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Sample records for russia energy intensity

  1. Energy choices in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebel, R.E.

    1994-12-31

    Ebel concentrates primarily on oil, his specialty and the foundation stone of the Russian energy economy. He also covers natural gas, another important export fuel, as well as coal, economically unproductive and socially explosive, and nuclear energy, whose growth remains adversely affected by Chernobyl.

  2. Russia's energy policy: A framing comment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aslund, A.

    2006-05-15

    A prominent specialist on the Russian economy provides a framing comment on two preceding papers entitled 'Russia's Energy Policy' (by Vladimir Milov, Leonard Coburn, and Igor Danchenko) and 'Russia's Energy Policy: A Divergent View' (by Matthew J. Sagers). The author argues that Russia's current energy policy should be viewed as an outcome of competition between three overlapping programs. In this context, he identifies three policy models - the old Soviet, the liberal or oligarchic, and the most recent state capitalist. The latter is currently supported by President Putin, who prioritizes diversification of the country's economy at the expense of diminished investments in the oil and gas sector.

  3. Russia’s R&D for Low Energy Buildings: Insights for Cooperation with Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaaf, Rebecca E.; Evans, Meredydd

    2010-05-01

    Russian buildings, Russian buildings sector energy consumption. Russian government has made R&D investment a priority again. The government and private sector both invest in a range of building energy technologies. In particular, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, district heating, building envelope, and lighting have active technology research projects and programs in Russia.

  4. Russia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for Russia Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment Capabilities in APEC Economies view all Add a Program 6 Tools Ecofys-Country Fact Sheets UNFCCC-Global...

  5. Secretary Bodman Travels to Russia to Advance Energy Security | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Russia to Advance Energy Security Secretary Bodman Travels to Russia to Advance Energy Security March 15, 2006 - 12:20pm Addthis Promotes Transparent Markets and Clean Energy Technologies; Participates in G8 Energy Ministerial and Delivers Remarks on the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership MOSCOW, RUSSIA-U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today began a two-day visit to Russia where he will lead the U.S. delegation to the G8 Energy Ministerial. During his visit the Secretary

  6. EERE Russia and Eurasian Partnerships and Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Russia and Eurasian Partnerships and Projects EERE Russia and Eurasian Partnerships and Projects The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) engages in the region in deployment-focused collaborations with Russia. In addition, EERE Technology Offices engage in bilateral research partnerships with Armenia. Bilateral Partnerships Russian Federation Launched in 2009 to reinvigorate cooperation between the United States and the Russian Federation, the Presidential Bilateral Commission

  7. ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key ...

  8. Russia Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Russia Geothermal Region Details Areas (0) Power Plants (0) Projects (0) Techniques (0) References Geothermal Region Data Area USGS Resource...

  9. Energy Intensity Indicators Data

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The files listed below contain energy intensity data and documentation that supports the information presented on this website. The files are in Microsoft® Excel® format (2007 and later versions).

  10. Russia-IEA Network of Expertise in Energy Technology | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Russia-IEANetworkofExpertiseinEnergyTechnology&oldid329172" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating Reference needed Missing content Broken link Other...

  11. Energy Intensity Indicators: Highlights | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Highlights Energy Intensity Indicators: Highlights This page highlights the major changes in the overall energy intensity for the United States, as well as summarizing changes in energy intensity for major sectors. Economywide Energy Intensity Figure H1 below reports total energy use, GDP, and two alternative indexes to reflect overall changes in U.S. energy intensity, the first based on the energy-GDP ratio, and the second built up as part of the DOE-EERE system of energy intensity indicators.

  12. Energy Intensity Indicators: Manufacturing Energy Intensity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The manufacturing sector comprises 18 industry sectors, generally defined at the three-digit level of the North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS). The manufacturing energy data...

  13. Energy Intensity and Carbon Intensity by the Numbers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Intensity and Carbon Intensity by the Numbers Energy Intensity and Carbon Intensity by the Numbers

  14. Russia-USAID Climate Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Russia Eastern Europe References USAID Russia1 "Currently, USAIDRussia addresses global climate change issues through its support to the U.S. Forest Service (USFS)....

  15. Secretary Chu to Travel to Russia Next Week | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with Russia in the areas of innovative clean energy technology, safe and reliable civilian nuclear power, best practices in energy efficiency, and nuclear non-proliferation. ...

  16. United States-Russia Joint Statement on the Results of the Nuclear Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Nuclear Security Working Group Meeting | Department of Energy States-Russia Joint Statement on the Results of the Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Security Working Group Meeting United States-Russia Joint Statement on the Results of the Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Security Working Group Meeting December 10, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Moscow - Earlier this week, Deputy Secretary of Energy Daniel Poneman, representing the United States government, signed a joint statement with Russia's Director

  17. Energy Intensity Indicators | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Data & Tools » Energy Intensity Indicators Energy Intensity Indicators Energy efficiency is a vital part of the nation's energy strategy and has been since the first oil crisis in 1973. As part of a national priority for improving energy efficiency, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) has established a national system of indicators to track changes in the energy intensity of our economy and economic sectors over time. This system of

  18. US and Russia agree to collaborate on nuclear energy and security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Russia agree to collaborate on nuclear energy and security R&D | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile...

  19. Energy Intensity Indicators: Commercial Source Energy Consumption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Figure C1 below reports as index numbers over the period 1970 through 2011: 1) commercial building floor space, 2) energy use based on source energy consumption, 3) energy intensity, and 4) the...

  20. Russia-Making Energy Efficiency Real (MEER) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC) Sector Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy, People and Policy Topics Adaptation, Co-benefits assessment, - Energy Access,...

  1. Energy Intensity Indicators: Efficiency vs. Intensity | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency vs. Intensity Energy Intensity Indicators: Efficiency vs. Intensity Efficiency improvements in processes and equipment and other explanatory factors can contribute to observed changes in energy intensity. Within the category "other explanatory factors" we can identify two separate effects: structural changes and behavioral factors, which are further discussed in item 2) below. (1) Declines in energy intensity are a proxy for efficiency improvements, provided a)

  2. Joint Statement on Future U.S.-Russia Nuclear Energy and Nonproliferation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Collaboration Following Russian Delegation Visit to the United States | Department of Energy Joint Statement on Future U.S.-Russia Nuclear Energy and Nonproliferation Collaboration Following Russian Delegation Visit to the United States Joint Statement on Future U.S.-Russia Nuclear Energy and Nonproliferation Collaboration Following Russian Delegation Visit to the United States December 10, 2013 - 2:30pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 U.S. Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz and

  3. Energy Intensity Indicators: Methodology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Methodology Energy Intensity Indicators: Methodology The files listed below contain methodology documentation and related studies that support the information presented on this website. The files are available to view and/or download as Adobe Acrobat PDF files. 2003. Energy Indicators System: Index Construction Methodology 2004. Changing the Base Year for the Index Boyd GA, and JM Roop. 2004. "A Note on the Fisher Ideal Index Decomposition for Structural Change in Energy Intensity."

  4. INTERACTIVE: Energy Intensity and Carbon Intensity by the Numbers |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy INTERACTIVE: Energy Intensity and Carbon Intensity by the Numbers INTERACTIVE: Energy Intensity and Carbon Intensity by the Numbers February 19, 2016 - 11:53am Addthis Daniel Wood Daniel Wood Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Watch our CO2 drop dramatically compared to other countries in this interactive Curious about the total amount of carbon we emit into the atmosphere? Compare countries from around the globe using this tool. If

  5. Energy Efficiency Investments in Public Facilities - Developing a Pilot Mechanism for Russia and Chelyabinsk Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Meredydd; Roshchanka, Volha; Parker, Steven A.; Baranovskiy, Aleksandr

    2012-01-01

    Russian public sector buildings tend to be very inefficient, which creates vast opportunities for savings. This paper reviews opportunities to implement energy efficiency projects in Russian public buildings, created by new Russian legislation and regulations. Given Russia's limited experience with energy performance contracts (EPCs), a pilot project can help test an implementation mechanism. The authors use Chelyabinsk Region as an example to discuss opportunities, challenges and solutions to financing and implementing an EPC in Russia, navigating through federal requirements and specific local conditions.

  6. Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. ...

  7. Case study on aid in district heating energy efficiency and gas transportation leakages in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gritsevich, I.

    1997-12-31

    Russia makes one of the greatest contribution to GHG emissions in the world and is listed in the FCCC as a country with economy in transition committed to return by the end of the present decade to its GHG emissions level in 1990. Russia has accumulated a significant reserve for carbon credit as a result of production decline: GHG emissions fell down by 25% in 1995/1990, and one of the greatest energy efficiency potentials (more than 480 mln tce). Russia is interested in international cooperation, for instance, in the form of JI projects.

  8. Energy Intensity Indicators: Coverage | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coverage Energy Intensity Indicators: Coverage This system of energy intensity indicators for total energy covers the economy as a whole and each of the major end-use sectors-transportation, industry, commercial, and residential, as well as the electric power sector. These sectors are shown in Figure 1. More detail for some of these sectors can be obtained by accessing the file "End-Use Sector Flowchart" below Figure 1. Five boxes are shown connected by lines. At the top of a vertical

  9. Energy Intensity Indicators: Transportation Energy Consumption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section contains an overview of the aggregate transportation sector, combining both passenger and freight segments of this sector. The specific energy intensity indicators for passenger and freight can be obtained from the links, passenger transportation, or freight transportation. For further detail within the transportation sector, download the appropriate Trend Data worksheet containing detailed data and graphics for specific transportation modes.

  10. EIA Energy Efficiency-Residential Sector Energy Intensities,...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Sector Energy Intensities RESIDENTIAL SECTOR ENERGY INTENSITIES: 1978-2005 Released Date: August 2004 Page Last Modified:June 2009 These tables provide estimates of...

  11. Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Across U.S. Industry | Department of Energy Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry eip_report_pg9.pdf (2.52 MB) More Documents & Publications ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry Energy Technology Solutions Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private

  12. Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    voluntary energy efficiency leadership initiative for U.S. manufacturers. The program encourages companies to commit to reduce the energy intensity of their U.S. manufacturing ...

  13. Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technical Assistance » Better Plants » Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance The Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance for the Better Buildings, Better Plants Program helps companies meet the program's reporting requirements by describing the steps necessary to develop an energy consumption and energy intensity baseline and calculating consumption and intensity changes over time. Most of the calculation steps described

  14. Energy Intensity Indicators: Overview of Concepts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Overview of Concepts Energy Intensity Indicators: Overview of Concepts The Energy Intensity Indicators website reports changes in energy intensity in the United States since 1970. The website discusses, and presents data for, energy intensity trends by major end-use sectors, associated subsector for the economy as whole (economywide). Following the conventions used by the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration, the four major end-use sectors are 1) residential, 2) commercial,

  15. Energy Department Funding Helping Energy-Intensive Dairy Industry |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Funding Helping Energy-Intensive Dairy Industry Energy Department Funding Helping Energy-Intensive Dairy Industry July 17, 2015 - 12:55pm Addthis Energy Department Funding Helping Energy-Intensive Dairy Industry Emiley Mallory Emiley Mallory Communications Specialist, Weatherization Assistance Program John Coggin John Coggin Communications Specialist, Weatherization and Intergovernmental Programs What are the key facts? The Colorado Energy Office implemented a Dairy and

  16. Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    voluntary energy efficiency leadership initiative for U.S. manufacturers. The program encourages companies to commit to reduce the energy intensity of their U.S. manufacturing operations, usually by 25% over a 10-year period. Companies joining Better Plants are recognized by DOE for their leadership in implementing energy management practices and reducing their energy intensity. Better Plants Partners (Partners) receive access to a Technical Account Manager who can help companies establish

  17. Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    voluntary energy efficiency leadership initiative for U.S. manufacturers. The program encourages companies to commit to reduce the energy intensity of their U.S. manufacturing operations, usually by 25% over a 10-year period. Companies joining Better Plants are recognized by DOE for their leadership in implementing energy management practices and reducing their energy intensity. Better Plants Partners (Partners) receive access to a Technical Account Manager who can help companies establish

  18. Desk study of production energy savings control systems feasibility study. (Russia). Volume 1. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-17

    The objective of the feasibility study is to determine the marketability of heating/ventilating energy conserving control systems in the major city markets of eastern Russia. The second part of the objective is to determine if the existing military based Zelenograd micro-electronic manufacturing and research facility can be utilized to produce Direct Digital Control systems for use within Russia as well as for export to the European Economic Community (EEC) and other countries. Because significant exports of U.S. products and services to support the joint venture are questionable, it is suggested that, potential markets for U.S. products be identified. Sources of capital to finance the joint venture should be identified.

  19. Iron and Steel Energy Intensities

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    MECS Survey Year 1985 1988 1991 1994 All Energy Sources 46.47 30.61 34.77 33.98 Electricity 3.66 2.44 3.17 3.05 Natural Gas 11.33 7.86 10.25 9.97 Coal 29.13 19.12 20.08 18.40...

  20. Description of Energy Intensity Tables (12)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Description of Energy Intensity Data Tables There are 12 data tables used as references for this report. Specifically, these tables are categorized as tables 1 and 2 present...

  1. Energy Intensity Indicators: Caveats and Cautions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This website contains a diverse collection of indicators that track changes in energy intensity at the national and end-use sector levels (after taking into account other explanatory factors)....

  2. China-Energy Intensity Reduction Strategy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Intensity Reduction Strategy Jump to: navigation, search Name China-ESMAP Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program AgencyCompany Organization Energy Sector Management Assistance...

  3. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings 1989 -- Executive...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Energy End-Use Intensities > Executive Summary Executive Summary Energy End Uses Ranked by Energy Consumption, 1989 Energy End Uses Ranked by Energy Consumption, 1989 Source:...

  4. Energy Intensity Indicators: Residential Source Energy Consumption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Figure R1 below reports as index numbers over the period 1970 through 2011: 1) the number of U.S. households, 2) the average size of those housing units, 3) residential source energy consumption, 4...

  5. Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    research and development (r&d) portfolio for energy-Intensive Processes (eIP) addresses the top technology opportunities to save energy and reduce carbon emissions across the ...

  6. Energy Efficiency Investments in Public Facilities - Developing a Pilot Mechanism for Energy Performance Contracts (EPCs) in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Meredydd; Roshchanka, Volha; Parker, Steven A.; Baranovskiy, Aleksandr

    2012-02-01

    : Russian public sector buildings tend to be very inefficient, which creates vast opportunities for savings. This report overviews the latest developments in the Russian legislation related to energy efficiency in the public sector, describes the major challenges the regulations pose, and proposes ways to overcome these challenges. Given Russia’s limited experience with energy performance contracts (EPCs), a pilot project can help test an implementation mechanism. This paper discusses how EPCs and other mechanisms can help harness energy savings opportunities in Russia in general, and thus, can be applicable to any Russian region.

  7. Energy Intensity Indicators: Indicators Data | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Data Energy Intensity Indicators: Indicators Data The files listed below contain energy intensity data and documentation that supports the information presented on this website. The files are in Microsoft® Excel® format (2007 and later versions) and are available to view and/or download. The entire set of files is also available for download as a zipped* (compressed) file. Economywide Transportation Sector Industrial Sector Residential Buildings Sector Commercial Buildings Sector Electricity

  8. Table 22. Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (quadrillion Btu / $Billion 2005 Chained GDP)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",10.89145253,10.73335719,10.63428655,10.48440125,10.33479508,10.20669515,10.06546105,9.94541493,9.822393757,9.707148466,9.595465524,9.499032573,9.390723436,9.29474735,9.185496812,9.096176848,9.007677565,8.928276581 "AEO

  9. Energy, economics, and security in central Asia: Russia and its rivals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blank, S.J.

    1995-04-10

    Five Central Asian states emerged out of the Soviet Union`s Central Asian republics in 1991. Although U.S. policy makers presumed that Iran would inevitably sweep them into its sphere of influence, this has not happened. Nor is it likely to occur. Instead there has developed a multistate competition for influence and even control of these new states. This competition involves Russia as the leading force in the area and Moscow`s main rivals are Turkey, Iran, Pakistan (and India), China, and the United States. This rivalry is particularly strong in the struggle among these states to gain positions of leverage over the energy economy, i.e. production, pipelines, and refining in Central Asia because this region is blessed with enormous energy deposits. These deposits are crucial to Central Asia`s integration with the world economy and economic progress. Indeed, energy exports may be the only way these governments can hope for any economic stability and progress in the future.

  10. Energy Intensity Indicators: Methodology Downloads | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Indicators: Methodology Downloads Energy Intensity Indicators: Methodology Downloads The files listed below contain methodology documentation and related studies that support the information presented on this website. The files are available to view and/or download as Adobe Acrobat PDF files. Energy Indicators System: Index Construction Methodology (101.17 KB) Changing the Base Year for the Index (23.98 KB) "A Note on the Fisher Ideal Index Decomposition for Structural Change in Energy

  11. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings 1989

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1989 Energy End-Use Intensities Overview Full Report Tables National estimates and analysis of energy consumption by fuel (electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and district...

