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Sample records for rto systems peak

  1. Property:EIA/861/RtoPjm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RtoPjm Jump to: navigation, search Property Name RTOPJM Property Type Boolean Description Indicates that the organization conducts operations in the PJM RTO 1 References ...

  2. Property:EIA/861/RtoSpp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RtoSpp Jump to: navigation, search Property Name RTOSPP Property Type Boolean Description Indicates that the organization conducts operations in the SPP RTO. 1 References ...

  3. Peak Treatment Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Treatment Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Peak Treatment Systems Place: Golden, CO Website: www.peaktreatmentsystems.com References: Peak Treatment Systems1 Information...

  4. Advanced regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) technology for air toxics control - selected case histories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seiwert, J.J. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Advanced design regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) systems have been developed and are in commercial scale use for control of process emissions containing air toxics (HAPs) and VOCs. High operating temperatures coupled with high thermal energy recovery efficiencies inherent with RTO technology provide for high destruction efficiencies while minimizing formation of objectionable combustion byproducts. These results are achieved with low system operating costs. This paper covers development of advanced design commercial RTO systems for control of air emissions from several important commercial processes: total reduced sulfur (TRS) and other HAPs/VOC emissions from pulp mill processes. Chlorinated organics and other HAPs/VOC emissions from pharmaceutical manufacturing operations. The data presented represent the first commercial scale application of RTO technology to abate emissions from these processes. Particular design features required for each specific process, in order to provide reliable, safe and effective systems, are reviewed. Emissions abatement performance, as well as operational data, are presented for the systems.

  5. Monthly Generation System Peak (pbl/generation)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Generation > Generation Hydro Power Wind Power Monthly GSP BPA White Book Dry Year Tools Firstgov Monthly Generation System Peak (GSP) This site is no longer maintained. Page last...

  6. Dr. Kelli Joseph, NYISO Representing the ISO-RTO Council

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Kelli Joseph, NYISO Representing the ISO-RTO Council July 28, 2014 DOE Quadrennial Energy Review Gas Electric Interdependencies: Coordination Efforts, Regional Issues, and...

  7. Back-Up/ Peak Shaving Fuel Cell System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staudt, Rhonda L.

    2008-05-28

    This Final Report covers the work executed by Plug Power from 8/11/03 10/31/07 statement of work for Topic 2: advancing the state of the art of fuel cell technology with the development of a new generation of commercially viable, stationary, Back-up/Peak-Shaving fuel cell systems, the GenCore II. The Program cost was $7.2 M with the Department of Energy share being $3.6M and Plug Powers share being $3.6 M. The Program started in August of 2003 and was scheduled to end in January of 2006. The actual program end date was October of 2007. A no cost extension was grated. The Department of Energy barriers addressed as part of this program are: Technical Barriers for Distributed Generation Systems: o Durability o Power Electronics o Start up time Technical Barriers for Fuel Cell Components: o Stack Material and Manufacturing Cost o Durability o Thermal and water management Background The next generation GenCore backup fuel cell system to be designed, developed and tested by Plug Power under the program is the first, mass-manufacturable design implementation of Plug Powers GenCore architected platform targeted for battery and small generator replacement applications in the telecommunications, broadband and UPS markets. The next generation GenCore will be a standalone, H2 in-DC-out system. In designing the next generation GenCore specifically for the telecommunications market, Plug Power is teaming with BellSouth Telecommunications, Inc., a leading industry end user. The final next generation GenCore system is expected to represent a market-entry, mass-manufacturable and economically viable design. The technology will incorporate: A cost-reduced, polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack tailored to hydrogen fuel use An advanced electrical energy storage system A modular, scalable power conditioning system tailored to market requirements A scaled-down, cost-reduced balance of plant (BOP) Network Equipment Building Standards (NEBS), UL and CE certifications.

  8. A Review of Recent RTO Benefit-Cost Studies: Toward MoreComprehensive Assessments of FERC Electricity RestructuringPolicies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Lesieutre, Bernard C.

    2005-12-01

    During the past three years, government and private organizations have issued more than a dozen studies of the benefits and costs of Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs). Most of these studies have focused on benefits that can be readily estimated using traditional production-cost simulation techniques, which compare the cost of centralized dispatch under an RTO to dispatch in the absence of an RTO, and on costs associated with RTO start-up and operation. Taken as a whole, it is difficult to draw definitive conclusions from these studies because they have not examined potentially much larger benefits (and costs) resulting from the impacts of RTOs on reliability management, generation and transmission investment and operation, and wholesale electricity market operation. This report: (1) Describes the history of benefit-cost analysis of FERC electricity restructuring policies; (2)Reviews current practice by analyzing 11 RTO benefit-cost studies that were published between 2002 and 2004 and makes recommendations to improve the documentation of data and methods and the presentation of findings in future studies that focus primarily on estimating short-run economic impacts; and (3) Reviews important impacts of FERC policies that have been overlooked or incompletely treated by recent RTO benefit-cost studies and the challenges to crafting more comprehensive assessments of these impacts based on actual performance, including impacts on reliability management, generation and transmission investment and operation, and wholesale electricity market operation.

  9. Control system analysis for off-peak auxiliary heating of passive solar systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, H.S.; Melsa, J.L.; Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A computer simulation method is presented for the design of an electrical auxiliary energy system for passive solar heated structures. The system consists of electrical mats buried in the ground underneath the structure. Energy is stored in the ground during utility off-peak hours and released passively to the heated enclosure. An optimal control strategy is used to determine the system design parameters of depth of mat placement and minimum instaled electrical heating capacity. The optimal control applies combinations of fixed duration energy pulses to the heater, which minimize the room temperature error-squared for each day, assuming advance knowledge of the day's weather. Various realizable control schemes are investigated in an attempt to find a system that approaches the performance of the optimal control system.

  10. Method for the Production of Ultrashort Peak Power Laser Pulses and System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For Putting Into Practice This Method Inventors Gerard Mourou, Nathaniel J. Fisch, Vladimir M. Malkin, and Zeev Toroker | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Method for the Production of Ultrashort Peak Power Laser Pulses and System For Putting Into Practice This Method Inventors Gerard Mourou, Nathaniel J. Fisch, Vladimir M. Malkin, and Zeev Toroker Laser-pulse intensities have grown remarkably in recent years, primarily through the method of chirped pulse amplification. Much higher powers are

  11. Petrology and geochemistry of Alto Peak, a vapor-cored hydrothermal system, Leyte Province, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes, A.G.; Giggenbach, W.F.; Saleras, J.R.M.; Salonga, N.D.; Vergara, M.C.

    1993-10-01

    Based on detailed petrological information on secondary mineral assemblages and the composition of fluids trapped in inclusions and discharged from five wells, the Alto Peak geothermal field was found to represent a combined vapor and liquid-dominated system. A central core or chimney, with a diameter of about 1 km, a height of some 3 km and occupied by a high gas vapor (1.1 to 5.6 molal CO{sub 2}), is surrounded by an envelope of intermediate salinity water (7,000 mg/kg Cl) with temperatures between 250 and 350 C. The transition from purely vapor-dominated to liquid-dominated zones takes place via two-phase zones occupied by fluid mixtures of highly variable compositions. Much of the lower temperature, mature neutral pH Cl water is likely to have formed during an earlier stage in the evolution of the system. High temperatures of > 300 C, and associated alteration, are limited to wells AP-1D and the lower parts of AP-2D and are ascribed to re-heating by recent magmatic intrusions. The isotopic composition of the well discharges suggests that they contain some 40 to 50% of magmatic water. Alto Peak is considered a typical example of hydrothermal systems associated with many dormant volcanoes.

  12. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for LWR Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2010-06-01

    Availability of enough cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. The issues become more severe due to the new round of nuclear power expansion and global warming. During hot summer days, cooling water leaving a power plant may become too hot to threaten aquatic life so that environmental regulations may force the plant to reduce power output or even temporarily to be shutdown. For new nuclear power plants to be built at areas without enough cooling water, dry cooling can be used to remove waste heat directly into the atmosphere. However, dry cooling will result in much lower thermal efficiency when the weather is hot. One potential solution for the above mentioned issues is to use ice thermal storage systems (ITS) that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses those ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS is suitable for supplemental cooling storage due to its very high energy storage density. ITS also provides a way to shift large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. Some gas turbine plants already use ITS to increase thermal efficiency during peak hours in summer. ITSs have also been widely used for building cooling to save energy cost. Among three cooling methods for LWR applications: once-through, wet cooling tower, and dry cooling tower, once-through cooling plants near a large water body like an ocean or a large lake and wet cooling plants can maintain the designed turbine backpressure (or condensation temperature) during 99% of the time; therefore, adding ITS to those plants will not generate large benefits. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body like a river or a small lake, adding ITS can bring significant economic benefits and avoid forced derating and shutdown during extremely hot weather. For the new plants using dry cooling towers, adding the ice thermal storage systems can effectively reduce the efficiency loss and water consumption during hot weather so that new LWRs could be considered in regions without enough cooling water. \\ This paper presents the feasibility study of using ice thermal storage systems for LWR supplemental cooling and peak power shifting. LWR cooling issues and ITS application status will be reviewed. Two ITS application case studies will be presented and compared with alternative options: one for once-through cooling without enough cooling for short time, and the other with dry cooling. Because capital cost, especially the ice storage structure/building cost, is the major cost for ITS, two different cost estimation models are developed: one based on scaling method, and the other based on a preliminary design using Building Information Modeling (BIM), an emerging technology in Architecture/Engineering/Construction, which enables design options, performance analysis and cost estimating in the early design stage.

  13. Methods, systems and apparatus for approximation of peak summed fundamental and third harmonic voltages in a multi-phase machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ransom, Ray M.; Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel; Kinoshita, Michael H.

    2012-07-31

    Methods, system and apparatus are provided for quickly approximating a peak summed magnitude (A) of a phase voltage (Vph) waveform in a multi-phase system that implements third harmonic injection.

  14. Development of a Dispatchable PV Peak Shainv System. PV: Bonus Program - Phase 1 Report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Delmarva Power and Light and its subcontractors in Phase 1 of the US Department of Energy's PV:BONUS Program. The purpose of the program is to develop products and systems for buildings which utilize photovoltaic (N) technology. Beginning with a cooperative research effort with the University of Delaware's Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research Delmarva Power developed and demonstrated the concept of Dispatchable PV Peak Shaving. This concept and the system which resulted horn the development work are unique from other grid-connected PV systems because it combines a PV, battery energy storage, power conversion and control technologies into an integrated package. Phase 1 began in July 1993 with the installation of a test and demonstration system at Delmarva's Northern Division General Office building near Newark, Delaware. Following initial testing throughout the summer and fall of 1993, significant modifications were made under an amendment to the DOE contract. Work on Phase 1 concluded in the early spring of 1995. Significant progress towards the goal of commercializing the system was made during Phase 1, and is summarized. Based on progress in Phase 1, a proposal to continue the work in Phase 2 was submitted to the US DOE in May 1995. A contract amendment and providing funds for the Phase 2 work is expected in July 1995.

  15. High peak-power kilohertz laser system employing single-stage multi-pass amplification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shan, Bing; Wang, Chun; Chang, Zenghu

    2006-05-23

    The present invention describes a technique for achieving high peak power output in a laser employing single-stage, multi-pass amplification. High gain is achieved by employing a very small "seed" beam diameter in gain medium, and maintaining the small beam diameter for multiple high-gain pre-amplification passes through a pumped gain medium, then leading the beam out of the amplifier cavity, changing the beam diameter and sending it back to the amplifier cavity for additional, high-power amplification passes through the gain medium. In these power amplification passes, the beam diameter in gain medium is increased and carefully matched to the pump laser's beam diameter for high efficiency extraction of energy from the pumped gain medium. A method of "grooming" the beam by means of a far-field spatial filter in the process of changing the beam size within the single-stage amplifier is also described.

  16. PEAK LIMITING AMPLIFIER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsworthy, W.W.; Robinson, J.B.

    1959-03-31

    A peak voltage amplitude limiting system adapted for use with a cascade type amplifier is described. In its detailed aspects, the invention includes an amplifier having at least a first triode tube and a second triode tube, the cathode of the second tube being connected to the anode of the first tube. A peak limiter triode tube has its control grid coupled to thc anode of the second tube and its anode connected to the cathode of the second tube. The operation of the limiter is controlled by a bias voltage source connected to the control grid of the limiter tube and the output of the system is taken from the anode of the second tube.

  17. THE QUASAR SDSS J153636.22+044127.0: A DOUBLE-PEAKED EMITTER IN A CANDIDATE BINARY BLACK HOLE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang Sumin; Grindlay, Jonathan

    2009-10-20

    Double-peaked emission lines are believed to be originated from accretion disks around supermassive black holes (SMBHs), and about 3% of z < 0.33 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are found to be double-peaked emitters. The quasar SDSS J153636.22+044127.0 has recently been identified with peculiar broad-line emission systems exhibiting multiple redshifts. We decompose the Halpha and Hbeta profiles into a circular Keplerian disk-line component and other Gaussian components. We propose that the system is both a double-peaked emitter and a binary SMBH system, where the extra flux in the blue peaks of the broad lines comes from the region around the secondary black hole. We suggest that such black hole binary systems might also exist in many known double-peaked emitters, where the tidal torques from the secondary black hole clear the outer region of the disk around the primary black hole, similar to the gap in a protostellar disk due to the process of planetary migration, and might also stimulate the formation of a vertical extended source in the inner region around the primary which illuminates the disk. However, most secondary SMBHs in such systems might be too small to maintain a detectable broad-line region (BLR), so that the disk line from the primary dominates.

  18. Desert Peak EGS Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Desert Peak EGS Project presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  19. Hydrogen-or-Fossil-Combustion Nuclear Combined-Cycle Systems for Base- and Peak-Load Electricity Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W; Conklin, Jim

    2007-09-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is described that uses (1) heat from a high-temperature nuclear reactor to meet base-load electrical demands and (2) heat from the same high-temperature reactor and burning natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen to meet peak-load electrical demands. For base-load electricity production, fresh air is compressed; then flows through a heat exchanger, where it is heated to between 700 and 900 C by heat provided by a high-temperature nuclear reactor via an intermediate heat-transport loop; and finally exits through a high-temperature gas turbine to produce electricity. The hot exhaust from the Brayton-cycle gas turbine is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. To meet peak electricity demand, the air is first compressed and then heated with the heat from a high-temperature reactor. Natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen is then injected into the hot air in a combustion chamber, combusts, and heats the air to 1300 C-the operating conditions for a standard natural-gas-fired combined-cycle plant. The hot gas then flows through a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator before being sent to the exhaust stack. The higher temperatures increase the plant efficiency and power output. If hydrogen is used, it can be produced at night using energy from the nuclear reactor and stored until needed. With hydrogen serving as the auxiliary fuel for peak power production, the electricity output to the electric grid can vary from zero (i.e., when hydrogen is being produced) to the maximum peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant load. Because nuclear heat raises air temperatures above the auto-ignition temperatures of the various fuels and powers the air compressor, the power output can be varied rapidly (compared with the capabilities of fossil-fired turbines) to meet spinning reserve requirements and stabilize the electric grid. This combined cycle uses the unique characteristics of high-temperature reactors (T>700 C) to produce electricity for premium electric markets whose demands can not be met by other types of nuclear reactors. It may also make the use of nuclear reactors economically feasible in smaller electrical grids, such as those found in many developing countries. The ability to rapidly vary power output can be used to stabilize electric grid performance-a particularly important need in small electrical grids.

  20. Bandwidth Historical Peak Days

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bandwidth Historical Peak Days Bandwidth Historical Peak Days These plots show yearly peak days from 2000 to the present. BE CAREFUL because the graphs are autoscaling - check the scales on each axis before you compare graphs. Note that the graph for current year shows the data for the year-to-date peak. Transfer Rate vs. Size Transfer Rate vs. Size Transfer Rate vs. Size Transfer Rate vs. Size Transfer Rate vs. Size Transfer Rate vs. Size Transfer Rate vs. Size Transfer Rate vs. Size Transfer

  1. Peak power ratio generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  2. Peak power ratio generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  3. monthly_peak_2005.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3a . January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 (Megawatts and 2005 Base Year) Projected Monthly Base Year Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid FRCC MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak

  4. PEAK READING VOLTMETER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, A.L.

    1958-07-29

    An improvement in peak reading voltmeters is described, which provides for storing an electrical charge representative of the magnitude of a transient voltage pulse and thereafter measuring the stored charge, drawing oniy negligible energy from the storage element. The incoming voltage is rectified and stored in a condenser. The voltage of the capacitor is applied across a piezoelectric crystal between two parallel plates. Amy change in the voltage of the capacitor is reflected in a change in the dielectric constant of the crystal and the capacitance between a second pair of plates affixed to the crystal is altered. The latter capacitor forms part of the frequency determlning circuit of an oscillator and means is provided for indicating the frequency deviation which is a measure of the peak voltage applied to the voltmeter.

  5. monthly_peak_2004.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 3a . January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1996 through 2004 and Projected 2005 through 2006 (Megawatts and 2004 Base Year) Projected Monthly Base Year Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP/MRO NPCC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour

  6. monthly_peak_2006.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Released: February 7, 2008 Next Update: October 2008 Table 3a . January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region 2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 (Megawatts and 2006 Base Year) Projected Monthly Base Year Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid FRCC MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak

  7. Aggregate Transfers Historical Yearly Peak

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transfers Historical Yearly Peak Aggregate Transfers Historical Yearly Peak These plots show the yearly peak days from 2000 to the present. BE CAREFUL because the graphs are autoscaling - check the scales on each axis before you compare graphs. Note that the graph for current year shows the data for the year-to-date peak. Daily Aggregate Bandwidth Daily Aggregate Bandwidth Daily Aggregate Bandwidth Daily Aggregate Bandwidth Daily Aggregate Bandwidth Daily Aggregate Bandwidth Daily Aggregate

  8. Concurrent Transfers Historical Yearly Peak

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transfers Historical Yearly Peak Concurrent Transfers Historical Yearly Peak These plots show the yearly peak days from 2000 to present. BE CAREFUL because the graphs are autoscaling - check the scales on each axis before you compare graphs. Note that the graph for current year shows the data for the year-to-date peak. Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage

  9. Transfer Activity Historical Yearly Peak

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Activity Historical Yearly Peak Transfer Activity Historical Yearly Peak The plots below show the yearly peak days from 2000 to the present. BE CAREFUL because the graphs are autoscaling - check the scales on each axis before you compare graphs. Note that the graph for the current year shows the data for the year-to-date peak. Transfers Started/In Progress Transfers Started/In Progress Transfers Started/In Progress Transfers Started/In Progress Transfers Started/In Progress Transfers Started/In

  10. Concurrent Transfers Historical Yearly Peak

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the graph for current year shows the data for the year-to-date peak. Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily...

  11. Texas Nuclear Profile - Comanche Peak

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Comanche Peak" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date" ...

  12. monthly_peak_2003.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    O Form EIA-411 for 2005 Released: February 7, 2008 Next Update: October 2007 Table 3a . January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1996 through 2003 and Projected 2004 through 2005 (Megawatts and 2003 Base Year) Projected Monthly Base Year Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP/MR NPCC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW)

  13. LNG production for peak shaving operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, B.C.

    1999-07-01

    LNG production facilities are being developed as an alternative or in addition to underground storage throughout the US to provide gas supply during peak gas demand periods. These facilities typically involved a small liquefaction unit with a large LNG storage tank and gas sendout facilities capable of responding to peak loads during the winter. Black and Veatch is active in the development of LNG peak shaving projects for clients using a patented mixed refrigerant technology for efficient production of LNG at a low installed cost. The mixed refrigerant technology has been applied in a range of project sizes both with gas turbine and electric motor driven compression systems. This paper will cover peak shaving concepts as well as specific designs and projects which have been completed to meet this market need.

  14. summer_peak_2004.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2009 (Megawatts and 2004 Base Year) Summer Noncoincident Peak Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year ECAR FRCC MAAC...

  15. summer_peak_2003.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2008 (Megawatts and 2003 Base Year) Summer Noncoincident Peak Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year ECAR FRCC MAAC...

  16. Energy Savings and Peak Demand Reduction of a SEER 21 Heat Pump vs. a SEER 13 Heat Pump with Attic and Indoor Duct Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, J.

    2014-03-01

    This report describes results of experiments that were conducted in an unoccupied 1600 square foot house--the Manufactured Housing (MH Lab) at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC)--to evaluate the delivered performance as well as the relative performance of a SEER 21 variable capacity heat pump versus a SEER 13 heat pump. The performance was evaluated with two different duct systems: a standard attic duct system and an indoor duct system located in a dropped-ceiling space.

  17. Desert Peak Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desert Peak Geothermal Area (Redirected from Desert Peak Area) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Desert Peak Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2...

  18. The PEAK experience in South Carolina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-11-01

    The PEAK Institute was developed to provide a linkage for formal (schoolteachers) and nonformal educators (extension agents) with agricultural scientists of Clemson University`s South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station System. The goal of the Institute was to enable teams of educators and researchers to develop and provide PEAK science and math learning experiences related to relevant agricultural and environmental issues of local communities for both classroom and 4-H Club experiences. The Peak Institute was conducted through a twenty day residential Institute held in June for middle school and high school teachers who were teamed with an Extension agent from their community. These educators participated in hands-on, minds-on sessions conducted by agricultural researchers and Clemson University Cooperative Extension specialists. Participants were given the opportunity to see frontier science being conducted by scientists from a variety of agricultural laboratories.

  19. Peak finding using biorthogonal wavelets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, C.Y.

    2000-02-01

    The authors show in this paper how they can find the peaks in the input data if the underlying signal is a sum of Lorentzians. In order to project the data into a space of Lorentzian like functions, they show explicitly the construction of scaling functions which look like Lorentzians. From this construction, they can calculate the biorthogonal filter coefficients for both the analysis and synthesis functions. They then compare their biorthogonal wavelets to the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigations) wavelets when used for peak finding in noisy data. They will show that in this instance, their filters perform much better than the FBI wavelets.

  20. summer_peak_2005.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a . Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 (Megawatts and 2005 Base Year) Summer Noncoincident Peak Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 2005 758,876 46,396 39,918 58,960 190,200 190,705 41,727 60,210 130,760 Projected Contiguous U.S. FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP

  1. summer_peak_2006.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a . Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 (Megawatts and 2006 Base Year) Summer Noncoincident Peak Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 2006 789,475 45,751 42,194 63,241 191,920 199,052 42,882 62,339 142,096 Projected Contiguous U.S. FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC

  2. winter_peak_2003.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ) Form EIA-411 for 2005 Released: February 7, 2008 Next Update: October 2007 Table 2b . Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2003 and Projected 2004 through 2008 (Megawatts and 2003 Base Year) Winter Noncoincident Peak Load Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP (U.S. NPCC (U.S.) SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 1990/1991 484,231 67,097

  3. winter_peak_2004.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b . Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004 and Projected 2005 through 2009 (Megawatts and 2004 Base Year) Winter Noncoincident Peak Load Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP/MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 1990/1991 484,231 67,097 30,800 36,551 32,461 21,113 40,545 86,648 38,949 35,815 94,252 1991/1992 485,761

  4. winter_peak_2005.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2b . Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 (Megawatts and 2005 Base Year) Winter Noncoincident Peak Load Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 2005/2006 626,365 42,657 33,748 46,828 151,600 164,638 31,260 48,141 107,493 Contiguous U.S. Projected FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.)

  5. winter_peak_2006.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b . Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 (Megawatts and 2006 Base Year) Winter Noncoincident Peak Load Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 2006/2007 640,981 42,526 34,677 46,697 149,631 175,163 30,792 50,402 111,093 Contiguous U.S. Projected FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.)

  6. monthly_peak_1996_2004.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Next Update: October 2007 Table 3a . January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1996 through 2004 (Megawatts) Month Year Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP/MRO NPCC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW) Peak Hour Demand (MW)

  7. METHOD OF PEAK CURRENT MEASUREMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, G.E.

    1959-01-20

    The measurement and recording of peak electrical currents are described, and a method for utilizing the magnetic field of the current to erase a portion of an alternating constant frequency and amplitude signal from a magnetic mediums such as a magnetic tapes is presented. A portion of the flux from the current carrying conductor is concentrated into a magnetic path of defined area on the tape. After the current has been recorded, the tape is played back. The amplitude of the signal from the portion of the tape immediately adjacent the defined flux area and the amplitude of the signal from the portion of the tape within the area are compared with the amplitude of the signal from an unerased portion of the tape to determine the percentage of signal erasure, and thereby obtain the peak value of currents flowing in the conductor.

  8. Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: Reduce the high level of risk during the early stages of geothermal project development by conducting a multi-faceted and innovative exploration and drilling program at Silver Peak. Determine the combination of techniques that are most useful and cost-effective in identifying the geothermal resource through a detailed, post-project evaluation of the exploration and drilling program.

  9. Peak Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Previous Articles Previous Articles Estimates of Peak Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in the United States, 2009 Update (Released, 8312009) Estimates of Peak Underground...

  10. peak_load_2010.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Noncoincident Peak Load, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 1990-2010 Actual, 2011-2015 Projected (Megawatts) Interconnection NERC Regional Assesment Area 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 FRCC 27,266 28,818 30,601 32,823 32,904 34,524 35,444 35,375 38,730 37,493 37,194 39,062 40,696 40,475 42,383 46,396 45,751 46,676 44,836 NPCC 44,116 46,594 43,658 46,706 47,581 47,705 45,094 49,269 49,566 52,855

  11. SnowPeak Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SnowPeak Energy Place: Reno, Nevada Zip: 89502 Product: Nevada-based concentrator PV module maker. References: SnowPeak Energy1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  12. Passive radio frequency peak power multiplier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farkas, Zoltan D.; Wilson, Perry B.

    1977-01-01

    Peak power multiplication of a radio frequency source by simultaneous charging of two high-Q resonant microwave cavities by applying the source output through a directional coupler to the cavities and then reversing the phase of the source power to the coupler, thereby permitting the power in the cavities to simultaneously discharge through the coupler to the load in combination with power from the source to apply a peak power to the load that is a multiplication of the source peak power.

  13. Peak Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Capacity Peak Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity Released: September 3, 2010 for data as of April 2010 Next Release: August 2011 References Methodology Definitions...

  14. Peak Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    not necessarily coincide. As such, the noncoincident peak for any region is at least as big as any monthly volume in the historical record. Data from Form EIA-191M, "Monthly...

  15. QER- Comment of Cloud Peak Energy Inc

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Dear Ms Pickett Please find attached comments from Cloud Peak Energy as input to the Department of Energy’s Quadrennial Energy Review. If possible I would appreciate a confirmation that this email has been received Thank you.

  16. SEPARATION OF OVERLAPPED ELECTROCHEMICAL PEAKS USING THE KALMAN FILTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, T.F.; Brown, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    A major limitation in the use of electrochemical techniques for the quantitative analysis of mixtures is the difficulty of resolving overlapped peaks. This problem is further complicated by the low signal-to-noise ratios often encountered in trace analysis and by the use of electrochemical techniques that produce broad, asymmetric waveforms. This paper demonstrates the use of the Kalman Filter for multi-component analysis of linear sweep voltammograms. Even with the broad, asymmetric LSV waveform, synthetic data runs show that a peak separation of as little as 2.5 mV is sufficient for peak deconvolution in the presence of random noise. Besides separating overlapped peaks, the methods also filters the noise from the signal and can be used to separate the capacitive current component from the faradaic current component. The method is validated further using the Cd(II)/In(III) and Cd(II)/In(III)/Pb(II) systems which show peak separations of 40 to 200 mV. The use of the techniques with two other voltammetric waveforms is also demonstrated.

  17. Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project (Ram Power Inc.)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Miller, Clay

    2010-01-01

    Data generated from the Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project, in Esmeralda County, Nevada, encompasses a “deep-circulation (amagmatic)” meteoric-geothermal system circulating beneath basin-fill sediments locally blanketed with travertine in western Clayton Valley (lithium-rich brines from which have been mined for several decades). Spring- and shallow-borehole thermal-water geochemistry and geothermometry suggest that a Silver Peak geothermal reservoir is very likely to attain the temperature range 260- 300oF (~125-150oC), and may reach 300-340oF (~150-170oC) or higher (GeothermEx, Inc., 2006). Results of detailed geologic mapping, structural analysis, and conceptual modeling of the prospect (1) support the GeothermEx (op. cit.) assertion that the Silver Peak prospect has good potential for geothermal-power production; and (2) provide a theoretical geologic framework for further exploration and development of the resource. The Silver Peak prospect is situated in the transtensional (regional shearing coupled with extension) Walker Lane structural belt, and squarely within the late Miocene to Pliocene (11 Ma to ~5 Ma) Silver Peak-Lone Mountain metamorphic core complex (SPCC), a feature that accommodated initial displacement transfer between major right-lateral strike- slip fault zones on opposite sides of the Walker Lane. The SPCC consists essentially of a ductiley-deformed lower plate, or “core,” of Proterozoic metamorphic tectonites and tectonized Mesozoic granitoids separated by a regionally extensive, low-angle detachment fault from an upper plate of severely stretched and fractured structural slices of brittle, Proterozoic to Miocene-age lithologies. From a geothermal perspective, the detachment fault itself and some of the upper-plate structural sheets could function as important, if secondary, subhorizontal thermal-fluid aquifers in a Silver Peak hydrothermal system.

  18. Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project (Ram Power Inc.)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Miller, Clay

    2010-01-01

    Data generated from the Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project, in Esmeralda County, Nevada, encompasses a deep-circulation (amagmatic) meteoric-geothermal system circulating beneath basin-fill sediments locally blanketed with travertine in western Clayton Valley (lithium-rich brines from which have been mined for several decades). Spring- and shallow-borehole thermal-water geochemistry and geothermometry suggest that a Silver Peak geothermal reservoir is very likely to attain the temperature range 260- 300oF (~125-150oC), and may reach 300-340oF (~150-170oC) or higher (GeothermEx, Inc., 2006). Results of detailed geologic mapping, structural analysis, and conceptual modeling of the prospect (1) support the GeothermEx (op. cit.) assertion that the Silver Peak prospect has good potential for geothermal-power production; and (2) provide a theoretical geologic framework for further exploration and development of the resource. The Silver Peak prospect is situated in the transtensional (regional shearing coupled with extension) Walker Lane structural belt, and squarely within the late Miocene to Pliocene (11 Ma to ~5 Ma) Silver Peak-Lone Mountain metamorphic core complex (SPCC), a feature that accommodated initial displacement transfer between major right-lateral strike- slip fault zones on opposite sides of the Walker Lane. The SPCC consists essentially of a ductiley-deformed lower plate, or core, of Proterozoic metamorphic tectonites and tectonized Mesozoic granitoids separated by a regionally extensive, low-angle detachment fault from an upper plate of severely stretched and fractured structural slices of brittle, Proterozoic to Miocene-age lithologies. From a geothermal perspective, the detachment fault itself and some of the upper-plate structural sheets could function as important, if secondary, subhorizontal thermal-fluid aquifers in a Silver Peak hydrothermal system.

  19. Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project (Ram Power Inc.)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Miller, Clay

    Data generated from the Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project, in Esmeralda County, Nevada, encompasses a deep-circulation (amagmatic) meteoric-geothermal system circulating beneath basin-fill sediments locally blanketed with travertine in western Clayton Valley (lithium-rich brines from which have been mined for several decades). Spring- and shallow-borehole thermal-water geochemistry and geothermometry suggest that a Silver Peak geothermal reservoir is very likely to attain the temperature range 260- 300oF (~125-150oC), and may reach 300-340oF (~150-170oC) or higher (GeothermEx, Inc., 2006). Results of detailed geologic mapping, structural analysis, and conceptual modeling of the prospect (1) support the GeothermEx (op. cit.) assertion that the Silver Peak prospect has good potential for geothermal-power production; and (2) provide a theoretical geologic framework for further exploration and development of the resource. The Silver Peak prospect is situated in the transtensional (regional shearing coupled with extension) Walker Lane structural belt, and squarely within the late Miocene to Pliocene (11 Ma to ~5 Ma) Silver Peak-Lone Mountain metamorphic core complex (SPCC), a feature that accommodated initial displacement transfer between major right-lateral strike- slip fault zones on opposite sides of the Walker Lane. The SPCC consists essentially of a ductiley-deformed lower plate, or core, of Proterozoic metamorphic tectonites and tectonized Mesozoic granitoids separated by a regionally extensive, low-angle detachment fault from an upper plate of severely stretched and fractured structural slices of brittle, Proterozoic to Miocene-age lithologies. From a geothermal perspective, the detachment fault itself and some of the upper-plate structural sheets could function as important, if secondary, subhorizontal thermal-fluid aquifers in a Silver Peak hydrothermal system.

  20. summer_peak_1990_2004.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    c . Historical Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004 (Megawatts) Summer Noncoincident Peak Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Year ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP/MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 1990 546,331 79,258 27,266 42,613 40,740 24,994 44,116 94,677 52,541 42,737 97,389 1991 551,418 81,224 28,818 45,937 41,598 25,498 46,594 95,968 51,885 41,870 92,026 1992 548,707

  1. winter_peak_1990_2004.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    d . Historical Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004 (Megawatts) Winter Noncoincident Peak Load Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Year ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP/MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 1990/1991 484,231 67,097 30,800 36,551 32,461 21,113 40,545 86,648 38,949 35,815 94,252 1991/1992 485,761 71,181 31,153 37,983 33,420 21,432 41,866 88,422 38,759 35,448 86,097

  2. Fossil fuel-fired peak heating for geothermal greenhouses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rafferty, K.

    1997-01-01

    Greenhouses are a major application of low-temperature geothermal resources. In virtually all operating systems, the geothermal fluid is used in a hot water heating system to meet 100% of both the peak and annual heating requirements of the structure. This strategy is a result of the relatively low costs associated with the development of most US geothermal direct-use resources and past tax credit programs which penalized systems using any conventional fuel sources. Increasingly, greenhouse operations will encounter limitations in available geothermal resource flow due either to production or disposal considerations. As a result, it will be necessary to operate additions at reduced water temperatures reflective of the effluent from the existing operations. Water temperature has a strong influence on heating system design. Greenhouse operators tend to have unequivocal preferences regarding heating system equipment. Many growers, particularly cut flower and bedding plant operators, prefer the {open_quotes}bare tube{close_quotes} type heating system. This system places small diameter plastic tubes under the benches or adjacent to the plants. Hot water is circulated through the tubes providing heat to the plants and the air in the greenhouse. Advantages include the ability to provide the heat directly to the plants, low cost, simple installation and the lack of a requirement for fans to circulate air. The major disadvantage of the system is poor performance at low (<140{degrees}F) water temperatures, particularly in cold climates. Under these conditions, the quantity of tubing required to meet the peak heating load is substantial. In fact, under some conditions, it is simply impractical to install sufficient tubing in the greenhouse to meet the peak heating load.

  3. Masked Areas in Shear Peak Statistics: A Forward Modeling Approach...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Masked Areas in Shear Peak Statistics: A Forward Modeling Approach Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Masked Areas in Shear Peak Statistics: A Forward ...

  4. Pressure Temperature Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Silver Peak...

  5. Development Wells At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Development Wells At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  6. Twin Peaks Motel Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Peaks Motel Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Twin Peaks Motel Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Twin...

  7. Magnetotellurics At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Magnetotellurics At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  8. Geothermometry At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  9. Cuttings Analysis At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  10. Ground Magnetics At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Magnetics At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  11. Emcore/SunPeak Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Power Plant Facility EmcoreSunPeak Sector Solar Facility Type Concentrating Photovoltaic Developer SunPeak Solar Location Albuquerque, New Mexico Coordinates 35.0844909,...

  12. Core Analysis At Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Core Analysis At Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) Exploration...

  13. Gas Flux Sampling At Desert Peak Area (Lechler And Coolbaugh...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desert Peak Area (Lechler And Coolbaugh, 2007) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Desert Peak Area (Lechler And...

  14. Cuttings Analysis At Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) Exploration...

  15. Cosmology constraints from shear peak statistics in Dark Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    shear peak statistics in Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Cosmology constraints from shear peak statistics in Dark Energy ...

  16. Masked Areas in Shear Peak Statistics: A Forward Modeling Approach...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Masked Areas in Shear Peak Statistics: A Forward Modeling Approach Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Masked Areas in Shear Peak Statistics: A Forward Modeling Approach ...

  17. High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand: Premier...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand: Premier Homes Rancho Cordoba, CA - Building America Top Innovation High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand: Premier Homes ...

