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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

An Analysis of RPM Validation Drift  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experiments that analyze dependencies in RedHat Linux and RpmFind.net show disturbing conflicts and overlaps between software packages that result in installing multiple differing versions of dynamic libraries. The final state of a system containing ...

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

U-003:RPM Package Manager security update | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

03:RPM Package Manager security update 03:RPM Package Manager security update U-003:RPM Package Manager security update October 4, 2011 - 1:30pm Addthis PROBLEM: A vulnerability was reported in RPM Package Manager. A remote user can cause arbitrary code to be executed on the target user's system. PLATFORM: Version(s): 4.9.1.1 and prior versions. ABSTRACT: RPM Package Manager Header Validation Flaws Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code. reference LINKS: RPM Package Manager Advisory RHSA-2011:1349-1 SecurityTracker Alert ID: 1026134 CVE-2011-3378 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Medium Discussion: A remote user can create a specially crafted RPM package that, when queried or installed by the target user, will trigger a buffer overflow or memory corruption error and execute arbitrary code on the target system. The code

3

2006 SSO Report.indd  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

status report on essential system functionality (January 2006), the engineering design, analysis, and confi guration management of safety systems need further...

4

AvrRpm1 Missense Mutations Weakly Activate RPS2-Mediated Immune Response in Arabidopsis thaliana  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AvrRpm1 Missense Mutations Weakly Activate RPS2- Mediated Immune Response in Arabidopsis thaliana Plants recognize microbes via specific pattern recognition receptors that are activated by microbe to pathogen proliferation. Plant pathogenic bacteria like Pseudomonas syringae utilize a type III secretion

Dangl, Jeff

5

RPM-SIM-Based Analysis of Power Converter Applications in Renewable Energy Systems: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper briefly presents the RPM-SIM simulator and, in particular, its abilities to simulate and analyze renewable energy systems with power converters. This modular simulation system is used to study applications and cost-effective performance of renewable energy systems, analyze both static and dynamic performance, develop control strategies, and simulate autonomous renewable energy systems under different generation and load conditions (such as different wind speeds, temperature, insolation conditions, and load profiles).

Bialasiewicz, J. T.; Muljadi, E.; Nix, R. G.

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

RPM-SIM Simulator: A Comparison of Simulated Versus Recorded Data (Preprint)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper compares simulated versus recorded data for the RPM-SIM simulator, developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's National Wind Technology Center. The simulator was used to study the system dynamics of a wind/diesel hybrid power system. We also provide information on newly developed simulator modules that will be released. The simulator performed extremely well, demonstrating flexibility in making modifications and including specialized modules required for problem solving. We also outline several possible applications for this tool.

Bialasiewicz, J.T.; Muljadi, E.; Nix, G.; Drouilhet, S.

2001-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

7

Renewable Energy Power System Modular SIMulators: RPM-Sim User's Guide (Supersedes October 1999 edition)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This version of the RPM-SIM User's Guide supersedes the October 1999 edition. Using the VisSimTM visual environment, researchers developed a modular simulation system to facilitate an application-specific, low-cost study of the system dynamics for wind-diesel hybrid power systems. This manual presents the principal modules of the simulator and, using case studies of a hybrid system, demonstrates some of the benefits that can be gained from understanding the effects of the designer's modifications to these complex dynamic systems.

Bialasiewicz, J.T.; Muljadi, E.; Nix, G.R.; Drouilhet, S.

2001-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

8

Impact of Heavy Aircraft Operations on Airport Capacity at Newark Liberty International Airport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aviation System Performance Metrics (ASPM) departure and arrival rate data is collected for four common airport confi gurations at Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR) under Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) for ...

Simaiakis, Ioannis

9

16,000-rpm Interior Permanent Magnet Reluctance Machine with Brushless Field Excitation  

SciTech Connect

The reluctance interior permanent magnet (RIPM) motor is currently used by many leading auto manufacturers for hybrid vehicles. The power density for this type of motor is high compared with that of induction motors and switched reluctance motors. The primary drawback of the RIPM motor is the permanent magnet (PM) because during high-speed operation, the fixed PM produces a huge back electromotive force (emf) that must be reduced before the current will pass through the stator windings. This reduction in back-emf is accomplished with a significant direct-axis (d-axis) demagnetization current, which opposes the PM's flux to reduce the flux seen by the stator wires. This may lower the power factor and efficiency of the motor and raise the requirement on the alternate current (ac) power supply; consequently, bigger inverter switching components, thicker motor winding conductors, and heavier cables are required. The direct current (dc) link capacitor is also affected when it must accommodate heavier harmonic currents. It is commonly agreed that, for synchronous machines, the power factor can be optimized by varying the field excitation to minimize the current. The field produced by the PM is fixed and cannot be adjusted. What can be adjusted is reactive current to the d-axis of the stator winding, which consumes reactive power but does not always help to improve the power factor. The objective of this project is to avoid the primary drawbacks of the RIPM motor by introducing brushless field excitation (BFE). This offers both high torque per ampere (A) per core length at low speed by using flux, which is enhanced by increasing current to a fixed excitation coil, and flux, which is weakened at high speed by reducing current to the excitation coil. If field weakening is used, the dc/dc boost converter used in a conventional RIPM motor may be eliminated to reduce system costs. However, BFE supports a drive system with a dc/dc boost converter, because it can further extend the constant power speed range of the drive system and adjust the field for power factor and efficiency gains. Lower core losses at low torque regions, especially at high speeds, are attained by reducing the field excitation. Safety and reliability are increased by weakening the field when a winding short-circuit fault occurs, preventing damage to the motor. For a high-speed motor operating at 16,000-revolutions per minute (rpm), mechanical stress is a challenge. Bridges that link the rotor punching segments together must be thickened for mechanical integrity; consequently, increased rotor flux leakage significantly lowers motor performance. This barrier can be overcome by BFE to ensure sufficient rotor flux when needed.

Hsu, J.S.; Burress, T.A.; Lee, S.T.; Wiles, R.H.; Coomer, C.L.; McKeever, J.W.; Adams, D.J.

2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

10

Phase diagrams in the lattice RPM model: from order-disorder to gas-liquid phase transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The phase behavior of the lattice restricted primitive model (RPM) for ionic systems with additional short-range nearest neighbor (nn) repulsive interactions has been studied by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. We obtain a rich phase behavior as the nn strength is varied. In particular, the phase diagram is very similar to the continuum RPM model for high nn strength. Specifically, we have found both gas-liquid phase separation, with associated Ising critical point, and first-order liquid-solid transition. We discuss how the line of continuous order-disorder transitions present for the low nn strength changes into the continuum-space behavior as one increases the nn strength and compare our findings with recent theoretical results by Ciach and Stell [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 91}, 060601 (2003)].

Alexandre Diehl; Athanassios Z. Panagiotopoulos

2004-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

11

Microsoft PowerPoint - Risk_Portfolio_Manager(RPM)_overview_Under_Sec_DOE__2011_V4 Final 3-22-2011.ppt [Read-Only] [Compatibili  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Corporate Headquarters: Corporate Headquarters: Risk Management: Overview of 1010 Wayne Avenue, Suite 1150 Silver Spring, Maryland 20910 301.565.2988 Telephone 301.565.2995 Facsimile www.e-mcinc.com Overview of e-Gov Risk Portfolio Manager(tm) (e Gov RPM(tm)) V4 Satellite Offices: 80 M Street, S.E., Suite 715 Washington, DC 20003 13800 Coppermine Road, Suite 221 (e-Gov RPM(tm)) V4 for Under Secretary of Energy 13800 Coppermine Road, Suite 221 Herndon, Virginia 20171 e-Management - Proprietary Information March 2011 Today's Agenda 1) eGov RPM and use at DOE EM 2) Overview of the capabilities of eGov RPM(tm) 3) eGov RPM supports the Under Secretary of Energy's Program Cyber Security Plan (PCSP) Cyber Security Plan (PCSP) e-Management - Proprietary Information 2 e-Gov Risk Portfolio Manager is a multi-user, web based tool used for continuous monitoring

12

Dynamic Impregnator Reactor System (Poster), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Several unit operations are combined into Several unit operations are combined into one robust system, off ering fl exible and staged process confi gurations in one vessel. Spraying, soaking, low-severity pretreat- ment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, concentration/evaporation, and distillation are amongst its many capabilities. * 1,900 L Horizontal Paddle Blender Vessel with Sidewall Liquid Drains * 6-60 rpm / 50 HP Tri-Directional Agitator * 3.4 bar & Vacuum ASME Design, 316L Stainless Steel * Heating/Cooling Jacket using Water or Steam * 150 L Chemical Mix Tank & Pump with Spray Injectors * Vent Condenser with Collection Tank and Vacuum Pump Dynamic Impregnator Reactor System Multifaceted system designed for complex feedstock impregnation and processing Integrated Biorefi nery Research Facility | NREL * Golden, Colorado | December 15, 2011 | NREL/PO-5100-56156

13

The comparison of three photovoltaic system designs using the photovoltaic reliability and performance model (PV-RPM).  

SciTech Connect

Most photovoltaic (PV) performance models currently available are designed to use irradiance and weather data and predict PV system output using a module or array performance model and an inverter model. While these models can give accurate results, they do so for an idealized system. That is, a system that does not experience component failures or outages. We have developed the Photovoltaic Reliability and Performance Model (PV-RPM) to more accurately model these PV systems by including a reliability component that simulates failures and repairs of the components of the system, as well as allow for the disruption of the system by external events such as lightning or grid disturbances. In addition, a financial component has also been included to help assess the profitability of a PV system.

Miller, Steven P.; Granata, Jennifer E.; Stein, Joshua S.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

A 200 000 rpm, 2 kW Slotless Permanent Magnet Pierre-Daniel Pfister, Student Member IEEE and Yves Perriard, Senior Member IEEE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A 200 000 rpm, 2 kW Slotless Permanent Magnet Motor Pierre-Daniel Pfister, Student Member IEEE high speed (200 krpm, 2 kW) slotless permanent magnet motor, using an analytical model that reached 200 krpm. Index Terms--Very high speed, Slotless permanent magnet motor, Multiphysics analytical

Psaltis, Demetri

15

RussiaSNL2-web.indd  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

a Platform-Independent Molecular a Platform-Independent Molecular Builder and Visualizer Principal Investigators: John Aidun (SNL) and Alexander Selezenev (VNIIEF) Project Description A Unix/Linux based, platform-independent molecular builder and visualizer (MBV) was developed as a preprocessor and postprocessor for atomistic simulations. This project drew on the substan- tial experience and accomplishment of the VNIIEF team in this area. Developments were selected, in particular, to enable atomistic simulations of crystal defects, grain boundaries, and material interfaces, which are topics of active interest at Sandia and VNIIEF and in the wider materials sci- ence and solid state physics communities. Joint research was conducted to identify how to defi ne the atomistic confi gurations of material interfaces in the geometric (unrelaxed) approximation,

16

Constellation Proposal for an Automated Determination of the RPM Gross Cost of New Entry (CONE)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Constellation offers the following outline for reforming the annual development of Gross CONE in an automated fashion. The purpose of the proposal is to derive CONE in a manner that reasonably approximates the contemporaneous cost to build a Reference Resource in the auction year, via rules that are easily understood, reasonably accurate, transparent, and replicable. In summary, our proposal features an initial benchmark gross CONE for the 2012?13 Delivery Year that will be adjusted based on an the Handy Whitman Index prior to subsequent annual Base Residual Auctions. Periodically, the prevailing cost to build the reference resource will be comprehensively studied by a third party expert. If the study varies from the index?adjusted CONE by more than a predetermined amount, then the study value shall be set as the CONE for the next BRA and shall be the new benchmark. The gross CONE would subsequently be adjusted to account for expected energy and ancillary services revenues as currently set forth in the OATT.

unknown authors

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Constellation Proposal for an Automated Determination of the RPM Gross Cost of New Entry (CONE)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Constellation offers the following outline for reforming the annual development of Gross CONE in an automated fashion. The purpose of the proposal is to derive CONE in a manner that reasonably approximates the contemporaneous cost to build a Reference Resource in the auction year, via rules that are easily understood, reasonably accurate, transparent, and replicable. In summary, our proposal features an initial benchmark gross CONE for the 2012-13 Delivery Year that will be adjusted based on an the Handy Whitman Index prior to subsequent annual Base Residual Auctions. Periodically, the prevailing cost to build the reference resource will be comprehensively studied by a third party expert. If the study varies from the index-adjusted CONE by more than a predetermined amount, then the study value shall be set as the CONE for the next BRA and shall be the new benchmark. The gross CONE would subsequently be adjusted to account for expected energy and ancillary services revenues as currently set forth in the OATT.