  12. Energy Intensity Indicators: Indicators for Major Sectors | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy for Major Sectors Energy Intensity Indicators: Indicators for Major Sectors This system of energy intensity indicators for total energy covers the economy as a whole and each of the major end-use sectors - transportation, industry, commercial, and residential, as well as the electric power sector. These sectors are shown in Figure 1. Please go to the menu below the figure to see a more detailed discussion of historical trends in the energy intensity indicator for a particular sector.

  13. Russia`s atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reams, C.A.

    1996-12-01

    Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia`s nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia`s vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia`s nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia`s nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia`s decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia`s nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia.

  14. Energy Intensity Indicators: Terminology and Definitions | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Terminology and Definitions Energy Intensity Indicators: Terminology and Definitions The Energy Intensity Indicators website uses the following terms with their associated definitions. The terms related to various definitions of energy are discussed first. Three separate definitions of energy are used in the system of indicators: 1) delivered, 2) source, and 3) source, adjusted for electricity generation efficiency change. These definitions are discussed below. Delivered energy is the

  15. A Comprehensive System of U.S. Energy Intensity Indicators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes a comprehensive system of energy intensity indicators for the United States that has been developed for the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) over the past decade. This system of indicators is hierarchical in nature, beginning with detailed indexes of energy intensity for various sectors of the economy, which are ultimately aggregated to an overall energy intensity index for the economy as a whole. The aggregation of energy intensity indexes to higher levels in the hierarchy is performed with a version of the Log Mean Divisia index (LMDI) method. Based upon the data and methods in the system of indicators, the economy-wide energy intensity index shows a decline of about 14% in 2011 relative to a 1985 base year.

  16. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Intensities The purpose of this section is to provide information on how energy was used for space conditioning--heating, cooling, and ventilation--in commercial...

  17. Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... total energy required to generate, transmit, and distribute electricity from the power generation source to the end user is factored into a company's energy consumption metrics. ...

  18. Energy Intensity Trends in AEO2010 (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Energy intensity (energy consumption per dollar of real GDP) indicates how much energy a country uses to produce its goods and services. From the early 1950s to the early 1970s, U.S. total primary energy consumption and real GDP increased at nearly the same annual rate. During that period, real oil prices remained virtually flat. In contrast, from the mid-1970s to 2008, the relationship between energy consumption and real GDP growth changed, with primary energy consumption growing at less than one-third the previous average rate and real GDP growth continuing to grow at its historical rate. The decoupling of real GDP growth from energy consumption growth led to a decline in energy intensity that averaged 2.8% per year from 1973 to 2008. In the Annual Energy Outlook 2010 Reference case, energy intensity continues to decline, at an average annual rate of 1.9% from 2008 to 2035.

  19. Changes in Energy Intensity in the Manufacturing Sector 1985...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Introduction Rankeda EI Numbers of Total Inputs of Energy SIC Codeb Intensity for 1985c Intensity for 1994c 29 18.11 25.85 26 17.82 17.71 33 19.57 16.27 32 14.75 14.69 28 11.09...

  20. Examination of Beryllium Under Intense High Energy Proton Beam...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Examination of Beryllium Under Intense High Energy Proton Beam at CERN's HiRadMat Facility ... 6th International Particle Accelerator Conference. Richmond, Virginia, USA, 3-8 May 2015.

  1. ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass-Fired Boilers ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass-Fired Boilers biomass-firedboilers.pdf (177.31 KB) More Documents ...

  2. Department of Energy Commercial Building Benchmarks (New Construction): Energy Use Intensities, May 5, 2009

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This file contains the energy use intensities (EUIs) for the benchmark building files by building type and climate zone.

  3. Industrial Sector Energy Demand: Revisions for Non-Energy-Intensive Manufacturing (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    For the industrial sector, the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) analysis and projection efforts generally have focused on the energy-intensive industriesfood, bulk chemicals, refining, glass, cement, steel, and aluminumwhere energy cost averages 4.8% of annual operating cost. Detailed process flows and energy intensity indicators have been developed for narrowly defined industry groups in the energy-intensive manufacturing sector. The non-energy-intensive manufacturing industries, where energy cost averages 1.9% of annual operating cost, previously have received somewhat less attention, however. In Annual Energy Outlook 2006 (AEO), energy demand projections were provided for two broadly aggregated industry groups in the non-energy-intensive manufacturing sector: metal-based durables and other non-energy-intensive. In the AEO2006 projections, the two groups accounted for more than 50% of the projected increase in industrial natural gas consumption from 2004 to 2030.

  4. ISSUANCE 2015-12-02: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps, Final Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps, Final Determination

  5. Energy Intensity of Federal Buildings Slashed 25% in Past Decade

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA), which builds and manages federal buildings, recently announced that it cut federal energy spending by $65.5 million in fiscal year (FY) 2012 by reducing the energy use intensity levels in its buildings by nearly 25% since FY 2003.

  6. U.S. Department of Energy's initiatives for proliferation prevention program: solidification technologies for radioactive waste treatment in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokhitonov, Y.; Kelley, D.

    2008-07-01

    Large amounts of liquid radioactive waste have existed in the U.S. and Russia since the 1950's as a result of the Cold War. Comprehensive action to treat and dispose of waste products has been lacking due to insufficient funding, ineffective technologies or no proven technologies, low priority by governments among others. Today the U.S. and Russian governments seek new, more reliable methods to treat liquid waste, in particular the legacy waste streams. A primary objective of waste generators and regulators is to find economical and proven technologies that can provide long-term stability for repository storage. In 2001, the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (Khlopin), St. Petersburg, Russia, and Pacific Nuclear Solutions (PNS), Indianapolis, Indiana, began extensive research and test programs to determine the validity of polymer technology for the absorption and immobilization of standard and complex waste streams. Over 60 liquid compositions have been tested including extensive irradiation tests to verify polymer stability and possible degradation. With conclusive scientific evidence of the polymer's effectiveness in treating liquid waste, both parties have decided to enter the Russian market and offer the solidification technology to nuclear sites for waste treatment and disposal. In conjunction with these efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will join Khlopin and PNS to explore opportunities for direct application of the polymers at predetermined sites and to conduct research for new product development. Under DOE's 'Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention'(IPP) program, funding will be provided to the Russian participants over a three year period to implement the program plan. This paper will present details of U.S. DOE's IPP program, the project structure and its objectives both short and long-term, training programs for scientists, polymer tests and applications for LLW, ILW and HLW, and new product development initiatives. (authors)

  7. EIA Energy Efficiency-Iron and Steel Energy Intensity, 1998-2002

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Intensity Table 5a. Consumption of Energy for All Purposes per Value of Production html table 5a. excel table 5a. pdf table 5. Table 5b. Consumption of Energy for All...

  8. United States, Russia Sign Agreement to Further Research and Development Collaboration in Nuclear Energy and Security

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz and Director General of the Russian Federation State Corporation “Rosatom” Sergey Kirienko today signed the Agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Russian Federation on Cooperation in Nuclear- and Energy-Related Scientific Research and Development

  9. EIA Energy Efficiency-Commercial Buildings Sector Energy Intensities...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Building Activity (Table 1b) html table 1b excel table 1b pdf table 1b. Total Primary Energy Consumption (U.S. and Census Region) By Principal Building Activity (Table 1c) html...

  10. Energy end-use intensities in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This report examines energy intensities in commercial buildings for nine end uses: space heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, water heating, cooking, refrigeration, office equipment, and other. The objective of this analysis was to increase understanding of how energy is used in commercial buildings and to identify targets for greater energy efficiency which could moderate future growth in demand. The source of data for the analysis is the 1989 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption survey (CBECS), which collected detailed data on energy-related characteristics and energy consumption for a nationally representative sample of approximately 6,000 commercial buildings. The analysis used 1989 CBECS data because the 1992 CBECS data were not yet available at the time the study was initiated. The CBECS data were fed into the Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system, a building energy simulation program developed by the US Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to derive engineering estimates of end-use consumption for each building in the sample. The FEDS estimates were then statistically adjusted to match the total energy consumption for each building. This is the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) first report on energy end-use consumption in commercial buildings. This report is part of an effort to address customer requests for more information on how energy is used in buildings, which was an overall theme of the 1992 user needs study. The end-use data presented in this report were not available for publication in Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1989 (DOE/EIA-0318(89), Washington, DC, April 1992). However, subsequent reports on end-use energy consumption will be part of the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures series, beginning with a 1992 data report to be published in early 1995.

  11. Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-03-07

    AMO is developing advanced technologies that cut energy use and carbon emissions in some of the most energy-intensive processes within U.S. manufacturing. The brochure describes the AMO R&D projects that address these challenges.

  12. Energy Intensity Changes by Sector, 1985-2011 – Alternative Measures by Type of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Further insight with regard to the comparison of intensity changes by sector can be gained by looking at how they differ with respect to different definitions of energy use. Source energy...

  13. Joint Statement on Future U.S.-Russia Nuclear Energy and Nonproliferat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    more than 500 metric tons of weapons-origin HEU was downblended from dismantled ... Rosatom and the Department of Energy are in the process of extending the Russian-origin ...

  14. Assessing Internet energy intensity: A review of methods and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coroama, Vlad C.; Hilty, Lorenz M.; Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstr. 5, 9014 St. Gallen; Centre for Sustainable Communications, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Lindstedtsvägen 5, 100 44 Stockholm

    2014-02-15

    Assessing the average energy intensity of Internet transmissions is a complex task that has been a controversial subject of discussion. Estimates published over the last decade diverge by up to four orders of magnitude — from 0.0064 kilowatt-hours per gigabyte (kWh/GB) to 136 kWh/GB. This article presents a review of the methodological approaches used so far in such assessments: i) top–down analyses based on estimates of the overall Internet energy consumption and the overall Internet traffic, whereby average energy intensity is calculated by dividing energy by traffic for a given period of time, ii) model-based approaches that model all components needed to sustain an amount of Internet traffic, and iii) bottom–up approaches based on case studies and generalization of the results. Our analysis of the existing studies shows that the large spread of results is mainly caused by two factors: a) the year of reference of the analysis, which has significant influence due to efficiency gains in electronic equipment, and b) whether end devices such as personal computers or servers are included within the system boundary or not. For an overall assessment of the energy needed to perform a specific task involving the Internet, it is necessary to account for the types of end devices needed for the task, while the energy needed for data transmission can be added based on a generic estimate of Internet energy intensity for a given year. Separating the Internet as a data transmission system from the end devices leads to more accurate models and to results that are more informative for decision makers, because end devices and the networking equipment of the Internet usually belong to different spheres of control. -- Highlights: • Assessments of the energy intensity of the Internet differ by a factor of 20,000. • We review top–down, model-based, and bottom–up estimates from literature. • Main divergence factors are the year studied and the inclusion of end devices. • We argue

  15. Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

    2006-11-14

    This report summarizes technical progress during the program “Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries”, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including • a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700°C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, • the world’s smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 ?m) with 700°C capability, • UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, • a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600°C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

  16. Changes in energy intensity in the manufacturing sector 1985--1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-15

    In this report, energy intensity is defined as the ratio of energy consumption per unit of output. Output is measured as the constant dollar of value of shipments and receipts, and two measures of energy consumption are presented in British thermal units (Btu): Offsite-Produced Energy and Total Inputs of Energy. A decrease in energy intensity from one period to another suggests an increase in energy efficiency, and vice versa. Energy efficiency can be defined and measured in various ways. Certain concepts of energy efficiency, especially those limited to equipment efficiencies, cannot be measured over time using changes in energy-intensity ratios. While improved energy efficiency will tend to reduce energy intensity, it is also true that a change in energy intensity can be due to factors unrelated to energy efficiency. For this report, energy intensity is used as a surrogate measure for energy efficiency, based on industry knowledge and current methodological analyses.

  17. Energy use and energy intensity of the U.S. chemical industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worrell, E.; Phylipsen, D.; Einstein, D.; Martin, N.

    2000-04-01

    The U.S. chemical industry is the largest in the world, and responsible for about 11% of the U.S. industrial production measured as value added. It consumes approximately 20% of total industrial energy consumption in the U.S. (1994), and contributes in similar proportions to U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Surprisingly, there is not much information on energy use and energy intensity in the chemical industry available in the public domain. This report provides detailed information on energy use and energy intensity for the major groups of energy-intensive chemical products. Ethylene production is the major product in terms of production volume of the petrochemical industry. The petrochemical industry (SIC 2869) produces a wide variety of products. However, most energy is used for a small number of intermediate compounds, of which ethylene is the most important one. Based on a detailed assessment we estimate fuel use for ethylene manufacture at 520 PJ (LHV), excluding feedstock use. Energy intensity is estimated at 26 GJ/tonne ethylene (LHV), excluding feedstocks.The nitrogenous fertilizer production is a very energy intensive industry, producing a variety of fertilizers and other nitrogen-compounds. Ammonia is the most important intermediate chemical compound, used as basis for almost all products. Fuel use is estimated at 268 PJ (excluding feedstocks) while 368 PJ natural gas is used as feedstock. Electricity consumption is estimated at 14 PJ. We estimate the energy intensity of ammonia manufacture at 39.3 GJ/tonne (including feedstocks, HHV) and 140 kWh/tonne, resulting in a specific primary energy consumption of 40.9 GJ/tonne (HHV), equivalent to 37.1 GJ/tonne (LHV). Excluding natural gas use for feedstocks the primary energy consumption is estimated at 16.7 GJ/tonne (LHV). The third most important product from an energy perspective is the production of chlorine and caustic soda. Chlorine is produced through electrolysis of a salt-solution. Chlorine production is

  18. High intensity electron cyclotron resonance proton source for low energy high intensity proton accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roychowdhury, P.; Chakravarthy, D. P.

    2009-12-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) proton source at 50 keV, 50 mA has been designed, developed, and commissioned for the low energy high intensity proton accelerator (LEHIPA). Plasma characterization of this source has been performed. ECR plasma was generated with 400-1100 W of microwave power at 2.45 GHz, with hydrogen as working gas. Microwave was fed in the plasma chamber through quartz window. Plasma density and temperature was studied under various operating conditions, such as microwave power and gas pressure. Langmuir probe was used for plasma characterization using current voltage variation. The typical hydrogen plasma density and electron temperature measured were 7x10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} and 6 eV, respectively. The total ion beam current of 42 mA was extracted, with three-electrode extraction geometry, at 40 keV of beam energy. The extracted ion current was studied as a function of microwave power and gas pressure. Depending on source pressure and discharge power, more than 30% total gas efficiency was achieved. The optimization of the source is under progress to meet the requirement of long time operation. The source will be used as an injector for continuous wave radio frequency quadrupole, a part of 20 MeV LEHIPA. The required rms normalized emittance of this source is less than 0.2 {pi} mm mrad. The simulated value of normalized emittance is well within this limit and will be measured shortly. This paper presents the study of plasma parameters, first beam results, and the status of ECR proton source.

  19. Table 7. Carbon intensity of the energy supply by State (2000...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carbon intensity of the energy supply by State (2000-2011)" "kilograms of energy-related carbon dioxide per million Btu" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2011"...

  20. russia | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    russia NNSA Partnership Successfully Removes All Remaining HEU from Uzbekistan WASHINGTON, DC - Today, the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) announced the successful return of the final 5 kilograms (approximately 11 pounds) of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent fuel from the IIN-3M "Foton" research reactor in Tashkent, Uzbekistan to... US, Kazakhstan Cooperate to Eliminate Highly Enriched Uranium WASHINGTON D.C - The Department of Energy's

  1. HIGH INTENSITY LOW-ENERGY POSITRON SOURCE AT JEFFERSON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serkan Golge, Bogdan Wojtsekhowski, Branislav Vlahovic

    2012-07-01

    We present a novel concept of a low-energy e{sup +} source with projected intensity on the order of 10{sup 10} slow e{sup +}/s. The key components of this concept are a continuous wave e{sup -} beam, a rotating positron-production target, a synchronized raster/anti-raster, a transport channel, and extraction of e{sup +} into a field-free area through a magnetic plug for moderation in a cryogenic solid. Components were designed in the framework of GEANT4-based (G4beamline) Monte Carlo simulation and TOSCA magnetic field calculation codes. Experimental data to demonstrate the effectiveness of the magnetic plug is presented.

  2. ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Portfolio of projects focused on investments in high-impact, crosscutting opportunities that provide significant energy savings and carbon reductions across a broad industrial base

  3. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    lighting intensities per lighted square foot-hour (Figure 23). * Food service and health care buildings had the highest water-heating intensities per square foot--more than...