  18. Ionoacoustic characterization of the proton Bragg peak with submillimeter accuracy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assmann, W. Reinhardt, S.; Lehrack, S.; Edlich, A.; Thirolf, P. G.; Parodi, K.; Kellnberger, S.; Omar, M.; Ntziachristos, V.; Moser, M.; Dollinger, G.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Range verification in ion beam therapy relies to date on nuclear imaging techniques which require complex and costly detector systems. A different approach is the detection of thermoacoustic signals that are generated due to localized energy loss of ion beams in tissue (ionoacoustics). Aim of this work was to study experimentally the achievable position resolution of ionoacoustics under idealized conditions using high frequency ultrasonic transducers and a specifically selected probing beam. Methods: A water phantom was irradiated by a pulsed 20 MeV proton beam with varying pulse intensity and length. The acoustic signal of single proton pulses was measured by different PZT-based ultrasound detectors (3.5 and 10 MHz central frequencies). The proton dose distribution in water was calculated by Geant4 and used as input for simulation of the generated acoustic wave by the matlab toolbox k-WAVE. Results: In measurements from this study, a clear signal of the Bragg peak was observed for an energy deposition as low as 10{sup 12} eV. The signal amplitude showed a linear increase with particle number per pulse and thus, dose. Bragg peak position measurements were reproducible within 30 ?m and agreed with Geant4 simulations to better than 100 ?m. The ionoacoustic signal pattern allowed for a detailed analysis of the Bragg peak and could be well reproduced by k-WAVE simulations. Conclusions: The authors have studied the ionoacoustic signal of the Bragg peak in experiments using a 20 MeV proton beam with its correspondingly localized energy deposition, demonstrating submillimeter position resolution and providing a deep insight in the correlation between the acoustic signal and Bragg peak shape. These results, together with earlier experiments and new simulations (including the results in this study) at higher energies, suggest ionoacoustics as a technique for range verification in particle therapy at locations, where the tumor can be localized by ultrasound imaging. This acoustic range verification approach could offer the possibility of combining anatomical ultrasound and Bragg peak imaging, but further studies are required for translation of these findings to clinical application.

  19. monthly_peak_byarea_2010.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B.1. FRCC Monthly Peak Hour Demand, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assesment Area, 1996-2010 Actual, 2011-2012 Projected (Megawatts) FRCC Year January February March April May June July August September October November December 1996 39,860 41,896 32,781 28,609 32,059 33,886 35,444 34,341 34,797 30,037 29,033 34,191 1997 37,127 28,144 27,998 28,458 33,859 34,125 35,356 35,375 33,620 31,798 27,669 31,189 1998 27,122 28,116 29,032 28,008 32,879 37,153 36,576 38,730 34,650

  20. monthly_peak_bymonth_2010.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A.1. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assesment Area, 1996-2010 Actual, 2011-2012 Projected (Megawatts) January NERC Regional Assesment Area 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011E 2012E FRCC 39,860 37,127 27,122 38,581 37,521 40,258 39,675 45,033 35,545 41,247 34,464 38,352 41,705 44,945 53,093 46,839 47,613 NPCC 41,680 41,208 40,009 44,199 45,227 43,553 42,039 45,987 66,215 47,041 43,661 45,002 46,803

  1. Method of multi-dimensional moment analysis for the characterization of signal peaks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Yelton, William G; Kerr, Dayle R; Bouchier, Francis A

    2012-10-23

    A method of multi-dimensional moment analysis for the characterization of signal peaks can be used to optimize the operation of an analytical system. With a two-dimensional Peclet analysis, the quality and signal fidelity of peaks in a two-dimensional experimental space can be analyzed and scored. This method is particularly useful in determining optimum operational parameters for an analytical system which requires the automated analysis of large numbers of analyte data peaks. For example, the method can be used to optimize analytical systems including an ion mobility spectrometer that uses a temperature stepped desorption technique for the detection of explosive mixtures.

  2. Building America Top Innovations 2012: High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America solar home research that has demonstrated the ability to reduce peak demand by 75%. Numerous field studies have monitored power production and system effectiveness.

  3. Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    s EROSOL BSERVING 3YSTEM s 3URFACE -ETEOROLOGY 3TATION DOESC-ARM-10-024 Data and Communication System Continuous measurements obtained by the sensors and instruments are...

  4. Cosmology constraints from shear peak statistics in Dark Energy Survey

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Science Verification data (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Cosmology constraints from shear peak statistics in Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Cosmology constraints from shear peak statistics in Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data Shear peak statistics has gained a lot of attention recently as a practical alternative to the two point statistics for constraining cosmological parameters. We perform a shear peak statistics

  5. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Desert Peak Area (Wisian & Blackwell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Desert Peak Area (Wisian & Blackwell, 2004) Exploration Activity...

  6. CORRELATION BETWEEN PEAK ENERGY AND PEAK LUMINOSITY IN SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. B.; Chen, D. Y. [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Huang, Y. F., E-mail: sci.zbzhang@gzu.edu.cn, E-mail: hyf@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2012-08-10

    A correlation between the peak luminosity and the peak energy has been found by Yonetoku et al. as L{sub p} {proportional_to}E{sup 2.0}{sub p,i} for 11 pre-Swift long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In this study, for a greatly expanded sample of 148 long GRBs in the Swift era, we find that the correlation still exists, but most likely with a slightly different power-law index, i.e., L{sub p} {proportional_to} E{sup 1.7}{sub p,i}. In addition, we have collected 17 short GRBs with necessary data. We find that the correlation of L{sub p} {proportional_to} E{sup 1.7}{sub p,i} also exists for this sample of short events. It is argued that the radiation mechanism of both long and short GRBs should be similar, i.e., of quasi-thermal origin caused by the photosphere, with the dissipation occurring very near the central engine. Some key parameters of the process are constrained. Our results suggest that the radiation processes of both long and short bursts may be dominated by thermal emission, rather than by the single synchrotron radiation. This might put strong physical constraints on the theoretical models.

  7. Desert Peak II Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Facility Desert Peak II Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Location Churchill, Nevada Coordinates 39.753854931241, -118.95378112793 Loading map......

  8. Jiminy Peak Ski Resort Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Developments Energy Purchaser Jiminy Peak Mountain Resort Location Hancock MA Coordinates 42.5554, -73.2898 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservi...

  9. Desert Peak East EGS Project; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    East EGS Project; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Desert Peak East EGS Project; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report DOE 2010 Geothermal...

  10. Multispectral Imaging At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Multispectral Imaging At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  11. ARM - Field Campaign - Colorado: The Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX) Campaign Links STORMVEX Website ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Colorado: CFHCMH Deployment to...

  12. New wholesale power market design using linked forward markets : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William; Ellison, James F.; Elliott, Ryan Thomas; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Guttromson, Ross; Tesfatsion, Leigh S.

    2013-04-01

    This report proposes a reformulation of U.S. ISO/RTO-managed wholesale electric power mar- kets for improved reliability and e ciency of system operations. Current markets do not specify or compensate primary frequency response. They also unnecessarily limit the participation of new technologies in reserve markets and o er insu cient economic inducements for new capacity invest- ment. In the proposed market reformulation, energy products are represented as physically-covered rm contracts and reserve products as physically-covered call option contracts. Trading of these products is supported by a backbone of linked ISO/RTO-managed forward markets with planning horizons ranging from multiple years to minutes ahead. A principal advantage of this reformulation is that reserve needs can be speci ed in detail, and resources can o er the services for which they are best suited, without being forced to conform to rigid reserve product de nitions. This should improve the business case for electric energy storage and other emerging technologies to provide reserve. In addition, the facilitation of price discovery should help to ensure e cient energy/reserve procurement and adequate levels of new capacity investment.

  13. Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak Hour Savings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak Hour Savings from Behavior-Based Programs This report focuses on one example of the value that analysis of this data can provide: ...

  14. Silver Peak, Nevada: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Silver Peak is a city in Esmeralda County, Nevada. References USGS GNIS Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  15. SunPeak Solar LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: SunPeak Solar LLC Place: Palm Desert, California Zip: 92260 Product: US project developer and asset manager, focussing on PV projects in the south-west....

  16. TruePeak Process Laser Analyzer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    TruePeak Process Laser Analyzer TruePeak Process Laser Analyzer In-Situ Sensors Provide Real-Time Measurements Enabling Better Control and Process Optimization Current chemical process controls use few in-situ sensors, relying instead on analytic techniques that require sample conditioning and transport, and significant turnaround time. With few exceptions, these techniques lack speed of measurement, accuracy of measurement, sensitivity of measurement, and economical measurement. In-situ sensors

  17. Multispecies density peaking in gyrokinetic turbulence simulations of low

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    collisionality Alcator C-Mod plasmas (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Multispecies density peaking in gyrokinetic turbulence simulations of low collisionality Alcator C-Mod plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on June 4, 2016 Title: Multispecies density peaking in gyrokinetic turbulence simulations of low collisionality Alcator C-Mod plasmas Authors: Mikkelsen, D. R. [1] Search SciTech Connect for author "Mikkelsen, D. R."

  18. Progress in Understanding Iron Peak Elements in Young Supernova Remnants

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Progress in Understanding Iron Peak Elements in Young Supernova Remnants Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Progress in Understanding Iron Peak Elements in Young Supernova Remnants Authors: Eriksen, Kristoffer A. [1] ; Hughes, Jack [2] ; Fontes, Christopher J. [1] ; Colgan, James P. [1] ; Hungerford, Aimee L. [1] ; Fryer, Christopher L. [1] ; Zhang, Honglin [1] ; Badenes, Carles [3] ; Slane, Patrick [4] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National

  19. Peaking of world oil production: Impacts, mitigation, & risk management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirsch, R.L.; Bezdek, Roger; Wendling, Robert

    2005-02-01

    The peaking of world oil production presents the U.S. and the world with an unprecedented risk management problem. As peaking is approached, liquid fuel prices and price volatility will increase dramatically, and, without timely mitigation, the economic, social, and political costs will be unprecedented. Viable mitigation options exist on both the supply and demand sides, but to have substantial impact, they must be initiated more than a decade in advance of peaking.... The purpose of this analysis was to identify the critical issues surrounding the occurrence and mitigation of world oil production peaking. We simplified many of the complexities in an effort to provide a transparent analysis. Nevertheless, our study is neither simple nor brief. We recognize that when oil prices escalate dramatically, there will be demand and economic impacts that will alter our simplified assumptions. Consideration of those feedbacks will be a daunting task but one that should be undertaken. Our aim in this study is to-- • Summarize the difficulties of oil production forecasting; • Identify the fundamentals that show why world oil production peaking is such a unique challenge; • Show why mitigation will take a decade or more of intense effort; • Examine the potential economic effects of oil peaking; • Describe what might be accomplished under three example mitigation scenarios. • Stimulate serious discussion of the problem, suggest more definitive studies, and engender interest in timely action to mitigate its impacts.

  20. Peak Ground Velocities for Seismic Events at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Coppersmith; R. Quittmeyer

    2005-02-16

    This report describes a scientific analysis to bound credible horizontal peak ground velocities (PGV) for the repository waste emplacement level at Yucca Mountain. Results are presented as a probability distribution for horizontal PGV to represent uncertainties in the analysis. The analysis also combines the bound to horizontal PGV with results of ground motion site-response modeling (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170027]) to develop a composite hazard curve for horizontal PGV at the waste emplacement level. This result provides input to an abstraction of seismic consequences (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169183]). The seismic consequence abstraction, in turn, defines the input data and computational algorithms for the seismic scenario class of the total system performance assessment (TSPA). Planning for the analysis is documented in Technical Work Plan TWP-MGR-GS-000001 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171850]). The bound on horizontal PGV at the repository waste emplacement level developed in this analysis complements ground motions developed on the basis of PSHA results. In the PSHA, ground motion experts characterized the epistemic uncertainty and aleatory variability in their ground motion interpretations. To characterize the aleatory variability they used unbounded lognormal distributions. As a consequence of these characterizations, as seismic hazard calculations are extended to lower and lower annual frequencies of being exceeded, the ground motion level increases without bound, eventually reaching levels that are not credible (Corradini 2003 [DIRS 171191]). To provide credible seismic inputs for TSPA, in accordance with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 63.102(j) [DIRS 156605], this complementary analysis is carried out to determine reasonable bounding values of horizontal PGV at the waste emplacement level for annual frequencies of exceedance as low as 10{sup -8}. For each realization of the TSPA seismic scenario, the results of this analysis provide a constraint on the values sampled from the horizontal PGV hazard curve for the waste emplacement level. The relation of this analysis to other work feeding the seismic consequence abstraction and the TSPA is shown on Figure 1-1. The ground motion hazard results from the PSHA provide the basis for inputs to a site-response model that determines the effect of site materials on the ground motion at a location of interest (e.g., the waste emplacement level). Peak ground velocity values determined from the site-response model for the waste emplacement level are then used to develop time histories (seismograms) that form input to a model of drift degradation under seismic loads potentially producing rockfall. The time histories are also used to carry out dynamic seismic structural response calculations of the drip shield and waste package system. For the drip shield, damage from seismically induced rockfall also is considered. In the seismic consequence abstraction, residual stress results from the structural response calculations are interpreted in terms of the percentage of the component (drip shield, waste package) damaged as a function of horizontal PGV. The composite hazard curve developed in this analysis, which reflects the results of site-response modeling and the bound to credible horizontal PGV at the waste emplacement level, also feeds the seismic consequence abstraction. The composite hazard curve is incorporated into the TSPA sampling process to bound horizontal PGV and related seismic consequences to values that are credible.

  1. Nuclear Hydrogen for Peak Electricity Production and Spinning Reserve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    2005-01-20

    Nuclear energy can be used to produce hydrogen. The key strategic question is this: ''What are the early markets for nuclear hydrogen?'' The answer determines (1) whether there are incentives to implement nuclear hydrogen technology today or whether the development of such a technology could be delayed by decades until a hydrogen economy has evolved, (2) the industrial partners required to develop such a technology, and (3) the technological requirements for the hydrogen production system (rate of production, steady-state or variable production, hydrogen purity, etc.). Understanding ''early'' markets for any new product is difficult because the customer may not even recognize that the product could exist. This study is an initial examination of how nuclear hydrogen could be used in two interconnected early markets: the production of electricity for peak and intermediate electrical loads and spinning reserve for the electrical grid. The study is intended to provide an initial description that can then be used to consult with potential customers (utilities, the Electric Power Research Institute, etc.) to better determine the potential real-world viability of this early market for nuclear hydrogen and provide the starting point for a more definitive assessment of the concept. If this set of applications is economically viable, it offers several unique advantages: (1) the market is approximately equivalent in size to the existing nuclear electric enterprise in the United States, (2) the entire market is within the utility industry and does not require development of an external market for hydrogen or a significant hydrogen infrastructure beyond the utility site, (3) the technology and scale match those of nuclear hydrogen production, (4) the market exists today, and (5) the market is sufficient in size to justify development of nuclear hydrogen production techniques independent of the development of any other market for hydrogen. These characteristics make it an ideal early market for nuclear hydrogen.

  2. Wavelet Approach for Operational Gamma Spectral Peak Detection - Preliminary Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ,

    2012-02-01

    Gamma spectroscopy for radionuclide identifications typically involves locating spectral peaks and matching the spectral peaks with known nuclides in the knowledge base or database. Wavelet analysis, due to its ability for fitting localized features, offers the potential for automatic detection of spectral peaks. Past studies of wavelet technologies for gamma spectra analysis essentially focused on direct fitting of raw gamma spectra. Although most of those studies demonstrated the potentials of peak detection using wavelets, they often failed to produce new benefits to operational adaptations for radiological surveys. This work presents a different approach with the operational objective being to detect only the nuclides that do not exist in the environment (anomalous nuclides). With this operational objective, the raw-count spectrum collected by a detector is first converted to a count-rate spectrum and is then followed by background subtraction prior to wavelet analysis. The experimental results suggest that this preprocess is independent of detector type and background radiation, and is capable of improving the peak detection rates using wavelets. This process broadens the doors for a practical adaptation of wavelet technologies for gamma spectral surveying devices.

  3. Electron-Beam Switches For A High Peak Power Sled-II Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay, L.

    2015-12-02

    Omega-P demonstrated triggered electron-beam switches on the L=2 m dual-delay-line X-band pulse compressor at Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). In those experiments, with input pulses of up to 9 MW from the Omega-P/NRL X-band magnicon, output pulses having peak powers of 140-165 MW and durations of 16-20 ns were produced, with record peak power gains M of 18-20. Switch designs are described based on the successful results that should be suitable for use with the existing SLAC SLED-II delay line system, to demonstrate C=9, M=7, and n>>78%, yielding 173ns compressed pulses with peak powers up to 350MW with input of a single 50-MW.

  4. Global Analysis Peak Fitting for Imaging NEXAFS Data. (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Global Analysis Peak Fitting for Imaging NEXAFS Data. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Global Analysis Peak Fitting for Imaging NEXAFS Data. Abstract not provided. Authors: Van Benthem, Mark ; Ohlhausen, James Anthony Publication Date: 2014-05-01 OSTI Identifier: 1146491 Report Number(s): SAND2014-4547C 520383 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: The 36th Annual Symposium on Applied Surface Analysis held

  5. TESTING THE E {sub peak}-E {sub iso} RELATION FOR GRBs DETECTED BY SWIFT AND SUZAKU-WAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krimm, H. A.; Sakamoto, T.; Yamaoka, K.; Sugita, S.; Ohno, M.; Sato, G.; Hara, R.; Ohmori, N.; Tanaka, H.; Yamauchi, M.; Norris, J. P.; Onda, K.; Tashiro, M.

    2009-10-20

    One of the most prominent, yet controversial associations derived from the ensemble of prompt-phase observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is the apparent correlation in the source frame between the peak energy (E {sub peak}) of the nuF(nu) spectrum and the isotropic radiated energy, E {sub iso}. Since most GRBs have E {sub peak} above the energy range (15-150 keV) of the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on Swift, determining accurate E {sub peak} values for large numbers of Swift bursts has been difficult. However, by combining data from Swift/BAT and the Suzaku Wide-band All-Sky Monitor (WAM), which covers the energy range from 50 to 5000 keV, for bursts which are simultaneously detected, one can accurately fit E {sub peak} and E {sub iso} and test the relationship between them for the Swift sample. Between the launch of Suzaku in 2005 July and the end of 2009 April, there were 48 GRBs that triggered both Swift/BAT and WAM, and an additional 48 bursts that triggered Swift and were detected by WAM, but did not trigger. A BAT-WAM team has cross-calibrated the two instruments using GRBs, and we are now able to perform joint fits on these bursts to determine their spectral parameters. For those bursts with spectroscopic redshifts, we can also calculate the isotropic energy. Here, we present the results of joint Swift/BAT-Suzaku/WAM spectral fits for 91 of the bursts detected by the two instruments. We show that the distribution of spectral fit parameters is consistent with distributions from earlier missions and confirm that Swift bursts are consistent with earlier reported relationships between E {sub peak} and isotropic energy. We show through time-resolved spectroscopy that individual burst pulses are also consistent with this relationship.

  6. Peak Dose Assessment for Proposed DOE-PPPO Authorized Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maldonado, Delis

    2012-06-01

    The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct a peak dose assessment in support of the Authorized Limits Request for Solid Waste Disposal at Landfill C-746-U at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (DOE-PPPO 2011a). The peak doses were calculated based on the DOE-PPPO Proposed Single Radionuclides Soil Guidelines and the DOE-PPPO Proposed Authorized Limits (AL) Volumetric Concentrations available in DOE-PPPO 2011a. This work is provided as an appendix to the Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document for the Authorized Limits Request for the C-746-U Landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky (ORISE 2012). The receptors evaluated in ORISE 2012 were selected by the DOE-PPPO for the additional peak dose evaluations. These receptors included a Landfill Worker, Trespasser, Resident Farmer (onsite), Resident Gardener, Recreational User, Outdoor Worker and an Offsite Resident Farmer. The RESRAD (Version 6.5) and RESRAD-OFFSITE (Version 2.5) computer codes were used for the peak dose assessments. Deterministic peak dose assessments were performed for all the receptors and a probabilistic dose assessment was performed only for the Offsite Resident Farmer at the request of the DOE-PPPO. In a deterministic analysis, a single input value results in a single output value. In other words, a deterministic analysis uses single parameter values for every variable in the code. By contrast, a probabilistic approach assigns parameter ranges to certain variables, and the code randomly selects the values for each variable from the parameter range each time it calculates the dose (NRC 2006). The receptor scenarios, computer codes and parameter input files were previously used in ORISE 2012. A few modifications were made to the parameter input files as appropriate for this effort. Some of these changes included increasing the time horizon beyond 1,050 years (yr), and using the radionuclide concentrations provided by the DOE-PPPO as inputs into the codes. The deterministic peak doses were evaluated within time horizons of 70 yr (for the Landfill Worker and Trespasser), 1,050 yr, 10,000 yr and 100,000 yr (for the Resident Farmer [onsite], Resident Gardener, Recreational User, Outdoor Worker and Offsite Resident Farmer) at the request of the DOE-PPPO. The time horizons of 10,000 yr and 100,000 yr were used at the request of the DOE-PPPO for informational purposes only. The probabilistic peak of the mean dose assessment was performed for the Offsite Resident Farmer using Technetium-99 (Tc-99) and a time horizon of 1,050 yr. The results of the deterministic analyses indicate that among all receptors and time horizons evaluated, the highest projected dose, 2,700 mrem/yr, occurred for the Resident Farmer (onsite) at 12,773 yr. The exposure pathways contributing to the peak dose are ingestion of plants, external gamma, and ingestion of milk, meat and soil. However, this receptor is considered an implausible receptor. The only receptors considered plausible are the Landfill Worker, Recreational User, Outdoor Worker and the Offsite Resident Farmer. The maximum projected dose among the plausible receptors is 220 mrem/yr for the Outdoor Worker and it occurs at 19,045 yr. The exposure pathways contributing to the dose for this receptor are external gamma and soil ingestion. The results of the probabilistic peak of the mean dose analysis for the Offsite Resident Farmer indicate that the average (arithmetic mean) of the peak of the mean doses for this receptor is 0.98 mrem/yr and it occurs at 1,050 yr. This dose corresponds to Tc-99 within the time horizon of 1,050 yr.

  7. Saving Power at Peak Hours (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2011-04-28

    California needs new, responsive, demand-side energy technologies to ensure that periods of tight electricity supply on the grid don't turn into power outages. Led by Berkeley Lab's Mary Ann Piette, the California Energy Commission (through its Public Interest Energy Research Program) has established a Demand Response Research Center that addresses two motivations for adopting demand responsiveness: reducing average electricity prices and preventing future electricity crises. The research seeks to understand factors that influence "what works" in Demand Response. Piette's team is investigating the two types of demand response, load response and price response, that may influence and reduce the use of peak electric power through automated controls, peak pricing, advanced communications, and other strategies.

  8. Track B — Critical Guidance for Peak Performance Homes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentations from Track B, Critical Guidance for Peak Performance Homes of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program's 2012 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting are provided below as Adobe Acrobat PDFs. These presentations for this track covered the following topics: Ventilation Strategies in High Performance Homes; Combustion Safety in Tight Houses; Implementation Program Case Studies; Field Testing from Start to Finish; and Humidity Control and Analysis.

  9. EA-2023: Crossman Peak Communications Facility; Mohave County, Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Western Area Power Administration is preparing an EA that assesses the potential environmental impacts of a proposed new microwave communication facility to be located adjacent to a privately-owned one near Crossman Peak, east of Lake Havasu City in Mohave County, Arizona. The proposal would consist of a microwave communication facility, an access road, and an approximately 8-mile electrical service distribution line across private land and land administered by the Bureau of Land Management.

  10. Reducing Peak Demand to Defer Power Plant Construction in Oklahoma

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Reducing Peak Demand to Defer Power Plant Construction in Oklahoma Located in the heart of "Tornado Alley," Oklahoma Gas & Electric Company's (OG&E) electric grid faces significant challenges from severe weather, hot summers, and about 2% annual load growth. To better control costs and manage electric reliability under these conditions, OG&E is pursuing demand response strategies made possible by implementation of smart grid technologies, tools, and techniques from

  11. Deconvolution of mixed gamma emitters using peak parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gadd, Milan S; Garcia, Francisco; Magadalena, Vigil M

    2011-01-14

    When evaluating samples containing mixtures of nuclides using gamma spectroscopy the situation sometimes arises where the nuclides present have photon emissions that cannot be resolved by the detector. An example of this is mixtures of {sup 241}Am and plutonium that have L x-ray emissions with slightly different energies which cannot be resolved using a high-purity germanium detector. It is possible to deconvolute the americium L x-rays from those plutonium based on the {sup 241}Am 59.54 keV photon. However, this requires accurate knowledge of the relative emission yields. Also, it often results in high uncertainties in the plutonium activity estimate due to the americium yields being approximately an order of magnitude greater than those for plutonium. In this work, an alternative method of determining the relative fraction of plutonium in mixtures of {sup 241}Am and {sup 239}Pu based on L x-ray peak location and shape parameters is investigated. The sensitivity and accuracy of the peak parameter method is compared to that for conventional peak decovolution.

  12. Flexible Coal: Evolution from Baseload to Peaking Plant (Brochure), 21st Century Power Partnership

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accelerating the transformation of power systems Flexible Coal Evolution from Baseload to Peaking Plant The experience cited in this paper is from a generating station with multiple units located in North America referred to here as the CGS plant. For commercial reasons, the station has not been identified. Jaquelin Cochran, a Debra Lew, a Nikhil Kumar b a National Renewable Energy Laboratory, b Intertek Summary for Policymakers: Key Findings from a North American Coal Generating Station (CGS)

  13. REGULATION OF THE SPECTRAL PEAK IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2013-02-20

    Observations indicate that the peak of a gamma-ray burst spectrum forms in the opaque region of an ultrarelativistic jet. Recent radiative transfer calculations support this picture and show that the spectral peak is inherited from initially thermal radiation, which is changed by heating into a broad photon distribution with a high-energy tail. We discuss the processes that regulate the observed position of the spectral peak E {sub pk}. The opaque jet has three radial zones: (1) the Planck zone r < R {sub P} where a blackbody spectrum is enforced; this zone ends where the Thomson optical depth decreases to {tau} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 5}, (2) the Wien zone R {sub P} < r < R {sub W} with a Kompaneets parameter y >> 1 where radiation has a Bose-Einstein spectrum, and (3) the Comptonization zone r > R {sub W} where the radiation spectrum develops a high-energy tail. Besides the initial jet temperature, an important factor regulating E {sub pk} is internal dissipation (of bulk motions and magnetic energy) at large distances from the central engine. Dissipation in the Planck zone reduces E {sub pk}, and dissipation in the Wien zone can increase E {sub pk}. In jets with subdominant magnetic fields, the predicted E {sub pk} varies around 1 MeV up to a maximum value of about 10 MeV. If the jet carries an energetically important magnetic field, E {sub pk} can be additionally increased by dissipation of magnetic energy. This increase is suggested by observations, which show E {sub pk} up to about 20 MeV. We also consider magnetically dominated jets; then a simple model of magnetic dissipation gives E {sub pk} Almost-Equal-To 30 {Gamma}{sub W} keV where {Gamma}{sub W} is the jet Lorentz factor at the Wien radius R {sub W}.

  14. Methods and apparatus for reducing peak wind turbine loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw

    2007-02-13

    A method for reducing peak loads of wind turbines in a changing wind environment includes measuring or estimating an instantaneous wind speed and direction at the wind turbine and determining a yaw error of the wind turbine relative to the measured instantaneous wind direction. The method further includes comparing the yaw error to a yaw error trigger that has different values at different wind speeds and shutting down the wind turbine when the yaw error exceeds the yaw error trigger corresponding to the measured or estimated instantaneous wind speed.

  15. InSAR At Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United States by developing basic measurements and interpretations that will assist reservoir management and expansion at Bradys, Desert Peak and the Desert Peak EGS study...

  16. Rock Density At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Rock Density At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Silver Peak Area...

  17. Density Log at Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Density Log at Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Silver Peak...

  18. Gamma Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gamma Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  19. Neutron Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Neutron Log At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  20. Slim Holes At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Slim Holes At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  1. Core Analysis At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Core Analysis At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  2. 2-M Probe At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: 2-M Probe At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Silver Peak...

  3. Flow Test At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Flow Test At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Silver Peak Area...

  4. New runners to boost peak output at Niagara Falls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reason, J.

    1990-01-01

    Retrofitted Francis turbines will improve the value of power generated from Niagara Falls by increasing the peak output of the hydroturbine units at the Robert Moses hydroelectric plant. The computer-designed runners are expected to add 330 MW to the peak capacity of the 28-yr-old plant and significantly increase the efficiency at high flow rates. Next year, the first new runner will be retrofit to the highly instrumented Unit 4. If the retrofit unit meets it increased-performance expectations, the other 12 units will be upgraded between 1993 and 1998. The work is part of an overall expansion of the Niagara Power Project designed to made better use of the power value of Niagara river water, within the constraints of a treaty with Canada and the scenic value of the falls. These constraints, together with varying flows and heads, introduced enormous complexities into the selection and design of the new runners. The alterations being made to Unit 4, in addition to replacing the turbine runner, include modifying the draft tube-liners, increasing the wicket-gate stroke, replacing the turbine discharge ring (to accommodate longer blades), making various electrical modifications to the generator, and replacing the transformer. But the key to the retrofit is the computer-designed runner. Charles Grose, senior project manager, New York Power Authority, White Plains, NY, emphasizes that such computer design techniques were not available a few years ago; neither were the computer-controlled machining techniques necessary to manufacture the new runners. Other aspects of the upgrading that were analyzed include runner stability, resonance, shaft torsional stress, and runaway speed.

  5. Automated setup for magnetic hysteresis characterization based on a voltage controlled current source with 500 kHz full power bandwidth and 10 A peak-to-peak current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calabrese, G.; Capineri, L.; Granato, M.; Frattini, G.

    2015-04-15

    This paper describes the design of a system for the characterization of magnetic hysteresis behavior in soft ferrite magnetic cores. The proposed setup can test magnetic materials exciting them with controlled arbitrary magnetic field waveforms, including the capability of providing a DC bias, in a frequency bandwidth up to 500 kHz, with voltages up to 32 V peak-to-peak, and currents up to 10 A peak-to-peak. In order to have an accurate control of the magnetic field waveform, the system is based on a voltage controlled current source. The electronic design is described focusing on closed loop feedback stabilization and passive components choice. The system has real-time hysteretic loop acquisition and visualization. The comparisons between measured hysteresis loops of sample magnetic materials and datasheet available ones are shown. Results showing frequency and thermal behavior of the hysteresis of a test sample prove the system capabilities. Moreover, the B-H loops obtained with a multiple waveforms excitation signal, including DC bias, are reported. The proposal is a low-cost and replicable solution for hysteresis characterization of magnetic materials used in power electronics.

  6. Micro-Earthquake At Desert Peak Geothermal Area (2011) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rock, D.; Peterson, J.; Jarpe, S. (1 January 2011) DOE REAL-TIME SEISMIC MONITORING AT ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM SITES Additional References Retrieved from "http:...

  7. Peak fitting applied to low-resolution enrichment measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracken, D.; McKown, T.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Gunnink, R.; Kartoshov, M.; Kuropatwinski, J.; Raphina, G.; Sokolov, G.

    1998-12-01

    Materials accounting at bulk processing facilities that handle low enriched uranium consists primarily of weight and uranium enrichment measurements. Most low enriched uranium processing facilities draw separate materials balances for each enrichment handled at the facility. The enrichment measurement determines the isotopic abundance of the {sup 235}U, thereby determining the proper strata for the item, while the weight measurement generates the primary accounting value for the item. Enrichment measurements using the passive gamma radiation from uranium were developed for use in US facilities a few decades ago. In the US, the use of low-resolution detectors was favored because they cost less, are lighter and more robust, and don`t require the use of liquid nitrogen. When these techniques were exported to Europe, however, difficulties were encountered. Two of the possible root causes were discovered to be inaccurate knowledge of the container wall thickness and higher levels of minor isotopes of uranium introduced by the use of reactor returns in the enrichment plants. the minor isotopes cause an increase in the Compton continuum under the 185.7 keV assay peak and the observance of interfering 238.6 keV gamma rays. The solution selected to address these problems was to rely on the slower, more costly, high-resolution gamma ray detectors when the low-resolution method failed. Recently, these gamma ray based enrichment measurement techniques have been applied to Russian origin material. The presence of interfering gamma radiation from minor isotopes was confirmed. However, with the advent of fast portable computers, it is now possible to apply more sophisticated analysis techniques to the low-resolution data in the field. Explicit corrections for Compton background, gamma rays from {sup 236}U daughters, and the attenuation caused by thick containers can be part of the least squares fitting routine. Preliminary results from field measurements in Kazakhstan will be discussed.

  8. DES14X3taz: A type I superluminous supernova showing a luminous, rapidly cooling initial pre-peak bump

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smith, M.

    2016-02-03

    Here, we present DES14X3taz, a new hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN-I) discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova program, with additional photometric data provided by the Survey Using DECam for Superluminous Supernovae. Spectra obtained using Optical System for Imaging and low-Intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy on the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS show DES14X3taz is an SLSN-I at z = 0.608. Multi-color photometry reveals a double-peaked light curve: a blue and relatively bright initial peak that fades rapidly prior to the slower rise of the main light curve. Our multi-color photometry allows us, for the first time, to show that the initial peak cools from 22,000more » to 8000 K over 15 rest-frame days, and is faster and brighter than any published core-collapse supernova, reaching 30% of the bolometric luminosity of the main peak. No physical (56)Ni-powered model can fit this initial peak. We show that a shock-cooling model followed by a magnetar driving the second phase of the light curve can adequately explain the entire light curve of DES14X3taz. Models involving the shock-cooling of extended circumstellar material at a distance of ≃400 R⊙ are preferred over the cooling of shock-heated surface layers of a stellar envelope. We compare DES14X3taz to the few double-peaked SLSN-I events in the literature. Although the rise times and characteristics of these initial peaks differ, there exists the tantalizing possibility that they can be explained by one physical interpretation.« less

  9. Peak CO2? China's Emissions Trajectories to 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David G.; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Ke, Jing; Levine, Mark

    2011-05-01

    As a result of soaring energy demand from a staggering pace of economic growth and the related growth of energy-intensive industry, China overtook the United States to become the world's largest contributor to CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007. At the same time, China has taken serious actions to reduce its energy and carbon intensity by setting both short-term energy intensity reduction goal for 2006 to 2010 as well as long-term carbon intensity reduction goal for 2020. This study focuses on a China Energy Outlook through 2050 that assesses the role of energy efficiency policies in transitioning China to a lower emission trajectory and meeting its intensity reduction goals. In the past years, LBNL has established and significantly enhanced the China End-Use Energy Model based on the diffusion of end-use technologies and other physical drivers of energy demand. This model presents an important new approach for helping understand China's complex and dynamic drivers of energy consumption and implications of energy efficiency policies through scenario analysis. A baseline ('Continued Improvement Scenario') and an alternative energy efficiency scenario ('Accelerated Improvement Scenario') have been developed to assess the impact of actions already taken by the Chinese government as well as planned and potential actions, and to evaluate the potential for China to control energy demand growth and mitigate emissions. It is a common belief that China's CO{sub 2} emissions will continue to grow throughout this century and will dominate global emissions. The findings from this research suggest that this will not likely be the case because of saturation effects in appliances, residential and commercial floor area, roadways, railways, fertilizer use, and urbanization will peak around 2030 with slowing population growth. The baseline and alternative scenarios also demonstrate that the 2020 goals can be met and underscore the significant role that policy-driven energy efficiency improvements will play in carbon mitigation along with a decarbonized power supply through greater renewable and non-fossil fuel generation.

  10. Production of Hydrogen at the Forecourt Using Off-Peak Electricity: June 2005 (Milestone Report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levene, J. I.

    2007-02-01

    This milestone report provides information about the production of hydrogen at the forecourt using off-peak electricity as well as the Hydrogen Off-Peak Electricity (HOPE) model.

  11. Origin of the narrow, single peak in the fission-fragment mass...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Origin of the narrow, single peak in the fission-fragment mass distribution for 258Fm Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Origin of the narrow, single peak in the ...

  12. Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peak-demand Mitigation: A Solution in Developing and Developed World Alike

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeForest, Nicholas; Mendes, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Feng, Wei; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris

    2013-06-02

    In much of the developed world, air-conditioning in buildings is the dominant driver of summer peak electricity demand. In the developing world a steadily increasing utilization of air-conditioning places additional strain on already-congested grids. This common thread represents a large and growing threat to the reliable delivery of electricity around the world, requiring capital-intensive expansion of capacity and draining available investment resources. Thermal energy storage (TES), in the form of ice or chilled water, may be one of the few technologies currently capable of mitigating this problem cost effectively and at scale. The installation of TES capacity allows a building to meet its on-peak air conditioning load without interruption using electricity purchased off-peak and operating with improved thermodynamic efficiency. In this way, TES has the potential to fundamentally alter consumption dynamics and reduce impacts of air conditioning. This investigation presents a simulation study of a large office building in four distinct geographical contexts: Miami, Lisbon, Shanghai, and Mumbai. The optimization tool DER-CAM (Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model) is applied to optimally size TES systems for each location. Summer load profiles are investigated to assess the effectiveness and consistency in reducing peak electricity demand. Additionally, annual energy requirements are used to determine system cost feasibility, payback periods and customer savings under local utility tariffs.

  13. Flexible Coal: Evolution from Baseload to Peaking Plant (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.; Lew, D.; Kumar, N.

