy Storage Tailored Interfaces Argonne National Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Northwestern University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

these structures, monitoring the Si expansion with SEM, and analyzing the electrochemical capacity retention with subsequent penetration into those surfaces. This subtask focuses on the design and electrochemical evaluation) Management Council Stephen Streiffer (ANL) Al Sattelberger (ANL) Eric Isaacs (ANL) Jay Walsh (NU) Mark Ratner

Kemner, Ken

332

Received 28 Mar 2013 | Accepted 15 Sep 2013 | Published 15 Oct 2013 Tailoring the hydrophobicity of graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the hydrophobicity of graphene for its use as nanopores for DNA translocation Gre´gory F. Schneider1, Qiang Xu1 Graphene nanopores are potential successors to biological and silicon-based nanopores. For sensing between DNA and graphene. Here we demonstrate a novel scheme to prevent DNA­graphene interactions, based

Dekker, Cees

333

Gasifier feed: Tailor-made from Illinois coals. Interim final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main purpose of this project is to produce a feedstock from preparation plant fines from an Illinois coal that is ideal for a slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow coal gasifier. The high sulfur content and high Btu value of Illinois coals are particularly advantageous in such a gasifier; preliminary calculations indicate that the increased cost of removing sulfur from the gas from a high sulfur coal is more than offset by the increased revenue from the sale of the elemental sulfur; additionally the high Btu Illinois coal concentrates more energy into the slurry of a given coal to water ratio. The Btu is higher not only because of the higher Btu value of the coal but also because Illinois coal requires less water to produce a pumpable slurry than western coal, i.e., as little as 30--35% water may be used for Illinois coal as compared to approximately 45% for most western coals. Destec Energy, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Dow Chemical Company, will provide guidelines and test compatibility of the slurries developed for gasification feedstock. Williams Technologies, Inc., will provide their expertise in long distance slurry pumping, and test selected products for viscosity, pumpability, and handleability. The Illinois State Geological Survey will study methods for producing clean coal/water slurries from preparation plant wastes including the concentration of pyritic sulfur into the coal slurry to increase the revenue from elemental sulfur produced during gasification operations, and decrease the pyritic sulfur content of the waste streams. ISGS will also test the gasification reactivity of the coals.

Ehrlinger, H.P. III; Lytle, J.; Frost, R.R.; Lizzio, A.; Kohlenberger, L.; Brewer, K. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

334

Gasifier feed: Tailor-made from Illinois coals. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main purpose of this project was to produce a feedstock from preparation plant fines from an Illinois (IL) coal that is ideal for a slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow coal gasifier. The high-sulfur content and high-Btu value of IL coals are Particularly advantageous in such a gasifier; preliminary-calculations indicate that the increased cost of removing sulfur from the gas from a high-sulfur coal is more than offset b the increased revenue from the sale of the elemental sulfur; additionally the high-Btu IL coal concentrates more energy into the slurry of a given coal to water ratio. The Btu is--higher not only because of the hither Btu value of the coal but also because IL coal requires less water to produce a pumpable slurry than western coal, i.e., as little as 30--35% water may be used for IL coal as compared to approximately 45% for most western coals. During the contract extension, additional coal testing was completed confirming the fact that coal concentrates can be made from plant waste under a variety of flotation conditions 33 tests were conducted, yielding an average of 13326 Btu with 9.6% ash while recovering 86.0%-Of the energy value.

Ehrlinger, H.P. III [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Lytle, J.M.; Frost, R.R.; Lizzio, A.A.; Kohlenberger, L.B.; Brewer, K.K. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)]|[DESTEC Energy (United States)]|[Williams Technologies, Inc. (United States)]|[Illinois Coal Association (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

335

Tailoring the Temperature Coefficient of Capacitance (TCC), Dielectric Loss and Capacitance Density with Ceramic-Polymer Nanocomposites for RF Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The processes include (i) combining polymer-matrix and nano-ceramic-fillers, whose TCCs have different signs (ceramic-ceramic- polymer nanocomposite, CCPN) with negative and positive TCC in polymer-matrix thus making with Ceramic-Polymer Nanocomposites for RF Applications Isaac Robin Abothu, Baik-Woo Lee, P. Markondeya Raj

Swaminathan, Madhavan

336

1.22 {mu}m GaInNAs Saturable Absorber Mirrors with Tailored Recovery Time  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of in-situ N-ion irradiation on the recombination dynamics of GaInNAs/GaAs semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors has been studied. The samples were fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy using a radio frequency plasma source for nitrogen incorporation in the absorber layers as well as for the irradiation. The recombination dynamics of irradiated samples were studied by pump-probe measurements. The recombination time of the absorbers could be reduced by increasing the irradiation time. The effect of the reduced recombination time on the pulse dynamics of a mode-locked laser setup was studied with a Bi-doped fibre laser. The pulse quality was found to improve with increased irradiation time and reduced recombination time, demonstrating the potential of the in-situ irradiation method for device applications.

Puustinen, Janne; Guina, Mircea; Korpijaervi, Ville-Markus; Tukiainen, Antti; Kivistoe, Samuli; Pessa, Markus [Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland); Marcinkevicius, Saulius [Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 16440, Kista (Sweden)

2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

337

Coordinative Self-Assembly and Solution-Phase X-ray Structural Characterization of Cavity-Tailored Porphyrin Boxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coordinative Self-Assembly and Solution-Phase X-ray Structural Characterization of Cavity motifs, often allows for one-pot assembly of supramolecules of predetermined architecture in high or even(II) sites) (Scheme 1). We reasoned that the torsional problem could be most simply overcome by assembling

338

Design and Use of Tailored Hard-Pulse Trains for Uniformed Saturation of Myocardium at 3 Tesla  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the BIR-4 pulse. Conversely, the BIR-4 pulse has a higher specific absorp- tion rate (SAR). These costs on estimated B0 and B1 profiles that were measured a priori over the heart, can overcome both SAR and B1. Parallel imaging was not used. In all studies, the transmit gain was calibrated using a stan- dard pre

Southern California, University of

339

Tailoring transient-amorphous states: Towards fast and power-efficient phase-change memories and neuromorphic computing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a huge improvement in the energy efficiency and set speed during the following ACT pulse, as 22 shown in Figure 2a. Otherwise, there would be little change. These results indicate that the main origin of the increase of the minimum ACT... -term plasticity (STP) characteristics in biological synapses, in which the temporal enhancement in synaptic weight after the pre-synaptic pulse decays quickly. 7 Interestingly, very similar STP characteristics have been observed in Ag2S inorganic...

Lee, Tae Hoon; Loke, Desmond; Huang, Ke-Jie; Wang, Wei-Jie; Elliott, Stephen R.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Safety-factor profile tailoring by improved electron cyclotron system for sawtooth control and reverse shear scenarios in ITER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of the predicted local electron cyclotron current driven by the optimized electron cyclotron system on ITER is discussed. A design variant was recently proposed to enlarge the physics program covered by the upper and equatorial launchers. By extending the functionality range of the upper launcher, significant control capabilities of the sawtooth period can be obtained. The upper launcher improvement still allows enough margin to exceed the requirements for neoclassical tearing mode stabilization, for which it was originally designed. The analysis of the sawtooth control is carried on with the ASTRA transport code, coupled with the threshold model by Por-celli, to study the control capabilities of the improved upper launcher on the sawtooth instability. The simulations take into account the significant stabilizing effect of the fusion alpha particles. The sawtooth period can be increased by a factor of 1.5 with co-ECCD outside the q = 1 surface, and decreased by at least 30% with co-ECCD inside q = 1. The present ITER base-line design has the electron cyclotron launchers providing only co-ECCD. The variant for the equatorial launcher proposes the possibility to drive counter-ECCD with 1 of the 3 rows of mirrors: the counter-ECCD can then be balanced with co-ECCD and provide pure ECH with no net driven current. The difference between full co-ECCD off-axis using all 20MW from the equatorial launcher and 20MW co-ECCD driven by 2/3 from the equatorial launcher and 1/3 from the upper launcher is shown to be negligible. Cnt-ECCD also offers greater control of the plasma current density, therefore this analysis addresses the performance of the equatorial launcher to control the central q profile. The equatorial launcher is shown to control very efficiently the value of q{sub 0.2}-q{sub min} in advanced scenarios, if one row provides counter-ECCD.

Zucca, C.; Sauter, O.; Fable, E. [Ecole Polytechnique Federate de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Henderson, M. A.; Polevoi, A. [ITER Organization, CHD Dpt, CEN Cadarache 519/007, 13108 Saint-Paul-les-Durance (France); Farina, D.; Ramponi, G. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, EURATOM-Enea-CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Saibene, G. [Fusion for Energy, c/Josep Pla, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Zohm, H. [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik IPP-EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany)

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Layer-by-layer assembly of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) thin films: tailoring growth and UV-protection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

system was too high to accurately measure, even at 40 bilayers. Similar results were found when the pH of BPEI was reduced from ~10 down to 3, which is known to make each imine group fully charged. 66 y = 2.1212x + 5.5827 R 2 = 0.9865 0 20 40 60 80... absorbing bilayer for every 3 standard bilayers. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000 Exposure Time to 365nm UV Light (s) Resistan ce Ch an ge (R/ R o) Pure 6-6 TiO2 9-3 TiO2 6-6 CB 9-3 CB All TiO2 Figure 20. Normalized change...

Dawidczyk, Thomas James

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

342

Volume 1, 1st Edition, Multiscale Tailoring of Highly Active and Stable Nanocomposite Catalysts, Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanomaterials have gained much attention as catalysts since the discovery of exceptional CO oxidation activity of nanoscale gold by Haruta. However, many studies avoid testing nanomaterials at the high-temperatures relevant to reactions of interest for the production of clean energy (T > 700°C). The generally poor thermal stability of catalytically active noble metals has thus far prevented significant progress in this area. We have recently overcome the poor thermal stability of nanoparticles by synthesizing a platinum barium-hexaaluminate (Pt-BHA) nanocomposite which combines the high activity of noble metal nanoparticles with the thermal stability of hexaaluminates. This Pt-BHA nanocomposite demonstrates excellent activity, selectivity, and long-term stability in CPOM. Pt-BHA is anchored onto a variety of support structures in order to improve the accessibility, safety, and reactivity of the nanocatalyst. Silica felts prove to be particularly amenable to this supporting procedure, with the resulting supported nanocatalyst proving to be as active and stable for CPOM as its unsupported counterpart. Various pre-treatment conditions are evaluated to determine their effectiveness in removing residual surfactant from the active nanoscale platinum particles. The size of these particles is measured across a wide temperature range, and the resulting “plateau” of stability from 600-900°C can be linked to a particle caging effect due to the structure of the supporting ceramic framework. The nanocomposites are used to catalyze the combustion of a dilute methane stream, and the results indicate enhanced activity for both Pt-BHA as well as ceria-doped BHA, as well as an absence of internal mass transfer limitations at the conditions tested. In water-gas shift reaction, nanocomposite Pt-BHA shows stability during prolonged WGS reaction and no signs of deactivation during start-up/shut-down of the reactor. The chemical and thermal stability, low molecular weight, and wealth of literature on the formation of mesoporous silica materials motivated investigations of nanocomposite silica catalysts. High surface area silicas are synthesized via sol-gel methods, and the addition of metal-salts lead to the formation of stable nanocomposite Ni- and Fe- silicates. The results of these investigations have increased the fundamental understanding and improved the applicability of nanocatalysts for clean energy applications.

