Sample records for rubber products naics

  1. Functionalized lignin, rubber containing functionalized lignin and products containing such rubber composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benko, David Andrew; Hahn, Bruce Raymond; Cohen, Martin Paul; Dirk, Shawn Matthew; Cicotte, Kirsten Nicole

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to functionalized lignin, rubber compositions which contain functionalized lignin and to products which have at least one component comprised of such rubber composition.

  2. Combination biological and microwave treatments of used rubber products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, Carl B. (Augusta, GA); Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and resulting product is provided in which a vulcanized solid particulate, such as vulcanized crumb rubber, has select chemical bonds altered by biotreatment with thermophillic microorganisms selected from natural isolates from hot sulfur springs. Following the biotreatment, microwave radiation is used to further treat the surface and to treat the bulk interior of the crumb rubber. The resulting combined treatments render the treated crumb rubber more suitable for use in new rubber formulations. As a result, larger loading levels and sizes of the treated crumb rubber can be used in new rubber mixtures and good properties obtained from the new recycled products.

  3. Recycling, production and use of reprocessed rubbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klingensmith, B. (Akron Rubber Consulting, OH (United States))

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article examines the various methods used to produce recycled rubber and to compare their characteristics and application. The topics discussed include reclaiming by chemical digestion, devulcanization by the severing of sulfur bonds, ambient temperature and cryogenically ground rubber, processing and mixing of ground rubber, and properties of reclaimed rubbers by reclamation method.

  4. Method for the addition of vulcanized waste rubber to virgin rubber products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Romine, Robert A. (Pasco, WA); Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. (Benton City, WA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a method of using enzymes from thiophyllic microbes for selectively breaking the sulfur rubber cross-link bonds in vulcanized rubber. The process is halted at the sulfoxide or sulfone step so that a devulcanized layer is reactive with virgin rubber.

  5. Method for the addition of vulcanized waste rubber to virgin rubber products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Romine, R.A.; Snowden-Swan, L.J.

    1997-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a method of using enzymes from thiophyllic microbes for selectively breaking the sulfur rubber cross-link bonds in vulcanized rubber. The process is halted at the sulfoxide or sulfone step so that a devulcanized layer is reactive with virgin rubber. 8 figs.

  6. Plastics and Rubber Products (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of EnergyPlanned AuditsPlastics and Rubber Products

  7. Nonaqueous ozonation of vulcanized rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    1999-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and resulting product are provided in which a solid particulate, such as vulcanized crumb rubber, has the surface functional groups oxidized by ozonation using a nonpolar solvent. The ozonation process renders the treated crumb rubber more suitable for use in new rubber formulations. As a result, larger loading levels of the treated crumb rubber can be used in new rubber mixtures.

  8. Nonaqueous ozonation of vulcanized rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serkiz, Steven M. (Aiken, SC)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and resulting product is provided in which a solid particulate, such as vulcanized crumb rubber, has the surface functional groups oxidized by ozonation using a nonpolar solvent. The ozonation process renders the treated crumb rubber more suitable for use in new rubber formulations. As a result, larger loading levels of the treated crumb rubber can be used in new rubber mixtures.

  9. Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from rubber production and compounding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Facilities engaged in rubber production and compounding may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist those who produce rubber in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

  10. Product formulations using recycled tire crumb rubber. Final report/project accomplishments summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to combine crumb rubber and synthetic fiber obtained from scrap tires with thermoplastic polymers and convert these materials into commercially useful, high-value products. A specific goal was to use these materials for roofing, while remaining cognizance of other potential applications.

  11. Microwave treatment of vulcanized rubber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC); Schulz, Rebecca L. (Aiken, SC); Clark, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Folz, Diane C. (Gainesville, FL)

    2002-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and resulting product is provided in which a vulcanized solid particulate, such as vulcanized crumb rubber, has select chemical bonds broken by microwave radiation. The direct application of microwaves in combination with uniform heating of the crumb rubber renders the treated crumb rubber more suitable for use in new rubber formulations. As a result, larger particle sizes and/or loading levels of the treated crumb rubber can be used in new rubber mixtures to produce recycled composite products with good properties.

  12. Development of a Rubber-Based Product Using a Mixture Experiment: A Challenging Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaya, Yahya; Piepel, Gregory F.; Caniyilmaz, Erdal

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many products used in daily life are made by blending two or more components. The properties of such products typically depend on the relative proportions of the components. Experimental design, modeling, and data analysis methods for mixture experiments provide for efficiently determining the component proportions that will yield a product with desired properties. This article presents a case study of the work performed to develop a new rubber formulation for an o-ring (a circular gasket) with requirements specified on 10 product properties. Each step of the study is discussed, including: 1) identifying the objective of the study and requirements for properties of the o-ring, 2) selecting the components to vary and specifying the component constraints, 3) constructing a mixture experiment design, 4) measuring the responses and assessing the data, 5) developing property-composition models, 6) selecting the new product formulation, and 7) confirming the selected formulation in manufacturing. The case study includes some challenging and new aspects, which are discussed in the article.

  13. CHEMICAL INDUCTION OF RUBBER BIOSYNTHESIS IN GUAYULE: AN ELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, Thomas

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    into the mechanism of rubber production and the nature andthe discovery of the rubber production enhancing effects ofrubber biosynthesis in guayule would appear to be the production

  14. Recovery and evaluation of the solid products produced by thermocatalytic decomposition of tire rubber compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Lan

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    and carbon blacks for reuse. It is noted that molten salts, especially aluminum chloride (AlCl3), of which the base metal has an electron structure t 4 requirement with the polymer undergoing decomposition, can act as catalysts for decomposing tire... rubbers.10 The fact that molten salt catalysis can be used to decompose tire rubbers has been known for several decades.11-12 However, to date no literature reports a successful commercial catalytic conversion process for the disposal of scrap tires...

  15. The Scientific Basis of Tobacco Product Regulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    World Health Organization

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    copolymers and in synthetic rubber production. 1,3-Butadienesynthetic fibres, resins, plastics, elastomers and rubber (

  16. Guayule rubber for South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    It is reported that Agtec together with South Africa's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, is investigating the possibility of large-scale production of guayule. The rubber-yielding shrub grows in semi-arid climates and may be the source of a $35-million natural rubber industry in South Africa.

  17. Toxic species emissions from controlled combustion of selected rubber and plastic consumer products 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caraballo, Simon A.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPENDIX B Effects of Humidity on Ashes of U-S3 Rubber vs. PVC. APPENDIX C SAS Program for ANOVA. APPENDIX D Comparison of the Burning Rates for Materials V-S I, C-S2, U-S3 and RT-S5. VITA. PAGE 91 93 102 103 LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1. Comparison..., B, and C) Versus Rubber ~s V-SI, C-S2, U-S3 and RT-S5 fro this Study. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 TABLE 11-B ANOVA - Percentage Smoke-Mass Based on Initial Sample Weight for hLdn&s V-S1, C-S2, U-S3, RT- S5, PVC-A, PVC-B and PVC-C...

  18. North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Search Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) is the standard used by Federal statistical agencies in classifying business establishments for the purpose of collecting, analyzing, and...

  19. NAICS Codes @ Headquarters | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

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  20. THE ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF HYDROCARBON PRODUCTION IN PARTHENIUM ARGENTATUM (GUAYULE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, T.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in later stages of rubber production will be pre- sentedprimary emphasis on rubber production in Guayule. Thus theare those involved in rubber production in Guayule. Since

  1. New industrial heat pump applications to a synthetic rubber production, Louisville, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The site selected for this study is the American Synthetic Rubber Corporation's polybutadiene plant in Louisville, Kentucky. The objective of this study is to further identify the energy savings potential through advanced heat pumps and other energy conservation methods developed in the context of pinch technology. The process studied involves a solution polymerization of butadiene monomer in the presence of toluene, which acts as a solvent. The results indicate that there is an excellent prospect for heat integration and heat pump application. The heat integration option requires an investment of about 8900 sq. ft. in additional area, to save about one third of the present steam consumption. Two process streams were identified for potential heat pump application. One of them is the combined overhead vapor stream from the stripping section, composed of steam and toluene mixture. The other stream is the overhead vapor from the concentration section, composed mainly of toluene. Economic analysis were performed, both for closed cycle and semi open cycle heat pumps. The potential for semi-open cycle (MVR) hear pumps looks extremely good. 15 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Crumb rubber feasibility report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cumberland County supply region generates approximately 58,000 tons of scrap tires each year, equivalent to 45,000 tons of rubber after processing. Approximately 8,000 tons per year are in concentrated locations and can be easily collected. The costs of collection for the remainder vary significantly. Given current markets, economically feasible processes (ambient technology) can reprocess approximately 65 to 75 percent of the 37,000 tons into a marketable product. A processing plant sized for this supply would process 120 tons per day, a viable plant by industry standards. The end uses for whole tires constitute a negligible market, aside from the retreader market. Crumbed rubber is the major development efforts, there are potentially large opportunities in North Carolina.

  3. Burning rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mario Andretti, look out You are about to be surpassed in the burning rubber category by a joint venture between Oxford Energy Company and General Electric. The two companies are building the first whole tire-to-energy facility in the US in Modesto, California. This $41 million facility does not require tires to be shredded prior to incineration; it has the capacity to burn 700 tires per minute. The electricity generated will be provided to a utility company. Oxford says there are two billion waste tires on the ground and this number is increasing by 220 million a year. Of that amount, only 18 million a year are recycled.

  4. NAICS Codes @ Headquarters Description: NAICS Codes used at Headquarters Procurement Services

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015of 2005 attheMohammed Khan - Technology ProjectEnergyNAICS Codes @

  5. Evaluation of synergy in tire rubber-coal coprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastral, A.M.; Mayoral, M.C.; Murillo, R.; Callen, M.; Garcia, T.; Tejero, M.P.; Torres, N. [CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain). Inst. de Carboquimica] [CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain). Inst. de Carboquimica

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The tire rubber-coal synergy is evaluated through the different roles that rubber can have in coprocessing systems. For that, two different experimental designs were used: a swept fixed-bed reactor and tubing bomb minireactors. In this way, coal was coprocessed with rubber liquids from rubber pyrolysis and rubber hydrogenation, in a hydrogen atmosphere at 400 C. Coal was mixed as well with rubber in different proportions and hydrogenated at 375, 400, and 425 C, and oils obtained were characterized by thin-layer chromatography to obtain hydrocarbon type composition. Rubber behavior was compared to each of the main components of tires, and all the results indicated that the slight synergy found can be due to the small free radicals from vulcanized rubber decomposition, which are able to stabilize coal radicals to light products.

  6. When Madagascar produced natural rubber: a brief, forgotten yet informative history.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 When Madagascar produced natural rubber: a brief, forgotten yet informative history. P. Danthu (1, Madagascar, like other western African countries, was a production zone for forest rubber destined for export Madagascar occupies a modest position on the world rubber market at that time, the exploitation of rubber

  7. Review of the Impacts of Crumb Rubber in Artificial Turf Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, Rachel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rubber fields, for it is well-known that lead is used in tire production.production processes, it seems safe to conclude that given judicious selection of crumb rubber

  8. asphalt rubber: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Version 7.0 University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: Oil refining Coking & coal products 2 Chemicals Pharmaceuticals Chemical fibers RubberOil refining...

  9. Hyundai plans rubber unit despite overcapacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyoungjin Kim

    1993-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite the oversupply of synthetic rubber in South Korea, the government has granted approval to Hyundai Petrochemical (Seoul) to build the country's second synthetic rubber unit, to be located alongside its petrochemical complex at Daesan. The plant is due for startup during second-half 1995, when the local market is expected to be in better balance. Hyundai will use Goodyear Tire Rubber technology for the plant, which will have annual capacities for 40,000 m.t. of polybutadiene rubber (BR), 30,000 m.t. of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and 12,000 m.t. of nitrile rubber (NBR). Styrene and butadiene requirements will be met from Hyundai's own production at Daesan. The current local producer of synthetic rubber is Korea Kumho Petrochemicals (Seoul), which has annual capacities for 150,000 m.t. of SBR, 95,000 m.t. of BR, and 10,000 m.t. of NBR. Korean SBR demand is about 141,000 m.t./year but is expected to increase to 161,000 m.t./year by 1996 and reach 194,000 m.t./year by the end of the decade.

  10. A Comprehensive Decision Approach for Rubber Tree Planting Management in Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 A Comprehensive Decision Approach for Rubber Tree Planting Management in Africa (Revised Version objective of this study is to settle a rigorous field of decision analysis for rubber tree clones selection rubber tapping, cumulative production during 15 years, cumulative production between 15 and 25 years

  11. Rubber linings -- Overview and new technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehra, L. [ARDCO Corp., Denver, CO (United States); Polaski, E.L. [Lord Corp., Erie, PA (United States); Lewis, R.K. [Blair Rubber Co., Akron, OH (United States); Mauri, A. [A. Tamburini and Co., Via Tazzoli (Italy)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have covered at some length the basic steps involved in rubber lining. They have talked about the progress made in adhesives for lining. The new system in use now is far superior to previous systems. The new systems and the developments going on towards water-based adhesives are discussed. The authors briefly brought up the various types of rubber materials and new developments in terms of chlorobutyl-faced three-ply rubbers as well as development of EPDM-based compounds in Europe. The methods of vulcanization used have been discussed, including hot air vulcanizing which is prevalent in Europe. The development of self-vulcanizing rubber and the advantages in use of pre-cured rubber have been described. The development of new methods, techniques and products for rubber lining has been slow but sure. As can be expected, new product development costs are huge, requiring expert attention and participation. The possibilities are limitless and effort is forthcoming from various sources. There is a need for an interchange of ideas, and the involvement of NACE International and other professional bodies is acknowledged and appreciated.

  12. Use of recycled chunk rubber asphalt concrete (CRAC) on low volume roads and use of recycled crumb rubber modifier in asphalt pavements. Final report, June 1993-June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossain, M.; Funk, L.P.; Sadeq, M.A.; Marucci, G.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major objective of this project was to formulate a Chunk Rubber Asphalt Concrete (CRAC) mix for use on low volume roads. CRAC is a rubber modified asphalt concrete product produced by the `dry process` where rubber chunks of 1/2 inch size are used as aggregate in a cold mix with a type C fly ash. The second objective of this project was to develop guidelines concerning the use of rubber modified asphalt concrete hot mix to include: (1) Design methods for use of asphalt-rubber mix for new construction and overlay, (2) Mix design method for asphalt-rubber, and (3) Test method for determining the amount of rubber in an asphalt-rubber concrete for quality control purposes.

  13. The Effects of Molecular Weight and Temperature on the Kinetic Friction of Silicone Rubbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhury, Manoj K.

    The Effects of Molecular Weight and Temperature on the Kinetic Friction of Silicone Rubbers rubber products were performed for the sole purpose of tabulating properties for consumers with the purpose of understanding the physics of rubber sliding. Quantita- tive physical analysis began

  14. The use of flexible synthetic rubbers for casts of complex fossils from natural moulds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benton, Michael

    The use of flexible synthetic rubbers for casts of complex fossils from natural moulds M. J. BENTON (Dugdale DD118) synthetic rubbers make excellent casting materials for the production of high). They described the methods of use and results from such commercially available silicone rubbers as Silastic 9161

  15. US rubber markets recover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, A.

    1993-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic rubber markets in North America bounced back in no uncertain terms last year, with demand climbing an impressive 9.5%, to 2.97 million m.t.; and, according to the International Institute of Synthetic Rubber Producers (IIS-RP; Houston) latest five-year forecast, producers can look forward to a 3.3% increase in demand during 1993. This growth rate outpaced out 1992 forecast and demonstrates the resilience of the synthetic rubber industry, says William E. Tessemer, managing director of IISRP. We expect demand in 1993 to surpass 1992 and level off at a 2%/year growth rate for synthetic rubber - 2.5% including thermoplastic elastomers [TPEs]-over the 1993-97 period. The improvement reflects signs of a recovery in North America, especially the pickup in the auto and tire industry. The two major tire rubbers - styrene butadiene and polybutadiene rubber - notched up double-digit gains, and other materials that have autos uses, such as nitrile rubber and many of the specialty elastomers, also advanced strongly.

  16. Identification of volatile butyl rubber thermal-oxidative degradation products by cryofocusing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (cryo-GC/MS).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Jonell Nicole; White, Michael Irvin; Bernstein, Robert; Hochrein, James Michael

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical structure and physical properties of materials, such as polymers, can be altered as aging progresses, which may result in a material that is ineffective for its envisioned intent. Butyl rubber formulations, starting material, and additives were aged under thermal-oxidative conditions for up to 413 total days at up to 124 %C2%B0C. Samples included: two formulations developed at Kansas City Plant (KCP) (%236 and %2310), one commercially available formulation (%2321), Laxness bromobutyl 2030 starting material, and two additives (polyethylene AC-617 and Vanax MBM). The low-molecular weight volatile thermal-oxidative degradation products that collected in the headspace over the samples were preconcentrated, separated, and detected using cryofocusing gas chromatography mass spectrometry (cryo-GC/MS). The majority of identified degradation species were alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes. Observations for Butyl %2310 aged in an oxygen-18 enriched atmosphere (18O2) were used to verify when the source of oxygen in the applicable degradation products was from the gaseous environment rather than the polymeric mixture. For comparison purposes, Butyl %2310 was also aged under non-oxidative thermal conditions using an argon atmosphere.

  17. Water Content Determination of Rubber Stoppers Utilized for Sealing Lyophilized Pharmaceutical Products: Assessment of Two Karl Fischer Titration Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voth, Laura Marie

    2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In the pharmaceutical industry, the success of a new drug product is strongly impacted by the stability of the drug formulation. For many formulations, stability is governed by the drug product's water content, thus the ...

  18. More U. S. , Canada synthetic rubber use seen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhoad, M.J.

    1980-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    According to M.J. Rhoad of the International Institute of Synthetic Rubber Producers Inc., the total U.S. and Canadian natural and synthetic rubber consumption will amount to (in thousands of metric tons/yr) 3385, 3305, 3855, and 4295 for 1979, 1980, 1985, and 1990, respectively, with synthetic rubber use increasing from an estimated 2.54 million metric tons/yr in 1979 to 3.27 million metric tons/yr by 1990, including an increase from 2.35 to 3.02 million metric tons/yr for the U.S. Rubber consumption for tires and tire products in the U.S. will increase at 2%/yr, with synthetic rubber accounting for 61.9% of the rubber used for tires in 1990, down from the 63.4% in 1979. In 1980, the decline in automobile and tire production will cause a 2.4% decline in new rubber consumption. During 1979-90, the amount of rubber used for nontire purposes will increase at 2.5%/yr.

  19. Rolling tires into rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malloy, M.G.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For Envirotire (Lillington, North Carolina), producing quality crumb rubber this summer is all in a night`s work. The tire recycling facility has operated in Lillington, which is about an hour south of Raleigh, North Carolina, for about a year and a half, since October 1995. In the summer, the plant runs at night to save money in electricity costs by operating during off-peak hours; in the winter, daytime hours also can be off-peak. In contrast to the cryogenic systems used elsewhere to recycle tires, Envirotire`s system works on mechanical principles. Before the tires are even shredded, a worker cuts the white-walls out of the tires manually, so the white does not contaminate the black end-product. A worker places the tires manually on a conveyor, which feed them up to an initial shredder that sections them quickly into pieces. While the tires are on the conveyor, dividing strips on the conveyor mark off a place for each tire. The system takes nine new tires per minute.

  20. Method for co-processing waste rubber and carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farcasiu, Malvina (Pittsburgh, PA); Smith, Charlene M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a process for the co-processing of waste rubber and carbonaceous material to form a useful liquid product, the rubber and the carbonaceous material are combined and heated to the depolymerization temperature of the rubber in the presence of a source of hydrogen. The depolymerized rubber acts as a liquefying solvent for the carbonaceous material while a beneficial catalytic effect is obtained from the carbon black released on depolymerization the reinforced rubber. The reaction is carried out at liquefaction conditions of 380.degree.-600.degree. C. and 70-280 atmospheres hydrogen pressure. The resulting liquid is separated from residual solids and further processed such as by distillation or solvent extraction to provide a carbonaceous liquid useful for fuels and other purposes.

  1. Method for co-processing waste rubber and carbonaceous material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farcasiu, M.; Smith, C.M.

    1990-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In a process for the co-processing of waste rubber and carbonaceous material to form a useful liquid product, the rubber and the carbonaceous material are combined and heated to the depolymerization temperature of the rubber in the presence of a source of hydrogen. The deploymerized rubber acts as a liquefying solvent for the carbonaceous material while a beneficial catalytic effect is obtained from the carbon black released on deploymerization the reinforced rubber. The reaction is carried out at liquefaction conditions of 380--600{degrees}C and 70--280 atmospheres hydrogen pressure. The resulting liquid is separated from residual solids and further processed such as by distillation or solvent extraction to provide a carbonaceous liquid useful for fuels and other purposes.

  2. Impact of petroleum prices on the natural rubber industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jajri, I.B.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is concerned with a quantitative investigation of the natural rubber industry. The objective is to determine the impact of increased petroleum prices on the natural rubber industry. To pursue this objective, an annual equilibrium market model for the world natural rubber industry is developed that consists of three sets of equations that explain consumption, production, and stockholding of natural rubber. The price of natural rubber in the world market is hypothesized to be endogenously determined by the world supply, world demand, and world stockholding of natural rubber. The two-stage least squares procedure was used to estimate the parameters of the behavioral equations in the model. The data were obtained primarily from various issues of the Rubber Statistical Bulletin, International Financial Statistics Yearbook and Malaysia's Quarterly Economics bulletin. The study covers the period of 1962-1984. The model was simulated (1) to determine its predictive performance and stability during the sample period and (2) to examine the impact of increased petroleum prices on the natural rubber industry.

  3. Profile of the rubber and plastics industry. EPA Office of Compliance sector notebook project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rubber and miscellaneous plastics products industry, as defined by the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code 30, includes establishments that manufacture products from plastic resins, natural and synthetic rubber, reclaimed rubber, futta percha, balata, and gutta siak. The second section provides background information on the size, geographic distribution, employment, production, sales, and economic condition of the Rubber and Plastics Products industry. The type of facilities described within the document are also described in terms of their Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes. Additionally, this section contains a list of the largest companies in terms of sales.

  4. Biodesulfurization of rubber materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torma, A.E. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA)); Raghavan, D. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most challenging problems in municipal waste treatment is the recycling of polymeric waste materials. The present study has demonstrated the applicability of biotechnological principles in the desulfurization of rubber using shake flask and Warburg respirometric techniques. In terms of oxygen uptake and specific rate of oxygen uptake, it was found that the mixed culture of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans was more efficient in this process than the individual pure cultures of these bacteria. Furthermore, the mixed cultures resulted in ten times higher sulfur removals from rubber relative to those of sterile controls. Additional studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms of biodesulfurization of rubber. It is expected that the development of this process may provide a solution to recycling of car tire materials. 32 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Bryan Rubber Plant - International Shoe Company, Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponder, W. M.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BRYAN RUBBER PLANT - INTERNATIONAL SHOE COhIPANY, INC. \\\\'illis hl. Ponder, P. E. President ACR Energy Engineering, Inc. Austin, Texas ABSTRACT This paper is an energy case study of a failing American manufacturing process suffering from... plant was envisioned alongside the main production building between the original production building and the administration building. The physical plant consists of: MANUFACTURING BUILDING . single story . concrcte floor on one level . walls...

  6. The influence of rubber separators on electrochemical behavior of lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paik, S.L. [Amerace, Microporous Products, L.P., Piney Flats, TN (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents manufacturing processes; physical, chemical and electrochemical properties; performance in batteries; and their applications of currently available three types of rubber separators. Many aspects of lead-acid battery performance characteristics which are unique electrochemical properties of rubber separators are given. During the early period of lead-acid batteries and their separator development, introduction of microporous hard rubber separators greatly improved performances of lead-acid batteries over wood separators extending battery life and improving cold cranking capabilities. Even after the coming of age of microporous plastic separators, rubber separators have maintained a unique position in the battery industry due to certain performance characteristics which could only be found in microporous rubber separators. Presently, there are several types of separators which differ by their material composition, namely separators made of plastic (polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, phenolic resorcinol), fiber glass, resin impregnated cellulosic paper and rubber. The performance success of microporous hard rubber separators over the years lead to the introduction of two new variations of rubber products. These are electron beam radiation crosslinked microporous flexible rubber separators and coated fiber glass mat separators containing rubber. In addition to providing physical, mechanical and chemical requirements necessary for designing good lead-acid batteries, rubber separators impart electrochemical performance characteristics which enhance overall performance of battery.

  7. Microbial degradation of natural rubber vulcanizates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsuchii, A.; Suzuki, T.; Takeda, K.

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An actinomycete, Nocardia sp. strain 835A, grows well on unvulcanized natural rubber and synthetic isoprene rubber, but not on other types of synthetic rubber. Not only unvulcanized but also various kinds of vulcanized natural rubber products were more or less utilized by the organism as the sole source of carbon and energy. The thin film from a latex glove was rapidly degraded, and the weight loss reached 75% after a 2-week cultivation period. Oligomers with molecular weights from 10/sup 4/ to 10/sup 3/ were accumulated during microbial growth on the latex glove. The partially purified oligomers were examined by infrared and /sup 1/H nuclear magnetic resonance and /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and the spectra were those expected of cis-1, 4-polyisoprene with the structure, OHC-CH/sub 2/-(-CH/sub 2/-C(-CH/sub 3/)=CH-CH/sub 2/-)/sub n/-CH/sub 2/-C(=O)-CH/sub 3/, with average values of n of about 114 and 19 for the two oligomers.

  8. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE CONTAINING SCRAP TIRE RUBBER in a variety of rubber and plastic products, thermal incineration of waste tires for production of electricity rubber in asphalt mixes, (ii) thermal incineration of worn-out tires for the production of electricity

  9. Guayule rubber: Cultivation and manufacture. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Rsearch Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning research and development of guayule as a natural rubber source. Cultivation methods and locations, physical and chemical properties, economic factors of cultivation through manufacture, production forecasts, effects of mixing with synthetic rubbers, and vulcanization are among the topics discussed. Industrial health hazards, performance in the world market, and applications are considered. (Contains a minimum of 206 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. US rubber makers, an overseas bonanza

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agoos, A.; Savage, P.; Ushio, S.; Portnoy, K.

    1987-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An increase in total US synthetic rubber exports for 1985 and 1986 is documented. Forecasts for the financial future of the US rubber industry are also given.

  11. Bioregulator doubles guayule's rubber output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In greenhouse experiments, treatment of guayule with a bioregulator has resulted in a two fold stimulation of rubber synthesis. The work which is funded by the National Science Foundation and the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station is investigating the potential of guayule as a source of rubber.

  12. What's the future for rubberized asphalt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes the debate over the use of rubberized asphalt for highway surfacing. The Department of Transportation claims that the process is too costly; that it presents potential air pollution, safety and health problems. They also claim that there is a lack of understanding between rubber and asphalt cement and of the recyclability of the product. The Legislative Commission on Solid Waste Management claims that the mixture performs as well or better than conventional asphalt at reduced thicknesses. In addition, there could be savings of local funds currently expended for regulation of tire dumps, fire-fighting and clean-up, vector control and scrap tire disposal costs ranging from $.50 to $2.00 per tire.

  13. Saga of synthetic rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solo, R.A.

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposal to establish an Energy Mobilization Board and a synthetic fuels industry is reminiscent of World War II efforts to produce synthetic rubber. To avoid the mistakes made in the earlier effort, Mr. Solo suggests that the synthetic-fuel program should (1) use a more-successful technological development project as a model; (2) commit public funding and not rely on profit-oriented private enterprise; and (3) avoid entrusting social planning to single-purpose entities that have not been sensitive to social values. (DCK)

  14. Recycled rubber roads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes several innovative approaches for recycling old tires in the construction of roads. In one, 18 inches of shredded tire chips (2 X 2 inches) were used on top of 6-8 inches of small stone to construct a road across a sanitary landfill. No compacting or linders were needed. In another application, sidewall mats linked together with steel strapping were used as a sub-base for a road across a swampy area. A third application uses 1/2 inch bits of groundup rubber tires as a replacement for aggregate in an asphalt road base.

  15. Rubber friction on (apparently) smooth lubricated surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Mofidi; B. Prakash; B. N. J. Persson; O. Albohl

    2007-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We study rubber sliding friction on hard lubricated surfaces. We show that even if the hard surface appears smooth to the naked eye, it may exhibit short wavelength roughness, which may give the dominant contribution to rubber friction. That is, the observed sliding friction is mainly due to the viscoelastic deformations of the rubber by the substrate surface asperities. The presented results are of great importance for rubber sealing and other rubber applications involving (apparently) smooth surfaces.

  16. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization APPLICATION OF SCRAP TIRE RUBBER IN ASPHALTIC MATERIALS: STATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. PRODUCING CRUMB RUBBER MODIFIER (CRM) FROM USED TIRES . . . . . 3 2.1 PRODUCTION OF CRM THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN - MILWAUKEE #12;APPLICATION OF SCRAP TIRE RUBBER IN ASPHALTIC MATERIALS: STATE

  17. Rubber linings answer to many problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehra, L. [Quality Linings Co., Aurora, CO (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The uses of rubber linings in different fields industries are discussed.The physical properties of rubber both natural and synthetic rubber are listed and their importance is evaluated. The aging of rubber is discussed in detail, including effects of temperature on aging of rubber. By virtue of its inherent elasticity and chemical resistance, rubber linings have found many uses in the protection of mining equipment, water treatment tanks and vessels, flue gas desulfurization equipment in power plants and varied process and storage vessels in chemical industries. Rubber has found extensive use in civil engineering field as expansion joints and bladders in dams. Electrical resistance of rubber is useful for its application as an insulating material. Rubber is chemically resistant to acids, alkalies and many salt solutions. Rubber linings are therefore used for protection of steel against these acids, alkalies or salt solutions. The extreme elasticity of rubber has been found useful in its application as a lining material in areas subject to high abrasion. Frequently rubber linings are the linings of choice when a combination of abrasion and chemical attack are to be protected against. Constantly, new formulations of rubber lining compounds are being developed just as new chemical processes are being made. The flexibility of compounding and the relative ease of putting layers of different rubber formulations together in multilayered formulations of rubber lining compounds is leading to new uses of this lining material.