    2013-12-01

    Twenty-first century power systems, with higher penetration levels of low-carbon energy, smart grids, and other emerging technologies, will favor resources that have low marginal costs and provide system flexibility (e.g., the ability to cycle on and off to follow changes in variable renewable energy plant output). Questions remain about both the fate of coal plants in this scenario and whether they can cost-effectively continue to operate if they cycle routinely. The experience from the CGS plant demonstrates that coal plants can become flexible resources. This flexibility - namely the ability to cycle on and off and run at lower output (below 40% of capacity) - requires limited hardware modifications but extensive modifications to operational practice. Cycling does damage the plant and impact its life expectancy compared to baseload operations. Nevertheless, strategic modifications, proactive inspections and training programs, among other operational changes to accommodate cycling, can minimize the extent of damage and optimize the cost of maintenance. CGS's cycling, but not necessarily the associated price tag, is replicable. Context - namely, power market opportunities and composition of the generation fleet - will help determine for other coal plants the optimal balance between the level of cycling-related forced outages and the level of capital investment required to minimize those outages. Replicating CGS's experience elsewhere will likely require a higher acceptance of forced outages than regulators and plant operators are accustomed to; however, an increase in strategic maintenance can minimize the impact on outage rates.

  14. Table 8.12a Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Summer Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Summer Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted) Year Noncoincident Peak Load 1 by North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) 2 Regional Assessment Area Capacity Margin 21 (percent) Eastern Interconnection ERCOT 4 Western Inter- connection All Inter- connections FRCC 5 NPCC 6 Balance of Eastern Region 3 ECAR 7,8 MAAC 8,9 MAIN 8,10 MAPP 11 MISO 12 MRO 13 PJM 14 RFC 8,15 SERC 16 SPP 17 Subtotal TRE 18 WECC 19 Total 20

  15. Table 8.12b Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Winter Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Winter Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted) Year Noncoincident Peak Load 1 by North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) 2 Regional Assessment Area Capacity Margin 21 (percent) Eastern Interconnection ERCOT 4 Western Inter- connection All Inter- connections FRCC 5 NPCC 6 Balance of Eastern Region 3 ECAR 7,8 MAAC 8,9 MAIN 8,10 MAPP 11 MISO 12 MRO 13 PJM 14 RFC 8,15 SERC 16 SPP 17 Subtotal TRE 18 WECC 19 Total 20

  16. In-situ single-grain peak profile measurements on Ti-7Al during tensile deformation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lienert, U.; Brandes, M. C.; Bernier, J. V.; Weiss, J.; Shastri, S. D.; Mills, M. J.; Miller, M. P.; US Naval Research Lab.; LLNL; Mechanical Solutions, Inc.; Ohio State Univ.; Cornell Univ.

    2009-10-25

    High-energy three-dimensional X-ray diffraction with medium and high reciprocal space resolution was applied to study in situ tensile deformation of Ti-7Al specimens. Samples with planar and random dislocation microstructures were prepared and characterized by electron microscopy. Stress tensors of individual grains were obtained at several loads up to 2% deformation. The stress tensors were found to rotate, and resolved shear stresses were calculated. High-resolution reciprocal space maps of selected grains were recorded. Azimuthal and radial distributions were visualized and discussed in terms of idealized dislocation structures. Heterogeneous grain rotations were observed for the planar microstructure and found to be consistent with activation of the highest stressed basal slip system. Intra-granular strain gradients were detected in excess of the intrinsic radial dislocation peak broadening. The potential of combining the applied techniques with modeling to obtain multiple length-scale information during deformation of bulk specimens is discussed.

  17. Base-Load and Peak Electricity from a Combined Nuclear Heat and Fossil Combined-Cycle Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conklin, James C.; Forsberg, Charles W.

    2007-07-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is proposed that uses heat from a high-temperature reactor and fossil fuel to meet base-load and peak electrical demands. The high temperature gas turbine produces shaft power to turn an electric generator. The hot exhaust is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. A simplified computational model of the thermal power conversion system was developed in order to parametrically investigate two different steady-state operation conditions: base load nuclear heat only from an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), and combined nuclear heat with fossil heat to increase the turbine inlet temperature. These two cases bracket the expected range of power levels, where any intermediate power level can result during electrical load following. The computed results indicate that combined nuclear-fossil systems have the potential to offer both low-cost base-load electricity and lower-cost peak power relative to the existing combination of base-load nuclear plants and separate fossil-fired peak-electricity production units. In addition, electric grid stability, reduced greenhouse gases, and operational flexibility can also result with using the conventional technology presented here for the thermal power conversion system coupled with the AHTR. (authors)

  18. Base-Load and Peak Electricity from a Combined Nuclear Heat and Fossil Combined-Cycle Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conklin, Jim; Forsberg, Charles W

    2007-01-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is proposed that uses heat from a high-temperature reactor and fossil fuel to meet base-load and peak electrical demands. The high-temperature gas turbine produces shaft power to turn an electric generator. The hot exhaust is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. A simplified computational model of the thermal power conversion system was developed in order to parametrically investigate two different steady-state operation conditions: base load nuclear heat only from an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), and combined nuclear heat with fossil heat to increase the turbine inlet temperature. These two cases bracket the expected range of power levels, where any intermediate power level can result during electrical load following. The computed results indicate that combined nuclear-fossil systems have the potential to offer both low-cost base-load electricity and lower-cost peak power relative to the existing combination of base-load nuclear plants and separate fossil-fired peak-electricity production units. In addition, electric grid stability, reduced greenhouse gases, and operational flexibility can also result with using the conventional technology presented here for the thermal power conversion system coupled with the AHTR.

  19. Offset-free rail-to-rail derandomizing peak detect-and-hold circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeronimo, Gianluigi; O'Connor, Paul; Kandasamy, Anand

    2003-01-01

    A peak detect-and-hold circuit eliminates errors introduced by conventional amplifiers, such as common-mode rejection and input voltage offset. The circuit includes an amplifier, three switches, a transistor, and a capacitor. During a detect-and-hold phase, a hold voltage at a non-inverting in put terminal of the amplifier tracks an input voltage signal and when a peak is reached, the transistor is switched off, thereby storing a peak voltage in the capacitor. During a readout phase, the circuit functions as a unity gain buffer, in which the voltage stored in the capacitor is provided as an output voltage. The circuit is able to sense signals rail-to-rail and can readily be modified to sense positive, negative, or peak-to-peak voltages. Derandomization may be achieved by using a plurality of peak detect-and-hold circuits electrically connected in parallel.

  20. WE-D-BRF-02: Acoustic Signal From the Bragg Peak for Range Verification in Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinhardt, S; Assmann, W; Fink, A; Thirolf, P; Parodi, K; Kellnberger, S; Omar, M; Ntziachristos, V; Gaebisch, C; Moser, M; Dollinger, G; Sergiadis, G

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Range verification in ion beam therapy relies to date on nuclear imaging techniques which require complex and costly detector systems. A different approach is the detection of thermoacoustic signals that are generated due to localized energy loss of ion beams. Aim of this work is to study the feasibility of determining the ion range with sub-mm accuracy by use of high frequency ultrasonic (US) transducers and to image the Bragg peak by tomography. Methods: A water phantom was irradiated by a pulsed 20 MeV proton beam with varying pulse intensity, length and repetition rate. The acoustic signal of single proton pulses was measured by different PZT-based US detectors (3.5 MHz and 10 MHz central frequencies). For tomography a 64 channel US detector array was used and moved along the ion track by a remotely controlled motor stage. Results: A clear signal of the Bragg peak was visible for an energy deposition as low as 10{sup 12} eV. The signal amplitude showed a linear increase with particle number per pulse and thus, dose. Range measurements were reproducible within +/? 20 micrometer and agreed well with Geant4 simulations. The tomographic reconstruction does not only allow to measure the ion range but also the beam spot size at the Bragg peak position. Conclusion: Range verification by acoustic means is a promising new technique for treatment modalities where the tumor can be localized by US imaging. Further improvement of sensitivity is required to account for higher attenuation of the US signal in tissue, as well as lower energy density in the Bragg peak in realistic treatment cases due to higher particle energy and larger spot sizes. Nevertheless, the acoustic range verification approach could offer the possibility of combining anatomical US imaging with Bragg Peak imaging in the near future. The work was funded by the DFG cluster of excellence Munich Centre for Advanced Photonics (MAP)

  1. Mercury Vapor At Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) Exploration Activity Details...

  2. Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak Hour Savings from

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Behavior-Based Programs | Department of Energy The Potential for Peak Hour Savings from Behavior-Based Programs Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak Hour Savings from Behavior-Based Programs This report focuses on one example of the value that analysis of this data can provide: insights into whether BB efficiency programs have the potential to provide peak-hour energy savings. This is important because there is increasing interest in using BB programs as a stand-alone peak

  3. Impact of Smart Grid Technologies on Peak Load to 2050 | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentimpact-smart-grid-technologies-peak-l Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Regulations" is not in the list of possible...

  4. Thermal Gradient Holes At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  5. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  6. Webinar August 11: Analysis Using Fuel Cell MHE for Shaving Peak...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on Material Handling Fuel Cells for Building Electric Peak Shaving Applications DOE Announces Webinars on Geography of Alternative Fuels, Wind Siting Considerations, and More...

  7. 2-M Probe At Desert Peak Area (Sladek, Et Al., 2007) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: 2-M Probe At Desert Peak Area (Sladek, Et Al., 2007) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  8. RESCHEDULED: Webinar on Material Handling Fuel Cells for Building Electric Peak Shaving Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office will present a live webinar entitled "Material Handling Fuel Cells for Building Electric Peak Shaving Applications".

  9. Water Sampling At Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) Exploration Activity Details...

  10. Peak picking and the assessment of separation performance in two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guiochon, Georges A; Shalliker, R. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    An algorithm was developed for 2DHPLC that automated the process of peak recognition, measuring their retention times, and then subsequently plotting the information in a two-dimensional retention plane. Following the recognition of peaks, the software then performed a series of statistical assessments of the separation performance, measuring for example, correlation between dimensions, peak capacity and the percentage of usage of the separation space. Peak recognition was achieved by interpreting the first and second derivatives of each respective one-dimensional chromatogram to determine the 1D retention times of each solute and then compiling these retention times for each respective fraction 'cut'. Due to the nature of comprehensive 2DHPLC adjacent cut fractions may contain peaks common to more than one cut fraction. The algorithm determined which components were common in adjacent cuts and subsequently calculated the peak maximum profile by interpolating the space between adjacent peaks. This algorithm was applied to the analysis of a two-dimensional separation of an apple flesh extract separated in a first dimension comprising a cyano stationary phase and an aqueous/THF mobile phase as the first dimension and a second dimension comprising C18-Hydro with an aqueous/MeOH mobile phase. A total of 187 peaks were detected.

  11. Stimulation at Desert Peak -modeling with the coupled THM code FEHM

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Dataset) | SciTech Connect Dataset: Stimulation at Desert Peak -modeling with the coupled THM code FEHM Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stimulation at Desert Peak -modeling with the coupled THM code FEHM Numerical modeling of the 2011 shear stimulation at the Desert Peak well 27-15. This submission contains the FEHM executable code for a 64-bit PC Windows-7 machine, and the input and output files for the results presented in the included paper from ARMA-213 meeting. Authors:

  12. Origin of the narrow, single peak in the fission-fragment mass distribution

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for 258Fm (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Origin of the narrow, single peak in the fission-fragment mass distribution for 258Fm Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Origin of the narrow, single peak in the fission-fragment mass distribution for 258Fm We discuss the origin of the narrowness of the single peak at mass-symmetric division in the fragment mass-yield curve for spontaneous fission of {sup 258}Fm. For this purpose, we employ

  13. NOISY WEAK-LENSING CONVERGENCE PEAK STATISTICS NEAR CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES AND BEYOND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan Zuhui; Shan Huanyuan; Liu Jiayi

    2010-08-20

    Taking into account noise from intrinsic ellipticities of source galaxies, in this paper, we study the peak statistics in weak-lensing convergence maps around clusters of galaxies and beyond. We emphasize how the noise peak statistics is affected by the density distribution of nearby clusters, and also how cluster-peak signals are changed by the existence of noise. These are the important aspects to be thoroughly understood in weak-lensing analyses for individual clusters as well as in cosmological applications of weak-lensing cluster statistics. We adopt Gaussian smoothing with the smoothing scale {theta} {sub G} = 0.5arcmin in our analyses. It is found that the noise peak distribution near a cluster of galaxies sensitively depends on the density profile of the cluster. For a cored isothermal cluster with the core radius R{sub c} , the inner region with R {<=} R{sub c} appears noisy containing on average {approx}2.4 peaks with {nu} {>=} 5 for R{sub c} = 1.7arcmin and the true peak height of the cluster {nu} = 5.6, where {nu} denotes the convergence signal-to-noise ratio. For a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) cluster of the same mass and the same central {nu}, the average number of peaks with {nu} {>=} 5 within R {<=} R{sub c} is {approx}1.6. Thus a high peak corresponding to the main cluster can be identified more cleanly in the NFW case. In the outer region with R{sub c} < R {<=} 5R{sub c} , the number of high noise peaks is considerably enhanced in comparison with that of the pure noise case without the nearby cluster. For {nu} {>=} 4, depending on the treatment of the mass-sheet degeneracy in weak-lensing analyses, the enhancement factor f is in the range of {approx}5 to {approx}55 for both clusters as their outer density profiles are similar. The properties of the main-cluster-peak identified in convergence maps are also significantly affected by the presence of noise. Scatters as well as a systematic shift for the peak height are present. The height distribution is peaked at {nu} {approx} 6.6, rather than at {nu} = 5.6, corresponding to a shift of {Delta}{nu} {approx} 1, for the isothermal cluster. For the NFW cluster, {Delta}{nu} {approx} 0.8. The existence of noise also causes a location offset for the weak-lensing identified main-cluster-peak with respect to the true center of the cluster. The offset distribution is very broad and extends to R {approx} R{sub c} for the isothermal case. For the NFW cluster, it is relatively narrow and peaked at R {approx} 0.2R{sub c} . We also analyze NFW clusters of different concentrations. It is found that the more centrally concentrated the mass distribution of a cluster is, the less its weak-lensing signal is affected by noise. Incorporating these important effects and the mass function of NFW dark matter halos, we further present a model calculating the statistical abundances of total convergence peaks, true and false ones, over a large field beyond individual clusters. The results are in good agreement with those from numerical simulations. The model then allows us to probe cosmologies with the convergence peaks directly without the need of expensive follow-up observations to differentiate true and false peaks.

  14. Method and apparatus for clockless analog-to-digital conversion and peak detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeronimo, Gianluigi

    2007-03-06

    An apparatus and method for analog-to-digital conversion and peak detection includes at least one stage, which includes a first switch, second switch, current source or capacitor, and discriminator. The discriminator changes state in response to a current or charge associated with the input signal exceeding a threshold, thereby indicating whether the current or charge associated with the input signal is greater than the threshold. The input signal includes a peak or a charge, and the converter includes a peak or charge detect mode in which a state of the switch is retained in response to a decrease in the current or charge associated with the input signal. The state of the switch represents at least a portion of a value of the peak or of the charge.

  15. Webinar: Analysis Using Fuel Cell MHE for Shaving Peak Building Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office will present a live webinar entitled "Analysis Using Fuel Cell MHE for Shaving Peak Building Energy" on Tuesday, August 11, from 12 to 1 p.m. EDT.

  16. Desert Peak to Humboldt House and Winnemucca, in: Lane, M.A....

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to Humboldt House and Winnemucca, in: Lane, M.A., (ed) Nevada geothermal areas: Desert Peak, Humboldt House, Beoware: Guidebook for field trip Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  17. How are flat demand charges based on the highest peak over the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    How are flat demand charges based on the highest peak over the past 12 months designated in the database (LADWP does this) Home > Groups > Utility Rate Submitted by Marcroper on 11...

  18. DOUBLETS AND DOUBLE PEAKS: LATE-TIME [O I] lambdalambda6300,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...TIME O I lambdalambda6300, 6364 LINE PROFILES OF STRIPPED-ENVELOPE, CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: DOUBLETS AND DOUBLE PEAKS: LATE-TIME O I ...

  19. Mask effects on cosmological studies with weak-lensing peak statistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiangkun; Pan, Chuzhong; Fan, Zuhui; Wang, Qiao

    2014-03-20

    With numerical simulations, we analyze in detail how the bad data removal, i.e., the mask effect, can influence the peak statistics of the weak-lensing convergence field reconstructed from the shear measurement of background galaxies. It is found that high peak fractions are systematically enhanced because of the presence of masks; the larger the masked area is, the higher the enhancement is. In the case where the total masked area is about 13% of the survey area, the fraction of peaks with signal-to-noise ratio ? ? 3 is ?11% of the total number of peaks, compared with ?7% of the mask-free case in our considered cosmological model. This can have significant effects on cosmological studies with weak-lensing convergence peak statistics, inducing a large bias in the parameter constraints if the effects are not taken into account properly. Even for a survey area of 9 deg{sup 2}, the bias in (? {sub m}, ?{sub 8}) is already intolerably large and close to 3?. It is noted that most of the affected peaks are close to the masked regions. Therefore, excluding peaks in those regions in the peak statistics can reduce the bias effect but at the expense of losing usable survey areas. Further investigations find that the enhancement of the number of high peaks around the masked regions can be largely attributed to the smaller number of galaxies usable in the weak-lensing convergence reconstruction, leading to higher noise than that of the areas away from the masks. We thus develop a model in which we exclude only those very large masks with radius larger than 3' but keep all the other masked regions in peak counting statistics. For the remaining part, we treat the areas close to and away from the masked regions separately with different noise levels. It is shown that this two-noise-level model can account for the mask effect on peak statistics very well, and the bias in cosmological parameters is significantly reduced if this model is applied in the parameter fitting.

  20. Multispecies density peaking in gyrokinetic turbulence simulations of low collisionality Alcator C-Mod plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikkelsen, D. R. Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K. W.; Greenwald, M.; Howard, N. T.; Hughes, J. W.; Rice, J. E.; Reinke, M. L.; Podpaly, Y.; Ma, Y.; Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E.

    2015-06-15

    Peaked density profiles in low-collisionality AUG and JET H-mode plasmas are probably caused by a turbulently driven particle pinch, and Alcator C-Mod experiments confirmed that collisionality is a critical parameter. Density peaking in reactors could produce a number of important effects, some beneficial, such as enhanced fusion power and transport of fuel ions from the edge to the core, while others are undesirable, such as lower beta limits, reduced radiation from the plasma edge, and consequently higher divertor heat loads. Fundamental understanding of the pinch will enable planning to optimize these impacts. We show that density peaking is predicted by nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations based on measured profile data from low collisionality H-mode plasma in Alcator C-Mod. Multiple ion species are included to determine whether hydrogenic density peaking has an isotope dependence or is influenced by typical levels of low-Z impurities, and whether impurity density peaking depends on the species. We find that the deuterium density profile is slightly more peaked than that of hydrogen, and that experimentally relevant levels of boron have no appreciable effect on hydrogenic density peaking. The ratio of density at r/a = 0.44 to that at r/a = 0.74 is 1.2 for the majority D and minority H ions (and for electrons), and increases with impurity Z: 1.1 for helium, 1.15 for boron, 1.3 for neon, 1.4 for argon, and 1.5 for molybdenum. The ion temperature profile is varied to match better the predicted heat flux with the experimental transport analysis, but the resulting factor of two change in heat transport has only a weak effect on the predicted density peaking.

  1. High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand: Premier Homes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rancho Cordoba, CA - Building America Top Innovation | Department of Energy with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand: Premier Homes Rancho Cordoba, CA - Building America Top Innovation High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand: Premier Homes Rancho Cordoba, CA - Building America Top Innovation Photo of homes in Premier Gardens. As the housing market continues to evolve toward zero net-energy ready homes, Building America research has provided essential guidance for integrating

  2. Relative Economic Merits of Storage and Combustion Turbines for Meeting Peak Capacity Requirements under Increased Penetration of Solar Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, Paul; Diakov, Victor; Margolis, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Batteries with several hours of capacity provide an alternative to combustion turbines for meeting peak capacity requirements. Even when compared to state-of-the-art highly flexible combustion turbines, batteries can provide a greater operational value, which is reflected in a lower system-wide production cost. By shifting load and providing operating reserves, batteries can reduce the cost of operating the power system to a traditional electric utility. This added value means that, depending on battery life, batteries can have a higher cost than a combustion turbine of equal capacity and still produce a system with equal or lower overall life-cycle cost. For a utility considering investing in new capacity, the cost premium for batteries is highly sensitive to a variety of factors, including lifetime, natural gas costs, PV penetration, and grid generation mix. In addition, as PV penetration increases, the net electricity demand profile changes, which may reduce the amount of battery energy capacity needed to reliably meet peak demand.

  3. Slide 1

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ISO/RTO U.S. Map RTO U.S. Map

  4. An investigation of the accuracy and the characteristics of the Peak-Shaving Method applied to production cost calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, R.N.; Lee, T.H.; Hill, E.F.

    1989-08-01

    The Peak-Shaving Method (PSM) has been applied in many well-known commercial software packages for hydrothermal scheduling to minimize the system production cost. These packages are frequently applied by government agencies and utilities for rate hearings, energy import/export licensing, generation capacity expansion planning, and hourly production scheduling for a weekly system operation planning, etc. The accuracy and the characteristics of the PSM however have not yet been carefully investigated. This work presents an extensive study of the PSM. A wide range of load factors and hydro ratio systems have been tested and compared with the results of the rigorous Coordination-Equation Method (CEM). It has been found that the PSM always scheduled more water in the high load period than the CEM. The PSM, therefore, is more likely to swing the hydro plants and may thus avoid frequent on/off operation of thermal units.

  5. Inelastic neutron scattering study on boson peaks of imidazolium-based ionic liquids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kofu, Maiko; Inamura, Yasuhiro; Podlesnyak, Andrey A.; Ehlers, Georg; Yamamuro, Osamu; Moriya, Yosuke

    2015-07-26

    Low energy excitations of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) have been investigated by means of neutron spectroscopy. In the spectra of inelastic scattering, a broad excitation peak referred to as a “boson peak” appeared at 1–3 meV in all of the ILs measured. The intensity of the boson peak was enhanced at the Q positions corresponding to the diffraction peaks, reflecting the in-phase vibrational nature of the boson peak. Furthermore the boson peak energy (EBP) was insensitive to the length of the alkyl-chain but changed depending on the radius of the anion. From the correlation among EBP, the anion radius, andmore » the glass transition temperature Tg, we conclude that both EBP and Tg in ILs are predominantly governed by the inter-ionic Coulomb interaction which is less influenced by the alkyl-chain length. Furthermore, we also found that the EBP is proportional to the inverse square root of the molecular weight as observed in molecular glasses.« less

  6. Reducing Residential Peak Electricity Demand with Mechanical Pre-Cooling of Building Thermal Mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, Will; Walker, Iain; Roux, Jordan

    2014-08-01

    This study uses an advanced airflow, energy and humidity modelling tool to evaluate the potential for residential mechanical pre-cooling of building thermal mass to shift electricity loads away from the peak electricity demand period. The focus of this study is residential buildings with low thermal mass, such as timber-frame houses typical to the US. Simulations were performed for homes in 12 US DOE climate zones. The results show that the effectiveness of mechanical pre-cooling is highly dependent on climate zone and the selected pre-cooling strategy. The expected energy trade-off between cooling peak energy savings and increased off-peak energy use is also shown.

  7. Estimating coal production peak and trends of coal imports in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bo-qiang Lin; Jiang-hua Liu

    2010-01-15

    More than 20 countries in the world have already reached a maximum capacity in their coal production (peak coal production) such as Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany. China, home to the third largest coal reserves in the world, is the world's largest coal producer and consumer, making it part of the Big Six. At present, however, China's coal production has not yet reached its peak. In this article, logistic curves and Gaussian curves are used to predict China's coal peak and the results show that it will be between the late 2020s and the early 2030s. Based on the predictions of coal production and consumption, China's net coal import could be estimated for coming years. This article also analyzes the impact of China's net coal import on the international coal market, especially the Asian market, and on China's economic development and energy security. 16 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. A DOUBLE-PEAKED OUTBURST OF A 0535+26 OBSERVED WITH INTEGRAL, RXTE, AND SUZAKU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caballero, I.; Barragan, L.; Wilms, J.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Ferrigno, C.; Klochkov, D.; Suchy, S.; Santangelo, A.; Staubert, R.; Zurita Heras, J. A.; Kretschmar, P.; Fuerst, F.; Rothschild, R.; Finger, M. H.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Makishima, K.; Enoto, T.; Iwakiri, W.; and others

    2013-02-20

    The Be/X-ray binary A 0535+26 showed a normal (type I) outburst in 2009 August. It is the fourth in a series of normal outbursts associated with the periastron, but is unusual because it presented a double-peaked light curve. The two peaks reached a flux of {approx}450 mCrab in the 15-50 keV range. We present results of the timing and spectral analysis of INTEGRAL, RXTE, and Suzaku observations of the outburst. The energy-dependent pulse profiles and their evolution during the outburst are studied. No significant differences with respect to other normal outbursts are observed. The centroid energy of the fundamental cyclotron line shows no significant variation during the outburst. A spectral hardening with increasing luminosity is observed. We conclude that the source is accreting in the sub-critical regime. We discuss possible explanations for the double-peaked outburst.

  9. EVIDENCE FOR POLAR X-RAY JETS AS SOURCES OF MICROSTREAM PEAKS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neugebauer, Marcia

    2012-05-01

    It is proposed that the interplanetary manifestations of X-ray jets observed in solar polar coronal holes during periods of low solar activity are the peaks of the so-called microstreams observed in the fast polar solar wind. These microstreams exhibit velocity fluctuations of {+-}35 km s{sup -1}, higher kinetic temperatures, slightly higher proton fluxes, and slightly higher abundances of the low-first-ionization-potential element iron relative to oxygen ions than the average polar wind. Those properties can all be explained if the fast microstreams result from the magnetic reconnection of bright-point loops, which leads to X-ray jets which, in turn, result in solar polar plumes. Because most of the microstream peaks are bounded by discontinuities of solar origin, jets are favored over plumes for the majority of the microstream peaks.

  10. Masked Areas in Shear Peak Statistics: A Forward Modeling Approach (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Masked Areas in Shear Peak Statistics: A Forward Modeling Approach Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Masked Areas in Shear Peak Statistics: A Forward Modeling Approach Authors: Bard, D. ; /KIPAC, Menlo Park ; Kratochvil, J.M. ; /KwaZulu Natal U. ; Dawson, W. ; /LLNL, Livermore Publication Date: 2016-02-18 OSTI Identifier: 1238567 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-16483 arXiv:1410.5446 DOE Contract Number: AC02-76SF00515 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource

  11. Quasi-isentropic drive development for peak pressures > 10 Mbar

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Quasi-isentropic drive development for peak pressures > 10 Mbar Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Quasi-isentropic drive development for peak pressures > 10 Mbar Authors: Prisbrey, S T ; Park, H S ; Remington, B A ; May, M ; Cavallo, R ; Comley, A ; Blobaum, K ; Swift, D ; Satcher, J ; Perry, T Publication Date: 2012-10-24 OSTI Identifier: 1055850 Report Number(s): LLNL-CONF-595876 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type:

  12. DOUBLETS AND DOUBLE PEAKS: LATE-TIME [O I] lambdalambda6300, 6364 LINE

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PROFILES OF STRIPPED-ENVELOPE, CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect DOUBLETS AND DOUBLE PEAKS: LATE-TIME [O I] lambdalambda6300, 6364 LINE PROFILES OF STRIPPED-ENVELOPE, CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: DOUBLETS AND DOUBLE PEAKS: LATE-TIME [O I] lambdalambda6300, 6364 LINE PROFILES OF STRIPPED-ENVELOPE, CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE We present optical spectra of SN 2007gr, SN 2007rz, SN 2007uy, SN 2008ax, and SN 2008bo obtained in the

  13. Microsoft Word - BUGS_The Next Smart Grid Peak Resource Final 4_19.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April 15, 2010 DOE/NETL-2010/1406 Backup Generators (BUGS): The Next Smart Grid Peak Resource Backup Generators (BUGS): The Next Smart Grid Peak Resource v1.0 ii DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness

  14. Development and Production of a 201 MHz, 5.0 MW Peak Power Klystron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aymar, Galen; Eisen, Edward; Stockwell, Brad; Begum, rasheda; Lenci, Steve; Eisner, Rick; Cesca, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Communications & Power Industries LLC has designed and manufactured the VKP-8201A, a high peak power, high gain, VHF band klystron. The klystron operates at 201.25 MHz, with 5.0 MW peak output power, 34 kW average output power, and a gain of 36 dB. The klystron is designed to operate between 1.0 MW and 4.5 MW in the linear range of the transfer curve. The klystron utilizes a unique magnetic field which enables the use of a proven electron gun design with a larger electron beam requirement. Experimental and predicted performance data are compared.

  15. Trinity Thermal Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Place: Texas Zip: 75028 Product: Trinity Thermal Systems provides power storage products aimed a shifting energy use from air conditioning systems to off-peak times....

  16. Stimulation at Desert Peak -modeling with the coupled THM code FEHM

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    kelkar, sharad

    2013-04-30

    Numerical modeling of the 2011 shear stimulation at the Desert Peak well 27-15. This submission contains the FEHM executable code for a 64-bit PC Windows-7 machine, and the input and output files for the results presented in the included paper from ARMA-213 meeting.

  17. Stimulation at Desert Peak -modeling with the coupled THM code FEHM

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    kelkar, sharad

    Numerical modeling of the 2011 shear stimulation at the Desert Peak well 27-15. This submission contains the FEHM executable code for a 64-bit PC Windows-7 machine, and the input and output files for the results presented in the included paper from ARMA-213 meeting.

  18. First Tracer Test After Circulation in Desert Peak 27-15

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Rose, Peter

    Following the successful stimulation of Desert Peak target EGS well 27-15, a circulation test was initiated by injecting a conservative tracer (1,5-nds) in combination with a reactive tracer (7-amino-1,3-naphthalene disulfonate). The closest production well 74-21 was monitored over the subsequent several months.

  19. Webinar August 11: Analysis Using Fuel Cell MHE for Shaving Peak Building Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office will present a live webinar entitled "Analysis Using Fuel Cell MHE for Shaving Peak Building Energy" on Tuesday, August 11, from 12 to 1 p.m. EDT. This webinar will explore the synergy between a facility's use of hydrogen fuel cell forklifts and its reduction of electric grid time of use energy charges.

  20. First Tracer Test After Circulation in Desert Peak 27-15

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Rose, Peter

    2013-11-16

    Following the successful stimulation of Desert Peak target EGS well 27-15, a circulation test was initiated by injecting a conservative tracer (1,5-nds) in combination with a reactive tracer (7-amino-1,3-naphthalene disulfonate). The closest production well 74-21 was monitored over the subsequent several months.

  1. Cosmology Constraints from the Weak Lensing Peak Counts and the Power Spectrum in CFHTLenS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Jia; May, Morgan; Petri, Andrea; Haiman, Zoltan; Hui, Lam; Kratochvil, Jan M.

    2015-03-04

    Lensing peaks have been proposed as a useful statistic, containing cosmological information from non-Gaussianities that is inaccessible from traditional two-point statistics such as the power spectrum or two-point correlation functions. Here we examine constraints on cosmological parameters from weak lensing peak counts, using the publicly available data from the 154 deg2 CFHTLenS survey. We utilize a new suite of ray-tracing N-body simulations on a grid of 91 cosmological models, covering broad ranges of the three parameters Ωm, σ8, and w, and replicating the galaxy sky positions, redshifts, and shape noise in the CFHTLenS observations. We then build an emulator thatmore » interpolates the power spectrum and the peak counts to an accuracy of ≤ 5%, and compute the likelihood in the three-dimensional parameter space (Ωm, σ8, w) from both observables. We find that constraints from peak counts are comparable to those from the power spectrum, and somewhat tighter when different smoothing scales are combined. Neither observable can constrain w without external data. When the power spectrum and peak counts are combined, the area of the error “banana” in the (Ωm, σ8) plane reduces by a factor of ≈ two, compared to using the power spectrum alone. For a flat Λ cold dark matter model, combining both statistics, we obtain the constraint σ8(Ωm/0.27)0.63 = 0.85+0.03-0.03.« less

  2. Cosmology Constraints from the Weak Lensing Peak Counts and the Power Spectrum in CFHTLenS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jia; May, Morgan; Petri, Andrea; Haiman, Zoltan; Hui, Lam; Kratochvil, Jan M.

    2015-03-04

    Lensing peaks have been proposed as a useful statistic, containing cosmological information from non-Gaussianities that is inaccessible from traditional two-point statistics such as the power spectrum or two-point correlation functions. Here we examine constraints on cosmological parameters from weak lensing peak counts, using the publicly available data from the 154 deg2 CFHTLenS survey. We utilize a new suite of ray-tracing N-body simulations on a grid of 91 cosmological models, covering broad ranges of the three parameters Ωm, σ8, and w, and replicating the galaxy sky positions, redshifts, and shape noise in the CFHTLenS observations. We then build an emulator that interpolates the power spectrum and the peak counts to an accuracy of ≤ 5%, and compute the likelihood in the three-dimensional parameter space (Ωm, σ8, w) from both observables. We find that constraints from peak counts are comparable to those from the power spectrum, and somewhat tighter when different smoothing scales are combined. Neither observable can constrain w without external data. When the power spectrum and peak counts are combined, the area of the error “banana” in the (Ωm, σ8) plane reduces by a factor of ≈ two, compared to using the power spectrum alone. For a flat Λ cold dark matter model, combining both statistics, we obtain the constraint σ8m/0.27)0.63 = 0.85+0.03-0.03.

  3. STORMVEX: The Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment Science and Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mace, J; Matrosov, S; Shupe, M; Lawson, P; Hallar, G; McCubbin, I; Marchand, R; Orr, B; Coulter, R; Sedlacek, A; Avallone, L; Long, C

    2010-09-29

    During the Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX), a substantial correlative data set of remote sensing observations and direct in situ measurements from fixed and airborne platforms will be created in a winter season, mountainous environment. This will be accomplished by combining mountaintop observations at Storm Peak Laboratory and the airborne National Science Foundation-supported Colorado Airborne Multi-Phase Cloud Study campaign with collocated measurements from the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2). We describe in this document the operational plans and motivating science for this experiment, which includes deployment of AMF2 to Steamboat Springs, Colorado. The intensive STORMVEX field phase will begin nominally on 1 November 2010 and extend to approximately early April 2011.

  4. AlphaSpectrum ASPECT analysis code for background correction & peak integration

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-04-13

    The ASPECT code provides a means for rapid analysis of energy-resolved spectra obtained by multi-channel pulse-height analysis (MCA) during (or after) counting of alpha-emissions from a filter air sample (or other suitably prepared sample) utilizing a solid-state detector, or other detector having sufficient energy resolution indiviual radioisotope peaks indentified in a spectrum are fitted using a peak shape algorithm by non-linear least-square fitting procedures that minimize Chi-square differences between the data and a fitted peakmore » function. The code accomplishes the identification of all significant peaks present in the spectrum with automatic recalibration to the 7.68 Po-214 alpha peak from the Radon-222 decay chain, the subtraction of all radon progeny interference overlaps with lower energy peaks in the energy range of Pu-238, Am-241, Pu-239, and U-234/Th-232, and the integration of the counts in any peak identified for these transuranic radionuclides. The output is therefore in the form of isotope specific net transuranic CPM, DPM or concentration, available in near real-time during air sampling. In this "copyright" version, the assumption is made that the alpha spectra to be analyzed have been stored by unique name in sequential form: "FileName(i)", where "FileName" can be any name and i is the index number of the file saved (e.g., i = 1,2, ..., n). this format is one automatically generated by the alpha Environmental Continuous Air Monitor (ECAM), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, and manufactured by Canberra Industries, a Laboratory Industrial Partner for this technology. It is assumed in this version of the code that the alpha spectrum data are stored in a 256 channel spectrum, although a larger num ber of channels could be easily accommodated by small code changes. The ECAM data output format is RADNET compliant (an inidustry standard developed at Los Alamos), and include, in addition to a 256-channel alpha spectrum, data on the count time of the spectrum, sample volume represented, the total volume of air sampled by the filter, and other relevant data on the sample. Dummy variable assignments could be made in the code for all variables except for the alpha spectrum if the count rate, concentration, date stamp, and other outputs were not desired, but this option in not automatically available. The code could be implemented in an embedded form and thereby operate independently of user inputs. However, in the present version, the code is designed to operate off-line, accessing stored spectrum data (and other relevant sampling data) from stored files. In this form the user can select the characteristics of peak identification, the sigma-multiplier for the Critical Level determination, and whether or not the data are smoothed before analysis. This version is a development version, from which the user could prepare an embedded version not requiring operator intervention. In any case, the core program of peak identification, fitting, and interference correction is the same.« less

  5. AlphaSpectrum ASPECT analysis code for background correction & peak integration

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-04-13

    The ASPECT code provides a means for rapid analysis of energy-resolved spectra obtained by multi-channel pulse-height analysis (MCA) during (or after) counting of alpha-emissions from a filter air sample (or other suitably prepared sample) utilizing a solid-state detector, or other detector having sufficient energy resolution indiviual radioisotope peaks indentified in a spectrum are fitted using a peak shape algorithm by non-linear least-square fitting procedures that minimize Chi-square differences between the data and a fitted peakmorefunction. The code accomplishes the identification of all significant peaks present in the spectrum with automatic recalibration to the 7.68 Po-214 alpha peak from the Radon-222 decay chain, the subtraction of all radon progeny interference overlaps with lower energy peaks in the energy range of Pu-238, Am-241, Pu-239, and U-234/Th-232, and the integration of the counts in any peak identified for these transuranic radionuclides. The output is therefore in the form of isotope specific net transuranic CPM, DPM or concentration, available in near real-time during air sampling. In this "copyright" version, the assumption is made that the alpha spectra to be analyzed have been stored by unique name in sequential form: "FileName(i)", where "FileName" can be any name and i is the index number of the file saved (e.g., i = 1,2, ..., n). this format is one automatically generated by the alpha Environmental Continuous Air Monitor (ECAM), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, and manufactured by Canberra Industries, a Laboratory Industrial Partner for this technology. It is assumed in this version of the code that the alpha spectrum data are stored in a 256 channel spectrum, although a larger num ber of channels could be easily accommodated by small code changes. The ECAM data output format is RADNET compliant (an inidustry standard developed at Los Alamos), and include, in addition to a 256-channel alpha spectrum, data on the count time of the spectrum, sample volume represented, the total volume of air sampled by the filter, and other relevant data on the sample. Dummy variable assignments could be made in the code for all variables except for the alpha spectrum if the count rate, concentration, date stamp, and other outputs were not desired, but this option in not automatically available. The code could be implemented in an embedded form and thereby operate independently of user inputs. However, in the present version, the code is designed to operate off-line, accessing stored spectrum data (and other relevant sampling data) from stored files. In this form the user can select the characteristics of peak identification, the sigma-multiplier for the Critical Level determination, and whether or not the data are smoothed before analysis. This version is a development version, from which the user could prepare an embedded version not requiring operator intervention. In any case, the core program of peak identification, fitting, and interference correction is the same.less

  6. Momentum-resolved photoemission of the Kondo peak in an ordered Ce-containing alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garnier, M.; Purdie, D.; Breuer, K.; Hengsberger, M.; Baer, Y.