unknown authors

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

RPM §9.02. Operational Procedures for Computing and Communications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 2 Operational Procedures for Computing and Communications Revised 09/08 Communications and Networking Systems Communications and Networking Management ICS Voice Telephone System ICS Data-Switching System LBLnet ICS-Dedicated Wiring and Optical-Fiber Systems Public Address System Public Address System Announcements Radio Communications Systems Radio Paging Systems Radio Emissions Standards and Spectrum Management Card Access, Security, Alarms, and Surveillance Systems Video, Fiber-Optic, and Other Signal Systems Video Teleconferencing Remote Access Services Electronic Access Background Fundamental Principles and Characteristics Kinds of Access Forms of Electronic Publishing Use of Information Systems and Services Background Definitions Scope Fundamental Principles General Page and File Policy

19

RPM §2.05. Employee Relations (Rev. 03/13)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

05 05 Management/Employee Relations If you have feedback regarding an HR policy or procedure, share it with us here. _____ Rev. 03/13 NOTE: The policies and procedures contained in Sections 2.05(E), (J), and (K) are reproduced exactly as they appear in the corresponding University of California Policies and Procedures and, consequently, use the UC numbering system. Areas of Responsibility Responsibilities of Managers/Supervisors Responsibilities of Employees Early Problem Resolution Employees and Supervisors Labor Employee Relations Corrective Action and Dismissal Policy Documentation Authority to Take Corrective Action Investigatory Leave Written Warnings Corrective Action Other Than Written Warnings and Dismissals Dismissal of Nonprobationary Career and Term Employees

20

RPM §2.26. Voluntary Leave Donation (Rev. 3/12)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

26 26 Voluntary Leave Donation If you have feedback regarding an HR policy or procedure, share it with us here. _____ Rev. 3/12 Purpose Applicability Definitions Catastrophic Illness or Injury Catastrophic Casualty Loss Catastrophic Bereavement Loss Exceptions Provisions of Leave Applicable Situations Receiving-Employee Conditions Donating-Employee Conditions Donations Minimum Donation Maximum Credit Misuse of Leave Tax Consequences Program Details A. Purpose This policy enables employees to donate vacation time on an hour-for-hour basis, regardless of differing pay scales, to another employee who: Has exhausted sick and vacation leave due to a catastrophic illness or injury affecting the employee or an eligible person, as defined below; or Has experienced a catastrophic casualty loss; or

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

RPM-1 suppressors Act in synapse formation and axon termination in Caenorhabditis elegans  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

phosphatase Predicted helicase Uncharacterized conservedconjugating enzyme E3 ubiquitin ligase Predicted helicasePredicted helicase Predicted E3 ubiquitin ligase Predicted

Trujillo, Gloriana Victoria

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

RPM 9.01. Computing and Communications (Rev. 09/07)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for science and the Laboratory's use of IT resources should always reflect the intelligence, quality, integrity, and competence of the Laboratory and the University. LBNL's...

23

RPM-SIM (Renewable Energy Power System Modular Simulator) user's guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the VisSimTM visual environment, researchers developed a modular simulation system to facilitate an application-specific, low-cost study of the system dynamics for wind-diesel hybrid power systems. This manual presents the principal modules of the simulator and, using case studies of a hybrid system, demonstrates some of the benefits that can be gained from understanding the effects of the designer's modifications to these complex dynamic systems.

Bialasiewicz, J.T.; Muljadi, E.; Nix, G.R.; Drouilhet, S.

1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

24

2528 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 43, NO. 6, JUNE 2007 A Highly Efficient 200 000 RPM Permanent Magnet Motor System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Permanent Magnet Motor System Limei Zhao1, Chan Ham2, Liping Zheng3, Thomas Wu4, Kalpathy Sundaram4, Jay presents the development of an ultra-high-speed permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) that produces effectiveness. Index Terms--Permanent magnet, motor, stability, ultra-high-speed. I. INTRODUCTION DUE

Wu, Shin-Tson

25

[101 R N A EDITING IN TRYPANOSOMATID MITOCHONDRIA 99 tion studies should enable us to determine if Rpmlr and Rpm2p are the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) The washed sediment was suspended again with a magnetic stirrer in 0.01% sodium carbonate solution and the chemicals, petrochemicals, chemical wastes and heavy metals, radioactive wastes, domestic sewage, and heat steps. (1) About 5­15 cc of sediment were soaked for two days in a combination of Morgan's solution

Simpson, Larry

26

The Desmic conjecture (MR0704251) - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

S. M. NWANKPA' ?Generalized Sylvester Gallai Con?gurations.? PhD. Thesis. Michigan. State Univ., East Lansing, I970. Printed by the St. Catherine Press Ltd..

27

Economic analysis of the N-1 reliable unit commitment and transmission switching problem using duality concepts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

including optimized transmission line con- ?guration. 1z kt only affects transmission lines in (4a ) and (4b ). ?We examine the transmission lines in a similar manner.

ONeill, Richard P.; Hedman, Kory W.; Krall, Eric A.; Papavasiliou, Anthony; Oren, Shmuel S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Robust Dynamic Traffic Assignment under Demand and Capacity Uncertainty  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assignment under Demand and Capacity Uncertainty ? Giuseppeworst-case sce- nario of demand and capacity con?gurations.uncertain demands and capacities are modeled as unknown-but-

Calafiore, Giuseppe; El Ghaoui, Laurent

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

HybridStore: A Cost-Efficient, High-Performance Storage System Combining SSDs and HDDs  

SciTech Connect

Unlike the use of DRAM for caching or buffering, certain idiosyncrasies of NAND Flash-based solid-state drives (SSDs) make their integration into existing systems non-trivial. Flash memory suffers from limits on its reliability, is an order of magnitude more expensive than the magnetic hard disk drives (HDDs), and can sometimes be as slow as the HDD (due to excessive garbage collection (GC) induced by high intensity of random writes). Given these trade-offs between HDDs and SSDs in terms of cost, performance, and lifetime, the current consensus among several storage experts is to view SSDs not as a replacement for HDD but rather as a complementary device within the high-performance storage hierarchy. We design and evaluate such a hybrid system called HybridStore to provide: (a) HybridPlan: improved capacity planning technique to administrators with the overall goal of operating within cost-budgets and (b) HybridDyn: improved performance/lifetime guarantees during episodes of deviations from expected workloads through two novel mechanisms: write-regulation and fragmentation busting. As an illustrative example of HybridStore s ef cacy, HybridPlan is able to nd the most cost-effective storage con guration for a large scale workload of Microsoft Research and suggest one MLC SSD with ten 7.2K RPM HDDs instead of fourteen 7.2K RPM HDDs only. HybridDyn is able to reduce the average response time for an enterprise scale random-write dominant workload by about 71% as compared to a HDD-based system.

Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Gupta, Aayush [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Urgaonkar, Bhuvan [Pennsylvania State University; Piotr, Berman [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Sivasubramaniam, Anand [Pennsylvania State University

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

GEANT SIMULATIONS OF PRESHOWER CALORIMETER FOR CLAS12 UPGRADE OF THE FORWARD ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER  

SciTech Connect

Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility uses the CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility) Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) to study the structure of the nucleon. An upgrade from a 6 GeV beam to a 12GeV beam is currently planned. With the beam energy upgrade, more high-energy pions will be created from the interaction of the beam and the target. Above 6GeV, the angle between the two-decay photons of high-energy pions becomes too small for the current electromagnetic calorimeter (EC) of CLAS to differentiate between two photon clusters and single photon events. Thus, a preshower calorimeter will be added in front of the EC to enable fi ner granularity and ensure better cluster separation for all CLAS experiments at higher energies. In order to optimize cost without compromising the calorimeters performance, three versions of the preshower, varying in number of scintillator and lead layers, were compared by their resolution and effi ciency. Using GSIM, a GEANT detector simulation program for CLAS, the passage of neutral pions and single photons through CLAS and the new preshower calorimeter (CLAS12 EC) was studied. The resolution of the CLAS12 EC was calculated from the Gaussian fi t of the sampling fraction, the energy CLAS12 EC detected over the Monte Carlo simulated energy. The single photon detection effi ciency was determined from the energy and position of the photon hits. The fractional energy resolution measured was ?E/E = 0.0972 in the fi ve-module version, 0.111 in the four-module version, and 0.149 in the three-module version. Both the fi ve- and four-module versions had 99% single photon detection effi ciency above 0.5GeV while the 3 module version had 99% effi ciency above 1.5GeV. Based on these results, the suggested preshower confi guration is the four-module version containing twelve layers of scintillator and fi fteen layers of lead. This version provides a reasonable balance of resolution, effi ciency, and cost. Additional GSIM simulations will be undertaken to verify that the four-module version has acceptable ? mass reconstruction and to continue Research and Development (R&D) analysis on the preshower calorimeter.

Whitlow, K.; Stepanyan, S.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Joint interaction with embedded concretions: joint loading congurations inferred from propagation paths  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Joint interaction with embedded concretions: joint loading con®gurations inferred from propagation The interaction between propagating joints and embedded concretions in a Devonian black shale near Seneca Lake, NY, permits identi®cation of the loading con®gurations responsible for two joint sets of dierent ages striking

Engelder, Terry

32

jYang : A YANG parser in java  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The NETCONF con?guration protocol of the IETF Network Work- ing Group provides mechanisms to manipulate the con?guration of network devices. YANG is the language currently under consideration within the IETF to specify the data models to be used in NETCONF . This report describes the design and development of a syntax and semantics parser for YANG in java.

Nataf, Emmanuel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

RAPIDS Simulator Programmer's Manual TABLE OF CONTENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.3 operation.tcl le : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 53 6.4 con guration.tcl le : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 55 6.5 pointconn.tcl le : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 56 6.6 taskgen.tcl le : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 57 6.7

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

34

Laboratories for Data Communications and Computer Raj Jain, Steve Lai  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the GUI in Tcl/Tk. The typical use of the GUI consists of two phases { the network con guration phase at teh application layers of the sender and receiver respectively. The ability of fast prototyping in Tcl/Tk

Jain, Raj

35

BWXTymes, April 2005, Y-12 National Security Complex newsletter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

introduces the possibility for error. That's the next part of the fundamental. We are human, and But since work process changes are error-prone, document changes, confi rm...

36

RussiaSNL2-web.indd  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

of short pulse petawatt (PW) lasers (like Z-PW at Sandia) used for creating pulsed electron, ion, or x-ray beams for inertial confi nement fusion (ICF) experimental diagnostics...

37

V12-0159.indd  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

the results of a fi eld test at a 100-m-deep vadose zone test site contaminated with technetium-99 and nitrate. Th e fi eld test confi rmed the results of laboratory...

38

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Amber Kinetics Flywheel Energy Storage...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7700 RPM - Spin testing accelerates rotor to: 530 ms and 11,000 RPM - Rotor stores 10 kWh of kinetic energy @ 11,000 RPM (2x more than design speed) - All testing conducted in...

39

Case Study 5: Replacement and Capacity Expansion Decisions at an Airplane Engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a designed annual capacity of 1,300,000 compressor blades and 12,000 disks. The 700,000 square foot facility the machining and bu ng handling capacity to 600,000 airfoils per year. As this bottleneck problem remains. With this con guration the spindle/vibratory machinery can be used in a pure spindle mode at no additional cost

Colton, Jonathan S.

40

THE ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 563:451461, 2001 December 10 ( 2001. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.?WHAM spectrum of Comet Hale-Bopp, from 1997 March 5. In this 30 s exposure, the WHAM emission on Kitt Peak: the Wisconsin Ha Mapper (WHAM; Tufte 1997), two conÐgurations of the 3.5 m Wisconsin observations of Vega. The WHAM and 50 mm instrument calibrations are based on the HaFabry-Pe rot surface

Bourke, Mary C.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

arXiv:heplat/0405026 ADP-04-12/T594  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany The chiral properties of the fat introducing fat-links in the irrelevant operators. The exceptional con#12;guration problem of quenched QCD by taking the fourth-root. This operation renders a non-local lattice action, raising concerns about the con

42

Widely linear equalization for MIMO and SISO communications systems using filter banks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

receiving ?lters be H rrc (z) and the channel between theto the vth Rx be H v,m (z). De?ne H v,m (z) = H rrc (z)H v,m (z)H rrc (z). With this con?guration, we can represent the

Pun, Ka Shun Carson

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Limits on a muon flux from Kaluza-Klein dark matter annihilations in the Sun from the IceCube 22-string detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sun from the IceCube 22-string detector R. Abbasi,etal 1III.the Sun from the IceCube 22-string detector R. Abbasi, 26 Y.performed with the 22-string con?guration of the IceCube

Abbasi, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Microsoft Word - ROCKY MOUNTAIN OILFIELD TESTING CENTER - STWA-AOT-10192011 -R2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Energy STWA : Viscosity Reduction Test An assessment of an in-line viscosity reduction device Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3, Teapot Dome Field, Wyoming Final Report for October 19, 2011 This document may contain protected/confi dential information produced under and Funds-In Agreement (FIA) and is not to be further disclosed except as expressly provided for in the FIA.