  4. ISSUANCE 2015-01-26: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Lamps, Notice to Reopen Comment Period

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Lamps, Notice to Reopen Comment Period

  5. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2010-03-16

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  6. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-08-01

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  7. Table 22. Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual Projected

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual Projected (quadrillion Btu / $Billion 2005 Chained GDP) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 10.9 10.7 10.6 10.5 10.3 10.2 10.1 9.9 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.1 9.0 8.9 AEO 1995 10.5 10.4 10.3 10.1 10.0 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.1 9.0 8.9 8.9 8.8 8.7 AEO 1996 10.4 10.3 10.1 10.0 9.8 9.7 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.1 9.0 8.9 8.9 8.8 8.7 8.7 8.6 8.5 AEO 1997 10.0 9.9 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.4

  8. High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics August 15, 2013 - 5:59pm Addthis Illustration of a high-intensity discharge (HID) lIllustration amp. The lamp is a tall cylindrical shape, and a cutout of the outer tube shows the materials inside. A long, thin cylinder called the arc tube runs through the lamp between two electrodes. The space around the arc tube is labeled as a vacuum. High-intensity discharge (HID) lighting can provide high efficacy and long

  9. Changes in Energy Intensity in the Manufacturing Sector 1985...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (34) Machinery (35) El. Equip.(36) Instruments (38) Misc. (39) Appendices Survey Design Quality of Data Sector Description Nonobservation Errors Glossary Intensity Sites...

  10. Fact #554: January 19, 2009 Energy Intensity of Light Rail Transit Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy 4: January 19, 2009 Energy Intensity of Light Rail Transit Systems Fact #554: January 19, 2009 Energy Intensity of Light Rail Transit Systems According to the 2007 National Transit Databases, the energy intensity of light transit rail systems in the U.S. ranges from about 2,000 Btu per passenger-mile to about 31,000 Btu per passenger-mile. There are only four light rail systems with energy intensity over 10,000 Btu per passenger-mile. These systems may have improved

  11. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings1995 -- Overview...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) and (2) building energy simulations provided by the Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. The...

  12. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings1995 -- Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    model using survey data from the 1995 commercial buildings energy consumption survey and building energy simulations provided by the Facility Energy Decision Screening system....

  13. Reducing Industrial Energy Intensity in the Southeast Project Fact Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet contains details regarding a Save Energy Now industrial energy efficiency project that the U.S. Department of Energy funded in Mississippi.

  14. Russia`s nuke complex: A case for downsizing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bukharin, O.

    1995-07-01

    Nuclear weapons stored in former Soviet republics, uncontrolled export of bomb-grade nuclear materials, and recruitment of ex-Soviet nuclear physicists by Third-World nations remain today`s top proliferation risks, reports Oleg Bukharin, a visiting researcher at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environment Studies. To address these risks, Russia {open_quotes}must shift its weapons production and development to weapons dismantlement, management of weapons materials, and maintenance of a much smaller...arsenal,{close_quotes} Bukharin writes. The goal of such conversion, he says, {open_quotes}is a nuclear complex that is environmentally safe...and compatible with nonproliferation objectives.{close_quotes} Reconfiguration of Russia`s weapons complex also must provide for redeployment of the hundreds of thousands of scientists, engineers, and technicians who have supported the federation`s nuclear weapons program, Bukharin insists. {open_quotes}A truly durable strategy to prevent the dispersion of Russian weapons expertise must [involve] these weapons experts in non-weapons research,{close_quotes} says Bukharin. Furthermore, Bukharin writes, the Russian conversion program must prevent nuclear materials from falling into the wrong hands. {open_quotes}Widespread corruption, crime, and emerging black markets increase the risk of diversion of weapons-grade uranium or plutonium,{close_quotes} he says.

  15. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    as buildings of the 1980's. In this section, intensities are based upon the entire building stock, not just those buildings using a particular fuel for a given end use. This...

  16. Energy Use Intensity and its Influence on the Integrated Daylighting...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Design of a Large Net Zero Energy Building Preprint Rob Guglielmetti, Jennifer Scheib, Shanti D. Pless, and Paul Torcellini National Renewable Energy Laboratory Rachel Petro RNL ...

  17. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimates The end-use estimates had two main sources: the 1989 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) and the Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system....

  18. Energy Intensity Changes by Sector, 1985-2011 - Alternative Measures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Source energy attributes all the energy used for electricity generation and transmission to the specific end-use sector, addition to the direct consumption of electricity and ...

  19. PNNL Data-Intensive Computing for a Smarter Energy Grid

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Carol Imhoff; Zhenyu (Henry) Huang; Daniel Chavarria

    2012-12-31

    The Middleware for Data-Intensive Computing (MeDICi) Integration Framework, an integrated platform to solve data analysis and processing needs, supports PNNL research on the U.S. electric power grid. MeDICi is enabling development of visualizations of grid operations and vulnerabilities, with goal of near real-time analysis to aid operators in preventing and mitigating grid failures.

  20. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Active Solar: As an energy source, energy from the sun collected and stored using mechanical pumps or fans to circulate heat-laden fluids or air between solar collectors and the...

  1. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Energy Use in Commercial Buildings The purpose of this section is to provide an overview of how energy was used in commercial buildings. Focusing on 1989 buildings, the section...

  2. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings 1989 data...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Buildings Energy Consumption Survey. Divider Bar To View andor Print Reports (requires Adobe Acrobat Reader) - Download Adobe Acrobat Reader If you experience any difficulties,...

  3. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings 1992

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Consumption Survey. divider line To View andor Print Reports (requires Adobe Acrobat Reader) - Download Adobe Acrobat Reader If you experience any difficulties,...

  4. Energy Market Impacts of Alternative Greenhouse Gas Intensity Reduction Goals

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Ken Salazar that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impacts of implementing alternative variants of an emissions cap-and-trade program for greenhouse gases (GHGs).

  5. End-Use Sector Flowcharts, Energy Intensity Indicators

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. vssp_12_wagner.pdf (1.32 MB) More Documents & Publications Ignition Control for HCCI High-Efficiency Clean Combustion in Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engines Expanding Robust HCCI Operation (Delphi CRADA) Cooling | Department of Energy

    A new approach, called Adaptive-Jet-Cooling, leverages two distinct spray patters of hollow conical sprays

  6. A comparison of energy intensity in the United States and Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, S.C.

    1990-12-01

    This report compares energy intensity in the US and Japan in 1985. Energy intensity is examined for each of the following end-use energy consuming sectors: residential and commercial, transportation, and industrial (manufacturing). In each sector, comparative measures of the relative energy intensity are developed. The comparison indicates that when adjustments are made for certain differences between the two countries, energy intensity in the US compares more favorably with Japan than when just the aggregate energy-to-gross-domestic-product ratio is used. For instance, climate and residential floor space explain a good portion of the difference between residential energy consumption in the US and Japan. Likewise, although the US requires about twice as much energy for passenger travel, it requires about half the energy for freight movement (when normalized for distance and vehicle capacity) compared with Japan. Finally, the US manufacturing sector, as a whole, is about equal to Japan in terms of the amount of energy consumed in producing a dollar's worth of goods, in current dollars and using 1985 exchange rates. 53 refs.

  7. Life-cycle energy savings potential from aluminum-intensive vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stodolsky, F.; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.; Gaines, L.

    1995-07-01

    The life-cycle energy and fuel-use impacts of US-produced aluminum-intensive passenger cars and passenger trucks are assessed. The energy analysis includes vehicle fuel consumption, material production energy, and recycling energy. A model that stimulates market dynamics was used to project aluminum-intensive vehicle market shares and national energy savings potential for the period between 2005 and 2030. We conclude that there is a net energy savings with the use of aluminum-intensive vehicles. Manufacturing costs must be reduced to achieve significant market penetration of aluminum-intensive vehicles. The petroleum energy saved from improved fuel efficiency offsets the additional energy needed to manufacture aluminum compared to steel. The energy needed to make aluminum can be reduced further if wrought aluminum is recycled back to wrought aluminum. We find that oil use is displaced by additional use of natural gas and nonfossil energy, but use of coal is lower. Many of the results are not necessarily applicable to vehicles built outside of the United States, but others could be used with caution.

  8. Department of Energy Support of Energy Intensive Manufacturing Related to Refractory Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon

    2013-01-01

    For many years, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) richly supported refractory related research to enable greater energy efficiency processes in energy intensive manufacturing industries such as iron and steel, glass, aluminum and other non-ferrous metal production, petrochemical, and pulp and paper. Much of this support came through research projects funded by the former DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) under programs such as Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM), Industrial Materials of the Future (IMF), and the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP). Under such initiatives, work was funded at government national laboratories such as Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), at universities such as West Virginia University (WVU) and the Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T) which was formerly the University of Missouri Rolla, and at private companies engaged in these manufacturing areas once labeled industries of the future by DOE due to their strategic and economic importance to American industry. Examples of such projects are summarized below with information on the scope, funding level, duration, and impact. This is only a sampling of representative efforts funded by the DOE in which ORNL was involved over the period extending from 1996 to 2011. Other efforts were also funded during this time at various other national laboratories, universities and private companies under the various programs mentioned above. Discussion of the projects below was chosen because I was an active participant in them and it is meant to give a sampling of the magnitude and scope of investments made by DOE in refractory related research over this time period.

  9. Target Allocation Methodology for China's Provinces: Energy Intensity in the 12th FIve-Year Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohshita, Stephanie; Price, Lynn

    2011-03-21

    Experience with China's 20% energy intensity improvement target during the 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) (2006-2010) has shown the challenges of rapidly setting targets and implementing measures to meet them. For the 12th FYP (2011-2015), there is an urgent need for a more scientific methodology to allocate targets among the provinces and to track physical and economic indicators of energy and carbon saving progress. This report provides a sectoral methodology for allocating a national energy intensity target - expressed as percent change in energy per unit gross domestic product (GDP) - among China's provinces in the 12th FYP. Drawing on international experience - especially the European Union (EU) Triptych approach for allocating Kyoto carbon targets among EU member states - the methodology here makes important modifications to the EU approach to address an energy intensity rather than a CO{sub 2} emissions target, and for the wider variation in provincial energy and economic structure in China. The methodology combines top-down national target projections and bottom-up provincial and sectoral projections of energy and GDP to determine target allocation of energy intensity targets. Total primary energy consumption is separated into three end-use sectors - industrial, residential, and other energy. Sectoral indicators are used to differentiate the potential for energy saving among the provinces. This sectoral methodology is utilized to allocate provincial-level targets for a national target of 20% energy intensity improvement during the 12th FYP; the official target is determined by the National Development and Reform Commission. Energy and GDP projections used in the allocations were compared with other models, and several allocation scenarios were run to test sensitivity. The resulting allocations for the 12th FYP offer insight on past performance and offer somewhat different distributions of provincial targets compared to the 11th FYP. Recommendations for reporting

  10. Deputy Secretary Poneman to Travel to Russia | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Washington, D.C. - On Monday, December 6, U.S. Deputy Secretary of Energy Daniel Poneman will travel to Russia as part of the ongoing cooperation between the two countries on ...

  11. Final Technical Report, 30 SEPTEMBER 2002 - 31 JANUARY 2006; ENERGY PARTIONING FOR SEISMIC EVENTS IN FENNOSCANDIA AND NW RUSSIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bungum, H.; Kvaerna, T.; Larsen, S.

    2006-01-31

    In this project we have addressed the problem of energy partitioning at distances ranging from very local to regional for various kinds of seismic sources. On the local and regional scale (20-220 km) we have targeted events from the region offshore Western Norway where we have both natural earthquake activity as well as frequent occurrence of underwater explosions carried out by the Norwegian Navy. On the small scale we have focused on analysis of observations from an in-mine network of 16-18 sensors in the Pyhasalmi mine in central Finland. This analysis has been supplemented with 3-D finite difference wave propagation simulations in a realistic mine model to investigate the physical mechanisms that partition seismic energy in the near source region in and around the underground mine. The results from modeling and analysis of local and regional data show that mean S/P amplitude ratios for explosions and natural events differ at individual stations and are in general higher for natural events and frequency bands above 3 Hz. However, the distributions of S/P ratios for explosions and natural events overlap in all analyzed frequency bands. Thus, for individual events in our study area, S/P amplitude ratios can only assist the discrimination between an explosion or a natural event. This observation is supported by synthetic seismograms calculated for simple 1-D models which demonstrate that explosions also generate shear-wave energy if they are fired close to an interface with a strong material contrast (as is the case for most explosions), e.g., free surface or the ocean bottom. The larger difference in S/P ratios between earthquakes and explosions for higher frequencies can be explained by the fact that at low frequencies (larger wavelengths), discontinuities and structural heterogeneities in the explosion source region are stronger generators of converted S energy. The S*-phase, for example, is most efficiently generated whenever an explosion source is located

  12. Industrial Technologies Program Research Plan for Energy-Intensive Process Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapas, Richard B.; Colwell, Jeffery A.

    2007-10-01

    In this plan, the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) identifies the objectives of its cross-cutting strategy for conducting research in collaboration with industry and U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories to develop technologies that improve the efficiencies of energy-intensive process industries.

  13. Derivation of Building Energy Use Intensity Targets for ASHRAE Standard 100

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, Terry R

    2014-06-01

    The steps to develop the building energy use intensity targets for American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 100, Energy Efficiency in Existing Buildings are outlined in this report. The analyses were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with the ASHRAE Standard 100 committee and Dr. Alexander Zhivov, the subcommittee chair responsible for targets development.

  14. A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Aden, Nathaniel; Chunxia, Zhang; Xiuping, Li; Fangqin, Shangguan

    2011-06-15

    Production of iron and steel is an energy-intensive manufacturing process. In 2006, the iron and steel industry accounted for 13.6% and 1.4% of primary energy consumption in China and the U.S., respectively (U.S. DOE/EIA, 2010a; Zhang et al., 2010). The energy efficiency of steel production has a direct impact on overall energy consumption and related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The goal of this study is to develop a methodology for making an accurate comparison of the energy intensity (energy use per unit of steel produced) of steel production. The methodology is applied to the steel industry in China and the U.S. The methodology addresses issues related to boundary definitions, conversion factors, and indicators in order to develop a common framework for comparing steel industry energy use. This study uses a bottom-up, physical-based method to compare the energy intensity of China and U.S. crude steel production in 2006. This year was chosen in order to maximize the availability of comparable steel-sector data. However, data published in China and the U.S. are not always consistent in terms of analytical scope, conversion factors, and information on adoption of energy-saving technologies. This study is primarily based on published annual data from the China Iron & Steel Association and National Bureau of Statistics in China and the Energy Information Agency in the U.S. This report found that the energy intensity of steel production is lower in the United States than China primarily due to structural differences in the steel industry in these two countries. In order to understand the differences in energy intensity of steel production in both countries, this report identified key determinants of sector energy use in both countries. Five determinants analyzed in this report include: share of electric arc furnaces in total steel production, sector penetration of energy-efficiency technologies, scale of production equipment, fuel shares in the iron and steel

  15. China and Russia to Join the Generation IV International Forum | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy China and Russia to Join the Generation IV International Forum China and Russia to Join the Generation IV International Forum July 13, 2006 - 3:03pm Addthis International Scope of Nuclear Nations Pursuing Advanced Reactors Broadens WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy Dennis Spurgeon today announced that China and Russia are expected to join the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), a group of the world's leading nuclear nations who

  16. In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kugel, Henry W.; Kaita, Robert

    1987-01-01

    An arrangement is provided for the in-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams. The beam is directed onto a target surface of known composition, such that Rutherford backscattering of the beam occurs. The yield-energy characteristic response of the beam to backscattering from the target is analyzed using Rutherford backscattering techniques to determine the yields of energy species components of the beam.

  17. In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kugel, Henry W.; Kaita, Robert

    1987-03-03

    An arrangement is provided for the in-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams. The beam is directed onto a target surface of known composition, such that Rutherford backscattering of the beam occurs. The yield-energy characteristic response of the beam to backscattering from the target is analyzed using Rutherford backscattering techniques to determine the yields of energy species components of the beam.