    1997-11-01

    A comparison of uv-photoemission spectra recorded from the surface alloys Pt(111)({radical}(3){times}{radical}(3))R30{degree}Ce and Pt(111)(2{times}2)La allows the contribution from the 4f electrons to be seen easily. The valence-band structure of these two surfaces is very similar, and the most obvious 4f contribution in high-resolution photoemission spectra of the Ce-containing alloy is the tail of the Kondo peak cut at E{sub F}. Within the limits of our measurement, no dispersion of this feature in the occupied regime is detected. The Kondo peak displays a marked intensity dependence on the emission angle, suggesting that hybridization is present in only a limited part of reciprocal space. The temperature dependence of this near-E{sub F} feature supports this interpretation. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Dose ratio proton radiography using the proximal side of the Bragg peak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doolan, P. J. Royle, G.; Gibson, A.; Lu, H.-M.; Prieels, D.; Bentefour, E. H.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: In recent years, there has been a movement toward single-detector proton radiography, due to its potential ease of implementation within the clinical environment. One such single-detector technique is the dose ratio method in which the dose maps from two pristine Bragg peaks are recorded beyond the patient. To date, this has only been investigated on the distal side of the lower energy Bragg peak, due to the sharp falloff. The authors investigate the limits and applicability of the dose ratio method on the proximal side of the lower energy Bragg peak, which has the potential to allow a much wider range of water-equivalent thicknesses (WET) to be imaged. Comparisons are made with the use of the distal side of the Bragg peak. Methods: Using the analytical approximation for the Bragg peak, the authors generated theoretical dose ratio curves for a range of energy pairs, and then determined how an uncertainty in the dose ratio would translate to a spread in the WET estimate. By defining this spread as the accuracy one could achieve in the WET estimate, the authors were able to generate lookup graphs of the range on the proximal side of the Bragg peak that one could reliably use. These were dependent on the energy pair, noise level in the dose ratio image and the required accuracy in the WET. Using these lookup graphs, the authors investigated the applicability of the technique for a range of patient treatment sites. The authors validated the theoretical approach with experimental measurements using a complementary metal oxide semiconductor active pixel sensor (CMOS APS), by imaging a small sapphire sphere in a high energy proton beam. Results: Provided the noise level in the dose ratio image was 1% or less, a larger spread of WETs could be imaged using the proximal side of the Bragg peak (max 5.31 cm) compared to the distal side (max 2.42 cm). In simulation, it was found that, for a pediatric brain, it is possible to use the technique to image a region with a square field equivalent size of 7.6 cm{sup 2}, for a required accuracy in the WET of 3 mm and a 1% noise level in the dose ratio image. The technique showed limited applicability for other patient sites. The CMOS APS demonstrated a good accuracy, with a root-mean-square-error of 1.6 mm WET. The noise in the measured images was found to be ? = 1.2% (standard deviation) and theoretical predictions with a 1.96? noise level showed good agreement with the measured errors. Conclusions: After validating the theoretical approach with measurements, the authors have shown that the use of the proximal side of the Bragg peak when performing dose ratio imaging is feasible, and allows for a wider dynamic range than when using the distal side. The dynamic range available increases as the demand on the accuracy of the WET decreases. The technique can only be applied to clinical sites with small maximum WETs such as for pediatric brains.

  8. Method and apparatus for reducing rotor blade deflections, loads, and/or peak rotational speed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw; Pierce, Kirk Gee

    2006-10-17

    A method for reducing at least one of loads, deflections of rotor blades, or peak rotational speed of a wind turbine includes storing recent historical pitch related data, wind related data, or both. The stored recent historical data is analyzed to determine at least one of whether rapid pitching is occurring or whether wind speed decreases are occurring. A minimum pitch, a pitch rate limit, or both are imposed on pitch angle controls of the rotor blades conditioned upon results of the analysis.

  9. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T.; Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R.; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass at younger age. • Shifting from high fat to normal diet normalizes obese parameters. • Bone parameters are sustained even after withdrawal of high fat diet. - Abstract: The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  10. Method and system for detecting an explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reber, Edward L.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Blackwood, Larry G.

    2010-12-07

    A method and system for detecting at least one explosive in a vehicle using a neutron generator and a plurality of NaI detectors. Spectra read from the detectors is calibrated by performing Gaussian peak fitting to define peak regions, locating a Na peak and an annihilation peak doublet, assigning a predetermined energy level to one peak in the doublet, and predicting a hydrogen peak location based on a location of at least one peak of the doublet. The spectra are gain shifted to a common calibration, summed for respective groups of NaI detectors, and nitrogen detection analysis performed on the summed spectra for each group.

  11. Use of Residential Smart Appliances for Peak-Load Shifting and Spinning Reserves Cost/Benefit Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Robert G.; Srivastava, Viraj; Li, Shun

    2010-12-01

    In this report, we present the results of an analytical cost/benefit study of residential smart appliances from a utility/grid perspective in support of a joint stakeholder petition to the ENERGY STAR program within the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of the petition is in part to provide appliance manufacturers incentives to hasten the production of smart appliances. The underlying hypothesis is that smart appliances can play a critical role in addressing some of the societal challenges, such as anthropogenic global warming, associated with increased electricity demand, and facilitate increased penetration of renewable sources of power. The appliances we consider include refrigerator/freezers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, room air-conditioners, and dishwashers. The petition requests the recognition that providing an appliance with smart grid capability, i.e., products that meet the definition of a smart appliance, is at least equivalent to a corresponding five percent in operational machine efficiencies. It is then expected that given sufficient incentives and value propositions, and suitable automation capabilities built into smart appliances, residential consumers will be adopting these smart appliances and will be willing participants in addressing the aforementioned societal challenges by more effectively managing their home electricity consumption. The analytical model we utilize in our cost/benefit analysis consists of a set of user-definable assumptions such as the definition of on-peak (hours of day, days of week, months of year), the expected percentage of normal consumer electricity consumption (also referred to as appliance loads) that can shifted from peak hours to off-peak hours, the average power rating of each appliance, etc. Based on these assumptions, we then formulate what the wholesale grid operating-cost savings, or benefits, would be if the smart capabilities of appliances were invoked, and some percentage of appliance loads were shifted away from peak hours to run during off-peak hours, and appliance loads served power-system balancing needs such as spinning reserves that would otherwise have to be provided by generators. The rationale is that appliance loads can be curtailed for about ten minutes or less in response to a grid contingency without any diminution in the quality of service to the consumer. We then estimate the wholesale grid operating-cost savings based on historical wholesale-market clearing prices (location marginal and spinning reserve) from major wholesale power markets in the United States. The savings derived from the smart grid capabilities of an appliance are then compared to the savings derived from a five percent increase in traditional operational machine efficiencies, referred to as cost in this report, to determine whether the savings in grid operating costs (benefits) are at least as high as or higher than the operational machine efficiency credit (cost).

  12. Scenario Analysis of Peak Demand Savings for Commercial Buildings with Thermal Mass in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Rongxin; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Parrish, Kristen

    2010-05-14

    This paper reports on the potential impact of demand response (DR) strategies in commercial buildings in California based on the Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool (DRQAT), which uses EnergyPlus simulation prototypes for office and retail buildings. The study describes the potential impact of building size, thermal mass, climate, and DR strategies on demand savings in commercial buildings. Sensitivity analyses are performed to evaluate how these factors influence the demand shift and shed during the peak period. The whole-building peak demand of a commercial building with high thermal mass in a hot climate zone can be reduced by 30percent using an optimized demand response strategy. Results are summarized for various simulation scenarios designed to help owners and managers understand the potential savings for demand response deployment. Simulated demand savings under various scenarios were compared to field-measured data in numerous climate zones, allowing calibration of the prototype models. The simulation results are compared to the peak demand data from the Commercial End-Use Survey for commercial buildings in California. On the economic side, a set of electricity rates are used to evaluate the impact of the DR strategies on economic savings for different thermal mass and climate conditions. Our comparison of recent simulation to field test results provides an understanding of the DR potential in commercial buildings.

  13. CONSTRAINING PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF TYPE IIn SUPERNOVAE THROUGH RISE TIMES AND PEAK LUMINOSITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Maeda, Keiichi

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the diversity in the wind density, supernova ejecta energy, and ejecta mass in Type IIn supernovae based on their rise times and peak luminosities. We show that the wind density and supernova ejecta properties can be estimated independently if both the rise time and peak luminosity are observed. The peak luminosity is mostly determined by the supernova properties and the rise time can be used to estimate the wind density. We find that the ejecta energies of Type IIn supernovae need to vary by factors of 0.2-5 from the average if their ejecta masses are similar. The diversity in the observed rise times indicates that their wind densities vary by factors of 0.2-2 from the average. We show that Type IIn superluminous supernovae should have not only large wind density but also large ejecta energy and/or small ejecta mass to explain their large luminosities and the rise times at the same time. We also note that shock breakout does not necessarily occur in the wind even if it is optically thick, except for the case of superluminous supernovae, and we analyze the observational data both with and without assuming that the shock breakout occurs in the dense wind of Type IIn supernovae.

  14. Have We Run Out of Oil Yet? Oil Peaking Analysis from an Optimist's Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L; Hopson, Dr Janet L; Li, Jia

    2005-01-01

    This study addresses several questions concerning the peaking of conventional oil production from an optimist's perspective. Is the oil peak imminent? What is the range of uncertainty? What are the key determining factors? Will a transition to unconventional oil undermine or strengthen OPEC's influence over world oil markets? These issues are explored using a model combining alternative world energy scenarios with an accounting of resource depletion and a market-based simulation of transition to unconventional oil resources. No political or environmental constraints are allowed to hinder oil production, geological constraints on the rates at which oil can be produced are not represented, and when USGS resource estimates are used, more than the mean estimate of ultimately recoverable resources is assumed to exist. The issue is framed not as a question of "running out" of conventional oil, but in terms of the timing and rate of transition from conventional to unconventional oil resources. Unconventional oil is chosen because production from Venezuela's heavy-oil fields and Canada's Athabascan oil sands is already underway on a significant scale and unconventional oil is most consistent with the existing infrastructure for producing, refining, distributing and consuming petroleum. However, natural gas or even coal might also prove to be economical sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels. These results indicate a high probability that production of conventional oil from outside of the Middle East region will peak, or that the rate of increase of production will become highly constrained before 2025. If world consumption of hydrocarbon fuels is to continue growing, massive development of unconventional resources will be required. While there are grounds for pessimism and optimism, it is certainly not too soon for extensive, detailed analysis of transitions to alternative energy sources.

  15. AVTA: EVSE Charging Protocol for On and Off-Peak Demand

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following report is a description of development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off and on-peak demand economics at facilities, as informed by the AVTA's testing on plug-in electric vehicle charging equipment. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  16. OG&E Uses Time-Based Rate Program to Reduce Peak Demand

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1 OG&E Uses Time-Based Rate Program to Reduce Peak Demand As part of its Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) project for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE), Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company (OG&E) has successfully tested over a two-year period a new time-based rate, which provided about 4,670 participating customers with pric es that varied daily in order to induce a change in their patterns of electricity consumption and a

  17. DOE/SC-ARM-10-021 STORMVEX: The Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 STORMVEX: The Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment Science and Operations Plan J Mace Principal Investigator S Matrosov B Orr M Shupe R Coulter P Lawson A Sedlacek G Hallar L Avallone I McCubbin C Long R Marchand September 2010 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or

  18. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 84-427-1613, Pikes Peak Dialysis Center, Colorado Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pryor, P.

    1985-08-01

    Environmental and breathing zone samples were analyzed for formaldehyde at the Pikes Peak Dialysis Center, Colorado Springs, Colorado in August, 1984 and February, 1985. The evaluation was requested by a representative of the Center to determine if there was a health hazard due to formaldehyde. Eight employees were interviewed. The ventilation systems were investigated. Personal protective clothing was inspected. Breathing-zone samples contained 0 28 to 1.0 (mg/m/sup 3/) formaldehyde. The OSHA standard for formaldehyde is 3.7 mg/m/sup 3/. Area formaldehyde concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 0.75 mg/m/sup 3/. Health complaints reported included sore throat, congestion, cough, and eye, nose and throat irritation. Most of the complaints originated from employees in the formalin mixing, reuse sterilization, and dialysis unit packing sections. The exhaust system in the reuse sterilization area was not working efficiently. A variety of personal protective clothing was available including lab coats, protective goggles, aprons, respirators, and gloves. The author concludes that a health hazard from formaldehyde exposure exists at the facility. Recommendations include improving local exhaust ventilation in areas where formaldehyde is used extensively, avoiding skin and eye contact with formaldehyde, and training and educating employees in safe work practices.

  19. Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buying & Making Electricity Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems Because the peak operating times for wind and solar systems occur at...

  20. Method and device for remotely monitoring an area using a low peak power optical pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodruff, Steven D.; Mcintyre, Dustin L.; Jain, Jinesh C.

    2014-07-22

    A method and device for remotely monitoring an area using a low peak power optical pump comprising one or more pumping sources, one or more lasers; and an optical response analyzer. Each pumping source creates a pumping energy. The lasers each comprise a high reflectivity mirror, a laser media, an output coupler, and an output lens. Each laser media is made of a material that emits a lasing power when exposed to pumping energy. Each laser media is optically connected to and positioned between a corresponding high reflectivity mirror and output coupler along a pumping axis. Each output coupler is optically connected to a corresponding output lens along the pumping axis. The high reflectivity mirror of each laser is optically connected to an optical pumping source from the one or more optical pumping sources via an optical connection comprising one or more first optical fibers.

  1. Impacts of Climate Change on Energy Consumption and Peak Demand in Buildings: A Detailed Regional Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dirks, James A.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Hathaway, John E.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Scott, Michael J.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Ying; Rice, Jennie S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of numerous commercial and residential building simulations, with the purpose of examining the impact of climate change on peak and annual building energy consumption over the portion of the Eastern Interconnection (EIC) located in the United States. The climate change scenario considered (IPCC A2 scenario as downscaled from the CASCaDE data set) has changes in mean climate characteristics as well as changes in the frequency and duration of intense weather events. This investigation examines building energy demand for three annual periods representative of climate trends in the CASCaDE data set at the beginning, middle, and end of the century--2004, 2052, and 2089. Simulations were performed using the Building ENergy Demand (BEND) model which is a detailed simulation platform built around EnergyPlus. BEND was developed in collaboration with the Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA), a modeling framework designed to simulate the complex interactions among climate, energy, water, and land at decision-relevant spatial scales. Over 26,000 building configurations of different types, sizes, vintages, and, characteristics which represent the population of buildings within the EIC, are modeled across the 3 EIC time zones using the future climate from 100 locations within the target region, resulting in nearly 180,000 spatially relevant simulated demand profiles for each of the 3 years. In this study, the building stock characteristics are held constant based on the 2005 building stock in order to isolate and present results that highlight the impact of the climate signal on commercial and residential energy demand. Results of this analysis compare well with other analyses at their finest level of specificity. This approach, however, provides a heretofore unprecedented level of specificity across multiple spectrums including spatial, temporal, and building characteristics. This capability enables the ability to perform detailed hourly impact studies of building adaptation and mitigation strategies on energy use and electricity peak demand within the context of the entire grid and economy.

  2. Modeling of GE Appliances in GridLAB-D: Peak Demand Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Vyakaranam, Bharat GNVSR; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Leistritz, Sean M.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-04-29

    The widespread adoption of demand response enabled appliances and thermostats can result in significant reduction to peak electrical demand and provide potential grid stabilization benefits. GE has developed a line of appliances that will have the capability of offering several levels of demand reduction actions based on information from the utility grid, often in the form of price. However due to a number of factors, including the number of demand response enabled appliances available at any given time, the reduction of diversity factor due to the synchronizing control signal, and the percentage of consumers who may override the utility signal, it can be difficult to predict the aggregate response of a large number of residences. The effects of these behaviors can be modeled and simulated in open-source software, GridLAB-D, including evaluation of appliance controls, improvement to current algorithms, and development of aggregate control methodologies. This report is the first in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE's demand response enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report will describe the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The second and third reports will explore the potential of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation and the effects on volt-var control schemes.

  3. Structural geology of the French Peak accommodation zone, Nevada Test Site, southwestern Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudson, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    The French Peak accommodation zone (FPAZ) forms an east-trending bedrock structural high in the Nevada Test Site region of southwestern Nevada that formed during Cenozoic Basin and Range extension. The zone separates areas of opposing directions of tilt and downthrow on faults in the Yucca Flat and Frenchman Flat areas. Paleomagnetic data show that rocks within the accommodation zone adjacent to Yucca Flat were not strongly affected by vertical-axis rotation and thus that the transverse strikes of fault and strata formed near their present orientation. Both normal- and oblique strike-slip faulting in the FPAZ largely occurred under a normal-fault stress regime, with least principal stress oriented west-northwest. The normal and sinistral faults in the Puddle Peka segment transfers extension between the Plutonium Valley normal fault zone and the Cane Spring sinistral fault. Recognition of sinistral shear across the Puddle Peak segment allows the Frenchman Flat basin to be interpreted as an asymmetric pull-apart basin developed between the FPAZ and a zone of east-northeast-striking faults to the south that include the Rock Valley fault. The FPAZ has the potential to influence ground-water flow in the region in several ways. Fracture density and thus probably fracture conductivity is high within the FPAZ due to the abundant fault splays present. Moreover,, fractures oriented transversely to the general southward flow of ground water through Yucca Flat area are significant and have potential to laterally divert ground water. Finally, the FPAZ forms a faulted structural high whose northern and southern flanks may permit intermixing of ground waters from different aquifer levels, namely the lower carbonate, welded tuff, and alluvial aquifers. 42 refs.

  4. Supernovae with two peaks in the optical light curve and the signature of progenitors with low-mass extended envelopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakar, Ehud [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Piro, Anthony L. [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, M/C 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    Early observations of supernova light curves are powerful tools for shedding light on the pre-explosion structures of their progenitors and their mass-loss histories just prior to explosion. Some core-collapse supernovae that are detected during the first days after the explosion prominently show two peaks in the optical bands, including the R and I bands, where the first peak appears to be powered by the cooling of shocked surface material and the second peak is clearly powered by radioactive decay. Such light curves have been explored in detail theoretically for SN 1993J and 2011dh, where it was found that they may be explained by progenitors with extended, low-mass envelopes. Here, we generalize these results. We first explore whether any double-peaked light curve of this type can be generated by a progenitor with a 'standard' density profile, such as a red supergiant or a Wolf-Rayet star. We show that a standard progenitor (1) cannot produce a double-peaked light curve in the R and I bands and (2) cannot exhibit a fast drop in the bolometric luminosity as is seen after the first peak. We then explore the signature of a progenitor with a compact core surrounded by extended, low-mass material. This may be a hydrostatic low-mass envelope or material ejected just prior to the explosion. We show that it naturally produces both of these features. We use this result to provide simple formulae to estimate (1) the mass of the extended material from the time of the first peak, (2) the extended material radius from the luminosity of the first peak, and (3) an upper limit on the core radius from the luminosity minimum between the two peaks.

  5. Fact #864: March 16, 2015 Imports of Primary Energy have Declined Sharply Since the Peak Reached in 2007

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Primary energy imports have declined by about 34% since the peak reached in 2007. During this same period, exports of primary energy have more than doubled. The combination of decreasing imports...

  6. Project title: Stimulation at Desert Peak and Bradys reservoirs: modeling with the coupled THM code FEHM

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project title: Stimulation at Desert Peak and Bradys reservoirs: modeling with the coupled THM code FEHM presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  7. A NEW DISCRIMINATOR FOR GAMMA-RAY BURST CLASSIFICATION: THE E{sub peak}-FLUENCE ENERGY RATIO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, Adam; Preece, Robert D.; Briggs, Michael S.

    2010-10-01

    Using the derived gamma-ray burst (GRB) E{sub peak} and fluences from the complete BATSE 5B Spectral Catalog, we study the ensemble characteristics of the E{sub peak}-fluence relation for GRBs. This relation appears to be a physically meaningful and insightful fundamental discriminator between long and short bursts. We discuss the results of the lower limit test of the E{sub peak}-E{sub iso} relations in the E{sub peak}-fluence plane for Burst And Transient Source Experiment bursts with no observed redshift. Our results confirm the presence of two GRB classes as well as heavily suggesting two different GRB progenitor types.

  8. Light, alpha, and Fe-peak element abundances in the galactic bulge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. Michael; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Kunder, Andrea; Koch, Andreas E-mail: rmr@astro.ucla.edu E-mail: akunder@aip.de

    2014-10-01

    We present radial velocities and chemical abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu for a sample of 156 red giant branch stars in two Galactic bulge fields centered near (l, b) = (+5.25,3.02) and (0,12). The (+5.25,3.02) field also includes observations of the bulge globular cluster NGC 6553. The results are based on high-resolution (R ? 20,000), high signal-to-noise ration (S/N ? 70) FLAMES-GIRAFFE spectra obtained through the European Southern Observatory archive. However, we only selected a subset of the original observations that included spectra with both high S/N and that did not show strong TiO absorption bands. This work extends previous analyses of this data set beyond Fe and the ?-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti. While we find reasonable agreement with past work, the data presented here indicate that the bulge may exhibit a different chemical composition than the local thick disk, especially at [Fe/H] ? 0.5. In particular, the bulge [?/Fe] ratios may remain enhanced to a slightly higher [Fe/H] than the thick disk, and the Fe-peak elements Co, Ni, and Cu appear enhanced compared to the disk. There is also some evidence that the [Na/Fe] (but not [Al/Fe]) trends between the bulge and local disk may be different at low and high metallicity. We also find that the velocity dispersion decreases as a function of increasing [Fe/H] for both fields, and do not detect any significant cold, high-velocity populations. A comparison with chemical enrichment models indicates that a significant fraction of hypernovae may be required to explain the bulge abundance trends, and that initial mass functions that are steep, top-heavy (and do not include strong outflow), or truncated to avoid including contributions from stars >40 M {sub ?} are ruled out, in particular because of disagreement with the Fe-peak abundance data. For most elements, the NGC 6553 stars exhibit abundance trends nearly identical to comparable metallicity bulge field stars. However, the star-to-star scatter and mean [Na/Fe] ratios appear higher in the cluster, perhaps indicating additional self-enrichment.

  9. Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak-Hour Savings from Behavior-Based Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, Annika; Perry, Michael; Smith, Brian; Sullivan, Michael; Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2014-03-25

    The rollout of smart meters in the last several years has opened up new forms of previously unavailable energy data. Many utilities are now able in real-time to capture granular, household level interval usage data at very high-frequency levels for a large proportion of their residential and small commercial customer population. This can be linked to other time and locationspecific information, providing vast, constantly growing streams of rich data (sometimes referred to by the recently popular buzz word, “big data”). Within the energy industry there is increasing interest in tapping into the opportunities that these data can provide. What can we do with all of these data? The richness and granularity of these data enable many types of creative and cutting-edge analytics. Technically sophisticated and rigorous statistical techniques can be used to pull interesting insights out of this highfrequency, human-focused data. We at LBNL are calling this “behavior analytics”. This kind of analytics has the potential to provide tremendous value to a wide range of energy programs. For example, highly disaggregated and heterogeneous information about actual energy use would allow energy efficiency (EE) and/or demand response (DR) program implementers to target specific programs to specific households; would enable evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) of energy efficiency programs to be performed on a much shorter time horizon than was previously possible; and would provide better insights in to the energy and peak hour savings associated with specifics types of EE and DR programs (e.g., behavior-based (BB) programs). In this series, “Insights from Smart Meters”, we will present concrete, illustrative examples of the type of value that insights from behavior analytics of these data can provide (as well as pointing out its limitations). We will supply several types of key findings, including: • Novel results, which answer questions the industry previously was unable to answer; • Proof-of-concept analytics tools that can be adapted and used by others; and • Guidelines and protocols that summarize analytical best practices. This report focuses on one example of the kind of value that analysis of this data can provide: insights into whether behavior-based (BB) efficiency programs have the potential to provide peak-hour energy savings.

  10. Files systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Files systems Files systems NERSC's global home and project file systems are available on Franklin. Additionally, Franklin has over 400 TB of locally attached high-performance /scratch disk space For information on the NERSC file systems, see the link at right. Scratch File Systems Size Aggregate Peak Performance # IO Servers Interconnect File System Software Disk Array Vendor $SCRATCH 209 TB 17 GB/sec 24 Lustre DDN $SCRATCH2 209 TB 17 GB/sec 24 Lustre DDN SCRATCH and SCRATCH2 There are two

  11. Flux harmonics in large SFR cores in relation with core characteristics such as power peaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rimpault, G.; Buiron, L.; Fontaine, B.; Sciora, P.; Tommasi, J.

    2013-07-01

    Designing future Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) requires enhancing their operational performance and reducing the probability to go into core disruption. As a consequence of these constraints, these novel reactors exhibit rather unusual features compared to past designs. The cores are much larger with rather flat shape. The consequences of that shape on the core characteristics deserve to be studied. The approach taken in this paper is to calculate the eigenvalue associated to the first harmonic and its associated flux. It is demonstrated that these values are linked to some core features, in particular, those sensitive to spatial effects such as power peaks induced by the movement of control rods. The uncertainty associated to these characteristics is being tentatively studied and guidelines for further studied are being identified. In the development strategy of these new SFR designs, a first demonstration plant of limited installed power (around 1500 MWth) will have to be built first. Identifying the possibility of going later to higher power plants (around 3600 MWth) without facing new challenges is an important criterion for designing such a plant. That strategy is being studied, in this paper, focusing on some rather frequent initiator such as the inadvertent control rod withdrawal for different core sizes with the help of the perturbation theory and the flux harmonics. (authors)

  12. Implications of 'peak oil' for atmospheric CO{sub 2} and climate - article no. GB3012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kharecha, P.A.; Hansen, J.E.

    2008-08-15

    Unconstrained CO{sub 2} emission from fossil fuel burning has been the dominant cause of observed anthropogenic global warming. The amounts of 'proven' and potential fossil fuel reserves are uncertain and debated. Regardless of the true values, society has flexibility in the degree to which it chooses to exploit these reserves, especially unconventional fossil fuels and those located in extreme or pristine environments. If conventional oil production peaks within the next few decades, it may have a large effect on future atmospheric CO{sub 2} and climate change, depending upon subsequent energy choices. Assuming that proven oil and gas reserves do not greatly exceed estimates of the Energy Information Administration, and recent trends are toward lower estimates, we show that it is feasible to keep atmospheric CO{sub 2} from exceeding about 450 ppm by 2100, provided that emissions from coal, unconventional fossil fuels, and land use are constrained. Coal-fired power plants without sequestration must be phased out before midcentury to achieve this CO{sub 2} limit. It is also important to 'stretch' conventional oil reserves via energy conservation and efficiency, thus averting strong pressures to extract liquid fuels from coal or unconventional fossil fuels while clean technologies are being developed for the era 'beyond fossil fuels'. We argue that a rising price on carbon emissions is needed to discourage conversion of the vast fossil resources into usable reserves, and to keep CO{sub 2} beneath the 450 ppm ceiling.

  13. EIS No. 20100312 EIS Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjornstad, David J

    2010-08-01

    In accordance with Section 309(a) of the Clean Air Act, EPA is required to make its comments on EISs issued by other Federal agencies public. Historically, EPA has met this mandate by publishing weekly notices of availability of EPA comments, which includes a brief summary of EPA's comment letters, in the Federal Register. Since February 2008, EPA has been including its comment letters on EISs on its Web site at: http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/eisdata.html. Including the entire EIS comment letters on the Web site satisfies the Section 309(a) requirement to make EPA's comments on EISs available to the public. Accordingly, on March 31, 2010, EPA discontinued the publication of the notice of availability of EPA comments in the Federal Register. EIS No. 20100312, Draft EIS, NRC, TX, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4, Application for Combined Licenses (COLs) for Construction Permits and Operating Licenses, (NUREG-1943), Hood and Somervell Counties, TX, Comment Period Ends: 10/26/2010.

  14. Daily air pollution effects on children's respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vedal, S.; Schenker, M.B.; Munoz, A.; Samet, J.M.; Batterman, S.; Speizer, F.E.

    1987-06-01

    To identify acute respiratory health effects associated with air pollution due to coal combustion, a subgroup of elementary school-aged children was selected from a large cross-sectional study and followed daily for eight months. Children were selected to obtain three equal-sized groups: one without respiratory symptoms, one with symptoms of persistent wheeze, and one with cough or phlegm production but without persistent wheeze. Parents completed a daily diary of symptoms from which illness constellations of upper respiratory illness (URI) and lower respiratory illness (LRI) and the symptom of wheeze were derived. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured daily for nine consecutive weeks during the eight-month study period. Maximum hourly concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and coefficient of haze for each 24-hour period, as well as minimum hourly temperature, were correlated with daily URI, LRI, wheeze, and PEFR using multiple regression models adjusting for illness occurrence or level of PEFR on the immediately preceding day. Respiratory illness on the preceding day was the most important predictor of current illness. A drop in temperature was associated with increased URI and LRI but not with increased wheeze or with a decrease in level of PEFR. No air pollutant was strongly associated with respiratory illness or with level of PEFR, either in the group of children as a whole, or in either of the symptomatic subgroups; the pollutant concentrations observed, however, were uniformly lower than current ambient air quality standards.

  15. Automated method for the systematic interpretation of resonance peaks in spectrum data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Damiano, B.; Wood, R.T.

    1997-04-22

    A method is described for spectral signature interpretation. The method includes the creation of a mathematical model of a system or process. A neural network training set is then developed based upon the mathematical model. The neural network training set is developed by using the mathematical model to generate measurable phenomena of the system or process based upon model input parameter that correspond to the physical condition of the system or process. The neural network training set is then used to adjust internal parameters of a neural network. The physical condition of an actual system or process represented by the mathematical model is then monitored by extracting spectral features from measured spectra of the actual process or system. The spectral features are then input into said neural network to determine the physical condition of the system or process represented by the mathematical model. More specifically, the neural network correlates the spectral features (i.e. measurable phenomena) of the actual process or system with the corresponding model input parameters. The model input parameters relate to specific components of the system or process, and, consequently, correspond to the physical condition of the process or system. 1 fig.

  16. Automated method for the systematic interpretation of resonance peaks in spectrum data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Damiano, Brian; Wood, Richard T.

    1997-01-01

    A method for spectral signature interpretation. The method includes the creation of a mathematical model of a system or process. A neural network training set is then developed based upon the mathematical model. The neural network training set is developed by using the mathematical model to generate measurable phenomena of the system or process based upon model input parameter that correspond to the physical condition of the system or process. The neural network training set is then used to adjust internal parameters of a neural network. The physical condition of an actual system or process represented by the mathematical model is then monitored by extracting spectral features from measured spectra of the actual process or system. The spectral features are then input into said neural network to determine the physical condition of the system or process represented by the mathematical. More specifically, the neural network correlates the spectral features (i.e. measurable phenomena) of the actual process or system with the corresponding model input parameters. The model input parameters relate to specific components of the system or process, and, consequently, correspond to the physical condition of the process or system.

  17. WISE J233237.05–505643.5: A double-peaked, broad-lined active galactic nucleus with a spiral-shaped radio morphology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Chao-Wei; Jarrett, T. H.; Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J.; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Wu, Jingwen; Emonts, Bjorn; Barrows, R. Scott; Norris, Ray P.; Lonsdale, Carol; Blain, Andrew W.; Benford, Dominic J.; Stalder, Brian; Stubbs, Christopher W.; High, F. William; Li, K. L.; Kong, Albert K. H.

    2013-12-10

    We present radio continuum mapping, optical imaging, and spectroscopy of the newly discovered double-peaked, broad-lined active galactic nucleus (AGN) WISE J233237.05–505643.5 at redshift z = 0.3447. This source exhibits an FR-I and FR-II hybrid morphology, characterized by a bright core, jet, and Doppler-boosted lobe structures in Australian Telescope Compact Array continuum maps at 1.5, 5.6, and 9 GHz. Unlike most FR-II objects, W2332–5056 is hosted by a disk-like galaxy. The core has a projected 5'' linear radio feature that is perpendicular to the curved primary jet, hinting at unusual and complex activity within the inner 25 kpc. The multi-epoch, optical-near-IR photometric measurements indicate significant variability over a 3-20 yr baseline from the AGN component. Gemini South optical data show unusual double-peaked emission-line features: the centroids of the broad-lined components of Hα and Hβ are blueshifted with respect to the narrow lines and host galaxy by ∼3800 km s{sup –1}. We examine possible cases that involve single or double supermassive black holes in the system and discuss the required future investigations to disentangle the mysterious nature of this system.

  18. Multiple current peaks in room-temperature atmospheric pressure homogenous dielectric barrier discharge plasma excited by high-voltage tunable nanosecond pulse in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, De-Zheng; Wang, Wen-Chun; Zhang, Shuai; Tang, Kai; Liu, Zhi-jie; Wang, Sen

    2013-05-13

    Room temperature homogenous dielectric barrier discharge plasma with high instantaneous energy efficiency is acquired by using nanosecond pulse voltage with 20-200 ns tunable pulse width. Increasing the voltage pulse width can lead to the generation of regular and stable multiple current peaks in each discharge sequence. When the voltage pulse width is 200 ns, more than 5 organized current peaks can be observed under 26 kV peak voltage. Investigation also shows that the organized multiple current peaks only appear in homogenous discharge mode. When the discharge is filament mode, organized multiple current peaks are replaced by chaotic filament current peaks.

  19. Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Rooftop solar water heaters need regular maintenance to operate at peak efficiency. | ...

  20. Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Rooftop solar water heaters need regular maintenance to operate at peak efficiency. |...

  1. Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Electricity & Fuel Buying & Making Electricity Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems Because the peak operating times for wind and...

  2. Optimize Parallel Pumping Systems: Industrial Technologies Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    off-peak pumping to storage tanks. * Evaluate and compare multiple- pump scenarios to single-pump systems with adjustable speed controls Resources Additional information can ...

  3. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 " ,"(Megawatts and 2006 Base Year)" ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"FRCC","MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.)

  4. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2007 and Projected 2008 through 2012 " ,"(Megawatts and 2007 Base Year)" ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid",,,," " ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"FRCC","MRO (U.S.)

  5. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8" ,"Released: February 2010" ,"Next Update: October 2010" ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2008 and Projected 2009 through 2013 " ,"(Megawatts and 2008 Base Year)" ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid",,,,"

  6. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9" ,"Released: December 2010" ,"Next Update: December 2011" ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2009 and Projected 2010 through 2014 " ,"(Megawatts and 2009 Base Year)" ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid",,,,"

  7. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 " ,"(Megawatts and 2006 Base Year)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"FRCC"," MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.)

  8. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2007 and Projected 2008 through 2012 " ,"(Megawatts and 2007 Base Year)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"FRCC"," MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.)