45

Environmental Microbiology (2003) 5(7), 583591 2003 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

; SEAB 1993) . In the last decade as well, attention has been drawn to what is presented as a new advising the Secretary of Energy observed (SEAB 1993, 39): The legacy of distrust created by the Department to implement recommendations to foster public trust and confi- dence, see SEAB: 1993, 61 . 11 It is unclear

Lovley, Derek

46

United States Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

; SEAB 1993) . In the last decade as well, attention has been drawn to what is presented as a new advising the Secretary of Energy observed (SEAB 1993, 39): The legacy of distrust created by the Department to implement recommendations to foster public trust and confi- dence, see SEAB: 1993, 61 . 11 It is unclear

47

QUASI-ELASTIC ELECTRON SCATTERING FROM A HIGH-MOMENTUM NUCLEON IN DEUTERIUM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 2.1 The CEBAF machine con#12;guration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 2.2 Side view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 4.5 Missing mass spectra #12;tting procedure for Q 2 = 2:5 GeV 2 . . . . . . . 120 4.6 Same . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 4.11 Same as in Fig. 4.10 except for Q 2 = 3:5 GeV 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 4.12 Same

Lewis, Robert Michael

48

Gamma spectroscopy of nuclei far from stability Institut de Physique Nucl eaire, IN2P3-CNRS, F-91406 Orsay, France  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. In such case, di erent magnetic substates of a given orbitals have not equal energy, those along the axis to predict what would be the shape of the ground state con gu- ext-2001-016 21/02/2001 in2p3-00018850,version to be spherical in their ground state con guration. With this requirement, it may be possible to isolate the e ect

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

49

General Operational Procedure for Pedestrian Radiation Portal Monitors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document outlines the basic conduct of operation (CONOPS) for a pedestrian radiation portal monitor (RPM), provided that the CONOPS is not facility or RPM specific and that it is based on a general understanding of a pedestrian RPM operation. The described CONOPS for a pedestrian RPM is defined by: (1) RPM design and operational characteristics, (2) type of pedestrian traffic, and (3) goal for RPM installation. Pedestrian RPMs normally are deployed for the continuous monitoring of individuals passing through point of control to detect the unauthorized traffic of radioactive/nuclear materials. RPMs generally are designed to detect gamma- and neutron-emitting materials.

Belooussov, Andrei V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

50

Formation and Sustainment of ITPs in ITER with the Baseline Heating Mix  

SciTech Connect

Plasmas with internal transport barriers (ITBs) are a potential and attractive route to steady-state operation in ITER. These plasmas exhibit radially localized regions of improved con nement with steep pressure gradients in the plasma core, which drive large bootstrap current and generate hollow current pro les and negative shear. This work examines the formation and sustainment of ITBs in ITER with electron cyclotron heating and current drive. It is shown that, with a trade-o of the power delivered to the equatorial and to the upper launcher, the sustainment of steady-state ITBs can be demonstrated in ITER with the baseline heating con guration.

Francesca M. Poli and Charles Kessel

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

51

An optimality condition for the assembly distribution in a nuclear reactor Laurent Thevenot  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We give here an optimality condition for the optimization problem of the assembly distribution in a nuclear reactor, by using the homogenization method. In this paper the reactivity of the reactor core is measured by the critical eigenvalue for both continuous and multigroup neutron transport modelings. In particular, we extend the spectral theory of the critical eigenvalue and prove the dierentiability of this latter with respect to the design parameter, the con guration of the fuels. MS Classi cation: 49K20, 49J50, 35P05, 35F15. Key words: Neutron Transport, Nuclear Reactor, Optimization, Optimality Condition, Homogenization, Critical Eigenvalue, Eigenvalue Derivative.

Departement Of Applied; Laurent Thevenot

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Performance Analysis of J85 Turbojet Engine Matching Thrust with Reduced Inlet Pressure to the Compressor.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Jet engines are required to operate at a higher rpm for the same thrust values in cases such as aircraft landing and military loitering. High (more)

Yarlagadda, Santosh

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

FIPS 140-2 Security Policy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... on a disk partition, which is a PV (physical volume ... is automatically verified during the installation and the crypto officer shall not install the RPM ...

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

54

Drill Press Speed Chart  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

operating speeds (RPM) Accessory Softwood (Pine) Hardwood (Hard Maple) Acrylic Brass Aluminum Steel Shop Notes Twist drill bits 116" - 316" 14" - 38" 716"- 58" 11...

55

Budget Office .:. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(RPM) UC Accounting Manual UCDOE Prime Contract (Contract 31) CFO Departments: Budget Office Business Systems Analysis Conference Services Controller's Office Field Operations...

56

UNIX Installation notes for EXPGUI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... GSAS & EXPGUI. This is because it was getting increasingly hard to find RPM distributions for Tcl/Tk and BLT. If one has ...

57

Model Predictive Control of HVAC Systems: Implementation and Testing at the University of California, Merced  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fanspeed(rpm) N fan ,0 : designfanspeed(P fan : fanpower(kW) m cw ,0 : designwatermass

Haves, Phillip

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Efficient Compression of CO2 and Pipeline Transport Considerations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

14,300 rpm Instrumentation Cooling Water InletExit Cooling Water Thermocouples Sealing Gland Pressure Tubing Thermocouple Wire Half-Shielded Thermocouple Probe Near Impeller Exit...

59

AN INVESTIGATION OF PERFORMANCE BENEFITS AND TRIM REQUIREMENTS OF A VARIABLE SPEED HELICOPTER ROTOR.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study primarily examines the main rotor power reductions possible through variation in rotor RPM. Simulations were based on the UH-60 Blackhawk helicopter, and emphasis (more)

Steiner, Jason

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Microsoft Word - 2.12.1 MOU between Engineering and AFRD 0913...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

configuration regarding Engineering matrixed employees is consistent with the LBNL Health & Safety Manual and the RPM and is summarized as follows: * The matrixed employee's...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Pantex Volume 1 - Final.PDF  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PSM Process Safety Management QA Quality Assurance rpm Revolutions Per Minute RSD Radiation Safety Department SBRT Safety Basis Review Team SGT Safeguards Transport SRID...

62

Chemical Relaxation and Double Layer Model Analysis of Boron Adsorption on Alumina  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with a DIA-RPM Wheatstone bridge, and DIA-RRC analog-to-digital converter (Dia-log Co., Diis- seldorf

Sparks, Donald L.

63

NISTIR 6991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 187-207 (1992). [18] B. Bedal and H. Nguyen, Advances in Part Accuracy, in: Stereolithography and Other RP&M Processes, PF Jacobs, American ...

2013-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

64

Standard Methods of Characterizing Performance of Fan Filter Units, Version 3.0  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

differential, total electric power demand, and totalper minute (RPM). W t (Total Electric Power Demand):Total electric power input to operate the FFU at certain

Xu, Tengfang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Central metabolism in Mycobacterium smegmatis during the transition from O2-rich to O2-poor conditions as studied by isotopomer-assisted metabolite analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in pyridine (Sigma-Aldrich) (MOX solution) for 90 min at 40shaking at 200 rpm. The MOX solution was then centrifuged

Tang, Yinjie J.; Shui, Wenqing; Myers, Samuel; Feng, Xueyang; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Keasling, Jay D.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Berkeley Lab  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Menu Training and Policy Ethical Values And Conduct New Employee Training Policies, Manuals and Reference RPM PUB3000 All Training Resources JHA Berkeley Lab Institute (BLI)...

67

Research and Institutional Integrity Office at Berkeley Lab  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PHS Regulations Other federal regulations Top LBNL Policies Regulations and Procedures Manual (RPM) 10.01 Conflict of Interest - General 10.02 Outside Business and...

68

Comparing Linear Microinstability of the National Compact Stellarator Expriment and a Shaped Tokamak  

SciTech Connect

One metric for comparing con nement properties of di erent magnetic fusion energy con gurations is the linear critical gradient of drift wave modes. The critical gradient scale length determines the ratio of the core to pedestal temperature when a plasma is limited to marginal stability in the plasma core. The gyrokinetic turbulence code GS2 was used to calculate critical temperature gradients for the linear, collisionless ion tem- perature gradient (ITG) mode in the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) and a prototypical shaped tokamak, based on the pro les of a JET H-mode shot and the stronger shaping of ARIES-AT. While a concern was that the narrow cross section of NCSX at some toroidal locations would result in steep gradients that drive instabilities more easily, it is found that other stabilizing e ects of the stellarator con guration o set this so that the normalized critical gradients for NCSX are competitive with or even better than for the tokamak. For the adiabatic ITG mode, NCSX and the tokamak had similar critical gradients, though beyond marginal stability, NCSX had larger growth rates. However, for the kinetic ITG mode, NCSX had a higher critical gradient and lower growth rates until a/LT ?#25; 1:5 a/LT;crit, when it surpassed the tokamak's. A discussion of the results presented with respect to a/LT vs R/LT is included.

J.A. Baumgaertel, G.W. Hammett and D.R. Mikkelsen

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

69

The Dependence of H-mode Energy Confinement and Transport on Collisionality in NSTX  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the dependence of confi nement on collisionality in tokamaks is important for the design of next-step devices, which will operate at collisionalities at least one order of magnitude lower than in present generation. A wide range of collisionality has been obtained in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) by employing two different wall conditioning techniques, one with boronization and between-shot helium glow discharge conditioning (HeGDC+B), and one using lithium evaporation (Li EVAP). Previous studies of HeGDC+B plasmas indicated a strong and favorable dependence of normalized con nement on collisionality. Discharges with lithium conditioning discussed in the present study gen- erally achieved lower collisionality, extending the accessible range of collisionality by almost an order of unity. While the confinement dependences on dimensional, engineering variables of the HeGDC+B and Li EVAP datasets differed, collisionality was found to unify the trends, with the lower collisionality lithium conditioned discharges extending the trend of increasing normalized confi nement time with decreasing collisionality when other dimension less variables were held as fi xed as possible. This increase of confi nement with decreasing collisionality was driven by a large reduction in electron transport in the outer region of the plasma. This result is consistent with gyrokinetic calculations that show microtearing and Electron Temperature Gradient modes to be more stable for the lower collisionality discharges. Ion transport, near neoclassical at high collisionality, became more anomalous at lower collisionality, possibly due to the growth of hybrid TEM/KBM modes in the outer regions of the plasma

S.M.. Kaye, S. Gerhardt, W. Guttenfelder, R. Maingi, R.E. Bell, A. Diallo, B.P. LeBlanc and M. Podesta

2012-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

70

The Dependence of H-mode Energy Confinement and Transport on Collisionality in NSTX  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the dependence of confi nement on collisionality in tokamaks is important for the design of next-step devices, which will operate at collisionalities at least one order of magnitude lower than in present generation. A wide range of collisionality has been obtained in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) by employing two different wall conditioning techniques, one with boronization and between-shot helium glow discharge conditioning (HeGDC+B), and one using lithium evaporation (Li EVAP). Previous studies of HeGDC+B plasmas indicated a strong and favorable dependence of normalized con nement on collisionality. Discharges with lithium conditioning discussed in the present study gen- erally achieved lower collisionality, extending the accessible range of collisionality by almost an order of unity. While the confinement dependences on dimensional, engineering variables of the HeGDC+B and Li EVAP datasets differed, collisionality was found to unify the trends, with the lower collisionality lithium conditioned discharges extending the trend of increasing normalized confi nement time with decreasing collisionality when other dimension less variables were held as fi xed as possible. This increase of confi nement with decreasing collisionality was driven by a large reduction in electron transport in the outer region of the plasma. This result is consistent with gyrokinetic calculations that show microtearing and Electron Temperature Gradient modes to be more stable for the lower collisionality discharges. Ion transport, near neoclassical at high collisionality, became more anomalous at lower collisionality, possibly due to the growth of hybrid TEM/KBM modes in the outer regions of the plasma.