Veser, Goetz

2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

343

Tailoring the coercivity in ferromagnetic ZnO thin films by 3d and 4f elements codoping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cluster free, Co (3d) and Eu (4f) doped ZnO thin films were prepared using ion implantation technique accompanied by post annealing treatments. Compared with the mono-doped ZnO thin films, the samples codoped with Co and Eu exhibit a stronger magnetization with a giant coercivity of 1200?Oe at ambient temperature. This was further verified through x-ray magnetic circular dichroism analysis, revealing the exchange interaction between the Co 3d electrons and the localized carriers induced by Eu{sup 3+} ions codoping. The insight gained with modulating coercivity in magnetic oxides opens up an avenue for applications requiring non-volatility in spintronic devices.

Lee, J. J.; Xing, G. Z., E-mail: guozhong.xing@unsw.edu.au; Yi, J. B.; Li, S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Chen, T. [Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong)] [Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong); Ionescu, M. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Sydney, New South Wales 2234 (Australia)] [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Sydney, New South Wales 2234 (Australia)

2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

344

Abstract--This work develops a three-phase unbalanced load flow tool tailored for radial distribution networks based  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) generators where most of the systems are single phase. New ancillary service such as static reactive power, thermal limits of grid components and power losses in radial MV-LV networks with photovoltaic (PV support by PV inverters can be also merged together with the load flow solution tool and thus, the impact

Teodorescu, Remus

345

Improvement of Laser Damage Resistance and Diffraction Efficiency of Multilayer Dielectric Diffraction Gratings by HF-Etchback Linewidth Tailoring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multilayer dielectric (MLD) diffraction gratings for Petawatt-class laser systems possess unique laser damage characteristics. Details of the shape of the grating lines and the concentration of absorbing impurities on the surface of the grating structures both have strong effects on laser damage threshold. It is known that electric field enhancement in the solid material comprising the grating lines varies directly with the linewidth and inversely with the line height for equivalent diffraction efficiency. Here, they present an overview of laser damage characteristics of MLD gratings, and describe a process for post-processing ion-beam etched grating lines using very dilute buffered hydrofluoric acid solutions. This process acts simultaneously to reduce grating linewidth and remove surface contaminants, thereby improving laser damage thresholds through two pathways.

Nguyen, H T; Larson, C C; Britten, J A

2010-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

346

E-Print Network 3.0 - aminocarboxypropyl transfer reaction Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

non-equilibrium gas-phase chemical reactions... the high-temperature conditions of hypersonic reentry (10,000 degrees). Atmospheric chemical reactions... during hypersonic...

347

Nanotechnology 10 (1999) 269272. Printed in the UK PII: S0957-4484(99)01021-1 Tailoring graphite with the goal of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

it on an appropriate substrate, such as crystal surfaces of transition metals and metal carbides, by decomposing

348

Bandgap tailoring of in-situ nitrogen-doped TiO{sub 2} sputtered films intended for electrophotocatalytic applications under solar light  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on a reactive RF-sputtering process permitting the in-situ nitrogen doping of TiO{sub 2} films in order to shift their photoactivity from UV to visible range. By carefully controlling the relative nitrogen-to-argon mass flow rate ratio (within the 0%–25% range) in the sputter deposition chamber, TiO{sub 2}:N films were grown with nitrogen contents ranging from 0 to 6.2 at. %, as determined by high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy measurements. A systematic investigation of the crystalline structure of the TiO{sub 2}:N films, as a function of their N content, revealed that low N contents (0.2–0.3 at. %) induce crystallization in the rutile phase while higher N contents (?1.4 at. %) were accompanied with the recovery of the anatase structure with an average crystallite size of ?35?nm. By using both UV-Vis absorption and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements, we were able to quantitatively determine the bandgap (E{sub g}) variation of the TiO{sub 2}:N films as a function of their N content. Thus, we have demonstrated that the E{sub g} of the TiO{sub 2}:N films effectively narrows from 3.2?eV down to a value as low as ?2.3?eV for the optimal N doping concentration of 3.4 at. % (higher N incorporation does not translate into further red shifting of the TiO{sub 2}:N films' E{sub g}). The photoactivity of the TiO{sub 2}:N films under visible light was confirmed through electro-photocatalytic decomposition of chlortetracycline (CTC, an emerging water pollutant) under standard 1.5AM solar radiation. Thus, CTC degradation efficiencies of up to 98% were achieved with 2 hours process cycles under simulated solar light. Moreover, the electro-photocatalytic performance of the TiO{sub 2}:N films is shown to be directly correlated to their optoelectronic properties (namely their bandgap narrowing).

Delegan, N.; El Khakani, M. A., E-mail: elkhakani@emt.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650, Boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X-1S2 (Canada); Daghrir, R.; Drogui, P. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement, 490 Rue de la Couronne, Québec G1K-9A9 (Canada)

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

349

Mobile Networks and Applications 5 (2000) 13 1 Mobile data networks are tailored to accommodate bursty wireless data transmission within large geographical areas.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of networks, including wireless TCP networks, ad-hoc networks, multihop packet radio networks and standardized public data networks, such as the Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) and the Cellular Digital Packet Data systems," by C. Jedrzycki and V.C.M. Leung, considers a CDPD network operating on non-dedicated radio

Chamzas, Christodoulos

350

A general proof of Landauer-Büttiker formula  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We point out a general argument leading from the formula for currents through an open mesoscopic system given by the theory of non-equilibrium steady states (NESS) to the Landauer-B\\"uttiker formula.

G. Nenciu

2006-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

351

Thermodynamics with 3 Spins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Glauber dynamics, applied to the one-dimensional Ising model, provides a tractable model for the study of non-equilibrium, many-body processes driven by a heat bath

Eward May; Jack L. Uretsky

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

352

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., Vol. 7, 1974. Printed in Great Britain. 01974 Electron multiplicationin a gas discharge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with large space gradients. More recently, experimental data (Haydon and Stock 1966, Folkard and Haydon 1971 the pressure of the gas and xoa distance introduced to take into account the non-equilibrium effects at small

Friedland, Lazar

353

Molecular Dynamic Simulation of Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Ultra-Thin Poly(methyl methacrylate) Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The thermal conductivity of PMMA films with thicknesses from 5 to 50 nanometers and layered over a treated silicon substrate is explored numerically by the application of the reverse non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) technique...

Silva Hernandez, Carlos Ardenis A.

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

354

Phenomenology and simulations of active fluids   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Active fluids are an interesting new class of non-equilibrium systems in physics. In such fluids, the system is forced out of equilibrium by the individual active particles - in contrast to driven systems where the system ...

Tjhung, Elsen

2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

355

Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics of Porous Electrodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We reformulate and extend porous electrode theory for non-ideal active materials, including those capable of phase transformations. Using principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, we relate the cell voltage, ionic ...

Ferguson, Todd Richard

356

Cross Sections: Key for Modeling Vasili Kharchenko  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and ... Students and Postdocs: Stefano Bovino, Nick Lewkow, and Marko Gacesa #12;Collisions of Atmospheric Atoms/and Monte Carlo simulations · Calculations of non-equilibrium rates of atmospheric reactions. #12;Simple

Johnson, Robert E.

357

Statistical mechanics of non-Markovian exclusion processes   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process (TASEP) is often considered one of the fundamental models of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, due to its well understood steady state and the fact that it can exhibit ...

Concannon, Robert James

2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

358

Tunable spatial heterogeneity in structure and composition within aqueous microfluidic droplets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we demonstrate biphasic microfluidic droplets with broadly tunable internal structures, from simple near-equilibrium drop-in-drop morphologies to complex yet uniform non-equilibrium steady-state structures. ...

Hui, Sophia Lee Su

359

Journal of Fluid Mechanics http://journals.cambridge.org/FLM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Introduction Strong bow and leading-edge shock waves, and large kinetic energy dissipation on hypersonic molecules, hence variable heat capacities and thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. As a result, significant

Martín, Pino

360

A mathematical and experimental study of caustic flooding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Dr. Ching Buang Wu A simple non-equilibrium chemical displacement model for continuous, linear, caustic flooding of crude oil is presented. The laboratory experiments were conducted to support the numerical simulation and to verify the results.... The unique feature of this mathematic study is that it includes the chemistry of the acid hydrolysis to produce surfactants and the chemical reaction rate under the non- equilibrium state. The in-situ generated surfactant was presumed to alter the oil...

Shen, Tsu-Cheng

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Lyapunov Exponents and KS Entropy for the Lorentz Gas at Low Densities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Lyapunov exponents and the KS entropy for a two dimensional Lorentz gas at low densities are defined for general non-equilibrium states and calculated with the use of a Lorentz-Boltzmann type equation. In equilibrium the density dependence of these quantities predicted by Krylov is recovered and explicit expressions are obtained. The relationship between the KS entropy, Lyapunov exponents, and escape rate, conjectured by Gaspard and Nicolis for non-equilibrium systems is confirmed and generalized.

Henk van Beijeren; J. R. Dorfman

1994-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

362

E-Print Network 3.0 - amobarbital Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Search Sample search results for: amobarbital Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Tailored Cognitive Testing with Provocative Amobarbital Injection Preceding Summary: Tailored Cognitive...

363

E-Print Network 3.0 - agile alternative binders Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in Tailor Welded Blank Forming Summary: . To address tearing concerns, a segmented binder process, which varies the force applied to the materials... in the Tailor Welded Blank,...

364

Practical Materials for Heavy Metal Ion Chelation: PolyethylenimPractical Materials for Heavy Metal Ion Chelation: Polyethyleniminesines tailored onto The Surface oftailored onto The Surface of Porous SilicaPorous Silica  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Practical Materials for Heavy Metal Ion Chelation: PolyethylenimPractical Materials for Heavy Metal *presenting author INTRODUCTION As a result of heavy metal ion release from industrial wastewater, water pollution has become a serious problem. Waste streams contain solutions of metal ions, such as copper

Taralp, Alpay

365

Cancer Health Empowerment for Living without Pain (Ca-HELP): study design and rationale for a tailored education and coaching intervention to enhance care of cancer-related pain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Living without Pain (Ca- HELP): study design and rationaleLiving without Pain (Ca-HELP) Study is an American Cancerphysician behavior[4,5] The Ca-HELP (Cancer Health Empower-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Protocol for the ADDITION-Plus study: a randomised controlled trial of an individually-tailored behaviour change intervention among people with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes under intensive UK general practice care  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at the level of the heart, using an auto- matic sphygmomanometer (Omron M4, UK). ECG was recorded by a 12 lead machine. Body height and weight were measured in light indoor clothing and without shoes using a fixed rigid stadiometer and a scale (SECA, UK...

Griffin, Simon J; Simmons, Rebecca K; Williams, Kate M; Prevost, A Toby; Hardeman, Wendy; Grant, Julie; Whittle, Fiona; Boase, Sue; Hobbis, Imogen; Brage, Soren; Westgate, Kate; Fanshawe, Tom; Sutton, Stephen; Wareham, Nicholas J; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; ADDITION-Plus Study team

2011-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

367

Study protocol for iQuit in Practice: a randomised controlled trial to assess the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of tailored web- and text-based facilitation of smoking cessation in primary care  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to detect a true underlying difference of 5% as statistically significant and a larger trial would be needed to distinguish reliably a true in- crease from a Type 1 error. Importantly, if a 5% increase is observed, then an underlying population relative risk... -week follow-up questionnaire. Con- trol participants will not be sent any text messages. Audiotaping of consultations SCAs will be asked to audiotape a sample of interven- tion and control consultations. The tapes will be used to assess the fidelity...