  9. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2008 and Projected 2009 through 2013 " ,"(Megawatts and 2008 Base Year)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"FRCC"," MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.)

  10. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2009 and Projected 2010 through 2014 " ,"(Megawatts and 2009 Base Year)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"FRCC"," MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.)

  11. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5" ,"Released: January 23, 2008" ,"Next Update: October 2007" ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, " ,"2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 " ,"(Megawatts and 2005 Base Year)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Steamboat Springs, Colorado, for the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    In October 2010, the initial deployment of the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) took place at Steamboat Springs, Colorado, for the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX). The objective of this field campaign was to obtain data about liquid and mixed-phase clouds using AMF2 instruments in conjunction with Storm Peak Laboratory (located at an elevation of 3220 meters on Mt. Werner), a cloud and aerosol research facility operated by the Desert Research Institute. STORMVEX datasets are freely available for viewing and download. Users are asked to register with the ARM Archive; the user's email address is used from that time forward as the login name.

  13. Method for reducing peak phase current and decreasing staring time for an internal combustion engine having an induction machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amey, David L.; Degner, Michael W.

    2002-01-01

    A method for reducing the starting time and reducing the peak phase currents for an internal combustion engine that is started using an induction machine starter/alternator. The starting time is reduced by pre-fluxing the induction machine and the peak phase currents are reduced by reducing the flux current command after a predetermined period of time has elapsed and concurrent to the application of the torque current command. The method of the present invention also provides a strategy for anticipating the start command for an internal combustion engine and determines a start strategy based on the start command and the operating state of the internal combustion engine.

  14. Reaching for Peak Performance in Existing Homes A Cold Climate Study With Synergy Construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, C.; Osser, R.

    2011-12-01

    Two test homes located in Millbury and Somerville, MA, are examined with the goal of providing case studies that could be applied to other similar New England homes. The retrofit process for the enclosure and mechanical systems are examined in detail and the decision-making process is discussed.

  15. Reaching for Peak Performance in Existing Homes -- A Cold Climate Study With Synergy Construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, C.; Osser, R.

    2011-12-01

    Two test homes located in Millbury and Somerville, MA are examined with the goal of providing case studies that could be applied to other similar New England homes. The retrofit process for the enclosure and mechanical systems are examined in detail and the decision-making process is discussed.

  16. A Fresh Look at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and Energy Use of Buildings Using 30-Year Actual Weather Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Chang, Wen-Kuei; Lin, Hung-Wen

    2013-05-01

    Buildings consume more than one third of the world?s total primary energy. Weather plays a unique and significant role as it directly affects the thermal loads and thus energy performance of buildings. The traditional simulated energy performance using Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) weather data represents the building performance for a typical year, but not necessarily the average or typical long-term performance as buildings with different energy systems and designs respond differently to weather changes. Furthermore, the single-year TMY simulations do not provide a range of results that capture yearly variations due to changing weather, which is important for building energy management, and for performing risk assessments of energy efficiency investments. This paper employs large-scale building simulation (a total of 3162 runs) to study the weather impact on peak electricity demand and energy use with the 30-year (1980 to 2009) Actual Meteorological Year (AMY) weather data for three types of office buildings at two design efficiency levels, across all 17 ASHRAE climate zones. The simulated results using the AMY data are compared to those from the TMY3 data to determine and analyze the differences. Besides further demonstration, as done by other studies, that actual weather has a significant impact on both the peak electricity demand and energy use of buildings, the main findings from the current study include: 1) annual weather variation has a greater impact on the peak electricity demand than it does on energy use in buildings; 2) the simulated energy use using the TMY3 weather data is not necessarily representative of the average energy use over a long period, and the TMY3 results can be significantly higher or lower than those from the AMY data; 3) the weather impact is greater for buildings in colder climates than warmer climates; 4) the weather impact on the medium-sized office building was the greatest, followed by the large office and then the small office; and 5) simulated energy savings and peak demand reduction by energy conservation measures using the TMY3 weather data can be significantly underestimated or overestimated. It is crucial to run multi-decade simulations with AMY weather data to fully assess the impact of weather on the long-term performance of buildings, and to evaluate the energy savings potential of energy conservation measures for new and existing buildings from a life cycle perspective.

  17. Offsets between the X-ray and the Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich-effect peaks in merging galaxy clusters and their cosmological implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Congyao; Yu, Qingjuan; Lu, Youjun

    2014-12-01

    Observations reveal that the peaks of the X-ray map and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect map of some galaxy clusters are offset from each other. In this paper, we perform a set of hydrodynamical simulations of mergers of two galaxy clusters to investigate the spatial offset between the maxima of the X-ray and the SZ surface brightness of the merging clusters. We find that significantly large SZ-X-ray offsets (>100 kpc) can be produced during the major mergers of galaxy clusters (with mass > 1 10{sup 14} M {sub ?}). The significantly large offsets are mainly caused by a 'jump effect' that occurs between the primary and secondary pericentric passages of the two merging clusters, during which the X-ray peak may jump to the densest gas region located near the center of the small cluster, but the SZ peak remains near the center of the large one. Our simulations show that merging systems with higher masses and larger initial relative velocities may result in larger offset sizes and longer offset time durations; and only nearly head-on mergers are likely to produce significantly large offsets. We further investigate the statistical distribution of the SZ-X-ray offset sizes and find that (1) the number distribution of the offset sizes is bimodal with one peak located at low offsets ?0 and the other at large offsets ?350-450 h {sup 1} kpc, but the objects with intermediate offsets are scarce; and (2) the probabilities of the clusters in the mass range higher than 2 10{sup 14} h {sup 1} M {sub ?} that have offsets larger than 20, 50, 200, 300, and 500 h {sup 1} kpc are 34.0%, 11.1%, 8.0%, 6.5%, and 2.0%, respectively, at z = 0.7. The probability is sensitive to the underlying pairwise velocity distribution and the merger rate of clusters. We suggest that the SZ-X-ray offsets provide a probe to the cosmic velocity fields on the cluster scale and the cluster merger rate, and future observations on the SZ-X-ray offsets for a large number of clusters may put strong constraints on them. Our simulation results suggest that the SZ-X-ray offset in the Bullet Cluster, together with the mass ratio of the two merging clusters, requires a relative velocity larger than 3000 km s{sup 1} at an initial separation 5 Mpc. The cosmic velocity distribution at the high-velocity end is expected to be crucial in determining whether there exists an incompatibility between the existence of the Bullet Cluster and the prediction of a ?CDM model.

  18. ,"Table 2. Noncoincident Peak Load, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area,"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Noncoincident Peak Load, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area," ,"1990-2010 Actual, 2011-2015 Projected" ,"(Megawatts)" ,"Interconnection","NERC Regional Assesment Area","Summer" ,,,"Actual",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Projected"

  19. Flexible Coal: An Example Evolution from Baseload to Peaking Plant (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.

    2014-08-01

    Twenty-first century power systems, with higher penetration levels of low-carbon energy, smart grids, and other emerging technologies, will favor resources that have low marginal costs and provide system flexibility (e.g., the ability to cycle on and off to follow changes in variable renewable energy plant output). Questions remain about both the fate of coal plants in this scenario and whether they can cost-effectively continue to operate if they cycle routinely. The experience from the CGS plant demonstrates that coal plants can become flexible resources. This flexibility - namely the ability to cycle on and off and run at lower output (below 40% of capacity) - requires limited hardware modifications but extensive modifications to operational practice. Cycling does damage the plant and impact its life expectancy compared to baseload operations. Nevertheless, strategic modifications, proactive inspections and training programs, among other operational changes to accommodate cycling, can minimize the extent of damage and optimize the cost of maintenance. CGS's cycling, but not necessarily the associated price tag, is replicable. Context - namely, power market opportunities and composition of the generation fleet - will help determine for other coal plants the optimal balance between the level of cycling-related forced outages and the level of capital investment required to minimize those outages. Replicating CGS's experience elsewhere will likely require a higher acceptance of forced outages than regulators and plant operators are accustomed to; however, an increase in strategic maintenance can minimize the impact on outage rates.

  20. Flexible Coal: An Example Evolution from Baseload to Peaking Plant (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-first century power systems, with higher penetration levels of low-carbon energy, smart grids, and other emerging technologies, will favor resources that have low marginal costs and provide system flexibility (e.g., the ability to cycle on and off to follow changes in variable renewable energy plant output). Questions remain about both the fate of coal plants in this scenario and whether they can cost-effectively continue to operate if they cycle routinely. The experience from the CGS plant demonstrates that coal plants can become flexible resources. This flexibility - namely the ability to cycle on and off and run at lower output (below 40% of capacity) - requires limited hardware modifications but extensive modifications to operational practice. Cycling does damage the plant and impact its life expectancy compared to baseload operations. Nevertheless, strategic modifications, proactive inspections and training programs, among other operational changes to accommodate cycling, can minimize the extent of damage and optimize the cost of maintenance. CGS's cycling, but not necessarily the associated price tag, is replicable. Context - namely, power market opportunities and composition of the generation fleet - will help determine for other coal plants the optimal balance between the level of cycling-related forced outages and the level of capital investment required to minimize those outages. Replicating CGS's experience elsewhere will likely require a higher acceptance of forced outages than regulators and plant operators are accustomed to; however, an increase in strategic maintenance can minimize the impact on outage rates.

  1. Validation Methodology to Allow Simulated Peak Reduction and Energy Performance Analysis of Residential Building Envelope with Phase Change Materials: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Christensen, C.; Bianchi, M.

    2012-08-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) represent a potential technology to reduce peak loads and HVAC energy consumption in residential buildings. This paper summarizes NREL efforts to obtain accurate energy simulations when PCMs are modeled in residential buildings: the overall methodology to verify and validate Conduction Finite Difference (CondFD) and PCM algorithms in EnergyPlus is presented in this study. It also shows preliminary results of three residential building enclosure technologies containing PCM: PCM-enhanced insulation, PCM impregnated drywall and thin PCM layers. The results are compared based on predicted peak reduction and energy savings using two algorithms in EnergyPlus: the PCM and Conduction Finite Difference (CondFD) algorithms.

  2. Interaction-powered supernovae: rise-time versus peak-luminosity correlation and the shock-breakout velocity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ofek, Eran O.; Arcavi, Iair; Tal, David; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Ben-Ami, Sagi; De Cia, Annalisa; Yaron, Ofer; Sullivan, Mark; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Cao, Yi; Nugent, Peter E.; Bersier, David; Cenko, S. Bradley; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Fransson, Claes; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason; Quimby, Robert

    2014-06-20

    Interaction of supernova (SN) ejecta with the optically thick circumstellar medium (CSM) of a progenitor star can result in a bright, long-lived shock-breakout event. Candidates for such SNe include Type IIn and superluminous SNe. If some of these SNe are powered by interaction, then there should be a specific relation between their peak luminosity, bolometric light-curve rise time, and shock-breakout velocity. Given that the shock velocity during shock breakout is not measured, we expect a correlation, with a significant spread, between the rise time and the peak luminosity of these SNe. Here, we present a sample of 15 SNe IIn for which we have good constraints on their rise time and peak luminosity from observations obtained using the Palomar Transient Factory. We report on a possible correlation between the R-band rise time and peak luminosity of these SNe, with a false-alarm probability of 3%. Assuming that these SNe are powered by interaction, combining these observables and theory allows us to deduce lower limits on the shock-breakout velocity. The lower limits on the shock velocity we find are consistent with what is expected for SNe (i.e., ?10{sup 4} km s{sup 1}). This supports the suggestion that the early-time light curves of SNe IIn are caused by shock breakout in a dense CSM. We note that such a correlation can arise from other physical mechanisms. Performing such a test on other classes of SNe (e.g., superluminous SNe) can be used to rule out the interaction model for a class of events.

  3. Observed Temperature Effects on Hourly Residential Electric LoadReduction in Response to an Experimental Critical Peak PricingTariff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herter, Karen B.; McAuliffe, Patrick K.; Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

    2005-11-14

    The goal of this investigation was to characterize themanual and automated response of residential customers to high-price"critical" events dispatched under critical peak pricing tariffs testedin the 2003-2004 California Statewide Pricing Pilot. The 15-monthexperimental tariff gave customers a discounted two-price time-of-userate on 430 days in exchange for 27 critical days, during which the peakperiod price (2 p.m. to 7 p.m.) was increased to about three times thenormal time-of-use peak price. We calculated response by five-degreetemperature bins as the difference between peak usage on normal andcritical weekdays. Results indicatedthat manual response to criticalperiods reached -0.23 kW per home (-13 percent) in hot weather(95-104.9oF), -0.03 kW per home (-4 percent) in mild weather (60-94.9oF),and -0.07 kW per home (-9 percent) during cold weather (50-59.9oF).Separately, we analyzed response enhanced by programmable communicatingthermostats in high-use homes with air-conditioning. Between 90oF and94.9oF, the response of this group reached -0.56 kW per home (-25percent) for five-hour critical periods and -0.89 kW/home (-41 percent)for two-hour critical periods.

  4. NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative cooling stage, in which the incoming air is in thermal contact with a moistened surface that evaporates the water into a separate air stream. As the evaporation cools the moistened surface, it draws heat from the incoming air without adding humidity to it. A number of cooling cycles have been developed that employ indirect evaporative cooling, but DEVAP achieves a superior efficiency relative to its technological siblings.

  5. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 and Projected 2004 through 2008 " ,"(Megawatts and 2003 Base Year)",,,," " ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"ECAR","FRCC","MAAC","MAIN","MAPP (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.)

  6. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 and Projected 2005 through 2009 " ,"(Megawatts and 2004 Base Year)",,,," " ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"ECAR","FRCC","MAAC","MAIN","MAPP/MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.)

  7. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 " ,"(Megawatts and 2005 Base Year)" ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"FRCC","MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.) ","RFC","SERC","SPP","ERCOT","WECC (U.S.) "

  8. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 and Projected 2004 through 2008 " ,"(Megawatts and 2003 Base Year)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"ECAR","FRCC","MAAC","MAIN","MAPP (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.) ","SERC","SPP","ERCOT","WECC (U.S.)

  9. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 and Projected 2005 through 2009 " ,"(Megawatts and 2004 Base Year)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,"Projected Year Base","Year",,"ECAR","FRCC","MAAC","MAIN","MAPP/MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.) ","SERC","SPP","ERCOT","WECC (U.S.)

  10. Desert Peak EGS Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    eere.energy.gov Project ManagementCoordination * Coordination with Ormat's existing ... 68 MEQ events located in "Target Area" * Event locations consistent with stress- field ...

  11. The development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off- and on-peak demand economics at facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Wishart

    2012-02-01

    This document reports the work performed under Task 1.2.1.1: 'The development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off- and on-peak demand economics at facilities'. The work involved in this task included understanding the experimental results of the other tasks of SOW-5799 in order to take advantage of the economics of electricity pricing differences between on- and off-peak hours and the demonstrated charging and facility energy demand profiles. To undertake this task and to demonstrate the feasibility of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) bi-directional electricity exchange potential, BEA has subcontracted Electric Transportation Applications (now known as ECOtality North America and hereafter ECOtality NA) to use the data from the demand and energy study to focus on reducing the electrical power demand of the charging facility. The use of delayed charging as well as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and vehicle-to-building (V2B) operations were to be considered.

  12. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovotaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard

    2003-04-01

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The expected peak loading of the variable load can be dynamically determined within a defined time interval with reference to variations in the variable load.

  13. FEMAXI-V benchmarking study on peak temperature and fission gas release prediction of PWR rod fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suwardi; Dewayatna, W.; Briyatmoko, B.

    2012-06-06

    The present paper reports a study of FEMAXI-V code and related report on code benchmarking. Capabilities of the FEMAXI-V code to predict the thermal and fission gas release have been tested on MOX fuels in LWRs which has been done in SCK{center_dot}CEN and Belgonucleaire by using PRIMO MOX rod BD8 irradiation experiment after V Sobolev as reported O. J. Ott. Base irradiation in the BR3 reactor, the BD8 rod was transported to CEA-Saclay for irradiation in the OSIRIS reactor (ramp power excursion). The irradiation device used for the PRIMO ramps was the ISABELLE 1 loop, installed on a movable structure of the core periphery. The power variations were obtained by inwards/backwards movements of the loop in the core water. The preconditioning phase for rod BD8 occurred at a peak power level of 189 W/cm with a hold time of 27 hours. The subsequent power excursion rate amounted to 77 W/ (cm.min), reaching a terminal peak power level of 395 W/cm that lasted for 20 hours.

  14. Chapter 10, Peak Demand and Time-Differentiated Energy Savings Cross-Cutting Protocols: The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0: Peak Demand and Time-Differentiated Energy Savings Cross-Cutting Protocols Frank Stern, Navigant Consulting Subcontract Report NREL/SR-7A30-53827 April 2013 The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures 10 - 1 Chapter 10 - Table of Contents 1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................2 2 Purpose of Peak Demand and Time-differentiated Energy

  15. Table 10.9 Photovoltaic Cell and Module Shipments by Sector and End Use, 1989-2010 (Peak Kilowatts )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Photovoltaic Cell and Module Shipments by Sector and End Use, 1989-2010 (Peak Kilowatts 1 ) Year By Sector By End Use Total Residential Commercial 3 Industrial 4 Electric Power 5 Other 6 Grid-Connected 2 Off-Grid 2 Centralized 7 Distributed 8 Domestic 9 Non-Domestic 10 Total Shipments of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules 11<//td> 1989 1,439 6,057 [R] 3,993 785 551 [12] 1,251 [12] 2,620 8,954 12,825 1990 1,701 8,062 [R] 2,817 826 432 [12] 469 [12] 3,097 10,271 13,837 1991 3,624 5,715 [R] 3,947

  16. Coincidence of collective relaxation anomaly and specific heat peak in a bulk metallic glass-forming liquid

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Podlesynak, Andrey; Ehlers, Georg; Mills, Rebecca; O'Keeffe, Stephanie; Stevick, Joseph; Kempton, James; Jelbert, Glenton; Dmowski, Wojciech; Lokshin, Konstantin; et al

    2015-01-01

    The study of multicomponent metallic liquids' relaxational behavior is still the key to understanding and improving the glass-forming abilities of bulk metallic glasses. Here, we report measurements of the collective relaxation times in a melted bulk metallic glass (LM601Zr51Cu36Ni4Al9) in the kinetic regime (Q: 1.5–4.0Å–1) using quasielastic neutron scattering. The results reveal an unusual slope change in the Angell plots of this metallic liquid's collective relaxation time around 950°C, beyond the material's melting point. Measurement of specific heat capacity also reveals a peak around the same temperature. Adams-Gibbs theory is used to rationalize the coincidence, which motivates more careful experimentalmore » and computational studies of the metallic liquids in the future.« less

  17. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovoltaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard

    2005-05-03

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply.

  18. DO RADIO MAGNETARS PSR J1550-5418 AND J1622-4950 HAVE GIGAHERTZ-PEAKED SPECTRA?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kijak, J.; Tarczewski, L.; Lewandowski, W.; Melikidze, G.

    2013-07-20

    We study the radio spectra of two magnetars, PSR J1550-5418 and J1622-4950. We argue that they are good candidates for pulsars with gigahertz-peaked spectra (GPS), as their observed flux density decreases at frequencies below 7 GHz. We suggest that this behavior is due to the influence of the pulsars' environments on radio waves. Both of the magnetars are associated with supernova remnants and thus are surrounded by hot, ionized gas, which can be responsible for the free-free absorption of radio waves. We conclude that the GPS feature of both magnetars and typical pulsars are formed by similar processes in the surrounding media rather than by different radio-emission mechanisms. Thus, the radio magnetars PSR J1550-5418 and J1622-4950 can be included in the class of GPS pulsars.

  19. Resonant tunneling with high peak to valley current ratio in SiO{sub 2}/nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} multi-layers at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, D. Y.; Sun, Y.; He, Y. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, J.

    2014-01-28

    We have investigated carrier transport in SiO{sub 2}/nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} multi-layers by room temperature current-voltage measurements. Resonant tunneling signatures accompanied by current peaks are observed. Carrier transport in the multi-layers were analyzed by plots of ln(I/V{sup 2}) as a function of 1/V and ln(I) as a function of V{sup 1/2}. Results suggest that besides films quality, nc-Si and barrier sub-layer thicknesses are important parameters that restrict carrier transport. When thicknesses are both small, direct tunneling dominates carrier transport, resonant tunneling occurs only at certain voltages and multi-resonant tunneling related current peaks can be observed but with peak to valley current ratio (PVCR) values smaller than 1.5. When barrier thickness is increased, trap-related and even high field related tunneling is excited, causing that multi-current peaks cannot be observed clearly, only one current peak with higher PVCR value of 7.7 can be observed. While if the thickness of nc-Si is large enough, quantum confinement is not so strong, a broad current peak with PVCR value as high as 60 can be measured, which may be due to small energy difference between the splitting energy levels in the quantum dots of nc-Si. Size distribution in a wide range may cause un-controllability of the peak voltages.

  20. Method and system for calibrating acquired spectra for use in spectral analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reber, Edward L.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Blackwood, Larry G.

    2010-09-14

    A method for calibrating acquired spectra for use in spectral analysis includes performing Gaussian peak fitting to spectra acquired by a plurality of NaI detectors to define peak regions. A Na and annihilation doublet may be located among the peak regions. A predetermined energy level may be applied to one of the peaks in the doublet and a location of a hydrogen peak may be predicted based on the location of at least one of the peaks of the doublet. Control systems for calibrating spectra are also disclosed.

  1. Sample-morphology effects on x-ray photoelectron peak intensities. III. Simulated spectra of model core–shell nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Cedric J.; Chudzicki, Maksymilian; Werner, Wolfgang S. M.; Smekal, Werner

    2015-09-15

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology database for the simulation of electron spectra for surface analysis has been used to simulate Cu 2p photoelectron spectra for four types of spherical copper–gold nanoparticles (NPs). These simulations were made to extend the work of Tougaard [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 1415 (1996)] and of Powell et al. [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31, 021402 (2013)] who performed similar simulations for four types of planar copper–gold films. The Cu 2p spectra for the NPs were compared and contrasted with analogous results for the planar films and the effects of elastic scattering were investigated. The new simulations were made for a monolayer of three types of Cu/Au core–shell NPs on a Si substrate: (1) an Au shell of variable thickness on a Cu core with diameters of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, and 10.0 nm; (2) a Cu shell of variable thickness on an Au core with diameters of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, and 10.0 nm; and (3) an Au shell of variable thickness on a 1 nm Cu shell on an Au core with diameters of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, and 10.0 nm. For these three morphologies, the outer-shell thickness was varied until the Cu 2p{sub 3/2} peak intensity was the same (within 2%) as that found in our previous work with planar Cu/Au morphologies. The authors also performed similar simulations for a monolayer of spherical NPs consisting of a CuAu{sub x} alloy (also on a Si substrate) with diameters of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, and 10.0 nm. In the latter simulations, the relative Au concentration (x) was varied to give the same Cu 2p{sub 3/2} peak intensity (within 2%) as that found previously. For each morphology, the authors performed simulations with elastic scattering switched on and off. The authors found that elastic-scattering effects were generally strong for the Cu-core/Au-shell and weak for the Au-core/Cu-shell NPs; intermediate elastic-scattering effects were found for the Au-core/Cu-shell/Au-shell NPs. The shell thicknesses required to give the selected Cu 2p{sub 3/2} peak intensity for the three types of core–shell NPs were less than the corresponding film thicknesses of planar samples since Cu 2p photoelectrons can be detected from the sides and, for the smaller NPs, bottoms of the NPs. Elastic-scattering effects were also observed on the Au atomic fractions found for the CuAu{sub x} NP alloys with different diameters.

  2. Using Plasmon Peaks in Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy to Determine the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Nanoscale Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howe, James M.

    2013-05-09

    In this program, we developed new theoretical and experimental insights into understanding the relationships among fundamental universality and scaling phenomena, the solid-state physical and mechanical properties of materials, and the volume plasmon energy as measured by electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Particular achievements in these areas are summarized as follows: (i) Using a previously proposed physical model based on the universal binding-energy relation (UBER), we established close phenomenological connections regarding the influence of the valence electrons in materials on the longitudinal plasma oscillations (plasmons) and various solid-state properties such as the optical constants (including absorption and dispersion), elastic constants, cohesive energy, etc. (ii) We found that carbon materials, e.g., diamond, graphite, diamond-like carbons, hydrogenated and amorphous carbon films, exhibit strong correlations in density vs. Ep (or maximum of the volume plasmon peak) and density vs. hardness, both from available experimental data and ab initio DFT calculations. This allowed us to derive a three-dimensional relationship between hardness and the plasmon energy, that can be used to determine experimentally both hardness and density of carbon materials based on measurements of the plasmon peak position. (iii) As major experimental accomplishments, we demonstrated the possibility of in-situ monitoring of changes in the physical properties of materials with conditions, e.g., temperature, and we also applied a new plasmon ratio-imaging technique to map multiple physical properties of materials, such as the elastic moduli, cohesive energy and bonding electron density, with a sub-nanometer lateral resolution. This presents new capability for understanding material behavior. (iv) Lastly, we demonstrated a new physical phenomenon - electron-beam trapping, or ?¢????electron tweezers?¢??? - of a solid metal nanoparticle inside a liquid metal. This phenomenon is analogous to that of optical trapping of solid microparticles in solution known as "optical tweezers", which is currently being used to manipulate molecules and inorganic materials in a variety of nanotechnology applications.

  3. Improvements to the RELAP5/MOD3 reflood model and uncertainty quantification of reflood peak clad temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Lee, Young Lee; Park, Chan Eok; Lee, Sang Yong

    1996-10-01

    Assessment of the original REAP/N4OD3.1 code against the FLECHT SEASET series of experiments has identified some weaknesses of the reflood model, such as the lack of a quenching temperature model, the shortcoming of the Chen transition boiling model, and the incorrect prediction of droplet size and interfacial heat transfer. Also, high temperature spikes during the reflood calculation resulted in high steam flow oscillation and liquid carryover. An effort had been made to improve the code with respect to the above weakness, and the necessary model for the wall heat transfer package and the numerical scheme had been modified. Some important FLECHT-SEASET experiments were assessed using the improved version and standard version. The result from the improved REAP/MOD3.1 shows the weaknesses of REAP/N4OD3.1 were much improved when compared to the standard MOD3.1 code. The prediction of void profile and cladding temperature agreed better with test data, especially for the gravity feed test. The scatter diagram of peak cladding temperatures (PCTs) is made from the comparison of all the calculated PCTs and the corresponding experimental values. The deviation between experimental and calculated PCTs were calculated for 2793 data points. The deviations are shown to be normally distributed, and used to quantify statistically the PCT uncertainty of the code. The upper limit of PCT uncertainty at 95% confidence level is evaluated to be about 99K.

  4. B_c Meson Production Around the Z^0 Peak at a High Luminosity e^+ e^- Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhi; Wu, Xing-Gang; Chen, Gu; Liao, Qi-Li; Zhang, Jia-Wei; /Chongqing U.

    2012-05-22

    Considering the possibility to build an e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the energies around the Z{sup 0}-boson resonance with a planned luminosity so high as L {proportional_to} 10{sup 34} {approx} 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} (super Z-factory), we make a detailed discussion on the (c{bar b})-quarkonium production through e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} (c{bar b})[n] + b + {bar c} within the framework of non-relativistic QCD. Here [n] stands for the Fock-states |(c{sub b}){sub 1}[{sup 1}S{sub 0}]>, |(c{bar b})8[{sup 1}S{sub 0}]g>, |(c{bar b} ){sub 1}[{sup 3}S{sub 1}]>, |(c{bar b}){sub 8}[{sup 3}S{sub 1}]g>, |(c{bar b}){sub 1}[{sup 1}P{sub 1}]> and |(c{bar b}){sub 1}[{sup 3}P{sub J}]> (with J = (1, 2, 3)) respectively. To simplify the hard-scattering amplitude as much as possible and to derive analytic expressions for the purpose of future events simulation, we adopt the 'improved trace technology' to do our calculation, which deals with the hard scattering amplitude directly at the amplitude level other than the conventional way at the squared-amplitude level. Total cross-section uncertainties caused by the quark masses are predicted by taking m{sub c} = 1.50 {+-} 0.30 GeV and m{sub b} = 4.90 {+-} 0.40 GeV. If all higher (c{bar b})-quarkonium states decay to the ground state B{sub c} (|(c{bar b}){sub 1}[{sup 1}S{sub 0}]>) with 100% efficiency, we obtain {sigma}{sub e{sup +}+e{sup -}{yields}B{sub c}+b+{bar c}} = 5.190{sub -2.419}{sup +6.222} pb, which shows that about 10{sup 5} {approx} 10{sup 7} B{sub c} events per operation year can be accumulated in the super Z-factory. If taking the collider energy runs slightly off the Z{sup 0}-peak, i.e. {radical}S = (1.00 {+-} 0.05)m{sub Z}, the total cross-section shall be lowered by about one-order from its peak value. Such a super Z-factory shall provide another useful platform to study the properties of B{sub c} meson, or even the properties of its excited P-wave states, in addition to its production at the hadronic colliders Tevatron and LHC.

  5. X-Ray Emitting GHz-Peaked Spectrum Galaxies: Testing a Dynamical-Radiative Model with Broad-Band Spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostorero, L.; Moderski, R.; Stawarz, L.; Diaferio, A.; Kowalska, I.; Cheung, C.C.; Kataoka, J.; Begelman, M.C.; Wagner, S.J.; ,

    2010-06-07

    In a dynamical-radiative model we recently developed to describe the physics of compact, GHz-Peaked-Spectrum (GPS) sources, the relativistic jets propagate across the inner, kpc-sized region of the host galaxy, while the electron population of the expanding lobes evolves and emits synchrotron and inverse-Compton (IC) radiation. Interstellar-medium gas clouds engulfed by the expanding lobes, and photoionized by the active nucleus, are responsible for the radio spectral turnover through free-free absorption (FFA) of the synchrotron photons. The model provides a description of the evolution of the GPS spectral energy distribution (SED) with the source expansion, predicting significant and complex high-energy emission, from the X-ray to the {gamma}-ray frequency domain. Here, we test this model with the broad-band SEDs of a sample of eleven X-ray emitting GPS galaxies with Compact-Symmetric-Object (CSO) morphology, and show that: (i) the shape of the radio continuum at frequencies lower than the spectral turnover is indeed well accounted for by the FFA mechanism; (ii) the observed X-ray spectra can be interpreted as non-thermal radiation produced via IC scattering of the local radiation fields off the lobe particles, providing a viable alternative to the thermal, accretion-disk dominated scenario. We also show that the relation between the hydrogen column densities derived from the X-ray (N{sub H}) and radio (N{sub HI}) data of the sources is suggestive of a positive correlation, which, if confirmed by future observations, would provide further support to our scenario of high-energy emitting lobes.

  6. Verification of maximum radial power peaking factor due to insertion of FPM-LEU target in the core of RSG-GAS reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setyawan, Daddy; Rohman, Budi

    2014-09-30

    Verification of Maximum Radial Power Peaking Factor due to insertion of FPM-LEU target in the core of RSG-GAS Reactor. Radial Power Peaking Factor in RSG-GAS Reactor is a very important parameter for the safety of RSG-GAS reactor during operation. Data of radial power peaking factor due to the insertion of Fission Product Molybdenum with Low Enriched Uranium (FPM-LEU) was reported by PRSG to BAPETEN through the Safety Analysis Report RSG-GAS for FPM-LEU target irradiation. In order to support the evaluation of the Safety Analysis Report incorporated in the submission, the assessment unit of BAPETEN is carrying out independent assessment in order to verify safety related parameters in the SAR including neutronic aspect. The work includes verification to the maximum radial power peaking factor change due to the insertion of FPM-LEU target in RSG-GAS Reactor by computational method using MCNP5and ORIGEN2. From the results of calculations, the new maximum value of the radial power peaking factor due to the insertion of FPM-LEU target is 1.27. The results of calculations in this study showed a smaller value than 1.4 the limit allowed in the SAR.

  7. Combined Heat and Power System Achieves Millions in Cost Savings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The system can operate as a baseload system to serve 75% of Texas A&M's peak power needs, 65% of total electrical energy needs, and 80% of the heating loads (steam for cooling ...

  8. Program Design Analysis using BEopt Building Energy Optimization Software: Defining a Technology Pathway Leading to New Homes with Zero Peak Cooling Demand; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.; Christensen, C.; Horowitz, S.

    2006-08-01

    An optimization method based on the evaluation of a broad range of different combinations of specific energy efficiency and renewable-energy options is used to determine the least-cost pathway to the development of new homes with zero peak cooling demand. The optimization approach conducts a sequential search of a large number of possible option combinations and uses the most cost-effective alternatives to generate a least-cost curve to achieve home-performance levels ranging from a Title 24-compliant home to a home that uses zero net source energy on an annual basis. By evaluating peak cooling load reductions on the least-cost curve, it is then possible to determine the most cost-effective combination of energy efficiency and renewable-energy options that both maximize annual energy savings and minimize peak-cooling demand.

  9. SU-E-T-354: Peak Temperature Ratio of TLD Glow Curves to Investigate the Spatial Dependence of LET in a Clinical Proton Beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reft, C [UniversityChicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Pankuch, M; Ramirez, H [ProCure Treatment Centers, Warrenville, IL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Use the ratio of the two high temperature peaks (HTR) in TLD 700 glow curves to investigate spatial dependence of the linear energy transfer (LET) in proton beams. Studies show that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) depends upon the physical dose as well as its spatial distribution. Although proton therapy uses a spatially invariant RBE of 1.1, studies suggest that the RBE increases in the distal edge of a spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) due to the increased LET. Methods: Glow curve studies in TLD 700 show that the 280 C temperature peak is more sensitive to LET radiation than the 210 C temperature peak. Therefore, the areas under the individual temperature peaks for TLDs irradiated in a proton beam normalized to the peak ratio for 6 MV photons are used to determine the HTR to obtain information on its LET. TLD 700 chips with dimensions 0.310.310.038 cc are irradiated with 90 MeV protons at varying depths in a specially designed blue wax phantom to investigate LET spatial dependence. Results: Five TLDs were placed at five different depths of the percent depth dose curve (PDD) of range 16.2 cm: center of the SOPB and approximately at the 99% distal edge, 90%, 75% and 25% of the PDD, respectively. HTR was 1.3 at the center of the SOBP and varied from 2.2 to 3.9 which can be related to an LET variation from 0.5 to 18 KeV/? via calibration with radiation beams of varying LET. Conclusion: HTR data show a spatially invariant LET slightly greater than the 6 MV radiations in the SOBP, but a rapidly increasing LET at the end of the proton range. These results indicate a spatial variation in RBE with potential treatment consequences when selecting treatment margins to minimize the uncertainties in proton RBE.

  10. The spectral variability of the GHZ-Peaked spectrum radio source PKS 1718-649 and a comparison of absorption models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tingay, S. J.; Macquart, J.-P.; Wayth, R. B.; Trott, C. M.; Emrich, D.; Collier, J. D.; Wong, G. F.; Rees, G.; Stevens, J.; Carretti, E.; Callingham, J. R.; Gaensler, B. M.; McKinley, B.; Briggs, F.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; Deshpande, A. A.; Goeke, R.; and others

    2015-02-01

    Using the new wideband capabilities of the ATCA, we obtain spectra for PKS 1718-649, a well-known gigahertz-peaked spectrum radio source. The observations, between approximately 1 and 10 GHz over 3 epochs spanning approximately 21 months, reveal variability both above the spectral peak at ∼3 GHz and below the peak. The combination of the low- and high-frequency variability cannot be easily explained using a single absorption mechanism, such as free–free absorption or synchrotron self-absorption. We find that the PKS 1718-649 spectrum and its variability are best explained by variations in the free–free optical depth on our line of sight to the radio source at low frequencies (below the spectral peak) and the adiabatic expansion of the radio source itself at high frequencies (above the spectral peak). The optical depth variations are found to be plausible when X-ray continuum absorption variability seen in samples of active galactic nuclei is considered. We find that the cause of the peaked spectrum in PKS 1718-649 is most likely due to free–free absorption. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the spectrum at each epoch of observation is best fit by a free–free absorption model characterized by a power-law distribution of free–free absorbing clouds. This agreement is extended to frequencies below the 1 GHz lower limit of the ATCA by considering new observations with Parkes at 725 MHz and 199 MHz observations with the newly operational Murchison Widefield Array. These lower frequency observations argue against families of absorption models (both free–free and synchrotron self-absorption) that are based on simple homogenous structures.

  11. Managing the Night Off-Peak Power Demand in the Central Region UPS with Newly Commissioned NPP Capacities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Pron, D. M.

    2014-01-15

    The use of hydrogen technologies as a controlled-load consumer based on the newly commissioned base-load nuclear power plants to level out the daily load profile is justified for the Unified Power System (UPS) of the Central Region of Russia, as an example, for the period till 2020.