  18. Rubber stopper remover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stitt, Robert R. (Arvada, CO)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for removing a rubber stopper from a test tube is mountable to an upright wall, has a generally horizontal splash guard, and a lower plate spaced parallel to and below the splash guard. A slot in the lower plate has spaced-apart opposing edges that converge towards each other from the plate outer edge to a narrowed portion, the opposing edges shaped to make engagement between the bottom of the stopper flange and the top edge of the test tube to wedge therebetween and to grasp the stopper in the slot narrowed portion to hold the stopper as the test tube is manipulated downwardly and pulled from the stopper. The opposing edges extend inwardly to adjoin an opening having a diameter significantly larger than that of the stopper flange.

  19. Supersonic Rupture of Rubber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M Marder

    2005-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The rupture of rubber differs from conventional fracture. It is supersonic, and the speed is determined by strain levels ahead of the tip rather than total strain energy as for ordinary cracks. Dissipation plays a very important role in allowing the propagation of ruptures, and the back edges of ruptures must toughen as they contract, or the rupture is unstable. This article presents several levels of theoretical description of this phenomenon: first, a numerical procedure capable of incorporating large extensions, dynamics, and bond rupture; second, a simple continuum model that can be solved analytically, and which reproduces several features of elementary shock physics; and third, an analytically solvable discrete model that accurately reproduces numerical and experimental results, and explains the scaling laws that underly this new failure mode. Predictions for rupture speed compare well with experiment.

  20. An investigation of the use of tire rubber in asphalt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koo, Heamo Lee

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -rubber binder. The selected variables chosen are curing time, curing temperature, rubber content (weight percent), rubber particle size, base asphalt type, and carbonyl area. Results confirmed that the addition of rubber increased the viscosity of the asphalt...

  1. Electrospinning of PVC with natural rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Othman, Muhammad Hariz; Abdullah, Ibrahim [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohamed, Mahathir [Radiation Processing Technology Division (BTS), Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000, Kajang (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was mixed with natural rubbers which are liquid natural rubber (LNR), liquid epoxidised natural rubber (LENR) and liquid epoxidised natural rubber acrylate (LENRA) for a preparation of a fine non-woven fiber’s mat. PVC and each natural rubbers(PVC:LENR, PVC:LNR and PVC:LENRA) were mixed based on ratio of 70:30. Electrospinning method was used to prepare the fiber. The results show that the spinnable concentration of PVC/ natural rubber/THF solution is 16 wt%. The morphology, diameter, structure and degradation temperature of electrospun fibers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM photos showed that the morphology and diameter of the fibers were mainly affected by the addition of natural rubber. TGA results suggested that PVC electrospun fiber has higher degradation temperature than those electrospun fibers that contain natural rubber.

  2. Rubber friction on ice and snow surfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skouvaklis, Gerasimos

    2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The friction of rubber on ice and snow surfaces is complex. Deeper scientific understanding is important for optimising performance of tyres in winter. Rubber, ice and snow systems exhibit frictional behaviour which ...

  3. Rubber bearings for precision positioning systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barton Martinelli, Augusto E

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis we investigate the use of thin rubber sheets or laminates of metal and rubber sheets as bearings in precision positioning systems. Such bearings have the potential to replace more conventional flexures ...

  4. Rubber friction on smooth surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. N. J. Persson; A. I. Volokitin

    2006-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the sliding friction for viscoelastic solids, e.g., rubber, on hard flat substrate surfaces. We consider first the fluctuating shear stress inside a viscoelastic solid which results from the thermal motion of the atoms or molecules in the solid. At the nanoscale the thermal fluctuations are very strong and give rise to stress fluctuations in the MPa-range, which is similar to the depinning stresses which typically occur at solid-rubber interfaces, indicating the crucial importance of thermal fluctuations for rubber friction on smooth surfaces. We develop a detailed model which takes into account the influence of thermal fluctuations on the depinning of small contact patches (stress domains) at the rubber-substrate interface. The theory predicts that the velocity dependence of the macroscopic shear stress has a bell-shaped f orm, and that the low-velocity side exhibits the same temperature dependence as the bulk viscoelastic modulus, in qualitative agreement with experimental data. Finally, we discuss the influence of small-amplitude substrate roughness on rubber sliding friction.

  5. Characterizing guayule rubber transferase activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cornish, K.; Backhaus, R.A. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (USA))

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rubber transferase (RuT) activity, measured as incorporation of {sup 14}C(isopentenyl pyrophosphate) (IPP) into rubber, was assayed in suspensions of rubber particles purified from bark tissue of Parthenium argentatum, Gray. Rubber particle suspensions (RSP) have high RuT activity which is not diminished by repeated washing of the particles, demonstrating the firm association of the enzyme system with the particles. RuT activity varied with line: 11591 yielded more rubber particles with a greater activity per particle, than did other lines tested. Variation in activity also varied with bark age and season. Activity rapidly declined at temperatures above 16{degree}C in line 593, but was more stable in RSP isolated form line 11591. IPP-incorporation depends upon the concentration of two substrates, IPP and the starter molecule farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP). In lines 593 and 11591, 20 uM FPP saturated the enzyme present in 6 {times} 10{sup 10} particles {times} cm{sup {minus}3}, whereas about 1 mM IPP was required for saturation. Under saturating FPP, the apparent K{sub m} of RuT was about 250 uM.

  6. Settling of rubber particles in asphalt-rubber blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wattanachai, Piyachat

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -rubber weights and the undissolved rubber weights of sample 10/27/97 . . . 38 II-8 Schematic of the Superpave~ test equipment. . . . . . . 40 11-9 The Superpave? performance grade specification. . . . . Ill-l The GPC chromatogram of neat Exxon AC-10... Corhett Results Asphaltenes Saturates Naphthene Aromatics Polar Aromatics Exxon AC-10 10 1% 11 6% 46. 2% 30. 7% Resin D 3. 5% 17. 8% 54. 8% 21. 6% Vacuum Tower Bottom 17. 3% 20. 2% 45. 2% 18 4o/(, SHRP ABM-1' 7. 1% 9, 0% 29 6% 52...

  7. Fall Rubber Colloquium CHARACTERIZATION OF DISPERSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    9th Fall Rubber Colloquium CHARACTERIZATION OF DISPERSION MECHANISMS OF AGGLOMERATED FILLERS (styrene-butadiene rubber). The objective was to determine the role of the intrinsic parameters Carbon black and silica are widely used as reinforcing fillers for rubber compounds in the tire industry

  8. Random Parking and Rubber Elasticity Mathew Penrose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penrose, Mathew

    Random Parking and Rubber Elasticity Mathew Penrose (University of Bath) Joint work with Antoine), Imperial January 2013 #12;Rubber Elasticity Let d, n N (e.g. d = n = 3). Suppose D Rd is a bounded domain. D represents a piece of rubber. Let L Rd be a locally finite point process. L D the locations

  9. Guayule - natural rubber from the desert

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bucks, D.A.

    1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Guayule is the most likely source of home grown natural rubber in the United States and research is currently underway on methods of increasing rubber content, seed germination and survival, climate and soil requirements and rubber content determination by solvent extraction.

  10. World synthetic rubber consumption is growing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Worldwide consumption of new rubber, both synthetic and natural, has increased. This report includes a prediction of even more growth in the rubber market which was made by the International Institute of Synthetic Rubber Producers (IISRP), based in Houston. Figures are given for worldwide consumption.

  11. Review of the Impacts of Crumb Rubber in Artificial Turf Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, Rachel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    have contact with crumb rubber synthetic turf is negligible.of cryogenic crumb rubber for synthetic turf. Test resultscrumb rubber. Crumb rubber and synthetic turf have many

  12. Rubber friction and tire dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. N. J. Persson

    2010-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, e.g., in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (B.N.J. Persson, J. Phys.: Condensed Matter 18, 7789 (2006)). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to calculate accurate mu-slip (and the self-aligning torque) curves for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g., braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of Anti-Blocking System (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

  13. Thermal Fluctuations and Rubber Elasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiangjun Xing; Paul M. Goldbart; Leo Radzihovsky

    2006-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of thermal elastic fluctuations in rubber materials are examined. It is shown that, due to an interplay with the incompressibility constraint, these fluctuations qualitatively modify the large-deformation stress-strain relation, compared to that of classical rubber elasticity. To leading order, this mechanism provides a simple and generic explanation for the peak structure of Mooney-Rivlin stress-strain relation, and shows a good agreement with experiments. It also leads to the prediction of a phonon correlation function that depends on the external deformation.

  14. Thermocatalytic decomposition of vulcanized rubber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Feng

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    of the polymer at lower temperatures (non-pyrolysis conditions). Studies by Larsen et al. (41, 42) demonstrated that molten salt catalysts with Lewis acid properties, such as chloride, tin chloride, and antimony iodide, can decompose tire rubbers... of polymeric materials over molten mixtures of a basic salt (NaOH or KOH) and a Cu source, mainly metallic Cu and CuO. Processes using solid acid as catalysts have also been patented. Ac to Chen and Yan (47) preprocessed clean plastic and/or rubber wastes...

  15. Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bauman, Bernard D. (Emmaus, PA); Williams, Mark A. (Souderton, PA); Bagheri, Reza (Bethlehem, PA)

    1997-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles.

  16. Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McInnis, E.L.; Scharff, R.P.; Bauman, B.D.; Williams, M.A.

    1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles. 2 figures.

  17. Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McInnis, Edwin L. (Allentown, PA); Scharff, Robert P. (Louisville, KY); Bauman, Bernard D. (Emmaus, PA); Williams, Mark A. (Souderton, PA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles.

  18. Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauman, B.D.; Williams, M.A.; Bagheri, R.

    1997-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles. 2 figs.

  19. Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McInnis, Edwin L. (Allentown, PA); Bauman, Bernard D. (Emmaus, PA); Williams, Mark A. (Souderton, PA)

    1996-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles.

  20. Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McInnis, E.L.; Bauman, B.D.; Williams, M.A.

    1996-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles. 2 figs.

  1. Improved rubber nanofillers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, T. J.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During this task, Silane functionalized TiO2 and HK3Ti4O4(SiO4)3 were sent to Goodyear (GY) for testing. These materials were characterized based on their interaction with the model elastomer, squalene. The Van der Waals interactions and Hamaker Constants for ZnO particles in squalene and rubber materials were characterized and it was determined that a 10-20 nm spacing was necessary between primary filler particles to maintain a stable nanocomposite. Contact angle measurements on the ZnO and ZnO-silane materials indicated that the solvent should wet the particles, and solvophobic attractions should not be present. These studies showed that the surface modification with sulfosilane coupling agents was successful, and high levels of dispersion of the particles remained possible. Further, a novel surface charging phenomenon where negative surface charging is developed in the squalene environment was observed and corroborated by measurements of particle size and of the surface modified materials in squalene. This impacts the dispersion of the particles according to the traditional colloidal interpretation of electrostatic repulsive forces between particles. Additionally, thin nanocomposite fibers were developed using electrospinning. The size and shape of the oxides did not change during the electrospinning process, although the shape of the fiber and the distribution of the particles, particularly for ZnO, was not ideal. There was an obvious increase in elastic modulus and hardness from the addition of the oxides, but differentiating the oxides, and particularly the surfactants, was difficult. The A-1289 lead to the greatest dispersion of the filler particles, while the A-1589 and the NXT produced clustered particle aggregates. This agrees with previous study of these materials in low molecular weight squalene solvent studies reported earlier. The behavior of the nanoparticle ZnO and the microparticle silica is different as well, with the ZnO being contained within the elastomer, and the SiO2 forming monolayers at the surface of the elastomer. The dynamic mechanical analysis did not show clear trends between the surface modification and the aggregate structure. In the silica particles, the NXT led to the least particle interaction, followed by the A-1289 and highest particle interaction found for the A-1589. For the nanosized ZnO, the best dispersion was found for the A-1589, with both the A-1289 and NXT exhibiting frequency dependent responses.

  2. Rubber lining for FGD scrubbers for waste incinerator plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rullmann, H.E. [Smith Corrosion Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flue gas desulfurization scrubbers for waste incineration plants can be lined with soft rubber or hard rubber for corrosion protection. Hard rubber is cured under high temperature and pressure in an autoclave. The advantage of hard rubber is the excellent temperature and chemical resistance. The authors have experience with hard rubber lined scrubbers that are in service without failures for over 20 years.

  3. Compatibilizer for crumb rubber modified asphalt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Labib, M.E. [New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ (United States); Memon, G.M.; Chollar, B.H. [Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States of America discards more than 300 million tires each year, and out of that a large fraction of the tires is dumped into stock piles. This large quantity of tires creates an environmental problem. The use of scrap tires is limited. There is a usage potential in such fields as fuel for combustion and Crumb Rubber-Modified Asphalt binder (CRMA). The use of crumb rubber in modifying asphalt is not a new technique; it is been used since early 1960 by pavement engineers. Crumb rubber is a composite of different blends of natural and synthetic rubber (natural rubber, processing oils, polybutadiene, polystyrene butadiene, and filler). Prior research had concluded that the performance of crumb rubber modified asphalt is asphalt dependent. In some cases it improves the Theological properties and in some cases it degrades the properties of modified asphalt.

  4. Ground rubber: Reactive permeable barrier sorption media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kershaw, D.S.; Pamukcu, S. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research was to examine the feasibility of using ground tire rubber as a sorbent media in reactive permeable barrier systems. Previous research by the current authors has demonstrated that tire rubber can sorb significant quantities of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and O-xylene from aqueous solutions. The current research was run to examine the usage rate of ground rubber in a packed bed reactor under specific contact times. In addition, desorption and repetitive sorption tests were run to determine the reversibility of the sorption process for ground tire rubber. These tests were run to determine the regeneration capacity of ground tire rubber. Results of the study show that the usage rates are greater than 50% with an empty bed contact times of 37 minutes, and minimal amounts of energy are needed to regenerate the tire rubber after use.

  5. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: All Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33), January 2014 (MECS 2010)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomyDr.EnergyManufacturingAll Manufacturing (NAICS

  6. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Textiles (NAICS 313-316), January 2014 (MECS 2010)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), October 2012 (MECS 2006) | DepartmentTextiles (NAICS

  7. Blow molding of melt processible rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abell, W.R.; Stuart, R.E.; Myrick, R.E.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article discusses the advantages of making hollow rubber parts by blow molding thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) versus conventional rubber processing. It describes the various types of blow molding processes and it provides some insight into the rheological properties of melt processible rubber (MPR) and how MPR should be molded by each of these processes. A number of blow molded applications for MPR are also discussed.

  8. Primitive chain Brownian simulations of entangled rubbers Short title: Simulations of entangled rubbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Primitive chain Brownian simulations of entangled rubbers Short title: Simulations of entangled rubbers J. Oberdisse1,2 , G. Ianniruberto2 , F. Greco3 , G. Marrucci2 1 Laboratoire Léon Brillouin CEA and entanglements used in several molecular theories of rubber elasticity is confirmed by the simulation results

  9. Recycling rubber wastes. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning research and innovations in the recycling of rubber wastes. Recycling methods and equipment, applications of recycled rubber, and energy recovery systems and performance are among the topics discussed. Recycling methods compared and contrasted with various rubber waste disposal techniques are also included. (Contains a minimum of 96 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Paper presented at IRRDB, 2006, Vietnam. Rubber based Agroforestry Systems (RAS) as Alternatives for Rubber Monoculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Paper presented at IRRDB, 2006, Vietnam. Rubber based Agroforestry Systems (RAS) as Alternatives for Rubber Monoculture System. Gede Wibawa Lembaga Riset Perkebunan Indonesia Jalan Salak 1A, Bogor Eric Penot CIRAD BP 5035, 34032 Montpellier, Cedex 1, France ABSTRACT Smallholder rubber plantations

  11. Recycling rubber wastes. (Latest citations from the rubber and plastics research association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning research and innovations in the recycling of rubber wastes. Recycling methods and equipment, applications of recycled rubber, and energy recovery systems and performance are among the topics discussed. Recycling methods compared and contrasted with various rubber waste disposal techniques are also included. (Contains a minimum of 89 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Rubber-degrading enzyme from a bacterial culture. [Xanthomonas sp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsuchii, A.; Takeda, K. (Fermentation Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rubber-degrading activity was found in the extracellular culture medium of Xanthomonas sp. strain 35Y which was grown on natural rubber latex. Natural rubber in the latex state was degraded by the crude enzyme, and two fractions were separately observed by gel permeation chromatography of the reaction products. One fraction was of higher molecular weight (HMW) with a very wide MW distribution from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 5}, and the other fraction was of lower molecular weight (LMW) with a MW of a few hundred. {sup 1}H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the partially purified fractions were those expected of cis-1,4-polyisoprene mixtures with the structure OHC-CH{sub 2}-(-CH{sub 2}-C(-CH{sub 3})=CH-CH{sub 2}-){sub n}-CH{sub 2}-C(=O)-CH{sub 3}, with average values of n of about 113 and 2 for HMW and LMW fractions, respectively. The LMW fraction consisted mostly of one component in gas-liquid chromatography as well as in gel permeation chromatography, and the main component was identified as 12-oxo-4,8-dimethyl trideca-4,8-diene-1-al (acetonyl diprenyl acetoaldehyde, A{sub L}P{sub 2}A{sub t}) by {sup 13}C-nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectra. Not only the lattices of natural and synthetic isoprene rubber, but also some kinds of low-MW polyisoprene compounds of cis-1,4 type, were degraded by the crude enzyme. The rubber-degrading reaction was found to be at least partly oxygenase catalyzed from the incorporation of {sup 18}O into A{sub L}P{sub 2}A{sub t} under an {sup 18}O{sub 2} atmosphere.

  13. Energy dissipation characteristics of rubber crash cushion elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael Fowlkes

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abbreviation ~S1 1. Natural Rubber NR Regal Inter- national, Inc, Natural Rubber/ Butadiene Natural Rubber/ Ethylene-Propylene Natural Rubber/ Butyl Butyl Natural Rubber/ 204 Ethylene-Prop. Neoprene NR/BD NR/E PDM NR/ BU BU NR/20'EPDM NEO... OF SCIENCE December 1988 Major Subject: Civil Engineering ENERGY DISSIPATION CHARACTERISTICS OF RUBBER CRASH CUSHION ELEMENTS A Thesis by MICHAEL FOWLKES THOMPSON Approved as to style and content by: Paul N. Roschke (Chair of Committee) Hayes E. Ros...

  14. Shock wave theory for rupture of rubber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Marder

    2004-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This article presents a theory for the rupture of rubber. Unlike conventional cracks, ruptures in rubber travel faster than the speed of sound, and consist in two oblique shocks that meet at a point. Physical features of rubber needed for this phenomenon include Kelvin dissipation and an increase of toughness as rubber retracts. There are three levels of theoretical description: an approximate continuum theory, an exact analytical solution of a slightly simplified discrete problem, and numerical solution of realistic and fully nonlinear equations of motion.

  15. adult rubber trees: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    equipment cost. To address this problem, microbial degradation of natural rubber (NR) and waste rubber tire (WRT) by Nocardia sp. strain 385A was studied using dilute solution...

  16. Thailand's natural rubber economy in an international setting: an econometric investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suwanakul, S.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Thai natural rubber economy is described in the context of the world rubber market. An econometric model is estimated for 15 structural equations; it includes the Thai, US, and rest-of-the-world rubber economies. Several simulation experiments are analyzed for the period from 1984 to 1995. Impact and dynamic multipliers are reported for major endogenous variables in response to changes in US GDP, world crude oil price, Thai replanting cess tax and Thai natural rubber production. A 1%, one-time increase in the US GDP has a positive effect on the Singapore natural rubber price. A world crude oil price decline shock has a negative effect in both the short-run and the long-run. The INRO buffer stock stabilization policy as well as alternative domestic Thai policies of market intervention are analyzed. The simulation results show that buffer stock management which allows a price band of +/-20% around the price target has the most stabilized price, compared to other band widths and no stock management. The outcome of the increase of the Thai replanting cess tax raises not only cess tax revenue, but also producer and export earning. Results showed that a decrease in rubber production positively affected producer and export earnings in the long-run.

  17. Industrial Demand Module

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (NAICS 332) Bulk chemicals Machinery (NAICS 333) Inorganic (NAICS 32512- 32518) Computer and electronic products (NAICS 334) Other agricultural production (NAICS 112, 113,...

  18. THE RUBBER SHOWCASE IN SUMATRA Eric Penot CIRAD-TERA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 THE RUBBER SHOWCASE IN SUMATRA Eric Penot CIRAD-TERA Penot E. (2004) The rubber showcase-312. ________________________________________________________________ 1 The Indonesian rubber boom : a progressive evolution. As with cocoa a combination of available land and centres with fairly dense population is a prerequisite for a boom. But in the case of rubber

  19. Artificial Muscle Construction Using Natural Rubber Latex in Thailand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laksanacharoen, Sathaporn

    Artificial Muscle Construction Using Natural Rubber Latex in Thailand Sathaporn Laksanacharoen of the inner rubber tube, made from natural rubber latex in Thailand, and the braided outer sleeve of natural rubber latex, however, its value of export is very minimal. This work try to make it worthwhile

  20. Rubber friction: role of the flash temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. N. J. Persson

    2006-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    When a rubber block is sliding on a hard rough substrate, the substrate asperities will exert time-dependent deformations of the rubber surface resulting in viscoelastic energy dissipation in the rubber, which gives a contribution to the sliding friction. Most surfaces of solids have roughness on many different length scales, and when calculating the friction force it is necessary to include the viscoelastic deformations on all length scales. The energy dissipation will result in local heating of the rubber. Since the viscoelastic properties of rubber-like materials are extremely strongly temperature dependent, it is necessary to include the local temperature increase in the analysis. At very low sliding velocity the temperature increase is negligible because of heat diffusion, but already for velocities of order 0.01 m/s the local heating may be very important. Here I study the influence of the local heating on the rubber friction, and I show that in a typical case the temperature increase results in a decrease in rubber friction with increasing sliding velocity for v > 0.01 m/s. This may result in stick-slip instabilities, and is of crucial importance in many practical applications, e.g., for the tire-road friction, and in particular for ABS-breaking systems.

  1. Eco-Certification of Natural Rubber: Demand, Supply, and Potential Implications of Private Global Environmental Governance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Sean

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liveli- hood of Smallholder Rubber Farmers in Bungo Distict,in Ecocertification of Rubber Agroforestry System. ” Bogor,Forest to Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations in Southern

  2. Forest Products Sector (NAICS 321 and 322) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdf Flash2010-60.pdf2 DOE Hydrogen andMeetingonupSault Ste. U.S.

  3. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Forest Products (NAICS 321, 322), January 2014 (MECS 2010)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomyDr.EnergyManufacturingAllComputers,Food

  4. Recycling rubber wastes. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning research and innovations in the recycling of rubber wastes. Recycling methods and equipment, applications of recycled rubber, and energy recovery systems and performance are among the topics discussed. Recycling methods compared and contrasted with various rubber waste disposal techniques are also included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. State of the practice: Design and construction of asphalt paving materials with crumb-rubber modifier. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heitzman, M.A.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The document is a comprehensive overview of the terminology, processes, products, and applications of crumb rubber modifier (CRM) technology. The technology includes any use of scrap tire rubber in asphalt paving materials. In general, CRM technology can be divided into two categories--the wet process and the dry process. When CRM is incorporated into an asphalt paving material, it will modify the properties of the binder (asphalt rubber) and/or act as a rubber aggregate (rubber modified hot mix asphalt). The five concepts for using CRM discussed in the report are McDonald, PlusRide, generic dry, chunk rubber asphalt concrete, and continuous blending asphalt rubber. There are two principal unresolved engineering issues related to the use of CRM in asphalt paving materials. On the national level, the ability to recycle asphalt paving mixes containing CRM has not been demonstrated. At the State and local levels, these modified asphalt mixes must be field evaluated to establish expected levels of performance. The appendices provide guidelines for material specifications, mix design, and construction specifications. An experimental work plan for monitoring performance and a stack emission testing program are also included.

  6. Enhanced Stuffing Box Rubbers Test Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rochelle, J.

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) and Scott's Oil Field Service tested an enhanced stuffing box rubber at the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3. The enhanced stuffing box rubbers have saved money from not having to replace packing as often and not spilling valuable oil on the ground. A reduction in environmental hazards and the cost of cleaning up spilled oil have also been a benefit.

  7. Productivity and Firm Size Distribution: Evidence from India's Organized and Unorganized Manufacturing Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nataraj, Shanthi

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic Fibers Jute and Vegetable Fibers Textile Products Wood Paper Leather Basic Chemicals Rubber,Synthetic Textiles Jute, Vegetable Fiber Textile Products Wood, Furniture, Fixtures Paper, Printing, Finishing Leather Basic Chemicals Rubber,Synthetic Textiles Jute, Vegetable Fiber Textile Products Wood, Furniture, Fixtures Paper, Printing, Finishing Leather Basic Chemicals Rubber,

  8. Rubber Latex Gloves as a Direct Dosimeter for Measuring Dermal Harvester Pesticide Exposure Particularly With Malathion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez, Terry Enriquez

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SETTINGS……………………………………………8 1.4. RUBBER LATEX GLOVES AS A44 CHAPTER 4: EVALUATION OF RUBBER LATEX GLOVES AS A DIRECTWith clean gloves, slide the rubber bands holding the rubber

  9. A calculation method for torsional vibration of a crankshafting system with a conventional rubber damper by considering rubber form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kodama, Tomoaki; Honda, Yasuhiro; Wakabayashi, Katsuhiko; Iwamoto, Shoichi

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cheap and compact rubber dampers of shear-type have been widely employed as the torsional vibration control of the crankshaft system of high-speed, automobile diesel engines. The conventional rubber dampers have various rubber forms owing to the thorough investigation of optimum dampers in the design stage. Their rubber forms can be generally grouped into three classes such as the disk type, the bush type and the composite type. The disk type and the bush type rubber dampers are called the basic-pattern rubber dampers hereafter. The composite type rubber part is supposed to consist of the disk type and the bush type parts, regarded respectively as the basic patterns of the rubber part, at large. The dynamic characteristics of the vibration isolator rubber depend generally on temperature, frequency, strain amplitude, shape and size effect,s so it is difficult to estimate accurately their characteristics. With the present technical level, it is also difficult to determine the suitable rubber geometry which optimizes the vibration control effect. The study refers to the calculation method of the torsional vibration of a crankshaft system with a shear-type rubber damper having various rubber forms in order to offer the useful method for optimum design. In this method, the rheological formula of the three-element Maxwell model, from which the torsional stiffness and the damping coefficient of the damper rubber part in the equivalent vibration system are obtained, are adopted in order to decide the dynamic characteristics of the damper rubber part.

  10. Safety glasses Closed-toe rubber-soled shoes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Jerry

    #12;Safety glasses Long pants Closed-toe rubber-soled shoes Hard hat The three most important glasses - Long pants - Closed-toe rubber-soled shoes 1 #12;#12;#12;Step 1 Place wooden furring strips

  11. GUIDE TO THE REACTIONS TO NATURAL RUBBER LATEX SYMPTOM IRRITATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    GUIDE TO THE REACTIONS TO NATURAL RUBBER LATEX SYMPTOM IRRITATION DELAYED TYPE HYPERSENSITIVITY braziliensis (rubber tree) Approximate % of population vulnerable: 100% 7-18% general population: 0.8% hospital

  12. The Independent Caucus: Breaking the Rubber Stamp Mold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    The Independent Caucus: Breaking the Rubber Stamp Mold Chicago City Council Report May 21, 2007 in its voting patterns. It remains to be seen if this new oppositional bloc will undermine the rubber

  13. FROM RUBBER BANDS TO RATIONAL MAPS RESEARCH REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thurston, Dylan

    FROM RUBBER BANDS TO RATIONAL MAPS RESEARCH REPORT DYLAN P. THURSTON Dedicated to the memory-print, and surely has mistakes; please give comments! , elastic networks (rubber bands) at equilibrium within

  14. On the predictive capability and stability of rubber material models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Haining

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the high non-linearity and incompressibility constraint of rubber materials, the predictive capability and stability of rubber material models require specific attention for practical engineering analysis. In this ...

  15. Principal Research Engineer Cooper Tire and Rubber Company,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fatemi, Ali

    W. V. Mars Principal Research Engineer Cooper Tire and Rubber Company, 701 Lima Ave., Findlay, Ohio Natural Rubber Under Monotonic and Cyclic Multiaxial Stress States This work explores the monotonic and cyclic behaviors of filled, natural rubber. Results of stress-strain experiments conducted under stress

  16. Hydration and Conductivity in Natural Rubber Latex Gloves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bennett, John K.