Sutton, Stephen; Smith, Susan; Jamison, James; Boase, Sue; Mason, Dan; Prevost, A Toby; Brimicombe, James; Sloan, Melanie; Gilbert, Hazel; Naughton, Felix

2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

368

The field of medicine is taking its first steps towards patient-specific care: personalized medicine. Our research is aimed at tailoring treatments to address each person's individualized needs and unique disease presentation. Specifically, we are  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

their payload in disease sites. The evolution of these nanoparticles into programmed nano robots, unique to specific organs. Avi Schroeder is an Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering at the Technion ­ Israel to Programmed Nano-robots Professor Avi Schroeder ETH Hönggerberg, HCI G 3, 02/04/14, 17.00 h Faculty

Sandoghdar, Vahid

369

Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium effects on isentropic coefficient in argon and helium thermal plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present work, two cases of thermal plasma have been considered; the ground state plasma in which all the atoms and ions are assumed to be in the ground state and the excited state plasma in which atoms and ions are distributed over various possible excited states. The variation of Z?, frozen isentropic coefficient and the isentropic coefficient with degree of ionization and non-equilibrium parameter ?(= T{sub e}/T{sub h}) has been investigated for the ground and excited state helium and argon plasmas at pressures 1?atm, 10?atm, and 100?atm in the temperature range from 6000?K to 60?000?K. For a given value of non-equilibrium parameter, the relationship of Z? with degree of ionization does not show any dependence on electronically excited states in helium plasma whereas in case of argon plasma this dependence is not appreciable till degree of ionization approaches 2. The minima of frozen isentropic coefficient shifts toward lower temperature with increase of non-equilibrium parameter for both the helium and argon plasmas. The lowering of non-equilibrium parameter decreases the frozen isentropic coefficient more emphatically in helium plasma at high pressures in comparison to argon plasma. The increase of pressure slightly reduces the ionization range over which isentropic coefficient almost remains constant and it does not affect appreciably the dependence of isentropic coefficient on non-equilibrium parameter.

Sharma, Rohit [Satyam Institute of Engineering and Technology, Amritsar 143107 (India)] [Satyam Institute of Engineering and Technology, Amritsar 143107 (India); Singh, Kuldip [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India)] [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

Thermophilic Switchgrass-Adapted Consortia Glycoside Hydrolase Activities of Thermophilic Bacterial Consortia1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

variety of potential biomass feedstocks and pretreatments5 available require tailored glycoside hydrolase

Hazen, Terry

371

When Does Aid Conditionality Work?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

institutions may tailor conditions for success because theytailor their conditions for success, and they are especially

Montinola, Gabriella R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Int. J. Business Process Integration and Management, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2007 9 Service adaptation through trace inspection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a service contract tailored to the client needs. Service contracts include a description of the service

Brogi, Antonio

373

851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"" of conservation wasof conservation was intended to permit utilities to better tailor theirintended to permit

374

Assessment of reaction-rate predictions of a collision-energy approach for chemical reactions in atmospheric flows.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A recently proposed approach for the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to calculate chemical-reaction rates is assessed for high-temperature atmospheric species. The new DSMC model reproduces measured equilibrium reaction rates without using any macroscopic reaction-rate information. Since it uses only molecular properties, the new model is inherently able to predict reaction rates for arbitrary non-equilibrium conditions. DSMC non-equilibrium reaction rates are compared to Park's phenomenological nonequilibrium reaction-rate model, the predominant model for hypersonic-flow-field calculations. For near-equilibrium conditions, Park's model is in good agreement with the DSMC-calculated reaction rates. For far-from-equilibrium conditions, corresponding to a typical shock layer, significant differences can be found. The DSMC predictions are also found to be in very good agreement with measured and calculated non-equilibrium reaction rates, offering strong evidence that this is a viable and reliable technique to predict chemical reaction rates.

Gallis, Michail A.; Bond, Ryan Bomar; Torczynski, John Robert

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Genetics in the courts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various: (1)TriState 2000 Genetics in the Courts (2) Growing impact of the new genetics on the courts (3)Human testing (4) Legal analysis - in re G.C. (5) Legal analysis - GM ''peanots'', and (6) Legal analysis for State vs Miller

Coyle, Heather; Drell, Dan

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

The mechano-chemistry of cytoskeletal force generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this communication, we propose a model to study the non-equilibrium process by which actin stress fibers develop force in contractile cells. The emphasis here is on the non-equilibrium thermodynamics, which is necessary to address the mechanics as well as the chemistry of dynamic cell contractility. In this setting we are able to develop a framework that relates (a) the dynamics of force generation within the cell and (b) the cell response to external stimuli to the chemical processes occurring within the cell, as well as to the mechanics of linkage between the stress fibers, focal adhesions and extra-cellular matrix.

Mirko Maraldi; Krishna Garikipati

2014-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

377

Plasma-Enhanced Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Fuel Blends Using Nanosecond Pulsed Discharges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project had as its goals the study of fundamental physical and chemical processes relevant to the sustained premixed and non-premixed jet ignition/combustion of low grade fuels or fuels under adverse flow conditions using non-equilibrium pulsed nanosecond discharges.

Cappelli, Mark; Mungal, M Godfrey

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

378

ICAS2002 CONGRESS SIMULATION TECHNIQUES IN HYPERSONIC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICAS2002 CONGRESS SIMULATION TECHNIQUES IN HYPERSONIC AEROTHERMODYNAMICS Vladimir V. Riabov Rivier College, Nashua, New Hampshire 03060, USA Keywords: hypersonic non-equilibrium rarefied-gas flows, aero- & thermodynamic coefficients Abstract Hypersonic viscous flows near simple-shape bodies (wedge, cone, disk, plate

Riabov, Vladimir V.

379

Consistent Comparison of Macroscopic and State-to-State Kinetics in Hypersonic Flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Consistent Comparison of Macroscopic and State-to-State Kinetics in Hypersonic Flows Gianpiero of Chemistry, Bari, 70126, Italy We present a comparison of numerical results in strongly expanding hypersonic variable in non-equilibrium condi- tions, per unit mass I. Introduction In supersonic and hypersonic flows

D'Ambrosio, Domenic

380

2006 Nature Publishing Group Controlled multiple reversals of a ratchet effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

© 2006 Nature Publishing Group Controlled multiple reversals of a ratchet effect Cle´cio C. de confined in an asymmetric potential demon- strates an anticipated ratchet effect by drifting along the `easy' ratchet direction when subjected to non-equilibrium fluctu- ations1­3 . This well-known effect

Moshchalkov, Victor V.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Thermodynamics for single-molecule stretching experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermodynamics for single-molecule stretching experiments J.M. Rubi,a D. Bedeauxb and S. Kjelstrupb, Trondheim, 7491-Norway May 3, 2006 Abstract We show how to construct non-equilibrium thermodynamics for systems too small to be considered thermodynamically in a traditional sense. Through the use of a non

Kjelstrup, Signe

382

Stochastic thermodynamics, fluctuation theorems, and molecular machines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stochastic thermodynamics as reviewed here systematically provides a framework for extending the notions of classical thermodynamics like work, heat and entropy production to the level of individual trajectories of well-defined non-equilibrium ensembles. It applies whenever a non-equilibrium process is still coupled to one (or several) heat bath(s) of constant temperature. Paradigmatic systems are single colloidal particles in time-dependent laser traps, polymers in external flow, enzymes and molecular motors in single molecule assays, small biochemical networks and thermoelectric devices involving single electron transport. For such systems, a first-law like energy balance can be identified along fluctuating trajectories. Various integral and detailed fluctuation theorems, which are derived here in a unifying approach from one master theorem, constrain the probability distributions for work, heat and entropy production depending on the nature of the system and the choice of non-equilibrium conditions. For non-equilibrium steady states, particularly strong results hold like a generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem involving entropy production. Ramifications and applications of these concepts include optimal driving between specified states in finite time, the role of measurement-based feedback processes and the relation between dissipation and irreversibility. Efficiency and, in particular, efficiency at maximum power, can be discussed systematically beyond the linear response regime for two classes of molecular machines, isothermal ones like molecular motors, and heat engines like thermoelectric devices, using a common framework based on a cycle decomposition of entropy production.

Udo Seifert

2012-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

383

Plasmachemical Synthesis of Carbon Suboxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generated by thermonuclear fusion reactions resulting in a giant plasma ball. The sun is an example of a thermal plasma and is considered to be in equilibrium however it is also possible to have cold or non-equilibrium plasmas. A thermal plasma can have...

Geiger, Robert

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

384

Free energy inference from partial work measurements Fluctuation Relations (FRs) are among the few general exact results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Free energy inference from partial work measurements Fluctuation Relations (FRs) are among the few application is free energy recovery from non-equilibrium pulling experiments in the single molecule field. We is a "partial" work measurement): it leads to a violation of FRs and to wrong free energy estimates

Potsdam, Universität

385

Towards breaking temperature equilibrium in multi-component Eulerian schemes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the effects ofthermal equilibrium on hydrodynamic flows and describe models for breaking the assumption ofa single temperature for a mixture of components in a cell. A computational study comparing pressure-temperature equilibrium simulations of two dimensional implosions with explicit front tracking is described as well as implementation and J-D calculations for non-equilibrium temperature methods.

Grove, John W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Masser, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

The beta-Hermite and beta-Laguerre processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, we introduce matrix-valued diffusion processes which describe the non-equilibrium situation of the matrix models for the beta-Hermite and the beta-Laguerre ensembles. We also study the corresponding spectral measure process and empirical/singular value process with regard to their limit laws.

Luen-Chau Li

2010-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

387

Heat transfer in soft nanoscale interfaces: the influence of interface curvature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat transfer in soft nanoscale interfaces: the influence of interface curvature Anders Lervik transient non-equilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations, heat-transfer through nanometer-scale interfaces processes. We show that the modeling of heat transfer across a nanodroplet/fluid interface requires

Kjelstrup, Signe

388

electronic reprint Synchrotron  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Synchrotron radiation plays a leading role in pure science and in emerging technologies. The Journal Non-Equilibrium Dynamics Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801, Japan, d Department of Materials Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-H61

Coppens, Philip

389

Please cite this article in press as: Hallegatte, S. et al., Business cycles, bifurcations and chaos in a neo-classical model with investment dynamics, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization (2007), doi:10.1016/j.jebo.2007.05.001  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Macroeconomic dynamics; Non-equilibrium modeling; BusinessPlease cite this article in press as: Hallegatte, S. et al., Business cycles, bifurcations and chaos in a neo-classical model with investment dynamics, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization

Ghil, Michael

390

Conservation-dissipation formalism of irreversible thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a conservation-dissipation formalism (CDF) for coarse-grained descriptions of irreversible processes. This formalism is based on a stability criterion for non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The criterion ensures that non-equilibrium states tend to equilibrium in long time. As a systematic methodology, CDF provides a feasible procedure in choosing non-equilibrium state variables and determining their evolution equations. The equations derived in CDF have a unified elegant form. They are globally hyperbolic, allow a convenient definition of weak solutions, and are amenable to existing numerics. More importantly, CDF is a genuinely nonlinear formalism and works for systems far away from equilibrium. With this formalism, we formulate novel thermodynamics theories for heat conduction in rigid bodies and non-isothermal compressible Maxwell fluid flows as two typical examples. In these examples, the non-equilibrium variables are exactly the conjugate variables of the heat fluxes or stress tensors. The new theory generalizes Cattaneo's law or Maxwell's law in a regularized and nonlinear fashion.