S.M.. Kaye, S. Gerhardt, W. Guttenfelder, R. Maingi, R.E. Bell, A. Diallo, B.P. LeBlanc and M. Podesta

2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

71

1 Copyright 2010 by ASME Proceedings of ASME 2010 3rd Joint US-European Fluids Engineering Summer Meeting and 8th International  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wind Turbines (VAWT) has renewed interest in studying numerous aspects of their long-term operation; including vibration excitation, and response behaviour. The fatigue life of a VAWT is often considered.43), low rotational velocity (30 RPM to 160 RPM) VAWT designs where dynamic stall effects are dominant

Tullis, Stephen

72

Reviewing progress in PJM's capacity market structure via the new reliability pricing model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Reliability Pricing Model introduces significant changes to the capacity market structure of PJM. The main feature of the RPM design is a downward-sloping demand curve, which replaces the highly volatile vertical demand curve. The authors review the latest RPM structure, results of the auctions, and the future course of the implementation process. (author)

Sener, Adil Caner; Kimball, Stefan

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

73

Extending lifetime of portable systems by battery scheduling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multi-battery power supplies are becoming popular in electronic appliances of the latest generations, due to economical and manufacturing constraints. Unfortunately, a partitioned battery subsystem is not able to deliver the same amount of charge as a monolithic battery with the same total capacity. In this paper, we de ne the concept of battery scheduling, we investigate policies for solving the problem of optimal charge delivery, and we study the relationship of such policies with di erent con gurations of the battery subsystem. Results, obtained for di erent workloads, demonstrate that the choice of the proper scheduling can make, in the best case, system lifetime as close as 1 % of that guaranteed by a monolithic battery of equal capacity. 1

L. Benini; G. Castelli Z; A. Macii Z

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Implementing image processing applications on a real-time architecture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presents three examples of realtime image processing applications that were implemented on a data- ow architecture developed at the ETCA. Low-level image processing is performed on a regular three-dimensional network of 1024 custom data- ow processors. Image features previously extracted in the low-level step are handled by a two-dimensional network of 12 general purpose processors. Fast prototyping of real-time image processing applications is achieved through a programming environment including a complete stream from functional programming speci cation to network con guration. A large class of algorithms can be implemented. Among them we describe a non-linear lter, a connected component labeling and a colored object tracking. Figure 1: The Functional Computer I.

G. Quenot; C. Coutelle; J. Serot; B. Zavidovique

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

HEV Fleet Testing - Honda Civic Hybrid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Total miles driven: 161,532 Cumulative MPG: 37.23 Engine: 4-cylinder, 70 kW @ 5700 rpm Electric Motor: 10 kW Battery: Nickel Metal Hydride Seatbelt Positions: Five Payload: 882...

76

Propeller performance analysis using lifting line theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Propellers are typically optimized to provide the maximum thrust for the minimum torque at a specific number of revolutions per minute (RPM) at a particular ship speed. This process allows ships to efficiently travel at ...

Flood, Kevin M. (Kevin Michael)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Materials: Synthesis and Properties II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 20, 2010 ... Slurry was poured into a mold and placed in a horizontal magnetic field (0-10 Tesla). The mold was rotated at 30 rpm until the slurry was dried...

78

PowerPoint Presentation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

rotation in presence of Optical Matching Device field Magnetic field on the target 5 Tesla Rotation rate 1000 rpm Target conductivity 1.5e6 (copper - 6e7) - Benchmark against...

79

Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell Code Using High Performance Fortran on PC Cluster  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional full electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) code, TRISTAN (Tridimensional Stanford) code, has been parallelized using High Performance Fortran (HPF) as a RPM (Real Parallel Machine). In the simulation, the simulation domains are decomposed ...

DongSheng Cai; Yaoting Li; Ken-ichi Nishikawa; Chiejie Xiao; Xiaoyan Yan

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Henning Lohse-Busch  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

V6 FFV Test Cycle Fuel Usage Summary Table Test I.D. Engine 2012 Ford Fusion V6 2012 Ford Fusion V6 Estimated Shifts cycle Avg. Engine Spd rpm when moving % Total Fuel Used %...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Microsoft Word - 2.1 All AFRD Personnel 0913.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

employees and participating affiliates are described in RPM ES&H Core Policy and ES&H Manual Section 1.7. Hazards Analysis and Work Authorization Before performing work, AFRD...

82

BCM 2 Equipment Inventory | Sample Preparation Laboratories  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(Cold Room) Refrigerated Fisher Marathon 21KBr centrifuge (0-13,300 rpm dependent on rotor). Sanyo VIP Series MDF-U73VC Temperature Control Sanyo VIP Series -86C ultra low...

83

Return to Return Point Memory J. M. Deutsch, Abhishek Dhar, and Onuttom Narayan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

spin state. In our numerical simulations, we find that, for the cases when RPM is valid, it also holds. Amengual, Ll. Mano~sa, F. Marco, C. Picornell, C. Segui, and V. Torra, Thermochim. Acta 116, 195 (1987); A

California at Santa Cruz, University of

84

INFRASTRUCTURE PRELIMINARIES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, 300 rpm), centrifuged (2,000?g, 5 min), and supernatants collected and frozen. Differences from a rotating biological contactor treat- ing ammonium-rich leachate. Arch Microbiol 175: 198­207 8

85

Air-powered sensor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

allows it to produce higher volt- ages at the lower speedsof motor/generator. supply volts no-load speed, rpm back-emfand 1000 fpm. We measured volt- age and current supplied to

Federspiel, C.; Chen, J.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

HEV Fleet Testing - Honda Civic Hybrid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Operating Cost: 0.07mile Total Ownership Cost: 0.20mile Operating Performance: Total miles driven: 161,075 Cumulative MPG: 37.32 Engine: 4-cylinder, 70 kW @ 5700 rpm Electric...

87

HEV Fleet Testing - Honda Insight  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Operating Cost: 0.07mile Total Ownership Cost: 0.29mile Operating Performance: Total miles driven: 145,902 Cumulative MPG: 44.05 Engine: 3-cylinder, 48 kW @ 5700 rpm Electric...

88

VEHICLE SPECIFICATIONS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Displacement: 1.5 L Fuel Tank Capacity: 13.2 US gal Fuel Type: Regular Unleaded Motor Type: Permanent magnet Max. PowerTorque: 17 kW144 Nm Max. Motor Speed: 9500 rpm...

89

arbitrage opportunities for energy efficiency resources in the PJM capacity market.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study examines the effect of Energy Efficiency Projects on the PennsylvaniaNew JerseyMaryland Interconnection (PJM) Reliability Pricing Model (RPM). In particular, it focuses on the (more)

Nagy, Stefan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Technologies Reference Shelf - Presentation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Drilling (DE-FC26-04NT15502) is to design two sizes of ultra-high-speed (10,000 rpm) electric inverted configured motors for microhole drilling. The goal of the related NETL...

91

VEHICLE SPECIFICATIONS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy: 0.5 kWh Weight of Pack: 65 lb Pack Location: TrunkRear Seat Cooling: Active - Fan cooled MotorGenerator Max. PowerTorque: 15 kW107 Nm Max. Generator Speed: 6000 rpm...

92

ISSUES MANAGEMENT PROGRAM MANUAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ISSUES MANAGEMENT PROGRAM MANUAL LBNL/PUB-5519 (1), Rev. 0and Analysis Program Manual. LBNL/PUB-5519 (1), Rev. 0the Regulations and Procedures Manual (RPM): CATS database o

Gravois, Melanie

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Analytical Framework to Evaluate Emission Control Systems for Marine Engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

720 rpm) marine diesel engines with a maximum power ratingpower are under consideration to reduce energy requirements of marinemarine diesel engines, are operated near/at the port to provide power

Jayaram, Varalakshmi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Effects of ethanol content on gasohol PFI engine wide-open-throttle operation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The NOx emission and knock characteristics of a PFI engine operating on ethanol/gasoline mixtures were assessed at 1500 and 2000 rpm with ? =1 under Wide-Open-Throttle condition. There was no significant charge cooling due ...

Cheng, Wai K.

95

UNIVERSITE DE PROVENCE AIX MARSEILLE 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for itsreactorsandprocessingplantsthatonceproduced plutonium for nuclear weapons [1]. There are 149 single-shell tanks and 28 double-shell tanks. Magnetic Stirrer Donor Solution Acceptor Solution Liquid Membrane Reaction Beaker pH Motor RPM Controller

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

96

Handbook of Methods for the Analysis of the Various Parameters of the Carbon Dioxide System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for itsreactorsandprocessingplantsthatonceproduced plutonium for nuclear weapons [1]. There are 149 single-shell tanks and 28 double-shell tanks. Magnetic Stirrer Donor Solution Acceptor Solution Liquid Membrane Reaction Beaker pH Motor RPM Controller

97

Training at LBNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Following are web links and people you may contact for information on training: Lab Policy: RPM 2.04, Education and Employee-Development Policies, discusses the types, sources and...

98

Laboratory Equipment - MyFuge Mini Centrifuge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Manufacturer: Benchmark Scientific; Speed Range: 6000 rpm/2000 xg; Load Capacity: 8 x 1.5/2.0-mL tubes, 16 x 0.2 mL PCR tubes, 2 x PCR strips ...

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

99

Utilize Cementitious High Carbon Fly Ash (CHCFA) to Stabilize Cold In-Place Recycled (CIR) Asphalt Pavement as Base Coarse  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of cementitious high carbon fly ash (CHCFA) stabilized recycled asphalt pavement as a base course material in a real world setting. Three test road cells were built at MnROAD facility in Minnesota. These cells have the same asphalt surface layers, subbases, and subgrades, but three different base courses: conventional crushed aggregates, untreated recycled pavement materials (RPM), and CHCFA stabilized RPM materials. During and after the construction of the three cells, laboratory and field tests were carried out to characterize the material properties. The test results were used in the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG) to predict the pavement performance. Based on the performance prediction, the life cycle analyses of cost, energy consumption, and greenhouse gasses were performed. The leaching impacts of these three types of base materials were compared. The laboratory and field tests showed that fly ash stabilized RPM had higher modulus than crushed aggregate and RPM did. Based on the MEPDG performance prediction, the service life of the Cell 79 containing fly ash stabilized RPM, is 23.5 years, which is about twice the service life (11 years) of the Cell 77 with RPM base, and about three times the service life (7.5 years) of the Cell 78 with crushed aggregate base. The life cycle analysis indicated that the usage of the fly ash stabilized RPM as the base of the flexible pavement can significantly reduce the life cycle cost, the energy consumption, the greenhouse gases emission. Concentrations of many trace elements, particularly those with relatively low water quality standards, diminish over time as water flows through the pavement profile. For many elements, concentrations below US water drinking water quality standards are attained at the bottom of the pavement profile within 2-4 pore volumes of flow.

Wen, Haifang; Li, Xiaojun; Edil, Tuncer; O'Donnell, Jonathan; Danda, Swapna

2011-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

100

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Renewable Energy Power System Modular  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Renewable Energy Power System Modular Simulator (RPM-Sim) Renewable Energy Power System Modular Simulator (RPM-Sim) Project Summary Full Title: Renewable Energy Power System Modular Simulator (RPM-Sim) Project ID: 104 Principal Investigator: Edward Muljadi Keywords: Renewable; hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) Purpose This is a package software program developed based on a modular concept. Each module consists of a type of equipment or an element of a power system (for example, diesel-genset, wind turbine generator, village load, rotary converter, PV-inverter module, fuel cell-inverter module (developed by Prof. Hashem Nehrir, Montana State University), electrolysis module (developed by Prof. Hosein Salehfar and Prof. Mann University of North Dakota). Performer Principal Investigator: Edward Muljadi Organization: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

The Los Alamos 600 MJ, 1500 MW inertial energy storage and pulsed power unit  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A 1430 MVA synchronous generator from a cancelled nuclear power plant has been installed and commissioned at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to be used as the pulsed power generator for physics experiments. The generator is mounted on a spring foundation to prevent dynamic forces from being transmitted to the substructure and into the ground. A 6 MW load-commutated inverter drive accelerates the machine from standstill to the maximum operating speed of 1800 rpm and from 1260 rpm to 1800 rpm between load pulses. The generator cooling method has been changed from hydrogen to air cooling to facilitate operation. A current limiting fuse, with a fuse clearing current of 90 kA, will protect the generator output against short circuit currents. An overview of the installation is presented. The paper also addresses the overload capability of the generator for pulsed loads. 7 figs., 1 tab.

Boenig, H.J.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Small Vessel Contribution to Underwater Noise  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the types of noise generated by a small boat is important for ensuring that marine ecosystems are protected from detrimental anthropogenic noise. Here we present the results of a field test conducted to examine the effects of engine RPM, number of engines and number of propeller blades on the broadband and narrowband noise produced by a small boat. The test boat was a 23-foot aluminum-hulled boat with dual 100 hp engines. The broadband noise and narrowband peak levels were observed using two hydrophones in different locations. The broadband noise levels were affected by both the number of engines and the RPM; the narrowband peaks showed a greater increase in amplitude with an increase in RPM than the broadband noise levels.

