Sample records for tagalog filipino tamil

  1. Yugang Sun | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (native), Tagalog (Filipino), Tamil, Telugu, Thai, Turkish View All Experts Yugang Sun, Scientist Yugang Sun Scientist - Center for Nanoscale Materials Yugang Sun's research...

  2. Migrant Scribes and Poet-Advocates: U.S. Filipino Literary History in West Coast Periodicals, 1905 to 1941

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vengua, Jean

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TS, Nov. 1931. ?Filipino Poet on His Way Home,? TS, Aug.Migrant Scribes and Poet-Advocates: U.S. Filipino LiteraryAbstract Migrant Scribes and Poet-Advocates: U.S. Filipino

  3. Tamil Nadu Energy Development Agency TEDA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with formSoutheastern ILSunseekerTallahatchie Valley E P A JumpTamil Nadu Energy

  4. Tamil Nadu Spinning Mills Association TASMA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with formSoutheastern ILSunseekerTallahatchie Valley E P A JumpTamil Nadu

  5. Stories of Home: Generation, Memory, and Displacement among Jaffna Tamils and Jaffna Muslims 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thiranagama, Sharika

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sri Lankan civil war has been ongoing for over twenty years. Fought out in the civilian areas of the North and East of Sri Lanka, between the Sri Lankan Government and the LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam) it ...

  6. Scaling up Primary Health Services in Rural Tamil Nadu: Public Investment Requirements and Health Sector Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scaling up Primary Health Services in Rural Tamil Nadu: Public Investment Requirements and Health two key questions in this paper: 1) In terms of state-wide scaling up of rural services in the area of primary health, what will it cost financially and in terms of human resources to scale-up these services

  7. Scaling up Primary Education Services in Rural Tamil Nadu: Public Investment Requirements and Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Scaling up Primary Education Services in Rural Tamil Nadu: Public Investment Requirements questions in this paper: 1) In terms of state-wide scaling up of rural services in the area of primary education, what will it cost financially and in terms of human resources to scale-up these services in all

  8. A model of lexical variation and the grammar with application to Tagalog nasal substitution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuraw, Kie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    trends, along with learning simulations. Section 5 presentsto carry out the learning simulations here. A model ofchange during learning. The simulation here ignores cases of

  9. Transitional relief housing for tsunami victims of Tamil Nadu, India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Shauna

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the wake of the recent tsunami that swept across Asia, there is a dire need to salvage and rebuild the lives and livelihoods that were swept away. The aim of this thesis project is to design and model a transitional ...

  10. area tamil nadu: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    populations. It is part of a network of AHEC organiza- tions Collins, Gary S. 111 tight environment high radiation area Physics Websites Summary: , no active electronics ...

  11. anorthosite tamil nadu: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 CiteSeer Summary: The year 1973 has awakened the entire world from the energy crisis. Since then the entire focus of all developing countries turned towards...

  12. Tamil Nadu Small and Tiny Industries Association TANSTIA | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolar Jump to:Holdings Co08.0 -TEEMPTallmadge, Ohio:Tamiami,

  13. Building a Movement: Filipino American Union and Community Organizing in Seattle in the 1970s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domingo, Ligaya Rene

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1978 Rank and File Election Slate. [1978]. Box 33 folder 28.voting for their entire slate would “dissolve disruptive1978 Rank and File Election Slate. [1978]. Box 33 folder 28.

  14. From Bataan to Tokyo: Diary of a Filipino Student in Wartime Japan, 1943-1944

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Asis, Leocadio; Goodman, Grant K.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    products are fruits, rubber, timber (cedar) and sugar. The coolies working on the cargo speak corrupt Chinese, but they also talk Nippongo [Japanese language]. Had emergency practice before roll-call tonight. We were ready with our life jackets in 7...