Yi Zhu; Liu Hong; Zaibao Yang; Wen-An Yong

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

391

DOI 10.1140/epje/i2002-10149-2 Eur. Phys. J. E 11, 99104 (2003)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) gases [1] driven into a non-equilibrium steady state by a suitable injection of energy define/2 [3,4,6] (here v0 is the "thermal" r.m.s. velocity). This behavior was observed for the horizontal injection, considering idealized homo- geneous systems of inelastic hard spheres (given the exper- imen

Barrat, Alain

392

Generalized dynamical density functional theory for classical fluids and the significance of inertia and hydrodynamic interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the dynamics of a colloidal fluid including inertia and hydrodynamic interactions, two effects which strongly influence the non-equilibrium properties of the system. We derive a general dynamical density functional theory (DDFT) which shows very good agreement with full Langevin dynamics. In suitable limits, we recover existing DDFTs and a Navier-Stokes-like equation with additional non-local terms.

Benjamin D. Goddard; Andreas Nold; Nikos Savva; Grigorios A. Pavliotis; Serafim Kalliadasis

2012-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

393

CARBON NANOTUBE TRANSISTORS: AN EVALUATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CARBON NANOTUBE TRANSISTORS: AN EVALUATION L.C. Castro, D.L. John, and D.L. Pulfrey Department A simple, non-equilibrium model is used to evaluate the likely DC performance of carbon nanotube field and transcon- ductance close to the low-quantum-capacitance limit. Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, field

Pulfrey, David L.

394

One Dimensional Autonomous Equations Can have only equilibrium attractors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One Dimensional Autonomous Equations ( )x f x Can have only equilibrium attractors: a bounded orbit approaches an equilibrium #12;Two Dimensional Autonomous Equations ( , ) ( , ) x f x y y g x y Can have non-equilibrium attractors: for example, periodic orbits #12;Two Dimensional Autonomous Equations ( , ) ( , ) x f x y y g x y

Saleska, Scott

395

Fast Track Communication Efficiency and large deviations in time-asymmetric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-state engine. We find in general that the form of efficiency probability distributions is similar to those systems, molecular motors, large deviations in non-equilibrium systems 1. Introduction As engineeringFast Track Communication Efficiency and large deviations in time-asymmetric stochastic heat engines

Geissler, Phillip

396

Water transport inside a single-walled carbon nanotube driven by temperature gradient  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water transport inside a single-walled carbon nanotube driven by temperature gradient J. Shiomi mass transport of a water cluster inside a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) with the diameter of about 1.4 nm. The influence of the non-equilibrium thermal environment on the confined water cluster has

Maruyama, Shigeo

397

Entropy production in irreversible systems described by a Fokker-Planck equation Tnia Tom and Mrio J. de Oliveira  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Entropy production in irreversible systems described by a Fokker-Planck equation Tânia Tomé and the entropy production in nonequilibrium interacting particle systems described by a Fokker-Planck equation equilibrium there will be no production of entropy. A non- equilibrium thermodynamic system in the stationary

de Oliveira, Mário José

398

Landscape Ecology vol. 6 no. 3 pp 147-159 (1992) SPB Academic Publishing bv, The Hague  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Landscape Ecology vol. 6 no. 3 pp 147-159 (1992) SPB Academic Publishing bv, The Hague Landscape, Rheinsprung 9, CH-4051,Basel, Switzerland Keywords: landscape, metapopulation, reproductive systems, life history traits, non-equilibrium Abstract Distribution of genetic diversity in a landscape depends on both

399

Model-based Diagnostics for Propellant Loading Systems Matthew Daigle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-depth analysis and understanding of the underlying physi- cal processes, offer the advanced capability to quickly such as highly non- equilibrium condensation and evaporation of the hydrogen vapor, pressurization, and also the dynamics of liquid hydro- gen and vapor flows inside the system in the presence of he- lium gas. Since

Daigle, Matthew

400

Infrared and reflectron time-of-flight mass spectroscopic study on the synthesis of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sublimation profiles obtained from the ReTOF spectra and infrared spectroscopy of the Department of Chemistry in the formation of glycolaldehyde via non-equilibrium chemistry, which were identified as follows: (i) radical of glycolaldehyde formed, suggesting further thermal chemistry of trapped radicals within the ice matrix

Kaiser, Ralf I.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

State and Transition Modeling History & Current Concepts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

management input · Friedel(1991) concentrated on thresholds ­ "...compatible with state and transition theoryState and Transition Modeling History & Current Concepts Tamzen K. Stringham Oregon State vegetation change #12;· Non-equilibrium Models (States, Transitions and Thresholds) ­ Encompass Range

402

Transport of sorbing solutes in randomly heterogeneous formations: Spatial moments, macrodispersion, and parameter uncertainty  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Expressions for the spatial moments and macrodispersion tensor for sorbing solutes in heterogeneous formations were presented using a probabilistic model of a fluid residence time coupled with the particle position analysis. The fluid residence time was defined as a fraction of the actual time during which the particle stayed in the mobile fluid phase of the aquifer. The fluid residence time is a random variable whose variability comes as a result of the non-equilibrium sorption properties. The sorbing solute was assumed to be governed with first-order linear kinetics. The closed-form expressions were based on the stationarity in the kinetic process and on the first-order approximation in the hydraulic conductivity field and in the fluid residence time. The non-equilibrium effects were presented as a function of the spatial variability in hydraulic conductivity and temporal variability in the fluid residence time. The importance of the non-equilibrium processes in the field scale was found to be dependent on reaction rates, retardation factor, mean velocity, and on variance and correlation scale of the hydraulic conductivity. The time needed to reach the asymptotic macrodispersivity is dependent on the degree of non-equilibrium processes and distribution coefficient. The impact from the uncertainty in parameters upon the spatial moments was examined and compared with the organic tracer used in the Borden field experiment.

Andricevic, R.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

OSP WEEKLY FUNDING BULLETIN Volume 4, Issue 47 November 29, 2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(RFP) is to be coordinated by the Gulf of Mexico Research Alliance (GOMA) and is about to be finalized. 2 Purpose: AFOSR announces a fiscal year 2011 competition for research to promote and sustain of high electric and magnetic fields; high energy density non-equilibrium processes. Advanced X

Alabama in Huntsville, University of

404

A Steam Quality Comparison between Nanoshell-Mediated Solar Heating and Conventional Electrical Heating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GP-B-13 A Steam Quality Comparison between Nanoshell-Mediated Solar Heating in the Halas Group has led to the development of a novel, solar- based steam generation method using broadband. This a dramatic and highly non-equilibrium process. As such, investigating the properties of this steam

405

Glow Discharge Enhanced Chemical Reaction: Application in Ammonia Synthesis and Hydrocarbon Gas Cleanup  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrocarbons mixture such as EPE (74.8% methane, 8% ethane, 8% ethylene, 2.1% propane and 1.1% Propene). Non-thermal plasmas, due to their unique non-equilibrium characteristics, offer advantages as method of reforming at lower temperature (100-150 º...

Ming, Pingjia

2014-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

406

Short courses in Composite Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Short courses in Composite Materials Overview The ability to tailor the material properties used. Combining the adaptability of composites with clear weight savings, whilst tailoring materials properties Airbus and Glyndr University, the Advanced Composites Training and Development Centre educates current

Davies, John N.

407

Connect, Collaborate, Commercialize There are many different opportunities for engagement and technology transfer at Georgia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and technology transfer at Georgia Tech. Working together we can tailor a relationship unique to your company

Garmestani, Hamid

408

Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

process including surface charge and rheology characterization, agglomerate size optimization, order of constituent addition, and tailoring of mixing protocol. - Coating...

409

Subpicosecond time-resolved Raman studies of nonequilibrium excitations in wurtzite GaN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Non-equilibrium electron distributions as well as phonon dynamics in wurtzite GaN have been measured by subpicosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results have demonstrated that for electron densities n {ge} 5 {times} 10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}3}, the non-equilibrium electron distributions in wurtzite GaN can be very well described by Fermi-Dirac distribution functions with the temperature of electrons substantially higher than that of the lattice. The population relaxation time of longitudinal optical phonons was directly measured to be {tau} {approx_equal} 5 {+-} 1 ps at T = 25 K. The experimental results on the temperature dependence of the lifetime of longitudinal optical phonons suggest that the primary decay channels for these phonons are the decay into (1) one transverse optical phonon and one high energy, longitudinal or transverse acoustical phonons; and (2) one transverse optical phonon and one E{sub 2} phonon.

Tsen, K.T.; Ferry, D.K. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Joshi, R.P. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Botchkarev, A.; Sverdlov, B.; Salvador, A.; Morkoc, H. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Coordinated Science Lab.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

410

Charge separation in organic photovoltaic cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider a simple model for the geminate electron-hole separation process in organic photovoltaicssss cells, in order to illustrate the influence of dimensionality of conducting channels on the efficiency of the process. The Miller-Abrahams expression for the transition rates between nearest neighbor sites was used for simulating random walks of the electron in the Coulomb field of the hole. The non-equilibrium kinetic Monte Carlo simulation results qualitatively confirm the equilibrium estimations, although quantitatively the efficiency of the higher dimensional systems is less pronounced. The lifetime of the electron prior to recombination is approximately equal to the lifetime prior to dissociation. Their values indicate that electrons perform long stochastic walks before they are captured by the collector or recombined. The non-equilibrium free energy considerably differs from the equilibrium one. The efficiency of the separation process decreases with increasing the distance to the collector, and this...

Giazitzidis, Paraskevas; Bisquert, Juan; Vikhrenko, Vyacheslav S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Development of High-efficiency Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Waste Heat Utililization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goals of this . CRADA are: 1) Investigation of atomistic structure and nucleation of nanoprecipitates in (PbTe){sub I-x}(AgSbTe2){sub x} (LAST) system; and 2) Development of non-equilibrium synthesis of thermoelectric materials for waste heat recovery. We have made significant accomplishment in both areas. We studied the structure of LAST materials using high resolution imaging, nanoelectron diffraction, energy dispersive spectrum, arid electron energy loss spectrum, and observed a range of nanoparticles The results, published in J. of Applied Physics, provide quantitative structure information about nanoparticles, that is essential for the understanding of the origin of the high thermoelectric performance in this class of materials. We coordinated non-equilibrium synthesis and characterization of thermoelectric materials for waste heat recovery application. Our results, published in J. of Electronic Materials, show enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit and robust mechanical properties in bulk . filled skutterudites.

Li, Qiang

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

412

Exciton-phonon information flow in the energy transfer process of photosynthetic complexes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non-Markovian and non-equilibrium phonon effects are believed to be key ingredients in the energy transfer in photosynthetic complexes, especially in complexes which exhibit a regime of intermediate exciton-phonon coupling. In this work, we harness a recently developed measure for non-Markovianity to elucidate the information flow between electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom. We study the measure in the hierarchical equation of motion approach which captures strong system-bath coupling effects and non-equilibrium molecular reorganization. We find that, for a model dimer system and the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex, non-Markovianity is significant under realistic physiological conditions. A first step towards experimental quantification is provided by the study of four-wave mixing initial states.