Matzner, Shari; Maxwell, Adam R.; Myers, Joshua R.; Caviggia, Kurt A.; Elster, Jennifer L.; Foley, Michael G.; Jones, Mark E.; Ogden, George L.; Sorensen, Eric L.; Zurk, Lisa M.; Tagestad, Jerry D.; Stephan, Alex J.; Peterson, Mary E.; Bradley, Donald J.

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

103

Power Act (FPA), 16 U.S.C. 824d, hereby submits revisions to the PJM Open Access Transmission Tariff (Tariff), the Amended and Restated Operating Agreement of PJM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Agreement among Load Serving Entities in the PJM Region (RAA) to recognize and support, at the wholesale level, the development of price responsive demand (PRD) demand reductions enabled by advanced meters and dynamic retail rate structuresby states in the PJM region. The enclosed revisions address PRD both in the context of PJMs forward capacity market (known as the Reliability Pricing Model or RPM) and PJMs dayahead and real-time energy markets. For RPM, PJM plans to implement PRD for the capacity year that will be addressed by RPMs next three-year forward Base Residual Auction 1 in May 2012. As explained in this filing, parties that wish to submit PRD load reduction plans to PJM for that capacity year must do so by January 15, 2012. PJM therefore requests that the enclosed revisions related to RPM (identified below) become effective on December 15, 2011, so that market participants have certainty about the rules in place as they develop and submit their PRD plans to PJM. While PJMs three-year forward capacity structure means that PRD plans submitted for RPM will address only load reductions implemented on or after June 1, 2015, PJM and its stakeholders see no reason to defer the benefits of PRD in the energy market for three years. Accordingly, 1 The Base Residual Auction (or BRA), as defined in the Tariff, is the principal RPM auction, which secures commitments for capacity to be provided in a Delivery Year that begins approximately three years after the auction. See Tariff,

L. L. C. (operating Agreement; The Reliability Assurance

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Developing a Methodology for Characterizing the Effects of Building Materials Natural Radiation Background on a Radiation Portal Monitoring System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Trafficking of radioactive material, particularly special nuclear material (SNM), has long been a worldwide concern. To interdict this material the US government has installed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) around the globe. Building materials surrounding an RPM can greatly effect the detectors background radiation levels due to Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). In some cases this effect is so great that the initial RPM setup had to be rebuilt. This thesis develops a methodology for quick and efficient determination of the specific activity and composition of building materials surrounding a RPM to predict background levels, therefore determining the minimum detectable quantity (MDQ) of material. This methodology builds on previous work by Ryan et al by generating material and source cards for a detailed Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) deck, based on an experimental RPM setup to predict the overall gamma background at a site. Gamma spectra were acquired from samples of building materials and analyzed to determine the specific activity of the samples. A code was developed to estimate the elemental composition of building materials using the gamma transmission of the samples. These results were compared to previous Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) on the same samples. It was determined that densitometry provided an elemental approximation within 5% of that found through NAA. Using the specific activity and material composition, an MCNP deck was used to predict the gamma background levels in the detectors of a typical RPM. These results were compared against actual measurements at the RPM site, and shown to be within 10% of each other.

Fitzmaurice, Matthew Blake 1988-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Effect of E85 on RCCI Performance and Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine - SAE World Congress  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates the effect of E85 on load expansion and FTP modal point emissions indices under reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) operation on a light-duty multi-cylinder diesel engine. A General Motors (GM) 1.9L four-cylinder diesel engine with the stock compression ratio of 17.5:1, common rail diesel injection system, high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and variable geometry turbocharger was modified to allow for port fuel injection with gasoline or E85. Controlling the fuel reactivity in-cylinder by the adjustment of the ratio of premixed low-reactivity fuel (gasoline or E85) to direct injected high reactivity fuel (diesel fuel) has been shown to extend the operating range of high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) compared to the use of a single fuel alone as in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) or premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). The effect of E85 on the Ad-hoc federal test procedure (FTP) modal points is explored along with the effect of load expansion through the light-duty diesel speed operating range. The Ad-hoc FTP modal points of 1500 rpm, 1.0bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP); 1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP; 2000rpm, 2.0bar BMEP; 2300rpm, 4.2bar BMEP; and 2600rpm, 8.8bar BMEP were explored. Previous results with 96 RON unleaded test gasoline (UTG-96) and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) showed that with stock hardware, the 2600rpm, 8.8bar BMEP modal point was not obtainable due to excessive cylinder pressure rise rate and unstable combustion both with and without the use of EGR. Brake thermal efficiency and emissions performance of RCCI operation with E85 and ULSD is explored and compared against conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and RCCI operation with UTG 96 and ULSD.

Curran, Scott [ORNL; Hanson, Reed M [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development. Annual technical progress report, October 1990--September 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this program are to study combustion feasibility by running Series 149 engine tests at high speeds with a fuel injection and combustion system designed for coal-water-slurry (CWS). The following criteria will be used to judge feasibility: (1) engine operation for sustained periods over the load range at speeds from 600 to 1900 rpm. The 149 engine for mine-haul trucks has a rated speed of 1900 rpm; (2) reasonable fuel economy and coal burnout rate; (3) reasonable cost of the engine design concept and CWS fuel compared to future oil prices.

Not Available

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this program are to study combustion feasibility by running Series 149 engine tests at high speeds with a fuel injection and combustion system designed for coal-water-slurry (CWS). The following criteria will be used to judge feasibility: (1) engine operation for sustained periods over the load range at speeds from 600 to 1900 rpm. The 149 engine for mine-haul trucks has a rated speed of 1900 rpm; (2) reasonable fuel economy and coal burnout rate; (3) reasonable cost of the engine design concept and CWS fuel compared to future oil prices.

Not Available

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Resource Planning Model: An Integrated Resource Planning and Dispatch Tool for Regional Electric Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report introduces a new capacity expansion model, the Resource Planning Model (RPM), with high spatial and temporal resolution that can be used for mid- and long-term scenario planning of regional power systems. Although RPM can be adapted to any geographic region, the report describes an initial version of the model adapted for the power system in Colorado. It presents examples of scenario results from the first version of the model, including an example of a 30%-by-2020 renewable electricity penetration scenario.

Mai, T.; Drury, E.; Eurek, K.; Bodington, N.; Lopez, A.; Perry, A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Enhancement of power system transient stability using superconducting fault current limiters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract|Transient stability investigations consist in studying the rotor oscillations of generators (electro-mechanic oscillations, 0.1-2 Hz) followed by a fault of large amplitude, e.g. short circuit. The goal is to indicate if the generators are capable to stay synchronous after a fault has occurred. The fault duration is one of the most important factors to be given an answer. In fact, the shorter the fault, the more the maintaining of synchronisation can be guaranteed. Now in case of a fault, a fault current limiter has an extremely fast current transition in comparison with electro-mechanic time constants. This implies a quasi-instantaneous elimination of the fault through a limitation of the current and consequently a better ability to maintain the synchronisation of the system. We recall, in a classic system the elimination of a fault, by opening a circuit breaker, is carried out in two or three cycles in the best case. We have here studied a simple, radial electric network con guration with a machine and an in nite network. The study covers simulations of di erent faults that can occur in a network and the consequences of the recovery time of the fault current limiter. I.

Marten Sjostrom; Rachid Cherkaoui

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Synthesis of Pt?Pd Core?Shell Nanostructures by Atomic Layer Deposition: Application in Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation to Propylene  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was employed to synthesize supported Pt?Pd bimetallic particles in the 1 to 2 nm range. The metal loading and composition of the supported Pt?Pd nanoparticles were controlled by varying the deposition temperature and by applying ALD metal oxide coatings to modify the support surface chemistry. Highresolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images showed monodispersed Pt?Pd nanoparticles on ALD Al2O3 - and TiO2 -modi?ed SiO2 gel. X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the bimetallic nanoparticles have a stable Pt-core, Pd-shell nanostructure. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the most stable surface con?guration for the Pt? Pd alloys in an H2 environment has a Pt-core, Pd-shell nanostructure. In comparison to their monometallic counterparts, the small Pt?Pd bimetallic core?shell nanoparticles exhibited higher activity in propane oxidative dehydrogenation as compared to their physical mixture.

Lei, Y.; Liu, Bin; Lu, Junling; Lobo-Lapidus, Rodrigo J.; Wu, Tianpin; Feng, Hao; Xia, Xiaoxing; Mane, Anil U.; Libera, Joseph A.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Elam, J. W.

2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

111

124 DIESELPOWER n JUNE 2010 WWW.DIESELPOWERMAG.COM [DIESELTECH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, with no expensive and complicated aftertreatment ·Better throttle response ·More engine RPM ·Lower static in diesel technology, you don't necessarily have to become a mechanic or an engine calibra- tor. Colleges offer students the chance to learn many different aspects of the diesel engine, and upon graduation you

Southern California, University of

112

Control system for a vertical axis windmill  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vertical axis windmill having a rotating structure is provided with a series of articulated vertical blades whose positions are controlled to maintain a constant RPM for the rotating structure, when wind speed is sufficient. A microprocessor controller is used to process information on wind speed, wind direction and RPM of the rotating structure to develop an electrical signal for establishing blade position. The preferred embodiment of the invention, when connected to a utility grid, is designed to generate 40 kilowatts of power when exposed to a 20 mile per hour wind. The control system for the windmill includes electrical blade actuators that modulate the blades of the rotating structure. Blade modulation controls the blade angle of attack, which in turn controls the RPM of the rotor. In the preferred embodiment, the microprocessor controller provides the operation logic and control functions. A wind speed sensor provides inputs to start or stop the windmill, and a wind direction sensor is used to keep the blade flip region at 90.degree. and 270.degree. to the wind. The control system is designed to maintain constant rotor RPM when wind speed is between 10 and 40 miles per hour.

Brulle, Robert V. (St. Louis County, MO)

1983-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

113

Control system for a vertical-axis windmill  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vertical-axis windmill having a rotating structure is provided with a series of articulated vertical blades whose positions are controlled to maintain a constant RPM for the rotating structure, when wind speed is sufficient. A microprocessor controller is used to process information on wind speed, wind direction and RPM of the rotating structure to develop an electrical signal for establishing blade position. The preferred embodiment of the invention, when connected to a utility grid, is designed to generate 40 kilowatts of power when exposed to a 20 mile per hour wind. The control system for the windmill includes electrical blade actuators that modulate the blades of the rotating structure. Blade modulation controls the blade angle of attack, which in turn controls the RPM of the rotor. In the preferred embodiment, the microprocessor controller provides the operation logic and control functions. A wind speed sensor provides inputs to start or stop the windmill, and a wind direction sensor is used to keep the blade flip region at 90 and 270/sup 0/ to the wind. The control system is designed to maintain constant rotor RPM when wind speed is between 10 and 40 miles per hour.

Brulle, R.V.

1981-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

114

Conducting polymer and hydrogenated amorphous silicon hybrid solar cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-methylpyrrolidone, and isopropanol.14 The modified PEDOT:PSS was spin cast at 800 rpm onto a 25 mm 25 mm indium-tin-oxide ITO coated State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 Qi Wang,b Sean E. Shaheen, and David S. Ginley National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, Colorado 80401 Eric A. Schiff Department of Physics, Syracuse

Schiff, Eric A.

115

ELSEVIER PII: S0032-3861(97)00376-5 PolymerVol. 39 No. 4, pp. 757-763, 1998  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of AHA took place for 10 min. The AHA solution was then centrifuged at 628.34 rad/s (6000 rpm) for 10 min.Y. Cath, D. Adams, A.E. Childress, Membrane contactor processes for wastew- ater reclamation in space II. Childress, Membrane contactor processes for wastewater reclamation in space Part I. Direct osmotic

Frey, Pascal

116

SCHOOL OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES HEALTH & SAFETY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was disassembled, and the solid5 product was separated by centrifugation (30 minutes at 12,000 rpm), decanting the6 supernatant solutions. Finally, the solid product was dried directly in the centrifugation flasks7 for 48 h film contactor. Chem. Eng. Process.15 2007, doi:10.1016/j.cep.2007.02.008.16 (26) Haubrock, J

117

Commerce Control List -Index Supplement No. 1 to part774 -Index 1 Export Administration Regulations July 12, 2001  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by centrifugation at 12,000 rpm for 30 minutes. Finally, the178 solid product was dried directly in the centrifugation flasks for 48 h at 65 ºC. The supernatant179 solutions were filtered through a 0.2-µm Teflon absorption in399 aqueous monoethanolamine in a continuous film contactor. Chem. Eng. Process.400 doi:10

Bernstein, Daniel

118

www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/314/5797/300/DC1 Supporting Online Material for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rpm for 10 min, supernatant containing fat tissue discarded, and cell pellets resuspended in growth Y. Hirai, Kyoto University); the EGFR inhibitor AG1478 (Calbiochem); control chicken immunoglobulin-G (IgG)(R&D Systems); chicken anti-TGF1 (R&D Systems); and TGF type I receptor (Alk-5) kinase inhibitor

Nelson, Celeste M.