  15. Making history from U.S. colonial amnesia : Filipino American and U.S. Puerto Rican poetic genealogies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caronan, Faye Christine

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pets. Santilla provides concrete examples of how the United States maintains its economic control of both Mexico

  16. Making history from U.S. colonial amnesia : Filipino American and U.S. Puerto Rican poetic genealogies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caronan, Faye Christine

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Puerto Rican Poetic Genealogies A dissertation submitted inperformance poets trace a genealogy of global power that63 IV. Local Genealogies of Global

  17. Scenes of Abjection: Power, Sexuality and Caste in Modern Tamil Literature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keshavamurthy, Kiran

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    effects of leprosy with contagiousness and puts him in touchthey warn her of its contagiousness she grows anxious for

  18. adult sri lankan: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Edinburgh, University of - Research Archive Summary: The thesis explores the role and impact of the internet on Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora political activism, focusing on both...

  19. Company Name Company Name Address Place Zip Sector Product Website

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    up planning to develop produce and market flywheel batteries for stationary power storage RPP Constructions RPP Constructions Tamil Nadu India Focused on infrastructure and...

  20. Region Qinghai Gofly Green Energy Ltd Co Qinghai Gofly Green...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    up planning to develop produce and market flywheel batteries for stationary power storage RPP Constructions RPP Constructions Tamil Nadu India Focused on infrastructure and...

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - antenatally detected hydronephrosis Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Health Services in Rural Tamil Nadu: Public Investment Requirements and Health Sector Reform Summary: of antenatal care, as pregnancy-induced hypertension is a major contributor...

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - antenatal attendance service Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    up Primary Health Services in Rural Tamil Nadu: Public Investment Requirements and Health Sector Reform Summary: to the OPD. This would directly affect the service of the...

  3. Page 1 of 5 APPROVED AND CORRECTED MINUTES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Cordell, Gregg Dieckmann, Lev Gelb, Kamran Kiasaleh, Murray Leaf, R. Natarajan, Stanimir Markov, Neeraj Salter, Richard Scotch, Lakshman Tamil, Lucien Thompson VISITORS: Andrew Blanchard, Austin Cunningham

  4. Pascale Hancart Petitet (CReCSS, Aix) & Vellore Pagathi (PILC, Pondichery) Ethnographical views on valaikppu. A pregnancy rite in Tamil Nadu In Indian Anthropologist. Special Issue on the Ethnography of Healing 37(1). 2007.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Pascale Hancart Petitet (CReCSS, Aix) & Vellore Pagathi (PILC, Pondichery) Ethnographical views is an anthropologist, lecturer at the Pondicherry Institute of Linguistic and Culture (PILC) and affiliated

  5. The Gender Ideological Clash in Globalization: Women, Migration, and the Modernization Building Project of the Philippines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parreñ as, Rhacel Salazar

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    My article interrogates the local impacts of global economic argue that the development of an export-oriented Filipino economy incorporates a gender ideological clash resulting from simultaneously encouraging and discouraging female domesticity...

  6. Reassessing Wind Potential Estimates for India: Economic and Policy Implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G. Sinden, A. Zervos, (2011): Wind Energy. In IPCC SpecialM. Hand, and A. Laxson (2006). Wind Turbine Design Cost and2009). Analysis of Impacts of Wind Integration in the Tamil

  7. Reassessing Wind Potential Estimates for India: Economic and Policy Implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    planning, policies, and programs, wind energy can be a coreof Wind Integration in the Tamil Nadu Grid. Energy PolicyEnergy Technologies Division Reassessing Wind Potential Estimates for India: Economic and Policy

  8. The design, construction, and calibration of a machine to measure the static strength and deflection of spur gear teeth 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrelson, Ersel

    1949-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Gear Testing Mach1ne 4. Loading Device Drawing of Gear Testing Machine 5. Shear Pin Arrangement Drawing of Gear Testing Machine ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 6. Friction Poroe versus Bearing Loads, . . . . . . 17 7. Contact Between Two Plane Surfaces... Diametral Pitch of Six . . . . . . . . 34 11. ooth Deformation versus Tooth Load for Steel Gear with a Diametral ) itch of Ten . . . . . . . . 35 la. A O Combination . . ~ ~ e 36 LIST OF TAMIL"'S I Data for Friction Force Test 16 II Results of Tests w1...