  18. Comparison of International Energy Intensities across the G7 and other parts of Europe, including Ukraine

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Comparison of International Energy Intensities across the G7 and other parts of Europe, including Ukraine Elizabeth Sendich November 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Energy Information Administration Washington, DC 20585 This paper is released to encourage discussion and critical comment. The analysis and conclusions expressed here are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Energy Information Administration. WORKING PAPER SERIES November 2014

  19. Variations in embodied energy and carbon emission intensities of construction materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan Omar, Wan-Mohd-Sabki; Doh, Jeung-Hwan; Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak

    2014-11-15

    Identification of parameter variation allows us to conduct more detailed life cycle assessment (LCA) of energy and carbon emission material over their lifecycle. Previous research studies have demonstrated that hybrid LCA (HLCA) can generally overcome the problems of incompleteness and accuracy of embodied energy (EE) and carbon (EC) emission assessment. Unfortunately, the current interpretation and quantification procedure has not been extensively and empirically studied in a qualitative manner, especially in hybridising between the process LCA and I-O LCA. To determine this weakness, this study empirically demonstrates the changes in EE and EC intensities caused by variations to key parameters in material production. Using Australia and Malaysia as a case study, the results are compared with previous hybrid models to identify key parameters and issues. The parameters considered in this study are technological changes, energy tariffs, primary energy factors, disaggregation constant, emission factors, and material price fluctuation. It was found that changes in technological efficiency, energy tariffs and material prices caused significant variations in the model. Finally, the comparison of hybrid models revealed that non-energy intensive materials greatly influence the variations due to high indirect energy and carbon emission in upstream boundary of material production, and as such, any decision related to these materials should be considered carefully. - Highlights: • We investigate the EE and EC intensity variation in Australia and Malaysia. • The influences of parameter variations on hybrid LCA model were evaluated. • Key significant contribution to the EE and EC intensity variation were identified. • High indirect EE and EC content caused significant variation in hybrid LCA models. • Non-energy intensive material caused variation between hybrid LCA models.

  20. SEP Success Story: Energy Department Funding Helping Energy-Intensive Dairy Industry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With help from the State Energy Program, eight dairies in Colorado received a free energy audit and energy saving recommendations through the Colorado Dairy and Irrigation Efficiency Pilot.

  1. Novel high-energy physics studies using intense lasers and plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leemans, Wim P.; Bulanov, Stepan; Esarey, Eric; Schroeder, Carl

    2015-06-29

    In the framework of the project “Novel high-energy physics studies using intense lasers and plasmas” we conducted the study of ion acceleration and “flying mirrors” with high intensity lasers in order to develop sources of ion beams and high frequency radiation for different applications. Since some schemes of laser ion acceleration are also considered a good source of “flying mirrors”, we proposed to investigate the mechanisms of “mirror” formation. As a result we were able to study the laser ion acceleration from thin foils and near critical density targets. We identified several fundamental factors limiting the acceleration in the RPA regime and proposed the target design to compensate these limitations. In the case of near critical density targets, we developed a concept for the laser driven ion source for the hadron therapy. Also we studied the mechanism of “flying mirror” generation during the intense laser interaction with thin solid density targets. As for the laser-based positron creation and capture we initially proposed to study different regimes of positron beam generation and positron beam cooling. Since the for some of these schemes a good quality electron beam is required, we studied the generation of ultra-low emittance electron beams. In order to understand the fundamental physics of high energy electron beam interaction with high intensity laser pulses, which may affect the efficient generation of positron beams, we studied the radiation reaction effects.

  2. A Comprehensive System of Energy Intensity Indicators for the U.S.: Methods, Data and Key Trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belzer, David B.

    2014-08-31

    This report describes a comprehensive system of energy intensity indicators for the United States that has been developed for the Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) over the past decade. This system of indicators is hierarchical in nature, beginning with detailed indexes of energy intensity for various sectors of the economy, which are ultimately aggregated to an overall energy intensity index for the economy as a whole. The aggregation of energy intensity indexes to higher levels in the hierarchy is performed with a version of the Log Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method. Based upon the data and methods in the system of indicators, the economy-wide energy intensity index shows a decline of about 14% in 2010 relative to a 1985 base year. Discussion of energy intensity indicators for each of the broad end-use sectors of the economy—residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation—is presented in the report. An analysis of recent changes in the efficiency of electricity generation in the U.S. is also included. A detailed appendix describes the data sources and methodology behind the energy intensity indicators for each sector.

  3. Oil and Gas Resources of the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    Provides an assessment of the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The report was prepared in cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is part of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP).

  4. NNSA Celebrates 10 Years of Cooperation with Russia in Securing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Celebrates 10 Years of Cooperation with Russia in Securing Nuclear Material NNSA Celebrates 10 Years of Cooperation with Russia in Securing Nuclear Material Moscow, Russia The ...

  5. Intensity scaling of hot electron energy coupling in cone-guided fast ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrisman, B.; Sentoku, Y.; Kemp, A. J.

    2008-05-15

    A critical issue for the fast ignition of inertial fusion targets, where compressed fuel is ignited by injection of an intense short laser pulse, is whether the hot electrons produced in the interaction are in an energy range conducive to efficient heating of the core. This work presents the first comprehensive two-dimensional kinetic simulation of the cone-guided approach to fast ignition. Simulation results predict the hot electron temperature to be much lower than previously expected, which indicates the possibility of using them for optimum core heating. Furthermore, the roles of collisional versus kinetic processes for transport and heating mechanisms of the core plasmas are clarified. The core heating efficiency scales linearly with intensity at ranges of 10{sup 19}-10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}, but falls below this range due to deflection of hot electrons in strong magnetic filaments behind the cone target.

  6. HOT ELECTRON ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS FROM ULTRA-INTENSE LASER SOLID INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H; Wilks, S C; Kruer, W; Patel, P; Shepherd, R

    2008-10-08

    Measurements of electron energy distributions from ultra-intense (>10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) laser-solid interactions using an electron spectrometer are presented. These measurements were performed on the Vulcan petawatt laser at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the Callisto laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The effective hot electron temperatures (T{sub hot}) have been measured for laser intensities (I{lambda}{sup 2}) from 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} {micro}m{sup 2} to 10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2} {micro}m{sup 2} for the first time, and T{sub hot} is found to increase as (I{lambda}{sup 2}){sup 0.34} {+-} 0.4. This scaling agrees well with the empirical scaling published by Beg et al. (1997), and is explained by a simple physical model that gives good agreement with experimental results and particle-in-cell simulations.

  7. A Note on the Fisher Ideal Index Decomposition for Structural Change in Energy Intensity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Gale A.; Roop, Joseph M.

    2004-01-01

    By direct appeal to the theory underlying price index numbers used by the energy decomposition literature, this note proposed the chain weighted Fisher Ideal Index as a formula that solves the ''residual problem;'' i.e., the decomposition is not complete in the sense that the components do not add to the whole. The connection to index number theory also allows us to illustrate that the measures of activity used to define energy intensity need not be additive across the sectors that are involved in the decomposition. We give an empirical example using recent U. S. manufacturing data of the Fisher Ideal Index, compared to the Tornquist Divisia Index, a popular index in the energy literature.

  8. Enhancing the energy of terahertz radiation from plasma produced by intense femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jahangiri, Fazel; Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran ; Hashida, Masaki; Tokita, Shigeki; Sakabe, Shuji; Department of Physics, GSS, Kyoto University, Kyoto ; Nagashima, Takeshi; Hangyo, Masanori; Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka

    2013-05-13

    Terahertz (THz) radiation from atomic clusters illuminated by intense femtosecond laser pulses is investigated. By studying the angular distribution, polarization properties and energy dependence of THz waves, we aim to obtain a proper understanding of the mechanism of THz generation. The properties of THz waves measured in this study differ from those predicted by previously proposed mechanisms. To interpret these properties qualitatively, we propose that the radiation is generated by time-varying quadrupoles, which are produced by the ponderomotive force of the laser pulse.

  9. Liquid lithium target as a high intensity, high energy neutron source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parkin, Don M.; Dudey, Norman D.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a target jet for charged particles. In one embodiment the charged particles are high energy deuterons that bombard the target jet to produce high intensity, high energy neutrons. To this end, deuterons in a vacuum container bombard an endlessly circulating, free-falling, sheet-shaped, copiously flowing, liquid lithium jet that gushes by gravity from a rectangular cross-section vent on the inside of the container means to form a moving web in contact with the inside wall of the vacuum container. The neutrons are produced via break-up of the beam in the target by stripping, spallation and compound nuclear reactions in which the projectiles (deuterons) interact with the target (Li) to produce excited nuclei, which then "boil off" or evaporate a neutron.

  10. Secretary Bodman and Rosatom Director Kiriyenko Meet to Discuss U.S.-Russia

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nuclear Security Progress | Department of Energy Rosatom Director Kiriyenko Meet to Discuss U.S.-Russia Nuclear Security Progress Secretary Bodman and Rosatom Director Kiriyenko Meet to Discuss U.S.-Russia Nuclear Security Progress February 1, 2008 - 11:13am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman and Russian Federal Atomic Energy Agency (Rosatom) Director Sergey Kiriyenko today met to highlight U.S.-Russian efforts to keep nuclear weapons and weapons material out

  11. U.S. and Russia Cooperation Continues on Nuclear Security | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy and Russia Cooperation Continues on Nuclear Security U.S. and Russia Cooperation Continues on Nuclear Security June 28, 2007 - 2:08pm Addthis Newly Signed Fifth Bratislava Report Highlights Most Recent Advances in Nuclear Security and Nonproliferation WASHINGTON, D.C. - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman and Russian Federal Atomic Energy Agency (Rosatom) Director Sergey Kiriyenko today submitted to Presidents Bush and Putin the fifth report on nuclear security cooperation

  12. DOE Announces U.S.-Russia Fourth Report on Bratislava Agreement |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy U.S.-Russia Fourth Report on Bratislava Agreement DOE Announces U.S.-Russia Fourth Report on Bratislava Agreement January 12, 2007 - 9:59am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Samuel Bodman announced today that he and Russian Federal Atomic Energy Agency Director Sergey Kiriyenko have submitted to Presidents Bush and Putin the fourth report of the Senior Interagency Working Group on implementation of the February 2005 Bratislava Checklist.

  13. Nationwide Buildings Energy Research enabled through an integrated Data Intensive Scientific Workflow and Advanced Analysis Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Lansing, Carina S.; Elsethagen, Todd O.; Hathaway, John E.; Guillen, Zoe C.; Dirks, James A.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Stephan, Eric G.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Gorton, Ian; Liu, Yan

    2014-01-28

    Modern workflow systems enable scientists to run ensemble simulations at unprecedented scales and levels of complexity, allowing them to study system sizes previously impossible to achieve, due to the inherent resource requirements needed for the modeling work. However as a result of these new capabilities the science teams suddenly also face unprecedented data volumes that they are unable to analyze with their existing tools and methodologies in a timely fashion. In this paper we will describe the ongoing development work to create an integrated data intensive scientific workflow and analysis environment that offers researchers the ability to easily create and execute complex simulation studies and provides them with different scalable methods to analyze the resulting data volumes. The integration of simulation and analysis environments is hereby not only a question of ease of use, but supports fundamental functions in the correlated analysis of simulation input, execution details and derived results for multi-variant, complex studies. To this end the team extended and integrated the existing capabilities of the Velo data management and analysis infrastructure, the MeDICi data intensive workflow system and RHIPE the R for Hadoop version of the well-known statistics package, as well as developing a new visual analytics interface for the result exploitation by multi-domain users. The capabilities of the new environment are demonstrated on a use case that focusses on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) building energy team, showing how they were able to take their previously local scale simulations to a nationwide level by utilizing data intensive computing techniques not only for their modeling work, but also for the subsequent analysis of their modeling results. As part of the PNNL research initiative PRIMA (Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis) the team performed an initial 3 year study of building energy demands for the US Eastern

  14. Life Cycle Energy and Environmental Assessment of Aluminum-Intensive Vehicle Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Sujit

    2014-01-01

    Advanced lightweight materials are increasingly being incorporated into new vehicle designs by automakers to enhance performance and assist in complying with increasing requirements of corporate average fuel economy standards. To assess the primary energy and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) implications of vehicle designs utilizing these materials, this study examines the potential life cycle impacts of two lightweight material alternative vehicle designs, i.e., steel and aluminum of a typical passenger vehicle operated today in North America. LCA for three common alternative lightweight vehicle designs are evaluated: current production ( Baseline ), an advanced high strength steel and aluminum design ( LWSV ), and an aluminum-intensive design (AIV). This study focuses on body-in-white and closures since these are the largest automotive systems by weight accounting for approximately 40% of total curb weight of a typical passenger vehicle. Secondary mass savings resulting from body lightweighting are considered for the vehicles engine, driveline and suspension. A cradle-to-cradle life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for these three vehicle material alternatives. LCA methodology for this study included material production, mill semi-fabrication, vehicle use phase operation, and end-of-life recycling. This study followed international standards ISO 14040:2006 [1] and ISO 14044:2006 [2], consistent with the automotive LCA guidance document currently being developed [3]. Vehicle use phase mass reduction was found to account for over 90% of total vehicle life cycle energy and CO2e emissions. The AIV design achieved mass reduction of 25% (versus baseline) resulting in reductions in total life cycle primary energy consumption by 20% and CO2e emissions by 17%. Overall, the AIV design showed the best breakeven vehicle mileage from both primary energy consumption and climate change perspectives.

  15. Economic Study of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage and Reprocessing Practices in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. E. Singer; G. H. Miley

    1997-10-01

    This report describes a study of nuclear power economics in Russia. It addresses political and institutional background factors which constrain Russia's energy choices in the short and intermediate run. In the approach developed here, political and institutional factors might dominate short-term decisions, but the comparative costs of Russia's fuel-cycle options are likely to constrain her long-term energy strategy. To this end, the authors have also formulated a set of policy questions which should be addressed using a quantitative decision modeling which analyzes economic costs for all major components of different fuel cycle options, including the evolution of uranium prices.

  16. U.S. and Russia Reaffirm Commitment to Disposing of Weapon-Grade...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    U.S. and Russia Reaffirm Commitment to Disposing of Weapon-Grade Plutonium July 13, 2006 - 3:05pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman and Sergey ...

  17. United States-Russia Joint Statement on the Results of the Nuclear...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Group meeting that took place on December 6-7, 2010. The Working Group meeting strengthened cooperation between the U.S. and Russia on civil nuclear energy and nuclear security. ...

  18. Method and apparatus for measuring the momentum, energy, power, and power density profile of intense particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gammel, George M.; Kugel, Henry W.

    1992-10-06

    A method and apparatus for determining the power, momentum, energy, and power density profile of high momentum mass flow. Small probe projectiles of appropriate size, shape and composition are propelled through an intense particle beam at equal intervals along an axis perpendicular to the beam direction. Probe projectiles are deflected by collisions with beam particles. The net beam-induced deflection of each projectile is measured after it passes through the intense particle beam into an array of suitable detectors.

  19. The Importance of Natural Gas in the Industrial Sector With a Focus on Energy-Intensive Industries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Importance of Natural Gas in the Industrial Sector With a Focus on Energy-Intensive Industries Elizabeth Sendich February 28, 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Energy Information Administration Washington, DC 20585 This paper is released to encourage discussion and critical comment. The analysis and conclusions expressed here are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Energy Information Administration. WORKING PAPER SERIES February 2014 Elizabeth

  20. Mutnovskaya Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    References Geothermal Resources in Russia Benjamin Matek. Geo-energy Internet. Geothermal Energy Association. updated 20150428;cited 20150428. Available from:...

  1. U.S and Russia Develop Action Plan to Enhance Global and Bilateral Nuclear

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Cooperation | Department of Energy S and Russia Develop Action Plan to Enhance Global and Bilateral Nuclear Energy Cooperation U.S and Russia Develop Action Plan to Enhance Global and Bilateral Nuclear Energy Cooperation December 19, 2006 - 9:46am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman and Russian Federal Atomic Energy Agency (Rosatom) Director Sergey V. Kiriyenko last week submitted to U.S. President George W. Bush and Russian President Vladimir Putin a

  2. Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Russia Jump to: navigation, search Name Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia AgencyCompany Organization European Bank for Reconstruction and...

  3. All of Russia's Border Crossings to be Outfitted with Proliferation...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    All of Russia's Border Crossings to be Outfitted with Proliferation Prevention Equipmen June 01, 2007 All of Russia's Border Crossings to be Outfitted with Proliferation Prevention ...

  4. russia

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    into fuel rods, and ultimately delivered to commercial customers for use in U.S. nuclear power reactors. 

    Learn more about these efforts at

  5. Rus Energy Investment Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rus Energy Investment Group Place: Moscow, Russian Federation Product: Russia-based clean energy project developer registered in Hong Kong. Coordinates: 55.75695, 37.614975...

  6. Energy Market and Economic Impacts Proposal to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Intensity with a Cap and Trade System

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), in response to a September 27, 2006, request from Senators Bingaman, Landrieu, Murkowski, Specter, Salazar, and Lugar. The Senators requested that EIA assess the impacts of a proposal that would regulate emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) through an allowance cap-and-trade system. The program would set the cap to achieve a reduction in emissions relative to economic output, or greenhouse gas intensity.