119

Milli-Biology Programmable Matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

moteins to smaller sizes led to the invention of electropermanent actuators, in which a hard magnet biases a softer magnet, so that its hysteresis loop passes through the origin. A conventional electromechanical motor is maximally inefficient at low RPM because power is wasted as heat in the coils, requiring

Ishii, Hiroshi

120

Wind-powered generator. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Completion of a wind energy conversion system for a private home is reported. The system included three blades constructed of an aluminum center with marine plywood sandwiched between the aluminum center and the fiberglass outer covering. The wind turbine drives a 1800 rpm generator by a chain drive mechanism. Battery storage is included. (LEW)

Whitesides, R E

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Whom to Call Below are resources for questions about specific topic areas and related LBNL policies and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Information (HIPPA) Health Services Privacy Policy Health Services 510-486-6266 #12;Whom to Call Below, the LBNL Ombuds may be contacted at 510-642-7843. RIIO 2013-05-22- pg. 2 Environmental Health Environment, Safety and Health RPM 7.01 Environmental Health and Safety Division 510-486-5514 safetyconcerns

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

122

\\\  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the cost and energy produced by the energy efficiency supply curves over each of the plans futures/Excel, both of which are in of the skill set of most power industry analysts. The attached Excel workbook contains the extracted energy efficiency calculations from the version of the RPM that produced the final

123

Design and application of a new modular adapter for laser diffraction characterisation of inhalation aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with budesonide was 10 min in a Turbula T2C tumbler mixer (W.A. Bachofen, Basel, Switzerland) at 90 rpm (batch. Even if they contain amounts of active substance that are lower than the amounts of fine lactose impactors for determining the particle-size distributions of aerosols. AMA Arch. Ind. Hyg. Occupational Med

Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit

124

Southern Blotting Assemble the LKB Vacugene vacuum blotting unit on a leveling table. Place the white plastic backing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Magnetic Stirrer Donor Solution Acceptor Solution Liquid Membrane Reaction Beaker pH Motor RPM Controller A method for Sr removal from strong alkaline solutions in the presence of 1M NaOH and 3M NaNO3 has been radioactive Sr in a small volume of solid phase within one technological step. Using this method in a bulk

Shoubridge, Eric

125

Development of 5kWh Flywheel Energy Storage System Using MATLAB/xPC Target  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 5kWh class FESS(Flywheel Energy Storage System) with the operating speed range of 9,000~15,000rpm has been developed. The system consists of a composite flywheel rotor, active magnetic bearings, a motor/generator and its controller. Because Active ... Keywords: FESS, Magnetic bearing, rotor dynamics, Imbalace Response, xPC Target

Cheol Hoon Park; Sang-Kyu Choi; Young Su Son; Young Hee Han

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Slide 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to 50 g of sample which was added to 800 to 1000 g of TCLP extraction fluid 2 (glacial acetic acid at pH of 2.88) and then subjected to continuous rotation at 30 2 rpm for 18 2...

127

RESEARCH ARTICLE Combining subproteome enrichment and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a dexamethasone-responsive promoter were used for proteomics studies. This model system permits study between AvrRpm1 and the cognate disease resistance gene product, resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv- lution and quantitative reliability [3]. Mycobacterium tubercu- losis proteome analysis revealed bias

Dangl, Jeff

128

netic stirrer and dissolved completely at 60 C. This solution was heated to 190200 C at a rate of 5 C min1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on silicon wafers under a flow of gas mixture of H2 (5 vol.-%) in Ar at 450 C for 30 min. To prepareL). The par- ticles were separated using centrifuge (VWR Scientific, Model V) at 6000 rpm. The precipitate of nitrogen gas, and finally freshly cleaned using a plasma cleaner (Harrick PDC-32G) prior to contact

Odom, Teri W.

129

An adaptive location estimator using tracking algorithms for indoor WLANs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents adaptive algorithms for estimating the location of a mobile terminal (MT) based on radio propagation modeling (RPM), Kalman filtering (KF), and radio-frequency identification (RFID) assisting for indoor wireless local area networks ... Keywords: Calibration, Kalman filtering, Location estimation, Neural network, Radio-frequency identification, Tracking, Wireless local area network

Yih-Shyh Chiou; Chin-Liang Wang; Sheng-Cheng Yeh

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

A real-time respiration position based passive breath gating equipment for gated radiotherapy: A preclinical evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To develop a passive gating system incorporating with the real-time position management (RPM) system for the gated radiotherapy. Methods: Passive breath gating (PBG) equipment, which consists of a breath-hold valve, a controller mechanism, a mouthpiece kit, and a supporting frame, was designed. A commercial real-time positioning management system was implemented to synchronize the target motion and radiation delivery on a linear accelerator with the patient's breathing cycle. The respiratory related target motion was investigated by using the RPM system for correlating the external markers with the internal target motion while using PBG for passively blocking patient's breathing. Six patients were enrolled in the preclinical feasibility and efficiency study of the PBG system. Results: PBG equipment was designed and fabricated. The PBG can be manually triggered or released to block or unblock patient's breathing. A clinical workflow was outlined to integrate the PBG with the RPM system. After implementing the RPM based PBG system, the breath-hold period can be prolonged to 15-25 s and the treatment delivery efficiency for each field can be improved by 200%-400%. The results from the six patients showed that the diaphragm motion caused by respiration was reduced to less than 3 mm and the position of the diaphragm was reproducible for difference gating periods. Conclusions: A RPM based PBG system was developed and implemented. With the new gating system, the patient's breath-hold time can be extended and a significant improvement in the treatment delivery efficiency can also be achieved.

Hu Weigang; Xu Anjie; Li Guichao; Zhang Zhen; Housley, Dave; Ye Jinsong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center and Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Swedish Cancer Institute, Seattle, Washington 98104 (United States)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

131

A Cold Neptune-Mass Planet OGLE-2007-BLG-368Lb: Cold Neptunes Are Common  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the discovery of a Neptune-mass planet OGLE-2007-BLG-368Lb with a planet-star mass ratio of q=[9.5 +/- 2.1] x10^{-5} via gravitational microlensing. The planetary deviation was detected in real-time thanks to the high cadence of the MOA survey, real-time light curve monitoring and intensive follow-up observations. A Bayesian analysis returns the stellar mass and distance at M_l = 0.64_{-0.26}^{+0.21} M_\\sun and D_l = 5.9_{-1.4}^{+0.9} kpc, respectively, so the mass and separation of the planet are M_p = 20_{-8}^{+7} M_\\oplus and a = 3.3_{-0.8}^{+1.4} AU, respectively. This discovery adds another cold Neptune-mass planet to the planetary sample discovered by microlensing, which now comprise four cold Neptune/Super-Earths, five gas giant planets, and another sub-Saturn mass planet that could be a cold Neptune or Super-Earth. The discovery of these ten cold exoplanets by the microlensing method implies that the mass function of cold exoplanets scales as \\Psi(q) \\propto q^{-1.7+/- 0.2} with a 95% confi...

Sumi, T; Bond, I A; Udalski, A; Batista, V; Dominik, M; Fouqu, P; Kubas, D; Gould, A; Macintosh, B; Cook, K; Dong, S; Skuljan, L; Cassan, A; Abe, F; Botzler, C S; Fukui, A; Furusawa, K; Hearnshaw, J B; Itow, Y; Kamiya, K; Kilmartin, P M; Korpela, A; Lin, W; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Miyake, N; Muraki, Y; Nagaya, M; Nagayama, T; Ohnishi, K; Okumura, T; Perrott, Y C; Rattenbury, N; Saito, To; Sako, T; Sullivan, D J; Sweatman, W L; P.,; Yock, P C M; Beaulieu, J P; Cole, A; Coutures, Ch; Duran, M F; Greenhill, J; Jablonski, F; Marboeuf, U; Martioli, E; Pedretti, E; Pejcha, O; Rojo, P; Albrow, M D; Brillant, S; Bode, M; Bramich, D M; Burgdorf, M J; Caldwell, J A R; Calitz, H; Corrales, E; Dieters, S; Prester, D Dominis; Donatowicz, J; Hill, K; Hoffman, M; Horne, K; J, U G; Kains, N; Kane, S; Marquette, J B; Martin, R; Meintjes, P; Menzies, J; Pollard, K R; Sahu, K C; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I; Street, R; Tsapras, Y; Wambsganss, J; Williams, A; Zub, M; Szyma, M K; Kubiak, M; Pietrzy, G; Soszy, I; Szewczyk, O; Ulaczyk, K; Allen, W; Christie, G W; DePoy, D L; Gaudi, B S; Han, C; Janczak, J; Lee, C -U; McCormick, J; Mallia, F; Monard, B; Natusch, T; Park, B -G; Pogge, R W; Santallo, R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Assessment of radioactivity and the associated hazards in local and imported cement types used in Sudan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Activity concentration of sup 2 sup 3 sup 2 Th, sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra and sup 4 sup 0 K in local (Atbra and Rabak) and imported cement types (Jordanian, Indonesian and seabulk) has been measured using a high resolution gamma spectrometry. The average values obtained for sup 2 sup 3 sup 2 Th, sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra and sup 4 sup 0 K activity concentrations in different cements are lower than the corresponding global values reported in UNSCEAR publications. The radium equivalent (Ra sub e sub q) of the samples was calculated and compared with similar data reported in the literature. The comparison has revealed that Ra sub e sub q values obtained fall far below the criterion limit specified for building materials. The potential radiological hazard of the different samples was estimated using different approaches: representative level index, committed effective dose equivalent via inhalation and annual dose limit. The estimated representative level index for all the samples is less than unity (the upper limit) confi...

Ahmed, N A

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

A distributed hard real-time Java system for high mobility components  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we propose a methodology for providing real-time capabilities to component-based, on-the-fly recon?gurable, distributed systems. In such systems, software components migrate across computational resources at run-time to allow applications to adapt to changes in user requirements or to external events. We describe how we achieve run-time recon?guration in distributed Java applications by appropriately migrating servers. Guaranteed-rate schedulers at the servers provide the necessary temporal protection and so simplify remote method invocation management. We describe how we manage overhead and resource utilization by controlling the parameters of the server schedulers. According to our measurements, this methodology provides real-time capability to component-based recon?gurable distributed systems in an effcient and effective way. In addition, we propose a new resource discovery protocol, REALTOR, which is based on a combination of pull-based and push-based resource information dissemination. REALTOR has been designed for real-time component-based distributed applications in very dynamic or adverse environments. REALTOR supports survivability and information assurance by allowing the migration of components to safe locations under emergencies suchas externalattack, malfunction, or lackofresources. Simulation studies show that under normal and heavy load conditions REALTOR remains very effective in finding available resources, and does so with a reasonably low communication overhead.REALTOR 1)effectively locates resources under highly dynamic conditions, 2) has an overhead that is system-size independent, and 3) works well in highlyadverse environments.We evaluate the effectiveness of a REALTOR implementation as part of Agile Objects, an infrastructure for real-time capable, highly mobile Java components.