  9. Texas Rice, Volume III, Number 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at both PhilRice and IRRI, but due to the international debate over GM crops and opposi- tion by Filipino citizens over the field testing of transgenics, only PhilRice conducted the outdoor trials in 2002. Rice breeders in the United States have been very...

  10. UNDERSTANDING QUALITY OF LIFE IN ASSISTED LIVING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UNDERSTANDING QUALITY OF LIFE IN ASSISTED LIVING: INFLUENCE OF THE BUILT AND ORGANIZATIONAL- institutional environment who do not need 24/7 nursing care Focus on quality of life (QoL) 194 registered ALs 6.2 % % Chinese 35.1 51.8 55.6 % South Asian 24.5 26.1 23.5 % Filipino 7.1 5.6 5.7 Total 66.7 83.5 84.9 #12;Our

  11. Two steps forward, one step back: Race/ethnicity and student achievement in education policy research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Bruce D.; Keller-Wolff, Christine; Wolf-Wendel, Lisa E.

    2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ): BYLEP Race Indicator: BYS31A: (Re-coded Binary - White = 0, Black, API, Hispanic, American Indian/Alaskan Native) Asian Subgroup Indicator: BYS31B (Re-coded Binary - Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Southeast Asian, Pacific Island, South Asian... disaggregation of the Hispanic subgroups is specified: ACH = ? 0 + ? 1 SES + ? 2 LEP + ? 3 BLACK + ? 4 NATIVE + ? 5 MEXICAN + ? 6 CUBAN + ? 7 PR + ? 8 OTHER + ? 9 API + ? (3) In the above equation, n = 14,596 and White students? performance serves...

  12. Adaptation of Pronunciation Dictionaries for Recognition of Unseen Languages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schultz, Tanja

    investigates LVCSR systems in 15 languages of the world, namely Arabic, Chinese, Croatian, English, French Speakers Word units Training Data TrCD TrCI TrCD TrCI Chinese ­ 5149 ­ 79 150K Croatian 2826 2616 62 64 80K), Croatian, German, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, Tamil and Turkish. In each

  13. The Externalities of Strong Social Capital: Post-Tsunami Recovery in Southeast India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 The Externalities of Strong Social Capital: Post-Tsunami Recovery in Southeast India DANIEL P villages in Tamil Nadu, India following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, this paper demonstrates that high findings have important implications for academic studies of social capital and policy formation for future

  14. Short Communication Effect of exogenous electron shuttles on growth and fermentative metabolism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Peter D.

    Research Centre, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu, India c Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH of ESs can cre- ate alternate electron flows, thereby affecting the fermentation pattern and biofuel are of special interest in biofuel production from lignocellu- losic biomass (Hess et al., 2011) due

  15. ACEEE International Journal on Control System and Instrumentation, Vol. 1, No. 1, July 2010 Optimal Location of PMUs for Complete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Veilumuthu2 , and Chellammal Arumugam3 1, 3 College of Engineering, Anna University/Department of Electrical and location of PMUs needed to make the network observable. The method is tested on the Tamil Nadu Electricity of measurements and branch outages. In [2], an optimal PMU placement method based on the nondominated sorting

  16. Assessing Network Applications for Economic Development Sustainable Access in Rural India (SARI) Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabrieli, John

    Assessing Network Applications for Economic Development Sustainable Access in Rural India (SARI Department of Electric Engineering MIT Media Laboratory- eDevelopment Group #12;SUSTAINABLE ACCESS IN RURAL) Project Pilot Phase Assessment ­ Madurai District, Tamil Nadu, India Professor Michael Best Director, eDevelopment

  17. INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MADRAS CHENNAI600036

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mittal, Anurag

    Engg. Trade Apprentices ITI Certificate Holders Fitter, Sheet Metal Worker, Electrician the Principals of Polytechnic Tamil Nadu/Puducherry Sir/Madam, Sub: Engagement of Trade Apprentices/Technician ApprenticesReg. Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai600 036 is looking to engage