  12. EA-1863: Vegetation Management on the Glen Canyon-Pinnacle Peak Transmission Lines Spanning the Coconino National Forest, Coconino County, Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE’s Western Area Power Administration is preparing this EA to evaluate the environmental impacts of updating the vegetation management and right-of-way maintenance program for Western’s Glen Canyon to Pinnacle Peak 345-kV transmission lines, which cross the Coconino National Forest, Coconino County, Arizona.

  13. Effects of Fusion Zone Size and Failure Mode on Peak Load and Energy Absorption of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds under Lap Shear Loading Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-06-01

    This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) under lap shear loading condition. DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. Static weld strength tests using lap shear samples were performed on the joint populations with various fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied for all the weld populations using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that AHSS spot welds with conventionally required fusion zone size of can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 welds under lap shear loading. Moreover, failure mode has strong influence on weld peak load and energy absorption for all the DP800 welds and the TRIP800 small welds: welds failed in pullout mode have statistically higher strength and energy absorption than those failed in interfacial fracture mode. For TRIP800 welds above the critical fusion zone level, the influence of weld failure modes on peak load and energy absorption diminishes. Scatter plots of peak load and energy absorption versus weld fusion zone size were then constructed, and the results indicate that fusion zone size is the most critical factor in weld quality in terms of peak load and energy absorption for both DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds.

  14. ,"Table 3A.1. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assesment Area,"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A.1. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assesment Area," ,"1996-2010 Actual, 2011-2012 Projected" ,"(Megawatts)" ,"January","NERC Regional Assesment Area" ,,,"Actual",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Projected" ,,,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"2011E","2012E" ,"Eastern

  15. ,"Table 3B.1. FRCC Monthly Peak Hour Demand, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assesment Area,"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B.1. FRCC Monthly Peak Hour Demand, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assesment Area," ,"1996-2010 Actual, 2011-2012 Projected" ,"(Megawatts)" ,"FRCC","Year","January","February","March","April","May","June","July","August","September","October","November","December"

  16. ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    January 2010" ,"Next Update: October 2010" ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2008 and Projected 2009 through 2010 " ,"(Megawatts and 2008 Base Year)" ,"Projected Monthly Base","Year","Contiguous U.S.","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

  17. ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, " ,"1996 through 2003 and Projected 2004 through 2005 " ,"(Megawatts and 2003 Base Year)" ,"Projected Monthly Base","Year","Contiguous U.S.","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

  18. ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, " ,"2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 " ,"(Megawatts and 2005 Base Year)" ,"Projected Monthly Base","Year","Contiguous U.S.","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

  19. Inhomogeneous broadening and peak shift of the 7.6 eV optical absorption band of oxygen vacancies in SiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kajihara, Koichi, E-mail: kkaji@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Urban Environmental Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan); Skuja, Linards [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Kengaraga iela 8, LV1063 Riga (Latvia); Hosono, Hideo [Materials and Structures Laboratory and Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2014-10-21

    The peak parameters of radiation-induced 7.6 eV optical absorption band of oxygen vacancies (Si-Si bonds) were examined for high-purity synthetic ?-quartz and amorphous SiO{sub 2} (a?SiO{sub 2}) exposed to {sup 60}Co ?-rays. The peak shape is asymmetric with the steeper edge at the lower energy side both in ?-quartz and a?SiO{sub 2}, and the peak energy is larger for ?-quartz than that for a?SiO{sub 2}. The full width at half maximum for a?SiO{sub 2} is larger by ?40-60% than that for ?-quartz, and it increases with an increase in the disorder of the a?SiO{sub 2} network, which is enhanced by raising the temperature of preannealing before irradiation, i.e., fictive temperature. These data are interpreted from the viewpoint of the site-to-site distribution of the Si-Si bond length in a?SiO{sub 2}.

  20. Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buying & Making Electricity » Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems Because the peak operating times for wind and solar systems occur at different times of the day and year, hybrid systems are more likely to produce power when you need it. Because the peak operating times for wind and solar systems occur at different times of the day and year, hybrid systems are more likely to produce power when you need it. According to many renewable energy experts,

  1. Determination of the bias in LOFT fuel peak cladding temperature data from the blowdown phase of large-break LOCA experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berta, V.T.; Hanson, R.G.; Johnsen, G.W.; Schultz, R.R.

    1993-05-01

    Data from the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Program help quantify the margin of safety inherent in pressurized water reactors during postulated loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). As early as 1979, questions arose concerning the accuracy of LOFT fuel rod cladding temperature data during several large-break LOCA experiments. This report analyzes how well externally-mounted fuel rod cladding thermocouples in LOFT accurately reflected actual cladding surface temperature during large-break LOCA experiments. In particular, the validity of the apparent core-wide fuel rod cladding quench exhibited during blowdown in LOFT Experiments L2-2 and L2-3 is studied. Also addressed is the question of whether the externally-mounted thermocouples might have influenced cladding temperature. The analysis makes use of data and information from several sources, including later, similar LOFT Experiments in which fuel centerline temperature measurements were made, experiments in other facilities, and results from a detailed FRAP-T6 model of the LOFT fuel rod. The analysis shows that there can be a significant difference (referred to as bias) between the surface-mounted thermocouple reading and the actual cladding temperature, and that the magnitude of this bias depends on the rate of heat transfer between the fuel rod cladding and coolant. The results of the analysis demonstrate clearly that a core-wide cladding quench did occur in Experiments L2-2 and L2-3. Further, it is shown that, in terms of peak cladding temperature recording during LOFT large-break LOCA experiments, the mean bias is 11.4 {plus_minus} 16.2K (20.5 {plus_minus} 29.2{degrees} F). The best-estimate value of peak cladding temperature for LOFT LP-02-6 is 1,104.8 K. The best-estimate peak cladding temperature for LOFT LP-LB-1 is 1284.0 K.

  2. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

    1984-09-12

    The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

  3. ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6" ,"Released: February 7, 2008" ,"Next Update: October 2008" ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 " ,"(Megawatts and 2006 Base Year)" ,"Projected Monthly Base","Year","Contiguous U.S.","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

  4. ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7" ,"Released: February 2009" ,"Next Update: October 2009" ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2007 and Projected 2008 through 2009 " ,"(Megawatts and 2007 Base Year)" ,"Projected Monthly Base","Year","Contiguous U.S.","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

  5. Problems of future energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaya, Y.

    1981-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe some of the key issues in the present energy system and to discuss possible future visions of the system. The first part of this paper deals with the progress in energy conservation since the oil embargo in 1973. Assuming the prospect that the petroleum supply will peak within this century and then will go down, and that the limit of energy conservation of the present energy systems will be achieved during the same period, the possible and desirable image is discussed of the future energy system. 5 refs.

  6. Next Update: December 2011 Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Released: December 2010 Next Update: December 2011 Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2009 and Projected 2010 through 2014 (Megawatts and 2009 Base Year) 2009 725,958 46,550 37,963 55,944 161,241 191,032 41,465 63,518 128,245 Contiguou s U.S. FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP TRE WECC (U.S.) 772,089 46,006 42,240 60,215 177,688 201,350 43,395 63,810 137,385 785,069 46,124 42,733 60,820 181,867 205,351

  7. Next Update: December 2011 Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2009 and Projected 2010 through 2014 (Megawatts and 2009 Base Year) 2009/2010 668,818 53,022 35,351 44,864 143,827 193,135 32,863 56,191 109,565 Contiguous U.S. FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP TRE WECC (U.S.) 639,073 46,235 35,722 46,374 143,040 183,614 31,415 43,823 108,850 646,845 46,821 36,816 46,529 146,591 186,364 33,047 43,823 106,854 657,839 47,558 37,359 46,753

  8. Sample-morphology effects on x-ray photoelectron peak intensities. II. Estimation of detection limits for thin-film materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Cedric J.; Werner, Wolfgang S. M.; Smekal, Werner

    2014-09-01

    The authors show that the National Institute of Standards and Technology database for the simulation of electron spectra for surface analysis (SESSA) can be used to determine detection limits for thin-film materials such as a thin film on a substrate or buried at varying depths in another material for common x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement conditions. Illustrative simulations were made for a W film on or in a Ru matrix and for a Ru film on or in a W matrix. In the former case, the thickness of a W film at a given depth in the Ru matrix was varied so that the intensity of the W 4d{sub 5/2} peak was essentially the same as that for a homogeneous RuW{sub 0.001} alloy. Similarly, the thickness of a Ru film at a selected depth in the W matrix was varied so that the intensity of the Ru 3p{sub 3/2} peak matched that from a homogeneous WRu{sub 0.01} alloy. These film thicknesses correspond to the detection limits of each minor component for measurement conditions where the detection limits for a homogeneous sample varied between 0.1 at.?% (for the RuW{sub 0.001} alloy) and 1 at.?% (for the WRu{sub 0.01} alloy). SESSA can be similarly used to convert estimates of XPS detection limits for a minor species in a homogeneous solid to the corresponding XPS detection limits for that species as a thin film on or buried in the chosen solid.

  9. Parallel File Systems at HPC Centers: Usage,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    File Systems at HPC Centers: Usage, Experiences, and Recommendations William ( Bill) E . A llcock ALCF D irector o f O pera:ons Production Systems: ALCF-2 2 Mira - B G/Q s ystem - 49,152 nodes / 786,432 cores - 786 TB of memory - Peak fl op r ate: 1 0 P F - Linpack fl op r ate: 8 .1 P F Vesta --- B G/Q s ystem - 2,048 nodes / 3 2,768 c ores - 32 TB of memory - Peak fl op r ate: 4 19 T F Cetus --- B G/Q s ystem - 1,024 n odes / 1 6,384 c ores - 16 TB of memory - Peak fl op r ate: 2 09 T F Tukey -

  10. Digital sonar system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, K.K.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1995-11-21

    A transponder of an active digital sonar system identifies a multifrequency underwater activating sonar signal received from a remote sonar transmitter. The transponder includes a transducer that receives acoustic waves, including the activating sonar signal, and generates an analog electrical receipt signal. The analog electrical receipt signal is converted to a digital receipt signal and cross-correlated with a digital transmission signal pattern corresponding to the activating sonar signal. A relative peak in the cross-correlation value is indicative of the activating sonar signal having been received by the transponder. In response to identifying the activating sonar signal, the transponder transmits a responding multifrequency sonar signal. 4 figs.

  11. Digital sonar system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, Kenneth K.; Wilkes, R. Jeffrey

    1995-01-01

    A transponder of an active digital sonar system identifies a multifrequency underwater activating sonar signal received from a remote sonar transmitter. The transponder includes a transducer that receives acoustic waves, including the activating sonar signal, and generates an analog electrical receipt signal. The analog electrical receipt signal is converted to a digital receipt signal and cross-correlated with a digital transmission signal pattern corresponding to the activating sonar signal. A relative peak in the cross-correlation value is indicative of the activating sonar signal having been received by the transponder. In response to identifying the activating sonar signal, the transponder transmits a responding multifrequency sonar signal.

  12. Assessment of Residential GSHP System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiaobing

    2010-09-01

    This report first briefly reviews geothermal heat pump (GHP) technology and the current status of the GHP industry in the United States. Then it assesses the potential national benefits, in terms of energy savings, reduced summer peak electrical demand, consumer energy cost savings, and reduced CO{sub 2} emissions from retrofitting the space heating, space cooling, and water heating systems in existing U.S. single-family homes with state-of-the-art GHP systems. The investment for retrofitting typical U.S. single-family homes with state-of-the-art GHP systems is also analyzed using the metrics of net present value and levelized cost.

  13. ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7, 2008" ,"Next Update: Not applicable for this table format" ,"Table 2c. Historical Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004 " ,"(Megawatts)" ,,,,," " ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

  14. Magnetic Nature of the 500 meV peak in La2−xSrxCuO4 Observed with Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering at the Cu K-edge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, J.P.; Ellis, D.S.; Kim, J.; Wakimoto, S.; Birgeneau, R.J.; Shvyd’ko, Y.; Casa, D.; Gog, T.; Ishii, K.; Ikeuchi, K.; Paramekanti, A.; Kim, Y.-J.

    2010-02-15

    We present a comprehensive study of the temperature and doping dependence of the 500 meV peak observed at q = ({pi},0) in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) experiments on La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}. The intensity of this peak persists above the Neel temperature (T{sub N} = 320 K), but decreases gradually with increasing temperature, reaching zero at around T = 500 K. The peak energy decreases with temperature in close quantitative accord with the behavior of the two-magnon B{sub 1g} Raman peak in La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} and, with suitable rescaling, agrees with the Raman peak shifts in EuBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6} and K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4}. The overall dispersion of this excitation in the Brillouin zone is found to be in agreement with theoretical calculations for a two-magnon excitation. Upon doping, the peak intensity decreases analogous to the Raman mode intensity and appears to track the doping dependence of the spin-correlation length. Taken together, these observations strongly suggest that the 500 meV mode is magnetic in character and is likely a two-magnon excitation.

  15. Ecloud Build-Up Simulations for the FNAL MI for a Mixed Fill Pattern: Dependence on Peak SEY and Pulse Intensity During the Ramp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furman, M. A.

    2010-12-11

    We present simulation results of the build-up of the electron-cloud density n{sub e} in three regions of the FNAL Main Injector (MI) for a beam fill pattern made up of 5 double booster batches followed by a 6th single batch. We vary the pulse intensity in the range N{sub t} = (2-5) x 10{sup 13}, and the beam kinetic energy in the range E{sub k} = 8-120 GeV. We assume a secondary electron emission model qualitatively corresponding to TiN, except that we let the peak value of the secondary electron yield (SEY) {delta}{sub max} vary as a free parameter in a fairly broad range. Our main conclusions are: (1) At fixed N{sub t} there is a clear threshold behavior of n{sub e} as a function of {delta}{sub max} in the range {approx} 1.1-1.3. (2) At fixed {delta}{sub max}, there is a threshold behavior of n{sub e} as a function of N{sub t} provided {delta}{sub max} is sufficiently high; the threshold value of N{sub t} is a function of the characteristics of the region being simulated. (3) The dependence on E{sub k} is weak except possibly at transition energy. Most of these results were informally presented to the relevant MI personnel in April 2010.

  16. Manipulation of polystyrene nanoparticles on a silicon wafer in the peak force tapping mode in water: pH-dependent friction and adhesion force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiwek, Simon; Stark, Robert W. E-mail: dietz@csi.tu-darmstadt.de; Dietz, Christian E-mail: dietz@csi.tu-darmstadt.de; Heim, Lars-Oliver

    2015-03-14

    The friction force between nanoparticles and a silicon wafer is a crucial parameter for cleaning processes in the semiconductor industry. However, little is known about the pH-dependency of the friction forces and the shear strength at the interface. Here, we push polystyrene nanoparticles, 100 nm in diameter, with the tip of an atomic force microscope and measure the pH-dependency of the friction, adhesion, and normal forces on a silicon substrate covered with a native silicon dioxide layer. The peak force tapping mode was applied to control the vertical force on these particles. We successively increased the applied load until the particles started to move. The main advantage of this technique over single manipulation processes is the achievement of a large number of manipulation events in short time and in a straightforward manner. Geometrical considerations of the interaction forces at the tip-particle interface allowed us to calculate the friction force and shear strength from the applied normal force depending on the pH of an aqueous solution. The results clearly demonstrated that particle removal should be performed with a basic solution at pH 9 because of the low interaction forces between particle and substrate.

  17. Effects of Fusion Zone Size and Failure Mode on Peak Load and Energy Absorption of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. The critical fusion zone sizes to ensure nugget pull-out failure mode are developed for both DP800 and TRIP800 using limit load based analytical model and micro-hardness measurements of the weld cross sections. Static weld strength tests using cross tension samples were performed on the joint populations with controlled fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied for all the weld populations using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that AHSS spot welds with fusion zone size of can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 materials examined. The critical fusion zone size for nugget pullout shall be derived for individual materials based on different base metal properties as well as different heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld properties resulted from different welding parameters.

  18. Effects of Home Energy Management Systems on Distribution Utilities and Feeders Under Various Market Structure; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, M.; Pratt, A.; Lunacek, M.; Mittal, S.; Wu, H.; Jones, W.

    2015-06-15

    The combination of distributed energy resources (DER) and retail tariff structures to provide benefits to both utility consumers and the utilities is not well understood. To improve understanding, an Integrated Energy System Model (IESM) is being developed to simulate the physical and economic aspects of DER technologies, the buildings where they reside, and feeders servicing them. The IESM was used to simulate 20 houses with home energy management systems on a single feeder under a time-of-use (TOU) tariff to estimate economic and physical impacts on both the households and the distribution utilities. Home energy management systems (HEMS) reduce consumers’ electric bills by precooling houses in the hours before peak electricity pricing. Utilization of HEMS reduce peak loads during high price hours but shifts it to hours with off-peak and shoulder prices, resulting in a higher peak load. used to simulate 20 houses with home energy management systems on a single feeder under a time-of-use (TOU) tariff to estimate economic and physical impacts on both the households and the distribution utilities. Home energy management systems (HEMS) reduce consumers’ electric bills by precooling houses in the hours before peak electricity pricing. Utilization of HEMS reduce peak loads during high price hours but shifts it to hours with off-peak and shoulder prices, resulting in a higher peak load.

  19. MO-F-16A-04: Case Study: Estimation of Peak Skin Dose Following a Physician Reported “High Dose” Case and Sentinel Event Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Supanich, M; Chu, J; Wehmeyer, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: This work offers as a teaching example a reported high dose fluoroscopy case and the workflow the institution followed to self-report a radiation overdose sentinel event to the Joint Commission. Methods: Following the completion of a clinical case in a hybrid OR room with a reported air kerma of >18 Gy at the Interventional Reference Point (IRP) the physicians involved in the case referred study to the institution's Radiation Safety Committee (RSC) for review. The RSC assigned a Diagnostic Medical Physicist (DMP) to estimate the patient's Peak Skin Dose (PSD) and analyze the case. Following the DMP's analysis and estimate of a PSD of >15 Gy the institution's adverse event committee was convened to discuss the case and to self-report the case as a radiation overdose sentinel event to the Joint Commission. The committee assigned a subgroup to perform the root cause analysis and develop institutional responses to the event. Results: The self-reporting of the sentinel event and the associated root cause analysis resulted in several institutional action items that are designed to improve process and safety. A formal reporting and analysis mechanism was adopted to review fluoroscopy cases with air kerma greater than 6 Gy at the IRP. An improved and formalized radiation safety training program for physicians using fluoroscopy equipment was implemented. Additionally efforts already under way to monitor radiation exposure in the Radiology department were expanded to include all fluoroscopy equipment capable of automated dose reporting. Conclusion: The adverse event review process and the root cause analysis following the self-reporting of the sentinel event resulted in policies and procedures that are expected to improve the quality and safe usage of fluoroscopy throughout the institution.

  20. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq; Weng, Kuo-Liang

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  1. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  2. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  3. Systems and methods for initializing a charging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ransom, Ray M; Perisic, Milun; Kajouke, Lateef A

    2014-06-24

    Systems and methods are provided for initiating a charging system. The method, for example, may include, but is not limited to, providing, by the charging system, an incrementally increasing voltage to a battery up to a first predetermined threshold while the energy conversion module has a zero-percent duty cycle, providing, by the charging system, an incrementally increasing voltage to the battery from an initial voltage level of the battery up to a peak voltage of a voltage source while the energy conversion module has a zero-percent duty cycle, and providing, by the charging system, an incrementally increasing voltage to the battery by incrementally increasing the duty cycle of the energy conversion module.

  4. Systems and methods for initializing a charging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ransom, Ray M.; Perisic, Milun; Kajouke, Lateef A.

    2014-09-09

    Systems and methods are provided for initiating a charging system. The method, for example, may include, but is not limited to, providing, by the charging system, an incrementally increasing voltage to a battery up to a first predetermined threshold while the energy conversion module has a zero-percent duty cycle, providing, by the charging system, an incrementally increasing voltage to the battery from an initial voltage level of the battery up to a peak voltage of a voltage source while the energy conversion module has a zero-percent duty cycle, and providing, by the charging system, an incrementally increasing voltage to the battery by incrementally increasing the duty cycle of the energy conversion module.

  5. The effect of head size/shape, miscentering, and bowtie filter on peak patient tissue doses from modern brain perfusion 256-slice CT: How can we minimize the risk for deterministic effects?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perisinakis, Kostas; Seimenis, Ioannis; Tzedakis, Antonis; Papadakis, Antonios E.; Damilakis, John

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To determine patient-specific absorbed peak doses to skin, eye lens, brain parenchyma, and cranial red bone marrow (RBM) of adult individuals subjected to low-dose brain perfusion CT studies on a 256-slice CT scanner, and investigate the effect of patient head size/shape, head position during the examination and bowtie filter used on peak tissue doses. Methods: The peak doses to eye lens, skin, brain, and RBM were measured in 106 individual-specific adult head phantoms subjected to the standard low-dose brain perfusion CT on a 256-slice CT scanner using a novel Monte Carlo simulation software dedicated for patient CT dosimetry. Peak tissue doses were compared to corresponding thresholds for induction of cataract, erythema, cerebrovascular disease, and depression of hematopoiesis, respectively. The effects of patient head size/shape, head position during acquisition and bowtie filter used on resulting peak patient tissue doses were investigated. The effect of eye-lens position in the scanned head region was also investigated. The effect of miscentering and use of narrow bowtie filter on image quality was assessed. Results: The mean peak doses to eye lens, skin, brain, and RBM were found to be 124, 120, 95, and 163 mGy, respectively. The effect of patient head size and shape on peak tissue doses was found to be minimal since maximum differences were less than 7%. Patient head miscentering and bowtie filter selection were found to have a considerable effect on peak tissue doses. The peak eye-lens dose saving achieved by elevating head by 4 cm with respect to isocenter and using a narrow wedge filter was found to approach 50%. When the eye lies outside of the primarily irradiated head region, the dose to eye lens was found to drop to less than 20% of the corresponding dose measured when the eye lens was located in the middle of the x-ray beam. Positioning head phantom off-isocenter by 4 cm and employing a narrow wedge filter results in a moderate reduction of signal-to-noise ratio mainly to the peripheral region of the phantom. Conclusions: Despite typical peak doses to skin, eye lens, brain, and RBM from the standard low-dose brain perfusion 256-slice CT protocol are well below the corresponding thresholds for the induction of erythema, cataract, cerebrovascular disease, and depression of hematopoiesis, respectively, every effort should be made toward optimization of the procedure and minimization of dose received by these tissues. The current study provides evidence that the use of the narrower bowtie filter available may considerably reduce peak absorbed dose to all above radiosensitive tissues with minimal deterioration in image quality. Considerable reduction in peak eye-lens dose may also be achieved by positioning patient head center a few centimeters above isocenter during the exposure.

  6. ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    e. Historical Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2005 through 2009 " ,"(Megawatts)" ,,,,," " ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,,"Year",,"FRCC"," MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.) ","RFC","SERC","SPP","TRE

  7. ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    f. Historical Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2005 through 2010 " ,"(Megawatts)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,,"Year",,"FRCC","MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.) ","RFC","SERC","SPP","TRE ","WECC

  8. ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    d. Historical Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004 " ,"(Megawatts)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid" ,,"Year",,"ECAR","FRCC","MAAC","MAIN","MAPP/MRO (U.S.) ","NPCC (U.S.)

  9. Controlled peak wavelength shift of Ca{sub 1-} {sub x} Sr {sub x} (S {sub y} Se{sub 1-} {sub y} ):Eu{sup 2+} phosphor for LED application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazarov, Mihail . E-mail: nazarov.mihail@samsung.com; Yoon, Chulsoo

    2006-08-15

    The highly efficient red-orange-yellow-emitting phosphor (Ca{sub 1-} {sub x} Sr {sub x} )(S{sub 1-} {sub y} Se {sub y} ):Eu{sup 2+} in combination with commercial green phosphor SrGa{sub 2}S{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} and blue LED are proposed for a three-band white LED. The luminescence mechanism and optimization parameters are discussed on the basis of proposed peak wavelength diagram. - Graphical abstract: 'Peak wavelength diagram for (Ca{sub 1-} {sub x} Sr {sub x} )(S{sub 1-} {sub y} Se {sub y} ):Eu{sup 2+}'.

  10. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Network Configuration & System Design

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Network Configuration & System Design About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Network Configuration and System Design Overview | Transmission/Storage | Design Criteria | Importance of Storage| Overall Pipeline System Configuration Overview A principal requirement of the natural gas transmission system is that it be capable of meeting the peak demand of its shippers who have contracts for firm service. To meet this

  11. Thermal oxidation technology ready for tougher paint finishing regs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, J.

    1995-04-01

    There is good news and bad news in the air for commercial paint finishers. The bad news is that future local and federal clean-air regulations are almost certain to require control of volatile organic compound emissions from spray booths and drying ovens. The good news is that one of the most effective systems for meeting such requirements also can help cut operations and maintenance costs. There are as many solutions to VOC emissions problems in paint finishing as there are types of paint-spraying facilities. However, despite the range of choices, regenerative thermal oxidation systems are gaining favor among plant managers, for whom performance and maximum application flexibility are key considerations. Compared to other VOC-destruction approaches, RTO systems are more forgiving and reliable. Although RTO systems involve somewhat higher capital investments than alternative approaches, such costs typically are offset by lower long-term fuel and maintenance requirements. In addition, RTO systems can convert pollutants into usable energy sources, helping minimize operating costs of abatement equipment.

  12. Optimal capacity of the battery energy storage system in a power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsungying Lee; Nanming Chen

    1993-12-01

    Due to the cyclical human life, utility loads appear to be cyclical too. During daytime when most factories are in operation, the electricity demand is very high. On the contrary, when most people are sleeping from midnight to daybreak, the electric load is very low, usually only half of the peak load amount. To meet this large gap between peak load and light load, utilities must idle many generation plants during light load period while operating all generation plants during peak load period no matter how expensive they are. This low utilization factor of generation plants and uneconomical operation have sparked utilities to invest in energy storage devices such as pumped storage plants, compressed air energy storage plants, battery energy storage systems (BES) and superconducting magnetic energy storage systems (SMES) etc. Among these, pumped storage is already commercialized and is the most widely used device. However, it suffers the limit of available sites and will be saturated in the future. Other energy storage devices are still under research to reduce the cost. This paper investigates the optimal capacity of the battery energy storage system in a power system. Taiwan Power Company System is used as the example system to test this algorithm. Results show that the maximum economic benefit of the battery energy storage in a power system can be achieved by this algorithm.

  13. Summary of the Special Analysis of Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide Demonstrating the Before and After Impacts on the DOE Order 435.1 Performance Objective and the Peak Dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shott, G.J.

    2011-01-15

    This report summarizes the special analysis (SA) of the Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide waste stream (SVRSURANIUM03, Revision 1) demonstrating the before and after impacts of the waste stream to the DOE Order 435.1 performance objective at the disposal facility, and the peak dose. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) requested this SA and asked the Nevada Site Office (NSO) to run the SA deterministically and assume that all the model conditions remain the same regardless of the length of time to the peak dose. Although the NDEP accepts that DOE Order 435.1 requires a compliance period of 1,000 years, it also requested to know what year, if any, the specific DOE performance objectives will be exceeded. Given the NDEP’s requested model conditions, the SA demonstrates the Rn-222 peak dose will occur in about 2 million years and will exceed the performance objective in about 6,000 years. The 0.25 mSv y-1 all-pathway performance objective was not exceeded for the resident scenario after reaching the 4 million year peak dose.

  14. Electronic imaging system and technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolstad, J.O.

    1984-06-12

    A method and system for viewing objects obscurred by intense plasmas or flames (such as a welding arc) includes a pulsed light source to illuminate the object, the peak brightness of the light reflected from the object being greater than the brightness of the intense plasma or flame; an electronic image sensor for detecting a pulsed image of the illuminated object, the sensor being operated as a high-speed shutter; and electronic means for synchronizing the shutter operation with the pulsed light source.

  15. Electronic imaging system and technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolstad, Jon O.

    1987-01-01

    A method and system for viewing objects obscurred by intense plasmas or flames (such as a welding arc) includes a pulsed light source to illuminate the object, the peak brightness of the light reflected from the object being greater than the brightness of the intense plasma or flame; an electronic image sensor for detecting a pulsed image of the illuminated object, the sensor being operated as a high-speed shutter; and electronic means for synchronizing the shutter operation with the pulsed light source.

  16. Effects of Home Energy Management Systems on Distribution Utilities and Feeders Under Various Market Structures: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, Mark; Pratt, Annabelle; Lunacek, Monte; Mittal, Saurabh; Wu, Hongyu; Jones, Wesley

    2015-07-17

    The combination of distributed energy resources (DER) and retail tariff structures to provide benefits to both utility consumers and the utilities is poorly understood. To improve understanding, an Integrated Energy System Model (IESM) is being developed to simulate the physical and economic aspects of DER technologies, the buildings where they reside, and feeders servicing them. The IESM was used to simulate 20 houses with home energy management systems on a single feeder under a time of use tariff to estimate economic and physical impacts on both the households and the distribution utilities. HEMS reduce consumers’ electric bills by precooling houses in the hours before peak electricity pricing. Household savings are greater than the reduction utility net revenue indicating that HEMS can provide a societal benefit providing tariffs are structured so that utilities remain solvent. Utilization of HEMS reduce peak loads during high price hours but shifts it to hours with off-peak and shoulder prices and resulting in a higher peak load.

  17. Three axis velocity probe system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.; Smith, Jr., Nelson S.; Utt, Carroll E.

    1992-01-01

    A three-axis velocity probe system for determining three-axis positional velocities of small particles in fluidized bed systems and similar applications. This system has a sensor head containing four closely-spaced sensing electrodes of small wires that have flat ends to establish a two axis plane, e.g. a X-Y plane. Two of the sensing electrodes are positioned along one of the axes and the other two are along the second axis. These four sensing electrodes are surrounded by a guard electrode, and the outer surface is a ground electrode and support member for the sensing head. The electrodes are excited by, for example, sinusoidal voltage having a peak-to-peak voltage of up to 500 volts at a frequency of 2 MHz. Capacitive currents flowing between the four sensing electrodes and the ground electrode are influenced by the presence and position of a particle passing the sensing head. Any changes in these currents due to the particle are amplified and synchronously detected to produce positional signal values that are converted to digital form. Using these digital forms and two values of time permit generation of values of the three components of the particle vector and thus the total velocity vector.

  18. Magnetic relaxation in highly anisotropic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedro, A.J.; Dunlap, B.D.

    1985-01-01

    Using the Mori formalism, a general theory is developed for the calculation of paramagnetic relaxation effects in a general crystal field doublet. For systems with extreme magnetic anisotropy, the relaxation rates show a strong angular dependence, being severely peaked in a direction perpendicular to the magnetic easy axis. Application to the RRh/sub 4/B/sub 4/ (R = rare-earth) compounds is discussed. 5 refs.

  19. Load Leveling Battery System Costs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-10-12

    SYSPLAN evaluates capital investment in customer side of the meter load leveling battery systems. Such systems reduce the customer's monthly electrical demand charge by reducing the maximum power load supplied by the utility during the customer's peak demand. System equipment consists of a large array of batteries, a current converter, and balance of plant equipment and facilities required to support the battery and converter system. The system is installed on the customer's side of themore » meter and controlled and operated by the customer. Its economic feasibility depends largely on the customer's load profile. Load shape requirements, utility rate structures, and battery equipment cost and performance data serve as bases for determining whether a load leveling battery system is economically feasible for a particular installation. Life-cycle costs for system hardware include all costs associated with the purchase, installation, and operation of battery, converter, and balance of plant facilities and equipment. The SYSPLAN spreadsheet software is specifically designed to evaluate these costs and the reduced demand charge benefits; it completes a 20 year period life cycle cost analysis based on the battery system description and cost data. A built-in sensitivity analysis routine is also included for key battery cost parameters. The life cycle cost analysis spreadsheet is augmented by a system sizing routine to help users identify load leveling system size requirements for their facilities. The optional XSIZE system sizing spreadsheet which is included can be used to identify a range of battery system sizes that might be economically attractive. XSIZE output consisting of system operating requirements can then be passed by the temporary file SIZE to the main SYSPLAN spreadsheet.« less

  20. Rate Analysis of Two Photovoltaic Systems in San Diego

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doris, E.; Ong, S.; Van Geet, O.

    2009-07-01

    Analysts have found increasing evidence that rate structure has impacts on the economics of solar systems. This paper uses 2007 15-minute interval photovoltaic (PV) system and load data from two San Diego City water treatment facilities to illustrate impacts of different rate designs. The comparison is based on rates available in San Diego at the time of data collection and include proportionately small to large demand charges (relative to volumetric consumption), and varying on- and off- peak times. Findings are twofold for these large commercial systems: 1) transferring costs into demand charges does not result in savings and 2) changes in peak times do not result in a major cost difference during the course of a year. While lessons learned and discussion on rate components are based on the findings, the applicability is limited to buildings with similar systems, environments, rate options, and loads.

  1. Deploying High Penetration Photovoltaic Systems: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M. H.; Baca, D.; Kroposki, B. D.; Basso, T.

    2011-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system capacity penetration, or simply 'penetration,' is often defined as the rated power output of the aggregate PV systems on a distribution circuit segment divided by the peak load of that circuit segment. Industry experts agree that a single value defining high penetration is not universally applicable. However, it is generally agreed that a conservative value to designate high penetration is the condition when the ratio of aggregate PV systems ratings to peak load exceeds 15%. This case study illustrates the case of a distribution feeder which is able to accommodate a traditional capacity penetration level of 47%, and perhaps more. New maximum penetration levels need to be defined and verified and enhanced definitions for penetration on a distribution circuit need to be developed. The new penetration definitions and studies will help utility engineers, system developers, and regulatory agencies better agree what levels of PV deployment can be attained without jeopardizing the reliability and power quality of a circuit.

  2. JP Morgan | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NPCC Yes NERC RFC Yes NERC SERC Yes NERC SPP Yes NERC WECC Yes ISO CA Yes ISO Ercot Yes RTO PJM Yes ISO NY Yes RTO SPP Yes ISO MISO Yes ISO NE Yes ISO Other Yes Activity Retail...

  3. Kansas Gas & Electric Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SPP NERC ERCOT Yes NERC MRO Yes NERC RFC Yes NERC SERC Yes NERC SPP Yes ISO Ercot Yes RTO PJM Yes RTO SPP Yes ISO MISO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes...

  4. System and technique for characterizing fluids using ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenwood, Margaret S.

    2008-07-08

    A system for determining property of multiphase fluids based on ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy includes a diffraction grating on a solid in contact with the fluid. An interrogation device delivers ultrasound through the solid and a captures a reflection spectrum from the diffraction grating. The reflection spectrum exhibits peaks whose relative size depends on the properties of the various phases of the multiphase fluid. For example, for particles in a liquid, the peaks exhibit dependence on the particle size and the particle volume fraction. Where the exact relationship is know know a priori, data from different peaks of the same reflection spectrum or data from the peaks of different spectra obtained from different diffraction gratings can be used to resolve the size and volume fraction.

  5. Method and apparatus for providing pulse pile-up correction in charge quantizing radiation detection systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Wintenberg, Alan L.

    1993-01-01

    A radiation detection method and system for continuously correcting the quantization of detected charge during pulse pile-up conditions. Charge pulses from a radiation detector responsive to the energy of detected radiation events are converted to voltage pulses of predetermined shape whose peak amplitudes are proportional to the quantity of charge of each corresponding detected event by means of a charge-sensitive preamplifier. These peak amplitudes are sampled and stored sequentially in accordance with their respective times of occurrence. Based on the stored peak amplitudes and times of occurrence, a correction factor is generated which represents the fraction of a previous pulses influence on a preceding pulse peak amplitude. This correction factor is subtracted from the following pulse amplitude in a summing amplifier whose output then represents the corrected charge quantity measurement.

  6. PV Charging System for Remote Area Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilsemann, Frederick; Thompson, Roger

    2008-07-31

    The objective of this project is to provide the public with a study of new as well existing technology to recharge batteries used in the field. A new product(s) will also be built based upon the information ascertained. American Electric Vehicles, Inc. (AEV) developed systems and methods suitable for charging state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries in remote locations under both ideal and cloudy weather conditions. Conceptual designs are described for existing and next generation technology, particularly as regards solar cells, peak power trackers and batteries. Prototype system tests are reported.

  7. First Commercial Success for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Spells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exponential Growth for Geothermal Energy | Department of Energy Commercial Success for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Spells Exponential Growth for Geothermal Energy First Commercial Success for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Spells Exponential Growth for Geothermal Energy April 15, 2013 - 1:50pm Addthis Nevada-based industry partner Ormat Technologies leveraged DOE funds to deploy the nation's first commercial EGS at Desert Peak, Nevada. photo courtesy of Ormat Nevada-based industry

  8. Full Reviews: Enhanced Geothermal Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems. Bradys EGS Project Zvi Krieger, Ormat Nevada Inc. Project Presentation | Peer Reviewer Comments Concept Testing and Development at the Raft River Geothermal Field, Idaho Joseph Moore, University of Utah Project Presentation | Peer Reviewer Comments Desert Peak EGS Project Ezra Zemach, Ormat Nevada Inc. Project Presentation | Peer Reviewer Comments Creation of an Engineered Geothermal System through Hydraulic and Thermal Stimulation Peter Rose, University of Utah

  9. Silver Peak Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Reservoir): Depth to Top of Reservoir: Depth to Bottom of Reservoir: Average Depth to Reservoir: Use the "Edit with Form" button at the top of the page to add a Well Field...