    Hydration and Conductivity in Natural Rubber Latex Gloves John K. Bennett, PhD, PE Department of natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves have been of clinical interest since the concept of using an electrical result is that most natural rubber latex gloves have dynamic electrical behavior that precludes the use

  17. Rubber Bandzzles: Three Mathematical Puzzle-Art Challenges George Hart

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubber Bandzzles: Three Mathematical Puzzle-Art Challenges George Hart Museum of Mathematics office supplies. Should there be rubber bands lying about on the conference table of your next dreary replicating it hundreds of times over the years. As Fig. 1 indicates, The Worm is a single rubber band very

  18. Subset Warping: Rubber Sheeting with Cuts Pierre Landau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Eric L.

    Subset Warping: Rubber Sheeting with Cuts Pierre Landau and Eric Schwartz ¡ February 14, 1994 Cummington Street Boston, Mass. 02215 (617) 353-6179 fax (617) 353-6178 Running Head: "Subset Warping: Rubber warping, often referred to as "rubber sheeting" represents the deformation of a domain image space

  19. Numerical and experimental investigation of nonlinear properties of rubber absorber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Numerical and experimental investigation of nonlinear properties of rubber absorber in rail, Shanghai, 201804 Abstract: A dynamic nonlinear model of rubber absorber in railway fastening is proposed in this paper based on a superposition principal demonstrating that the restoring force of rubber components

  20. ccsd00000893 Sliding Friction at a Rubber/Brush Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ccsd­00000893 (version 1) : 28 Nov 2003 Sliding Friction at a Rubber/Brush Interface Lionel Bureau(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) rubber network sliding, at low velocity, on a substrate on which PDMS chains are end-tethered. We studied the behaviour of such rubber/brush interfaces at high sliding velocities and showed

  1. FROM RUBBER BANDS TO RATIONAL MAPS RESEARCH REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thurston, Dylan

    FROM RUBBER BANDS TO RATIONAL MAPS RESEARCH REPORT DYLAN P. THURSTON Dedicated to the memory and conformal surfaces with boundary, that let us on the one hand tell when one rubber band network is looser a circle of ideas, relating: , elastic networks (rubber bands) at equilibrium within a graph, , extremal

  2. The Clinical Significance of Hydration in Natural Rubber Latex Gloves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bennett, John K.

    The Clinical Significance of Hydration in Natural Rubber Latex Gloves J. K. Bennett Department performance of natural rubber latex gloves. ffl These effects potentially include increased conductivity [6], have resulted in a dramatic increase in the use of natural rubber latex (NRL) surgical

  3. Inflating a Rubber Balloon 6GEJPKECN 7PKXGTUKV[ $GTNKP )GTOCP[

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Struchtrup, Henning

    Inflating a Rubber Balloon YA}N Ü,,ji 6GEJPKECN 7PKXGTUKV[ $GTNKP )GTOCP[ QjAAA} 7|i W |i V 7 the downward sloping part of the characteristic is `bridged' while the lung pressure relaxes. .H\\ :RUGV: Rubber of a spherical rubber balloon on its radius u, is non-monotonic, see [1] and Figure 1. If the stress

  4. Bimodular rubber buckles early in bending

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michel Destrade; Michael D. Gilchrist; Julie A. Motherway; Jerry G. Murphy

    2013-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A block of rubber eventually buckles under severe flexure, and several axial wrinkles appear on the inner curved face of the bent block. Experimental measurements reveal that the buckling occurs earlier ---at lower compressive strains--- than expected from theoretical predictions. This paper shows that if rubber is modeled as being bimodular, and specifically, as being stiffer in compression than in tension, then flexure bifurcation happens indeed at lower levels of compressive strain than predicted by previous investigations (these included taking into account finite size effects, compressibility effects, and strain-stiffening effects.) Here the effect of bimodularity is investigated within the theory of incremental buckling, and bifurcation equations, numerical methods, dispersion curves, and field variations are presented and discussed. It is also seen that Finite Element Analysis software seems to be unable to encompass in a realistic manner the phenomenon of bending instability for rubber blocks.

  5. Enzymatic synthesis of rubber polymer in Hevea brasiliensis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, F.; Hu, S.; Benedict, C.R. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Light and Dennis purified serum soluble rubber transferase from Hevea latex to homogeneity. Prenyl transferase co-purified with rubber transferase. In the absence of washed rubber particles (WRP) the prenyl transferase catalyzed the formation of trans FPP from DMAPP and IPP. In the presence of WRP the transferase catalyzed cis additions of IPP to pre-existing rubber chains. Control mixtures of WRP, Mg{sup 2+} and FPP were not included to test for the contributions of the bound rubber transferase on WRP to the incorporation of IPP into polyisoprene. Bound rubber transferase catalyzes the repetitive addition of IPP to allylic-PP starter molecules to form polyisoprene. The order of utilization of allylic-PP starters was GGPP > FPP > GPP > DMAPP. The authors have shown that the polyisoprene enzymatically synthesized on WRP is a bimodal polymer consisting of different mol wt rubber chains similar to the polymeric characteristics of natural rubber. The bound rubber transferase was solubilized with Chaps and purified on DEAE-cellulose. The polymerization reaction catalyzed by the purified preparation showed a 98% requirement for pre-existing rubber chains. Results suggest that the prenyl transferase from Hevea serum may be part of the polymer starter system furnishing allylic-PP for the bound rubber transferase.

  6. Thermal cracking of rubber modified pavements, May 1995. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raad, L.; Yuan, X.; Saboundjian, S.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In accordance with the original ISTEA mandate (1991) to use crumb tire rubber in pavements, Alaska would be required to use about 250 tons of used tire rubber starting in 1994 and increasing to about 1,000 tons of rubber in 1997 and each year thereafter. A number of pavements using crumb rubber modifiers have been built in the state and have been in service for periods of 8 to 15 years. Knowledge of the behavior of these rubber-modified pavements under extreme climate conditions, particularly in relation to their low temperature cracking resistance, is necessary for future design and construction of rubberized pavements in Alaska. This report presents results of a study to determine the low temperature cracking resistance of rubber modified pavements in Alaska in comparison with conventional asphalt concrete pavements.

  7. Prompt non-tire rubber recycling : final report for phases 1 and 2.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, F. G.; Daniels, E. J.

    1999-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes an assessment conducted by Environmental Technologies Alternatives, Inc., under a subcontract to Argonne National Laboratory. The project was conducted in two phases. An assessment of alternative technologies for recycling of prompt non-tire rubber was conducted in the first phase, and an experimental program focusing on a new technology called the catalytic Regeneration Process offered the greatest opportunity for recovery of high-value recyclable rubber material. An experimental and large-scale test program was undertaken to further delineate the economic potential as an essential step leading to commercial deployment and to determine the course of continued development of the technology by the private sector. The experimental program defined process-operating conditions for the technology and verified the degree of devulcanisation achievable for two rubber compounds: ethylene-propylene-nonconjugated-diene monomer (EPDM) and neoprene. To determine product acceptance, samples of devulcanized EPDM and neoprene were prepared and used in factory trials for the production of automotive moldings (EPDM) and fiber-filled belting (neoprene). The factory trials indicated that the physical properties of the products were acceptable in both cases. The appearance of molded and calendared surface finishes was acceptable, while that of extruded finishes was unsatisfactory. The fiber-filled neoprene belting application offers the greatest economic potential. Process costs were estimated at $0.34/lb for neoprene waste rubber relative to a value of $0.57/lb. The results of the experimental program led to the decision to continue development of this technology is being planned, subject to the availability of about $3 million in financing from private-sector investors. The ability to recycle non-tire rubber scrap could conserve as much as 90,000 Btu/lb, thus yielding an estimated energy savings potential of about 0.25 quad/yr.

  8. From certification outcomes to certification processes: Demand, supply and adoption of eco certification along the natural rubber supply chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Sean F.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fox, and Jianchu Xu. 2009. “The Rubber Juggernaut. ” Sciencesmell-of-money-chinas-new-rubber-farming-dilemma/275578/.2009. “Carbon Footprint of USA Rubber Tire Recycling 2007”.

  9. Rubber smallholders' flexibility No windfall, no crisis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    plantations are still young, which is important in terms of potential response to price changes (Chapter 1 of farming systems or by variations of the International market? Is there a direct relationship between the decline of global prices and the interference of the Asian crisis in Indonesian rubber supply and exports

  10. Boron-Loaded Silicone Rubber Scintillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Z.W.; Maya, L.; Brown, G.M.; Sloop, F.V.Jr

    2003-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicone rubber received attention as an alternative to polyvinyltoluene in applications in which the scintillator is exposed to high doses because of the increased resistance of the rubber to the formation of blue-absorbing color centers. Work by Bowen, et al., and Harmon, et al., demonstrated their properties under gamma/x-ray irradiation, and Bell, et al. have shown their response to thermal neutrons. This last work, however, provided an example of a silicone in which both the boron and the scintillator were contained in the rubber as solutes, a formulation which led to the precipitation of solids and sublimation of the boron component. In the present work we describe a scintillator in which the boron is chemically bonded to the siloxane and so avoids the problem of precipitation and loss of boron to sublimation. Material containing up to 18% boron, by weight, was prepared, mounted on photomultipliers, and exposed to both neutron and gamma fluxes. Pulse height spectra showing the neutron and photon response were obtained, and although the light output was found to be much poorer than from samples in which boron was dissolved, the higher boron concentrations enabled essentially 100% neutron absorption in only a few millimeters' thickness of rubber.

  11. Characterisation of biodiversity in improved rubber agroforests in West-Kalimantan,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Characterisation of biodiversity in improved rubber agroforests in West-Kalimantan, Indonesia. Real of jungle rubber. Since the introduction of rubber at the turn of the 20th century smallholders have developed an original complex agroforestry system called jungle rubber in which non selected young rubber

  12. Off-axis directional acoustic wave beaming control by an asymmetric rubber heterostructures film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ji

    Off-axis directional acoustic wave beaming control by an asymmetric rubber heterostructures film rubber heterostructures film deposited on steel plate in water. The rubber heterostructures film at left side and right side are constructed by alternately stacking rubber-1 and rubber-2 film periodically

  13. Simulation of Canopy CO2/H2O Fluxes for a Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) Plantation in Central Cambodia: The Effect of the Regular Spacing of Planted Trees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Mudd, Ryan; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Liu, Wen; Giambelluca, Thomas; Kobayashi, N.; Lim, Tiva Khan; Jomura, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Huang, Maoyi; Chen, Qi; Ziegler, Alan; Yin, Song

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We developed a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model applicable to simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes from the canopies of rubber plantations, which are characterized by distinct canopy clumping produced by regular spacing of plantation trees. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers it is replacing. Describing the biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations via SVAT modeling is therefore essential to understanding the impacts on environmental processes. The regular spacing of plantation trees creates a peculiar canopy structure that is not well represented in most SVAT models, which generally assumes a non-uniform spacing of vegetation. Herein we develop a SVAT model applicable to rubber plantation and an evaluation method for its canopy structure, and examine how the peculiar canopy structure of rubber plantations affects canopy CO2 and H2O exchanges. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to account for intensive canopy clumping in order to reproduce observed rubber plantation fluxes. These results suggest a potentially optimal spacing of rubber trees to produce high productivity and water use efficiency.

  14. Damage of Elastomeric Matrix Composites (EMC-rubbers) Under Static Loading Conditions: Experimental and Numerical Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayari, F. [Laboratory of Mechanics, College of Science and Technology, 1008 Montfleury, Tunis (Tunisia); Supmeca/LISMMA-Paris, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering (France); Bayraktar, E. [Supmeca/LISMMA-Paris, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering (France); Zghal, A. [Laboratory of Mechanics, College of Science and Technology, 1008 Montfleury, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Elastomeric matrix composites (EMC-rubbers) are considered as isotropic hyper elastic incompressible materials under static loading conditions. As a rubber material element cannot be extended to an infinite stretch ratio, a damage mechanism at large strain is considered. The phenomenon of cavitation plays an important role in the damage of EMCs and influences the toughening mechanism of rubber-modified plastics. Indeed, cavitation in elastomers is thought to be initiated from flaws, which grow primarily due to a hydrostatic tensile stress and ahead of the crack; there will not only be a high stress perpendicular to the plane of the crack but also significant stress components in the other direction. However, there exists historically much discussion on the evolution of the cavitation in elastomers under monotonic and/or static solicitation. Mainly, cavitation instability occurs when the stress levels are sufficiently high so that the void expansion rate becomes infinitely large. Many research works have been performed to understand the effects of rubber cavitation on toughening of plastics. In fact, the cavitation phenomenon is not well known in detail. The most popular idea states that the cavitation is related to the existence of the gas bubbles trapped in the material during the production stage and the growing of the cavities would then be the result of the growing gas bubbles. Further, instable failure mechanism at the end of the cavitation is not well known too.

  15. On the response of rubbers at high strain rates.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemczura, Johnathan Greenberg (University of Texas-Austin)

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, we examine the propagation of tensile waves of finite deformation in rubbers through experiments and analysis. Attention is focused on the propagation of one-dimensional dispersive and shock waves in strips of latex and nitrile rubber. Tensile wave propagation experiments were conducted at high strain-rates by holding one end fixed and displacing the other end at a constant velocity. A high-speed video camera was used to monitor the motion and to determine the evolution of strain and particle velocity in the rubber strips. Analysis of the response through the theory of finite waves and quantitative matching between the experimental observations and analytical predictions was used to determine an appropriate instantaneous elastic response for the rubbers. This analysis also yields the tensile shock adiabat for rubber. Dispersive waves as well as shock waves are also observed in free-retraction experiments; these are used to quantify hysteretic effects in rubber.

  16. CHEMICAL INDUCTION OF RUBBER BIOSYNTHESIS IN GUAYULE: AN ELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, Thomas

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alternative Source of Natural Rubber. Rogers, L.J. , Shah,has produced large amounts of rubber. If, as appears 1ikely,guayule are the source of the rubber precursors, variations

  17. Expediting Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (EVII): where the rubber meets (and talks to) the road

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varaiya, Pravin P

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integration (EVII): Where the Rubber Meets (and Talks to)Integration (EVII): Where the Rubber Meets (and Talks to)Integration (EVII): Where the Rubber Meets (and Talks to)

  18. Review of the Impacts of Crumb Rubber in Artificial Turf Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, Rachel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U. (2007) Environmental and health risks of rubber in?ll rubber crumb from car tires as in?ll on arti?cial turf.from Exposure to Crumb Rubber: its use in Playgrounds and

  19. Ageing of Natural Rubber under Stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. M. Clarke; F. Elias; E. M. Terentjev

    2000-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a dynamical-mechanical study of stress relaxation at small deformation in a natural (polyisoprene) rubber well above its glass transition temperature Tg. We find that an almost complete relaxation of stress takes place over very long periods of time, even though the elastic network integrity is fully retained. The relaxation rate and the long-time equilibrium modulus are sensitive functions of temperature which do not follow time-temperature superposition. Many characteristic features of non-ergodic ageing response are apparent at both short and very long times. We interpret the observed behaviour in terms of the properties of rubber crosslinks, capable of isomerisation under stress, and relate the results to recent models of soft glassy rheology.

  20. The enzymatic synthesis of rubber polymer in Parthenium argentatum Gray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benedict, C.R.; Madhavan, S.; Greenblatt, G.A.; Venkatachalam, K.V.; Foster, M.A. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (USA))

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Washed rubber particles isolated from stem homogenates of Parthenium argentatum Gray by ultracentrifugation and gel filtration on columns of LKB Ultrogel AcA34 contain rubber transferase which catalyzes the polymerization of isopentenyl pyrophosphate into rubber polymer. The polymerization reaction requires Mg{sup 2+} isopentenyl pyrophosphate, and an allylic pyrophosphate. The K{sub m} values for Mg{sup 2+}, isopentenyl pyrophosphate, and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate were 5.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} molar, 8.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} molar, and 9.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} molar, respectively. The molecular characteristics of the rubber polymer synthesized from ({sup 14}C)isopentenyl pyrophosphate were examined by gel permeation chromatography. The peak molecular weight of the radioactive polymer increased from 70,000 in 15 minutes to 750,000 in 3 hours. The weight average molecular weight of the polymer synthesized over a 3 hour period was 1.17 {times} 10{sup 6} compared to 1.49 {times} 10{sup 6} for the natural rubber polymer extracted from the rubber particles. Over 90% of the in vitro formation of the rubber polymer was de novo from dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. Treatment of the washed rubber particles with 3-((3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio) -1-propanesulfonate solubilized the rubber transferase. The solubilized enzyme(s) catalyzed the polymerization of isopentenyl pyrophosphate into rubber polymer with a peak molecular weight of 1 {times} 10{sup 5} after 3 hours of incubation with Mg{sup 2+} and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate. The data support the conclusion that the soluble preparation of rubber transferase is capable of catalyzing the formation of a high molecular weight rubber polymer from an allylic pyrophosphate initiator and isopentenyl pyrophosphate monomer.

  1. Effect of commercial polymerization conditions on rubber particle size and efficiency in high impact polystyrene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klussmann, Bradley Ryan

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calculations. . . . . Page 20 21 25 . 77 77 . . . 79 . . . 85 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION High impact polystyrene (HIPS) is a rubber toughened polymer, a special class of materials prepared by blending a high modulus, glassy polymer with a soft, rubber... with rubber phase volume (the volume occupied by the rubber phase, including occluded polystyrene) (Baer, 1972). The rubber phase volume (RPV) of commercial resins may be increased as much as four times the rubber volume by trapping polystyrene inside...

  2. High temperature performance of scrap tire rubber modified asphalt concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coomarasamy, A. [Ministry of Transportation, Downsview, Ontario (Canada); Manolis, S.; Hesp, S. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Wheel track rutting tests on mixes modified with 30 mesh, 80 mesh, and very fine colloidal crumb rubber particles show that a very significant improvement in performance occurs with a reduction in the rubber particle size. The SHRP binder test for rutting, which was originally developed for homogeneous systems only, does not predict the performance improvement for smaller rubber particles. If these new scrap rubber binder systems are to be used in pavements then rutting tests on the asphalt-aggregate mixture should be conducted in order to accurately predict high temperature performance.

  3. On-site rubber lining -- Application of precured and self-curing rubber linings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenner, J. [Keramchemie GmbH, Siershahn (Germany)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Rubber linings are applied as a corrosion protection system in a wide range of plants and installations of the industrial sector. In addition to the execution of lining works in a workshop, the on-site application of this corrosion protection system on the construction site has gained increasing importance. The various procedures utilized to apply the corrosion protection linings will be briefly presented in the following paper. In particular the precured and self curing rubber linings together with their scope of use and application on construction sites will be described in more detail.

  4. First Detection of CO in a Low Surface Brightness Galaxy 1 Arecibo Observatory, NAIC/Cornell University, HC3 Box 53995, Arecibo, Puerto Rico 00612

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neil, Karen

    /Cornell University, HC3 Box 53995, Arecibo, Puerto Rico 00612 P. Hofner Physics Department, University of Puerto Rico at Rio Piedras, P.O. Box 23343, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931 and Arecibo Observatory, NAIC/Cornell University, HC3 Box 53995, Arecibo, Puerto Rico 00612 E. Schinnerer California Institute of Technology

  5. Rubber Erasures, Rubber Producing Rights: Making Racialized Territories in West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Whendee

    , Indonesia Nancy Lee Peluso ABSTRACT This article makes connections between often-disparate literatures on prop- erty, violence and identity, using the politics of rubber growing in West Kalimantan, Indonesia moments. What it meant to be Chinese and Dayak in colonial and post-colonial Indonesia, as well as how

  6. A rubber mount model. Application to automotive equipment suspension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A rubber mount model. Application to automotive equipment suspension B. Thomas1, 2 , L. Manin1.manin@insa-lyon.fr Abstract In order to predict the nonlinear dynamic response of automotive equipment supported by rubber identification of the model. The application concerns the suspension of an automotive engine cooling module. 1

  7. Butyl rubber O-ring seals: Revision of test procedures for stockpile materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domeier, L.A.; Wagter, K.R.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extensive testing showed little correlation between test slab and O-ring performance. New procedures, comparable to those used with the traditional test slabs, were defined for hardness, compression set, and tensile property testing on sacrificial O-ring specimens. Changes in target performance values were made as needed and were, in one case, tightened to reflect the O-ring performance data. An additional study was carried out on O-ring and slab performance vs cure cycle and showed little sensitivity of material performance to large changes in curing time. Aging and spectra of certain materials indicated that two sets of test slabs from current vendor were accidently made from EPDM rather than butyl rubber. Random testing found no O-rings made from EPDM. As a result, and additional spectroscope test will be added to the product acceptance procedures to verify the type of rubber compound used.

  8. Recycling of rubber tires in electric arc furnace steelmaking: simultaneous combustion of metallurgical coke and rubber tyres blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magdalena Zaharia; Veena Sahajwalla; Byong-Chul Kim; Rita Khanna; N. Saha-Chaudhury; Paul O'Kane; Jonathan Dicker; Catherine Skidmore; David Knights [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study investigates the effect of addition of waste rubber tires on the combustion behavior of its blends with coke for carbon injection in electric arc furnace steelmaking. Waste rubber tires were mixed in different proportions with metallurgical coke (MC) (10:90, 20:80, 30:70) for combustion and pyrolysis at 1473 K in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), respectively. Under experimental conditions most of the rubber blends indicated higher combustion efficiencies compared to those of the constituent coke. In the early stage of combustion the weight loss rate of the blends is much faster compared to that of the raw coke due to the higher volatile yield of rubber. The presence of rubber in the blends may have had an impact upon the structure during the release and combustion of their high volatile matter (VM) and hence increased char burnout. Measurements of micropore surface area and bulk density of the chars collected after combustion support the higher combustion efficiency of the blends in comparison to coke alone. The surface morphology of the 30% rubber blend revealed pores in the residual char that might be attributed to volatile evolution during high temperature reaction in oxygen atmosphere. Physical properties and VM appear to have a major effect upon the measured combustion efficiency of rubber blends. The study demonstrates that waste rubber tires can be successfully co-injected with metallurgical coke in electric arc furnace steelmaking process to provide additional energy from combustion. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Experimental and constitutive modeling of a filled rubber with emphasis on the dynamical properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Experimental and constitutive modeling of a filled rubber with emphasis on the dynamical properties, the elas- tomeric material can be filler-reinforced synthetic rubber or natural rubber. In normal flight to 70o C). Here, characterization tests carried out on a carbon-black filled butadiene rubber

  10. Strain-Induced Crystallization and Mechanical Properties of Functionalized Graphene Sheet-Filled Natural Rubber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    -Filled Natural Rubber Bulent Ozbas,1 * Shigeyuki Toki,2 Benjamin S. Hsiao,2 Benjamin Chu,2 Richard A. Register,1) on the mechanical properties and strain-induced crystallization of natural rubber (NR) are investigated. FGSs­723, 2012 KEYWORDS: composites; crystallization; graphene; rubber; WAXS INTRODUCTION Natural rubber (NR

  11. Part 2, Chapter 2 From shifting agriculture to sustainable rubber agroforestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Part 2, Chapter 2 From shifting agriculture to sustainable rubber agroforestry systems (jungle rubber) in Indonesia: a history of innovations processes. Penot E (2004). From shifting agriculture to sustainable rubber complex agroforestry systems (jungle rubber) in Indonesia: an history of innovations

  12. Random parking, Euclidean functionals, and rubber elasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antoine Gloria; Mathew D. Penrose

    2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We study subadditive functions of the random parking model previously analyzed by the second author. In particular, we consider local functions $S$ of subsets of $\\mathbb{R}^d$ and of point sets that are (almost) subadditive in their first variable. Denoting by $\\xi$ the random parking measure in $\\mathbb{R}^d$, and by $\\xi^R$ the random parking measure in the cube $Q_R=(-R,R)^d$, we show, under some natural assumptions on $S$, that there exists a constant $\\bar{S}\\in \\mathbb{R}$ such that % $$ \\lim_{R\\to +\\infty} \\frac{S(Q_R,\\xi)}{|Q_R|}\\,=\\,\\lim_{R\\to +\\infty}\\frac{S(Q_R,\\xi^R)}{|Q_R|}\\,=\\,\\bar{S} $$ % almost surely. If $\\zeta \\mapsto S(Q_R,\\zeta)$ is the counting measure of $\\zeta$ in $Q_R$, then we retrieve the result by the second author on the existence of the jamming limit. The present work generalizes this result to a wide class of (almost) subadditive functions. In particular, classical Euclidean optimization problems as well as the discrete model for rubber previously studied by Alicandro, Cicalese, and the first author enter this class of functions. In the case of rubber elasticity, this yields an approximation result for the continuous energy density associated with the discrete model at the thermodynamic limit, as well as a generalization to stochastic networks generated on bounded sets.

  13. Recycling of plastic and rubber tire waste in asphalt pavements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, G.R.; Lee, N.K.; Hesp, S.A.M. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses some important issues related to the use of recycled thermoplastics and rubber tire waste in asphalt binders for hot-mix pavements. Both high temperature rheological and low temperature fracture studies are presented on recycled polyethylene, devulcanized and crumb rubber-modified asphalt binders. The results are compared to unmodified and commercially available modified binders. This research is especially timely in light of the US Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, Section 1038 which, starting in 1995, will force state and local governments to use significant amounts of recycled rubber tire or plastic waste in federally funded highway projects. High temperature rheological measurements of the loss modulus, loss tangent and complex modulus show a significant improvement when only small quantities of crumb rubber, devulcanized crumb rubber or waste polyethylene are added to the asphalt binders. The low temperature fracture performance of the modified asphalts is greatly influenced by the interfacial strength between the dispersed and continuous phase. The fracture toughness increases dramatically, only when low molecular weight polymers are grafted in-situ onto the rubber and polymer dispersed phases in order to strength the interface. This points to a crack-pinning mechanism as being responsible for the dramatic increase in fracture toughness that is observed in this work. Single phase, devulcanized crumb rubber-asphalt systems perform quite poorly at low temperatures.

  14. An Evaluation of the Importance of Hand Exposures Using Rubber Latex Gloves as Sampling Dosimeters for Assessing Pesticide Exposures in Strawberry Harvesters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sankaran, Gayatri

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    studies as harvesters wore rubber latex gloves supplied byof Hand Exposures Using Rubber Latex Gloves as Samplingof Hand Exposures Using Rubber Latex Gloves as Sampling

  15. The process of materials specifications for rubber lining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earnest, R.A. [Polymeric Protective Linings, Livonia, MI (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Rubber is an engineered material with a long history of development, and application. The process of selecting the appropriate material for a given application is critical to the success of a lining project. A through knowledge of the process parameters for a rubber lined system will generate the information necessary to ensure maximum service life from the lining materials. Communication between the owner, applicator and manufacturer defines the process of material specification and selection. The goal of this process is to engineer the best fit for a rubber lining application.

  16. Industry-wide studies report of an in-depth survey at Firestone Synthetic Rubber and Latex Company, Lake Charles, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, E.R.; Ungers, L.J.; Fajen, J.M.

    1987-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to assess worker exposure to 1,3-butadiene at a polymer production facility, an in-depth industrial-hygiene survey was conducted at Firestone Synthetic Rubber and Latex Company, Lake Charles, Louisiana. This facility incorporated a number of controls designed to prevent the release of chemical intermediates and products into the air. Personal protective equipment included rubber, cotton, or vinyl gloves depending on the job performed. Respirators were required for field lab samplers and maintenance personnel performing specific tasks. Half-face organic vapor respirators were used. The authors recommend that consideration be given to converting to a closed-loop sampling system for obtaining quality control samples.

  17. The curing of asphalt with rubber and its effect on the physical and chemical properties of asphalt-rubber binders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chun, Jay Sung

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    10% TG-40 and 90% Exxon AC-5. 105 B-1 Molecular Size Distribution of Rubber in Asphalt 5% TG-40 and 95% Fina AC-10. . . 123 B-2 Molecular Size Distribution of Rubber in Asphalt 10% TG-40 and 90% Fina AC-10. . 124 xlv FIGURE B-3 Molecular Size.... 0 Frequency (rad/s) 10. 0 100. 0 Figure III-2: Effect of Frequency on Viscosity Measurements Fina AC-10 Tank Asphalt 2500 2000 0 a 1500 1000 o 0 0 0 0 o o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o 0 Fina AC-10 with 5% TG-40 mesh rubber Cured at 375 F and 500...

  18. Mechanical switching of ferro-electric rubber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. M. Adams; M. Warner

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    At the A to C transition, smectic elastomers have recently been observed to undergo $\\sim$35% spontaneous shear strains. We first explicitly describe how strains of up to twice this value could be mechanically or electrically induced in Sm-$C$ elastomers by rotation of the director on a cone around the layer normal at various elastic costs depending on constraints. Secondly, for typical sample geometries, we give the various microstructures in Sm-$C$ akin to those seen in nematic elastomers under distortions with constraints. It is possible to give explicit results for the nature of the textures. Chiral Sm-$C$ elastomers are ferro-electric. We calculate how the polarization could be mechanically reversed by large, hard or soft strains of the rubber, depending upon sample geometry.

  19. Effect of Nanoclay on Natural Rubber Microstructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carretero-Gonzalez,J.; Retsos, H.; Verdejo, R.; Toki, S.; Hsiao, B.; Giannelis, E.; Lopez-Manchado, M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The inclusion of highly anisotropic clay nanoparticles (nanoclays) in cross-linked natural rubber (NR) provides a more homogeneous distributed network structure and induces an early onset as well as enhancement of crystallization under uniaxial deformation. The molecular structure of the polymer network and its morphological changes during deformation were characterized by using broadband dielectric spectroscopy and in situ synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction, respectively. It was found that the presence of nanoclay introduces a dual crystallization mechanism due to the alignment of nanoparticles during stretching. The improved properties in NR-nanoclay nanocomposites can be attributed to both microstructural and morphological changes induced by nanoclay as well as to the nanoclay mobility in the NR matrix during crystallization. The interplay of these factors during deformation contributes to the formation of a supernetwork structure containing cross-linked chemical chains, nanofiller, and crystallizable networks with similar length scales.