Rebentrost, Patrick

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Discrete Boltzmann modeling of liquid-vapor system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We further probe the Discrete Boltzmann Modeling(DBM) of the single-component two phase flows or the liquid-vapor system. There are two kinds of nonequilibrium effects in the system. The first is the Mechanical NonEquilibrium(MNE). The second is the Thermodynamic NonEquilibrium(TNE). The MNE is well described in the traditional fluid dynamic theory. The description of TNE resorts to the gas kinetic theory. Since based on the Boltzmann equation, the DBM makes possible to analyze both the MNE and TNE. The TNE is the main discussion of this work. A major purpose of this work is to show that the DBM results can be used to confirm and/or improve the macroscopic modeling of complex system.

Aiguo Xu; Guangcai Zhang; Yanbiao Gan

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

414

Irreversible Thermodynamics of the Universe: Constraints from Planck Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The present work deals with irreversible Universal thermodynamics. The homogenous and isotropic flat model of the universe is chosen as open thermodynamical system and non-equilibrium thermodynamics comes into picture due to the mechanism of particle creation. For simplicity, entropy flow is considered only due to heat conduction. Further, due to Maxwell-Cattaneo modified Fourier law for non-equilibrium phenomenon, the temperature satisfies damped wave equation instead of heat conduction equation. Validity of generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSLT) has been investigated for Universe bounded by apparent or event horizon with cosmic substrutum as perfect fluid with constant or variable equation of state or interacting dark species. Finally, we have used three Planck data sets to constrain the thermal conductivity \\lambda and the coupling parameter b^2. These constraints must be satisfied in order for GSLT to hold for Universe bounded by apparent or event horizons.

Subhajit Saha; Atreyee Biswas; Subenoy Chakraborty

2014-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

415

Fluctuations in Single-Shot $?$-Deterministic Work Extraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the single-shot regime it is argued that the criterion for allowed state transitions ought to be more restricted than the second law of thermodynamics, and is given by a condition called thermo-majorisation. Hence to arrive at a fluctuation theorem for the single-shot scenario, such a restriction has to be taken into account. Here we formulate and prove a tighter fluctuation relation for the single-shot $\\epsilon$-deterministic work extraction. The result links two areas of thermodynamics which have been of great interest recently, fluctuation relations for non-equilibrium processes and the $\\epsilon$-deterministic work extractable from single microscopic non-equilibrium systems. Furthermore, in doing so, we unify the notions of fluctuation in $\\epsilon$-deterministic work extraction and in fluctuation theorems.

Sina Salek; Karoline Wiesner

2015-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

416

The nonequilibrium Ehrenfest gas: a chaotic model with flat obstacles?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is known that the non-equilibrium version of the Lorentz gas (a billiard with dispersing obstacles, electric field and Gaussian thermostat) is hyperbolic if the field is small. Differently the hyperbolicity of the non-equilibrium Ehrenfest gas constitutes an open problem, since its obstacles are rhombi and the techniques so far developed rely on the dispersing nature of the obstacles. We have developed analytical and numerical investigations which support the idea that this model of transport of matter has both chaotic (positive Lyapunov exponent) and non-chaotic steady states with a quite peculiar sensitive dependence on the field and on the geometry, not observed before. The associated transport behaviour is correspondingly highly irregular, with features whose understanding is of both theoretical and technological interest.

Carlo Bianca; Lamberto Rondoni

2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

417

The Effect of Disorder in Superfluid Double Layer Graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the superfluid properties of disordered double layer graphene systems using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism. The complexity of such a structure makes it imperative to study the effects of lattice vacancies which will inevitably arise during fabrication. We present and compare room temperature performance characteristics for both ideal and disordered bilayer graphene systems in an effort to illustrate the behavior of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in the presence of lattice defects under non-equilibrium conditions. We find that lattice vacancies spread throughout the top layer past the coherence length have a reduced effect compared to the ideal case. However, vacancies concentrated near the metal contacts within the coherence length significantly alter the interlayer superfluid transport properties.

Brian Dellabetta; Matthew J. Gilbert

2011-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

418

Computation via dynamic self-assembly of idealized protein networks.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe stochastic agent-based simulations of protein-emulating agents to perform computation via dynamic self-assembly. The binding and actuation properties of the types of agents required to construct a RAM machine (equivalent to a Turing machine) are described. We present an example computation and describe the molecular biology and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, and information science properties of this system.

Bouchard, Ann Marie; Osbourn, Gordon Cecil

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Independent electrons model for open quantum systems: Landauer-Buettiker formula and strict positivity of the entropy production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A general argument leading from the formula for currents through an open noninteracting mesoscopic system given by the theory of non-equilibrium steady states (NESS) to the Landauer-Buettiker formula is pointed out. Time reversal symmetry is not assumed. As a consequence it follows that, as far as the system has a nontrivial scattering theory and the reservoirs have different temperatures and/or chemical potentials, the entropy production is strictly positive.

G. Nenciu

2006-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

420

Modeling for Anaerobic Fixed-Bed Biofilm Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The specific objectives of this research were: 1. to develop an equilibrium model for chemical aspects of anaerobic reactors; 2. to modify the equilibrium model for non-equilibrium conditions; 3. to incorporate the existing biofilm models into the models above to study the biological and chemical behavior of the fixed-film anaerobic reactors; 4. to experimentally verify the validity of these models; 5. to investigate the biomass-holding ability of difference packing materials for establishing reactor design criteria.

Liu, B. Y. M.; Pfeffer, J. T.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Engineering nuclear spin dynamics with optically pumped nitrogen-vacancy center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a general theory for using an optically pumped diamond nitrogen-vacancy center as a tunable, non-equilibrium bath to control a variety of nuclear spin dynamics (such as dephasing, relaxation, squeezing, polarization, etc.) and the nuclear spin noise. It opens a new avenue towards engineering the dissipative and collective nuclear spin evolution and solves an open problem brought up by the $^{13}$C nuclear spin noise suppression experiment [E. Togan \\textit{et al}., Nature 478, 497 (2011)].

Ping Wang; Jiangfeng Du; Wen Yang

2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Exchange Fluctuation Theorem for correlated quantum systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We extend the Exchange Fluctuation Theorem for energy exchange between thermal quantum systems beyond the assumption of molecular chaos, and describe the non-equilibrium exchange dynamics of correlated quantum states. The relation quantifies how the tendency for systems to equilibrate is modified in high-correlation environments. Our results elucidate the role of measurement disturbance for such scenarios. We show a simple application by finding a semi-classical maximum work theorem in the presence of correlations.

Sania Jevtic; David Jennings; Terry Rudolph; Yuji Hirono; Shojun Nakayama; Mio Murao

2014-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

423

Roles of Dry Friction in Fluctuating Motion of Adiabatic Piston  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The motion of an adiabatic piston under dry friction is investigated to clarify the roles of dry friction in non-equilibrium steady states. We clarify that dry friction can reverse the direction of the piston motion and causes a discontinuity or a cusp-like singularity for velocity distribution functions of the piston. We also show that the heat fluctuation relation is modified under dry friction.

Tomohiko G. Sano; Hisao Hayakawa

2014-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

424

Signatures of new phenomena in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three classes of observables are discussed which may shed light on the properties of the quark-gluon plasma formed in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions. They are: (1) thermometers: the penetrating probes ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/, ..gamma.., c, (2) barometers: transverse flow via

, and (3) seismometers: fluctuations of dN/dy and dE perpendicular/dy. The need for reliable estimates of the background due to the non-equilibrium processes is emphasized. 49 references.

Gyulassy, M.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Ion pump activity generates fluctuating electrostatic forces in biomembranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the non-equilibrium dynamics of lipid membranes with proteins that actively pump ions across the membrane. We find that the activity leads to a fluctuating force distribution due to electrostatic interactions arising from variation in dielectric constant across the membrane. By applying a multipole expansion we find effects on both the tension and bending rigidity dominated parts of the membranes fluctuation spectrum. We discuss how our model compares with previous studies of force-multipole models.

B. Loubet; M. A. Lomholt

2011-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

426

Normal Heat Conductivity in a strongly pinned chain of anharmonic oscillators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider a chain of coupled and strongly pinned anharmonic oscillators subject to a non-equilibrium random forcing. Assuming that the stationary state is approximately Gaussian, we first derive a stationary Boltzmann equation. By localizing the involved resonances, we next invert the linearized collision operator and compute the heat conductivity. In particular, we show that the Gaussian approximation yields a finite conductivity $\\kappa\\sim\\frac{1}{\\lambda^2T^2}$, for $\\lambda$ the anharmonic coupling strength.

R. Lefevere; A. Schenkel

2005-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

427

A proposal for testing subcritical vacuum pair production with high power lasers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a proposal for testing the prediction of non-equilibrium quantum field theory below the Schwinger limit. The proposed experiments should be able to detect a measurable number of gamma rays resulting from the annihilation of pairs in the focal spot of two opposing high intensity laser beams. We discuss the dependence of the expected number of gamma rays with the laser parameters and compare with the estimated background level of gamma hits for realistic laser conditions.

G. Gregori; D. B. Blaschke; P. P. Rajeev; H. Chen; R. J. Clarke; T. Huffman; C. D. Murphy; A. V. Prozorkevich; C. D. Roberts; G. Röpke; S. M. Schmidt; S. A. Smolyansky; S. Wilks; R. Bingham

2010-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

428

INVARIANT KAPPA DISTRIBUTION IN SPACE PLASMAS OUT OF EQUILIBRIUM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent advances in Space Physics theory have shown the connection between non-extensive Statistical Mechanics and space plasmas by providing a theoretical basis for the empirically derived kappa distributions commonly used to describe the phase-space distribution functions of these systems. The non-equilibrium temperature and the kappa index that govern these distributions are the two independent controlling parameters of non-equilibrium systems. The significance of the kappa index is primarily given by its role in identifying the non-equilibrium stationary states and measuring their 'thermodynamic distance' from thermal equilibrium, while its physical meaning is connected to the correlation between the system's particles. The classical, single stationary state at equilibrium is generalized into a whole set of different non-equilibrium stationary states labeled by the kappa index. This paper addresses certain crucial issues about the physical meaning and role of the kappa index in identifying stationary states. The origin of the emerged inconsistencies is that the kappa index is not an invariant physical quantity, but instead depends on the degrees of freedom of the system's particles. This leads in several misleading conclusions, such as (1) only large kappa index, practically infinite, can characterize the many-particle kappa distribution, and (2) the correlation between particles depends on the total number of the system's particles. Here we show that a modified kappa index, invariant for any number of degrees of freedom, can be naturally defined. Then, we develop and examine the relevant corrected formulation of many-particle multidimensional kappa distribution, and discuss the physical meaning of the invariant kappa index.

Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J., E-mail: glivadiotis@swri.edu [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX-78238 (United States)

2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

429

Peculiarities of wave fields in nonlocal media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The article summarizes the studies of wave fields in structured non-equilibrium media describing by means of nonlocal hydrodynamic models. Due to the symmetry properties of models, we derived the invariant wave solutions satisfying autonomous dynamical systems. Using the methods of numerical and qualitative analysis, we have shown that these systems possess periodic, multiperiodic, quasiperiodic, chaotic, and soliton-like solutions. Bifurcation phenomena caused by the varying of nonlinearity and nonlocality degree are investigated as well.