  7. Demonstration of a PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John C. Trocciola; Thomas N. Pompa; Linda S. Boyd

    2004-09-01

    This project involved the installation of a 200kW PC25C{trademark} phosphoric-acid fuel cell power plant at Orgenergogaz, a Gazprom industrial site in Russia. In April 1997, a PC25C{trademark} was sold by ONSI Corporation to Orgenergogaz, a subsidiary of the Russian company ''Gazprom''. Due to instabilities in the Russian financial markets, at that time, the unit was never installed and started by Orgenergogaz. In October of 2001 International Fuel Cells (IFC), now known as UTC Fuel Cells (UTCFC), received a financial assistance award from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entitled ''Demonstration of PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia''. Three major tasks were part of this award: the inspection of the proposed site and system, start-up assistance, and installation and operation of the powerplant.

  8. Nuclear weapons and NATO-Russia relations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cornwell, G.C.

    1998-12-01

    Despite the development of positive institutional arrangements such as Russian participation in the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and the NATO- Russia Permanent Joint Council, the strategic culture of Russia has not changed in any fundamental sense. Russian strategic culture has not evolved in ways that would make Russian policies compatible with those of NATO countries in the necessary economic, social, technological, and military spheres. On the domestic side, Russia has yet to establish a stable democracy and the necessary legal, judicial, and regulatory institutions for a free-market economy. Russia evidently lacks the necessary cultural traditions, including concepts of accountability and transparency, to make these adaptations in the short-term. Owing in part to its institutional shortcomings, severe socioeconomic setbacks have afflicted Russia. Russian conventional military strength has been weakened, and a concomitant reliance by the Russians on nuclear weapons as their ultimate line of defense has increased. The breakdown in the infrastructure that supports Russian early warning and surveillance systems and nuclear weapons stewardship defense, coupled with a tendency towards has exacerbated Russian anxiety and distrust toward NATO. Russia`s reliance on nuclear weapons as the ultimate line of defense, coupled with a tendency toward suspicion and distrust toward NATO, could lead to dangerous strategic miscalculation and nuclear catastrophe.

  9. U.S. and Russia Sign Plan for Russian Plutonium Disposition | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Sign Plan for Russian Plutonium Disposition U.S. and Russia Sign Plan for Russian Plutonium Disposition November 19, 2007 - 4:31pm Addthis Will Eliminate Enough Russian Plutonium for Thousands of Nuclear Weapons WASHINGTON, DC -U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman and Russian Federal Atomic Energy Agency Director Sergey Kiriyenko have signed a joint statement outlining a plan to dispose of 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium from Russia's weapons program. Under the new plan, the

  10. Electrons in a relativistic-intensity laser field: generation of zeptosecond electromagnetic pulses and energy spectrum of the accelerated electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreev, A A; Galkin, A L; Kalashnikov, M P; Korobkin, V V; Romanovsky, Mikhail Yu; Shiryaev, O B

    2011-08-31

    We study the motion of an electron and emission of electromagnetic waves by an electron in the field of a relativistically intense laser pulse. The dynamics of the electron is described by the Newton equation with the Lorentz force in the right-hand side. It is shown that the electrons may be ejected from the interaction region with high energy. The energy spectrum of these electrons and the technique of using the spectrum to assess the maximal intensity in the focus are analysed. It is found that electromagnetic radiation of an electron moving in an intense laser field occurs within a small angle around the direction of the electron trajectory tangent. The tangent quickly changes its direction in space; therefore, electromagnetic radiation of the electron in the far-field zone in a certain direction in the vicinity of the tangent is a short pulse with a duration as short as zeptoseconds. The calculation of the temporary and spectral distribution of the radiation field is carried out. (superintense laser fields)

  11. Russia vows to end oil export tax

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-27

    This paper reports that Russia will eliminate its oil export tax by 1994 and until then will allow some exemptions, Russian officials have assured a group of US tax specialists. They stopped short of saying it would be repealed by the end of the year, the Ken Crawford, a member of a Tax Foundation delegation visiting Russia and managing partner of KPMG Peat Marwick's Moscow office. The export tax was one of several tax related Russian economic issues on which the US experts and Russian officials exchanged views early this month. The 15 member delegation was in Moscow on invitation from Russia's Ministry of Finance and State Committee on Taxation to help develop guidelines for laws governing Russia's taxation of foreign investment. The US group was sponsored by the Tax Foundation, Washington, DC, a nonprofit, nonpartisan tax and fiscal policy research and public education group.

  12. Energy Intensity Indicators: Electricity Generation Energy Intensity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    As shown in the figure, in 1950, central power plants producing only electricity required ... decade the overall performance of the plants in this sector has steadily improved and ...

  13. Hot electron energy coupling in ultra-intense laser matter interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, A J; Sentoku, Y; Tabak, M

    2008-04-15

    We investigate the hydrodynamic response of plasma gradients during the interaction with ultra-intense energetic laser pulses, using one-dimensional kinetic particle simulations. As energetic laser pulses are capable of compressing the preformed plasma over short times, the coupling efficiency as well as the temperature of hot electrons drop, leading to localized heating near the point of absorption. We describe the cause of this drop, explain the electron spectra and identify the parametric region where strong compression occurs. Finally, we discuss implications for fast ignition and other applications.

  14. Estimating energy intensity and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potentials in the manufacturing sectors in Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wangskarn, P.; Khummongkol, P.; Schrattenholzer, L.

    1996-12-31

    The final energy consumption in Thailand increased at about ten percent annually within the last 10 years. To slow the energy demand growth rate while maintaining the country`s economic advance and environmental sustainability, the Energy Conservation Promotion Act (ECPA) was adopted in 1992. With this Act, a comprehensive Energy Conservation Program (ENCON) was initiated. ENCON commits the government to promoting energy conservation, to developing appropriate regulations, and to providing financial and organizational resources for program implementation. Due to this existing ENCON program a great benefit is expected not only to reducing energy consumption, but also to decreasing GHGs emissions substantially. This study is a part of the ENCON research program which was supported by the German Federal Government under the program called Prompt-Start Measures to Implement the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The basic activities carried out during the project included (1) An assessment of Thailand`s total and specific energy consumption in the industrial sectors and commercial buildings; (2) Identification of existing and candidate technologies for GHG emission reduction and energy efficiency improvements in specific factories and commercial buildings; and (3) Identification of individual factories and commercial buildings as candidates for detailed further study. Although the energy assessment had been carried out for the commercial buildings also, this paper will cover only the work on the manufacturing sector. On the basis of these steps, 14 factories were visited by the project team and preliminary energy audits were performed. As a result, concrete measures and investments were proposed and classified into two groups according to their economic characteristics. Those investments with a payback time of less than four years were considered together in a Moderate scenario, and those with longer payback times in an Intensive scenario.

  15. In-situ determination of energy species yields of intense particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kugel, H.W.; Kaita, R.

    1983-09-26

    Objects of the present invention are provided for a particle beam having a full energy component at least as great as 25 keV, which is directed onto a beamstop target, such that Rutherford backscattering, preferably near-surface backscattering occurs. The geometry, material composition and impurity concentration of the beam stop are predetermined, using any suitable conventional technique. The energy-yield characteristic response of backscattered particles is measured over a range of angles using a fast ion electrostatic analyzer having a microchannel plate array at its focal plane. The knee of the resulting yield curve, on a plot of yield versus energy, is analyzed to determine the energy species components of various beam particles having the same mass.

  16. Experimental study of magnetically confined hollow electron beams in the Tevatron as collimators for intense high-energy hadron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stancari, G.; Annala, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Still, D.; Valishev, A.; Vorobiev, L.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Magnetically confined hollow electron beams for controlled halo removal in high-energy colliders such as the Tevatron or the LHC may extend traditional collimation systems beyond the intensity limits imposed by tolerable losses. They may also improve collimation performance by suppressing loss spikes due to beam jitter and by increasing capture efficiency. A hollow electron gun was designed and tested at Fermilab for this purpose. It was installed in one of the Tevatron electron lenses in the summer of 2010. We present the results of the first experimental tests of the hollow-beam collimation concept on 980-GeV antiproton bunches in the Tevatron.

  17. Sherwin-Williams’ Richmond, Kentucky, Facility Achieves 26% Energy Intensity Reduction; Leads to Corporate Adoption of Save Energy Now LEADER

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study summarizes energy efficiency achievements made by Sherwin-Williams' Richmond, Kentucky, manufacturing facility under the Save Energy Now LEADER program, now known as the Better Plants Program. This includes a variety of steam system and compressed air technology improvements.

  18. U.S. And Russia Complete Nuclear Security Upgrades Under Bratislava

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Initiative | Department of Energy And Russia Complete Nuclear Security Upgrades Under Bratislava Initiative U.S. And Russia Complete Nuclear Security Upgrades Under Bratislava Initiative December 23, 2008 - 9:18am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC -The U.S. Department of Energy today delivered the Bratislava Nuclear Security report to the White House, which detailed the status of work agreed to by Presidents Bush and Putin in Bratislava in 2005. U.S. and Russian officials from the U.S. Department of

  19. Replacement of chemical intensive water treatment processes with energy saving membrane. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickley, M.C.; Goering, S.W.

    1983-11-01

    The project investigated the use of charged ultrafiltration membranes to treat hard water. More specifically, the work was undertaken to (1) make charged ultrafiltration membranes to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the chemical grafting approach; (2) evaluate the market potential for charged ultrafiltration membranes; and (3) evaluate the cost and energy savings for using charged ultrafiltration as compared to lime-based clarification and other treatment methods. The results suggest that chemical grafting is a relatively simple, reproducible and low-cost way to modify existing substrate materials to give them enhanced transport performance. Process studies lead to the identification of good market potential for membrane processes using charged ultrafiltration membranes. Capital and operating costs relative to lime-based clarification are favorable for low- and medium-sized treatment plants. Finally, substantial energy savings are apparent as compared to lime-based precipitation systems which incur substantial energy consumption in the lime production and transportation steps.

  20. Why Russia is not a state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, J.E.

    1993-08-16

    This article makes two principal points. First the author argues that the Russian federation has never been a state and is not sustainable as a state. Four centrifugal indicators are presented to support this claim: ethnic divisiveness; uncertainty about the legitimacy of Russia`s current borders; competing claims for legitimacy on the part of federal and regional leaders; and army units` unpredictable allegiances. Second, she argues that Soviet policies intended to facilitate central control of the periphery had the perverse effect of creating ethnic identity and demands for national autonomy where, in many cases, they did not exist prior to the Communist regime. Following the introduction, part one briefly reviews the concepts of state, nation, and nationalism and the roles they play in Russia. Criteria for state-hood are discussed. Part two lists the main ethnic groups in Russia and considers the roots of ethnic nationalism in the Russian Federation. Part three discusses confusion over the legitimacy of the physical, economic, and political boundaries of the Russian Federation. Part four discusses political disarray in the center and the regions and the lack of unity among order-enforcing entities. The Volga-Ural region -- where there is a large concentration of nuclear weapons and facilities, and which is especially volatile politically -- is discussed in somewhat more detail. Part five argues that these factors taken together call into question Russia`s identity as a state. The author concludes that Russia remains a multi-ethnic empire in which the rule of law is still not supreme.

  1. Laser sustained discharge nozzle apparatus for the production of an intense beam of high kinetic energy atomic species

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cross, Jon B.; Cremers, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Laser sustained discharge apparatus for the production of intense beams of high kinetic energy atomic species. A portion of the plasma resulting from a laser sustained continuous optical discharge which generates energetic atomic species from a gaseous source thereof is expanded through a nozzle into a region of low pressure. The expanded plasma contains a significant concentration of the high kinetic energy atomic species which may be used to investigate the interaction of surfaces therewith. In particular, O-atoms having velocities in excess of 3.5 km/s can be generated for the purpose of studying their interaction with materials in order to develop protective materials for spacecraft which are exposed to such energetic O-atoms during operation in low earth orbit.

  2. Laser sustained discharge nozzle apparatus for the production of an intense beam of high kinetic energy atomic species

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cross, J.B.; Cremers, D.A.

    1986-01-10

    Laser sustained discharge apparatus for the production of intense beams of high kinetic energy atomic species is described. A portion of the plasma resulting from a laser sustained continuous optical discharge which generates energetic atomic species from a gaseous source thereof is expanded through a nozzle into a region of low pressure. The expanded plasma contains a significant concentration of the high kinetic energy atomic species which may be used to investigate the interaction of surfaces therewith. In particular, O-atoms having velocities in excess of 3.5 km/s can be generated for the purpose of studying their interaction with materials in order to develop protective materials for spacecraft which are exposed to such energetic O-atoms during operation in low earth orbit.

  3. Energy Use Intensity and its Influence on the Integrated Daylighting Design of a Large Net Zero Energy Building: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guglielmetti , R.; Scheib, J.; Pless, S. D.; Torcellini , P.; Petro, R.

    2011-03-01

    Net-zero energy buildings generate as much energy as they consume and are significant in the sustainable future of building design and construction. The role of daylighting (and its simulation) in the design process becomes critical. In this paper we present the process the National Renewable Energy Laboratory embarked on in the procurement, design, and construction of its newest building, the Research Support Facility (RSF) - particularly the roles of daylighting, electric lighting, and simulation. With a rapid construction schedule, the procurement, design, and construction had to be tightly integrated; with low energy use. We outline the process and measures required to manage a building design that could expect to operate at an efficiency previously unheard of for a building of this type, size, and density. Rigorous simulation of the daylighting and the electric lighting control response was a given, but the oft-ignored disconnect between lighting simulation and whole-building energy use simulation had to be addressed. The RSF project will be thoroughly evaluated for its performance for one year; preliminary data from the postoccupancy monitoring efforts will also be presented with an eye toward the current efficacy of building energy and lighting simulation.

  4. ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass-Fired Boilers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass-Fired Boilers Reducing Superheater Corrosion to Enable Maximum Energy Effi ciency This project will develop materials and coatings to reduce corrosion and improve the life span of boiler superheater tubes exposed to high-temperature biomass exhaust. This improvement in boiler ef ciency will reduce fuel consumption, fuel cost, and CO 2 emissions. Introduction Industrial boilers are commonly used to make process steam, provide

  5. Risk reduction projects in Russia, Ukraine, and eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guppy, J.G.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Reisman, A.W. ); Spencer, B.W. )

    1993-01-01

    Assistance to Russia, Ukraine, and Central and Eastern Europe countries (CEEC) in the area of nuclear power safety has been undertaken in the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for implementing the nuclear safety portion of this assistance. One aspect of this work is to provide near-term improvement to the safety of VVER and RBMK nuclear power plants (NPPs). This activity has been designated as near-term risk reduction (NTRR). This accident risk reduction effort is being conducted by utilizing teams of experts.

  6. Final project report for the Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FC02-99EE10673 [The successful story of regional implementation of energy performance standards in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, David B.; Chao, Mark; Matrosov, Yurij

    2001-12-01

    This report is the result of the collaborative effort between the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), Institute for Market Transformation (IMT), and the Center for Energy Efficiency (CENEf). The report describes our success in promoting the adoption of the energy efficiency buildings code in 25 regions of the Russian Federation and in developing an energy efficiency buildings design manual.

  7. Characterization of intense ion beam energy density and beam induced pressure on the target with acoustic diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pushkarev, A. I.; Isakova, Yu. I.; Khailov, I. P.; Yu, Xiao

    2013-08-15

    We have developed the acoustic diagnostics based on a piezoelectric transducer for characterization of high-intensity pulsed ion beams. The diagnostics was tested using the TEMP-4M accelerator (150 ns, 250–300 kV). The beam is composed of C{sup +} ions (85%) and protons, the beam energy density is 0.5–5 J/cm{sup 2} (depending on diode geometry). A calibration dependence of the signal from a piezoelectric transducer on the ion beam energy density is obtained using thermal imaging diagnostics. It is shown that the acoustic diagnostics allows for measurement of the beam energy density in the range of 0.1–2 J/cm{sup 2}. The dependence of the beam generated pressure on the input energy density is also determined and compared with the data from literature. The developed acoustic diagnostics do not require sophisticated equipment and can be used for operational control of pulsed ion beam parameters with a repetition rate of 10{sup 3} pulses/s.

  8. Studies on low energy beam transport for high intensity high charged ions at IMP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y. Lu, W.; Fang, X.; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 ; Sun, L. T.; Hu, Q.; Cao, Y.; Feng, Y. C.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.; Xie, D. Z.