  20. Natural rubber-clay nanocomposites: mechanical and structural properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camila A. Rezende; Fabio C. Bragança; Telma R. Doi; Lay-Theng Lee; Fernando Galembeck; François Boué

    2010-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanical properties of non-vulcanized natural rubber and dialyzed natural rubber-clay nanocomposites have been studied by uniaxial deformations to evaluate the reinforcement efficiency of the clay. We show that while non-rubber molecules contribute to auto-reinforcement, removal of these molecules improves significantly the performance of clay as reinforcement agent. These mechanical properties are discussed in relation to morphological aspects of the clay characterized by TEM and SANS. The nanocomposites prepared by "latex-mixing" with aqueous dispersions of clay are found to contain completely exfoliated clay lamellae in coexistence with tactoids. Improved mechanical properties of the nanocomposites can be modeled by the high aspect ratio of exfoliated clay platelets coupled with immobilized rubber matrix. Interestingly, presence of tactoids does not appear to compromise the excellent reinforcement properties of the exfoliated platelets. At high deformations, strain-induced alignment of the clay exhibits anisotropic scattering, with anisotropy increasing with clay concentration and stretching.

  1. Utilization of surface-treated rubber particles from waste tires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, F.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.]|[Environmental Technologies Alternatives, Inc., Lima, OH (United States)

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During a 12-month program, the author successfully demonstrated commercial applications for surface-treated rubber particles in two major markets: footwear (shoe soles and components) and urethane-foam carpet underlay (padding). In these markets, he has clearly demonstrated the ease of using R-4080 and R-4030 surface-treated rubber particles in existing manufacturing plants and processes and have shown that the material meets or exceeds existing standards for performance, quality, and cost-effectiveness. To produce R-4080 and R-4030, vulcanized rubber, whole-tire material is finely ground to particles of nominal 80 and mesh size respectively. Surface treatment is achieved by reacting these rubber particles with chlorine gas. In this report, the author describes the actual test and evaluations of the participant companies, and identifies other potential end uses.

  2. asphalt rubber mixtures: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jerry G. Murphy 2013-01-23 112 Material: Recycled Rubber from Tires, Industrial Scrap CiteSeer Summary: using the ambient desert heat (160-220F). The process was brought...

  3. Successful corrosion protection in FGD plants utilizing rubber lining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenner, J. [Keramchemie GmbH, Siershahn (Germany); Peavy, M. [Smith Corrosion Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the late 1970`s--and predominantly in the mid-1980`s--when the construction of flue gas desulfurization plants in Germany was still in its early stages, both the US and Japan had already accumulated several years of experience in the operation of such plants. Whereas Japan adopted the almost exclusive use of synthetic resin coatings--usually as flake coatings--applied on carbon steel as structural material, all three corrosion protection materials mentioned here (rubber linings, synthetic resin coatings, and stainless steel coatings) were applied in the US--in addition, stainless steel was also utilized as structural material. On the other hand, in Germany the use of soft rubber linings was much more widespread. The paper discusses rubber linings as corrosion protection and the experience gained with rubber linings in flue gas desulfurization plants.

  4. MODELING DROUGHT IMPACT ON H. BRASILIENSIS TRANSPIRATION, GROWTH AND LATEX PRODUCTION OF A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , growth and production for a pure rubber tree stand. However, in our conditions of much degraded soil and latex production are two distinct physiological phenomena in rubber trees (Rao et al., 19981 MODELING DROUGHT IMPACT ON H. BRASILIENSIS 2 TRANSPIRATION, GROWTH AND LATEX PRODUCTION

  5. An economic analysis of supervised credit for Mexican rubber producers in the El Palmar region of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Armero Tapia, Luis Ernesto

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the National Rubber Program. (Rubber imports are given in Appendix ?. . ) There are two institutes which work together. in the National Rubber Progrmn, the Instituto Mexicano del Cafe (Mexican Coffee Institute) and the Instituto National de Investigaciones...

  6. A Preliminary Study of Oxidation of Lignin from Rubber Wood to Vanillin in Ionic Liquid Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shamsuri, A A

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, lignin was oxidised to vanillin by means of oxygen in ionic liquid (1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulphate) medium. The parameters of the oxidation reaction that have been investigated were the following: concentration of oxygen (5, 10, 15 and 20 ft3 h-1), reaction time (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h) and reaction temperature (25, 40, 60, 80 and 100{\\deg}C). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet-visible analyses were used to characterise the product. The results revealed vanillin as the product obtained via the oxidation reaction. The optimum parameters of vanillin production were 20 ft3 h-1 of oxygen for 10 h at 100{\\deg}C. In conclusion, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulphate could be used as an oxidation reaction medium for the production of vanillin from rubber wood lignin.

  7. Random parking, Euclidean functionals, and rubber elasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gloria, Antoine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study subadditive functions of the random parking model previously analyzed by the second author. In particular, we consider local functions $S$ of subsets of $\\mathbb{R}^d$ and of point sets that are (almost) subadditive in their first variable. Denoting by $\\xi$ the random parking measure in $\\mathbb{R}^d$, and by $\\xi^R$ the random parking measure in the cube $Q_R=(-R,R)^d$, we show, under some natural assumptions on $S$, that there exists a constant $\\bar{S}\\in \\mathbb{R}$ such that % $$ \\lim_{R\\to +\\infty} \\frac{S(Q_R,\\xi)}{|Q_R|}\\,=\\,\\lim_{R\\to +\\infty}\\frac{S(Q_R,\\xi^R)}{|Q_R|}\\,=\\,\\bar{S} $$ % almost surely. If $\\zeta \\mapsto S(Q_R,\\zeta)$ is the counting measure of $\\zeta$ in $Q_R$, then we retrieve the result by the second author on the existence of the jamming limit. The present work generalizes this result to a wide class of (almost) subadditive functions. In particular, classical Euclidean optimization problems as well as the discrete model for rubber previously studied by Alicandro, Cicalese,...

  8. Characterization of asphalt cements modified with crumbed rubber from discarded tires. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daly, W.H.; Negulescu, I.I.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential legislative requirement for incorporation of scrap rubber into asphalt blends mandated a thorough evaluation of the influence of scrap rubber additives on the physical properties and aging characteristics of rubber/asphalt blends. Blends with up to 20 percent ground vulcanized rubber (both crumb and 200 mesh powder particles) from recycled tires were prepared with asphalt cements of various grades (AC5 - AC30) and evaluated using DMA. Blends produced from powdered rubber particles exhibited Newtonian behavior at high temperatures; similar behavior was not observed with crumb rubber blends. The mechanical properties of asphalt-rubber blends depend upon the concentration of rubber additives, the particle dimensions, and the chemical composition of the asphalt.

  9. RCCPB Working Paper #33 The Returns to Office in a "Rubber Stamp" Parliament

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indiana University

    to Office in a "Rubber Stamp" Parliament Rory Truex Doctoral Candidate Department of Political Science Yale Center for Chinese Politics & Business, 2013. #12;The Returns to Office in a "Rubber Stamp

  10. Nanoscale organic transistors that use sourcedrain electrodes supported by high resolution rubber stamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Nanoscale organic transistors that use sourceÕdrain electrodes supported by high resolution rubber resolution rubber stamps bilayers of two different types of the elastomer polydimethylsiloxane 3,4 by casting

  11. Producing ground scrap tire rubber: A comparison between ambient and cryogenic technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumenthal, M.H. [Scrap Tire Management Council, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prior to 1985, few, if any scrap tires were processed. The Minnesota program changed all that. The equipment first introduced to process scrap tires consisted of redesigned wood or metal shredders. The performance of these systems left much to be desired. In the past 10 years, many companies and equipment systems, designed especially for scrap tires, have come into existence. Until recently, scrap tires were typically processed by ambient systems. These systems consist of a mechanical process, which cuts and or grinds whole tire rubber into the desired sized particle at room temperatures. Historically, producing ground rubber, like all other rubber processing, was done by an ambient processes system. Within the last several years, cryogenic processing of scrap tires has been introduced for the preparation of ground rubber. In the cryogenic process, rubber is introduced into a bath of liquid nitrogen, instantly freezing the rubber. Once embrittled, the rubber is struck with an impact devise, effectively shattering the rubber.

  12. Effect of commercial polymerization conditions on rubber particle size and efficiency in high impact polystyrene 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klussmann, Bradley Ryan

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rubber molecular weight on rubber particle size and morphology were examined in a 1250 ml laboratory continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Also, the effect of continuing polymerization and devolatilization, varying agitation, and using a preinversion...

  13. Development of asphalts and pavements using recycled tire rubber. Phase 1: technical feasibility. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullin, J.A.; Davison, R.R.; Glover, C.J. [and others

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the technical progress made on the development of asphalts and pavements using recycled tire rubber.

  14. Disturbances in Body Ownership in Schizophrenia: Evidence from the Rubber Hand Illusion and Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Sohee

    Disturbances in Body Ownership in Schizophrenia: Evidence from the Rubber Hand Illusion and Case to psychotic experiences. Body ownership, one component of self- awareness, can be studied with the rubber hand illusion (RHI). Watching a rubber hand being stroked while one's unseen hand is stroked synchronously can

  15. FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE FATIGUE LIFE OF RUBBER: A LITERATURE SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fatemi, Ali

    FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE FATIGUE LIFE OF RUBBER: A LITERATURE SURVEY W. V. MARS* ADVANCED RESEARCH ENGINEER COOPER TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY, 701 LIMA AVE., FINDLAY, OHIO, 45840 A. FATEMI UNIVERSITY OF TOLEDO, TOLEDO, OHIO, 43606 ABSTRACT Many factors are known to influence the mechanical fatigue life of rubber

  16. FOUNDATION, ANALYSIS, AND NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF A VARIATIONAL NETWORK-BASED MODEL FOR RUBBER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    FOUNDATION, ANALYSIS, AND NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF A VARIATIONAL NETWORK-BASED MODEL FOR RUBBER, many models based on polymer chain statistics have been proposed to describe rubber elasticity. Recently, Alicandro, Cicalese, and the first author rigorously derived a continuum theory of rubber

  17. EUROMECH Young Scientist Prize Paper "Cavitation in rubber: The role of elasticity"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez-Pamies, Oscar

    EUROMECH Young Scientist Prize Paper "Cavitation in rubber: The role of elasticity" AUTHOR won suddenly "appear" in the interior of rubber. This phenomenon has come to be popularly known as cavitation. It corresponds, at heart, to nothing more than to the growth of defects inherent in rubber. Such defects can

  18. SURFACE PRESSURE AND SHEAR STRESS FIELDS WITHIN A FRICTIONAL CONTACT ON RUBBER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SURFACE PRESSURE AND SHEAR STRESS FIELDS WITHIN A FRICTIONAL CONTACT ON RUBBER Danh Toan Nguyen1 lens and a rubber (poly(dimethylsiloxane)) substrate. Experimental results show that high lateral of the displacement field requires that finite strains and non linear response of the rubber substrate are taken

  19. 15-17 2546 Design and Construction of Rubber Pneumatic Artificial Muscles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laksanacharoen, Sathaporn

    17 15-17 2546 Design and Construction of Rubber Pneumatic Artificial Muscles 1 2 1 1518 Abstract The purpose of this research work is to design and construct the rubber artificial muscles and lateral displacement of the rubber artificial muscle. This research work is divided into two sections

  20. RANDOM PARKING, EUCLIDEAN FUNCTIONALS, AND RUBBER ELASTICITY ANTOINE GLORIA AND MATHEW D. PENROSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    RANDOM PARKING, EUCLIDEAN FUNCTIONALS, AND RUBBER ELASTICITY ANTOINE GLORIA AND MATHEW D. PENROSE. In particular, classical Euclidean optimization problems as well as the discrete model for rubber previously studied by Alicandro, Cicalese, and the first author enter this class of functions. In the case of rubber

  1. A New Attempt to Reconcile the Statistical and Phenomenological Theories of Rubber Elasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleming, Paul D. "Dan"

    A New Attempt to Reconcile the Statistical and Phenomenological Theories of Rubber Elasticity O. H theories of rubber elasticity are re- viewed briefly. Combining recent concepts proposed by Yeoh and Gent, a new theory is proposed. The proposed constitutive model for rubber vulcanizates invokes two mech

  2. Continuing The Rubber Stamp City Council Chicago City Council Report #6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    Continuing The Rubber Stamp City Council Chicago City Council Report #6 June 8, 2011 - February 13's tenure was characterized by a high degree of control over what was known as a "rubber stamp" council Council Wars and they also didn't want a City Council that would be a rubber stamp."1 Our report seeks

  3. Thermal Fluctuations and Rubber Elasticity Xiangjun Xing,1,* Paul M. Goldbart,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldbart, Paul M.

    Thermal Fluctuations and Rubber Elasticity Xiangjun Xing,1,* Paul M. Goldbart,2 and Leo Radzihovsky, compared to that of classical rubber elasticity. To leading order, this mechanism provides a simple on the external deformation. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.075502 PACS numbers: 62.20.Dc, 61.41.+e The term rubber

  4. Preparation and Properties of Bio-based Polyurethane Made from Natural Rubber and Poly( -caprolactone)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    i Preparation and Properties of Bio-based Polyurethane Made from Natural Rubber and Poly;ii Thesis Title Preparation and Properties of Bio-based Polyurethane Made from Natural Rubber Made from Natural Rubber and Poly( -caprolactone) Author Miss Wannarat Panwiriyarat Major Program

  5. A computational contact model for nanoscale rubber adhesion Roger A. Sauer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A computational contact model for nanoscale rubber adhesion Roger A. Sauer Institute for Continuum Mechanics, Leibniz Universit¨at Hannover, Germany published in Constitutive Models for Rubber VI, G mechanical contact model which is capable of describing and simulating rubber adhesion at the nanometer scale

  6. A Touch Panel using Silicone Rubber with embedded IR-LEDs Yuichiro Sakamoto,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanaka, Jiro

    LED LED FTIR FTIR FTIR FTIR FTIR LED LED A Touch Panel using Silicone Rubber with embedded Shizuki and Jiro Tanaka In this paper, we present a novel touch panel using silicone rubber with embedded are difficult to detect for one made of acryl panel Moreover, it integrates IR-LEDs silicone rubber for multi

  7. Coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics Simulation Approach for Polymer Nano-Composites Rubber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katsumoto, Shingo

    Coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics Simulation Approach for Polymer Nano-Composites Rubber Katsumi dynamics of entangled long- polymer melts and filled polymer rubber by us- ing coarse-grained model. We of a polymer nano-composite of tire rubber can reproduce almost of feature of the reinforcement effect observed

  8. NONLINEAR ANALYSIS OF RUBBER-BASED POLYMERIC MATERIALS WITH THERMAL RELAXATION MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melnik, Roderick

    NONLINEAR ANALYSIS OF RUBBER-BASED POLYMERIC MATERIALS WITH THERMAL RELAXATION MODELS R. V. N Queensland, Australia Using mathematical modeling and computer simulation, nonlinear dynamics of rubber in the thermomechanical system. 1. INTRODUCTION The effect of thermal relaxation in rubber-based polymers is one

  9. Mitochondrial DNA-Based Phylogeography of North American Rubber Boas, Charina bottae (Serpentes: Boidae)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodríguez, Javier A.

    Mitochondrial DNA-Based Phylogeography of North American Rubber Boas, Charina bottae (Serpentes the phylogeography of Charina bottae (rubber boa) in western North America, with an emphasis on populations from). Charina bottae (rubber boa) is widespread in west- ern North America, ranging from southwestern Can- ada

  10. COMPARISON OF NETWORK-BASED MODELS FOR RUBBER ANTOINE GLORIA, PATRICK LE TALLEC, AND MARINA VIDRASCU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    COMPARISON OF NETWORK-BASED MODELS FOR RUBBER ANTOINE GLORIA, PATRICK LE TALLEC, AND MARINA been proposed to describe rubber elasticity. Recently, Alicandro, Cicalese, and the first author have rigorously derived a continuum theory of rubber elasticity from a discrete model by variational convergence

  11. Microfabricated rubber microscope using soft solid immersion lenses Yann Gambin, Olivier Legrand, and Stephen R. Quakea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quake, Stephen R.

    Microfabricated rubber microscope using soft solid immersion lenses Yann Gambin, Olivier Legrand a technique of soft lithography to microfabricate efficient solid immersion lenses SIL out of rubber into a handheld rubber microscope for microfluidic flow cytometry and imaged single E. Coli cells by fluorescence

  12. A SOCIAL CHOICE APPROACH TO PRIMARY RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: THE RUBBER TREE CASE IN AFRICA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A SOCIAL CHOICE APPROACH TO PRIMARY RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: THE RUBBER TREE CASE IN AFRICA MOUSSA approach to a decision making problem related to the management of a primary resource, namely the rubber operation research methods) by the african rubber tree planters in order to get a plantation at peak

  13. Parameter identification of nonlinear time-dependent rubber bushings models towards their integration in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Parameter identification of nonlinear time-dependent rubber bushings models towards^atenay-Malabry, France Abstract Rubber bushings are extensively-used linking parts in a vehicle chassis that allow of the rubber bushings is useful to describe the significant characteristics of the vehicle's steering behaviour

  14. An Evaluation of Pan&Zoom and Rubber Sheet Navigation with and without an Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    An Evaluation of Pan&Zoom and Rubber Sheet Navigation with and without an Overview Dmitry and Zoom Navigation and Rubber Sheet Navigation, a rectilinear Focus+Context technique. Each of the two Rubber Sheet Navigation, independent of the presence or absence of an overview. Also, overviews did

  15. Two rubber balloons: Phase diagram of air transfer Yan Levin* and Fernando L. da Silveira

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Yan

    Two rubber balloons: Phase diagram of air transfer Yan Levin* and Fernando L. da Silveira Instituto, RS, Brazil (Received 1 December 2003; published 26 May 2004) Two identical rubber balloons. The phenomenon is explained in terms of the nonideal rubber elasticity of balloons. The full phase diagram

  16. RECONSTRUCTION OF A CONSTITUTIVE LAW FOR RUBBER FROM IN SILICO EXPERIMENTS USING OGDEN'S LAWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RECONSTRUCTION OF A CONSTITUTIVE LAW FOR RUBBER FROM IN SILICO EXPERIMENTS USING OGDEN'S LAWS MAYA for rubber. Macroscopic quantities of interest such as the Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor can be ap: paramater estimation, multiscale modelling, rubber elasticity, polymer physics. 1. Introduction

  17. Rubber Band Recoil By R. Vermorel, N. Vandenberghe and E. Villermaux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Rubber Band Recoil By R. Vermorel, N. Vandenberghe and E. Villermaux Universit´e de Provence, IRPHE, 49, rue Fr´ed´eric Joliot-Curie 13384 Marseille Cedex 13, France When an initially stretched rubber to obtain a relation be- tween the buckled wavelength, the initial stretching and the rubber band thickness

  18. Rubber in Laos Detection of actual and assessment of potential plantations in Lao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    Rubber in Laos Detection of actual and assessment of potential plantations in Lao PDR using GIS for Development and Environment, University of Bern #12;ii #12;Rubber in Laos Detection of actual and assessment, the motivation for this thesis is mainly based on giving a contribution to the current research on rubber in Laos

  19. ccsd-00000893(version1):28Nov2003 Sliding Friction at a Rubber/Brush Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ccsd-00000893(version1):28Nov2003 Sliding Friction at a Rubber/Brush Interface Lionel Bureau) rubber network sliding, at low velocity, on a substrate on which PDMS chains are end-tethered. We thus the friction, depending on their areal density. Casoli et al.9 further studied the behaviour of such rubber

  20. Multiaxial stress effects on fatigue behavior of filled natural rubber W.V. Mars a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fatemi, Ali

    Multiaxial stress effects on fatigue behavior of filled natural rubber W.V. Mars a , A. Fatemi b, * a Cooper Tire and Rubber Company, Findlay, OH 45840, USA b Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing in filled natural rubber based on experiments using short thin-walled cylindrical specimens subjected

  1. Subset Warping: Rubber Sheeting with Cuts Pierre Landau \\Lambda and Eric Schwartz y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Eric L.

    Subset Warping: Rubber Sheeting with Cuts Pierre Landau \\Lambda and Eric Schwartz y February 14 Warping: Rubber Sheeting with Cuts'' \\Lambda Brain Research Labs, New York University Medical Center y; Abstract Image warping, often referred to as ``rubber sheeting'' represents the deformation of a domain

  2. Oral/Poster Reference: FT242 FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH OF RUBBER UNDER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fatemi, Ali

    Oral/Poster Reference: FT242 FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH OF RUBBER UNDER VARIABLE AMPLITUDE LOADING R. Harbour1 , A. Fatemi1 , W. V. Mars2 1 The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA 2 Cooper Tire and Rubber Company, Findlay, OH, USA ABSTRACT Realistic loading conditions for rubber components are often more

  3. Rubber-like Exaggeration for Character Animation Ji-yong Kwon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, In-Kwon

    Rubber-like Exaggeration for Character Animation Ji-yong Kwon Yonsei University Seoul, Korea mage cartoon-style animation directly. We emulate the rubber-like exaggerations com- mon in traditional extend this technique to obtain smooth, rubber-like mo- tion by dividing the original links into shorter

  4. Anisotropic modeling of the Mullins effect and the residual strain of filled silicone rubber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Anisotropic modeling of the Mullins effect and the residual strain of filled silicone rubber M rubber like materials present a stress-softening phenomenon known as Mullins effect. It is characterized of rubber like materials behavior is still an open issue. These materials are often submitted to cyclic

  5. CONSTRUCTING AN ELASTIC TOUCH PANEL WITH EMBEDDED IR-LEDS USING SILICONE RUBBER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanaka, Jiro

    CONSTRUCTING AN ELASTIC TOUCH PANEL WITH EMBEDDED IR-LEDS USING SILICONE RUBBER Yuichiro Sakamoto a technique for the construction of an elastic touch panel using silicone rubber. The technique is similar is made of transparent silicone rubber rather than acrylic. Moreover, we embedded infrared LEDs within

  6. The Rubber Hand Illusion: Two's a company, but three's a crowd A. Folegatti a,b,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    The Rubber Hand Illusion: Two's a company, but three's a crowd A. Folegatti a,b, , A. Farnè a o Article history: Received 24 May 2011 Available online xxxx Keywords: Rubber Hand Illusion, it is often assumed that the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) is constrained by a structural body model so that one

  7. The Feasibility of Using Electrical Means for Monitoring Barrier Integrity in Natural Rubber Latex Gloves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bennett, John K.

    The Feasibility of Using Electrical Means for Monitoring Barrier Integrity in Natural Rubber Latex Gloves: Hydration, Conductivity, and Protein Content in Natural Rubber Latex Gloves John K. Bennett, Ph by the U.S. Center for Disease Control, have resulted in a dramatic increase in the use of natural rubber

  8. Processing-Morphology-Property Relationships and Composite Theory Analysis of Reduced Graphene Oxide/Natural Rubber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxide/Natural Rubber Nanocomposites Jeffrey R. Potts, Om Shankar, Ling Du, and Rodney S. Ruoff of Texas at Austin, 204 E. Dean Keeton St., Austin, Texas 78712, United States Goodyear Tire and Rubber: Dispersion of reduced graphene oxide (RG-O) into natural rubber (NR) was found to dramatically enhance

  9. Neuroscience Meets Cryptography: Designing Crypto Primitives Secure Against Rubber Hose Attacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stehr, Mark-Oliver

    Neuroscience Meets Cryptography: Designing Crypto Primitives Secure Against Rubber Hose Attacks is forcibly asked by an attacker to reveal the key. These attacks, known as rubber hose cryptanalysis with conference proceedings. So-called rubber hose attacks have long been the bane of security systems

  10. Mechanical characterization and comparison of different NiTi/silicone rubber interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Mechanical characterization and comparison of different NiTi/silicone rubber interfaces T. Rey(1 on the mechanical resistance of interface between wires of NiTi shape memory alloy and silicone rubber. Three of exposure to the plasma alone get the debonding force higher. Consequently, NiTi/silicone rubber interface

  11. Top NAICS Codes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool of tomorrow todayEnergyDepartment

  12. NAICS Codes Description:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash, Shiprock, New Mexico |Myriant SuccinicNCodes

  13. Effects of simulant mixed waste on EPDM and butyl rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have developed a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be used in transporting mixed waste forms. In this program, they have screened 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (Nitrile) rubber, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene (EPDM) rubber, fluorocarbons (Viton and Kel-F{trademark}), polytetrafluoro-ethylene (Teflon), high-density polyethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer (Butyl) rubber, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene (SBR) rubber. The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The screening testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to approximately 3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste simulants at 60 C. The rubber materials or elastomers were tested using Vapor Transport Rate measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. The authors have developed a chemical compatibility program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be incorporated in packaging for transporting mixed waste forms. From the data analyses performed to date, they have identified the thermoplastic, polychlorotrifluoroethylene, as having the greatest chemical compatibility after having been exposed to gamma radiation followed by exposure to the Hanford Tank simulant mixed waste. The most striking observation from this study was the poor performance of polytetrafluoroethylene under these conditions. In the evaluation of the two elastomeric materials they have concluded that while both materials exhibit remarkable resistance to these environmental conditions, EPDM has a greater resistance to this corrosive simulant mixed waste.

  14. Plastics and Rubber Products (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomassPPPOPetroleum38 (1996) A213-A225. Printed ingun FindPlastics

  15. Cryogenic grinding: an efficient method for recycling scrap rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cryogenic grinding represents an opportunity for expanding recycling capabilities to a broad range of compounds. Many materials that can be reduced to a powder by conventional coarse grinding can be reduced more efficiently by using a super-cold agent such as liquid nitrogen at -320/sup 0/F to embrittle plastic or rubber polymers before grinding. In addition, cryogenic grinding makes possible the size reduction of many materials that cannot be ground by conventional ambient grinding methods. Some experiences of cryogenic grinding in practice at United Tire and Rubber company, Limited, headquartered in Rexdale, Ontario, are noted. A schematic of such a system is shown.

  16. Elastic and viscoelastic effects in rubber/air acoustic band gap structures: A theoretical and experimental study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deymier, Pierre

    Elastic and viscoelastic effects in rubber/air acoustic band gap structures: A theoretical rubber/air phononic crystal structures is investigated theoretically and experimentally. We introduce in a solid rubber matrix, as well as an array of rubber cylinders in an air matrix, are shown to behave

  17. To appear in the International Journal of Fracture Cavitation in Rubber: An Elastic Instability or a Fracture Phenomenon?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez-Pamies, Oscar

    To appear in the International Journal of Fracture Cavitation in Rubber: An Elastic Instability that cavitation in rubber -- that is, the sudden growth of inherent defects in rubber into large enclosed cavities far exceed the elastic limit of the rubber, which therefore ought to inelastically deform

  18. Thanks to the random movements of agitated molecules, biological rubber allows clams to open wide and insects to fly efficiently.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denny, Mark

    Thanks to the random movements of agitated molecules, biological rubber allows clams to open wide into the shell's hinge. As the shell closes, this material (a protein rubber called abduction) deforms materials akin to the man-made rubber in automobile tires and rubber bands. The walls of mammalian arteries

  19. Finite element analysis on the fracture of rubber toughened polymer blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Y.; Mai, Y.W. [Univ. of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Wu, J. [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology (Hong Kong)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of rubber particle volume fraction on the constitutive relation and fracture toughness of polymer blends was studied using elastic-plastic Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The effect of rubber particle cavitation on the stress-strain state at a crack tip was also investigated. Stress analysis reveals that because of the high rubber bulk modulus, the hydrostatic stress inside the rubber particle is close to that in the adjacent matrix material element. As a result, the rubber particle imposes a severe plastic constraint to the surrounding matrix and limits its plastic strain. Rubber particle cavitation can effectively release the constraint and enable large scale plastic strain to occur. Different failure criteria were used to determine the optimum rubber particle volume fraction for the polymer blends studied in this paper.

  20. Effects of surface modification to rubber particles on the toughening of polystyrene, polyester and epoxy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hampton, J.M.; Yao, G.L.; Joseph, T.M.; Beatty, C.L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary work has been done for the improvement of impact properties of rubber-toughened polystyrene, rubber-toughened epoxy, and rubber-toughened polyester. Unmodified ground tire rubber particles are being compared to two types of surface-modified particles, including: Vistamer{trademark} R-4200 from Composite Particles, Inc. and a chemically digested rubber. By chemically reacting the particles with the matrix, we achieve significant improvement in impact resistance resulting from enhanced energy dispersion. Particle size and particle size distribution, studied through image analysis, is an important parameter controlling impact and fracture strength. The smaller particle size of the digested rubber composites, combined with its surface treatment, significantly improves the mechanical properties of these composites over the properties of the larger, unmodified ground rubber-toughened composites and Vistamer{trademark} surface treated composites.