V. A. Danylenko; S. I. Skurativskyi

2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

430

Occam's Razor Cuts Away the Maximum Entropy Principle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I show that the maximum entropy principle can be replaced by a more natural assumption, that there exists a phenomenological function of entropy consistent with the microscopic model. The requirement of existence provides then a unique construction of the related probability density. I conclude the letter with an axiomatic formulation of the notion of entropy, which is suitable for exploration of the non-equilibrium phenomena.

Rudnicki, ?ukasz

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

The maximum entropy tecniques and the statistical description of systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The maximum entropy technique (MENT) is used to determine the distribution functions of physical values. MENT naturally combines required maximum entropy, the properties of a system and connection conditions in the form of restrictions imposed on the system. It can, therefore, be employed to statistically describe closed and open systems. Examples in which MENT is used to describe equilibrium and non-equilibrium states, as well as steady states that are far from being in thermodynamic equilibrium, are discussed.

B. Z. Belashev; M. K. Suleymanov

2001-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

432

Molecule-based approach for computing chemical-reaction rates in upper atmosphere hypersonic flows.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work completed during FY2009 for the LDRD project 09-1332 'Molecule-Based Approach for Computing Chemical-Reaction Rates in Upper-Atmosphere Hypersonic Flows'. The goal of this project was to apply a recently proposed approach for the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to calculate chemical-reaction rates for high-temperature atmospheric species. The new DSMC model reproduces measured equilibrium reaction rates without using any macroscopic reaction-rate information. Since it uses only molecular properties, the new model is inherently able to predict reaction rates for arbitrary nonequilibrium conditions. DSMC non-equilibrium reaction rates are compared to Park's phenomenological non-equilibrium reaction-rate model, the predominant model for hypersonic-flow-field calculations. For near-equilibrium conditions, Park's model is in good agreement with the DSMC-calculated reaction rates. For far-from-equilibrium conditions, corresponding to a typical shock layer, the difference between the two models can exceed 10 orders of magnitude. The DSMC predictions are also found to be in very good agreement with measured and calculated non-equilibrium reaction rates. Extensions of the model to reactions typically found in combustion flows and ionizing reactions are also found to be in very good agreement with available measurements, offering strong evidence that this is a viable and reliable technique to predict chemical reaction rates.

Gallis, Michail A.; Bond, Ryan Bomar; Torczynski, John Robert

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Solidification characterization of a new rapidly solidified Ni-Cr-Co based superalloy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solidification characterization of a new rapidly solidified Ni-Cr-Co based superalloy prepared by plasma rotating electrode process was investigated by means of optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope. The results show that the solidification microstructure changes from dendrites to cellular and microcrystal structures with decreasing powder size. The elements of Co, Cr, W and Ni are enriched in the dendrites, while Mo, Nb and Ti are higher in the interdendritic regions. The relationships between powder size with the average solid-liquid interface moving rate, the average interface temperature gradient and the average cooling rate are established. Microsegregation is increased with larger powder size. The geometric integrity of MC Prime type carbides in the powders changes from regular to diverse with decreasing powder size. The morphology and quantity of carbides depend on the thermal parameters and non-equilibrium solute partition coefficients during rapid solidification. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relations of solidification thermal parameters with powder size are established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relation of non-equilibrium solute partition with powder size is investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The solidification microstructure is related to thermal parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The segregation behavior is linked to non-equilibrium partition coefficients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The morphology and quantity of carbides depend on the above combined factors.

Wu, Kai, E-mail: wk-ustb@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Guoquan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China) [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Hu, Benfu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Feng [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)] [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Zhang, Yiwen [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China) [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); High Temperature Materials Research Institution, CISRI, Beijing 100081 (China); Tao, Yu; Liu, Jiantao [High Temperature Materials Research Institution, CISRI, Beijing 100081 (China)] [High Temperature Materials Research Institution, CISRI, Beijing 100081 (China)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

434

Generalized model for ultrafast laser induced electron emission from a metal tip  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we will present a brief review of the recently developed non-equilibrium heating and time dependent tunneling model to study the dynamic processes in using an ultrafast laser to induce electron emission from a metallic tip ranging from the multiphoton to the optical tunneling regime. Due to the short time scale of the ultrafast laser pulse, the lattice is found to be in a non-equilibrium condition and a single temperature model is no longer valid. The ultrafast laser heating enhances the electron emission through both the multiphoton and optical tunneling processes rather than over-barrier emission due to thermal heating. The paper is focused on the methodology of how these two effects (non-equilibrium heating and time-dependent tunneling) are combined in a self-consistent model. The model shows a smooth transition of the emitted charge as a function of laser field, ranging from the multiphoton emission regime at low laser field to the optical tunneling regime at high laser field. The paper will conclude with some discussion of future work.

Ang, L. K. [Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore) [Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Pant, M. [Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore)] [Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

Teaming Arrangement Pitfalls Misty D. Mayes, PMP  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Joint Work ShareContent Limited Maximum Terms & Conditions Standard Tailored Prime Termination Exit Criteria Longevity Investment Tied to Work Share Work Content Minimum Case...

436

E-Print Network 3.0 - aem penurunan kandungan Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AEMS 12;TAILORED MATERIAL SYSTEMS 12;Manufacturing Process Seemann Composite Resin Infusion Molding Source: Naval Postgraduate School, Center for Information Systems Security...

437

Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

methods - Tailored Aqueous Colloids for Lithium-Ion Electrodes (TACLE) B.L. Armstrong et al., U.S. Patent Application No. 13651,270. - Surface charge measurement,...

438

IAdvanced Integrated Hypersonic Entry SystemsAdvanced Integrated Hypersonic Entry Systems 2009 Phase II  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SBIR SBIR 66 67 IAdvanced Integrated Hypersonic Entry SystemsAdvanced Integrated Hypersonic Entry of materials in providing tailored stiffness and rigidity for hypersonic entry vehicles. The proposed

439

E-Print Network 3.0 - american men design Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

clothing for men had been tailor made and dark in appearance... with trousers and boots, found their way to the American pub- lic. During this ... Source: Mississippi State...

440

Performance Based Inpsection of Worker Safety and Health Utilizing...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

permits appropriately tailored, specified and integrated into the work package (e.g., LockoutTagout, radiological work, confined space, hot work, energized electrical, elevated...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Energy Blog | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Argonne mechanical engineer Thomas Wallner adjusts Argonne's "omnivorous engine," an automobile engine that Wallner and his colleagues have tailored to efficiently run on blends of...

442

10 Questions for an Automotive Engineer: Thomas Wallner | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Argonne mechanical engineer Thomas Wallner adjusts Argonne's "omnivorous engine," an automobile engine that Wallner and his colleagues have tailored to efficiently run on blends of...

443

Blog Feed: Vehicles | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Argonne mechanical engineer Thomas Wallner adjusts Argonne's "omnivorous engine," an automobile engine that Wallner and his colleagues have tailored to efficiently run on blends of...

444

E-Print Network 3.0 - abortive s-phase rescued Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

architecture consists of three modular layers... is tailored to the running scenario of Ad-Hoc networks used by rescue teams for disaster recovery. 1... statically. The typical...

445

area follow-up inspection: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with specific emphasis on aircraft windscreens and canopies. Caveats and lessons learned from experience are included to assist authors in writing tailored inspection...

446

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

save energy or change load shapes given current regulatory structures? Public power's governance structure allows utilities the flexibility to tailor their programs and...

447

Sol-Gel Mesoporous Silica Aerogels and Bio Hybrids for Functional Applications.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The thesis covers a systematic investigation on the synthesis of silica aerogels and microspheres with tailored porosity, at ambient conditions by varying the experimental parameters… (more)

Smitha, Sasidharan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

E-Print Network 3.0 - actinide separations unique Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Separations Technologies... . Both aqueous and nonaqueous (elec- trometallurgical) methods have been developed to separate and reduce... as to tailor their design to take...

449

NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Eaton Corporation OEPMPVTD FY14-16 102013 to 092016 Adrienne L. Riggi Southfield, MI Active, Tailorable Adhesives for Dissimilar Material Bonding, Repair and Reassembly...

450

Multi-scale electrical and thermal properties of aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a potential new component to be incorporated into existing aerospace structural composites for multi-functional (mechanical, electrical, thermal, etc.) property enhancement and tailoring. ...

Yamamoto, Namiko

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Step 4: Identify Target Audiences and Behavior Changes | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

the program tailored marketing strategies to each segment's motivations. Coordinated Brain Trust in Wisconsin In an effort to better identify various customer and market...

452

Cybersecurity Capability Maturity Model (C2M2) | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

additional reference material and implementation guidance specifically tailored for the electricity and oil and natural gas segments of the energy sector. The Energy Department...

453

Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

is generated in electron storage rings when femtosecond lasers are used to carve out ultrafast x-ray pulses by femtoslicing (see "Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a...

454

Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center | National...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

field operations the FRMAC provides geographic information systems, communications, mechanical, electrical, logistics and administrative support. The size of the FRMAC is tailored...

455

GATE Center of Excellence at UAB for Lightweight Materials and...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Constante (PhD candidate) and Samuel Jasper (PhD candidate) working on composite beams GATE courses (some newly developed, some based on tailoring content in existing...

456

Data Tools: BPD, SEED & Data Accelerator  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

efficiency investment opportunities, and project the likely savings from investments. * Public sector actors can tailor the design and implementation of energy efficiency...

457

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced energy utilization Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 Tailored renewable energy ... Source: US DOE, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Green Power Network Collection: Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization ; Power...

458

E-Print Network 3.0 - automated patient history Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sys- tems can... be designed to provide tailored information to patients on their health, their care teams, the sta- tus Source: Hunt, Galen - Operating Systems Group,...

459

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessment post processor Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Materials Science 2 Performance Evaluation and Optimization of Dual-Port SDRAM Architecture for Mobile Embedded Systems Summary: (DPSDRAM) architecture tailored for...

460

INNOVATION MARKETPLACE A QUARTERLY UPDATE OF AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

interconnected to tailor voltage and current output to meet system requirements. The flat panel profile with micro-optical focusing further simplifies sun tracking, reducing both...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tailored gc5 non-equilibrium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

E-Print Network 3.0 - amphiphilic graft copolymers Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Chapter 24 Cellulose Graft Copolymers for Potential Adhesive Applications Bonding of Plastics... . New, well-defined, tailored cellulose- polystyrene graft copolymers have...

462

CYBERSECURITY FUNDAMENTALS FOR SMALL BUSINESS OWNERS Shirley Radack, Editor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CYBERSECURITY FUNDAMENTALS FOR SMALL BUSINESS OWNERS Shirley Radack, Editor Computer Security and Technology (NIST) recently issued a new guide that tailors basic information on cybersecurity to the specific

463

E-Print Network 3.0 - adiabatic rf pulse Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resonance Group Collection: Chemistry 15 Design and Use of Tailored Hard-Pulse Trains for Uniformed Saturation of Myocardium at 3 Tesla Summary: -insensitive rotation type...

464

Microsoft PowerPoint - 5_CARL_BURGER-JOHN_BALLARD_Preview of...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

and learn from other users - Site-Specific Training * Tailored to your facility's operation * No extraneous material - On-line ResourcesReferences * Available 247 * Quickly...