    2014-02-15

    Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an advanced fully superconducting ECR ion source at IMP designed to be operational at the microwave frequency of 18–24 GHz. The existing SECRAL beam transmission line is composed of a solenoid lens and a 110° analyzing magnet. Simulations of particle tracking with 3D space charge effect and realistic 3D magnetic fields through the line were performed using particle-in-cell code. The results of the beam dynamics show that such a low energy beam is very sensitive to the space charge effect and significantly suffers from the second-order aberration of the analyzing magnet resulting in large emittance. However, the second-order aberration could be reduced by adding compensating sextupole components in the beam line. On this basis, a new 110° analyzing magnet with relatively larger acceptance and smaller aberration is designed and will be used in the design of low energy beam transport line for a new superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL-II. The features of the analyzer and the corresponding beam trajectory calculation will be detailed and discussed in this paper.

  9. U.S. and Russia Sign Plutonium Disposition Agreement | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home About Us Our History NNSA Timeline U.S. and Russia Sign Plutonium Disposition Agreement U.S. and Russia Sign Plutonium...

  10. Nuclear safety assistance to Russia, Ukraine, and Eastern Europe. Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, October 28, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The hearing addresses United States nuclear safety assistance to Russia, Ukraine and the nations of eastern europe operating Soviet-built nuclear powerplants. The primary issue is that Soviet-designed nuclear reactors bore almost no relation to the reactors designed and operated in Western countries. The Soviet reactors were devoid of safety features such as fire protection and containment. The absence of a safety culture and standardized operating procedures were also of great concern. The role and status of assistance by the United States in the future is discussed. Statements of government and industry officials are included, along with documents submitted for the record.

  11. U.S.-Russia Twenty-Year Partnership Completes Final Milestone in Converting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    20,000 Russian Nuclear Warheads into Fuel for U.S. Electricity | Department of Energy Russia Twenty-Year Partnership Completes Final Milestone in Converting 20,000 Russian Nuclear Warheads into Fuel for U.S. Electricity U.S.-Russia Twenty-Year Partnership Completes Final Milestone in Converting 20,000 Russian Nuclear Warheads into Fuel for U.S. Electricity November 14, 2013 - 11:26am Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Public Affairs: (202) 586-7371

  12. Siemens | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Russian energy market through two new partnerships in power grid modernization and natural gas. The partnership with the Federal Grid Company in Russia involves modernizing the...

  13. Multi-layer Lanczos iteration approach to calculations of vibrational energies and dipole transition intensities for polyatomic molecules

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2015-01-28

    We report a rigorous full dimensional quantum dynamics algorithm, the multi-layer Lanczos method, for computing vibrational energies and dipole transition intensities of polyatomic molecules without any dynamics approximation. The multi-layer Lanczos method is developed by using a few advanced techniques including the guided spectral transform Lanczos method, multi-layer Lanczos iteration approach, recursive residue generation method, and dipole-wavefunction contraction. The quantum molecular Hamiltonian at the total angular momentum J = 0 is represented in a set of orthogonal polyspherical coordinates so that the large amplitude motions of vibrations are naturally described. In particular, the algorithm is general and problem-independent. An applicationmore » is illustrated by calculating the infrared vibrational dipole transition spectrum of CH₄ based on the ab initio T8 potential energy surface of Schwenke and Partridge and the low-order truncated ab initio dipole moment surfaces of Yurchenko and co-workers. A comparison with experiments is made. The algorithm is also applicable for Raman polarizability active spectra.« less

  14. G-8 Energy Ministerial | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    G-8 Energy Ministerial G-8 Energy Ministerial March 16, 2006 - 12:28pm Addthis Fact Sheet Overview The G8 Energy Ministerial in Moscow, Russia, is a prelude to the July G8 Summit ...

  15. Material protection, control and accounting cooperation at the Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP), Novouralsk, Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAllister, S., LLNL

    1998-07-15

    The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant is one of the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy`s nuclear material production sites participating in the US Department of Energy`s Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program. The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant is Russia`s largest uranium enrichment facility and blends tons of high-enriched uranium into low enriched uranium each year as part of the US high-enriched uranium purchase. The Electrochemical Integrated Plant and six participating national laboratories are cooperating to implement a series of enhancements to the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability systems at the site This paper outlines the overall objectives of the MPC&A program at Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant and the work completed as of the date of the presentation.

  16. Mendeleevskaya Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Power Engineering In Russia - Today Benjamin Matek. Geo-energy Internet. Geothermal Energy Association. updated 20150428;cited 20150428. Available from:...

  17. Okeanskaya Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Power Engineering In Russia - Today Benjamin Matek. Geo-energy Internet. Geothermal Energy Association. updated 20150428;cited 20150428. Available from:...

  18. Air Shipment of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Romania to Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Lucian Biro; Alexander Buchelnikov

    2010-10-01

    Romania successfully completed the world’s first air shipment of spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without shipment license special exceptions when the last Romanian highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel was transported to the Russian Federation in June 2009. This air shipment required the design, fabrication, and licensing of special 20 foot freight containers and cask tiedown supports to transport the eighteen TUK 19 shipping casks on a Russian commercial cargo aircraft. The new equipment was certified for transport by road, rail, water, and air to provide multi modal transport capabilities for shipping research reactor spent fuel. The equipment design, safety analyses, and fabrication were performed in the Russian Federation and transport licenses were issued by both the Russian and Romanian regulatory authorities. The spent fuel was transported by truck from the VVR S research reactor to the Bucharest airport, flown by commercial cargo aircraft to the airport at Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to the final destination in a secure nuclear facility at Chelyabinsk, Russia. This shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU was coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), in close cooperation with the Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation and the International Atomic Energy Agency, and was managed in Romania by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN). This paper describes the planning, shipment preparations, equipment design, and license approvals that resulted in the safe and secure air shipment of this spent nuclear fuel.

  19. National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Price, Lynn; Zheng, Nina; Ke, Jing; Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2011-10-15

    Since 2006, China has set goals of reducing energy intensity, emissions, and pollutants in multiple guidelines and in the Five Year Plans. Various strategies and measures have then been taken to improve the energy efficiency in all sectors and to reduce pollutants. Since controlling energy, CO{sub 2} emissions, and pollutants falls under the jurisdiction of different government agencies in China, many strategies are being implemented to fulfill only one of these objectives. Co-controls or integrated measures could simultaneously reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and criteria air pollutant emissions. The targets could be met in a more cost effective manner if the integrated measures can be identified and prioritized. This report provides analysis and insights regarding how these targets could be met via co-control measures focusing on both CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} emissions in the cement, iron &steel, and power sectors to 2030 in China. An integrated national energy and emission model was developed in order to establish a baseline scenario that was used to assess the impact of actions already taken by the Chinese government as well as planned and expected actions. In addition, CO{sub 2} mitigation scenarios and SO{sub 2} control scenarios were also established to evaluate the impact of each of the measures and the combined effects. In the power sector, although the end of pipe SO{sub 2} control technology such as flue gas desulfurization (FGD) has the largest reduction potential for SO{sub 2} emissions, other CO{sub 2} control options have important co-benefits in reducing SO{sub 2} emissions of 52.6 Mt of SO{sub 2} accumulatively. Coal efficiency improvements along with hydropower, renewable and nuclear capacity expansion will result in more than half of the SO{sub 2} emission reductions as the SO{sub 2} control technology through 2016. In comparison, the reduction from carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is much less and has negative SO{sub 2} reductions

  20. Solar Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Wind Place: Krasnodar, Romania Zip: 350000 Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Russia-based PV product manufacturer. Solar Wind...

  1. NNSA, Russia Cooperate to Enhance Nuclear Security | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    "The United States and Russia remain committed partners in improving nuclear security and preventing the proliferation of nuclear material around the world," said Anne Harrington, ...

  2. Russia-US Forest Service Climate Change Technical Cooperation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    US Forest Service Climate Change Technical Cooperation Jump to: navigation, search Name Russia-US Forest Service Climate Change Technical Cooperation AgencyCompany Organization...

  3. Russia, Ukraine and European security. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blank, S.J.

    1993-05-20

    The author examines the problems connected with the presence of nuclear weapons in Ukraine and their impact on Russo-Ukrainian relations and European security. He analyzes the fears of both Russia and Ukraine, vis-a-vis each other, that have led to this situation and suggests ways out of the impasse for both states, and particularly for the United States. He examines how the present situation evolved and recommends a solution that contributes in peaceful fashion to all parties' interests.... Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START); Soviet Union/ Russian republic; Ukraine; Conventional and strategic deterrence; NATO; North Atlantic Cooperation Council.

  4. NNSA Partners With Russia to Recover Material That Could Be Used in Dirty

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Bombs | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Partners With Russia to Recover Material That Could Be Used in Dirty Bombs November 07, 2013 WASHINGTON, D.C. - The Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), in partnership with the Russian Federation, has successfully completed the removal of 14 Russian radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) from the Northern Sea Route. These devices, which contain high-activity radioactive sources, powered

  5. Changes in Russia's Military and Nuclear Doctrine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolkov, Benjamin M.; Balatsky, Galya I.

    2012-07-26

    In 1993, the Russian Federation set out a new military doctrine that would determine the direction of its armed forces until President Putin set out the next doctrine in 2000. The Russian Federation creating the doctrine was new; the USSR had recently collapsed, Gorbachev - the creator of the predecessor to this doctrine in 1987 - was out of office, and the new Russian military had only been formed in May, 1992.1 The analysis of the 1993 doctrine is as follows: a definition of how doctrine is defined; a short history of Russian military doctrine leading up to the 1993 doctrine (officially the Basic Provisions of the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation); and finally, what the doctrine established. An overview of the 1993 doctrine is: (1) Russia's 1993 doctrine was a return to older, more aggressive doctrine as a result of stability concerns surrounding the recent collapse of the USSR; (2) Russia turned from Gorbachev's 'defensive defense' in the 1987 doctrine to aggressive defense with the option of preempting or striking back against an aggressor; (3) Russia was deeply concerned about how nationalism would affect the former Soviet Republics, particularly in respect to the ethnic Russians still living abroad; and (4) Nuclear doctrine pledged to not be the first to use nuclear weapons but provided for the potential for escalation from a conventional to a nuclear war. The 2000 doctrine (officially the Russian Federation Military Doctrine) was created in a more stable world than the 1993 doctrine was. The Russian Federation had survived independence and the 'threat of direct military aggression against the Russian Federation and its allies' had diminished. It had secured all of the nuclear weapons from its neighbors Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, and had elected a new president, Vladimir Putin, to replace Boris Yeltsin. Yet, even as the doctrine took more defensive tones than the 1993 doctrine, it expanded its nuclear options. Below are a new definition of

  6. Best Management Practice #13: Other Water-Intensive Processes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    13: Other Water-Intensive Processes Best Management Practice 13: Other Water-Intensive Processes Many water-intensive processes beyond the Federal Energy Management Program's best ...

  7. Generation of very low energy-spread electron beams using low-intensity laser pulses in a low-density plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upadhyay, Ajay K.; Samant, Sushil Arun; Sarkar, Deepangkar; Krishnagopal, Srinivas; Jha, Pallavi

    2011-03-15

    The possibility of obtaining high-energy electron beams of high quality by using a low-density homogeneous plasma and a low-intensity laser (just above the self-injection threshold in the bubble regime) has been explored. Three-dimensional simulations are used to demonstrate, for the first time, an energy-spread of less than 1%, from self-trapping. More specifically, for a plasma density of 2x10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and a laser intensity of a{sub 0}=2, a high-energy (0.55 GeV), ultrashort (1.4 fs) electron beam with very low energy-spread (0.55%) and high current (3 kA) is obtained. These parameters satisfy the requirements for drivers of short-wavelength free-electron lasers. It is also found that the quality of the electron beam depends strongly on the plasma length, which therefore needs to be optimized carefully to get the best performance in the experiments.

  8. Accelerators for Intensity Frontier Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derwent, Paul; /Fermilab

    2012-05-11

    In 2008, the Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel identified three frontiers for research in high energy physics, the Energy Frontier, the Intensity Frontier, and the Cosmic Frontier. In this paper, I will describe how Fermilab is configuring and upgrading the accelerator complex, prior to the development of Project X, in support of the Intensity Frontier.

  9. Role of Modeling When Designing for Absolute Energy Use Intensity Requirements in a Design-Build Framework: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirsch, A.; Pless, S.; Guglielmetti, R.; Torcellini, P. A.; Okada, D.; Antia, P.

    2011-03-01

    The Research Support Facility was designed to use half the energy of an equivalent minimally code-compliant building, and to produce as much renewable energy as it consumes on an annual basis. These energy goals and their substantiation through simulation were explicitly included in the project's fixed firm price design-build contract. The energy model had to be continuously updated during the design process and to match the final building as-built to the greatest degree possible. Computer modeling played a key role throughout the design process and in verifying that the contractual energy goals would be met within the specified budget. The main tool was a whole building energy simulation program. Other models were used to provide more detail or to complement the whole building simulation tool. Results from these specialized models were fed back into the main whole building simulation tool to provide the most accurate possible inputs for annual simulations. This paper will detail the models used in the design process and how they informed important program and design decisions on the path from preliminary design to the completed building.

  10. Some social and economic problems, tasks and purposes of nuclear power in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamov, E.O.; Bryunin, S.V.; Orlov, V.V.

    1996-08-01

    The complicated economic situation in Russia in power generation is manifested in a low efficiency of power utilization and in reduction of its generation and mining of energy resources. Primary energy production per capita in Russia is approximately 50% higher than on the average for Western Europe and approximately the same amount of electric power is generated. But per unit value of gross domestic product (GDP) its consumption is 3.0 and 2.7 times higher, respectively. Amount of diverse pollutants release to the atmosphere per GDP unit value is about 3.0 times higher. Restructuring of Russian economy and modernization of its power generation, which is also a matter of international community concern, will improve these indices, though it will require a lot of time and expenses. A number of aspects should be emphasized: (1) energy policy is to be considered in the context of general economic situation, as well as a key element for solving long-term social problems and base of Russia integration into the world economy; (2) comparatively large resources of fossil fuel are to be considered as national wealth and, strategically, reduction of their consumption for energy generation and export purposes should be envisaged; (3) reactor technologies, that do not rule out potentiality of recurrence of the gravest accidents (reactivity type accidents and the ones involving loss of coolant), can not be put at the foundation of large-scale NP; (4) conditions of nonproliferation that are in use now failed to prevent nuclear weapons propagation to new states and should be replaced by more effective ones; (5) for a country, where NP share in fuel and energy balance is slightly above 3%, not solely evolutionary course of development is feasible; (6) expanding scale of high-level wastes disposal is unacceptable in principle; (7) radical solution of growing ecological problems all over the world, including global warming of climate, is unthinkable without NP development.

  11. NEUTRON FLUX INTENSITY DETECTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, J.T.

    1964-04-21

    A method of measuring the instantaneous intensity of neutron flux in the core of a nuclear reactor is described. A target gas capable of being transmuted by neutron bombardment to a product having a resonance absorption line nt a particular microwave frequency is passed through the core of the reactor. Frequency-modulated microwave energy is passed through the target gas and the attenuation of the energy due to the formation of the transmuted product is measured. (AEC)

  12. Generation and diagnostics of pulsed intense ion beams with an energy density of 10 J/cm{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isakova, Yu. Pushkarev, A.; Khailov, I.; Zhong, H.

    2015-07-15

    The paper presents the results of a study on transportation and focusing of a pulsed ion beam at gigawatt power level, generated by a diode with explosive-emission cathode. The experiments were carried out with the TEMP-4M accelerator operating in double-pulse mode: the first pulse is of negative polarity (500 ns, 100-150 kV), and this is followed by a second pulse of positive polarity (120 ns, 200-250 kV). To reduce the beam divergence, we modified the construction of the diode. The width of the anode was increased compared to that of the cathode. We studied different configurations of planar and focusing strip diodes. It was found that the divergence of the ion beam formed by a planar strip diode, after construction modification, does not exceed 3° (half-angle). Modification to the construction of a focusing diode made it possible to reduce the beam divergence from 8° to 4°-5°, as well as to increase the energy density at the focus up to 10-12 J/cm{sup 2}, and decrease the shot to shot variation in the energy density from 10%-15% to 5%-6%. When measuring the ion beam energy density above the ablation threshold of the target material (3.5-4 J/cm{sup 2}), we used a metal mesh with 50% transparency to lower the energy density. The influence of the metal mesh on beam transport has been studied.

  13. Deputy Secretary Sell Highlights Cooperation in Global Energy...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... will discuss the U.S. - Russia Civil Nuclear Energy Working Group and the recently completed report on The Bratislava Nuclear Security Initiatives to Presidents Bush and Putin. ...