  1. Investigating Low Temperature Properties of Rubber Seals - 13020

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaunich, M.; Wolff, D.; Stark, W. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12203 Berlin (Germany)] [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12203 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To achieve the required tightness levels of containers for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes rubbers are widely applied as main sealing materials. The save encapsulation of the radioactive container contents has to be guaranteed according to legislation and appropriate guidelines for long storage periods as well as down to temperatures of -40 deg. C during transportation. Therefore the understanding of failure mechanisms that lead to leakage at low temperatures is of high importance. It is known that the material properties of rubbers are strongly influenced by temperature. At low temperatures this is caused by the rubber-glass transition (abbr. glass transition). During continuous cooling the material changes from rubber-like entropy-elastic to stiff energy-elastic behaviour, that allows nearly no strain or retraction. Therefore, rubbers are normally used above their glass transition but the minimum working temperature limit is not defined precisely, what can cause problems during application. The temperature range where full functionality is possible is strongly dependent on the application conditions and the material. For this investigation mainly ethylene propylene diene (EPDM) and fluorocarbon rubbers (FKM) were selected as they are often used for radioactive waste containers. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) are typically used for the determination of the temperature range of the glass transition process. The standardized compression set measurement according to ISO 815 is common for investigation of rubber sealing materials as the test simulates the seal behaviour after release. To reduce the test time of the standard tests a faster technique giving the same information was developed. Additionally, the breakdown temperature of the sealing function of complete O-ring seals is measured in a component test setup to compare it with the results of the other tests. The experimental setup is capable of measuring the leakage rate at low temperatures by the pressure rise method. A model was developed that allows calculating the minimum working temperature limit of a seal by combining the results of the applied methods. (authors)

  2. Effects of carboxylic acids on the rheological properties of crumb rubber modified asphalt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tauer, J.E.; Robertson, R.E. [Western Research Institute, Laramie, WY (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Federal mandate of 1991-1995 on the use of scrap tires in Federal roadway construction sparked a major interest in gaining a fundamental understanding of the behavior of rubber in asphalt. This study is a systematic elucidation of what chemistry controls the final crumb rubber modified asphalt (CRMA) product quality. We discovered that the type and total acid content in the asphalt are the most influential chemical factors that determine the changes in the important roadway properties of shear modulus (G*) and loss angle ({delta}) of CRMA. Low acid (<0.005 m/L) asphalts were modified with three types of carboxylic acid and each made into CRMA using typical field mixing conditions of 1 hour at 175{degrees}C. Rheological measurements were then made at various storage times up to 192 hours following storage at both 156 and 200{degrees}C. We found the changes in CRMA theological properties correspond to the acid type spiked into the asphalt.

  3. Improvement of industrial drying of natural rubber through analysis of heat and mass transfers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naon, B.; Berthomieu, G.; Benet, J.C.; Saix, C. [Univ. Montpellier II (France). Laboratoire de Mecanique et Genie Civil

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis is presented of convective drying of natural rubber in granule form. Exploitation of the mathematical model developed from analysis of internal transfers requires determination of the drying rate and the energy exchange coefficient between the material and the drying air. This was performed using a portable laboratory dryer at the production site, avoiding the problem of changes in the material during transport. Analysis of the drying kinetics of material in thin layers led to modelling the drying rate at the temperatures, rates and relative humidity values encountered in industrial dryers. The energy exchange coefficient was found by measurement of air and granule temperatures. Thick layer trials showed the suitability of the model for simulation of changes in moisture content and temperature of air and granules in a granular environment. The study as a whole led to the development of a computer program for simulating a zone dryer. This software can be used to optimize the management of an industrial natural rubber drying installation.

  4. Development and commercialization of hydrogenated nitrile rubber produced by selective hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubo, Y. (Nippon Zeon Co., Ltd., Kawasaki (Japan))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The new hydrogenated nitrile rubber consists of methylene chains, nitrile-side chains, and some C[double bond]C double bonds, and is produced by the selective hydrogenation of the olefin segmers in nitrile rubber, using a specially developed palladium catalyst on a silica support. The development of this new rubber was in response to users' demands for greater oil and heat resistance; and the superior physical and chemical properties make this new rubber useful in the automotive, petroleum, and chemical industries.

  5. Chemi-microbial processing of waste tire rubber: A project overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romine, R.A.; Snowden-Swan, L.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PNL is developing a method to use thiophillic microorganisms to devulcanize (biodesulfurize) the surface of ground rubber particles, which will improve the bonding and adhesion of the ground tire rubber into the virgin tire rubber matrix. The Chemi-microbial processing approach, introduced in this paper, is targeted at alleviating the waste tire problem in an environmentally conscious manner; it may also be applied to improve asphaltic materials and rubber and polymeric wastes to facilite their recycling. This paper outlines the logic and technical methods that will be used.

  6. Natural and synthetic rubber coatings for steel: Properties and compositions. (Latest citations from World Surface Coatings abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of compositions containing natural and synthetic rubbers to steel. Polyurethane elastomers, chlorinated rubber coatings, and rubber containing acrylic adhesives are among the coatings discussed. Studies of the degradation of rubber coatings applied to steel are included. Bonding properties, adhesion strength, weathering, and anticorrosive properties are discussed. Additional information on anticorrosive coatings may be found in other bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 180 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Natural and synthetic rubber coatings for steel: Properties and compositions. (Latest citations from World Surface Coatings abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the development and fabrication of natural and synthetic rubbers for use in coatings on steel. Coating materials include polyurethane elastomers, chlorinated rubber, and rubber-containing acrylic adhesives. References to bonding properties, mechanical strength, steel-wire reinforced rubbers, anticorrosion, and weather-resistance are covered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Natural and synthetic rubber coatings for steel: Properties and compositions. (Latest citations from World Surface Coatings Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of compositions containing natural and synthetic rubbers to steel. Polyurethane elastomers, chlorinated rubber coatings, and rubber containing acrylic adhesives are among the coatings discussed. Studies of the degradation of rubber coatings applied to steel are included. Bonding properties, adhesion strength, weathering, and anticorrosive properties are discussed. Additional information on anticorrosive coatings may be found in other bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 147 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. High damping properties of magnetic particles doped rubber composites at wide frequency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Ye, E-mail: schtiany@163.com [Research Center for Engineering Technology of Polymeric Composites of Shanxi Province, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); College of Material Science and Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Liu, Yaqing, E-mail: lyq@nuc.edu.cn [Research Center for Engineering Technology of Polymeric Composites of Shanxi Province, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); College of Material Science and Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); He, Minhong; Zhao, Guizhe; Sun, Youyi [Research Center for Engineering Technology of Polymeric Composites of Shanxi Province, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); College of Material Science and Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? A new kind of permanent magnetic rubber was prepared. ? The microstructure and magnetic properties were investigated. ? The mechanical and damping properties were discussed. ? The new material is expected to be an isolator material to a changed frequency. - Abstract: A new kind of rubber composite was prepared by doping SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoparticles coated with silane coupling agents (Si-69) into nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) matrix, which was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy. The results showed that the SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoparticles were well dispersed in rubber matrix. Furthermore, the mechanical and magnetic properties of the rubber composites were investigated, in which the high tensile strength (15.8 MPa) and high saturation magnetization (22.9 emu/g) were observed. What is more, the high loss factor of the rubber composites was also obtained in a wide frequency range (0–100 Hz) at high loading (80 phr). The result is attributed to that the permanent magnetic field in rubber nanocomposites can absorb shock energy. These results indicate that the new kind of permanent magnetic rubber is expected to be a smart isolator material, in which the isolator will be able to adapt to a changed frequency.

  10. OPERATIONAL NOTE GLASS, RUBBER, AND NYLON: HOW TO MAKE A MOUTH ASPIRATOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or rubber tubing, a collection chamber made from glass tubing, and a filter made of nylon stockings or pantyhose (Fig. 1). Rubber or PVC tubing of 8-mm (5/16- in.) external source), and needle-nose pliers. Generally, only a 41-cm (16- in.) section of the PVC tubing is necessary

  11. Modeling mechanical properties of core-shell rubber-modified epoxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, X.; Xiao, K.; Ye, L.; Mai, Y.W.; Wang, C.H.; Rose, L.R.F.

    2000-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments have been carried out to quantify the effects of rubber content and strain rate on the elastic and plastic deformation behavior of core-shell rubber-modified epoxies. Both the Young's modulus and the yield stress were found to be slightly dependent on strain rate, but very sensitive to the volume fraction of rubber particles. Finite element analyses have also been performed to determine the influences of rubber content on the bulk elasticity modulus and the yield stress. By comparing with experimental results, it is found that the Young's modulus of rubber-toughened epoxies can be accurately estimated using the Mori-Tanaka method, provided that the volume fraction of rubber particles is appropriately evaluated. A yield function is provided that the volume fraction of rubber particles is appropriately evaluated. A yield function is proposed to quantify the effects of hydrostatic stress on the plastic yielding behaviors of rubber-modified epoxies. Agreement with experimental results is good. Also, a visco-plastic model is developed to simulate the strain-rate-dependent stress-strain relations.

  12. Recycled rubber, aggregate, and filler in asphalt paving mixtures. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ;Contents(Partial): Evaluation Systems for Crumb Rubber Modified Binders and Mixtures; Hot Mix Asphalt Rubber Applications in Virginia; Evaluation of Pyrolized Carbon Black from Scrap Tires as Additive in Hot Mix Asphalt; Use of Scrap Tire Chips in Asphaltic Membrane; Effects of Mineral Fillers on Properties of Stone Matrix Asphalt Mixtures; and Quantitative Analysis of Aggregate Based on Hough Transform.

  13. FIELD PERFORMANCE AND LABORATORY EVALUATION OF WARM MIX ASPHALT PRODUCED WITH RUBBERIZED BITUMEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    FIELD PERFORMANCE AND LABORATORY EVALUATION OF WARM MIX ASPHALT PRODUCED WITH RUBBERIZED BITUMEN of rubberized bitumen has been spread out mainly due to environmental aspects, but high mixing and compaction temperatures are necessary due to the higher viscosity of this bitumen. A WMA mixture (using a surfactant

  14. Using RBF-Nets in Rubber Industry Process Control U. Pietruschka, R. Brause

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brause, R.

    Using RBF-Nets in Rubber Industry Process Control U. Pietruschka, R. Brause J.W. Goethe and the modeling of the industrial problem. The algorithm shows good results even using only a few training samples in rubber industry has the smell of a ,,dirty" industrial branch. This comes not only from the often very

  15. PIXE, Micro-PIXE and RBS Analysis of Thermal Aged Rubber Material : On The Additives Behaviour Versus Aging Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    PIXE, Micro-PIXE and RBS Analysis of Thermal Aged Rubber Material : On The Additives Behaviour Villeurbanne Cedex-France. ABSTRACT PIXE, micro-PIXE and RBS techniques were employed to monitor the behaviour of the rubber material itself. Keywords : PIXE, micro-PIXE, RBS, Rubber, Thermal Aging, Segregation, Additives

  16. Fast evaluation of the fatigue lifetime of rubber-like materials based on a heat build-up protocol and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Fast evaluation of the fatigue lifetime of rubber-like materials based on a heat build-up protocol Cedex, France Abstract The temperature of rubber-like materials increases under cyclic loadings, due results. Key words: rubber-like materials, heat build-up, infrared thermography, X-ray micro

  17. 10.1111/j.1460-2695.2007.01143.x Fatigue crack growth of filled rubber under constant and variable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fatemi, Ali

    10.1111/j.1460-2695.2007.01143.x Fatigue crack growth of filled rubber under constant and variable Assistant at The University of Toledo, Currently at Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, 2Professor, Mechanical Toledo, Ohio 43606, USA, 3Lead Engineer, Research Department, Cooper Tire and Rubber Company, 701 Lima

  18. Preliminary Review of the Degradation of Cellulosic, Plastic, and Rubber Materials in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, and Possible

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Preliminary Review of the Degradation of Cellulosic, Plastic, and Rubber Materials in the Waste............................................... 2-1 2.1.1 Microbial Degradation of Cellulosic, Plastic, and Rubber Materials ...... 2-1 2.1.2 Anoxic-Biodegradable.............................................................................. 3-4 3.2.4 Uncertainties in Cellulosics, Plastics, and Rubber Inventory.................. 3-6 4

  19. Industrial-hygiene walk-through survey report of Firestone Synthetic Rubber and Latex Company, Lake Charles, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fajen, J.M.; Ungers, L.J.

    1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A walk-through survey was conducted at the Firestone Synthetic Rubber and Latex Company, Lake Charles, Louisiana in July, 1985. The purpose of the survey was to obtain information on the 1,3-butadiene polymer manufacturing process and evaluate exposure potential. Bulk samples of vinylpyridine latex, styrene/butadiene rubber, and polybutadiene rubber were analyzed for residual 1,3-butadiene.

  20. Pyrolysis kinetics of scrap tire rubbers. 1: Using DTG and TGA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.; Park, J.K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Chun, H.D. [Research Inst. of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tire pyrolysis kinetics was investigated to explore an economically viable design for the pyrolysis process. Derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were found to provide valuable information on pyrolysis kinetics and mechanisms of a heterogeneous compound like scrap tire rubbers. Kinetic parameters of each compositional compound were obtained by analyzing DTG and TGA results with a series of mathematical methods proposed in this study. The pyrolysis kinetics of the scrap tire rubbers tested was well accounted for by the first-order irreversible independent reactions of three compositional compounds. The sidewall and tread rubber exhibited different thermal degradation patterns, suggesting a compositional difference between them. Isothermal pyrolysis results showed that the sidewall rubber would hardly be degraded at low temperature regions (<600 K), whereas it would be more rapidly degraded than the tread rubber at higher temperatures ({>=}746 K). Because of the shorter pyrolysis time, the higher isothermal pyrolysis temperature appeared to be more economically favorable.

  1. Use of rubber and bentonite added fly ash as a liner material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cokca, Erdal; Yilmaz, Zeka

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In many countries regulations require all hazardous waste disposal facilities to be lined with suitable impermeable barriers to protect against contamination. In this study, a series of laboratory tests on rubber and bentonite added fly ash were conducted. The aim of the tests was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing fly ash, rubber and bentonite as a low hydraulic conductivity liner material. Type C fly ash was obtained from Soma thermal power plant in Turkey; rubber in pulverized form was waste from the retreading industry. To investigate the properties of rubber and bentonite added fly ash, hydraulic conductivity, leachate analysis, unconfined compression, split tensile strength, one-dimensional consolidation, swell and freeze/thaw cycle tests were performed. The overall evaluation of results have revealed that rubber and bentonite added fly ash showed good promise and a candidate for construction of a liner.

  2. Five synthetic rubber pond liners protect against leakage and weather

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinreich, G.; Hofsess, R.; Toy, D.A.

    1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More than 137 million cu ft of pipeline quality gas is produced daily at the Great Plains Coal Gasification Project in Beulah, ND. The facility is the only commercial plant in the US which produces gaseous and liquid fuels from low-grade coal. The plant needs to recycle and reuse 100% of the organic process wastewater, requiring a complicated treatment system of cooling towers, evaporators, a liquid waste incinerator and other units, each of which has its own surge pond. In total, the plant has five surge ponds which hold near 80 million gallons. To prevent the seepage of wastewater from the surge ponds into the ground water, a liner material was needed that would fulfill several design criteria. The liner had to be resistant to degradation caused by a very wide range of temperatures and it had to have a low coefficient of expansion. Resistance to both organic and inorganic chemical substances was another key requirement. Finally, the liner material needed to be easy to seam during field installation. An elastomeric membrane liner using the synthetic rubber and reinforcing polyester scrim best met the plant's requirements. One of the primary reasons for selecting synthetic rubber was its low coefficient of expansion. Extreme seasonal weather conditions, with temperatures ranging from below zero in the winter to over 100/sup 0/F in the summer, are common in North Dakota. And because the level of wastewater in the ponds constantly varies, a liner is frequently exposed to the elements. Overall, the synthetic rubber pond liners have performed through extreme weather conditions and have proven to be a cost-effective solution to wastewater storage at the gasification project.

  3. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, play an integral role in our daily lives. Naturally-occurring polymers include cellulose (mentioned in gun cotton demo), rubber, skin, hair,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    . Naturally- occurring polymers include cellulose (mentioned in gun cotton demo), rubber, skin, hair, DNA, etc

  4. Projectile Lab student You will shoot a projectile across the room using a rubber band and calculate how far it flies.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spakowitz, Andrew J.

    Projectile Lab ­ student You will shoot a projectile across the room using a rubber band _____________ g #12;Task 2 ­ Elasticity of the Rubber Band You will measure the "elastic constant" of the rubber band which will be used to shoot your projectile. This elastic constant tells you how strong the rubber

  5. Materials Science and Engineering A, 2006. 417(1-2): p. 249-258 249 Investigation of Flexural Strength Properties of Rubber and Nanoclay Reinforced Hybrid Syntactic Foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Nikhil

    Strength Properties of Rubber and Nanoclay Reinforced Hybrid Syntactic Foams Rahul Maharsia* , Nikhil Gupta are developed by using rubber and nanoclay particles to modify the matrix microstructure in syntactic foams to fabricate the foam samples. In the rubber hybrid foams, 40 and 75 m size rubber particles are used by 2

  6. ROMP-based polymer composites and biorenewable rubbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeong, Wonje

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research is divided into two related topics. In the first topic, the synthesis and characterization of novel composite materials reinforced with MWCNTs by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) is reported for two ROMP based monomers: dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) and 5-ethylidene-2-norbornene (ENB). Homogeneous dispersion of MWCNTs in the polymer matrices is achieved by grafting norbornene moieties onto the nanotube surface. For the DCPD-based system, the investigation of mechanical properties of the composites shows a remarkable increase of tensile toughness with just 0.4 wt % of functionalized MWCNTs (f-MWCNTs). To our knowledge, this represents the highest toughness enhancement efficiency in thermosetting composites ever reported. DMA results show that there is a general increase of thermal stability (rg) with the addition of f-MWCNTs, which means that covalently bonded f-MWCNTs can reduce the local chain mobility of the matrix by interfacial interactions. The ENB system also shows significant enhancement of the toughness using just 0.8 wt % f-MWCNTs. These results indicate that the ROMP approach for polyENB is also very effective. The second topic is an investigation of the biorenewable rubbers synthesized by the tandem ROMP and cationic polymerization. The resin consists of a norbornenyl-modified linseed oil and a norbornene diester. Characterization of the bio-based rubbers includes dynamic mechanical analysis, tensile testing, and thermogravimetric analysis. The experimental results show that there is a decrease in glass transition temperature and slight increase of elongation with increased diester loading.

  7. Evaluation of reclaimed rubber in bituminous pavements. Final report, July 1993-April 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trepanier, J.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Section 1038 of the 1991 Intermodel Surface Transportation efficiency Act (ISTEA) mandated use of crumb rubber from scrap tires in asphalt pavement starting in FY 94. To gain some experience, the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) constructed five demonstration projects in 1993 and one in 1994. All used the `dry process` to introduce crumb rubber into the mix. With the dry process, crumb rubber is added to the heated aggregate prior to addition of asphalt cement (AC). Three projects used very low addition rates. Each was divided into five equal segments. One segment, the control, used no crumb rubber. The other segments used 1/2, 1, 1 1/2 and 2 pounds of crumb rubber per ton of hot mix. The other three projects each used 20 pounds of crumb rubber per ton of hot mix. Both batch plants and drier-drum plants were used, and the crumb rubber was supplied in pre-measured batch-size packets, 50-pound paper bags and 2000-pound super sacks.

  8. Stress-Strain Relation and strain-Induced Crystallization in Rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toki,S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rubber is composed of flexible chains and network points. Theory of rubber elasticity succeeds to elucidate stress-strain relation of rubber using the inverse Langevin equation of entropy modulus. However, actual rubber is much different from ideal networks composed of ideal rubber chains. Network points may not distribute homogeneously and the molecular weight between two network points may show wide distribution. Flexible chains show strain-induced crystallization. Recent synchrotron X-ray and simultaneous stress-strain measurements reveal that strain-induced crystallization reduces the stress by increasing the length of molecules along the stretching direction. Also, strain-induced crystals are created not at the middle of the network points, but at the close location to the network points. The hybrid structure of strain-induced crystallites and network points may be stronger than network points alone. Therefore, strain induced crystallization may increase the tensile strength of rubber by two mechanisms, they are, increase of elongation at break and reinforcement of network points. Natural rubber has biotic network points in nature. After vulcanization, the biotic network may contribute the superior toughness of NR, comparing to IR. Carbon filled NR also shows strain induced crystallization. In order to acquire high tensile strength, molecules should have higher flexibility to perform strain induced crystallization by selecting a kind of carbon blacks, an accelerator and a curing condition.

  9. Use of zinc and copper (I) salts to reduce sulfur and nitrogen impurities during the pyrolysis of plastic and rubber waste to hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wingfield, Jr., Robert C. (Southfield, MI); Braslaw, Jacob (Southfield, MI); Gealer, Roy L. (West Bloomfield, MI)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in a process for the pyrolytic conversion of rubber and plastic waste to hydrocarbon products which results in reduced levels of nitrogen and sulfur impurities in these products. The improvement comprises pyrolyzing the waste in the presence of at least about 1 weight percent of salts, based on the weight of the waste, preferably chloride or carbonate salts, of zinc or copper (I). This invention was made under contract with or subcontract thereunder of the Department of Energy Contract #DE-AC02-78-ER10049.

  10. Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis of Virgin TR-55 Silicone Rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Small IV, W; Wilson, T S

    2009-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) of virgin TR-55 silicone rubber specimens was conducted. Dynamic frequency/temperature sweep tests were conducted over the ranges 0.1-100 rad/s and 30-100 C using a parallel plate test geometry. A strain of 0.2% was used, which was near the upper limit of the linear viscoelastic region of the material based on initial dynamic strain sweep tests. Master curves of G{prime} and G{double_prime} as a function of frequency were generated using time-temperature superposition (horizontal shift with initial vertical correction). The activation energy calculated from an Arrhenius fit to the horizontal shift factors was 178-355 kJ/mol. The calculated percent load retention at {approx}50 years was 61-68%.

  11. A New Paradigm in Space Based Experiments Using Rubber Balloons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarti, Sandip K; Palit, Sourav; Chakraborty, Subhankar; Mondal, Sushanta; Bhattacharyya, Arnab; Middya, Susanta; Chakrabarti, Sonali

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Indian Centre for Space Physics is engaged in long duration balloon borne experiments with typical payloads less than ~ 3kg. Low cost rubber balloons are used. In a double balloon system, the booster balloon lifts the orbiter balloon to its cruising altitude where data is taken for a long time. Here we present results of muon detections and recent solar activities, including the light curves and flare spectra in the 20-100keV range. We not only show that we have successfully obtained several flares and there spectra at different altitudes, we also found that the high energy X-ray flux of strong flares at altitudes of 10-13 km (the flight altitude of commercial planes) could be more than the contribution due to cosmic rays.

  12. Performance evaluation of CFRP-rubber shock absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamanna, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.lamanna@unina2.it; Sepe, Raffaele, E-mail: giuseppe.lamanna@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, via Roma, 29 - 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present work a numerical investigation on the energy absorbing capability of dedicated structural components made of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer and an emulsion polymerised styrene butadiene rubber is reported. The shock absorbers are devices designed to absorb large amounts of energy by sacrificing their own structural integrity. Their aim is to cushion the effects of an impact phenomenon with the intent to preserve other structures from global failure or local damaging. Another important role of shock absorbers is reducing the peak of the acceleration showed during an impact phenomenon. This effect is of considerable interest in the case of vehicles to preserve passengers’ safety. Static and dynamic numerical results are compared with experimental ones in terms of mean crushing forces, energy and peak crushing. The global performance of the absorbers has been evaluated by referencing to a proposed quality index.

  13. Development of Internal Fine Structure in Stretched Rubber Vulcanizates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M Tosaka; S Toki; J Che; L Rong; B Hsiao

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) pattern and tensile stress during relaxation of stretched rubber vulcanizates (synthetic polyisoprene) were measured simultaneously at room temperature and at 0 C. The samples were quickly stretched to the prefixed strain and then allowed to relax for 1 h. In every SAXS pattern, the intensity distribution was elongated along the equator, indicating the formation of structures elongated in the stretching direction. The so-called two-spots pattern corresponding to the long period of stacked lamellar crystals did not appear even when the critical strain to induce crystallization was exceeded. On the other hand, even below the critical strain, additional development of equatorial streaks was detected in the differential SAXS patterns. This result suggests the growth of the density fluctuation elongated in the stretching direction, which is not directly related to strain-induced crystallization.

  14. Biaxial Deformations of Rubber: Entanglements or Elastic Fluctuations?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiangjun Xing

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The classical theory of rubber elasticity fails in the regime of large deformation. The un- derlying physical mechanism has been under debate for long time. In this work, we test the recently proposed mechanism of thermal elastic fluctuations by Xing, Goldbart and Radzi- hovsky1 against the biaxial stress-strain data of three distinct polymer networks with very different network structures, synthesized by Urayama2 and Kawabata3 respectively. We find that both the two parameters version and the one-parameter version of the XGR theory provide satisfactory description of the elasticity in whole deformation range. For comparison, we also fit the same sets of data using the slip-link model by Edwards and Vilgis with four parameters. The fitting qualities of two theories are found to be comparable.

  15. Material morphology and electrical resistivity differences in EPDM rubbers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Domeier, Linda A.

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical resistance anomalies noted in EPDM gaskets have been attributed to zinc-enriched surface sublayers, about 10-{micro}m thick, in the sulfur cured rubber material. Gasket over-compression provided the necessary connector pin contact and was also found to cause surprising morphological changes on the gasket surfaces. These included distributions of zinc oxide whiskers in high pressure gasket areas and cone-shaped features rich in zinc, oxygen, and sulfur primarily in low pressure protruding gasket areas. Such whiskers and cones were only found on the pin side of the gaskets in contact with a molded plastic surface and not on the back side in contact with an aluminum surface. The mechanisms by which such features are formed have not yet been defined.

  16. Mortality study of employees at a synthetic rubber manufacturing plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, T.M.; Buffler, P.A.; Holguin, A.H.; Hsi, B.P.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mortality follow-up study was conducted of workers employed at a synthetic rubber manufacturing plant in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Interest in the potential health effects of exposure to methyl chloride, one of the substances used in the manufacturing process, provided the impetus for this study. The study cohort consisted of 852 male process workers who had worked at least 1 month during the period from startup of operations in 1943 through December 31, 1978. Mortality from all causes was lower than expected when compared with the U.S. male population. No excess mortality from any specific cause of death was found in the study population after analysis by level and duration of exposure.

  17. Sampling and analysis of butadiene at a synthetic rubber plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodrich, J.D.; DeWees, W.G.; Segall, R.R.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Butadiene emission samples were collected from the process vent stream of a plant manufacturing synthetic rubber from styrene and butadiene. On-site analysis of samples was performed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. The precision of butadiene concentrations was determined from simultaneous samples collected at a nominal sampling rate of 0.050 L/min, rather than at the recommended sampling rate of 0.5 L/min. In addition, simultaneous samples were collected at both 0.20 L/min and 0.050 L/min and analyzed to determine if the mean values or precisions of the measured concentrations were influenced by the sampling rate. Acceptable precision was observed at both sampling rates, and the mean values and precisions of butadiene levels determined were statistically equal for simultaneous samples.

  18. Correlation Of Ortho-Positronium Intensity With Doppler Broadening For Rubber Above And Below The Glass Transition Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Towry, Amanda [New Mexico State University, Alamogordo, NM 88310 (United States); Quarles, C. A. [Texas Christian University, Fort Worth TX 76109 (United States)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous research has demonstrated a correlation between the Doppler broadening S parameter and the intensity of the ortho-positronium lifetime component in polymers that depends on the composition of the polymer. On the other hand, rubber polymers do not show this correlation and behave more like liquids for which the S parameter is essentially independent of the ortho-positronium intensity. The bubble model has been suggested as an explanation of the lack of correlation in analogy with liquids, but the bubble model applied to rubber is controversial. There are two important differences between the rubber and the polymers samples: first, the rubber samples at room temperature were all above the glass transition temperature (T{sub G}). Second, the rubber samples all contained sulfur and were vulcanized. These differences were investigated by first measuring the S parameter for six rubber samples below T{sub G} where the bubble model would not be expected to work. Second, raw rubber samples that did not contain any sulfur and were unvulcanized were studied at room temperature. The results show that the lack of correlation between the S parameter and the ortho-positronium intensity previously observed for vulcanized rubber is due to the inhibition of positronium formation by the sulfur in the vulcanized rubber samples rather than to the rubber being above T{sub G}.

  19. An evaluation of permanent deformation properties of crumb rubber modified (CRM) asphalt concrete mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makunike, Danai Ellarin

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    applications, while the remainder is dumped in stockpiles as scrap. Tire stockpiles pose an environmental threat as fire and health hazards. As a result, government agencies have taken action to mandate the recycling of waste tire rubber by state transportation...

  20. Rubber tappers of the Upper Juruá River, Brazil: the making of a forest peasant economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbosa de Almeida, Mauro William

    1993-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis studies the forest labour process of seringueiros (rubber tappers) in the contemporary Amazon. It investigates labour processes from a Marxist anthropological perspective, focusing on value and exploitation on the capitalist periphery...

  1. Interaction of a spark-generated bubble with a rubber beam: Numerical and experimental study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, S. W.

    In this paper, the physical behaviors of the interaction between a spark-generated bubble and a rubber beam are studied. Both numerical and experimental approaches are employed to investigate the bubble collapse near the ...

  2. Toxic species emissions from controlled combustion of selected automotive rubber components 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shalkowski, Mark Henry

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TOXIC SPECIES EMISSIONS FROM CONTROLLED COMBUSTION OF SELECTED AUTOMOTIVE RUBBER COMPONENTS A Thesis by MARK HENRY SHALKOWSKI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject: Safety Engineering TOXIC SPECIES EMISSIONS FROM CONTROLLED COMBUSTION OF SELECTED AUTOMOTIVE RUBBER COMPONENTS A Thesis by MARK HENRY SHALKOWSKI Approved as to style and content by: // John...

  3. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of...