465

ammonia-ammonium bisulfate process: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

features specifically tailored to provide excellent performance in an industrial environment. To find out more, look inside for our latest product offerings. unknown authors...

466

Security Automation Developer Days March 22-25, 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Security Automation Developer Days March 22-25, 2011 Portrait Room The National Institute Reporting Format (ARF) efforts. 1:00 ­ 2:50 Adv. Tailoring and Automated Profile Selection Charles Schmidt tailoring procedures, and structures that could support automated selection of profiles. This discussion

Magee, Joseph W.

467

EUROSPF Conference Carcassonne, France from 3-5 September 2008 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FRICTION STIR WELDED TAILORED ALUMINUM AND TITANIUM BLANKS FOR AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS Daniel SANDERS 1 ­ COLUMBIA, SC - USA Abstract The purpose of this study was to develop a specialized Friction Stir Welding : Superplastic Forming, SPF, Friction Stir Welding, FSW, titanium, 6Al-4V, aluminium, 5083, tailored blank

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

468

Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann kinetic model for combustion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To probe both the Hydrodynamic Non-Equilibrium (HNE) and Thermodynamic Non-Equilibrium (TNE) in the combustion process, a two-dimensional Multiple-Relaxation-Time (MRT) version of Lattice Boltzmann Kinetic Model(LBKM) for combustion phenomena is presented. The chemical energy released in the progress of combustion is dynamically coupled into the system by adding a chemical term to the LB kinetic equation. Beside describing the evolutions of the conserved quantities, the density, momentum and energy, which are what the Navier-Stokes model describes, the MRT-LBKM presents also a coarse-grained description on the evolutions of some non-conserved quantities. The current model works for both subsonic and supersonic flows with or without chemical reaction. In this model both the specific-heat ratio and the Prandtl number are flexible, the TNE effects are naturally presented in each simulation step. The model is verified and validated via well-known benchmark tests. As an initial application, various non-equilibrium behaviours, including the complex interplays between various HNEs, between various TNEs and between the HNE and TNE, around the detonation wave in the unsteady and steady one-dimensional detonation processes are preliminarily probed. It is found that the system viscosity (or heat conductivity) decreases the local TNE, but increase the global TNE around the detonation wave, that even locally, the system viscosity (or heat conductivity) results in two kinds of competing trends, to increase and to decrease the TNE effects. The physical reason is that the viscosity (or heat conductivity) takes part in both the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic responses.

Aiguo Xu; Chuandong Lin; Guangcai Zhang; Yingjun Li

2015-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

469

Novel photonic crystal cavities and related structures.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The key accomplishment of this project is to achieve a much more in-depth understanding of the thermal emission physics of metallic photonic crystal through theoretical modeling and experimental measurements. An improved transfer matrix technique was developed to enable incorporation of complex dielectric function. Together with microscopic theory describing emitter radiative and non-radiative relaxation dynamics, a non-equilibrium thermal emission model is developed. Finally, experimental methodology was developed to measure absolute emissivity of photonic crystal at high temperatures with accuracy of +/-2%. Accurate emissivity measurements allow us to validate the procedure to treat the effect of the photonic crystal substrate.

Luk, Ting Shan

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Real-time effective-action approach to the Anderson quantum dot  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The non-equilibrium time evolution of an Anderson quantum dot is investigated. The quantum dot is coupled between two leads forming a chemical-potential gradient. We use Kadanoff-Baym dynamic equations within a non-perturbative resummation of the s-channel bubble chains. The effect of the resummation leads to the introduction of a frequency-dependent 4-point vertex. The tunneling to the leads is taken into account exactly. The method allows the determination of the transient as well as stationary transport through the quantum dot, and results are compared with different schemes discussed in the literature (fRG, ISPI, tDMRG and QMC).

Sexty, Denes; Pawlowski, Jan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Real-time effective-action approach to the Anderson quantum dot  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The non-equilibrium time evolution of an Anderson quantum dot is investigated. The quantum dot is coupled between two leads forming a chemical-potential gradient. We use Kadanoff-Baym dynamic equations within a non-perturbative resummation of the s-channel bubble chains. The effect of the resummation leads to the introduction of a frequency-dependent 4-point vertex. The tunneling to the leads is taken into account exactly. The method allows the determination of the transient as well as stationary transport through the quantum dot, and results are compared with different schemes discussed in the literature (fRG, ISPI, tDMRG and QMC).

Denes Sexty; Thomas Gasenzer; Jan Pawlowski

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

472

Entropy Meters and the Entropy of Non-extensive Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In our derivation of the second law of thermodynamics from the relation of adiabatic accessibility of equilibrium states we stressed the importance of being able to scale a system's size without changing its intrinsic properties. This leaves open the question of defining the entropy of macroscopic, but unscalable systems, such as gravitating bodies or systems where surface effects are important. We show here how the problem can be overcome, in principle, with the aid of an `entropy meter'. An entropy meter can also be used to determine entropy functions for non-equilibrium states and mesoscopic systems.

Elliott H. Lieb; Jakob Yngvason

2014-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

473

Self-organization without heat: the geometric ratchet effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We point out a surprising feature of diffusion in inhomogeneous media: under suitable conditions, the rectification of the Brownian paths by a diffusivity gradient can result in initially spread tracers spontaneously concentrating. This "geometric ratchet effect" demonstrates that, in violation of the classical statements of the second law of (non-equilibrium) thermodynamics, self-organization can take place in thermodynamic systems at local equilibrium without heat being produced or exchanged with the environment. We stress the role of Bayesian priors in a suitable reformulation of the second law accommodating this geometric ratchet effect.

Matteo Smerlak; Ahmed Youssef

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

474

Thermodynamics of discrete quantum processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We define thermodynamic configurations and identify two primitives of discrete quantum processes between configurations for which heat and work can be defined in a natural way. This allows us to uncover a general second law for any discrete trajectory that consists of a sequence of these primitives, linking both equilibrium and non-equilibrium configurations. Moreover, in the limit of a discrete trajectory that passes through an infinite number of configurations, i.e. in the reversible limit, we recover the saturation of the second law. Finally, we show that for a discrete Carnot cycle operating between four configurations one recovers Carnot's thermal efficiency.

Janet Anders; Vittorio Giovannetti

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Quantum thermal machines with single nonequilibrium environments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a scheme for a quantum thermal machine made by atoms interacting with a single non-equilibrium electromagnetic field. The field is produced by a simple configuration of macroscopic objects held at thermal equilibrium at different temperatures. We show that these machines can deliver all thermodynamic tasks (cooling, heating and population inversion), and this by establishing quantum coherence with the body on which they act. Remarkably, this system allows to reach efficiencies at maximum power very close to the Carnot limit, much more than in existing models. Our findings offer a new paradigm for efficient quantum energy flux management, and can be relevant for both experimental and technological purposes.

Bruno Leggio; Bruno Bellomo; Mauro Antezza

2015-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

476

Large-scale Fluctuations of Lyapunov Exponents in Diffusive Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a general formalism for computing Lyapunov exponents and their fluctuations in spatially extended systems described by diffusive fluctuating hydrodynamics, thus extending the concepts of dynamical system theory to a broad range of non-equilibrium systems. Our analytical results compare favorably with simulations of a lattice model of heat conduction. We further show how the computation of Lyapunov exponents for the Symmetric Simple Exclusion Process relates to damage spreading and to a two-species pair annihilation process, for which our formalism yields new finite size results.

Tanguy Laffargue; Peter Sollich; Julien Tailleur; Frédéric van Wijland

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

477

A feasibility study of the determination of mass transfer rates from perturbation gas chromatography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and be given as ** ? '". , "-- **. * ? '". . "--( ? '". - *, :, ? ". , 'I. i=1, 2, . . . , (n-l) (4) where " indicates steady-state value and ~y-y-y* 1 i i AX = X ? X * 1 1 1 Por the local equilibrium case, if the flowing phase rate is slow.... (6) into Eq. (4), a set of linearized chro- matographic relations for the multicomponent case including the sorption effects will be obtained. This is well de- monstz'ated in Glover and Lau (19$3). For the non-equilibrium case, finite mass...

Huang, Wei-Yih

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Plastic flow in solids with interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A non-equilibrium theory of isothermal and diffusionless evolution of incoherent interfaces within a plastically deforming solid is developed. The irreversible dynamics of the interface are driven by its normal motion, incoherency (slip and misorientation), and an intrinsic plastic flow; and purely by plastic deformation in the bulk away from the interface. Using the continuum theory for defect distribution (in bulk and over the interface) we formulate a general kinematical framework, derive relevant balance laws and jump conditions, and prescribe a thermodynamically consistent constitutive/kinetic structure for interface evolution.

Anurag Gupta; David Steigmann

2011-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

479

Is Emergent Universe a Consequence of Particle Creation Process?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A model of an emergent universe is formulated using the mechanism of particle creation. Here the universe is considered as a non-equilibrium thermodynamical system with dissipation due to particle creation mechanism. The universe is chosen as spatially flat FRW space-time and the cosmic substratum is chosen as perfect fluid with barotropic equation of state. Both first and second order deviations from equilibrium prescription is considered and it is found that the scenario of emergent universe is possible in both the cases.

Subenoy Chakraborty

2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

480

Analysis of single particle trajectories: when things go wrong  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To recover the long-time behavior and the statistics of molecular trajectories from the large number (tens of thousands) of their short fragments, obtained by super-resolution methods at the single molecule level, data analysis based on a stochastic model of their non-equilibrium motion is required. Recently, we characterized the local biophysical properties underlying receptor motion based on coarse-grained long-range interactions, corresponding to attracting potential wells of large sizes. The purpose of this letter is to discuss optimal estimators and show what happens when thing goes wrong.

D. Holcman; N. Hoze; Z. Schuss

2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

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481

Finite-size scaling in the quantum phase transition of the open-system Dicke-model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laser-driven Bose-Einstein condensate of ultracold atoms loaded into a lossy high-finesse optical resonator exhibits critical behavior and, in the thermodynamic limit, a phase transition between stationary states of different symmetries. The system realizes an open-system variant of the celebrated Dicke-model. We study the transition for a finite number of atoms by means of a Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method adapted to a damped-driven open system. The finite-size scaling exponents are determined and a clear distinction between the non-equilibrium and the equilibrium quantum criticality is found.

G. Konya; D. Nagy; G. Szirmai; P. Domokos

2012-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

482

Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the broadband optical conductivity and ultrafast carrier dynamics of epitaxial graphene in the few-layer limit. Equilibrium spectra of nominally buffer, monolayer, and multilayer graphene exhibit significant terahertz and near-infrared absorption, consistent with a model of intra- and interband transitions in a dense Dirac electron plasma. Non-equilibrium terahertz transmission changes after photoexcitation are shown to be dominated by excess hole carriers, with a 1.2-ps mono-exponential decay that refects the minority-carrier recombination time.

Choi, Hyunyong; Borondics, Ferenc; Siegel, David A.; Zhou, Shuyun Y.; Martin, Michael C.; Lanzara, Alessandra; Kaindl, Robert A.