  18. **Secretary AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY/AFFIRMATIVE ACTION UNIVERSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Nielsen, Steven Dieckmann, Gregg Park, Peter Ferguson, John Prakash, Ravi Geissman, John Rankin, Monica Bochsler, Judd Bradbury, John Burr, R. Chandrasekaran, Daniel Cohen, David Cordell, Gregg Dieckmann, Lev Scotch, Lakshman Tamil, Lucien Thompson VISITORS: Andrew Blanchard, Austin Cunningham, Holly Hacker, John

  19. University of Canterbury Representative in Your Area University of Canterbury representative will be in your region to advise prospective students about

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    from 11.00am to 6.00pm at Park Hotel, 147 MG Road, Bangalore 560042 Ph +91 80 2559 4666 5. Sept 11th September from 10.00am to 5.00pm at Vivanta by Taj Coonemara, Binny Road,Chennai 600 002, India Phone: 044-66000000 2. Monday, 6th September from 1.00 pm to 7.00pm; at Sheraton Park and Towers TTK Road Chennai, Tamil

  20. Empirical Analysis of the Variability of Wind Generation in India: Implications for Grid Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, NIkit; Rao, Poorvi

    2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze variability in load and wind generation in India to assess its implications for grid integration of large scale wind projects using actual wind generation and load data from two states in India, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. We compare the largest variations in load and net load (load ?wind, i.e., load after integrating wind) that the generation fleet has to meet. In Tamil Nadu, where wind capacity is about 53percent of the peak demand, we find that the additional variation added due to wind over the current variation in load is modest; if wind penetration reaches 15percent and 30percent by energy, the additional hourly variation is less than 0.5percent and 4.5percent of the peak demand respectively for 99percent of the time. For wind penetration of 15percent by energy, Tamil Nadu system is found to be capable of meeting the additional ramping requirement for 98.8percent of the time. Potential higher uncertainty in net load compared to load is found to have limited impact on ramping capability requirements of the system if coal plants can me ramped down to 50percent of their capacity. Load and wind aggregation in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka is found to lower the variation by at least 20percent indicating the benefits geographic diversification. These findings suggest modest additional flexible capacity requirements and costs for absorbing variation in wind power and indicate that the potential capacity support (if wind does not generate enough during peak periods) may be the issue that has more bearing on the economics of integrating wind

  1. The development of maritime trade between India and the West from c. 1000 to c. 120 B.C.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Mark Andrew

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , Intercourse between India and the Western World (New York 1971), and L. Casson, Periplus IrIaris Erythraei (Princeton 1989). ' Notable sections on Indian textual sources are included in P. T. Srinivas Iyengar, History of the Tamils (New Delhi 1982... from the later Hellenistic period, was in operation as " R. Hochberg and A. J. Rosenberg, trans. , I Kings: A New English Translation (New York 1980). " Altnog may be a derivative of a Sanskrit word for sandalwood: valguka. R. L. Basham, The Wonder...

  2. Global analysis of genetic variation in human arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujihara, Junko [Department of Legal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Shimane University, Izumo, Shimane (Japan); Soejima, Mikiko [Department of Forensic Medicine and Human Genetics, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Fukuoka (Japan); Yasuda, Toshihiro [Division of Medical Genetics and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Eiheiji-cho, Fukui (Japan); Koda, Yoshiro [Department of Forensic Medicine and Human Genetics, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Fukuoka (Japan); Agusa, Tetsuro [Department of Legal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Shimane University, Izumo, Shimane (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan); Tongu, Miki; Yamada, Takaya [Department of Experimental Animals, Center for Integrated Research in Science, Faculty of Medicine, Shimane University, Izumo (Japan); Takeshita, Haruo, E-mail: htakeshi@med.shimane-u.ac.j [Department of Legal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Shimane University, Izumo, Shimane (Japan)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Human arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) is known to catalyze the methylation of arsenite. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of the AS3MT gene at the global level. The distribution of 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in AS3MT was performed in 827 individuals from 10 populations (Japanese, Korean, Chinese, Mongolian, Tibetans, Sri Lankan Tamils, Sri Lankan Sinhalese, Nepal Tamangs, Ovambo, and Ghanaian). In the African populations, the A allele in A6144T was not observed; the allele frequencies of C35587 were much lower than those in other populations; the allele frequencies of A37616 and C37950 were relatively higher than those in other populations. Among Asian populations, Mongolians showed a different genotype distribution pattern. A lower C3963 and T6144 frequencies were observed, and, in the C37616A and T37950C polymorphism, the Mongolian population showed higher A37616 and C37950 allele frequencies than other Asian populations, similarly to the African populations. A total of 66 haplotypes were observed in the Ovambo, 48, in the Ghanaian, 99, in the Japanese, 103, in the Korean, 103, in the South Chinese, 20, in the Sri Lankan Tamil, 12, in the Sri Lankan Sinhalese, 21, in the Nepal Tamang, 50, in the Tibetan, and 45, in the Mongolian populations. The D' values between the SNP pairs were extremely high in the Sri Lankan Sinhalese population. Relatively higher D' values were observed in Mongolian and Sri Lankan Tamil populations. Network analysis showed two clusters that may have different origins, African and Asians (Chinese and/or Japanese). The present study is the first to demonstrate the existence of genetic heterogeneity in a world wide distribution of 18 SNPs in AS3MT.