  10. Silver Peak Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sanyal Classification (Reservoir): Depth to Top of Reservoir: Depth to Bottom of Reservoir: Average Depth to Reservoir: Use the "Edit with Form" button at the top of the...

  11. Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project Geothermal Project...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Institute; William Cumming, Cumming Geoscience; Jerry Hamblin Subsurface Excellence; Stephen Hallinan, Western Geco; John Deymonaz Targets Milestones - Reduce the high level of...

  12. HOPE Release 3 Pitch Angle Sneak Peak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, Brian Arthur; Skoug, Ruth M.

    2015-12-04

    This report describes how the HOPE instrument is used to measure subatomic particles in the Van Allen belts.

  13. Peak Sun Silicon Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    e,"searchmarkers":"","locations":"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":31.60396,"lon":-100.641609,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""...

  14. Desert Peak Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    No.: P500-04-051. Contract No.: 500-04-051. Benjamin Matek. Geo-energy Internet. Geothermal Energy Association. updated 20150428;cited 20150428. Available from:...

  15. Peak Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of capacity that may understate the amount that can actually be stored. Working Gas Design Capacity: This measure estimates a natural gas facility's working gas capacity, as...

  16. Pilot Peak Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  17. Silver Peak Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  18. GeoPeak Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    285 Davidson Avenue Place: Somerset, New Jersey Zip: 08873 Region: Northeast - NY NJ CT PA Area Sector: Solar Product: Residential and Commercial PV Solar Installations Phone...

  19. Multispecies density peaking in gyrokinetic turbulence simulations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of low collisionality Alcator C-Mod plasmas Authors: Mikkelsen, D. R. 1 Search SciTech Connect for author "Mikkelsen, D. R." Search SciTech Connect for ORCID ...

  20. Desert Peak EGS Project | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in Texas | Department of Energy News Media Contact 202 586 4940 DOENews@hq.doe.gov Deputy Energy Secretary Sherwood-Randall Highlights a Top Budget Priority in Texas WASHINGTON - Today, Deputy Secretary Sherwood-Randall traveled to Amarillo, Texas to visit the Pantex Plant, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) site charged with maintaining the safety, security and effectiveness of the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile, a critical component of President Obama's National

  1. System Diagram

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    System Diagram System Diagram Diagram of IO architecture on Hopper Diagram of external IO services on the Hopper system Last edited: 2011-04-14 15:11:1...

  2. File Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on PDSF please see Eliza File Systems and Other File Systems. Below is a summary of how ATLAS uses the various systems: common In the past ATLAS used common primarily for their...

  3. System Diagram

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    System Diagram System Diagram Diagram of I/O architecture on Hopper Diagram of external I/O services on the Hopper system Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:23

  4. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic-weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1. 6. Blast measurements. Part 2. Free-air peak-pressure measurements. Section 2. Telemetering from moored balloons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frolich, A.J.

    1985-09-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine the free-air peak-pressure as a function of distance from an atomic explosion. In this report, free-air peak-pressure is defined as the pressure at the head of the blast wave in regions where it has not been reinforced by a reflected wave. Operation in the test area was more difficult than anticipated. Heavy winds made balloon handling very difficult. On the whole, the radio link performed satisfactorily on all occasions and appears to be a reliable method. For some unknown reason, blast switches closer than 1,500 feet failed to give satisfactory signals. Pressures were computed using the Rankine-Hugoniot relation, which is based on the shock wave being a definite discontinuity in pressure. Since the pressures measured on the ground showed relatively long times, there has been some speculation that a true shock wave may not exist in free air. If a true shock wave does not exist in the free-air region, pressures as computed are not correct, and the method of this experiment cannot be used.

  5. Computer System,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    undergraduate summer institute http:isti.lanl.gov (Educational Prog) 2016 Computer System, Cluster, and Networking Summer Institute Purpose The Computer System,...

  6. Advanced Integrated Traction System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Smith; Charles Gough

    2011-08-31

    The United States Department of Energy elaborates the compelling need for a commercialized competitively priced electric traction drive system to proliferate the acceptance of HEVs, PHEVs, and FCVs in the market. The desired end result is a technically and commercially verified integrated ETS (Electric Traction System) product design that can be manufactured and distributed through a broad network of competitive suppliers to all auto manufacturers. The objectives of this FCVT program are to develop advanced technologies for an integrated ETS capable of 55kW peak power for 18 seconds and 30kW of continuous power. Additionally, to accommodate a variety of automotive platforms the ETS design should be scalable to 120kW peak power for 18 seconds and 65kW of continuous power. The ETS (exclusive of the DC/DC Converter) is to cost no more than $660 (55kW at $12/kW) to produce in quantities of 100,000 units per year, should have a total weight less than 46kg, and have a volume less than 16 liters. The cost target for the optional Bi-Directional DC/DC Converter is $375. The goal is to achieve these targets with the use of engine coolant at a nominal temperature of 105C. The system efficiency should exceed 90% at 20% of rated torque over 10% to 100% of maximum speed. The nominal operating system voltage is to be 325V, with consideration for higher voltages. This project investigated a wide range of technologies, including ETS topologies, components, and interconnects. Each technology and its validity for automotive use were verified and then these technologies were integrated into a high temperature ETS design that would support a wide variety of applications (fuel cell, hybrids, electrics, and plug-ins). This ETS met all the DOE 2010 objectives of cost, weight, volume and efficiency, and the specific power and power density 2015 objectives. Additionally a bi-directional converter was developed that provides charging and electric power take-off which is the first step towards enabling a smart-grid application. GM under this work assessed 29 technologies; investigated 36 configurations/types power electronics and electric machines, filed 41 invention disclosures; and ensured technology compatibility with vehicle production. Besides the development of a high temperature ETS the development of industrial suppliers took place because of this project. Suppliers of industrial power electronic components are numerous, but there are few that have traction drive knowledge. This makes it difficult to achieve component reliability, durability, and cost requirements necessary of high volume automotive production. The commercialization of electric traction systems for automotive industry requires a strong diverse supplier base. Developing this supplier base is dependent on a close working relationship between the OEM and supplier so that appropriate component requirements can be developed. GM has worked closely with suppliers to develop components for electric traction systems. Components that have been the focus of this project are power modules, capacitors, heavy copper boards, current sensors, and gate drive and controller chip sets. Working with suppliers, detailed component specifications have been developed. Current, voltage, and operation environment during the vehicle drive cycle were evaluated to develop higher resolution/accurate component specifications.

  7. Optimal Sizing of Energy Storage and Photovoltaic Power Systems for Demand Charge Mitigation (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Simpson, M.

    2013-10-01

    Commercial facility utility bills are often a strong function of demand charges -- a fee proportional to peak power demand rather than total energy consumed. In some instances, demand charges can constitute more than 50% of a commercial customer's monthly electricity cost. While installation of behind-the-meter solar power generation decreases energy costs, its variability makes it likely to leave the peak load -- and thereby demand charges -- unaffected. This then makes demand charges an even larger fraction of remaining electricity costs. Adding controllable behind-the-meter energy storage can more predictably affect building peak demand, thus reducing electricity costs. Due to the high cost of energy storage technology, the size and operation of an energy storage system providing demand charge management (DCM) service must be optimized to yield a positive return on investment (ROI). The peak demand reduction achievable with an energy storage system depends heavily on a facility's load profile, so the optimal configuration will be specific to both the customer and the amount of installed solar power capacity. We explore the sensitivity of DCM value to the power and energy levels of installed solar power and energy storage systems. An optimal peak load reduction control algorithm for energy storage systems will be introduced and applied to historic solar power data and meter load data from multiple facilities for a broad range of energy storage system configurations. For each scenario, the peak load reduction and electricity cost savings will be computed. From this, we will identify a favorable energy storage system configuration that maximizes ROI.

  8. Solar thermal power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  9. Tuning HDF5 for Lustre File Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howison, Mark; Koziol, Quincey; Knaak, David; Mainzer, John; Shalf, John

    2010-09-24

    HDF5 is a cross-platform parallel I/O library that is used by a wide variety of HPC applications for the flexibility of its hierarchical object-database representation of scientific data. We describe our recent work to optimize the performance of the HDF5 and MPI-IO libraries for the Lustre parallel file system. We selected three different HPC applications to represent the diverse range of I/O requirements, and measured their performance on three different systems to demonstrate the robustness of our optimizations across different file system configurations and to validate our optimization strategy. We demonstrate that the combined optimizations improve HDF5 parallel I/O performance by up to 33 times in some cases running close to the achievable peak performance of the underlying file system and demonstrate scalable performance up to 40,960-way concurrency.

  10. File Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    File Systems File Systems For a general description of the different file systems available on PDSF please see Eliza File Systems and Other File Systems. Below is a summary of how ALICE uses the various systems: /common ALICE uses /common to build the software that supports its grid-based automated production work. This software includes AliRoot, Geant, AliEn, and XRootD. /eliza6, /eliza8, /eliza17 ALICE has space on 3 elizas: 16TB on /eliza6, 6TB on /eliza8 and 11TB on /eliza17. The space on

  11. File Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    File Systems File Systems For a general description of the different file systems available on PDSF please see Eliza File Systems and Other File Systems. Below is a summary of how STAR uses the various systems: /common The STAR software is installed on /common. For 32sl44 it is under /common/star/star44 and for sl53 it is under /common/star/star53. In both cases the software consists primarily of a STAR-specific ROOT installation on which releases of the STAR libraries are built as shown on the

  12. Theoretical study of intraband optical transitions in conduction band of dot-in-a-well system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaganti, Venkata R.; Apalkov, Vadym

    2014-02-15

    We study numerically absorption optical spectra of n-doped InAs/In{sub 015}Ga{sub 085}As/GaAs quantum dot-in-a-well systems. The absorption spectra are mainly determined by the size of a quantum dot and have weak dependence on the thickness of quantum well and position of the dot in a well. The dot-in-a-well system is sensitive to both in-plane and out-of-plane polarizations of the incident light with much stronger absorption intensities for the in-plane-polarized light. The absorption spectrum of in-plane-polarized light has also a multi-peak structure with two or three peaks of comparable intensities, while the absorption spectrum of out-of-plane polarized light has a single well-pronounced peak.

  13. System Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    An effective risk assessment system is needed to address the threat posed by an active or passive insider who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt diversion or theft of nuclear material. It is critical that a nuclear facility conduct a thorough self-assessment of the material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system to evaluate system effectiveness. Self-assessment involves vulnerability analysis and performance testing of the MPC&A system. The process should lead to confirmation that mitigating features of the system effectively minimize the threat, or it could lead to the conclusion that system improvements or upgrades are necessary to achieve acceptable protection against the threat. Analysis of the MPC&A system is necessary to understand the limits and vulnerabilities of the system to internal threats. Self-assessment helps the facility be prepared to respond to internal threats and reduce the risk of theft or diversion of nuclear material. MSET is a self-assessment or inspection tool utilizing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology to calculate the system effectiveness of a nuclear facility's MPC&A system. MSET analyzes the effectiveness of an MPC&A system based on defined performance metrics for MPC&A functions based on U.S. and international best practices and regulations. A facility's MC&A system can be evaluated at a point in time and reevaluated after upgrades are implemented or after other system changes occur. The total system or specific subareas within the system can be evaluated. Areas of potential performance improvement or system upgrade can be assessed to determine where the most beneficial and cost-effective improvements should be made. Analyses of risk importance factors show that sustainability is essential for optimal performance. The analyses reveal where performance degradation has the greatest detrimental impact on total system risk and where performance improvements have the greatest reduction in system risk. The risk importance factors show the amount of risk reduction achievable with potential upgrades and the amount of risk reduction actually achieved after upgrades are completed. Applying the risk assessment tool gives support to budget prioritization by showing where budget support levels must be sustained for MC&A functions most important to risk. Results of the risk assessment are also useful in supporting funding justifications for system improvements that significantly reduce system risk.

  14. HIGH ENERGY PULSED POWER SYSTEM FOR AGS SUPER NEUTRINO FOCUSING HORN.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZHANG, S.Y.; SANDBERG, J.; WENG, W.-T.

    2005-05-16

    This paper present a preliminary design of a 300 kA, 2.5 Hz pulsed power system. This system will drive the focusing horn of proposed Brookhaven AGS Neutrino Super Beam Facility for Very Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiment. The peak output power of the horn pulsed power system will reach Giga-watts, and the upgraded AGS will be capable of delivering 1 MW in beam power.

  15. System and technique for ultrasonic characterization of settling suspensions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Panetta, Paul D.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Pappas, Richard A.

    2006-11-28

    A system for determining properties of settling suspensions includes a settling container, a mixer, and devices for ultrasonic interrogation transverse to the settling direction. A computer system controls operation of the mixer and the interrogation devices and records the response to the interrogating as a function of settling time, which is then used to determine suspension properties. Attenuation versus settling time for dilute suspensions, such as dilute wood pulp suspension, exhibits a peak at different settling times for suspensions having different properties, and the location of this peak is used as one mechanism for characterizing suspensions. Alternatively or in addition, a plurality of ultrasound receivers are arranged at different angles to a common transmitter to receive scattering responses at a variety of angles during particle settling. Angular differences in scattering as a function of settling time are also used to characterize the suspension.

  16. Dynamics of a Two-Dimensional System of Quantum Dipoles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzanti, F.; Astrakharchik, G. E.; Boronat, J.; Zillich, R. E.

    2009-03-20

    A detailed microscopic analysis of the dynamic structure function S(k,{omega}) of a two-dimensional Bose system of dipoles polarized along the direction perpendicular to the plane is presented and discussed. Starting from ground-state quantities obtained using a quantum diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm, the density-density response is evaluated in the context of the correlated basis functions (CBF) theory. CBF predicts a sharp peak and a multiexcitation component at higher energies produced by the decay of excitations. We discuss the structure of the phonon-roton peak and show that the Feynman and Bogoliubov predictions depart from the CBF result already at low densities. We finally discuss the emergence of a roton in the spectrum, but find the roton energy not low enough to make the system unstable under density fluctuations up to the highest density considered that is close to the freezing point.

  17. Laser spark distribution and ignition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodruff, Steven; McIntyre, Dustin L.

    2008-09-02

    A laser spark distribution and ignition system that reduces the high power optical requirements for use in a laser ignition and distribution system allowing for the use of optical fibers for delivering the low peak energy pumping pulses to a laser amplifier or laser oscillator. An optical distributor distributes and delivers optical pumping energy from an optical pumping source to multiple combustion chambers incorporating laser oscillators or laser amplifiers for inducing a laser spark within a combustion chamber. The optical distributor preferably includes a single rotating mirror or lens which deflects the optical pumping energy from the axis of rotation and into a plurality of distinct optical fibers each connected to a respective laser media or amplifier coupled to an associated combustion chamber. The laser spark generators preferably produce a high peak power laser spark, from a single low power pulse. The laser spark distribution and ignition system has application in natural gas fueled reciprocating engines, turbine combustors, explosives and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy diagnostic sensors.

  18. A system for interpretation of blast furnace stockrod measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinnelae, J.; Saxen, H.

    1997-12-31

    A system for intelligent monitoring and interpretation of signals from blast furnace stockrods is presented. The system visualizes the measurements and estimates the local burden layer thickness (under the rods) after every dump. Furthermore, it analyzes the burden descent rate to distinguish between slips, hangings, normal descent and peaks, etc., and also combines the stockrod information with findings of temperature measurements from an above-burden probe. The preprocessing of the signals and some features of the system, which is under development, are treated in this paper.

  19. ARCS - Access Rate Control System - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | National Nuclear Security Administration ARC will make tiny "movies" of thermonuclear and stockpile experiments Wednesday, January 13, 2016 - 12:00am Installation of part of ARC preamplifer systems. X-ray radiograph of a backlit grid produced on the first programmatic ARC shot. The National Ignition Facility's (NIF) performed the first programmatic experiments with Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) on December 1-3, 2015. ARC, a petawatt-class laser with peak power that will

  20. Temperature System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Soil Water and Temperature System  SWATS In the realm of global climate modeling, numerous variables affect the state of the atmosphere and climate. One important area is soil moisture and temperature. The ARM Program uses several types of instruments to gather soil moisture information. An example is the soil water and temperature system (SWATS) (Figure 1). A SWATS is located at each of 21 extended facility sites within the CART site boundary. Each system is configured to measure soil

  1. CALUTRON SYSTEM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrence, E.O.

    1958-08-12

    A calutron system capable of functioning with only a portion of the separation tanks in the system operating is described. The invention is a calutron system comprssing a closed series of alternated tanks and electromagnets having a mid-yoke connecting intermediate positions of the series. dividing the series into twv-o portions, and thereby providing a closed magnetic path through either of the portions.

  2. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Challenges and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Sabharwall; S.B. Sitton; S.J. Yoon; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing demand of energy and costs of the fossil fuels, coupled with the environmental concerns have resulted in an increased interest in alternative energy sources. Nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) are being considered which incorporates renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy combined with nuclear reactor and energy storage to meet the peak hours demand imposed on the grid, along with providing process heat for other potential industrial applications. This concept could potentially satisfy various energy demands and improve reliability, robustness and resilience for the entire system as a whole, along with economic and net efficiency gains. This paper provides a brief understanding of potential NHES system and architecture along with the challenges

  3. * Systems update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    update * Edison update * NUG annual meeting * Queues and System Usage * User Survey results * Data ... - 21016 2015, Energy Sciences Network The Central ...

  4. Active high-power RF switch and pulse compression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tantawi, Sami G.; Ruth, Ronald D.; Zolotorev, Max

    1998-01-01

    A high-power RF switching device employs a semiconductor wafer positioned in the third port of a three-port RF device. A controllable source of directed energy, such as a suitable laser or electron beam, is aimed at the semiconductor material. When the source is turned on, the energy incident on the wafer induces an electron-hole plasma layer on the wafer, changing the wafer's dielectric constant, turning the third port into a termination for incident RF signals, and. causing all incident RF signals to be reflected from the surface of the wafer. The propagation constant of RF signals through port 3, therefore, can be changed by controlling the beam. By making the RF coupling to the third port as small as necessary, one can reduce the peak electric field on the unexcited silicon surface for any level of input power from port 1, thereby reducing risk of damaging the wafer by RF with high peak power. The switch is useful to the construction of an improved pulse compression system to boost the peak power of microwave tubes driving linear accelerators. In this application, the high-power RF switch is placed at the coupling iris between the charging waveguide and the resonant storage line of a pulse compression system. This optically controlled high power RF pulse compression system can handle hundreds of Megawatts of power at X-band.

  5. Power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  6. Peak to Peak Charter Wins Colorado Science Bowl - News Releases | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Peaceful Uses of the Atom Fermi and Atoms for Peace * Understanding the Atom * Seaborg * Teller Atoms for Peace Atoms for Peace + 50 - Conference, October 22, 2003 Celebrating the 50th anniversary of President Eisenhower's "Atoms for Peace" speech to the UN General Assembly Atoms for Peace (video 12:00 Minutes) Atoms for Peace Address given by Dwight D. Eisenhower before the General Assembly of the United Nations, New York City, December 8, 1953 Documents: Atomic Power in Space: A

  7. Peak Travel, Peak Car and the Future of Mobility: Evidence, Unresolved...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the appraisal of large scale transport infrastructure projects, service Provision, pricing, the allocation of risk, and initiatives to reduce car dependence, in the context...

  8. Electronic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robison, G H; Dickson, J F

    1960-11-15

    An electronic system is designed for indicating the occurrence of a plurality of electrically detectable events within predetermined time intervals. The system comprises separate input means electrically associated with the events under observation an electronic channel associated with each input means, including control means and indicating means; timing means adapted to apply a signal from the input means after a predetermined time to the control means to deactivate each of the channels; and means for resetting the system to its initial condition after the observation of each group of events. (D.L.C.)

  9. SAMPLING SYSTEM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hannaford, B.A.; Rosenberg, R.; Segaser, C.L.; Terry, C.L.

    1961-01-17

    An apparatus is given for the batch sampling of radioactive liquids such as slurries from a system by remote control, while providing shielding for protection of operating personnel from the harmful effects of radiation.

  10. Battery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J; Wood, Steven J; Trester, Dale B; Andrew, Michael G

    2013-08-27

    A battery module includes a plurality of battery cells and a system configured for passing a fluid past at least a portion of the plurality of battery cells in a parallel manner.

  11. Accelerator Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accelerator Systems Accelerator Systems MaRIE will provide a capability to address the control of performance and production of weapons materials at the mesoscale. MaRIE fills a critical gap in length scale between the integral scale addressed by studies conducted at DARHT, U1a, NIF, and Z. CONTACT Richard Sheffield (505) 667-1237 Email Revolutionizing Microstructural Physics to Empower Nuclear Energy Realizing MaRIE's full suite of capabilities requires developing and integrating a suite of

  12. Systems Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, R.L.

    1998-03-17

    The Systems Studies Activity had two objectives: (1) to investigate nontechnical barriers to the deployment of biomass production and supply systems and (2) to enhance and extend existing systems models of bioenergy supply and use. For the first objective, the Activity focused on existing bioenergy markets. Four projects were undertaken: a comparative analysis of bioenergy in Sweden and Austria; a one-day workshop on nontechnical barriers jointly supported by the Production Systems Activity; the development and testing of a framework for analyzing barriers and drivers to bioenergy markets; and surveys of wood pellet users in Sweden, Austria and the US. For the second objective, two projects were undertaken. First, the Activity worked with the Integrated BioEnergy Systems (TBS) Activity of TEA Bioenergy Task XIII to enhance the BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). This model is documented in the final report of the IBS Activity. The Systems Studies Activity contributed to enhancing the feedstock portion of the model by developing a coherent set of willow, poplar, and switchgrass production modules relevant to both the US and the UK. The Activity also developed a pretreatment module for switchgrass. Second, the Activity sponsored a three-day workshop on modeling bioenergy systems with the objectives of providing an overview of the types of models used to evaluate bioenergy and promoting communication among bioenergy modelers. There were nine guest speakers addressing different types of models used to evaluate different aspects of bioenergy, ranging from technoeconomic models based on the ASPEN software to linear programming models to develop feedstock supply curves for the US. The papers from this workshop have been submitted to Biomass and Bioenergy and are under editorial review.

  13. Methods, systems and devices for detecting and locating ferromagnetic objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roybal, Lyle Gene (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Kotter, Dale Kent (Shelley, ID) [Shelley, ID; Rohrbaugh, David Thomas (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Spencer, David Frazer (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-01-26

    Methods for detecting and locating ferromagnetic objects in a security screening system. One method includes a step of acquiring magnetic data that includes magnetic field gradients detected during a period of time. Another step includes representing the magnetic data as a function of the period of time. Another step includes converting the magnetic data to being represented as a function of frequency. Another method includes a step of sensing a magnetic field for a period of time. Another step includes detecting a gradient within the magnetic field during the period of time. Another step includes identifying a peak value of the gradient detected during the period of time. Another step includes identifying a portion of time within the period of time that represents when the peak value occurs. Another step includes configuring the portion of time over the period of time to represent a ratio.

  14. Evaluation of the intermittent GTA cold wire feed weld system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dereskiewicz, J.P.

    1991-08-01

    An intermittent gas tungsten arc cold wire feed process was statistically evaluated to determine the feasibility of applying this process to meet the 0.030-inch weld penetration and peak temperature requirements when unfavorable joint tolerances exist on a subassembly weld. The wire feed system was determined to only slightly benefit the welding process over normal pulsed gas tungsten arc welding using traditional wire feeding capabilities. However, the complexity of this process and extensive welding operator training and qualification does not outweigh the benefits of incorporating this synchronized pulse wire feed system in production. 2 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Advanced Microturbine Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosfjord, T; Tredway, W; Chen, A; Mulugeta, J; Bhatia, T

    2008-12-31

    In July 2000, the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) was one of five recipients of a US Department of Energy contract under the Advanced Microturbine System (AMS) program managed by the Office of Distributed Energy (DE). The AMS program resulted from several government-industry workshops that recognized that microturbine systems could play an important role in improving customer choice and value for electrical power. That is, the group believed that electrical power could be delivered to customers more efficiently and reliably than the grid if an effective distributed energy strategy was followed. Further, the production of this distributed power would be accomplished with less undesirable pollutants of nitric oxides (NOx) unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), and carbon monoxide (CO). In 2000, the electrical grid delivered energy to US customers at a national average of approximately 32% efficiency. This value reflects a wide range of powerplants, but is dominated by older, coal burning stations that provide approximately 50% of US electrical power. The grid efficiency is also affected by transmission and distribution (T&D) line losses that can be significant during peak power usage. In some locations this loss is estimated to be 15%. Load pockets can also be so constrained that sufficient power cannot be transmitted without requiring the installation of new wires. New T&D can be very expensive and challenging as it is often required in populated regions that do not want above ground wires. While historically grid reliability has satisfied most customers, increasing electronic transactions and the computer-controlled processes of the 'digital economy' demand higher reliability. For them, power outages can be very costly because of transaction, work-in-progress, or perishable commodity losses. Powerplants that produce the grid electrical power emit significant levels of undesirable NOx, UHC, and CO pollutants. The level of emission is quoted as either a technology metric or a system-output metric. A common form for the technology metric is in the units of PPM {at} 15% O2. In this case the metric reflects the molar fraction of the pollutant in the powerplant exhaust when corrected to a standard exhaust condition as containing 15% (molar) oxygen, assuring that the PPM concentrations are not altered by subsequent air addition or dilution. Since fuel combustion consumes oxygen, the output oxygen reference is equivalent to a fuel input reference. Hence, this technology metric reflects the moles of pollutant per mole of fuel input, but not the useful output of the powerplant-i.e. the power. The system-output metric does embrace the useful output and is often termed an output-based metric. A common form for the output-based metric is in the units of lb/MWh. This is a system metric relating the pounds of pollutant to output energy (e.g., MWh) of the powerplant.

  16. ELECTRONIC SYSTEM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robison, G.H. et al.

    1960-11-15

    An electronic system is described for indicating the occurrence of a plurality of electrically detectable events within predetermined time intervals. It is comprised of separate input means electrically associated with the events under observation: an electronic channel associated with each input means including control means and indicating means; timing means associated with each of the input means and the control means and adapted to derive a signal from the input means and apply it after a predetermined time to the control means to effect deactivation of each of the channels; and means for resetting the system to its initial condition after observation of each group of events.

  17. Systems Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    You are here Home » Systems Integration Systems Integration Hawaii DREAMS of New Solar Technologies Hawaii DREAMS of New Solar Technologies Read more Plug and Play Solar PV for American Homes Plug and Play Solar PV for American Homes Read more Watt-Sun: A Multi-Scale, Multi-Modal, Machine-Learning Solar Forecasting Technology Watt-Sun: A Multi-Scale, Multi-Modal, Machine-Learning Solar Forecasting Technology Read more High PV Penetration with Energy Storage in Flagstaff, AZ High PV Penetration

  18. Systems Engineering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: to create an interactive, physics based, systems analysis tool for geothermal energy development that will: Identify points of attack to maximize efforts and investment dollars; Identify the parameter space where geothermal energy production is physically and economically viable; Provide a platform for public education and interaction.

  19. Geographic Information System At Brady Hot Springs Area (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United States by developing basic measurements and interpretations that will assist reservoir management and expansion at Bradys, Desert Peak and the Desert Peak EGS study...

  20. A Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briggs, Thomas E; Wagner, Robert M; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Curran, Scott; Nafziger, Eric J

    2010-01-01

    In order to achieve proposed fuel economy requirements, engines must make better use of the available fuel energy. Regardless of how efficient the engine is, there will still be a significant fraction of the fuel energy that is rejected in the exhaust and coolant streams. One viable technology for recovering this waste heat is an Organic Rankine Cycle. This cycle heats a working fluid using these heat streams and expands the fluid through a turbine to produce shaft power. The present work was the development of such a system applied to a light duty diesel engine. This lab demonstration was designed to maximize the peak brake thermal efficiency of the engine, and the combined system achieved an efficiency of 44.4%. The design of the system is discussed, as are the experimental performance results. The system potential at typical operating conditions was evaluated to determine the practicality of installing such a system in a vehicle.

  1. Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2011-04-01

    Existing ventilation standards, including American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specify continuous operation of a defined mechanical ventilation system to provide minimum ventilation, with time-based intermittent operation as an option. This requirement ignores several factors and concerns including: other equipment such as household exhaust fans that might incidentally provide ventilation, negative impacts of ventilation when outdoor pollutant levels are high, the importance of minimizing energy use particularly during times of peak electricity demand, and how the energy used to condition air as part of ventilation system operation changes with outdoor conditions. Dynamic control of ventilation systems can provide ventilation equivalent to or better than what is required by standards while minimizing energy costs and can also add value by shifting load during peak times and reducing intake of outdoor air contaminants. This article describes the logic that enables dynamic control of whole-house ventilation systems to meet the intent of ventilation standards and demonstrates the dynamic ventilation system control concept through simulations and field tests of the Residential Integrated Ventilation-Energy Controller (RIVEC).

  2. Proposed guidelines for reporting performance of a solar dish/Stirling electric generation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stine, W.B.; Powell, M.A.

    1992-12-31

    Experimental performance data from dish/Stirling system testing can be analyzed to generate a system performance model. An approach to developing an experimentally based performance model of a dish/Stirling system is given. Two methods for analyzing the experimental data are described. To provide information that will permit comparison of dish/Stirling systems, it is necessary to define many of the details involved in calculating system performance data such as the net system output and system solar-to-electric efficiency. This paper describes a set of guidelines for these calculations, based on past experience, especially with the Vanguard dish/Stirling system. Also presented are a set of rating conditions at which a maximum value for system efficiency can be calculated. Comparison between systems of their rated peak solar-to-electric efficiency is made possible when these rating conditions are in common use by manufacturers and testing agencies.

  3. Burner systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doherty, Brian J.

    1984-07-10

    A burner system particularly useful for downhole deployment includes a tubular combustion chamber unit housed within a tubular coolant jacket assembly. The combustion chamber unit includes a monolithic tube of refractory material whose inner surface defines the combustion zone. A metal reinforcing sleeve surrounds and extends the length of the refractory tube. The inner surface of the coolant jacket assembly and outer surface of the combustion chamber unit are dimensioned so that those surfaces are close to one another in standby condition so that the combustion chamber unit has limited freedom to expand with that expansion being stabilized by the coolant jacket assembly so that compression forces in the refractory tube do not exceed about one-half the safe compressive stress of the material; and the materials of the combustion chamber unit are selected to establish thermal gradient parameters across the combustion chamber unit to maintain the refractory tube in compression during combustion system start up and cool down sequences.

  4. Directives System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1998-01-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Directives System is the means by which DOE policies, requirements, and responsibilities are developed and communicated throughout the Department. Directives are used to inform, direct, and guide employees in the performance of their jobs, and to enable employees to work effectively within the Department and with agencies, contractors, and the public. Cancels: DOE O 251.1, DOE M 251.1-1

  5. Monitoring Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Systems - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  6. WEC system

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    system - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  7. Security system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.

    2016-02-02

    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  8. Gasification system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1983-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  9. Gasification system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1985-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  10. CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shannon, R.H.; Williamson, H.E.

    1962-10-30

    A boiling water type nuclear reactor power system having improved means of control is described. These means include provisions for either heating the coolant-moderator prior to entry into the reactor or shunting the coolantmoderator around the heating means in response to the demand from the heat engine. These provisions are in addition to means for withdrawing the control rods from the reactor. (AEC)

  11. Computer System,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    System, Cluster, and Networking Summer Institute New Mexico Consortium and Los Alamos National Laboratory HOW TO APPLY Applications will be accepted JANUARY 5 - FEBRUARY 13, 2016 Computing and Information Technology undegraduate students are encouraged to apply. Must be a U.S. citizen. * Submit a current resume; * Offcial University Transcript (with spring courses posted and/or a copy of spring 2016 schedule) 3.0 GPA minimum; * One Letter of Recommendation from a Faculty Member; and * Letter of

  12. Braking system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norgren, D.U.

    1982-09-23

    A balanced braking system comprising a plurality of braking assemblies located about a member to be braked. Each of the braking assemblies consists of a spring biased piston of a first material fitted into a body of a different material which has a greater contraction upon cooling than the piston material. The piston is provided with a recessed head portion over which is positioned a diaphragm and forming a space therebetween to which is connected a pressurized fluid supply. The diaphragm is controlled by the fluid in the space to contact or withdraw from the member to be braked. A cooling means causes the body within which the piston is fitted to contract more than the piston, producing a tight shrink fit therebetween. The braking system is particularly applicable for selectively braking an arbor of an electron microscope which immobilizes, for example, a vertically adjustable low temperature specimen holder during observation. The system provides balanced braking forces which can be easily removed and re-established with minimal disturbance to arbor location.

  13. NREL: Energy Systems Integration - Systems Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-level system integration New distribution scenarios such as household DC systems and residential-scale generation and storage integrated with home energy management systems. ...

  14. Method and apparatus for identifying conductive objects by monitoring the true resistive component of impedance change in a coil system caused by the object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregory, William D.; Capots, Larry H.; George, James P.; Janik, Richard

    1981-01-01

    The type of conductor, its property, and if a metal, its type and cross-sectional area can be obtained from measurements made at different frequencies for the amount of unbalance created in a previously balanced stable coil detection system. The true resistive component is accurately measured and thus reflects only the voltage loss attributable to eddy currents caused by introduction of the test sample to the coil system. This voltage divided by corresponding applied frequency gives a curve which peaks at a frequency dependent upon type of conductor. For a metal this peak frequency is proportional to the samples resistivity divided by its cross-sectional area.

  15. Refrigeration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pagani, R.F.; Clarke, K.J.; Avon, E.J.

    1986-11-11

    This patent describes a chamber including an expandable refrigerant system associated therewith. The system comprises reservoir containing an expandable refrigerant coolant and lead piping connecting the reservoir to conduits carrying the coolant therein. The chamber comprises top, bottom and side walls, accordingly defining an interior and an exterior to the chamber, one of the walls comprises a door affording access into the chamber, each of the walls being insulated with insulating material. At least one of the walls comprises a first layer of the insulating material extending thereover adjacent the exterior and a second layer of the insulating material extending thereover adjacent the interior. The reservoir, lead piping and conduits are disposed intermediate the first and second layers of insulating material thereby isolating them from both the interior and exterior. Heat transferring through the at least one wall is substantially absorbed by the coolant and the insulating material cooled by the coolant, before it is able to penetrate through the at least one wall, permitting a product placed in the chamber to effectively maintain or substantially maintain a selected even temperature.

  16. NREL: Energy Systems Integration Facility - Systems Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Systems Integration Systems integration considers the relationships among electricity, thermal, and fuel systems and data and information networks to ensure optimal interoperability across the energy spectrum. The Energy Systems Integration Facility's suite of systems integration laboratories provides advanced capabilities for research, development, and demonstration of key components of future energy systems. Photo of a man and a power quality meter system in a laboratory. The Energy Systems

  17. Intelligent Transportation Systems Deployment Analysis System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Transportation Systems Deployment Analysis System AgencyCompany Organization: Cambridge Systematics Sector: Energy Focus Area: Transportation Resource Type: Software...

  18. Power Systems Engineering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    systems; steam, water, fuel, and environmental monitoring systems; alternative energy systems; reliability, availability, and maintainability assessments; and associated...

  19. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Sabharwall; M. Green; S.J. Yoon; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing concerns in the production of reliable energy sources, the next generation in reliable power generation, hybrid energy systems, are being developed to stabilize these growing energy needs. The hybrid energy system incorporates multiple inputs and multiple outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilizing and storing the overproduction of energy to meet peak demands of energy at the time of need. With high thermal energy production of the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct properties. This paper will discuss the different energy storage options with the criteria for efficient energy storage set forth, and will primarily focus on different molten salt energy storage system options through a thermodynamic analysis

  20. Catalyst system for the polymerization of alkenes to polyolefins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Stephen A.; Bercaw, John E.

    2004-02-17

    The invention provides metallocene catalyst systems for the controlled polymerization of alkenes to a wide variety of polyolefins and olefin coplymers. Catalyst systems are provided that specifically produce isotactic, syndiotactic and steroblock polyolefins. The type of polymer produced can be controlled by varying the catalyst system, specifically by varying the ligand substituents. Such catalyst systems are particularly useful for the polymerization of polypropylene to give elastomeric polypropylenes. The invention also provides novel elastomeric polypropylene polymers characterized by dyad (m) tacticities of about 55% to about 65%, pentad (mmmm) tacticities of about 25% to about 35%, molecular weights (M.sub.W) in the range of about 50,000 to about 2,000,000, and have mmrm+rrmr peak is less than about 5%.

  1. Catalyst system for the polymerization of alkenes to polyolefins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Stephen A.; Bercaw, John E.