  4. ,"U.S. Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePriceExpected Future Production (Billion Cubic

  5. ,"U.S. Total Refiner Petroleum Product Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant StocksPetroleum Product

  6. ,"Federal Offshore California Natural Gas Marketed Production (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;NetPrice (Dollars per Thousand CubicMarketed Production

  7. ,"Montana Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids, Expected Future ProductionNet

  8. From certification outcomes to certification processes: Demand, supply and adoption of eco certification along the natural rubber supply chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Sean F.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Footprint of USA Rubber Tire Recycling 2007”. Insitute ofCalRecycle. 2013. “Tire Recycling and Market Development. ”www.calrecycle.ca.gov/tires/Recycling/. Cashore, Benjamin,

  9. Optical characterization of RTV615 silicone rubber compound

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, W

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Room Temperature Vulcanized (RTV) silicone compounds are commonly used to bond optical components. For our application, we needed to identify an adhesive with good ultraviolet transmission characteristics, to couple photomultipliers to quartz windows in a Heavy Gas Cerenkov detector that is being constructed for Experimental Hall C of Jefferson Lab to provide pi/K separation up to 11 GeV/c. To this end, we present the light transmission results for Momentive RTV615 silicone rubber compound for wavelengths between 195-400 nm, obtained with an adapted reflectivity apparatus at Jefferson Lab. All samples cured at room temperature have transmissions ~93% for wavelengths between 360-400 nm and fall sharply below 230 nm. Wavelength dependent absorption coefficients were extracted with four samples of different thicknesses cured at normal temperature (25oC for 7 days). The absorption coefficient drops approximately two orders in magnitude from 220-400 nm, exhibiting distinct regions of flattening near 250 nm and 330...

  10. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of cultivation systems.

  11. Mixture design and performance prediction of rubber-modified asphalt in Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, R.Y.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Appropriate disposal of scrap tires has been a major environmental concern over the years, mainly due to potential fire and health hazards associated with uncontrolled stockpiling. Primarily driven by this environmental concern, the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991 has required each State to begin incorporating scrap tire rubber into its asphalt paving materials. Although in the revision of the original ISTEA, the mandate has been eliminated, there remains a language of encouraging the use of crumb rubbers in asphalt paving materials. Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) desires to develop the mix design procedure, construction practice, and performance specifications for crumb rubber modified asphalt paving materials. This research was conducted to develop the needed design and construction guidance for meeting the ODOT anticipated needs. Specifically, the objectives of this research encompass the following scope: (1) investigation of the rheological properties of asphalt-rubber binder to determine optimum content of crumb rubber, (2) development of optimum mix design for various applications, including both wet and dry mix processes, (3) characterization of mechanical properties of recommended paving mixtures, including resilient modulus, fatigue cracking behavior, low-temperature thermal cracking resistance, water sensitivity test, incremental creep test and loaded wheel track test, and (4) comparison of performance of selected paving mixes.

  12. Synchrotron X-ray Studies of Vulcanized Rubbers and Thermoplastic Elastomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toki,S.; Hsiao, B.; Kohjiya, S.; Tosaka, M.; Tosaka, A.; Tsou, A.; Datta, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synchrotron X-ray diffraction technique has revealed strain-induced crystallization and molecular orientation in vulcanized rubbers and thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) during deformation in real time. The stress-strain curves and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) patterns in vulcanized rubbers and TPE were measured simultaneously. In-situ WAXD patterns were taken not only at different strains during uniaxial deformation but also at different temperatures at a constant strain. Results lead to several new insights. (i) Strain-induced crystallization is a common phenomenon in vulcanized rubbers, except SBR (styrene-butadiene rubber), and in TPE (with crystalline hard segments). (ii) Strain-induced crystallization decreases the stress and increases the elongation in the strained rubber. (iii) The hybrid structure of chemical networks and strain-induced crystallites is responsible to the tensile strength and elongation at break for both systems. (iiii) Some original crystal fraction (hard segment domain) in TPE is destroyed. During deformation, strain-induced crystallization increases with strain. Upon retraction even to stress zero, the majority of oriented strain-induced crystallites remains in tack with preferred orientation.

  13. Climate VISION: Greenhouse Gases Information

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    3296 Iron & Steel Mills 331111 Machinery & Equipment 333, 334, 335, 336 Petroleum & Coal 324 Plastics & Rubber 326 Textiles 313, 314, 315, 316 * NAICS North American Industry...

  14. submitted to International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, JOSE, 1998 Title: Adaptive Process Control in Rubber Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brause, R.

    : Adaptive Process Control in Rubber Industry Authors: Rüdiger W. Brause , Ulf Pietruschka Affiliation: J in rubber industry. We show that the human and economical benefits of an adaptive solution for the approximation of process parameters are very attractive. The modeling of the industrial problem is done

  15. Projectile Lab Advanced You will shoot a projectile across the room with a rubber band and calculate how far it flies.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spakowitz, Andrew J.

    Projectile Lab ­ Advanced You will shoot a projectile across the room with a rubber band of the projectile is ___________________ g #12;Task 2 ­ Elasticity of the Rubber Band You will measure the "elastic constant" of the rubber band which will be used to shoot your projectile. This elastic constant tells you

  16. Cracks in Rubber under Tension Exceed the Shear Wave Speed Paul J. Petersan, * Robert D. Deegan, M. Marder, and Harry L. Swinney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin. University of

    Cracks in Rubber under Tension Exceed the Shear Wave Speed Paul J. Petersan, * Robert D. Deegan, M in highly stretched sheets of rubber; intersonic cracks can be produced simply by popping a balloon. DOI: 10 speeds faster than the shear wave speed occur in popping rubber. Experiment.---Our experiments

  17. Pattern Recognition Pergamon Press 1973. Vol. 5, pp. 199-211. Printed in Great Britain The "Rubber-Mask" Technique II.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Widrow, Bernard

    Pattern Recognition Pergamon Press 1973. Vol. 5, pp. 199-211. Printed in Great Britain The "Rubber to date, and relates the rubber mask technique to previous work. A scheme for incorporating flexible by flexible matching, is also presented. Flexible templates Rubber masks Pattern recognition and memory system

  18. Seventh International Conference on Biaxial/Multiaxial Fatigue and Fracture, Berlin, 2004, pp. 329-334 FATIGUE CRACK NUCLEATION AND GROWTH IN FILLED NATURAL RUBBER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fatemi, Ali

    -334 FATIGUE CRACK NUCLEATION AND GROWTH IN FILLED NATURAL RUBBER SUBJECTED TO MULTIAXIAL STRESS STATES W.V. Mars1 and A. Fatemi2 1 Cooper Tire and Rubber Company, 701 Lima Ave., Findlay, Ohio 45840, USA 2 crack nucleation and growth in filled natural rubber under a wide range of multiaxial stress

  19. Application of Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy to the Rubber Industry D.A. Winesett*, H. Ade, A.P. Smith**, and S.G. Urquhart***

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Application of Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy to the Rubber Industry D.A. Winesett*, H. Ade ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company Annandale, NJ 08801 Presented at the 2002 ACS Rubber in the rubber industry are usually multi- component systems composed of several elastomers and various fillers

  20. Dissipative and coupling effects accompanying the natural rubber elongation B. Wattrisse, R. Caborgan, J.-M. Muracciole, L. Sabatier, A. Chrysochoos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Dissipative and coupling effects accompanying the natural rubber elongation B. Wattrisse, R, Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier, France ABSTRACT Rubber-like materials can undergo very large rubber at different elongation ratios. For elongation ratios less than 2, the famous thermo

  1. VOLUME 88, NUMBER 1 P HY S I CA L REV I E W L E T T ER S 7 JANUARY 2002 Oscillating Fracture Paths in Rubber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin. University of

    in Rubber Robert D. Deegan,* Paul J. Petersan, M. Marder, and Harry L. Swinney Center for Nonlinear Dynamics; published 19 December 2001) We have found an oscillating instability of fast­running cracks in thin rubber adjusting each clamp. Once the desired strain level is attained, the rubber sheet is sandwiched between

  2. Pattern Recognition Pergamon Press 1973. Vol, 5, pp. 175-197. Printed in Great Britain The "Rubber-Mask" Technique I.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Widrow, Bernard

    Pattern Recognition Pergamon Press 1973. Vol, 5, pp. 175-197. Printed in Great Britain The "Rubber in size, fuzzy, rotated, translated, observed at an unusual perspective, etc. Flexible templates (rubber, and electroencephalogram waveforms are illustrated. The rubber-mask technique will probably be usable in a wide variety

  3. Shock-Wave Theory for Rupture of Rubber Center for Nonlinear Dynamics and Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin. University of

    Shock-Wave Theory for Rupture of Rubber M. Marder Center for Nonlinear Dynamics and Department January 2005) This Letter presents a theory for the rupture of rubber. Unlike conventional cracks, ruptures in rubber travel faster than the speed of sound and consist of two oblique shocks that meet

  4. Cracks in Rubber under Tension Exceed the Shear Wave Speed Paul J. Petersan,* Robert D. Deegan, M. Marder, and Harry L. Swinney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deegan, Robert

    Cracks in Rubber under Tension Exceed the Shear Wave Speed Paul J. Petersan,* Robert D. Deegan, M in highly stretched sheets of rubber; intersonic cracks can be produced simply by popping a balloon. DOI: 10 the shear wave speed occur in popping rubber. Experiment.--Our experiments are conducted with sheets

  5. Characterization of the properties of thermoplastic elastomers containing waste rubber tire powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Shuling [School of Nano and Advanced Materials Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Gyeongnam, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Alan G. MacDiarmid Laboratory, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Xin Zhenxiang [School of Nano and Advanced Materials Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Gyeongnam, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Key Laboratory of Rubber-Plastics Qingdao University of Science and Technology and Ministry of Education, Qingdao 266042 (China); Zhang Zhenxiu [School of Nano and Advanced Materials Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Gyeongnam, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Kuk [School of Nano and Advanced Materials Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Gyeongnam, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: rubber@gsnu.ac.kr

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this research was to recycle waste rubber tires by using powdering technology and treating the waste rubber tire powder with bitumen. It has been proven that the elongation at break, thermal stability and processing flowability of composites of polypropylene (PP), waste rubber tire powder (WRT) and bitumen composites are better than those of PP/WRT composite. A comparative study has been made to evaluate the influence of bitumen content and different compatibilizers on the properties of PP/WRT/bitumen composites, using a universal testing machine (UTM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and a capillary rheometer. The results suggested that the properties of PP/WRT/bitumen composites were dependent on the bitumen content and the kind of compatibilizer used.

  6. Protection of rubbers against aging with the use of structural, diffusion and kinetic effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kablov, V. F., E-mail: kablov@volpi.ru [Volzhsky Polytechnical Institute (branch) Volgograd State Technical University, 42a Engelsa Street, 404121, Volzhsky, Volgograd Region (Russian Federation); Zaikov, G. E., E-mail: chembio@sky.chph.ras.ru [N.M. Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii prospect 64-188, 119296, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes of rubber aging in the different kinetic modes and mathematical models of the processes including aging and destruction processes under extreme conditions have been studied. The aging process for rubbers as thermodynamically open nonlinear systems has also been considered in the paper. It has been revealed that the aging process can be controlled by the internal physical-chemical processes organization and by creation of external influences (by organization of thermodynamic forces and flows). According to the Onsager principle, in certain conditions of aging the conjugation of thermodynamic forces and flows is possible. The diffusion and structural aspects of aging in elastomeric rubbers and articles thereof have been considered. The composite antiaging systems of prolonged action based on the use of microparticles with a saturated solution of the antiagers migrating into an elastomeric matrix at the exploitation have been proposed.

  7. Recycled tire rubber and other waste materials in asphalt mixtures. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The papers in this volume, dealing with various facets of recycled tire rubber and other waste materials in asphalt mixtures, should be of interest to state and local construction, design, materials, and research engineers as well as contractors and material producers. In the first papers, Rebala and Estakhri, Malpass and Khosla, and Baker and Connolly describe research related to crumb rubber modified mixtures that was done for the Texas, North Carolina, and New Jersey State Departments of Transportation. Ali et al. report on their research in Canada to determine the feasibility of sing reclaimed roofing materials in hot mix asphalt pavement. Emery discusses the evaluation of 11 Ontario rubber modified demonstration projects in terms of pavement performance, environmental impacts, and recyclability. In the last paper, Fwa and Aziz report on their work in Singapore related to the use of incinerator residue in asphalt mixtures.

  8. ,"Mississippi (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

  9. The biogenesis of rubber (CIS-polyisoprene) in guayule, Parthenium argentatum gray (Asteraceae) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goss, Rachel Ann

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , but also causes the platoglobuli of leaf chloroplasts to increase greatly soon after treatment (Bauer, per. commun. ). Application of high concentrations oi' tritiated msvalonate, a precur- sor for rubber, resulted in the labeling of chloroplasts (Bauer...+ lt 4 ~ gap ~ 4 L r 1'i t IF' ag ty l 'i I 1 P 'I c C 4I' 'f "(( corporated by the enlarging rubber particles (Bauer, per. commun, ) ~ Yokoyama et al. (1977) postulated that the action of DCPTA in ~e may be to affect the catalytic...

  10. Extraction and identification of fillers and pigments from pyrolyzed rubber and tire samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadhukhan, P.; Zimmerman, J.B. [Bridgestone/Firestone Inc., Akron, OH (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Rubber stocks, specially tires, are composed of natural rubber and synthetic polymers and also of several compounding ingredients, such as carbon black, silica, zinc oxide etc. These are generally mixed and vulcanized with additional curing agents, mainly organic in nature, to achieve certain {open_quotes}designing properties{close_quotes} including wear, traction, rolling resistance and handling of tires. Considerable importance is, therefore, attached both by the manufacturers and their competitors to be able to extract, identify and characterize various types of fillers and pigments. Several analytical procedures have been in use to extract, preferentially, these fillers and pigments and subsequently identify and characterize them under a transmission electron microscope.

  11. Developing a process for commercial silica production from Salton Sea brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourcier, W; McCutcheon, M; Leif, R; Bruton, C

    2000-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this joint LLNL-CalEnergy project is to develop a method for precipitating marketable silica from spent Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF) brines. Many markets for silica exist. We have initially targeted production of silica as a rubber additive. Silica reinforced rubber gives tires less rolling resistance, greater tear strength, and better adhesion to steel belts. Previous silica precipitates produced by CalEnergy from Salton Sea brines were not suitable as rubber additives. They did not to disperse well in the rubber precursors and produced inferior rubber. CalEnergy currently minimizes silica scaling in some of their production facilities by acidifying the brine pH. The rate of silica precipitation slows down as the pH is lowered, so that energy extraction and brine reinfection are possible without unacceptable amounts of scaling even with more than 700 ppm SiO{sub 2} in solution. We are adding a step in which a small amount of base is added to the acidified brine to precipitate silica before reinfection. By carefully controlling the type, rate, and amount of base addition, we can optimize the properties of the precipitate to approach those of an ideal rubber additive.

  12. Waste products in highway construction. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, C.

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report presents waste materials and products for highway construction. The general legislation, local liability, and research projects related to waste materials are outlined. The waste materials and products presented include waste paving materials, industrial ash materials, taconite tailing materials, waste tire rubber materials and products, building rubble materials, incinerator ash products and materials, waste glass materials, waste shingle materials and products, waste plastics products, and slag materials. For each waste category, the legislation and restrictions, material properties, construction and application, field performance, and recycling at the end of service life if available are discussed.

  13. Fracture toughness studies of rubber-toughened polycarbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.W.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycarbonate was toughened with preformed core/shell particles. The fracture toughness at different toughener levels and temperatures was measured according to a J-integral procedure using compact tension test specimens. An extensive critique of the J-integral procedures was made and compared in this study. The fracture toughness J[sub IC] of unmodified polycarbonate in Mode I is 2.68 kJ/m[sup 2] at a crosshead speed of 5.08 mm/min with the specimen thickness ranging from 3.175 to 9.525 mm, at temperatures ranging from [minus]20 to 23[degrees]C. Under the same conditions, the J[sub IC] of rubber-toughened polycarbonates were 4.88, 5.68, 7.70, and 7.46 kJ/m[sup 2], at toughener levels of 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 parts, respectively, by weight per hundred parts (phr) of polycarbonate. The maximum toughness was realized at 7.5 phr of toughener and began to decrease at 10 phr. Tensile stress-strain curves indicated that the modulus is retained at all toughener levels. The ultimate stress and strain, however, steadily decreased. Fracture surfaces of test specimens were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and analyzed to elucidate the toughening mechanism. This indicated polycarbonate deforms through shear-yielding with or without the second phase. The fracture surface of broken tensile bars showed limited cavity volume compared to the compact tension specimens. The reason for this appears to be the higher crack speed accompanying fracture in the bars. The failure mechanism and the degree of toughening from the rubbery domains are different in the compact tension specimen and tensile bar specimen: with the compact tension specimens, dilatational deformation involving cavitation is dominant. The cavitation is initiated by interfacial debonding around the particles. In this, shear-yielding is limited. In the fracture of the tensile bar specimens, shear-yielding is dominant with limited dilatational deformation involving cavitation.

  14. Laboratory evaluation of crumb rubber asphalt concrete mixtures using the concepts of SMA mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebala, Somasekhar Reddy

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , = 60 psi (414 kpa)) for Control and Crumb-Rubber Mixtures. . . . . . . . . 42 44 74 TABLE 5. 2 Compressive Strain at Failure for CRM and Dense Graded Mixtures 104'F 80 TABLE 5. 3 Number of Repetitions to Failure for Control and Crumb...

  15. When the Rubber Meets the Road: Putting Research-based Methods to Test in Urban Classrooms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klahr, David

    When the Rubber Meets the Road: Putting Research-based Methods to Test in Urban Classrooms Junlei group's performance was assessed by standardized test items and compared with that of a high also reveal a significant discrepancy between low-SES students' performance on standardized test items

  16. Fabrication and evaluation of SMA-silicone rubber continuous-fiber and particulate composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    deBlonk, Brett Jeffrey

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of an SMA particulate-elastomeric matrix composite. The embedding of Ni-Ti SMA wire actuators into flexible silicone rubber rods can affect the composite structural behavior by causing the rods to deflect upon heating and shape recovery of the SMA wires...

  17. Constitutive Behavior of a Twaron® Fabric/Natural Rubber Composite: Experiments and Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natarajan, Valliyappan D.

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    -mechanisms and molecular features on the macroscopic responses of ballistic fabrics. In the present work, the constitutive behavior of Twaron CT709® fabric/natural rubber (Twaron®/NR) composite is studied using three viscoelasticity models (i.e., a four-parameter Burgers...

  18. Pyrolytic conversion of plastic and rubber waste to hydrocarbons with basic salt catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wingfield, Jr., Robert C. (Southfield, MI); Braslaw, Jacob (Southfield, MI); Gealer, Roy L. (West Bloomfield, MI)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a process for improving the pyrolytic conversion of waste selected from rubber and plastic to low molecular weight olefinic materials by employing basis salt catalysts in the waste mixture. The salts comprise alkali or alkaline earth compounds, particularly sodium carbonate, in an amount of greater than about 1 weight percent based on the waste feed.

  19. On the physical basis for the nematic rubber elastic free energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. S. Biggins; M. Warner

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss why it is physical to keep terms in the nematic rubber elastic free energy that reflect the order parameter dependence of the natural size of the network polymers. We address a point of difficulty in some mathematical approaches to this problem.

  20. Synchrotron X-ray Scattering; Sensile Strength and Strain-Induced Crystallization in Carbon Black Filled Natural Rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toki,S.; Minouchi, N.; Sics, I.; Hsiao, B.; Kohjiya, S.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The tensile strength of rubber depends on a combination of contributions, in particular on the finite extensibility of chain segments between network points and on strain-induced crystallization. In order to achieve high tensile strength at high strain at break, we optimized the composition and processing parameters to gain high molecular flexibility by the cure conditions, to acquire high flexibility of sulfur bridges by the accelerator, and to increase the modulus level without losing rubber molecule flexibility by carbon black. As a result, our formula performed a tensile strength of 42.5 MPa at 25 C under ISO-37, as officially measured by the Society of Rubber Industry, Japan, in 2004.

  1. A Rubber-Modified Thermoplastic where the Morphology Produced by Phase-Separation Induced by Polymerization Disappears at High Conversions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. R. Soule; G. E. Elicabe; R. J. J. Williams

    2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An unexpected experimental finding is reported where the primary morphology developed during polymerization-induced phase separation in a rubber-modified thermoplastic disappears at high conversions. This process was evidenced by light scattering (LS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for a particular composition of solutions of polyisobutylene oligomers (PIB) in isobornylmethacrylate (IBoMA), during the free-radical polymerization of the monomer. The primary phase separation produced a dispersion of domains rich in PIB containing significant amounts of the monomer (IBoMA). Polymerization of the monomer in these domains occurred at high overall conversions producing the filling of dispersed domains with a PIBoMA-PIB blend. Under these conditions the final material had the appearance of a homogeneous blend. The process might be adapted to produce new types of rubber-modified thermoplastics where rubber particles are replaced by rubber-rich domains that do not exhibit definite boundaries. Keywords:

  2. Plasma and ion fluorination for chemical hardening of synthetic rubbers. Final report, 30 September 1988-30 September 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Legg, K.O.

    1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Phase I SBIR program was to investigate ways of fluorinating the surfaces of rubber materials to reduce their susceptibility to wetting and permeation by chemical warfare agents. Nitrile, butyl, and neoprene rubbers were studied. Fluorination was accomplished by direct implantation of ions into the surface and by rf plasma fluorination with freon gases. The rubber materials were examined for contact angle of diethyl malonate (DEM) drops, critical surface tension, and DEM uptake, and were characterized microscopy and ESCA. Ion implantation led to embrittlement and cracking of the surfaces, causing more rapid wetting by DEM. Plasma fluorination tended to deposit a fluorocarbon film on the surface rather than to introduce fluorine into the material. Some of the fluorinated films exhibited greater DEM initial contact angles and slower absorption, although after three hours the absorption rate increased to that of the untreated rubbers. Hence, this treatment provided some temporary improvement, but it was insufficient for proper protection.

  3. Electrolysed palladium has the potential to increase methane production by a mixed rumen population in vitro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Electrolysed palladium has the potential to increase methane production by a mixed rumen population the proportion of protozoa with attached methanogens decreased, however no estimate of CH4 production under were re-filled with H2:CO2, sealed with butyl rubber stoppers and incubated at 39°C with shaking

  4. production presents economic challenges to agroforestry. While not wishing to understate the economic challenges of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnosky, Anthony D.

    production presents economic challenges to agroforestry. While not wishing to understate in the system espoused by Struebig et al. of intensive production directly abutting HCV areas. We recognise. Indonesia. Hum. Ecol. 35, 427­438 4 Therville, C. (2008) Dynamics of Rubber Agroforest Conversion in Bungo

  5. Trajectories of Rubber Balloons used in Balloon Releases: Theory and Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaschke, Patrick

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Balloon releases are one of the main attractions of many fairs. Helium filled rubber balloons are released to carry postcards over preferably long distances. Although such balloons have been considered in atmospheric sciences and air safety analysis, there is only scarce literature available on the subject. This work intends to close this gap by providing a comprehensive theoretical overview and a thorough analysis of real-life data. All relevant physical properties of a rubber balloon are carefully modelled and supplemented by weather observations to form a self-contained trajectory simulation tool. The analysis of diverse balloon releases provided detailed insight into the flight dynamics and potential optimisations. Helium balloons are found to reach routinely altitudes above 10 km. Under optimal conditions, they could stay more than 24 hours airborne while reaching flight distances close to 3000 km. However, external weather effects reduce the typical lifetime to 2-5 hours.

  6. Synthesis of ethylene-propylene rubber graft copolymers by borane approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, T.C.; Janvikul, W.; Bernard, R.; Jiang, G.J. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a new method to prepare graft copolymers which have an EP rubber backbone and several free radical polymerized polymers grafted thereto. The process involves hydroboration of commercial EPDM rubbers, such as poly(ethylene-co-propylene-co-1,4-hexadiene) and poly(ethylene-co-propylene-co-5-ethylidene-2-norbornene), with 9-borabicyclononane (9-BBN). The resulting secondary alkyl-9-BBN moieties in the EPDM copolymer were then exposed to oxygen in the presence of free radical polymerizable monomers. Under certain conditions, the selective autoxidation reaction of secondary alkyl-9-BBN took place to create desirable polymeric radicals which can in situ initiate free radical polymerization. High graft efficiency was observed with controllable copolymer compositions. The graft copolymer of EP-g-PMMA is used to show the chemistry as well as some of the physical properties.

  7. Pullout testing of geogrids in tire shreds and rubber-sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernal, A. [Geohidra, Caracas (Venezuela); Swan, R.H. Jr. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Atlanta, GA (United States); Salgado, R.; Lovell, C.W. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a direct shear and pullout testing program conducted to evaluate the interaction properties of three types of flexible geogrids having 2 cm, 5 cm and 10 cm square apertures within two types of backfill materials are presented. The first backfill material was a 5 cm nominal size tire shred fill and the second backfill material was a rubber-sand mixture consisting of a blend of 5 cm tire shreds and sand. Direct shear testing was conducted using a large direct shear box having plan dimensions of 30 cm by 30 cm and a total depth of 23 cm. Pullout tests were carried out in a large pullout box having plan dimensions of 1.2 m in length by 0.9 m in width and 0.5 m depth. Coefficients of interaction between 0.22 to 0.49 for tire shreds and 0.25 to 0.53 for rubber-sand were calculated.

  8. HYDROCARBONS FROM PLANTS: ANALYTICAL METHODS AND OBSERVATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calvin, Melvin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    breeding, commercial rubber production has been raised toused in the production of synthetic rubber the availa-

  9. Comprehensive testing to measure the response of butyl rubber to Hanford tank waste simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NIGREY,PAUL J.

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the findings of the Chemical Compatibility Program developed to evaluate plastic packaging components that may be incorporated in packaging mixed-waste forms for transportation. Consistent with the methodology outlined in this report, the authors performed the second phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant Hanford tank mixed wastes on packaging seal materials. That effort involved the comprehensive testing of five plastic liner materials in an aqueous mixed-waste simulant. The testing protocol involved exposing the materials to {approximately}143, 286, 571, and 3,670 krad of gamma radiation and was followed by 7-, 14-, 28-, 180-day exposures to the waste simulant at 18, 50, and 60 C. Butyl rubber samples subjected to the same protocol were then evaluated by measuring seven material properties: specific gravity, dimensional changes, mass changes, hardness, compression set, vapor transport rates, and tensile properties. From the analyses, they determined that butyl rubber has relatively good resistance to radiation, this simulant, and a combination of these factors. These results suggest that butyl rubber is a relatively good seal material to withstand aqueous mixed wastes having similar composition to the one used in this study.

  10. Comprehensive testing to measure the response of fluorocarbon rubber (FKM) to Hanford tank waste simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NIGREY,PAUL J.; BOLTON,DENNIS L.

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the findings of the Chemical Compatibility Program developed to evaluate plastic packaging components that may be incorporated in packaging mixed-waste forms for transportation. Consistent with the methodology outlined in this report, the authors performed the second phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant Hanford tank mixed wastes on packaging seal materials. That effort involved the comprehensive testing of five plastic liner materials in an aqueous mixed-waste simulant. The testing protocol involved exposing the materials to {approximately}143, 286, 571, and 3,670 Krad of gamma radiation and was followed by 7-, 14-, 28-, 180-day exposures to the waste simulant at 18, 50, and 60 C. Fluorocarbon (FKM) rubber samples subjected to the same protocol were then evaluated by measuring seven material properties: specific gravity, dimensional changes, mass changes, hardness, compression set, vapor transport rates, and tensile properties. From the analyses, they determined that FKM rubber is not a good seal material to withstand aqueous mixed wastes having similar composition to the one used in this study. They have determined that FKM rubber has limited chemical durability after exposure to gamma radiation followed by exposure to the Hanford tank simulant mixed waste at elevated temperatures above 18 C.

  11. Elevated serum IgE, eosinophilia, and lung function in rubber workers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bascom, R.; Baser, M.E.; Thomas, R.J.; Fisher, J.F.; Yang, W.N.; Baker, J.H. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We previously reported an outbreak of acute respiratory illness associated with eosinophilia in a group of rubber workers who performed a thermoinjection process in which synthetic rubber was heated and then injected onto metal molds. This study was conducted to determine if persistent respiratory health effects were associated with this work area and to explore the possible allergic etiology of this syndrome. A survey was performed 1 mo after a major improvement in area ventilation and consisted of baseline, cross-shift, and cross-week spirometry; diffusing capacity; serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), total eosinophil count; and skin patch testing. Baseline lung function, cross-shift, and cross-week spirometry were not significantly worse in the exposed group as compared to the control group. However, either eosinophilia (greater than 450/mm3) or elevated serum IgE (greater than 470 ng/ml) were present in 44% of exposed workers vs. 11% of the control group (p = .003). Nine months later, neither eosinophilia nor elevated IgE were associated with employment in this work area. We conclude that employment in the thermoinjection process was associated with eosinophilia and elevated IgE, which suggests sensitization to one of the components of the rubber, although no effect on pulmonary function could be demonstrated.

  12. Toxic species emissions from controlled combustion of selected rubber and plastic consumer products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caraballo, Simon A.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on cascade impactor analysis) were found during the particle size distribution analysis made. At the same time, toxic heavy metals, such as lead, chromium and antimony, were detected in the smoke and ashes of some of the materials. During municipal..., HCN, and SOz. . . 24 TABLE 5. Andersen Ambient Sampler Cut-off Points. . . 29 TABLE 6. Comparison of Coefficients of Variation. . . 33 TABLE 7. Smoke Mass Test Results For Material V-S1. . 34 TABLE 8. Smoke Mass Test Results For Material C-S2...