  3. Handwritten Character Recognition of South Indian Scripts: A Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jomy, John; Kannan, Balakrishnan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Handwritten character recognition is always a frontier area of research in the field of pattern recognition and image processing and there is a large demand for OCR on hand written documents. Even though, sufficient studies have performed in foreign scripts like Chinese, Japanese and Arabic characters, only a very few work can be traced for handwritten character recognition of Indian scripts especially for the South Indian scripts. This paper provides an overview of offline handwritten character recognition in South Indian Scripts, namely Malayalam, Tamil, Kannada and Telungu.

  4. Tampa Electric Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with formSoutheastern ILSunseekerTallahatchie Valley E P A JumpTamil NaduTampa

  5. Tampa, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with formSoutheastern ILSunseekerTallahatchie Valley E P A JumpTamil

  6. Tanaka Chemical Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with formSoutheastern ILSunseekerTallahatchie Valley E P A JumpTamilTanaka

  7. Using Third-Party Inspectors in Building Energy Codes Enforcement in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Kumar, Pradeep; Van Wie, Laura; Bhatt, Vatsal

    2013-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    India is experiencing fast income growth and urbanization, and this leads to unprecedented increases in demand for building energy services and resulting energy consumption. In response to rapid growth in building energy use, the Government of India issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which is consistent with and based on the 2001 Energy Conservation Act. ECBC implementation has been voluntary since its enactment and a few states have started to make progress towards mandatory implementation. Rajasthan is the first state in India to adopt ECBC as a mandatory code. The State adopted ECBC with minor additions on March 28, 2011 through a stakeholder process; it became mandatory in Rajasthan on September 28, 2011. Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh have started to draft an implementation roadmap and build capacity for its implementation. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) plans to encourage more states to adopt ECBC in the near future, including Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Delhi. Since its inception, India has applied the code on a voluntary basis, but the Government of India is developing a strategy to mandate compliance. Implementing ECBC requires coordination between the Ministry of Power and the Ministry of Urban Development at the national level as well as interdepartmental coordination at the state level. One challenge is that the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), the enforcement entities of building by-laws, lack capacity to implement ECBC effectively. For example, ULBs in some states might find the building permitting procedures to be too complex; in other cases, lack of awareness and technical knowledge on ECBC slows down the amendment of local building by-laws as well as ECBC implementation. The intent of this white paper is to share with Indian decision-makers code enforcement approaches: through code officials, third-party inspectors, or a hybrid approach. Given the limited capacity and human resources available in the state and local governments, involving third-party inspectors could rapidly expand the capacity for plan reviews and broad implementation. However, the procedures of involving third-parties need to be carefully designed in order to guarantee a fair process. For example, there should be multiple checks and certification requirements for third-party inspectors, and the government should have the final approval when third-party inspectors are used in a project. This paper discusses different approaches of involving third-parties in ECBC enforcement; the Indian states may choose the approaches that work best in their given circumstances.