Rho, Sangig

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Procurement .:. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fiscal Close Forms: By Group Forms: Full Listing Glossary OCFO EH&S OCFO HR OCFO Home Signature Authority Training ---------------------------------- UCOP University of California DOE CFO U.S. Department of Energy --------------------------------- Cost Accounting Standards DOE Accounting Handbook Federal Accounting Standards Generally Accepted Accounting Principles OMB Circular Regulations & Procedures Manual (RPM) UC Accounting Manual UC/DOE Prime Contract (Contract 31) Fiscal Close Forms: By Group Forms: Full Listing Glossary OCFO EH&S OCFO HR OCFO Home Signature Authority Training ---------------------------------- UCOP University of California DOE CFO U.S. Department of Energy --------------------------------- Cost Accounting Standards DOE Accounting Handbook Federal Accounting Standards Generally Accepted Accounting Principles OMB Circular Regulations & Procedures Manual (RPM) UC Accounting Manual UC/DOE Prime Contract (Contract 31) CFO Departments: Budget Office Business Systems Analysis Conference Services Controller's Office Field Operations Management Financial Policy & Training Procurement & Property Office of Sponsored Projects & Industry Partnerships Travel Office Procurement Google Search:

135

Berkeley Lab Social Media  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Berkeley Lab social media guidelines Berkeley Lab social media guidelines Read this before you tweet! These guidelines, developed by Berkeley Lab's Public Affairs Department, are intended to help Lab employees who use social media in an official capacity on behalf of Berkeley Lab. Social media is a great way to engage a large audience, but there are ways to do it well-and not so well-so please read on. These guidelines are for Lab staff interested in establishing a social media presence for a department, division, or user facility. They're also for Lab staff using social media as an individual but representing the Lab in some way. For Berkeley Lab's policies on basic computing and communications, which pertain to all Lab employees, read RPM 9.01 Computing and Communication and RPM 9.02 Operational Procedures for Computing and

136

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ultra-High-Speed Motor for Drilling Ultra-High-Speed Motor for Drilling DE-FC26-04NT15502 Project Goal The project goal is to design two sizes of an ultra-high-speed (10,000 rpm), inverted, configured electric motor specifically for drilling. Performers Impact Technologies LLC, Tulsa, OK University of Texas, Arlington, TX Results Researchers have developed PMSM (permanent magnet synchronous machine) electromagnetic designs of both radial and axial motors for rotational speeds up to 10,000 rpm in two outer diameters (OD). Finite element analyses (FEA) of the magnetic saturation and power/torque output have been made at various speed and loading conditions. Mechanical 3-D models have been prepared based on those designs. Bearing and seal materials have been studied, and manufacturers have been contacted to provide them. The project milestones completed to date are the:

137

Local approximation to the critical parameters of quantum wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We calculate the critical parameters for some simple quantum wells by means of the Riccati-Pad\\'{e} method. The original approach converges reasonably well for nonzero angular-momentum quantum number $l$ but rather too slowly for the s states. We therefore propose a simple modification that yields remarkably accurate results for the latter case. The rate of convergence of both methods increases with $l$ and decreases with the radial quantum number $n$. We compare RPM results with WKB ones for sufficiently large values of $l$. As illustrative examples we choose the one-dimensional and central-field Gaussian wells as well as the Yukawa potential. The application of perturbation theory by means of the RPM to a class of rational potentials yields interesting and baffling unphysical results.

Francisco M. Fernndez; Javier Garcia

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

138

Design, Fabrication, and Test of a 5-kWh/100-kW Flywheel Energy Storage Utilizing a High-Temperature Superconducting Bearing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The summaries of this project are: (1) Program goal is to design, develop, and demonstrate a 100 kW UPS flywheel electricity system; (2) flywheel system spin tested up to 15,000 RPM in a sensorless, closed loop mode; (3) testing identified a manufacturing deficiency in the motor stator--overheats at high speed, limiting maximum power capability; (4) successfully spin tested direct cooled HTS bearing up to 14,500 RPM (limited by Eddy current clutch set-up); (5) Testing confirmed commercial feasibility of this bearing design--Eddy Current losses are within acceptable limits; and (6) Boeing's investment in flywheel test facilities increased the spin-test capabilities to one of the highest in the nation.

Dr. Michael Strasik, Philip E Johnson; A. C. Day; J. Mittleider; M. D. Higgins; J. Edwards; J. R. Schindler; K. E. McCrary; C.R. McIver; D.; J. F. Gonder; J. R. Hull

2007-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

139

VEHICLE SPECIFICATIONS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

VEHICLE SPECIFICATIONS 1 Vehicle Features Base Vehicle: 2011 Chevrolet Volt VIN: 1G1RD6E48BUI00815 Class: Compact Seatbelt Positions: 4 Type 2 : Multi-Mode PHEV (EV, Series, and Power-split) Motor Type: 12-pole permanent magnet AC synchronous Max. Power/Torque: 111 kW/370 Nm Max. Motor Speed: 9500 rpm Cooling: Active - Liquid cooled Generator Type: 16-pole permanent magnet AC synchronous Max. Power/Torque: 55 kW/200 Nm Max. Generator Speed: 6000 rpm Cooling: Active - Liquid cooled Battery Manufacturer: LG Chem Type: Lithium-ion Cathode/Anode Material: LiMn 2 O 4 /Hard Carbon Number of Cells: 288 Cell Config.: 3 parallel, 96 series Nominal Cell Voltage: 3.7 V Nominal System Voltage: 355.2 V Rated Pack Capacity: 45 Ah Rated Pack Energy: 16 kWh Weight of Pack: 435 lb

140

Rippey | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rippey Rippey Jump to: navigation, search Name Rippey Facility Rippey Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner RPM Access Wind Development Developer RPM Access Wind Development Energy Purchaser Central Iowa Power Cooperative Location Rippey IA Coordinates 41.9963704°, -94.19471741° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.9963704,"lon":-94.19471741,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

JC3 Bulletin Archive | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7, 2011 7, 2011 U-006:Cisco Network Admission Control Manager Directory Traversal Flaw Lets Remote Users Obtain Potentially Sensitive Information An unauthenticated attacker could exploit this vulnerability to access sensitive information, including password files and system logs, that could be leveraged to launch subsequent attacks. October 6, 2011 U-005: Apache mod_proxy Pattern Matching Bug Lets Remote Users Access Internal Servers A remote user can access internal servers. October 5, 2011 U-004:Google Chrome Multiple Flaws Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code A remote user can create HTML that, when loaded by the target user, will execute arbitrary code on the target user's system. October 4, 2011 U-003:RPM Package Manager security update RPM Package Manager Header Validation Flaws Let Remote Users Execute

142

Elk | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Elk Elk Jump to: navigation, search Name Elk Facility Elk Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner RPM Access Wind Development Developer RPM Access Wind Development Energy Purchaser Central Iowa Power Cooperative Location Greeley IA Coordinates 42.58659755°, -91.36861324° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.58659755,"lon":-91.36861324,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

143

Farm scale biogas-fueled engine/induction generator system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 3.6 liter spark ignition engine coupled to an induction generator produced 21 kW of electric power at 1260 rpm operating on biogas (55% methane, 45% carbon dioxide). Power output increased by 3.55 kW for a 10 rpm increase in shaft speed. Operating at over 16 kW output, power factor was greater than .8 and generator efficiency was greater than 85%. Engine operation is insensitive to small changes in spark advance. Recommended spark advance for a biogas engine is about 45/sup 0/. Minimum brake specific fuel consumption of 270 g CH/sub 4//kWh occurs at a manifold vacuum of 5 cmHg and an equivalence ratio in the range of .6 to .8.

Stahl, T.; Fischer, J.R.; Harris, F.D.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Anomaly metrics to differentiate threat sources from benign sources in primary vehicle screening.  

SciTech Connect

Discrimination of benign sources from threat sources at Port of Entries (POE) is of a great importance in efficient screening of cargo and vehicles using Radiation Portal Monitors (RPM). Currently RPM's ability to distinguish these radiological sources is seriously hampered by the energy resolution of the deployed RPMs. As naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are ubiquitous in commerce, false alarms are problematic as they require additional resources in secondary inspection in addition to impacts on commerce. To increase the sensitivity of such detection systems without increasing false alarm rates, alarm metrics need to incorporate the ability to distinguish benign and threat sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) and clustering technique were implemented in the present study. Such techniques were investigated for their potential to lower false alarm rates and/or increase sensitivity to weaker threat sources without loss of specificity. Results of the investigation demonstrated improved sensitivity and specificity in discriminating benign sources from threat sources.

Cohen, Israel Dov; Mengesha, Wondwosen

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Argonne TTRDC - Publications - Transforum 10.2 - Thermal Effects on Engine  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transforum Vol. 10, No. 2 Transforum Vol. 10, No. 2 Modeling PHEV Thermal Effects on Engine Efficiency Mass fuel versus initial oil temperature graph Mass fuel (g) versus initial engine oil temperature (degrees C). Modeled urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS) fuel consumption as a function of initial engine temperature. Background photo is a test vehicle on chassis dynanometer. Fuel flow versus NM versus RPM graph Fuel flow (g/s) versus Nm versus RPM. Fuel flow rate response surface shown at engine oil temperature of 22° C. Fuel flow rates and surface changes as temperature increases. Efficiency losses of 25-40 percent are seen in plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) between ambient 20° C cold starts to optimal hot temperature urban drive cycle operation. These losses are especially critical for PHEVs, when

146

Argonne TTRDC - D3 (Downloadable Dynamometer Database) - 2012 Honda Civic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Honda Civic GX Honda Civic GX 2010 Hyundai LPI Hybrid front 2010 Hyundai LPI Hybrid rear 2012 Honda Civic GX - front 2012 Honda Civic GX- rear The Honda Civic GX was evaluated as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project funded by the US Department of Energy. The vehicle is factory built to run on compressed natural gas, while maintaining the majority of components of the Honda Civic. Key Technology 1.8L SOHC CNG Engine based on Honda Civic R18A1 Gasoline Engine with a 110hp @ 6500rpm, 106lb-ft @ 4300rpm; Higher Compression Ratio of 12.7:1; CNG Port Fuel Injection 5 speed torque converter automatic transmission shared with conventional civic 8.0 GGE CNG tank mounted behind the rear seats charged to 3600psig Report Testing Summary (pdf) Data Download all data (zip)

147

Research and Institutional Integrity Office at Berkeley Lab  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contacts Contacts Responsible Conduct of Research Resources Authorship Collaborations ORI Responsible Conduct of Research Educational Resources Mentoring Best Practices Complied by UCSD LBNL Policy on Research Misconduct - RPM 2.05I Research Integrity All persons engaged in research at the Laboratory are responsible for adhering to the highest standards of research integrity. Activities that fall short of the basic ethical principles inherent in the research process undermine the scientific enterprise. Our office is here to assist you in learning about responsible conduct of research and to address questions, concerns, and allegations of possible research misconduct. Under the Laboratory's research misconduct policy (RPM 2.05I) the Head of the Research and Institutional Integrity Office is the Research Integrity

148

Hawkeye | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hawkeye Hawkeye Jump to: navigation, search Name Hawkeye Facility Hawkeye Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner RPM Access Wind Development Developer RPM Access Wind Development Energy Purchaser Central Iowa Power Cooperative Location Rippey IA Coordinates 42.92513165°, -92.02989578° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.92513165,"lon":-92.02989578,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

149

Biphase turbine bottoming cycle for a diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

Application of a two-phase turbine system to waste heat recovery was examined. Bottoming cycle efficiencies ranging from 15 to 30% were calculated for a 720/sup 0/F diesel exhaust temperature. A single stage demonstration unit, designed for non-toxic fluids (water and DowTherm A) and for atmospheric seals and bearings, had a cycle efficiency of 23%. The net output power was 276 hp at 8,100 rpm, increasing the total shaft power from 1,800 hp for the diesel alone, to 2,076 hp for the combined system. A four stage organic turbine, for the same application, had a rotational speed of 14,700 rpm while a four stage steam turbine had 26,000 rpm. Fabrication drawings were prepared for the turbine and nozzle. The major improvement leading to higher cycle efficiency and lower turbine rpm was found to be the use of a liquid component with lower sensible heat. A reduction in capital cost was found to result from the use of a contact heat exchanger instead of tube-fin construction. The cost for a contact heat exchanger was only $35-52/kWe compared to $98/kWe for a tube-fin heat exchanger. Design drawings and materials list were prepared. A program resulting in the demonstration of a two-phase bottoming system was planned and the required cost estimated. The program would result in a feasibility test of the nozzle and turbine at the end of the first year, a laboratory performance test of the bottoming system by the end of the second year and a field demonstration test and laboratory endurance test of the bottoming system during the third year. The blowdown test rig for the first year's program and test turbine were designed.

Ahmad, S.; Hays, L.

1977-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

150

Performance test of a bladeless turbine for geothermal applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Possell bladeless turbine was tested at the LLL Geothermal Test Facility to evaluate its potential for application in the total flow process. Test description and performance data are given for 3000, 3500, 4000, and 4500 rpm. The maximum engine efficiency observed was less than 7 percent. It is concluded that the Possell turbine is not a viable candidate machine for the conversion of geothermal fluids by the total flow process. (LBS)

Steidel, R.; Weiss, H.

1976-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

151

1 av / of 4 Massverfring och separationsteknik  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(se kursmaterial del 16). Test i en cylindrisk pilotreaktor (diameter D1 = 0,25 m) visade att en, liknande impeller (d1/D1 = d2/D2): Beräkna 1) omrörningshastigheten n2 (i rpm) och 2) effektförbrukningen P1 av / of 4 Massöverföring och separationsteknik Värme - och strömningsteknik (M?F-ST) 424302

Zevenhoven, Ron

152

Internal combustion engine with rotary valve assembly having variable intake valve timing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An internal combustion engine has rotary valves associated with movable shutters operable to vary the closing of intake air/fuel port sections to obtain peak volumetric efficiency over the entire range of speed of the engine. The shutters are moved automatically by a control mechanism that is responsive to the RPM of the engine. A foot-operated lever associated with the control mechanism is also used to move the shutters between their open and closed positions.