  14. The perils and pitfalls of business in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spears, R.B.

    1995-09-01

    It is not for the lack of trying that few Western oil companies have profitable operations in Russia. Quite the contrary. Every oil company with a thirst for opportunity has searched that once-forbidden region for deals. This gold rush was triggered by an apparent crying need or Western know-how and capital, but appearances in Russia often widely differ from reality. Hype of early oil ventures set a false tone of promise, but company and company came home poorer and wiser. The gold rush went bust. Now in the fourth year of the West`s involvement in Russia`s oilfields, operators are soberly evaluating their prospects. Even while signals are encouraging the West, like a reduction in export tariffs and some progress on contract law, a remarkable event is occuring that throws out many Western arguments for continuing involvement and investment: On their own, the Russians are arresting their production decline and have increased output. This will have immediate and long term effects on Westerners. First, it lends credibility to Russian voices demanding that Mother Russia not sign away its precious resources to foreigners. Second, it encourages trade barriers to protect domestic industry. Third, it weakens the bargaining position of Westerners. Fourth, it reduces the options available to Western operators. What remains will be E&P opportunities where Western technology and capital really can play a role-complex reservoirs, hostile environments-but poor contract terms.

  15. Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

  16. U.S. and Russia Sign Bratislava Accord | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home About Us Our History NNSA Timeline U.S. and Russia Sign Bratislava Accord U.S. and Russia Sign Bratislava Accord February 01,...

  17. ,"Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Russia (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Re-Exports to Russia (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0ERENUS-NRSMMCF" "Date","Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Russia (Million Cubic Feet)" ...

  18. Russia to import more goods for upstream projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-12

    This paper reports that Russia is stepping up its imports of petroleum hardware. In the latest developments; Nippon Steel Corp. and C. Itoh and Co. Ltd., Tokyo, signed contracts to provide Russia $300 million worth of export credits for steel pipe and undisclosed drilling equipment; Nizhnevartovskneftegaz, a Russian oil and gas production association, asked the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development for a $60 million loan to buy western oil and gas equipment. The hardware, mostly pipe, tools, pumps, and workover rigs, will be used in part to return shut-in wells to production.

  19. Investigation Of Plasma Produced By High-Energy Low-Intensity Laser Pulses For Implantation Of Ge Ions Into Si And Sio2 Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosinski, M.; Wolowski, J.; Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Boody, F. P.; Gammino, S.; Krasa, J.; Laska, L.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Ullschmied, J.; Mezzasalma, A.; Torrisi, L.

    2006-01-15

    The development of implantation techniques requires investigation of laser plasma as a potential source of multiply charged ions. The laser ion source delivers ions with kinetic energy and a charge state dependent on the irradiated target material and the parameters of the laser radiation used. By the focusing the laser beam on the solid target the higher current densities of ions than by using other currently available ion sources can be produced. The crucial issue for efficiency of the ion implantation technology is selection of proper laser beam characteristics. Implantation of different kinds of laser-produced ions into metals and organic materials were performed recently at the PALS Research Center in Prague, in cooperative experiments using 0.4-ns iodine laser pulses having energies up to 750 J at wavelength of 1315 nm or up to 250 J at wavelength of 438 nm. In this contribution we describe the characterization and optimization of laser-produced Ge ion streams as well as analysis of the direct implantation of these ions into Si and SiO2 substrates. The Ge target was irradiated with the use of laser pulses of energy up to 50 J at radiation intensities of {approx}1011 W/cm2 and {approx}2'1013 W/cm2. The implanted samples were placed along the target normal at distances of 17, 31 and 83 cm from the target surface. The ion stream parameters were measured using the time-of-fight method. The depth of ion implantation was determined by the Rutherford backscattering method (RBS). The maximum depth of implantation of Ge ions was {approx}450 nm. These investigations were carried out for optimization of low and medium energy laser-generated Ge ion streams, suitable for specific implantation technique, namely for fabrication of semiconductor nanostructures within the SRAP 'SEMINANO' project.

  20. NNSA Celebrates 10 Years of Cooperation with Russia in Securing Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Material | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Celebrates 10 Years of Cooperation with Russia in Securing Nuclear Material NNSA Celebrates 10 Years of Cooperation with Russia in Securing Nuclear Material Moscow, Russia The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) commemorated ten years of work securing nuclear and radiological material in Russia and the former Soviet Union by completing security upgrades at two Russian nuclear facilities. Upgrades at a third facility

  1. Coal-Based Oxy-Fuel System Evaluation and Combustor Development; Oxy-Fuel Turbomachinery Development for Energy Intensive Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollis, Rebecca

    2013-03-31

    Clean Energy Systems, Inc. (CES) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory in 2005 to study and develop a competing technology for use in future fossil-fueled power generation facilities that could operate with near zero emissions. CES’s background in oxy-fuel (O-F) rocket technology lead to the award of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42645, “Coal-Based Oxy-Fuel System Evaluation and Combustor Development,” where CES was to first evaluate the potential of these O-F power cycles, then develop the detailed design of a commercial-scale O-F combustor for use in these clean burning fossil-fueled plants. Throughout the studies, CES found that in order to operate at competitive cycle efficiencies a high-temperature intermediate pressure turbine was required. This led to an extension of the Agreement for, “Oxy-Fuel Turbomachinery Development for Energy Intensive Industrial Applications” where CES was to also develop an intermediate-pressure O-F turbine (OFT) that could be deployed in O-F industrial plants that capture and sequester >99% of produced CO2, at competitive cycle efficiencies using diverse fuels. The following report details CES’ activities from October 2005 through March 2013, to evaluate O-F power cycles, develop and validate detailed designs of O-F combustors (main and reheat), and to design, manufacture, and test a commercial-scale OFT, under the three-phase Cooperative Agreement.

  2. FSU/Eastern Europe: Russia spearheads small upturn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    The paper discusses the political and legal scene in Russia, domestic restructuring, exploration, drilling, development by Western companies and by Russian companies, and production. Exploration and development in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Serbia are also discussed.

  3. RussiaLLNL2-web.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacuum T r 400 1.0 cm 1.0 cm 0.2 cm Schematic of test problem for energy adaptive studies. Modified for the Web The simulation of multidimensional transport processes is an area ...

  4. Evidences of global warming for various regions of Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batyreva, O.V.; Pischehko, V.A.; Vilfand, R.M.; Vasiliev, A.A.

    1997-12-31

    The automatical classification of mean monthly temperature fields of Russia was carried out. The data of 42 years in regular grid-points 5 x 10{degree} of Northern Hemisphere were used. The combination of land`s algorithm of K-averages was applied. The increasing of prevailing occurrence of warm types during last decades was discovered. It turned out that different regions had different dynamics of type occurrences.

  5. United States-Russia: Environmental management activities, Summer 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    A Joint Coordinating Committee for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (JCCEM) was formed between the US and Russia. This report describes the areas of research being studied under JCCEM, namely: Efficient separations; Contaminant transport and site characterization; Mixed wastes; High level waste tank remediation; Transuranic stabilization; Decontamination and decommissioning; and Emergency response. Other sections describe: Administrative framework for cooperation; Scientist exchange; Future actions; Non-JCCEM DOE-Russian activities; and JCCEM publications.

  6. Intense fusion neutron sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-15

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 10{sup 15}-10{sup 21} neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 10{sup 20} neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the

  7. Deputy Secretary Sell Highlights Cooperation in Global Energy Security and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nuclear Non-Proliferation in Moscow | Department of Energy Sell Highlights Cooperation in Global Energy Security and Nuclear Non-Proliferation in Moscow Deputy Secretary Sell Highlights Cooperation in Global Energy Security and Nuclear Non-Proliferation in Moscow March 12, 2007 - 10:28am Addthis Co-Chairs U.S. - Russia Energy Working Group on First Stop on Three Nation Swing MOSCOW, Russia - U.S. Deputy Secretary of Energy Clay Sell today participated in the U.S. - Russia Energy Working

  8. French intensive truck garden

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  9. Energy Intensity Indicators: Industrial Source Energy Consumption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The industrial sector comprises manufacturing and other nonmanufacturing industries not included in transportation or services. Manufacturing includes 18 industry sectors, generally defined at the...

  10. Theoretical investigation of the origin of the multipeak structure of kinetic-energy-release spectra from charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of H{sub 2}{sup +} in intense laser fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He Haixiang; Guo Yahui [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); China and Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 10039 (China); Lu Ruifeng [Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Zhang Peiyu; Han Keli; He Guozhong [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2011-09-15

    The dynamics of hydrogen molecular ions in intense laser pulses (100 fs, I = 0.77 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} to 2.5 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}) has been studied, and the kinetic-energy-release spectra of Coulomb explosion channel have been calculated by numerically solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. In a recent experiment, a multipeak structure from charge-resonance-enhanced ionization is interpreted by a vibrational 'comb' at a critical nuclear distance. We found that the peaks could not be attributed to a single vibrational level but a collective contribution of some typical vibrational states in our calculated Coulomb explosion spectra, and the main peak shifts toward the low-energy region with increasing vibrational level, which is also different from the explanation in that experiment. We have also discussed the proton's kinetic-energy-release spectra for different durations with the same laser intensity.

  11. On the possibility of the generation of high harmonics with photon energies greater than 10 keV upon interaction of intense mid-IR radiation with neutral gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emelina, A S; Emelin, M Yu; Ryabikin, M Yu

    2014-05-30

    Based on the analytical quantum-mechanical description in the framework of the modified strong-field approximation, we have investigated high harmonic generation of mid-IR laser radiation in neutral gases taking into account the depletion of bound atomic levels of the working medium and the electron magnetic drift in a high-intensity laser field. The possibility is shown to generate high-order harmonics with photon energies greater than 10 keV under irradiation of helium atoms by intense femtosecond laser pulses with a centre wavelength of 8 – 10.6 μm. (interaction of radiation with matter)

  12. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dagenhart, W.K.

    1984-05-29

    The neutral beam intensity controller is based on selected magnetic defocusing of the ion beam prior to neutralization. The defocused portion of the beam is dumped onto a beam dump disposed perpendicular to the beam axis. Selective defocusing is accomplished by means of a magnetic field generator disposed about the neutralizer so that the field is transverse to the beam axis. The magnetic field intensity is varied to provide the selected partial beam defocusing of the ions prior to neutralization. The desired focused neutral beam portion passes along the beam path through a defining aperture in the beam dump, thereby controlling the desired fraction of neutral particles transmitted to a utilization device without altering the kinetic energy level of the desired neutral particle fraction. By proper selection of the magnetic field intensity, virtually zero through 100% intensity control of the neutral beam is achieved.

  13. Current status and prospects of research on Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion in 2009 in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grishina, I. A.; Ivanov, V. A.; Kovrizhnykh, L. M.

    2010-12-15

    Papers presented at the XXXVII International Zvenigorod Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion in Russia are reviewed, and the main research directions are analyzed.

  14. U.S., Russia Agree to Extend Nuclear Security Cooperation | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    "The United States and Russia remain committed partners in improving global nuclear security, combating weapons proliferation, and preventing dangerous nuclear equipment and ...

  15. THE NUCLEAR MATERIAL MEASUREMENT PROGRAM PLAN FOR GOSATOMNADZOR OF RUSSIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bokov, Dmitry; Byers, Kenneth R.

    2003-08-01

    As the Russian State regulatory agency responsible for oversight of nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A), Gosatomnadzor of Russia determines the status of the MC&A programs at Russian facilites by testing the nuclear material inventory for accounting record accuracy. Currently, Gosatomnadzor is developing and implementing an approach to planning and conducting MC&A inspections using non-destructive assay (NDA) instruments that will provide for consistent application of MC&A measurement inspection objectives throughtout Russia. This Gosatomnadzor NDA Program Plan documents current NDA measurement capability in all regions of Gosatomnadzor; provides justification for upgrades to equipment, procedures and training; and defines the inspector-facility operator interface as it relates to NDA measurement equipment use. This plan covers a three-year measurement program cycle, but will be reviewed and updated annually to ensure that adequate inspection resources are available to meet the demands of the inspection schedule. This paper presents the elements of this plan and describes the process by which Gosatomnadzor ensures that its NDA instruments are effectively utilized, procedures are developed and certified, and inspection personnel are properly trained to provide assurance that Russian nuclear facilities are in compliance with Russian MC&A regulations.

  16. Measuring Arithmetic Intensity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measuring Arithmetic Intensity Measuring Arithmetic Intensity Arithmetic intensity is a measure of floating-point operations (FLOPs) performed by a given code (or code section) relative to the amount of memory accesses (Bytes) that are required to support those operations. It is most often defined as a FLOP per Byte ratio (F/B). This application note provides a methodology for determining arithmetic intensity using Intel's Software Development Emulator Toolkit (SDE) and VTune Amplifier (VTune)

  17. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Trends in Energy Consumption...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Part 1. Energy Consumption Data Tables Total Energy Intensity Intensity by Energy Source Background: Site and Primary Energy Trends in Energy Consumption and Energy Sources Part...

  18. Russia's views on cruise missiles in the context of START III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, D Y

    2000-10-30

    The abysmal state of Russia's conventional forces has caused Russia to rely on nuclear weapons to ensure its security. This reliance was formalized in Russia's military doctrine which states that nuclear weapons can be used ''in situations critical to the national security of the RF and its allies.'' In fact, most Russian security analysts believe that this dependence on nuclear weapons will remain for the foreseeable future because the economy will have to improve significantly before a conventional force build up can be contemplated. Yet, despite Russia's need to rely on nuclear weapons, even this may be problematic because its economic plight may create difficulties in maintaining its current level of nuclear forces. Thus, Russia has a keen interest in negotiating a treaty to reduce Strategic Nuclear Forces below START II levels and would prefer to go even beyond the 2,000-2,500 numbers agreed to by Presidents Yeltsin and Clinton in Helsinki in 1997. Sergei Rogov, an influential defense analyst, believes that Russia's strategic nuclear forces will fall below 1,000 warheads by 2010 irrespective of arms control agreements. Accordingly, Russia is keen to ensure rough parity with the US. To retain a credible deterrent posture at these lower levels, Russia believes that it is important to restrain US sea-launched cruise missiles (SLCM)--forces that have heretofore not been captured as strategic weapons in the START treaties. Russian officials reason that once strategic nuclear forces go to very low levels, SLCM capabilities become strategically significant. In fact, according to two well-known Russian security analysts, Anatoli Diakov and Pavel Podvig, Russia's current START III negotiating position calls for the complete elimination of all SLCMs, both nuclear and conventional. Prior to assessing Russia's position regarding cruise missiles and START III, I will examine Russia's overall view of its security position vis-a-vis the US in order to provide background for

  19. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION ON RADIOLOGICAL THREAT REDUCTION PROGRAMS IN RUSSIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landers, Christopher C.; Tatyrek, Aaron P.

    2009-10-07

    Since its inception in 2004, the United States Department of Energy’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) has provided the Russian Federation with significant financial and technical assistance to secure its highly vulnerable and dangerous radiological material. The three program areas of this assistance are the removal of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG), the physical protection of vulnerable in-use radiological material of concern, and the recovery of disused or abandoned radiological material of concern. Despite the many successes of the GTRI program in Russia, however, there is still a need for increased international cooperation in these efforts. Furthermore, concerns exist over how the Russian government will ensure that the security of its radiological materials provided through GTRI will be sustained. This paper addresses these issues and highlights the successes of GTRI efforts and ongoing activities.

  20. Main Principles of the Perspective System of SNF Management in Russia - 13333

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baryshnikov, Mikhail

    2013-07-01

    For the last several years the System of the Spent Nuclear Fuel management in Russia was seriously changed. The paper describes the main principles of the changes and the bases of the Perspective System of SNF Management in Russia. Among such the bases there are the theses with the interesting names like 'total knowledge', 'pollutant pays' and 'pay and forget'. There is also a brief description of the modern Russian SNF Management Infrastructure. And an outline of the whole System. The System which is - in case of Russia - is quite necessary to adjust SNF accumulation and to utilize the nuclear heritage. (authors)

  1. Building-Level Intensities

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Electricity Consumption",,,,,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand kWh)","per...

  2. Learning to Apply Metrology Principles to the Measurement of X-ray Intensities in the 500 eV to 110 keV Energy Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haugh, M. J.; Pond, T.; Silbernagel, C.; Torres, P.; Marlett, K.; Goldin, F.; Cyr, S.

    2011-02-08

    National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), Livermore Operations, has two optical radiation calibration laboratories accredited by “the National Voluntary Laboratories Accreditation Program (NVLAP) which is the accrediting body of” the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and is now working towards accreditation for its X-ray laboratories. NSTec operates several laboratories with X-ray sources that generate X-rays in the energy range from 50 eV to 115 keV. These X-ray sources are used to characterize and calibrate diagnostics and diagnostic components used by the various national laboratories, particularly for plasma analysis on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) National Ignition Facility (NIF). Because X-ray photon flux measurement methods that can be accredited, i.e., traceable to NIST, have not been developed for sources operating in these energy ranges, NSTec, NIST, and the National Voluntary Accreditation Program (NVLAP) together have defined a path toward the development and validation of accredited metrology methods for X-ray energies. The methodology developed for the high energy X-ray (HEX) Laboratory was NSTec’s starting point for X-ray metrology accreditation and will be the basis for the accredited processes in the other X-ray laboratories. This paper will serve as a teaching tool, by way of this example using the NSTec X-ray sources, for the process and methods used in developing an accredited traceable metrology.