  13. ,"Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Marketed Production (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice SoldPlantGross WithdrawalsMarketed Production

  14. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Bcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+Liquids LeaseAnnual",2014 ,"ReleaseProduction,

  15. ,"Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids, Expected Future Production (MillionCrude Oil + LeaseDry

  16. ,"Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids, Expected Future ProductionNetPrice (Dollars perPlant

  17. VOLUME 88, NUMBER 1 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 7 JANUARY 2002 Oscillating Fracture Paths in Rubber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin. University of

    Paths in Rubber Robert D. Deegan,* Paul J. Petersan, M. Marder, and Harry L. Swinney Center-running cracks in thin rubber sheets. A well defined transition from straight to wavy cracks occurs as the amount adjusting each clamp. Once the desired strain level is attained, the rubber sheet is sandwiched between

  18. Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment on The Tensile and Impact Properties of Thermoplastic Natural Rubber Nanocomposites Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarawneh, Mou'ad A.; Ahmad, Sahrim Hj.; Rasid, Rozaidi [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yahya, S. Y. [Institute of Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigates the effect of ultrasonic treatment on the mechanical properties of thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR) nanocomposites reinforced with multi-walled nanotubes. The TPNR nanocomposites were prepared using melt blending method from polypropylene (PP), natural rubber (NR) and liquid natural rubber (LNR) as a compatibilizer, respectively, with 1% of Multi-wall nanotubes. The nanocomposite was prepared using the indirect technique (IDT) with the optimum processing parameters at 180 deg. C with 80 rpm mixing speed and 11 minutes processing time. The results have showed that the good dispersion on nanotubes was achieved by ultrasonic treatment. The optimization of ultrasonic time indicated that the maximum tensile and impact properties occurred with 1 h ultrasonic treatment. The Young's modulus, tensile strength, elongation at break and impact strength have increased by almost 11%, 21%, 43% and 50%, respectively. The results from our study indicate that nanotubes have as excellent reinforcement filler in TPNR matrix.

  19. Tools for multiaxial validation of behavior laws chosen for modeling hyper-elasticity of rubber-like materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chevalier, Luc; 10.1002/pen.10948

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an experimental approach to discriminate hyper-elastic models describing the mechanical behavior of rubber-like materials. An evaluation of the displacement field obtained by digital image correlation allows us to evaluate the heterogeneous strain field observed during these tests. We focus on the particular case of hyper-elastic models to simulate the behavior of some rubber-like materials. Assuming incompressibility of the material, the hyper-elastic potential is determined from tension and compression tests. A biaxial loading condition is obtained in a multiaxial testing machine and model predictions are compared with experimental results.

  20. Design of silicone rubber according to requirements based on the multi-objective optimization of chemical reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia Yuxi; Sun Sheng; Liu Lili; Mu Yue; An Lijia

    2004-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The explicit expression between composition and mechanical properties of silicone rubber was derived from the physics of polymer elasticity, the implicit expression among material composition, reaction conditions and reaction efficiency was obtained from chemical thermodynamics and kinetics, and then an implicit multi-objective optimization model was constructed. Genetic algorithm was applied to optimize material composition and reaction conditions, and the finite element method of cross-linking reaction processes was used to solve multi-objective functions, on the basis of which a new optimization methodology of cross-linking reaction processes was established. Using this methodology, rubber materials can be designed according to pre-specified requirements.

  1. Response of ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM) to simulant Hanford tank waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NIGREY,PAUL J.

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the findings of the Chemical Compatibility Program developed to evaluate plastic packaging components that may be incorporated in packaging mixed-waste forms for transportation. Consistent with the methodology outlined in this report, the author performed the second phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant Hanford tank mixed wastes on packaging seal materials. That effort involved the comprehensive testing of five plastic liner materials in an aqueous mixed-waste simulant. The testing protocol involved exposing the materials to {approximately}143, 286, 571, and 3,670 krad of gamma radiation and was followed by 7-, 14-, 28-, 180-day exposures to the waste simulant at 18, 50, and 60 C. Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber samples subjected to the same protocol were then evaluated by measuring seven material properties: specific gravity, dimensional changes, mass changes, hardness, compression set, vapor transport rates, and tensile properties. The author has determined that EPDM rubber has excellent resistance to radiation, this simulant, and a combination of these factors. These results suggest that EPDM is an excellent seal material to withstand aqueous mixed wastes having similar composition to the one used in this study.

  2. Evaluation of the effects of crumb rubber and SBR on rutting resistance of asphalt concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, Chuang-Tsair; Tia, Mang; Ruth, B.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a study to evaluate the effects of addition of crumb rubber (CR) and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) on the rutting resistance of asphalt concrete. These two additives were blended with an AC-20 and an AC-30 grade asphalt cements at different levels of concentrations. These modified and unmodified asphalt blends were tested at intermediate and high temperatures to evaluate their rutting resistance characteristics. They were also used to make Florida type S-I structural surface mixtures. These mixtures were made into Marshall-size specimens by using Gyratory Testing Machine (GTM) equipped with air-roller to compact and density to three compaction levels which simulate three different conditions in the pavement. The FDOT`s (Florida Department of Transportation) Loaded Wheel Tester was also used to evaluate the rutting resistance of these asphalt mixtures. The test results indicate that the modified asphalt mixtures show relatively better rutting resistance and shear resistance as compared with the unmodified asphalt mixtures.

  3. Mechanical Testing of TR-55 Rubber Thermally Aged Under Tensile Strain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Small IV, W; Alviso, C T; Wilson, T S; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S

    2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    TR-55 rubber specimens were previously subjected to an aging process consisting of the application of a tensile strain of approximately 67%, 100%, 133%, or 167% elongation for 4, 8, 12, or 16 h at either 250 C or room temperature. Control specimens at the same temperatures/durations were not subjected to tensile strain. The specimens were allowed to recover at room temperature without external stimuli for over 100 days before tensile testing. A single dog bone was cut from each specimen and a stress-strain curve was obtained. The elastic modulus of each specimen was calculated. Specimens aged under tensile strain exhibited rubber-like behavior dependent on the aging elongation and duration. This behavior was not evident in the unstrained controls. For the unstrained controls, exposure to 250 C resulted in an increase in modulus relative to the unheated material independent of the heating duration. The tensile strain applied during the aging process caused a reduction in modulus relative to the controls; lower moduli were observed for the shorter aging durations. Slippage of the specimens in the grips prevented determination of ultimate strength, as all specimens either slipped completely out of the grip before failure or failed at the original grip edge after slipping.

  4. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2006, based on contained zinc recoverable from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    186 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production accounted for about 80% of total U.S. production. Two primary and 12 large- and medium-sized secondary, and rubber industries. Major coproducts of zinc mining and smelting, in order of decreasing tonnage, were

  5. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2003, based on contained zinc recoverable from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    188 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production three-fourths of total U.S. production. Two primary and 12 large- and medium-sized secondary smelters uses. Zinc compounds and dust were used principally by the agriculture, chemical, paint, and rubber

  6. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2002, based on contained zinc recoverable from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    190 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production% of production. Two primary and 13 large- and medium-sized secondary smelters refined zinc metal of commercial principally by the agriculture, chemical, paint, and rubber industries. Major coproducts of zinc mining

  7. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2004, based on contained zinc recoverable from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    188 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production% of total U.S. production. Two primary and 12 large- and medium-sized secondary smelters refined zinc metal were used principally by the agriculture, chemical, paint, and rubber industries. Major coproducts

  8. Latex and two-roll mill processing of thermally-exfoliated graphite oxide/natural rubber nanocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latex and two-roll mill processing of thermally-exfoliated graphite oxide/natural rubber t Thermally-exfoliated graphite oxide (TEGO) is a graphene-based material that has been previously shown to graphene-based materials [4]. GO can be exfoliated in water into single-layer graphene oxide platelets

  9. Culture-based study of endophytes associated with rubber trees in Peru reveals a new class of Pezizomycotina: Xylonomycetes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutzoni, François M.

    Culture-based study of endophytes associated with rubber trees in Peru reveals a new class: Ascomycota Endophytes Fungal phylogeny Hevea Sapwood Tropical forest a b s t r a c t Through a culture foliar endophytes. Because its origin is nested within this major burst of fungal diversification, we

  10. THE ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF HYDROCARBON PRODUCTION IN PARTHENIUM ARGENTATUM (GUAYULE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, T.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the time there was no synthetic rubber, the very real natureend of World War II. Synthetic rubber had just been inventedof oil from which synthetic rubber is deriv~d,in conjunction

  11. ,"Texas--RRC District 4 Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice SoldPlant Liquids, Expected Future Production

  12. ,"U.S. Federal Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePriceExpected Future Production+ LeaseDry Natural

  13. Good-Bye, SIC - Hello, NAICS

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688Electricity UseFoot) YearNetper ThousandMar 2,

  14. " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of1

  15. " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of12.1. Enclosed Floorspace

  16. " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of12.1. Enclosed Floorspace3

  17. " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of12.1. Enclosed Floorspace31

  18. " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of12.1. Enclosed

  19. " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of12.1. Enclosed9.1 Enclosed

  20. " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of12.1. Enclosed9.1

  1. " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of12.1.S4.1.4 Number468143

  2. Topological Interaction between Loop Structures in Polymer Networks and the Nonlinear Rubber Elasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naomi Hirayama; Kyoichi Tsurusaki

    2011-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We numerically examine the nonlinear rubber elasticity of topologically constrained polymer networks. We propose a simple and effective model based on Graessley and Pearson's topological model (GP model) for describing the topological effect. The main point is to take account of a nonequilibrium effect in the synthesis process of the polymer network. We introduce a new parameter $\\gamma$ to describe entropic contributions from the entanglement of polymer loops, which may be determined from the structural characteristics of the sample. The model is evaluated in the light of experimental data under uniaxial and biaxial deformations. As a result, our model exhibits uniaxial behaviors which are common to many elastomers in various deformation regimes such as Mooney-Rivlin's relation in small extension, stress divergence in the elongation limit and the declined stress in compression. Furthermore, it is also qualitatively consistent with biaxial experiments, which can be explained by few theoretical models.

  3. Crystallization and Stress Relaxation in Highly Stretched Samples of Natural Rubber and its Synthetic Analogue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tosaka,M.; Kawakami, D.; Senoo, K.; Kohjiya, S.; Toki, S.; Hsiao, B.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vulcanizates of natural rubber (NR) and its synthetic analogue (IR) were quickly stretched to 6 times the original length. The post stretch relaxation of tensile stress and the development of strain-induced crystallization (SIC) were studied by simultaneous measurements of the stress and the diffraction intensities using the synchrotron X-ray source. In the range of 8 s, NR crystallized much faster than IR. Accordingly, the origin of the superior toughness of NR was thought to come from the ability of rapid SIC. Time constants of the post-stretch crystallization were estimated from the X-ray study. Then the crystallization time constants were used to decompose the contribution of SIC from the total magnitude of the post-stretch relaxation. The contribution of SIC was dominant for the total magnitude of the post-stretch relaxation during several seconds.

  4. Superheated-steam test of ethylene propylene rubber cables using a simultaneous aging and accident environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, P.R.; St. Clair, S.D.; Gilmore, T.W.

    1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The superheated-steam test exposed different ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cables and insulation specimens to simultaneous aging and a 21-day simultaneous accident environment. In addition, some insulation specimens were exposed to five different aging conditions prior to the 21-day simultaneous accident simulation. The purpose of this superheated-steam test (a follow-on to the saturated-steam tests (NUREG/CR-3538)) was to: (1) examine electrical degradation of different configurations of EPR cables; (2) investigate differences between using superheated-steam or saturated-steam at the start of an accident simulation; (3) determine whether the aging technique used in the saturated-steam test induced artificial degradation; and (4) identify the constituents in EPR that affect moisture absorption.

  5. First results from electron-photon damage equivalence studies on a generic ethylene-propylene rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckalew, W.H.

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of a simulator adequacy assessment program, the relative effectiveness of electrons and photons to produce damage in a generic ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) has been investigated. The investigation was limited in extent in that a single EPR material, in three thickness, was exposed to Cobalt-60 photons and three electron beam energies. Basing material damage on changes in the EPR mechanical properties elongation and tensile strength, we observed that EPR damage was a smoothly varying function of absorbed energy and independent of irradiating particle type. EPR damage tracked equally well as a function of both incident particle energy and material front surface dose. Based on these preliminary data, we tentatively concluded that a correlation between particle, particle energy, and material damage (as measured by changes in material elongation and/or tensile strength) has been demonstrated. 14 figs.

  6. Electrical and optical properties of nitrile rubber modified by ion implantation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S, Najidha [Department of Physics, B.J.M Govt: college, Chavara, Kollam, Kerala (India); Predeep, P. [Laboratory for molecular Photonics and Electronics, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Calicut (India)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Implantation of N{sup +} ion beams are performed on to a non-conjugated elastomer, acrylonirtle butadiene rubber (NBR) with energy 60 keV in the fluence range of 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. A decrease in the resistivity of the sample by about eight orders of magnitude is observed in the implanted samples along with color changes. The ion exposed specimens were characterized by means of UV/Vis spectroscopy which shows a shift in the absorption edge value for the as deposited polymer towards higher wavelengths. The band gap is evaluated from the absorption spectra and is found to decrease with increasing fluence. This study can possibly throw light on ion induced changes in the polymer surface.

  7. Chemistry of natural fuel: Use of wastes of synthetic fatty acid production for obtaining water-bitumen emulsions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syroezhko, A.M.; Antipova, E.I.; Paukku, A.N. [St. Petersburg Technological Inst. (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility of producing water-emulsion waterproofing mastic and waterproofing coating based on bitumen, rubber crumb, and bottoms from production of synthetic fatty acids was studied. The physicochemical properties (softening point, ductility, sorptive properties, and friability) of the waterproofing coating based on a water-emulsion mastic were measured.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF ABORIGINAL SMALLHOLDER SOILS FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurt A. Schwabe

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Board. 2004. Natural rubber production and yield. Retrievedtheir suitability for rubber production, an evaluation ofwith regard to rubber production (Chan et al. , 1975; Yew

  9. Women playing a man's game : reconstructing ceremonial and ritual history of the Mesoamerican ballgame

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramos, Maria Isabel

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    old traditions of rubber ball production is very importantrules of the game, production of rubber balls, and the roleslandscape, and the production of rubber balls. None of the

  10. BIOLOGY & MEDICINE DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978-1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    significantly increases rubber production in guayule. Figurewith one of the rubber production-stimulating chemicals. Thewas treated with a rubber production stimulant. la) XBB 794-

  11. Policies, Political-Economy, and Swidden in Southeast Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    their lands to rubber production. Smallholders receive thethought suitable for rubber production. Accordingly, HanDeng 1993). Limiting rubber production to Han reinforced

  12. Asbestos substitutes. January 1978-July 1989 (Citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association data base). Report for January 1978-July 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This bibliography contains citations concerning materials used to replace asbestos. Aramid fibers, mineral fillers for plastics, phenolic resins, polyester, woven glass cloth, teflon-coated fibers, liquid silicone rubber, acrylic fibers, latex rubber, and flame retardant paper are considered. These materials are evaluated in gaskets, seals, cement, as brake and clutch linings, packing materials, and other places where asbestos is used. (This updated bibliography contains 219 citations, 26 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  13. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 2007, based on zinc contained in concentrate, was about

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    190 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production U.S. production. One primary and 12 large- and medium-sized secondary smelters refined zinc metal by the agriculture, chemical, paint, and rubber industries. Major coproducts of zinc mining and smelting, in order

  14. (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of zinc mined in 1995 was about $700 million. Essentially all came from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    188 ZINC (Data in thousand metric tons of zinc content, unless noted) Domestic Production and Use were used principally by the agricultural, chemical, paint, and rubber industries. Major coproducts--United States: 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995e Production: Mine, recoverable 518 523 488 570 600 Primary slab zinc 253

  15. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    suitable for highway construction applications. 1.0 INTRODUCTION Scrapped tires are produced in the U. At the present time, landfilling is the major technique for scrap tire disposal in the country. Scrap tires used as economic advantages. Scrap tires are primarily composed of natural rubber, steel, synthetic rubber

  16. Improved mechanical properties and ozone resistance of radiation-cured SBR. Final report, Dec 88-Jun 91. [Styrene Butadiene Rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basfar, A.A.; Silverman, J.

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a continuation and extension of the work of the earlier Army contract, where the superiority of the electron beam cured styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) tank pads to the sulfur cured pads was demonstrated. The focus of the present study is the investigation of the extraordinary ozone resistance of our radiation cured SBR, and also on possible alternatives for SBR, butadiene rubber (BR) in particular, as a tank pad compound. Base formulations of a fully sulfur cured system were established with 5% reproducibility, and results were confirmed by mechanical properties measurements on identical formulations from Belvoir Research Development and Engineering Center (BRDEC). Constant mechanical properties as a function of exposure to ozone indicate either competitive cross-linking and scissioning reactions or a 'protective' effect caused by higher terminal vinyl concentrations in the radiation cured formulations.

  17. Behaviour model identification based on inverse modeling and using Optical Full Field Measurements (OFFM): application on rubber and steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velay, V.; Robert, L.; Schmidt, F.; Hmida, S.; Vallet, T. [Research Centre on Tools Materials and Processes (CROMeP), Ecole des mines d'Albi-Carmaux, 81013 ALBI Cedex 9 (France)

    2007-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Biaxial properties of materials (polymer or steel) used in many industrial processes are often difficult to measure. However, these properties are useful for the numerical simulations of plastic-processing operations like blow moulding or thermoforming for polymers and superplastic forming or single point incremental forming for steels. Today, Optical Full Field Measurements (OFFM) are promising tools for experimental analysis of materials. Indeed, they are able to provide a very large amount of data (displacement or strain) spatially distributed. In this paper, a mixed numerical and experimental investigation is proposed in order to identify multi-axial constitutive behaviour models. The procedure is applied on two different materials commonly used in forming processes: polymer (rubber in this first approach) and steel. Experimental tests are performed on various rubber and steel structural specimens (notched and open-hole plate samples) in order to generate heterogeneous displacement field. Two different behaviour models are considered. On the one hand, a Money-Rivlin hyperelastic law is investigated to describe the high levels of strain induced in tensile test performed on a rubber open-hole specimen. On the other hand, Ramberg-Osgood law allows to reproduce elasto-plastic behaviour of steel on a specimen that induces heterogeneous strain fields. Each parameter identification is based on a same Finite Element Model Updated (FEMU) procedure which consists in comparing results provided by the numerical simulation (ABAQUS) with full field measurements obtained by the DISC (Digital Image Stereo-Correlation) technique (Vic-3D)

  18. Epoxidised Natural Rubber Based Composite Polymer Electrolyte Systems For Use In Electrochemical Device Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Idris, Razali; Tasnim, Anis; Mahbor, Kamisah Mohamad [Advanced Materials Research Centre, Lot 34 Kulim Hi-Tech Park, 09000 Kulim, Kedah (Malaysia); Hakim, Mas Rosemal [School of Chemical Sciences, University Sciences of Malaysia, 11800 USM, Minden, P. Pinang (Malaysia); Mohd, Dahlan Hj.; Ghazali, Zulkafli [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Dengkil, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) comprising epoxy-fimctionalized rubber (ENR), HDDA monomer, mixed plasticizer-propylene carbonate/ethylene carbonate, silica filler and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylimide), Li[(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}N]have been prepared using photo-induced polymerization by UV irradiation technique. The irradiated samples of filled and non-filled silica of composites electrolytes have formed dry solid-flexible and transparent films in the self-constructed Teflon mould. Thermal behaviors, FTIR, morphology and ionic conductivity were performed on such ENR based PE polymer composites having varied compositions. The thermal stability has improved slightly in the temperature range 120-200 deg. C with optimized composition. FTIR measurements data revealed that the interaction of lithium with the epoxy groups of the un-bonded electrons within polymer occurred. The results suggest that the variation of conductivity with temperature indicates that the silica filled composite has achieved optimal ionic conductivity 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} and retained high percent of plasticizer. The ionic conductivity behavior of the silica-filled ENR based composite polymer electrolyte is consistent at elevated temperature compared to non-filled CPE system. This finding opens a new pathway for further investigation to diffusion of ions in the complex polymer electrolyte systems.

  19. Rayleigh waves and surface stability for Bell materials in compression; comparison with rubber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michel Destrade

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The stability of a Bell-constrained half-space in compression is studied. To this end, the propagation of Rayleigh waves on the surface of the material when it is maintained in a static state of triaxial prestrain is considered. The prestrain is such that the free surface of the half-space is a principal plane of deformation. The exact secular equation is established for surface waves traveling in a principal direction of strain with attenuation along the principal direction normal to the free plane. As the half-space is put under increasing compressive loads, the speed of the wave eventually tends to zero and the bifurcation criterion, or stability equation, is reached. Then the analysis is specialized to specific forms of strain energy functions and prestrain, and comparisons are made with results previously obtained in the case of incompressible neo-Hookean or Mooney-Rivlin materials. It is found that these rubber-like incompressible materials may be compressed more than "Bell empirical model" materials, but not as much as "Bell simple hyperelastic" materials, before the critical stretches, solutions to the bifurcation criterion, are reached. In passing, some classes of incompressible materials which possess a relative-universal bifurcation criterion are presented.

  20. Blunt Trauma Performance of Fabric Systems Utilizing Natural Rubber Coated High Strength Fabrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad, M. R.; Ahmad, W. Y. W.; Samsuri, A.; Salleh, J.; Abidin, M. H. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The blunt trauma performance of fabric systems against 9 mm bullets is reported. Three shots were fired at each fabric system with impact velocity of 367+-9 m/s and the depth of indentation on the modeling clay backing was measured. The results showed that 18-layer and 21-layer all-neat fabric systems failed the blunt trauma test. However, fabric systems with natural rubber (NR) latex coated fabric layers gave lower blunt trauma of between 25-32 mm indentation depths. Deformations on the neat fabrics upon impact were identified as broken yarns, yarn stretching and yarn pull-out. Deflections of the neat fabrics were more localised. For the NR latex coated fabric layers, no significant deformation can be observed except for peeled-off regions of the NR latex film at the back surface of the last layer. From the study, it can be said that the NR latex coated fabric layers were effective in reducing the blunt trauma of fabric systems.

  1. Development of asphalts and pavements using recycled tire rubber. Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Technical progress report, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullin, J.A.; Davison, R.R.; Glover, C.J. [and others

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    About 285 million tires are discarded every year; less than 100 million are currently being recycled, with the rest being placed in landfills and other waste sites. A solution to reduce the littering of the environment is to use ground tire rubber in road construction. Currently, about 27 million tons of asphalt are used each year in road construction and maintenance of the country`s 2 million miles of roads. If all of the waste tire rubber could be combined with asphalt in road construction, it would displace less than 6% of the total asphalt used each year, yet could save about 60 trillion Btus annually. Purpose of this project is to provide data needed to optimize the performance of rubber-asphalt concretes. The first phase is to develop asphalts and recycling agents tailored for compatibility with ground tire rubber. Chapter 2 presents results on Laboratory Testing and Evaluation: fractionate asphalt material, reblending for aromatic asphalts, verifying optimal curing parameters, aging of blends, and measuring ductilities of asphalt-rubber binders. Chapter 3 focuses on Evaluating Mixture Characteristics (modified binders). Chapter 4 covers Adhesion Test Development (water susceptibility is also covered). The final chapter focuses on the Performance/Economic Update and Commercialization Plan.

  2. Comparative Environmental Impacts of Electric Bikes in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cherry, Christopher R.; Weinert, Jonathan X.; Yang, Xinmiao

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    or ?llers in rubber production (particularly carbon black).and the production of plastic and rubber. It does not

  3. Multi-Scaled Microstructures in Natural Rubber Characterized by Synchrotron X-ray Scattering and Optical Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toki , S.; Hsiao, B; Amnuaypornsri , S; Sakdapipanich, J; Tanaka, Y

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-scaled microstructures induced by natural impurities (i.e., proteins, phospholipids, carbohydrates) in natural rubber (NR) were investigated by synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), and optical microscopy using several kinds of untreated and chemically treated un-vulcanized samples. These microstructures include large aggregates (size less than 50 m), well-defined crystals (size less than a few 10 m), and micelles (size much less than 10 m). In un-vulcanized NR samples, even though the concentrations of natural impurities are relatively low, the dispersion of these microstructures significantly affects the mechanical properties

  4. Application of Image And X-Ray Microtomography Technique To Quantify Filler Distribution In Thermoplastic-Natural Rubber Blend Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad, Sahrim; Rasid, Rozaidi; Mouad, A. T. [Faculty of Applied Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Aziz Mohamed, A.; Abdullah, Jaafar; Dahlan, M.; Mohamad, Mahathir; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Hamzah Harun, M. [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Yazid, Hafizal [Faculty of Applied Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Hafizal Yazid, Faculty of Applied Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Abdullah, W. Saffiey W.

    2010-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray microtomography and ImageJ 1.39 u is used as a tool to quantify volume percentage of B{sub 4}C as fillers in thermoplastic-natural rubber blend composites. The use of percentage of area occupied by fillers as obtain from ImageJ from the microtomography sliced images enables the proposed technique to easily obtain the amount volume percentage of B{sub 4}C in the composite non-destructively. Comparison with other technique such as density measurement and chemical analysis proves the proposed technique as one of the promising approach.

  5. Pipeline system insulation: Thermal insulation and corrosion prevention. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning thermal and corrosion insulation of pipeline systems used to transport liquids and gases. Topics include thermal aging of polyurethane used for foam heating pipes, extrusion film pipeline insulation materials and processes, flexible expanded nitrile rubber pipeline insulation with Class 1 fire rating, and underground fiberglass reinforced polyester insulated pipeline systems. Applications in solar heating systems; underground water, oil, and gas pipelines; interior hot and cold water lines under seawater; and chemical plant pipeline system insulation are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Laboratory study on the use of tire shreds and rubber-sand in backfills and reinforced soil applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernal, A.; Lovell, C.W.; Salgado, R.

    1996-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Millions of scrap tires are discarded annually in the United States, the bulk of which are currently landfilled or stockpiled. This consumes valuable landfill space, or, if improperly disposed, creates a fire hazard and provides a prolific breeding ground for rates and mosquitoes. The use of tire shreds as lightweight fill material can sharply reduce the tire disposal problem. The present study, based on laboratory testing and numerical modeling, examines the feasibility of incorporating tire shreds and rubber-sand mixtures as lightweight geomaterial in embankments and backfills.

  7. FERMENTATION OF PENTOSE SUGARS TO ETHANOL AND OTHER NEUTRAL PRODUCTS BY MICROORGANISMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, S.L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was the basis of the synthetic rubber industry in Germany.rubber industry to decline. for With the outbreak butadiene-synthetic

  8. Acute toxicity of smoke screen materials to aquatic organisms, white phosphorus-felt, red phosphorus-butyl rubber and SGF No. 2 fog oil. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poston, T.M.; McFadden, K.M.; Bean, R.M.; Clark, M.L.; Thomas, B.L.; Killand, B.W.; Prohammer, L.A.; Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The acute toxicity of three obscurants was determined for nine freshwater organisms. The materials tested were white phosphorus-felt smoke, red phosphorus-butyl rubber (RP-BR) smoke, and smoke generator fuel (SGF) No. 2 fog oil (bulk and vaporized). The chemistry of WP-F and RP-BR smoke in water and the resulting effects on aquatic organisms are similar. Combustion of these two obscurants and their deposition in water leads to the formation of many complex oxy-phosphoric acids. Rates of hydrolysis of these complex products to ortho-phosphate were inconsistent and unpredictable over time. These products acidify water and produce toxic effects after exhausting the buffering capacity of the water. Acute 96 hr tests using Daphnia magna with neutralized and nonneutralized exposure solutions indicated that the presence of unidentified toxic component(s) acted independently of pH. At pH levels of 6.0 to 7.0, phosphorus combustion products precipitated out of solution leading to a bimodal toxic response in extended 96-hr tests with Daphnia magna. Most components of fog oil had low solubility in water. Saturation was apparent at approximately 0.1 to 0.3 mg/L total oil. Vaporization had no demonstrable effect on the chemistry or toxicity of the fog oil. Neither the bulk fog oil nor the vaporized fog oil was acutely toxic to freshwater animals at concentrations less than 10 mg/L total oil. In oil-water mixes in excess of 1.0 mg/L total oil, fog oil quickly separated and floated to the surface. The primary hazard associated with vaporized and bulk fog oil was the physical effect of oil fouling the organisms. Photolysis increased the concentration of water-soluble components of the fog oil. Acute toxicity was demonstrated in oil-water mixes (approx.10 mg/L total oil) of photolyzed bulk and vaporized fog oil. No difference in toxicity was observed between photolyzed and non-photolyzed dilutions of OWM at comparable levels of total oil.

  9. Plastics and elastomers: Ozone degradation. January 1973-December 1989 (A Bibliography from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association data base). Report for January 1973-December 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of ozone exposure on various plastics and elastomers. Polyamides, polypropylenes, polyvinyl chlorides, polystyrenes, polyethylenes, and natural and synthetic rubbers are among the plastics and elastomers tested following various concentrations of ozone exposure. Antioxidants, antiozonants, and stabilizers are also mentioned. (This updated bibliography contains 238 citations, 19 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  10. Cost-Effective Cable Insulation: Nanoclay Reinforced Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber for Low-Cost HVDC Cabling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    GENI Project: GE is developing new, low-cost insulation for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) electricity transmission cables. The current material used to insulate HVDC transmission cables is very expensive and can account for as much as 1/3 of the total cost of a high-voltage transmission system. GE is embedding nanomaterials into specialty rubber to create its insulation. Not only are these materials less expensive than those used in conventional HVDC insulation, but also they will help suppress excess charge accumulation. The excess charge left behind on a cable poses a major challenge for high-voltage insulation—if it’s not kept to a low level, it could ultimately lead the insulation to fail. GE’s low-cost insulation is compatible with existing U.S. cable manufacturing processes, further enhancing its cost effectiveness.