    2002-01-01

    The invention provides metallocene catalyst systems for the controlled polymerization of alkenes to a wide variety of polyolefins and olefin coplymers. Catalyst systems are provided that specifically produce isotactic, syndiotactic and steroblock polyolefins. The type of polymer produced can be controlled by varying the catalyst system, specifically by varying the ligand substituents. Such catalyst systems are particularly useful for the polymerization of polypropylene to give elastomeric polypropylenes. The invention also provides novel elastomeric polypropylene polymers characterized by dyad (m) tacticities of about 55% to about 65%, pentad (mmmm) tacticities of about 25% to about 35%, molecular weights (M.sub.w)in the range of about 50,000 to about 2,000,000, and have mmrm+rrmr peak is less than about 5%.

  2. Transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurosawa, Kanji; Koga, Bunichiro; Ito, Hideki; Kiriyama, Shigeru; Higuchi, Shizuo

    2003-05-20

    A transport system includes a traveling rail (1) which constitutes a transport route and a transport body (3) which is capable of traveling on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. Flexible drive tubes (5) are arranged on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. The transport body includes a traveling wheel (4) which is capable of rolling on the traveling rail and drive wheels (2) which are capable of rolling on the drive tubes upon receiving the rotational drive power generated by pressure of a pressure medium supplied to the drive tubes while depressing the drive tubes. The traveling rail includes a plurality of transport sections and the transport body is capable of receiving a rotational drive force from the drive tubes at every transport sections. If necessary, a transport route changeover switch which changes over the transport route can be provided between the transport sections.

  3. Solar energy grid integration systems "SEGIS"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2007-10-01

    The inevitable transformation of the electrical grid to a more distributed generation configuration requires solar system capabilities well beyond simple net-metered, grid-connected approaches. Time-of-use and peak-demand rate structures will require more sophisticated systems designs that integrate energy management and/or energy storage into the system architecture. Controlling power flow into and from the utility grid will be required to ensure grid reliability and power quality. Alternative protection strategies will also be required to accommodate large numbers of distributed energy sources. This document provides an overview of the R&D needs and describes some pathways to promising solutions. The solutions will, in many cases, require R&D of new components, innovative inverter/controllers, energy management systems, innovative energy storage and a suite of advanced control algorithms, technical methodologies, protocols and the associated communications. It is expected that these solutions will help to push the “advanced integrated system” and “smart grid” evolutionary processes forward in a faster but focused manner.

  4. Separation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rubin, Leslie S.

    1986-01-01

    A separation system for dewatering radioactive waste materials includes a disposal container, drive structure for receiving the container, and means for releasably attaching the container to the drive structure. Separation structure disposed in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure retains solids while allowing passage of liquids. Inlet port structure in the container top wall is normally closed by first valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the inlet port and discharge port structure at the container periphery receives liquid that passes through the separation structure and is normally closed by second valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the discharge ports. The container also includes coupling structure for releasable engagement with the centrifugal drive structure. Centrifugal force produced when the container is driven in rotation by the drive structure opens the valve structures, and radioactive waste material introduced into the container through the open inlet port is dewatered, and the waste is compacted. The ports are automatically closed by the valves when the container drum is not subjected to centrifugal force such that containment effectiveness is enhanced and exposure of personnel to radioactive materials is minimized.

  5. Final report on the development of a 250-kW modular, factory-assembled battery energy storage system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, D.; Nerbun, W.; Corey, G.

    1998-08-01

    A power management energy storage system was developed for stationary applications such as peak shaving, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve. Project activities included design, manufacture, factory testing, and field installation. The major features that characterize the development are the modularity of the production, its transportability, the power conversion method that aggregates power on the AC side of the converter, and the use of commonly employed technology for system components. 21 figs.

  6. Energy Storage Systems Are Coming: Are You Ready

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conover, David R.

    2015-12-05

    Energy storage systems (batteries) are not a new concept, but the technology being developed and introduced today with an increasing emphasis on energy storage, is new. The increased focus on energy, environmental and economic issues in the built environment is spurring increased application of renewables as well as reduction in peak energy use - both of which create a need for energy storage. This article provides an overview of current and anticipated energy storage technology, focusing on ensuring the safe application and use of energy storage on both the grid and customer side of the utility meter.

  7. Multi-State Load Models for Distribution System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Fuller, Jason C.; Chassin, David P.

    2011-11-01

    Recent work in the field of distribution system analysis has shown that the traditional method of peak load analysis is not adequate for the analysis of emerging distribution system technologies. Voltage optimization, demand response, electric vehicle charging, and energy storage are examples of technologies with characteristics having daily, seasonal, and/or annual variations. In addition to the seasonal variations, emerging technologies such as demand response and plug in electric vehicle charging have the potential to send control signals to the end use loads which will affect how they consume energy. In order to support time-series analysis over different time frames and to incorporate potential control signal inputs it is necessary to develop detailed end use load models which accurately represent the load under various conditions, and not just during the peak load period. This paper will build on previous work on detail end use load modeling in order to outline the method of general multi-state load models for distribution system analysis.

  8. Dynamic Response of an Optomechanical System to a Stationary Random Excitation in the Time Domain

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Palmer, Jeremy A.; Paez, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Modern electro-optical instruments are typically designed with assemblies of optomechanical members that support optics such that alignment is maintained in service environments that include random vibration loads. This paper presents a nonlinear numerical analysis that calculates statistics for the peak lateral response of optics in an optomechanical sub-assembly subject to random excitation of the housing. The work is unique in that the prior art does not address peak response probability distribution for stationary random vibration in the time domain for a common lens-retainer-housing system with Coulomb damping. Analytical results are validated by using displacement response data from random vibration testingmore » of representative prototype sub-assemblies. A comparison of predictions to experimental results yields reasonable agreement. The Type I Asymptotic form provides the cumulative distribution function for peak response probabilities. Probabilities are calculated for actual lens centration tolerances. The probability that peak response will not exceed the centration tolerance is greater than 80% for prototype configurations where the tolerance is high (on the order of 30 micrometers). Conversely, the probability is low for those where the tolerance is less than 20 micrometers. The analysis suggests a design paradigm based on the influence of lateral stiffness on the magnitude of the response.« less

  9. Steam Systems, Retrofit Measure Packages, Hydronic Systems

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Steam System Survey Guide Steam System Survey Guide This guide provides technical information for steam system operational personnel and plant energy managers on some of the major opportunities available to improve the energy efficiency and productivity of industrial steam systems. The guide covers five main areas of investigation: (1) profiling a steam system, (2) identifying steam properties for the steam system, (3) improving boiler operations, (4) improving resource utilization in the steam

  10. AVTA: ChargePoint AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy ChargePoint AC Level 2 charging system for plug-in electric vehicles. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory. PDF icon ChargePoint AC Level 2 - February 2012 More Documents & Publications AVTA: EVSE Charging Protocol for On and Off-Peak Demand AVTA: 2012 Chevrolet Volt PHEV Downloadable Dynamometer Database Reports AVTA: ChargePoint America Recovery Act project map of charging units

  11. Method for in-situ calibration of electrophoretic analysis systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Changsheng; Zhao, Hequan

    2005-05-08

    An electrophoretic system having a plurality of separation lanes is provided with an automatic calibration feature in which each lane is separately calibrated. For each lane, the calibration coefficients map a spectrum of received channel intensities onto values reflective of the relative likelihood of each of a plurality of dyes being present. Individual peaks, reflective of the influence of a single dye, are isolated from among the various sets of detected light intensity spectra, and these can be used to both detect the number of dye components present, and also to establish exemplary vectors for the calibration coefficients which may then be clustered and further processed to arrive at a calibration matrix for the system. The system of the present invention thus permits one to use different dye sets to tag DNA nucleotides in samples which migrate in separate lanes, and also allows for in-situ calibration with new, previously unused dye sets.

  12. Chilled Water Thermal Storage System and Demand Response at the University of California at Merced

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granderson, Jessica; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-10-08

    The University of California at Merced is a unique campus that has benefited from intensive efforts to maximize energy efficiency, and has participated in a demand response program for the past two years. Campus demand response evaluations are often difficult because of the complexities introduced by central heating and cooling, non-coincident and diverse building loads, and existence of a single electrical meter for the entire campus. At the University of California at Merced, a two million gallon chilled water storage system is charged daily during off-peak price periods and used to flatten the load profile during peak demand periods. This makes demand response more subtle and challenges typical evaluation protocols. The goal of this research is to study demand response savings in the presence of storage systems in a campus setting. First, University of California at Merced summer electric loads are characterized; second, its participation in two demand response events is detailed. In each event a set of strategies were pre-programmed into the campus control system to enable semi-automated response. Finally, demand savings results are applied to the utility's DR incentives structure to calculate the financial savings under various DR programs and tariffs. A key conclusion to this research is that there is significant demand reduction using a zone temperature set point change event with the full off peak storage cooling in use.

  13. Integrated Building Energy Systems Design Considering Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Aki, Hirohisa

    2009-04-07

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems (e.g., PV or fuel cells with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. The interactions among PV, solar thermal, and storage systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and CO2 emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that can pursue two strategies as its objective function. These two strategies are minimization of its annual energy costs or of its CO2 emissions. The problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, e.g., nursing homes, to obtain not only the optimal investment portfolio, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules for the selected technologies. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in micro-generation optimization on a building level, with example applications in New York State and California. It shows results from a two-year research projectperformed for the U.S. Department of Energy and ongoing work. Contrary to established expectations, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption compete rather than supplement each other considering the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply. The work shows that high electricity tariffs during on-peak hours are a significant driver for the adoption of electric storage technologies. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries have to be charged by grid power during off-peak hours instead of PV during on-peak hours. In contrast, we also show a CO2 minimization strategy where the common assumption that batteries can be charged by PV can be fulfilled at extraordinarily high energy costs for the site.

  14. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin C. Wiant; Ihor S. Diakunchak; Dennis A. Horazak; Harry T. Morehead

    2003-03-01

    Under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has conducted a study of Next Generation Gas Turbine Systems that embraces the goals of the DOE's High Efficiency Engines and Turbines and Vision 21 programs. The Siemens Westinghouse Next Generation Gas Turbine (NGGT) Systems program was a 24-month study looking at the feasibility of a NGGT for the emerging deregulated distributed generation market. Initial efforts focused on a modular gas turbine using an innovative blend of proven technologies from the Siemens Westinghouse W501 series of gas turbines and new enabling technologies to serve a wide variety of applications. The flexibility to serve both 50-Hz and 60-Hz applications, use a wide range of fuels and be configured for peaking, intermediate and base load duty cycles was the ultimate goal. As the study progressed the emphasis shifted from a flexible gas turbine system of a specific size to a broader gas turbine technology focus. This shift in direction allowed for greater placement of technology among both the existing fleet and new engine designs, regardless of size, and will ultimately provide for greater public benefit. This report describes the study efforts and provides the resultant conclusions and recommendations for future technology development in collaboration with the DOE.

  15. Environmental Management System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Management System Environmental Management System An Environmental Management System (EMS) is a set of processes and practices that enable an organization to reduce its...

  16. Energy Systems Integration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems Integration Ben Kroposki, PhD, PE Director, Energy Systems Integration National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2 Reducing investment risk and optimizing systems in a rapidly ...

  17. Advanced Seismic While Drilling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

    2008-06-30

    A breakthrough has been discovered for controlling seismic sources to generate selectable low frequencies. Conventional seismic sources, including sparkers, rotary mechanical, hydraulic, air guns, and explosives, by their very nature produce high-frequencies. This is counter to the need for long signal transmission through rock. The patent pending SeismicPULSER{trademark} methodology has been developed for controlling otherwise high-frequency seismic sources to generate selectable low-frequency peak spectra applicable to many seismic applications. Specifically, we have demonstrated the application of a low-frequency sparker source which can be incorporated into a drill bit for Drill Bit Seismic While Drilling (SWD). To create the methodology of a controllable low-frequency sparker seismic source, it was necessary to learn how to maximize sparker efficiencies to couple to, and transmit through, rock with the study of sparker designs and mechanisms for (a) coupling the sparker-generated gas bubble expansion and contraction to the rock, (b) the effects of fluid properties and dynamics, (c) linear and non-linear acoustics, and (d) imparted force directionality. After extensive seismic modeling, the design of high-efficiency sparkers, laboratory high frequency sparker testing, and field tests were performed at the University of Texas Devine seismic test site. The conclusion of the field test was that extremely high power levels would be required to have the range required for deep, 15,000+ ft, high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Thereafter, more modeling and laboratory testing led to the discovery of a method to control a sparker that could generate low frequencies required for deep wells. The low frequency sparker was successfully tested at the Department of Energy Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (DOE RMOTC) field test site in Casper, Wyoming. An 8-in diameter by 26-ft long SeismicPULSER{trademark} drill string tool was designed and manufactured by TII. An APS Turbine Alternator powered the SeismicPULSER{trademark} to produce two Hz frequency peak signals repeated every 20 seconds. Since the ION Geophysical, Inc. (ION) seismic survey surface recording system was designed to detect a minimum downhole signal of three Hz, successful performance was confirmed with a 5.3 Hz recording with the pumps running. The two Hz signal generated by the sparker was modulated with the 3.3 Hz signal produced by the mud pumps to create an intense 5.3 Hz peak frequency signal. The low frequency sparker source is ultimately capable of generating selectable peak frequencies of 1 to 40 Hz with high-frequency spectra content to 10 kHz. The lower frequencies and, perhaps, low-frequency sweeps, are needed to achieve sufficient range and resolution for realtime imaging in deep (15,000 ft+), high-temperature (150 C) wells for (a) geosteering, (b) accurate seismic hole depth, (c) accurate pore pressure determinations ahead of the bit, (d) near wellbore diagnostics with a downhole receiver and wired drill pipe, and (e) reservoir model verification. Furthermore, the pressure of the sparker bubble will disintegrate rock resulting in an increased overall rates of penetration. Other applications for the SeismicPULSER{trademark} technology are to deploy a low-frequency source for greater range on a wireline for Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiling (RVSP) and Cross-Well Tomography. Commercialization of the technology is being undertaken by first contacting stakeholders to define the value proposition for rig site services utilizing SeismicPULSER{trademark} technologies. Stakeholders include national oil companies, independent oil companies, independents, service companies, and commercial investors. Service companies will introduce a new Drill Bit SWD service for deep HTHP wells. Collaboration will be encouraged between stakeholders in the form of joint industry projects to develop prototype tools and initial field trials. No barriers have been identified for developing, utilizing, and exploiting the low-frequency SeismicPULSER{trademark} source in a variety of applications. Risks will be minimized since Drill Bit SWD will not interfere with the drilling operation, and can be performed in a relatively quiet environment when the pumps are turned off. The new source must be integrated with other Measurement While Drilling (MWD) tools. To date, each of the oil companies and service companies contacted have shown interest in participating in the commercialization of the low-frequency SeismicPULSER{trademark} source. A technical paper has been accepted for presentation at the 2009 Offshore Technology Conference (OTC) in a Society of Exploration Geologists/American Association of Petroleum Geophysicists (SEG/AAPG) technical session.

  18. Life cycle inventory analysis of regenerative thermal oxidation of air emissions from oriented strand board facilities in Minnesota - a perspective of global climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholson, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    Life cycle inventory analysis has been applied to the prospective operation of regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) technology at oriented strand board plants at Bemidji (Line 1) and Cook, Minnesota. The net system destruction of VOC`s and carbon monoxide, and at Cook a small quantity of particulate, has a very high environmental price in terms of energy and water use, global warming potential, sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions, solids discharged to water, and solid waste deposited in landfills. The benefit of VOC destruction is identified as minor in terms of ground level ozone at best and possibly slightly detrimental. Recognition of environmental tradeoffs associated with proposed system changes is critical to sound decision-making. There are more conventional ways to address carbon monoxide emissions than combustion in RTO`s. In an environment in which global warming is a concern, fuel supplemental combustion for environmental control does not appear warranted. Consideration of non-combustion approaches to address air emission issues at the two operations is recommended. 1 ref., 5 tabs.

  19. Analytical simulation of nonlinear response to seismic test excitations of HDR-VKL (Heissdampfreaktor-Versuchskreislauf) piping system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, M.G.; Kot, C.A. ); Mojtahed, M. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the analytical modeling, calculations, and results of the posttest nonlinear simulation of high-level seismic testing of the VKL piping system at the HDR Test Facility in Germany. One of the objectives of the tests was to evaluate analytical methods for calculating the nonlinear response of realistic piping systems subjected to high-level seismic excitation that would induce significant plastic deformation. Two out of the six different pipe-support configurations, (ranging from a stiff system with struts and snubbers to a very flexible system with practically no seismic supports), subjected to simulated earthquakes, were tested at very high levels. The posttest nonlinear calculations cover the KWU configuration, a reasonably compliant system with only rigid struts. Responses for 800% safe-shutdown-earthquake loading were calculated using the NONPIPE code. The responses calculated with NONPIPE were found generally to have the same time trends as the measurements but contained under-, over-, and correct estimates of peak values, almost in equal proportions. The only exceptions were the peak strut forces, which were underestimated as a group. The scatter in the peak value estimate of displacements and strut forces was smaller than that for the strains. The possible reasons for the differences and the effort on further analysis are discussed.

  20. City of Sturgis, Michigan (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 18252 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes RTO PJM Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  1. City Utilities of Springfield | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 17833 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  2. City of Wahoo, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 19968 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes...

  3. Electricity Monthly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the report month. Prices and demand are shown for six Regional Transmission Operator (RTO) markets: ISO New England (ISO-NE), New York ISO (NYISO), PJM Interconnection (PJM),...

  4. Southwestern Electric Power Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 17698 Utility Location Yes Ownership I NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  5. Public Service Co of Oklahoma | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 15474 Utility Location Yes Ownership I NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  6. Village of Spalding, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 17727 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes...

  7. Town of Laverne, Oklahoma (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 10777 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled...

  8. City of Malden, Missouri (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 11540 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  9. West Penn Power Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 20387 Utility Location Yes Ownership I NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes RTO PJM Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Wholesale...

  10. City of Glasco, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 7269 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes Activity Bundled...

  11. Southwestern Power Admin | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 17716 Utility Location Yes Ownership F NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  12. City of Oxford, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 14276 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes...

  13. City of Higginsville, Missouri (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 8567 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  14. City of St John, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 17879 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes...

  15. City of Orrville, Ohio (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 14194 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes RTO PJM Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  16. Northeast Texas Elec Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 13670 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  17. Sunflower Electric Power Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 18315 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  18. Mid-Kansas Electric Company, LLC (MKEC) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 56324 Utility Location Yes Ownership W NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  19. City of Burlington, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 2551 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  20. Village of Winnetka, Illinois (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 20824 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes RTO PJM Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes...

  1. City of Wellington, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 20315 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  2. City of Lubbock, Texas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 11292 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  3. Pennsylvania Electric Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 14711 Utility Location Yes Ownership I NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes RTO PJM Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity...

  4. Southern Public Power District | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 17642 Utility Location Yes Ownership P NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Buying...

  5. City of Franklin, Virginia (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 6715 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes RTO PJM Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes...

  6. City of Monett, Missouri (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 12782 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes Activity Bundled...

  7. City of Nebraska City, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 13334 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  8. City of Savonburg, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 16876 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Retail...

  9. Western Farmers Elec Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 20447 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  10. City of Wisner, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 20880 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes...

  11. Ohio Power Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 14006 Utility Location Yes Ownership I NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes RTO PJM Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  12. PECO Energy Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 14940 Utility Location Yes Ownership I NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes RTO PJM Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled Services...

  13. City of Franklin, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 6723 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled...

  14. Potomac Electric Power Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 15270 Utility Location Yes Ownership I NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes RTO PJM Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity...

  15. Kentucky Utilities Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EIA Form 861 Data Utility Id 10171 Utility Location Yes Ownership I NERC SERC Yes RTO PJM Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  16. City of Lincoln Center, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 11017 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  17. Kansas Electric Power Coop Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 9961 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  18. Town of Culpeper, Virginia (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 4619 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes RTO PJM Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes...

  19. Nebraska Public Power District | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 13337 Utility Location Yes Ownership P NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  20. City of Burlingame, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 2547 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled...

  1. Clyde Light & Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 3824 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes RTO PJM Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity...

  2. City of Piggott, Arkansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 15043 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  3. City of Altus, Oklahoma (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 416 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Retail Marketing...

  4. Kansas Municipal Energy Agency | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 10035 Utility Location Yes Ownership A NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes This article...

  5. City of St Marys, Ohio (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 17891 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes RTO PJM Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  6. City of Augusta, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 998 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  7. North Carolina El Member Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 13683 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes RTO PJM Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  8. City Water and Light Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 9879 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  9. City of Bedford, Virginia (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 1456 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFO NERC RFC Yes RTO PJM Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  10. Town of Berlin, Maryland (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 1615 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes RTO PJM Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  11. City of Sikeston, Missouri (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Utility Id 17177 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes...

  12. untitled

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... in the SPP RTO under terms and conditions that could ... Enter Southwestern and its customers. Within ten minutes of ... within his division to search for the necessary equipment. ...

  13. Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    RPS renewable portfolio standard RTO regional transmission organization SAP site assessment plan UPR unsaturated polyester resin WAB Wind Agency Bremerhaven WEA Wind Energy...

  14. Effects of TRU Distributions of Electron Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Core Systems on Transmutation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yodersmith, Stephen; Yim, Man-Sung

    2007-07-01

    As part of the effort to investigate the use of an electron accelerator driven system for TRU transmutation, the effects of TRU distributions in the core on transmuter system performance was examined in this paper. The system performance examined includes the transmutation and system power efficiency and changes in power peaking. The transmutation benefits of the system were determined with the introduction of a new parameter, the Transmutation System Effectiveness Parameter (TSEP). TSEP combines the decay heat and radioactivity results into one single parameter that compares the ability of the system to reduce the radioactivity and decay heat of the loaded TRUs. The electron ADS was modeled by using MCNPX and MONTEBURNS as a fast spectrum, Na cooled reactor loosely based on the advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR) design. NJOY was used to process the cross sections at the desired temperatures. The fuel was a TRUZr alloy contained within an HT-9 SS cladding. The subcritical reactor contained four different fuel zones with an equal number of fuel assemblies in each region, each containing one of the four TRU elements: Np, Pu, Cm, Am. Tungsten was used for the target system. The electron ADS was assumed to operate at 500 MWth over a 24 month cycle. Results showed that different distribution patterns had a very insignificant effect on the total radioactivity reduction, the total decay heat reduction, and the TRU radiotoxicity reduction. With respect to the TSEP parameter, the calculation results revealed a much stronger dependence on TRU distributions. It seemed that TSEP accurately reflected and penalized the effectiveness of the system for the fission product production. With respect to examining the k{sub eff} over the cycle, a drastic difference was observed between the cases when Pu is located in the inner most region and the rest of the patterns. The k{sub eff} for the Pu in the inner most region cases decreased at a much faster rate than did the rest therefore requiring a dramatic increase in beam current over the cycle. The power peaking behavior of the system was found to be dictated by the placement of the Pu material region. The lowest total power peaking as well as the lowest relative assembly power peaking was experienced when the inner most region was filled with Np, followed by Pu, and then by Am and Cm. (authors)

  15. Cray XC30 System: Overview Nathan Wichmann

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 8 flopsclk Peak DP FP per node 480 Gflops Memory latency 82 ns Intel NDA Cray Private Single Stream vs Dual Stream Cray compute nodes booted with hyperthreads ...

  16. Energy Management for Motor-Driven Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... 9-9 Electrical Tests ......Typical rate schedule language for direct demand charges is ... periodic equipment testing during peak hours. &25; &25; &25; &25; ...

  17. Energy Storage Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy, Energy Storage, Energy Storage Systems, News, News & Events, Partnership, Renewable Energy, Research & Capabilities, Systems Analysis, Water Power Natural Energy ...

  18. Real-time system for imaging and object detection with a multistatic GPR array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paglieroni, David W; Beer, N Reginald; Bond, Steven W; Top, Philip L; Chambers, David H; Mast, Jeffrey E; Donetti, John G; Mason, Blake C; Jones, Steven M

    2014-10-07

    A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the imaging and detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across the surface and that travels down the surface. The imaging and detection system pre-processes the return signal to suppress certain undesirable effects. The imaging and detection system then generates synthetic aperture radar images from real aperture radar images generated from the pre-processed return signal. The imaging and detection system then post-processes the synthetic aperture radar images to improve detection of subsurface objects. The imaging and detection system identifies peaks in the energy levels of the post-processed image frame, which indicates the presence of a subsurface object.

  19. Optimizing the performance of Ice-storage Systems in Electricity Load Management through a credit mechanism. An analytical work for Jiangsu, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Yafeng; Shen, Bo; Hu, Huajin; Fan, Fei

    2015-01-12

    Ice-storage air-conditioning is a technique that uses ice for thermal energy storage. Replacing existing air conditioning systems with ice storage has the advantage of shifting the load from on-peak times to off-peak times that often have excess generation. However, increasing the use of ice-storage faces significant challenges in China. One major barrier is the inefficiency in the current electricity tariff structure. There is a lack of effective incentive mechanism that induces ice-storage systems from achieving optimal load-shifting results. This study presents an analysis that compares the potential impacts of ice-storage systems on load-shifting under a new credit-based incentive scheme and the existing incentive arrangement in Jiangsu, China. The study indicates that by changing how ice-storage systems are incentivized in Jiangsu, load-shifting results can be improved.

  20. Optimizing the performance of Ice-storage Systems in Electricity Load Management through a credit mechanism. An analytical work for Jiangsu, China

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Han, Yafeng; Shen, Bo; Hu, Huajin; Fan, Fei

    2015-01-12

    Ice-storage air-conditioning is a technique that uses ice for thermal energy storage. Replacing existing air conditioning systems with ice storage has the advantage of shifting the load from on-peak times to off-peak times that often have excess generation. However, increasing the use of ice-storage faces significant challenges in China. One major barrier is the inefficiency in the current electricity tariff structure. There is a lack of effective incentive mechanism that induces ice-storage systems from achieving optimal load-shifting results. This study presents an analysis that compares the potential impacts of ice-storage systems on load-shifting under a new credit-based incentive scheme andmore » the existing incentive arrangement in Jiangsu, China. The study indicates that by changing how ice-storage systems are incentivized in Jiangsu, load-shifting results can be improved.« less

  1. NREL: Energy Systems Integration - Power Systems Engineering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power Systems Engineering Power systems engineering at NREL means working with the electricity industry to optimize strategies for effectively interconnecting renewable resources and emerging energy efficiency technologies with the electric power system. Power systems engineering focuses on resolving grid integration barriers to sustainable, economic, secure, and reliable electricity based on a paradigm of high penetration of renewable energy, coordinated and intelligent cyber-control, and

  2. Impacts of Commercial Electric Utility Rate Structure Elements on the Economics of Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; Denholm, P.; Doris, E.

    2010-06-01

    This analysis uses simulated building data, simulated solar photovoltaic (PV) data, and actual electric utility tariff data from 25 cities to understand better the impacts of different commercial rate structures on the value of solar PV systems. By analyzing and comparing 55 unique rate structures across the United States, this study seeks to identify the rate components that have the greatest effect on the value of PV systems. Understanding the beneficial components of utility tariffs can both assist decision makers in choosing appropriate rate structures and influence the development of rates that favor the deployment of PV systems. Results from this analysis show that a PV system's value decreases with increasing demand charges. Findings also indicate that time-of-use rate structures with peaks coincident with PV production and wide ranges between on- and off-peak prices most benefit the types of buildings and PV systems simulated. By analyzing a broad set of rate structures from across the United States, this analysis provides an insight into the range of impacts that current U.S. rate structures have on PV systems.

  3. Application of the Software as a Service Model to the Control of Complex Building Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Donadee, Jon; Marnay, Chris; Lai, Judy; Mendes, Goncalo; Appen, Jan von; Mé gel, Oliver; Bhattacharya, Prajesh; DeForest, Nicholas; Lai, Judy

    2011-03-18

    In an effort to create broad access to its optimization software, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in collaboration with the University of California at Davis (UC Davis) and OSISoft, has recently developed a Software as a Service (SaaS) Model for reducing energy costs, cutting peak power demand, and reducing carbon emissions for multipurpose buildings. UC Davis currently collects and stores energy usage data from buildings on its campus. Researchers at LBNL sought to demonstrate that a SaaS application architecture could be built on top of this data system to optimize the scheduling of electricity and heat delivery in the building. The SaaS interface, known as WebOpt, consists of two major parts: a) the investment& planning and b) the operations module, which builds on the investment& planning module. The operational scheduling and load shifting optimization models within the operations module use data from load prediction and electrical grid emissions models to create an optimal operating schedule for the next week, reducing peak electricity consumption while maintaining quality of energy services. LBNL's application also provides facility managers with suggested energy infrastructure investments for achieving their energy cost and emission goals based on historical data collected with OSISoft's system. This paper describes these models as well as the SaaS architecture employed by LBNL researchers to provide asset scheduling services to UC Davis. The peak demand, emissions, and cost implications of the asset operation schedule and investments suggested by this optimization model are analyzed.

  4. Application of the Software as a Service Model to the Control of Complex Building Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Donadee, Jonathan; Marnay, Chris; Mendes, Goncalo; Appen, Jan von; Megel, Oliver; Bhattacharya, Prajesh; DeForest, Nicholas; Lai, Judy

    2011-03-17

    In an effort to create broad access to its optimization software, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in collaboration with the University of California at Davis (UC Davis) and OSISoft, has recently developed a Software as a Service (SaaS) Model for reducing energy costs, cutting peak power demand, and reducing carbon emissions for multipurpose buildings. UC Davis currently collects and stores energy usage data from buildings on its campus. Researchers at LBNL sought to demonstrate that a SaaS application architecture could be built on top of this data system to optimize the scheduling of electricity and heat delivery in the building. The SaaS interface, known as WebOpt, consists of two major parts: a) the investment& planning and b) the operations module, which builds on the investment& planning module. The operational scheduling and load shifting optimization models within the operations module use data from load prediction and electrical grid emissions models to create an optimal operating schedule for the next week, reducing peak electricity consumption while maintaining quality of energy services. LBNL's application also provides facility managers with suggested energy infrastructure investments for achieving their energy cost and emission goals based on historical data collected with OSISoft's system. This paper describes these models as well as the SaaS architecture employed by LBNL researchers to provide asset scheduling services to UC Davis. The peak demand, emissions, and cost implications of the asset operation schedule and investments suggested by this optimization model are analysed.

  5. Method and apparatus for signal processing in a sensor system for use in spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Connor, Paul; DeGeronimo, Gianluigi; Grosholz, Joseph

    2008-05-27

    A method for processing pulses arriving randomly in time on at least one channel using multiple peak detectors includes asynchronously selecting a non-busy peak detector (PD) in response to a pulse-generated trigger signal, connecting the channel to the selected PD in response to the trigger signal, and detecting a pulse peak amplitude. Amplitude and time of arrival data are output in first-in first-out (FIFO) sequence. An apparatus includes trigger comparators to generate the trigger signal for the pulse-receiving channel, PDs, a switch for connecting the channel to the selected PD, and logic circuitry which maintains the write pointer. Also included, time-to-amplitude converters (TACs) convert time of arrival to analog voltage and an analog multiplexer provides FIFO output. A multi-element sensor system for spectroscopy includes detector elements, channels, trigger comparators, PDs, a switch, and a logic circuit with asynchronous write pointer. The system includes TACs, a multiplexer and analog-to-digital converter.

  6. NERSC File Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Systems NERSC File Systems Overview NERSC file systems can be divided into two categories: local and global. Local file systems are only accessible on a single platform, providing best performance; global file systems are accessible on multiple platforms, simplifying data sharing between platforms. File systems are configured for different purposes. On each machine you have access to at least three different file system Home: Permanent, relatively small storage for data like source code, shell

  7. Customer Engagement in AEP gridSMART Residential Transactive System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Marinovici, Maria C.; Fuller, Jason C.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chassin, David P.; Somani, Abhishek

    2014-12-31

    — In 2013, AEP Ohio (AEP) operated a 5-minute real-time price (RTP) electricity market system on 4 distribution feeders as part of their gridSMART® demonstration project. The RTP households were billed for their electricity usage according to an RTP tariff approved by the Public Utility Commission of Ohio. They were given the incentive that their annual bill would be no greater than if they were on the flat-rate tariff, but they had financial incentives to shift consumption from high price periods to low price periods. Incentives were also available for response under high prices from local events, such as reaching the distribution feeder capacity or a critical peak pricing event. An analysis of this transactive system experiment was completed in early 2014. This paper describes the incentive provided to the customer, the nature of their interaction with the smart thermostat that provided automated response to the transactive signal, and their level of satisfaction with the program.

  8. Strongly modified four-wave mixing in a coupled semiconductor quantum dot-metal nanoparticle system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paspalakis, Emmanuel; Evangelou, Sofia; Kosionis, Spyridon G.; Terzis, Andreas F.

    2014-02-28

    We study the four-wave mixing effect in a coupled semiconductor quantum dot-spherical metal nanoparticle structure. Depending on the values of the pump field intensity and frequency, we find that there is a critical distance that changes the form of the spectrum. Above this distance, the four-wave mixing spectrum shows an ordinary three-peaked form and the effect of controlling its magnitude by changing the interparticle distance can be obtained. Below this critical distance, the four-wave mixing spectrum becomes single-peaked; and as the interparticle distance decreases, the spectrum is strongly suppressed. The behavior of the system is explained using the effective Rabi frequency that creates plasmonic metaresonances in the hybrid structure. In addition, the behavior of the effective Rabi frequency is explained via an analytical solution of the density matrix equations.

  9. Community Energy: Analysis of Hydrogen Distributed Energy Systems with Photovoltaics for Load Leveling and Vehicle Refueling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, D.; Zuboy, J.

    2014-10-01

    Energy storage could complement PV electricity generation at the community level. Because PV generation is intermittent, strategies must be implemented to integrate it into the electricity system. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies offer possible PV integration strategies, including the community-level approaches analyzed in this report: (1) using hydrogen production, storage, and reconversion to electricity to level PV generation and grid loads (reconversion scenario); (2) using hydrogen production and storage to capture peak PV generation and refuel hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) (hydrogen fueling scenario); and (3) a comparison scenario using a battery system to store electricity for EV nighttime charging (electric charging scenario).

  10. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2015-08-25

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  11. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton; Stecher, Thomas; Seeley, Charles; Kuenzler, Glenn; Wolfe, Jr., Charles; Utturkar, Yogen; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2013-05-07

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  12. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2015-02-24

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  13. NETL: Energy Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Systems Program Gasification Systems The Gasification Systems Program is developing advanced technologies to reduce the cost and increase the efficiency of producing syngas. Gasifipedia | Feed Systems | Gasifier Optimization | Syngas Processing | Systems Analyses | Gasification Plant Databases Advanced Combustion The Advanced Combustion Program is developing technologies and new high-temperature materials that enable electricity production using low-cost, highly efficient, oxygen-fired

  14. Investigating Operating System Noise in Extreme-Scale High-Performance Computing Systems using Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelmann, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Hardware/software co-design for future-generation high-performance computing (HPC) systems aims at closing the gap between the peak capabilities of the hardware and the performance realized by applications (application-architecture performance gap). Performance profiling of architectures and applications is a crucial part of this iterative process. The work in this paper focuses on operating system (OS) noise as an additional factor to be considered for co-design. It represents the first step in including OS noise in HPC hardware/software co-design by adding a noise injection feature to an existing simulation-based co-design toolkit. It reuses an existing abstraction for OS noise with frequency (periodic recurrence) and period (duration of each occurrence) to enhance the processor model of the Extreme-scale Simulator (xSim) with synchronized and random OS noise simulation. The results demonstrate this capability by evaluating the impact of OS noise on MPI_Bcast() and MPI_Reduce() in a simulated future-generation HPC system with 2,097,152 compute nodes.

  15. Fossil Fuel-fired Peak Heating for Geothermal Greenhouses | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    18(1):1-4. Related Geothermal Exploration Activities Activities (1) Geothermal Literature Review At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Rafferty, 1997) Areas (1) Lightning Dock...

  16. Radiometrics At Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    References William R. Henkle Jr., Wayne C. Gundersen, Thomas D. Gundersen (2005) Mercury Geochemical, Groundwater Geochemical, And Radiometric Geophysical Signatures At Three...

  17. Progress in Understanding Iron Peak Elements in Young Supernova...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Org: Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Sponsoring Org: DOELANL Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: Astronomy & Astrophysics(79); Atomic & ...

  18. Progress in Understanding Iron Peak Elements in Young Supernova...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory Rutgers Univeristy University of Pittspurgh Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Publication Date: 2013-09-13 OSTI Identifier: 1093345 Report ...

  19. Quasi-isentropic drive development for peak pressures > 10 Mbar...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUMM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 42 ENGINEERING; 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, ...

  20. Property:WinterPeakNetCpcty | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    + 28.6 + N Navy I Geothermal Facility + 81.7 + Navy II Geothermal Facility + 86 + R Raft River Geothermal Facility + 12 + Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...