  3. Light intensity compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rushford, Michael C.

    1990-01-01

    In a system for recording images having vastly differing light intensities over the face of the image, a light intensity compressor is provided that utilizes the properties of twisted nematic liquid crystals to compress the image intensity. A photoconductor or photodiode material that is responsive to the wavelength of radiation being recorded is placed adjacent a layer of twisted nematic liquid crystal material. An electric potential applied to a pair of electrodes that are disposed outside of the liquid crystal/photoconductor arrangement to provide an electric field in the vicinity of the liquid crystal material. The electrodes are substantially transparent to the form of radiation being recorded. A pair of crossed polarizers are provided on opposite sides of the liquid crystal. The front polarizer linearly polarizes the light, while the back polarizer cooperates with the front polarizer and the liquid crystal material to compress the intensity of a viewed scene. Light incident upon the intensity compressor activates the photoconductor in proportion to the intensity of the light, thereby varying the field applied to the liquid crystal. The increased field causes the liquid crystal to have less of a twisting effect on the incident linearly polarized light, which will cause an increased percentage of the light to be absorbed by the back polarizer. The intensity of an image may be compressed by forming an image on the light intensity compressor.

  4. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dagenhart, William K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1986-01-01

    A neutral beam intensity controller is provided for a neutral beam generator in which a neutral beam is established by accelerating ions from an ion source into a gas neutralizer. An amplitude modulated, rotating magnetic field is applied to the accelerated ion beam in the gas neutralizer to defocus the resultant neutral beam in a controlled manner to achieve intensity control of the neutral beam along the beam axis at constant beam energy. The rotating magnetic field alters the orbits of ions in the gas neutralizer before they are neutralized, thereby controlling the fraction of neutral particles transmitted out of the neutralizer along the central beam axis to a fusion device or the like. The altered path or defocused neutral particles are sprayed onto an actively cooled beam dump disposed perpendicular to the neutral beam axis and having a central open for passage of the focused beam at the central axis of the beamline. Virtually zero therough 100% intensity control is achieved by varying the magnetic field strength without altering the ion source beam intensity or its species yield.

  5. U.S.-Russia Twenty-Year Partnership Completes Final Milestone...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1993 U.S.-Russia HEU Purchase Agreement, commonly known as the Megatons to Megawatts Program. ... into nuclear fuel, and used in nuclear power plants to generate nearly ten percent of ...

  6. Performance potential of the coal strip mining in the east of Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheskidov, V.I.

    2007-07-15

    The potentialities of the leading mining districts in Russia to improve coal production by strip mining are analyzed. The operational issues of the Erunakovskiy (Kuzbass), Kansko-Achinskiy and South Yakutia territorial production complexes are considered.

  7. The Security of Russia's Nuclear Arsenal: The Human Factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, D.Y.

    1999-10-12

    Assertions by the Russian military that all of their nuclear weapons are secure against theft and that nuclear units within the military are somehow insulated from the problems plaguing the Russian military should not be accepted uncritically. Accordingly, we should not give unwarranted credence to the pronouncements of military figures like Cal.-Gen. Igor Valynkin, Chief of the Defense Ministry's 12th Main Directorate, which oversees the country's nuclear arsenal. He contends that ''Russian nuclear weapons are under reliable supervision'' and that ''talk about the unreliability of our control over nuclear weapons has only one pragmatic goal--to convince international society that the country is incapable of maintaining nuclear safety and to introduce international oversight over those weapons, as it is done, for example, in Iraq.'' While the comparison to Iraq is preposterous, many analysts might agree with Valynkin's sanguine appraisal of the security of Russia's nuclear weapons. In contrast, I argue that the numerous difficulties confronting the military as a whole should cause concern in the West over the security of the Russian nuclear arsenal.

  8. Short-Period Seismic Noise in Vorkuta (Russia)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishkina, S B; Spivak, A A; Sweeney, J J

    2008-05-15

    Cultural development of new subpolar areas of Russia is associated with a need for detailed seismic research, including both mapping of regional seismicity and seismic monitoring of specific mining enterprises. Of special interest are the northern territories of European Russia, including shelves of the Kara and Barents Seas, Yamal Peninsula, and the Timan-Pechora region. Continuous seismic studies of these territories are important now because there is insufficient seismological knowledge of the area and an absence of systematic data on the seismicity of the region. Another task of current interest is the necessity to consider the seismic environment in the design, construction, and operation of natural gas extracting enterprises such as the construction of the North European Gas Pipeline. Issues of scientific importance for seismic studies in the region are the complex geodynamical setting, the presence of permafrost, and the complex tectonic structure. In particular, the Uralian Orogene (Fig. 1) strongly affects the propagation of seismic waves. The existing subpolar seismic stations [APA (67,57{sup o}N; 33,40{sup o}E), LVZ (67,90{sup o}N; 34,65{sup o}E), and NRIL (69,50{sup o}N; 88,40{sup o}E)] do not cover the extensive area between the Pechora and Ob Rivers (Fig. 1). Thus seismic observations in the Vorkuta area, which lies within the area of concern, represent a special interest. Continuous recording at a seismic station near the city of Vorkuta (67,50{sup o}N; 64,11{sup o}E) [1] has been conducted since 2005 for the purpose of regional seismic monitoring and, more specifically, detection of seismic signals caused by local mining enterprises. Current surveys of local seismic noise [7,8,9,11], are particularly aimed at a technical survey for the suitability of the site for installation of a small-aperture seismic array, which would include 10-12 recording instruments, with the Vorkuta seismic station as the central element. When constructed, this seismic

  9. JOINT STATEMENT OF THE CO-CHAIRS OF THE NUCLEAR ENERGY AND NUCLEAR SECURITY

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    WORKING GROUP OF THE BILATERAL U.S. - RUSSIA PRESIDENTIAL COMMISSION | Department of Energy JOINT STATEMENT OF THE CO-CHAIRS OF THE NUCLEAR ENERGY AND NUCLEAR SECURITY WORKING GROUP OF THE BILATERAL U.S. - RUSSIA PRESIDENTIAL COMMISSION JOINT STATEMENT OF THE CO-CHAIRS OF THE NUCLEAR ENERGY AND NUCLEAR SECURITY WORKING GROUP OF THE BILATERAL U.S. - RUSSIA PRESIDENTIAL COMMISSION June 27, 2013 - 10:38am Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 On June 26, 2013, a meeting of the Nuclear

  10. The Baltics: Regional energy profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    However, all three Baltic Republics are heavily dependent on primary energy imports. Domestic energy sources in the Baltics are limited to oil shale mines in Estonia, small oil deposits in Lithuania, peat, and some very small hydroelectric power plants. A RBMK nuclear power station, similar to Chernobyl, operates at Snieckus in Lithuania, but the reactor fuel is also imported from Russia. However, Lithuania and Estonia are net exporters of electricity despite their reliance on primary fuels imports. The major power stations in these two Republics are the Ignalina Nuclear Power Station and the two thermal power plants at Narva in Estonia which are fueled by oil shale. The only oil refinery in the Baltics is also located in Lithuania, at Mazeikiai. This refinery has the capacity to satisfy the demand for selected refined products of the entire region, including the Kaliningrad oblast, a noncontiguous part of Russia. The Mazeikiai refinery has operated at only forty to sixty percent capacity since 1990 due to halts in crude oil supplies from Russia. The Baltic Republics also import one hundred percent of their coal and natural gas supplies. Russia is the main trading partner for all the Baltic states, accounting for more than half of their trade flow. Mutual trade within the Baltics has been surprisingly low. Other Baltic states contribute less than ten percent to each Republic`s exports or imports, even less than Belarus or Ukraine. Aside from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, only Kazakhstan contributes more than two percent to Baltics trade.

  11. The Baltics: Regional energy profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    However, all three Baltic Republics are heavily dependent on primary energy imports. Domestic energy sources in the Baltics are limited to oil shale mines in Estonia, small oil deposits in Lithuania, peat, and some very small hydroelectric power plants. A RBMK nuclear power station, similar to Chernobyl, operates at Snieckus in Lithuania, but the reactor fuel is also imported from Russia. However, Lithuania and Estonia are net exporters of electricity despite their reliance on primary fuels imports. The major power stations in these two Republics are the Ignalina Nuclear Power Station and the two thermal power plants at Narva in Estonia which are fueled by oil shale. The only oil refinery in the Baltics is also located in Lithuania, at Mazeikiai. This refinery has the capacity to satisfy the demand for selected refined products of the entire region, including the Kaliningrad oblast, a noncontiguous part of Russia. The Mazeikiai refinery has operated at only forty to sixty percent capacity since 1990 due to halts in crude oil supplies from Russia. The Baltic Republics also import one hundred percent of their coal and natural gas supplies. Russia is the main trading partner for all the Baltic states, accounting for more than half of their trade flow. Mutual trade within the Baltics has been surprisingly low. Other Baltic states contribute less than ten percent to each Republic's exports or imports, even less than Belarus or Ukraine. Aside from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, only Kazakhstan contributes more than two percent to Baltics trade.

  12. Intensity Frontier| U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intensity Frontier High Energy Physics (HEP) HEP Home About Research Science Drivers of Particle Physics Energy Frontier Intensity Frontier Experiments Cosmic Frontier Theoretical and Computational Physics Advanced Technology R&D Accelerator Stewardship Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of HEP Funding Opportunities Advisory Committees Community Resources Contact Information High Energy Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-25/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC

  13. {open_quotes}Rosshelf{close_quotes} company and development of the Arctic Shelf of Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velikhov, E.P.

    1994-09-01

    The Russian {open_quotes}Rosshelf{close_quotes} company for developing the shelf is the nucleus of a new branch of industry for developing oil and gas fields on shelves of Russia, primarily in the Arctic. {open_quotes}Rosshelf{close_quotes}, created on the basis of leading naval defence enterprises, Russia`s largest geological and mining enterprises, and territorial organizations managing the northern regions of Russia, obtained a license in March 1993 for the right to use the natural resources of Europe`s largest Shtokman gas-condensate field and Prirazlomnoe oil field in the Barents Sea and thus has all the conditions and possibilities for the successful organization of oil and gas production on the continental shelf of Russia. The goals of {open_quotes}Rosshelf{close_quotes} are: the production of oil and gas equipment at converted defence enterprises, including under foreign license and for export; the development of oil and gas fields on the continental shelf of Russia; the creation of new prospective technologies for offshore oil and gas production under conditions of the Russian and mainly the arctic shelf. {open_quotes}Rosshelf{close_quotes} should develop the Pechora Sea fields, mainly the Prirazlomnoe oil field with its relatively small depth and distance from the shore. It is planned to develop Europe`s largest Shtokman field at a distance of 600 km from the shore in the course of 10-12 years with expenditures of about $6 billion. The use of defence technologies underlying the activities of {open_quotes}Rosshelf{close_quotes} gives the company a real change to reach the world level of offshore oil- and gas-production technology. Broad cooperation with foreign companies, mainly in the area of engineering, finances, ecology, and safety, planned also for this. Calculations show that already the priority projects of {open_quotes}Rosshelf{close_quotes} will provide 250,000-300,000 highly skilled jobs at Russian defence enterprises.

  14. International Energy Statistics - EIA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    CO2 Emissions Carbon Intensity Energy Intensity Conversions Population Coal Prices ... emissions, fuel heat contents, and conversion factors as available for all countries ...

  15. Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear Energy

  16. Under U.S.-Russia Partnership, Final Shipment of Fuel Converted From 20,000 Russian Nuclear Warheads Arrives in United States and Will Be Used for U.S. Electricity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Last Delivery Arrived in Baltimore, MD, Under Landmark 1993 U.S.-Russia HEU Purchase Agreement; U.S. and Russia Pledge to Future Nuclear Nonproliferation Collaboration

  17. Kenai, AK Liquefied Natural Gas Exports to Russia (Dollars per Thousand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Kenai, AK Liquefied Natural Gas Exports to Russia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Kenai, AK Liquefied Natural Gas Exports to Russia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- 12.12 -- -- 2010's -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: U.S. Price

  18. Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports to Russia (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Russia (Million Cubic Feet) Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports to Russia (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,895 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  19. Energy Secretary Bodman Travels to Moscow, Baku, Kiev to Discuss Energy and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nuclear Security | Department of Energy Travels to Moscow, Baku, Kiev to Discuss Energy and Nuclear Security Energy Secretary Bodman Travels to Moscow, Baku, Kiev to Discuss Energy and Nuclear Security May 20, 2005 - 12:49pm Addthis Trip Will Focus on World Energy Security, Energy Resource Development, and Nuclear Nonproliferation WASHINGTON, DC -- Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman next week will travel to Moscow, Russia; Baku, Azerbaijan; and Kiev, Ukraine, where he will hold discussions

  20. Southeastern Center for Industrial Energy Intensity Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO; formerly the Industrial Technologies Program) has developed multiple resources and a best practices suite of tools to...

  1. Methodology of Energy Intensities - Appendix A

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nonresponse. The first component is the reciprocal of the establishment's overall probability of selection into the ASM and subsequent selection for the MECS. The second...

  2. Changes in Energy Intensity 1985-1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    586-7237 Fax: (202) 586-0018 URL: http:www.eia.govemeumecsmecs91intensitymecs1b.html File Last Modified: May 25, 1996 If you are having any technical problems with this...

  3. Energy Technology Solutions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Technology Solutions Energy Technology Solutions Public-private partnerships transforming industry and list of commercialized technologies, knowledge-based results, and promising technologies itp_successes.pdf (5.39 MB) More Documents & Publications Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming Industry, November 2010 ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry Energy-Intensive

  4. Strategies for the Commercialization & Deployment of GHG Intensity-Reducing Technologies & Practices

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report looks at the best methods of commercializing and deploying energy technologies that reduce greenhouse gas intensity.

  5. Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  6. Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  7. International team discovers element 117 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    team discovers element 117 International team discovers element 117 April 6, 2010 - 12:14pm Addthis An international team of scientists from Russia and the United States, including two Department of Energy national laboratories and two universities, has discovered the newest superheavy element, element 117. The team included scientists from the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (Dubna, Russia), the Research Institute for Advanced Reactors (Dimitrovgrad), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,

  8. Working with Russia | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and wonder how they were going to feed their families," said Y-12 Program Manager Ken Williams. Two Department of Energy programs, Nuclear Cities Initiatives and the Initiatives...

  9. JOINT STATEMENT OF THE CO-CHAIRS OF THE NUCLEAR ENERGY AND NUCLEAR...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    JOINT STATEMENT OF THE CO-CHAIRS OF THE NUCLEAR ENERGY AND NUCLEAR SECURITY WORKING GROUP OF THE BILATERAL U.S. - RUSSIA PRESIDENTIAL COMMISSION JOINT STATEMENT OF THE CO-CHAIRS OF ...

  10. COMPLETION OF THE FIRST INTEGRATED SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL TRANSSHIPMENT/INTERIM STORAGE FACILITY IN NW RUSSIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dyer, R.S.; Barnes, E.; Snipes, R.L.; Hoeibraaten, S.; Gran, H.C.; Foshaug, E.; Godunov, V.

    2003-02-27

    Northwest and Far East Russia contain large quantities of unsecured spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from decommissioned submarines that potentially threaten the fragile environments of the surrounding Arctic and North Pacific regions. The majority of the SNF from the Russian Navy, including that from decommissioned nuclear submarines, is currently stored in on-shore and floating storage facilities. Some of the SNF is damaged and stored in an unstable condition. Existing Russian transport infrastructure and reprocessing facilities cannot meet the requirements for moving and reprocessing this amount of fuel. Additional interim storage capacity is required. Most of the existing storage facilities being used in Northwest Russia do not meet health and safety, and physical security requirements. The United States and Norway are currently providing assistance to the Russian Federation (RF) in developing systems for managing these wastes. If these wastes are not properly managed, they could release significant concentrations of radioactivity to these sensitive environments and could become serious global environmental and physical security issues. There are currently three closely-linked trilateral cooperative projects: development of a prototype dual-purpose transport and storage cask for SNF, a cask transshipment interim storage facility, and a fuel drying and cask de-watering system. The prototype cask has been fabricated, successfully tested, and certified. Serial production is now underway in Russia. In addition, the U.S. and Russia are working together to improve the management strategy for nuclear submarine reactor compartments after SNF removal.