2009-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

483

Macroscopic fluctuations theory of aerogel dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the thermodynamic potential describing the macroscopic fluctuation of the current and local energy of a general class of Hamiltonian models including aerogels. We argue that this potential is neither analytic nor strictly convex, a property that should be expected in general but missing from models studied in the literature. This opens the possibility of describing in terms of a thermodynamic potential non-equilibrium phase transitions in a concrete physical context. This special behaviour of the thermodynamic potential is caused by the fact that the energy current is carried by particles which may have arbitrary low speed with sufficiently large probability.

Raphael Lefevere; Mauro Mariani; Lorenzo Zambotti

2010-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

484

Efficiency of autonomous soft nano-machines at maximum power  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider nano-sized artificial or biological machines working in steady state enforced by imposing non-equilibrium concentrations of solutes or by applying external forces, torques or electric fields. For unicyclic and strongly coupled multicyclic machines, efficiency at maximum power is not bounded by the linear response value 1/2. For strong driving, it can even approach the thermodynamic limit 1. Quite generally, such machines fall in three different classes characterized, respectively, as "strong and efficient", "strong and inefficient", and "balanced". For weakly coupled multicyclic machines, efficiency at maximum power has lost any universality even in the linear response regime.

Udo Seifert

2010-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

485

Method and apparatus for chemically altering fluids in continuous flow  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a continuous flow fluid reactor for chemically altering fluids. The reactor operates on standard frequency (50 to 60 Hz) electricity. The fluid reactor contains particles that are energized by the electricity to form a corona throughout the volume of the reactor and subsequently a non-equilibrium plasma that interacts with the fluid. Particles may form a fixed bed or a fluid bed. Electricity may be provided through electrodes or through an inductive coil. Fluids include gases containing exhaust products and organic fuels requiring oxidation.

Heath, William O. (Richland, WA); Virden, Jr., Judson W. (Richland, WA); Richardson, R. L. (West Richland, WA); Bergsman, Theresa M. (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Method and apparatus for chemically altering fluids in continuous flow  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a continuous flow fluid reactor for chemically altering fluids. The reactor operates on standard frequency (50 to 60 Hz) electricity. The fluid reactor contains particles that are energized by the electricity to form a corona throughout the volume of the reactor and subsequently a non-equilibrium plasma that interacts with the fluid. Particles may form a fixed bed or a fluid bed. Electricity may be provided through electrodes or through an inductive coil. Fluids include gases containing exhaust products and organic fuels requiring oxidation. 4 figures.

Heath, W.O.; Virden, J.W. Jr.; Richardson, R.L.; Bergsman, T.M.

1993-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

487

Damping of sound waves in superfluid nucleon-hyperon matter of neutron stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider sound waves in superfluid nucleon-hyperon matter of massive neutron-star cores. We calculate and analyze the speeds of sound modes and their damping times due to the shear viscosity and non-equilibrium weak processes of particle transformations. For that, we employ the dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics of a superfluid nucleon-hyperon mixture, formulated recently [M.E. Gusakov and E.M. Kantor, Phys. Rev. D78, 083006 (2008)]. We demonstrate that the damping times of sound modes calculated using this hydrodynamics and the ordinary (nonsuperfluid) one, can differ from each other by several orders of magnitude.

Elena M. Kantor; Mikhail E. Gusakov

2009-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

488

Quantum Statistical Processes in the Early Universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show how the concept of quantum open system and the methods in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics can be usefully applied to studies of quantum statistical processes in the early universe. We first sketch how noise, fluctuation, dissipation and decoherence processes arise in a wide range of cosmological problems. We then focus on the origin and nature of noise in quantum fields and spacetime dynamics. We introduce the concept of geometrodynamic noise and suggest a statistical mechanical definition of gravitational entropy. We end with a brief discussion of the theoretical appropriateness to view the physical universe as an open system.

B. L. Hu

1993-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

489

Ballistic performance comparison of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide MX{sub 2} (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se, Te) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the transport properties of monolayer MX{sub 2} (M?=?Mo, W; X?=?S, Se, Te) n- and p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) using full-band ballistic non-equilibrium Green's function simulations with an atomistic tight-binding Hamiltonian with hopping potentials obtained from density functional theory. We discuss the subthreshold slope, drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL), as well as gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) for different monolayer MX{sub 2} MOSFETs. We also report the possibility of negative differential resistance behavior in the output characteristics of nanoscale monolayer MX{sub 2} MOSFETs.

Chang, Jiwon; Register, Leonard F.; Banerjee, Sanjay K. [Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

490

Feedback-controlled transport in an interacting colloidal system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Based on dynamical density functional theory (DDFT) we consider a non-equilibrium system of interacting colloidal particles driven by a constant tilting force through a periodic, symmetric "washboard" potential. We demonstrate that, despite of pronounced spatio-temporal correlations, the particle current can be reversed by adding suitable feedback control terms to the DDFT equation of motion. We explore two distinct control protocols with time delay, focussing on either the particle positions or the density profile. Our study shows that the DDFT is an appropriate framework to implement time-delayed feedback control strategies widely used in other fields of nonlinear physics

Ken Lichtner; Sabine H. L. Klapp

2010-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

491

Manipulation of Colloids by Nonequilibrium Depletion Force in Temperature Gradient  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The non-equilibrium distribution of colloids in a polymer solution under a temperature gradient is studied experimentally. A slight increase of local temperature by a focused laser drives the colloids towards the hot region, resulting in the trapping of the colloids irrespective of their own thermophoretic properties. An amplification of the trapped colloid density with the polymer concentration is measured, and is quantitatively explained by hydrodynamic theory. The origin of the attraction is a migration of colloids driven by a non-uniform polymer distribution sustained by the polymer's thermophoresis. These results show how to control thermophoretic properties of colloids.

Hong-Ren Jiang; Hirofumi Wada; Natsuhiko Yoshinaga; Masaki Sano

2009-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

492

Coherent spin mixing dynamics in thermal $^{87}$Rb spin-1 and spin-2 gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the non-equilibrium coherent spin mixing dynamics in ferromagnetic spin-1 and antiferromagnetic spin-2 thermal gases of ultracold $^{87}$Rb atoms. Long lasting spin population oscillations with magnetic field dependent resonances are observed in both cases. Our observations are well reproduced by Boltzmann equations of the Wigner distribution function. Compared to the equation of motion of spinor Bose-Einstein condensates, the only difference here is a factor of two increase in the spin-dependent interaction, which is confirmed directly in the spin-2 case by measuring the relation between the oscillation amplitude and the sample's density.

He, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaoke; Wang, Fudong; Xu, Zhifang; Wang, Dajun

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Dynamics of kicked particles in a double-barrier structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the classical and quantum dynamics of periodically kicked particles placed initially within an open double-barrier structure. This system does not obey the Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) theorem and displays chaotic dynamics. The phase space features induced by non-KAM nature of the system leads to dynamical features such as the non-equilibrium steady state, classically induced saturation of energy growth and momentum filtering. We also comment on the experimental feasibility of this system as well as its relevance in the context of current interest in classically induced localization and chaotic ratchets.

Harinder Pal; M. S. Santhanam

2010-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

494

Pulsed Electrical Spin Injection into InGaAs Quantum Dots: Studies of the Electroluminescence Polarization Dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present time-resolved studies of the spin polarization dynamics during and after initialization through pulsed electrical spin injection into InGaAs quantum dots embedded in a p-i-n-type spin-injection light-emitting diode. Experiments are performed with pulse widths in the nanosecond range and a time-resolved single photon counting setup is used to detect the subsequent electroluminescence. We find evidence that the achieved spin polarization shows an unexpected temporal behavior, attributed mainly to many-carrier and non-equilibrium effects in the device.

Asshoff, P.; Loeffler, W.; Fluegge, H.; Zimmer, J.; Mueller, J.; Westenfelder, B.; Hu, D. Z.; Schaadt, D. M.; Kalt, H.; Hetterich, M. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik and DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Universitaet Karlsruhe, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2010-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

495

Entropy generation in a chemical reaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Entropy generation in a chemical reaction is analyzed without using the general formalism of non-equilibrium thermodynamics at a level adequate for advanced undergraduates. In a first approach to the problem, the phenomenological kinetic equation of an elementary first order reaction is used to show that entropy production is always positive. A second approach assumes that the reaction is near equilibrium to prove that the entropy generated is always greater than zero, without any reference to the kinetics of the reaction. Finally, it is shown that entropy generation is related to fluctuations in the number of particles at equilibrium, i.e. it is associated to a microscopic process.

E. N. Miranda

2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

496

Rhythmic cluster generation in strongly driven colloidal dispersions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the response of a nematic colloidal dispersion of rods to a driven probe particle which is dragged with high speed through the dispersion perpendicular to the nematic director. In front of the dragged particle, clusters of rods are generated which rhythmically grow and dissolve by rotational motion. We find evidence for a mesoscopic cluster-cluster correlation length, {\\em independent} of the imposed drag speed. Our results are based on non-equilibrium Brownian dynamics computer simulations and in line with a dynamical scaling theory.

H. H. Wensink; H. Löwen

2006-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

497

Photo-activated biological processes as quantum measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We outline a framework for describing photo-activated biological reactions as generalized quantum measurements of external fields, for which the biological system takes on the role of a quantum meter. By using general arguments regarding the Hamiltonian that describes the measurement interaction, we identify the cases where it is essential for a complex chemical or biological system to exhibit non-equilibrium quantum coherent dynamics in order to achieve the requisite functionality. We illustrate the analysis by considering measurement of the solar radiation field in photosynthesis and measurement of the earth's magnetic field in avian magnetoreception.

Atac Imamoglu; K. Birgitta Whaley

2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

498

Electron kinetics in a microdischarge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electron kinetics during a microdischarge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure is studied using the one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell/Monte Carlo Collisions model. It is obtained that the electron energy distribution function can be divided into three parts, namely, the non-equilibrium low-energy part, the Maxwellian function at moderate energies, and the high-energy tail. Simulation results showed that the role of the high-energy tail of electron energy distribution increases, when the distance between electrodes increases.

Levko, Dmitry [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France)] [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France)

2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

499

QCD plasma instability and thermalisation at heavy ion collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Under suitable non-equilibrium conditions QCD plasma can develop plasma instabilities, where some modes of the plasma grow exponentially. It has been argued that these instabilities can play a significant role in the thermalisation of the plasma in heavy-ion collision experiments. We study the instability in SU(2) plasmas using the hard thermal loop effective lattice theory, which is suitable for studying real-time evolution of long wavelength modes in the plasma. We observe that under suitable conditions the plasma can indeed develop an instability which can grow to a very large magnitude, necessary for the rapid thermalisation in heavy-ion collisions.

Dietrich Bodeker; Kari Rummukainen

2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

500

Mid infrared optical properties of Ge/Si quantum dots with different doping level  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optical characterization of the Ge/Si quantum dots using equilibrium and photo-induced absorption spectroscopy in the mid-infrared spectral range was performed in this work. Equilibrium absorption spectra were measured in structures with various doping levels for different light polarizations. Photo-induced absorption spectra measured in undoped structure under interband optical excitation of non-equilibrium charge carriers demonstrate the same features as doped sample in equilibrium conditions. Hole energy spectrum was determined from the analysis of experimental data.

Sofronov, A. N.; Firsov, D. A.; Vorobjev, L. E.; Shalygin, V. A.; Panevin, V. Yu.; Vinnichenko, M. Ya. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, Polytechnicheskaya str. 29, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tonkikh, A. A. [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2 D-06120, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Danilov, S. N. [University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z