  11. New Insights into the Relationship Between Network Structure and Strain Induced Crystallization in Unvolcanized Natural Rubber by Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toki, S.; Hsiao, B; Amnuaypornsri, S; Sakdapipanich, J

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The relationship between the network structure and strain-induced crystallization in un-vulcanized as well as vulcanized natural rubbers (NR) and synthetic poly-isoprene rubbers (IR) was investigated via synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) technique. It was found that the presence of a naturally occurring network structure formed by natural components in un-vulcanized NR significantly facilitates strain-induced crystallization and enhances modulus and tensile strength. The stress-strain relation in vulcanized NR is due to the combined effect of chemical and naturally occurring networks. The weakness of naturally occurring network against stress and temperature suggests that vulcanized NR has additional relaxation mechanism due to naturally occurring network. The superior mechanical properties in NR compared with IR are mainly due to the existence of naturally occurring network structure.

  12. Effects of nano-SiO{sub 2} particles on surface tracking characteristics of silicone rubber composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yong, E-mail: tjuliuyong@tju.edu.cn; Li, Zhonglei; Du, Boxue [Key Laboratory of Smart Grid of Ministry of Education (Tianjin University), School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Compared with neat silicone rubber composites (SiRCs), SiRCs filled with nano-sized SiO{sub 2} particles at weight ratios from 0.1 to 1.0?wt.?% exhibit a higher surface flashover voltage and a greater resistance to surface tracking. Scanning electron microscopy images of tracking morphologies indicate that the SiO{sub 2} particles are situated in close proximity to the polymeric chains and act as bridges to stabilize the chains and maintain the structure of the composite. Higher concentrations of nano-sized SiO{sub 2} particles, however, (above 0.3?wt.?%) produce defects in the molecular network which lead to reductions in both the surface flashover voltage and the resistance to surface tracking, although these reduced values are still superior to those of neat SiRCs. Therefore, SiRCs filled with nano-sized SiO{sub 2} particles, especially at an optimal weight ratio (0.1 to 0.3?wt.?%), may have significant potential applications as outdoor insulators for power systems.

  13. Crystallization Behavior of Virgin TR-55 Silicone Rubber Measured Using Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis with Liquid Nitrogen Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Small IV, W; Wilson, T S

    2010-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) of virgin TR-55 silicone rubber specimens was conducted. Two dynamic temperature sweep tests, 25 to -100 C and 25 to -70 to 0 C (ramp rate = 1 C/min), were conducted at a frequency of 6.28 rad/s (1 Hz) using a torsion rectangular test geometry. A strain of 0.1% was used, which was near the upper limit of the linear viscoelastic region of the material based on an initial dynamic strain sweep test. Storage (G{prime}) and loss (G{double_prime}) moduli, the ratio G{double_prime}/G{prime} (tan {delta}), and the coefficient of linear thermal expansion ({alpha}) were determined as a function of temperature. Crystallization occurred between -40 and -60 C, with G{prime} increasing from {approx}6 x 10{sup 6} to {approx}4 x 10{sup 8} Pa. The value of {alpha} was fairly constant before ({approx}4 x 10{sup -4} mm/mm- C) and after ({approx}3 x 10{sup -4} mm/mm- C) the transition, and peaked during the transition ({approx}3 x 10{sup -3} mm/mm- C). Melting occurred around -30 C upon heating.

  14. Level: National Data; Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes;

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal StocksProved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)Wellhead0 Capability to.5 First4

  15. Level: National Data; Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes;

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal StocksProved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)Wellhead0 Capability to.5 First44

  16. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal StocksProved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)Wellhead0 Capability to.544.42.4

  17. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal StocksProved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)Wellhead0 Capability

  18. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Electricity Components;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy for613.1.3.13.1.

  19. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Electricity Components;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy for613.1.3.13.1.1

  20. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Electricity Components;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy

  1. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Electricity Components;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy1 Electricity:

  2. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy1 Electricity:6

  3. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy1 Electricity:66

  4. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy1 Electricity:666

  5. " Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy18 Number of833A6.3.

  6. " Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy18 Number

  7. " Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy18 Number4

  8. " Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy18 Number44

  9. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy18 Number441. End

  10. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy18 Number441. End2.

  11. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy18 Number441.

  12. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy18 Number441.4. End

  13. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy18 Number441.4. End1

  14. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy18 Number441.4.

  15. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy18 Number441.4.3 End

  16. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy18 Number441.4.3

  17. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy18 Number441.4.31

  18. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy18 Number441.4.312

  19. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy18 Number441.4.3123

  20. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy18 Number441.4.31234

  1. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy18

  2. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy182 End Uses of Fuel

  3. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy182 End Uses of

  4. " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy182 End Uses of4 End

  5. 07_NAICS_Codes.pdf | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is always evolving, so are our1pm EST |Department'ProjectAdopted-RFI

  6. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Iron and Steel (NAICS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), October 2012 (MECS 2006) | Department of Energy -

  7. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy182C3.1. Number of

  8. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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  9. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy182C3.1. Number

  10. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy182C3.1. Number1

  11. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy182C3.1. Number12

  12. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy182C3.1. Number124

  13. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy182C3.1. Number1241

  14. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy182C3.1. Number12412

  15. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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  16. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy182C3.1.2.4 Number

  17. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy182C3.1.2.4 Number1

  18. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy182C3.1.2.4 Number12

  19. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy182C3.1.2.4

  20. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy182C3.1.2.41

  1. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy182C3.1.2.412

  2. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy182C3.1.2.4122.4

  3. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy182C3.1.2.4122.41

  4. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of Energy182C3.1.2.4122.412

  5. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of

  6. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of1 Offsite-Produced Fuel

  7. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of1 Offsite-Produced Fuel2

  8. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of1 Offsite-Produced Fuel24.4

  9. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade EnergyTennesseeYear Jan FebFoot)(Millionper22,445.5.4 Number of2.4

  10. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade EnergyTennesseeYear Jan FebFoot)(Millionper22,445.5.4 Number

  11. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade EnergyTennesseeYear Jan FebFoot)(Millionper22,445.5.4 Number4.4

  12. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade EnergyTennesseeYear Jan FebFoot)(Millionper22,445.5.4 Number4.41

  13. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade EnergyTennesseeYear Jan FebFoot)(Millionper22,445.5.4 Number4.413

  14. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade EnergyTennesseeYear Jan FebFoot)(Millionper22,445.5.4 Number4.4133

  15. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade EnergyTennesseeYear Jan FebFoot)(Millionper22,445.5.4

  16. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade EnergyTennesseeYear Jan FebFoot)(Millionper22,445.5.47 Number of

  17. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade EnergyTennesseeYear Jan FebFoot)(Millionper22,445.5.47 Number of9

  18. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade EnergyTennesseeYear Jan FebFoot)(Millionper22,445.5.47 Number of91

  19. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade EnergyTennesseeYear Jan FebFoot)(Millionper22,445.5.47 Number

  20. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade EnergyTennesseeYear Jan FebFoot)(Millionper22,445.5.47 Number3

  1. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade EnergyTennesseeYear Jan FebFoot)(Millionper22,445.5.47 Number30.5

  2. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade EnergyTennesseeYear Jan FebFoot)(Millionper22,445.5.47 Number30.57

  3. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade EnergyTennesseeYear Jan FebFoot)(Millionper22,445.5.47

  4. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Floorspace and Buildings;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade EnergyTennesseeYear Jan FebFoot)(Millionper22,445.5.479.1 Enclosed

  5. Level: National Data; Row: Values of Shipments within NAICS Codes;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade EnergyTennesseeYear Jan Next MECS will be fielded in 2015 Table 8.43

  6. Level: National Data; Row: Values of Shipments within NAICS Codes;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade EnergyTennesseeYear Jan Next MECS will be fielded in 2015 Table 8.433

  7. Rolling motion of a rigid sphere on a structured rubber substrate aided by a random noise and an external bias

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Partho S. Goohpattader; Srinivas Mettu; Manoj K. Chaudhury

    2011-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the rolling motion of a small solid sphere on a surface patterned rubber substrate in an external field with and without a noise. In the absence of the noise, the ball does not move below a threshold force above which it accelerates sub-linearly with the applied field. In the presence of a random noise, the ball exhibits a stochastic rolling with a net drift, the velocity of which increases non-linearly with the strength of the noise (K). From the evolution of the displacement distribution, it is evident that the rolling is controlled by a Coulomb like friction at a very low velocity, a super-linear friction at an intermediate velocity and a linear kinematic friction at a large velocity. This transition from a non-linear to a linear friction control of motion can be discerned from another experiment in which the ball is subjected to a small amplitude periodic asymmetric vibration in conjunction with a random noise. Here, as opposed to that of a fixed external force, the rolling velocity decreases with the increase of the strength of the noise suggesting a progressive fluidization of the interface. Furthermore, the ball exhibits a flow reversal with the increase of the amplitude of the asymmetric vibration, which is indicative of a profile of friction that first descends and then ascends with velocity. An approximate non-linear friction model with the non-linearity decreasing with K is somewhat consistent with the evolution of the displacement fluctuation that also explains the sigmoidal variation of the drift velocity with the strength of the noise. This research sets the stage for studying friction in a new way, in which it is submitted to a noise and then its dynamic response is studied using the tools of statistical mechanics.

  8. Synthesis of tetraaza bromide macrocyclic and studies of its effect on poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted natural rubber (MG49) - lithium tertrafluoroborate (LiBF{sub 4}) films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mariam, Siti Nor; Yamin, Bohari M.; Ahmad, Azizan [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43650 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Good Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Grafted natural Rubber (MG49) films with homogeneous and smooth surface were obtained in the presence of Lithium Tertrafluoroborate (LiBF{sub 4}) and 5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradeca-7,14-dienium bromide, (Me{sub 6}N{sub 4}H{sub 4})Br{sub 2} as dopants. The conductivity was found to be 3.63×10{sup ?6} S/cm an increase by seven fold compare to the undoped MG49.

  9. F.Gautier, J. Gilbert, J.-P. Dalmont, R. Pic Vila, Wave propagation in a fluid-filled cylindrical membrane WAVE PROPAGATION IN A FLUID FILLED RUBBER TUBE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    F.Gautier, J. Gilbert, J.-P. Dalmont, R. Picó Vila, Wave propagation in a fluid-filled cylindrical membrane 1 WAVE PROPAGATION IN A FLUID FILLED RUBBER TUBE: THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS title: Wave propagation in a fluid-filled cylindrical membrane Professional address of the corresponding

  10. "NAICS Code(a)","Energy-Management Activity","No Participation","Participation(b)","In-house","Utlity/Energy Suppler","Product/Service Provider","Federal Program","State/Local Program","Don't Know"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal" "(Data from03.4B Winter1 Relative

  11. Hi-Strength 90 Spray Adhesive Product Description

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    laminates, particleboard, and many other materials, even polyethylene, polypropylene, and SBR rubber Has) Base: Synthetic Elastomer Synthetic Elastomer Synthetic Elastomer Solids Content - (by wt.): 13% 13% 23

  12. Polyethelene terephthalate (PET) scrap recycling. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of polyethelene terephthalate (PET) products. Discarded bottles and household PET scrap are primary sources of this material. Recycling machinery, processes, and programs are discussed. Cable insulation, sheet films, foam products, and other products made from recycled PET are described. The impact of recycling on resource conservation and waste disposal problems is evaluated. (Contains a minimum of 73 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Role of Stearic Acid in the Strain-Induced Crystallization of Crosslinked Natural Rubber and Synthetic Cis-1,4-Polyisoprene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohjiya,S.; Tosaka, M.; Furutani, M.; Ikeda, Y.; Toki, S.; Hsiao, B.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Strain-induced crystallization of crosslinked natural rubber (NR) and its synthetic analogue, cis-1,4-polyisoprene (IR), both mixed with various amounts of stearic acid (SA), were investigated by time-resolved X-ray diffraction using a powerful synchrotron radiation source and simultaneous mechanical (tensile) measurement. No acceleration or retardation was observed on NR in spite of the increase of SA amount. Even the SA-free IR crystallized upon stretching, and the overall crystallization behavior of IR shifted to the larger strain ratio with increasing SA content. No difference due to the SA was detected in the deformation of crystal lattice by stress for both NR and IR. These results suggested that the extended network chains are effective for the initiation of crystallization upon stretching, while the role of SA is trivial. These behaviors are much different from their crystallization at low temperature by standing, where SA acts as a nucleating agent.

  14. Conversion of geothermal waste to commercial products including silica

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the treatment of geothermal residue includes contacting the pigmented amorphous silica-containing component with a depigmenting reagent one or more times to depigment the silica and produce a mixture containing depigmented amorphous silica and depigmenting reagent containing pigment material; separating the depigmented amorphous silica and from the depigmenting reagent to yield depigmented amorphous silica. Before or after the depigmenting contacting, the geothermal residue or depigmented silica can be treated with a metal solubilizing agent to produce another mixture containing pigmented or unpigmented amorphous silica-containing component and a solubilized metal-containing component; separating these components from each other to produce an amorphous silica product substantially devoid of metals and at least partially devoid of pigment. The amorphous silica product can be neutralized and thereafter dried at a temperature from about 25.degree. C. to 300.degree. C. The morphology of the silica product can be varied through the process conditions including sequence contacting steps, pH of depigmenting reagent, neutralization and drying conditions to tailor the amorphous silica for commercial use in products including filler for paint, paper, rubber and polymers, and chromatographic material.

  15. Notice Type: Presolicitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NAICS Code: 332 -- Fabricated Metal Product Manufacturing/332322 -- Sheet Metal Work Manufacturing Storage Container. (Microsoft IE required). Additional specifications and opening and closing dates

  16. Product Demonstrations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Consortium will pursue a number of demonstrations following the general procedure used by DOE's GATEWAY demonstration program. Specific products to be featured in a demonstration may be...

  17. Plastics and elastomers: Mining applications. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the development and applications of plastic and elastomer materials and products used in mining operations. Applications include conveyor belting, ventilating equipment, tunnel construction and drainage, and metal corrosion protection. Some attention is given to heavy-duty vehicle tires. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Why Was Short-Time Work Unattractive During the Crisis?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonthier, Pauline

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal products (11%),metallurgy (10%), Rubber and Plastics (Rubber and Plastics Metallurgy Fabricated Metal productscrisis. In 2009Q1, the metallurgy and the equipment sectors

  19. BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rubber and resins Chloro Benzenes Strong narcotic; possible lung. liver, and kidney damage Used in production

  20. A Problem of Great Importance: Population, Race, and Power in the British Empire, 1918-1973

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ittman, Karl

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rubber, and other strategic materials previously supplied by Asian territories offi- cials expanded production

  1. Nonproliferation through delegation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Robert Louis

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    production and continued as the petrochemical industry began to offer replacements for natural rubber

  2. The Career and Collection of Judith A. Hoffberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leslie, Anthony Marcus

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    production techniques that were new, unusual, or marginalized; Umbrella often ran special columns on rubber

  3. Recycling plastic scrap: Injection molding. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of scrap plastic produced in the injection molding process. Plastic pellets made from scrap, that are used in the injection molding process, are also discussed. Recycling equipment and automated recycling systems are described. The reuse of plastic scrap culled from junk automobiles and packaging materials is discussed, and waste byproducts from polyurethane production are described. (Contains a minimum of 88 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Recycling plastic scrap: Injection molding. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of scrap plastic produced in the injection molding process. Plastic pellets made from scrap, that are used in the injection molding process, are also discussed. Recycling equipment and automated recycling systems are described. The reuse of plastic scrap culled from junk automobiles and packaging materials is discussed, and waste byproducts from polyurethane production are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Recycling plastic scrap: Injection molding. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of scrap plastic produced in the injection molding process. Plastic pellets made from scrap, that are used in the injection molding process, are also discussed. Recycling equipment and automated recycling systems are described. The reuse of plastic scrap culled from junk automobiles and packaging materials is discussed, and waste byproducts from polyurethane production are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. Recycling plastic scrap: Injection molding. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of scrap plastic produced in the injection molding process. Plastic pellets made from scrap, that are used in the injection molding process, are also discussed. Recycling equipment and automated recycling systems are described. The reuse of plastic scrap culled from junk automobiles and packaging materials is discussed, and waste byproducts from polyurethane production are described. (Contains a minimum of 80 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Rigid polyurethane foams in refrigeration. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of rigid polyurethane as thermal insulation in refrigerators. Production machinery, foam systems such as one-shot prepolymer systems, and properties of rigid polyurethane foams used in refrigerators are among the topics discussed. Curing methods, in-place foaming, and bun foaming are also included. (Contains a minimum of 70 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Bonding of teflon to metals. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the adhesion of Teflon to metal. Adhesion strength, bond mechanisms, and the effects on friction and lubrication are discussed. Metal films applied to Teflon products and Teflon films joined to metal are discussed. Joining processes, surface treatments, and reasons for failure are examined. Applications discussed include bearings, pipe linings, and bridge coatings. (Contains a minimum of 75 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Preparation of anti-adhesion surfaces on aluminium substrates of rubber plastic moulds using a coupling method of liquid plasma and electrochemical machining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, Jianbing, E-mail: jianbingmeng@126.com; Dong, Xiaojuan; Wei, Xiuting; Yin, Zhanmin [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, 255049 (China)] [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, 255049 (China)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Hard anti-adhesion surfaces, with low roughness and wear resistance, on aluminium substrates of rubber plastic moulds were fabricated via a new coupling method of liquid plasma and electrochemical machining. With the aid of liquid plasma thermal polishing and electrochemical anodic dissolution, micro/nano-scale binary structures were prepared as the base of the anti-adhesion surfaces. The anti-adhesion behaviours of the resulting aluminium surfaces were analysed by a surface roughness measuring instrument, a scanning electron microscope (SEM), a Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR), an X-ray diffractometer (XRD), an optical contact angle meter, a digital Vickers micro-hardness (Hv) tester, and electronic universal testing. The results show that, after the liquid plasma and electrochemical machining, micro/nano-scale binary structures composed of micro-scale pits and nano-scale elongated boss structures were present on the sample surfaces. As a result, the anti-adhesion surfaces fabricated by the above coupling method have good anti-adhesion properties, better wear resistance and lower roughness.

  10. How far can a rubber molecule stretch before breaking? Ab initio study of tensile elasticity and failure in single-molecule polyisoprene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, David E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present ab initio calculations of the internal C-C bond dissociation curve for single molecules of (cis 1,4) polyisoprene, polybutadiene, and polyethylene, all of comparable length. We define 'bond rupture' as that point on the reaction coordinate where the unrestricted Kohn-Sham, or diradical, solution falls below the restricted, or closed-shell, solution. Using this well-defined though crude approximation, we find that rupture occurs at a tensile force of 6.8 nN for poly isoprene and 7.2 nN for polybutadiene. Their respective rupture strains are 45% and 42%. Our calculations show that the energy density vs. extension is not sensitive to the length of the molecule, i.e., it is essentially independent of the number of isoprene units contained. These relatively large rupture strains have important implications for understanding the failure mechanism in rubber, and imply that purely enthalpic chain stretching must commence well before tensile failure occurs.

  11. Hydrogen Production

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produ

  12. RMOTC - Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on maximizing the value of the NPR-3 site and will continue with its Production Optimization Projects. NPR-3 includes 9,481 acres with more than 400 oil-producing wells....

  13. Dr. Paul Alexander Berlin-Charlottenburg 4, May 23, 1942 Mommsen Street 47 III

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeilberger, Doron

    patents have to do with the production of reclaimed rubber according to the process using solvents that I of rubber, the product has to compete above all with raw rubber. Therefore, the latter's market value has been used for making finished rubber products during 1 "L'importance Economique de la Régénération

  14. Developing a Process for Commercial Silica Production from Geothermal Brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourcier, W; Martin, S; Viani, B; Bruton, C

    2001-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Useful mineral by-products can be produced from geothermal brines. Although silica has many commercial uses, problems remain in producing a marketable product. We are conducting laboratory and modeling studies aimed at optimizing for rubber additive use, the properties of silica precipitates from Salton Sea and Coso-like geothermal fluids, Our goal is to develop a robust technique for producing silicas that have desirable physical and chemical properties for commercial use, while developing a generic understanding of silica precipitation that will allow extraction to be extended to additional fluid types, and to be easily modified to produce new types of marketable silica. Our experiments start with an acidified geothermal fluid similar to those treated by pH modification technology. Silica precipitation is induced by adding base and/or adding Mg or Ca salts to affect the nature of the precipitate. For the analog Salton Sea fluids, adding base alone caused silica to precipitate fairly rapidly. To date, we have characterized precipitates from experiments in which the final pH varied from 4 to 8, where NaOH and Na{sub 2}C0{sub 3} were added as bases, and CaCl{sub 2} and MgCl{sub 2} were added as salts. SEM photos of the silica precipitates from the Salton Sea and Cos0 fluids show that the silica particles are clusters of smaller silica particles down to the resolution of the SEM (about 80-100 nm in diameter). The particle sizes and surface areas of silicas from the Salton Sea and Coso analog brines are similar to the properties of the Degussa silica commonly used as a rubber additive. An evaluation of the strength of the silica-organic bond as tested by dispersion in oil (polybutadiene) was inconclusive. Neither the Degussa materials nor our laboratory precipitates dispersed readily in nor dispersed down to the fundamental particle size. Preliminary NMR data indicates that the Degussa silica has a smaller degree of silica polymerization (a slightly smaller average number of Si-0 bonds per silica tetrahedron) than the synthetic samples, but a comparable degree of hydrogen bonding of the surface silanol sites.

  15. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anthony K. Weatherspoon #12;Visit our homepage at: http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/ Published by: For additional...............................................................................................................................20 #12;1 INTRODUCTION Michigan's wood products manufacturing industry employs more than 28,000 workers with an output of approximately $6.7 billion (NAICS 321--Wood product manufacturing, and NAICS 322

  16. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keith Jacobson #12;Visit our Web site: www.nrs.fs.fed.us Published by: For additional copies: U ..........................................................................................................................20 #12;#12;1 INTRODUCTION Minnesota's wood products manufacturing industry employs more than 28,442 workers with an output of about $8.7 billion (NAICS 321--Wood product manufacturing, and NAICS 322--Paper

  17. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Web site: www.nrs.fs.fed.us Published by: For additional copies: U.S. Forest Service U.S. Forest ..........................................................................................................................21 #12;#12;1 INTRODUCTION Wisconsin's wood products manufacturing industry (NAICS 321--wood product manufacturing, and NAICS 322--paper manufacturing) employed more than 59,000 workers with an output of about $18

  18. Ronald J. Piva Gregory W. Cook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Resource Bulletin NRS-46 #12;Visit our homepage at: http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/ Published by: For additional Virginia's wood products manufacturing industry employs 9,400 workers with an output of more than $2.0 billion (NAICS 321--Wood product manufacturing, and NAICS 322--Paper manufacturing) (U.S. Census Bureau

  19. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Visit our Web site: www.nrs.fs.fed.us Published by: For additional copies: U.S. Forest Service U ..........................................................................................................................20 #12;#12;1 INTRODUCTION The wood products manufacturing industry in Kansas employs more than 4,900 workers with an output of approximately $1.06 billion (NAICS 321--wood product manufacturing and NAICS 322

  20. ,"U.S. Blender Net Production"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ LeasePrice SoldPlantGrossDistillate

  1. ,"U.S. Refinery Net Production"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources

  2. Consumer Products

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would likeConstitution And Bylaws | National Nuclearmarkconsumer-products

  3. Nulljob product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughart, N.; Ritchie, D.

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ever increasing demand for more CPU cycles for data analysis on the authors' Central VAX Cluster led them to investigate new ways to utilize more fully the resources that were available. A review of the experiment and software development VAX systems on site revealed many unused computing cycles. Furthermore, these systems were all connected by DECnet which would allow easy file transfer and remote batch job submission. A product was developed to allow jobs to be submitted on the Central VAX Cluster but actually to be run on one of the remote systems. The processing of the jobs was arranged, to the greatest extent possible, to be transparent to the user and to have minimal impact on both the Central VAX Cluster and remote systems.

  4. NULLJOB product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughart, N.; Ritchie, D.

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ever increasing demand for more CPU cycles for data analysis on our Central VAX Cluster led us to investigate new ways to utilize more fully the resources that were available. A review of the experiment and software development VAX systems on site revealed many unused computing cycles. Furthermore, these systems were all connected by DECnet which would allow easy file transfer and remote batch job submission. A product was developed to allow jobs to be submitted on the Central VAX Cluster but actually to be run on one of the remote systems. The processing of the jobs was arranged, to the greatest extent possible, to be transparent to the user and to have minimal impact on both the Central VAX Cluster and remote systems.

  5. Harvesting Overstocked Stands of Small Diameter Trees. Report No. 4: Cost and Productivity of New Felling and Forwarding Equipment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, Michael B.; Howard, James O.; Biomass and Energy Project (Portland, Or.)

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the felling, bunching, and forwarding operations now working in the doghair stands on the Quilcene District. The felling was done with a Washington Logging Company FB-1 steep slope feller/buncher. The forwarding was done with a Timberjack 520A rubber-tired forwarder. Productivity and cost studies were required by the service contract between the Forest Service and the logging company. The intent of the studies was to capture the comprehensive technical and economic information provided by early operation of the total small tree harvesting and utilization system. This report focuses on the felling and delivery of the trees to the central processing system. 7 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, Ed., David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Production Electricity, Steam & Hot Water [2] Petroleum Refining Coking, Coal Gas & Coal Products Chemicals Pharmaceuticals Synthetic Fibers Rubber &Production Electricity, Steam & Hot Water [2] Petroleum Refining Coking, Coal Gas & Coal Products Chemicals Pharmaceuticals Synthetic Fibers Rubber &Production Electricity, Steam & Hot Water [2] Petroleum Refining Coking, Coal Gas & Coal Products Chemicals Pharmaceuticals Synthetic Fibers Rubber &

  7. Other Procurement Resources The Small Business Administration (SBA) is a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - Equipment - Maintenance & Repair - Support Services & Staff Augmentation - Mechanical/Electronic Fabrication (NAICS) code deter- mines the business size based on its industry code. The NAICS table of codes can Capabilities Your company's capability statement should include products or services available, contracts

  8. Business Name Year Address City State Zip Phone Email Address Contact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    water heating systems in the Tri-cities and surrounding area 2382 Solar Heating equipment installationBusiness Name Year Founded Address City State Zip Phone Email Address Contact First Name Contact Last Name URL Products/Services NAICS Code NAICS Description Energy Northwest 1957 PO Box 968 Richland

  9. Language Production General Points about Speech Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coulson, Seana

    Language Production #12;General Points about Speech Production 15 speech sounds per second => 2, shall I say `t' or `d'' (Levelt) Production side has gotten less attention in Psycholinguistics than the comprehension side. Evidence for speech production behaviour has until recently relied heavily on speech errors

  10. ERBU, Expanding Rubber Band Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soares, Domingos

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I put forward a simple unidimensional mechanical analogue of the three-dimensional universe models of modern relativistic cosmology. The main goal of the proposal is the appropriate appreciation of the intrinsic relationship between Hubble's law and the homogeneity of expanding relativistic models.

  11. Isotope Science and Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isotope Science and Production 35 years of experience in isotope production, processing, and applications. Llllll Committed to the safe and reliable production of radioisotopes, products, and services nuclear materials in trucks and cargo containers. Isotopes for Threat Reduction Isotope production at Los

  12. Biological production of products from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2002-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  13. Covered Product Category: Cool Roof Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including cool roof products, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  14. Production of Hev b5 as a fluorescent biotin-binding tripartite fusion protein in insect cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nordlund, Henri R. [Department of Biological and Environmental Science, NanoScience Center, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)]. E-mail: henri.nordlund@uta.fi; Laitinen, Olli H. [AI Virtanen Institute, Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Uotila, Sanna T.H. [Department of Biological and Environmental Science, NanoScience Center, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kulmala, Minna [Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56 (Viikinkaari 9), FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kalkkinen, Nisse [Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56 (Viikinkaari 9), FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kulomaa, Markku S. [Department of Biological and Environmental Science, NanoScience Center, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2005-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The presented green fluorescent protein and streptavidin core-based tripartite fusion system provides a simple and efficient way for the production of proteins fused to it in insect cells. This fusion protein forms a unique tag, which serves as a multipurpose device enabling easy optimization of production, one-step purification via streptavidin-biotin interaction, and visualization of the fusion protein during downstream processing and in applications. In the present study, we demonstrate the successful production, purification, and detection of a natural rubber latex allergen Hev b5 with this system. We also describe the production of another NRL allergen with the system, Hev b1, which formed large aggregates and gave small yields in purification. The aggregates were detected at early steps by microscopical inspection of the infected insect cells producing this protein. Therefore, this fusion system can also be utilized as a fast indicator of the solubility of the expressed fusion proteins and may therefore be extremely useful in high-throughput expression approaches.

  15. from Isotope Production Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cancer-fighting treatment gets boost from Isotope Production Facility April 13, 2012 Isotope Production Facility produces cancer-fighting actinium 2:32 Isotope cancer treatment...

  16. Alabama Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS8) Distribution Category UC-950 Cost and Quality of Fuels forA 6 J 9 U B u o f l d w nGas)APPENDIX1,727

  17. Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS8) Distribution Category UC-950 Cost and Quality of Fuels forA 6 J 9 U B u o f l d w3,290

  18. Alabama Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS8) Distribution Category UC-950 Cost and Quality of Fuels forA 6 J 9 U B u o f l dIncreases4 16 18 19 18

  19. Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS8) Distribution Category UC-950 Cost and Quality of Fuels forA 6 J 9 U B u o fCommercial

  20. Alabama Offshore Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS8) Distribution Category UC-950 Cost and Quality of Fuels forA 6 J 9 U B u oDecadeSame MonthtotalJoseph