Hansen, Craig N. (Eden Prairie, MN); Cross, Paul C. (Shorewood, MN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Biogas engines for agricultural motor-generators  

SciTech Connect

Tests were run on biogas, natural gas and liquid fuel with four engines of 1.1 and 2.8 L displacement at 1800 rpm, intended for motor-generators. One engine was diesel engine modified to high compression spark-ignition. Optimum timing, fuel consumption and knocking were determined at various load levels between full load and idling. Considerable differences in efficiency were found. Recommendations are given on choice, equipment and operation. 13 refs.

Persson, S.P.E.; Bartlett, H.D.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Thermal energy from a biogas engine/generator system  

SciTech Connect

A biogas fueled engine/generator equipped with heat recovery apparatus and thermal storage is described. The thermal energy is used to fuel a liquid fuel plant. Heat recovery is quantified and the static and dynamic performance of the thermal storage is described. At 1260 rpm the engine/generator produces 21 kW of electric power and 2500 kJ/min of thermal energy.

Stahl, T.; Fischer, J.R.; Harris, F.D.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Why Reliability Options Are the Answer in New England  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In its market's current failed state, PJM sees evidence that electricity markets do not work. But that's the wrong conclusion. Price signals do work and generators predictably respond to price signals whether they are good price signals or bad price signals. Bad price signals caused New England's and PJM's problems. Here is why good price signals based on the RO approach and competitive markets will now solve New England's problems - and why PJM's RPM is not the answer. (author)

Bidwell, Miles

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

156

A digital control algorithm for diesel engine governing  

SciTech Connect

The performance of a microprocessor based precision engine speed control system was investigated. A sample rate selection criteria is presented along with a procedure to implement a high performance digital PID control algorithm. The algorithm requires a digital speed sensor of 12 to 14 bits to minimize excessive fuel rack motion at a steady state due to digital quantization effects. Computer simulation and experimental test results of the algorithm are presented for an 1800 RPM, 125 Kilowatt engine generator set.

Garvey, P.C.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Automated Dispersive Solid Phase Extraction of Pesticide Residues in Botanicals using Triple Quadrupole LC/MS/MS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in 12.5 min; hold for 3 min MS conditions Drying gas temp: 225°C Sheath gas temp: 325°C Gas flow rate: 8 L/min Sheath gas flow: 10 L/min Nebulizer pressure: 40 psi EMV: 400 V Capillary voltage: 4000 V was then centrifuged at 5,000 x rpm for 3min ·Acetonitrile (1 ml) extract was transferred to a 2 ml auto-sampler vial

Heller, Barbara

158

SUPPORTING INFORMATION Peptide-Mediated Constructs of Quantum Dot Nanocomposites for Enzymatic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. 0.8 g Al2Te3 was dissolved using 10 mL of 0.5 M H2SO4 solution slowly under argon gas flow as the carrier gas. After the final solution became reddish, Ar gas was turned off. The solution was kept at 100 and centrifuged at 4,500 rpm for 5 minutes. The precipitate was dissolved in Milli-Q water and centrifuged

Demir, Hilmi Volkan

159

Phase 1 STTR flywheel motor/alternator for hybrid electric vehicles. CRADA final report  

SciTech Connect

Visual Computing Systems (VCS) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have teamed, through a Phase 1 Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) grant from the US Department of Energy (DOE), to develop an advanced, low-cost motor/alternator drive system suitable for Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) applications. During Phase 1, system performance and design requirements were established, design concepts were generated, and preliminary motor/alternator designs were developed and analyzed. ORNL provided mechanical design and finite element collaboration and Lynx Motion Technology, a spin-off from VCS to commercialize their technology, constructed a proof-of-concept axial-gap permanent magnet motor/alternator that employed their Segmented Electromagnetic Array (SEMA) with a survivable design speed potential of 10,000 rpm. The VCS motor/alternator was successfully tested in ORNL`s Motor Test Tank using an ORNL inverter and ORNL control electronics. It was first operated as an unloaded motor to 6,000 rpm and driven as an unloaded generator to 6,000 rpm. Output from the generator was then connected to a resistance bank, which caused the loaded generator to decelerate to 3,860 rpm where data was collected. After about 4-1/2 minutes, the test was terminated because of an impact noise. Subsequent inspection and operation at low speeds did not reveal the source of the noise. Electrical performance of the motor was excellent, encouraging continued development of this technology. Phase 2 efforts will focus on further design development and optimization, manufacturing development and prototype construction, testing, and evaluation.

McKeever, J.W.; Scudiere, M.B.; Ott, G.W. Jr.; White, C.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kessinger, R.L. Jr.; Robinson, S.T.; Seymour, K.P.; Dockstadter, K.D. [Visual Computer Systems Corp., Greenville, IN (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

160

Fluid-Rock Characterization for NMR Well Logging and Special Core Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this effort is to develop, build and test a high-speed drilling motor that can meet the performance guidelines of the announcement, namely: 'The motors are expected to rotate at a minimum of 10,000 rpm, have an OD no larger than 7 inches and work downhole continuously for at least 100 hours. The motor must have common oilfield thread connections capable of making up to a drill bit and bottomhole assembly. The motor must be capable of transmitting drilling fluid through the motor'. To these goals, APS would add that the motor must be economically viable, in terms of both its manufacturing and maintenance costs, and be applicable to as broad a range of markets as possible. APS has taken the approach of using a system using planetary gears to increase the speed of a conventional mud motor to 10,000 rpm. The mud flow is directed around the outside of the gear train, and a unique flow diversion system has been employed. A prototype of the motor was built and tested in APS's high-pressure flow loop. The motor operated per the model up to {approx}4200 rpm. At that point a bearing seized and the performance was severely degraded. The motor is being rebuilt and will be retested outside of this program.

George Hirasaki; Kishore Mohanty

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

08FFL-0020Influence of High Fuel Rail Pressure and Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction on PM Formation in an Off-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of fuel rail pressure (FRP) and urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on particulate matter (PM) formation is investigated in this paper along with notes regarding the NOx and other emissions. Increasing FRP was shown to reduce the overall soot and total PM mass for four operating conditions. These conditions included two high speed conditions (2400 rpm at 540 and 270 Nm of torque) and two moderated speed conditions (1400 rpm at 488 and 325 Nm). The concentrations of CO2 and NOx increased with fuel rail pressure and this is attributed to improved fuel-air mixing. Interestingly, the level of unburned hydrocarbons remained constant (or increased slightly) with increased FRP. PM concentration was measured using an AVL smoke meter and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS); and total PM was collected using standard gravimetric techniques. These results showed that the smoke number and particulate concentrations decrease with increasing FRP. However the decrease becomes more gradual as very high rail pressures. Additionally, the total PM decreased with increasing FRP; however, the soluble organic fraction (SOF) reaches a maximum after which it declines with higher rail pressure. The total PM was collected for the two 1400 rpm conditions downstream of the engine, diesel oxidation catalyst, and a urea-SCR catalyst. The results show that significant PM reduction occurs in the SCR catalyst even during high rates of urea dosage. Analysis of the PM indicates that residual SOF is burned up in the SCR catalyst.

Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Domingo, Norberto [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Spin-forming Project Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a second development order, spin-forming equipment was again evaluated using the test shape, a hemispherical shell. In this second development order, pure vanadium and alloy titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) were spin-formed, as well as additional copper and 21-6-9 stainless. In the first development order the following materials had been spin-formed: copper (alloy C11000 ETP), 6061 aluminum, 304L stainless steel, 21-6-9 stainless steel, and tantalum-2.5% tungsten. Significant challenges included properly adjusting the rotations-per-minute (RPM), cracking at un-beveled edges and laser marks, redressing of notches, surface cracking, non-uniform temperature evolution in the titanium, and cracking of the tailstock. Lessons learned were that 300 RPM worked better than 600 RPM for most materials (at the feed rate of 800 mm/min); beveling the edges to lower the stress reduces edge cracking; notches, laser marks, or edge defects in the preform doom the process to cracking and failure; coolant is required for vanadium spin-forming; increasing the number of passes to nine or more eliminates surface cracking for vanadium; titanium develops a hot zone in front of the rollers; and the tailstock should be redesigned to eliminate the cylindrical stress concentrator in the center.

Switzner, Nathan; Henry, Dick

2009-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

163

SEACC: the systems engineering and analysis computer code for small wind systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The systems engineering and analysis (SEA) computer program (code) evaluates complete horizontal-axis SWECS performance. Rotor power output as a function of wind speed and energy production at various wind regions are predicted by the code. Efficiencies of components such as gearbox, electric generators, rectifiers, electronic inverters, and batteries can be included in the evaluation process to reflect the complete system performance. Parametric studies can be carried out for blade design characteristics such as airfoil series, taper rate, twist degrees and pitch setting; and for geometry such as rotor radius, hub radius, number of blades, coning angle, rotor rpm, etc. Design tradeoffs can also be performed to optimize system configurations for constant rpm, constant tip speed ratio and rpm-specific rotors. SWECS energy supply as compared to the load demand for each hour of the day and during each session of the year can be assessed by the code if the diurnal wind and load distributions are known. Also available during each run of the code is blade aerodynamic loading information.

Tu, P.K.C.; Kertesz, V.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Variable speed operation of generators with rotor-speed feedback in wind power applications  

SciTech Connect

The use of induction generators in wind power applications has been common since the early development of the wind industry. Most of these generators operate at fixed frequency and are connected directly to the utility grid. Unfortunately, this mode of operation limits the rotor speed to a specific rpm. Variable-speed operation is preferred in order to facilitate maximum energy capture over a wide range of wind speeds. This paper explores variable-speed operating strategies for wind turbine applications. The objectives are to maximize energy production, provide controlled start-up and reduce torque loading. This paper focuses on optimizing the energy captured by operating at maximum aerodynamic efficiency at any wind speed. The control strategy we analyze uses rotor speed and generator power as the feedback signals. In the normal operating region, rotor speed is used to compute a target power that corresponds to optimum operation. With power as the control objective, the power converter and generator are controlled to track the target power at any rpm. Thus, the torque-speed characteristic of the generator is shaped to optimize the energy capture. The target power is continuously updated at any rpm. in extreme areas of the operating envelope, during start-up, shutdown, generator overload, or overspeed, different strategies driven by other system considerations must be used.

Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C.P.; Migliore, P.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Dual Mode Inverter Control Test Verification  

SciTech Connect

Permanent Magnet Motors with either sinusoidal back emf (permanent magnet synchronous motor [PMSM]) or trapezoidal back emf (brushless dc motor [BDCM]) do not have the ability to alter the air gap flux density (field weakening). Since the back emf increases with speed, the system must be designed to operate with the voltage obtained at its highest speed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) has developed a dual mode inverter controller (DMIC) that overcomes this disadvantage. This report summarizes the results of tests to verify its operation. The standard PEEMRC 75 kW hard-switched inverter was modified to implement the field weakening procedure (silicon controlled rectifier enabled phase advance). A 49.5 hp motor rated at 2800 rpm was derated to a base of 400 rpm and 7.5 hp. The load developed by a Kahn Industries hydraulic dynamometer, was measured with a MCRT9-02TS Himmelstein and Company torque meter. At the base conditions a current of 212 amperes produced the 7.5 hp. Tests were run at 400, 1215, and 2424 rpm. In each run, the current was no greater than 214 amperes. The horsepower obtained in the three runs were 7.5, 9.3, and 8.12. These results verified the basic operation of the DMIC in producing a Constant Power Speed Ratios (CPSR) of six.

Bailey, J.M.

2001-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

166

PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE AND HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE EMISSIONS UNDER FTP AND US06 CYCLES AT HIGH, AMBIENT, AND LOW TEMPERATURES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The concept of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is to displace consumption of gasoline by using electricity from the vehicles large battery pack to power the vehicle as much as possible with minimal engine operation. This paper assesses the PHEV emissions and operation. Currently, testing of vehicle emissions is done using the federal standard FTP4 cycle on a dynamometer at ambient (75F) temperatures. Research was also completed using the US06 cycle. Furthermore, research was completed at high (95F) and low (20F) temperatures. Initial dynamometer testing was performed on a stock Toyota Prius under the standard FTP4 cycle, and the more demanding US06 cycle. Each cycle was run at 95F, 75F, and 20F. The testing was repeated with the same Prius retrofi tted with an EnergyCS Plug-in Hybrid Electric system. The results of the testing confi rm that the stock Prius meets Super-Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements under current testing procedures, while the PHEV Prius under current testing procedures were greater than Super-Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements, but still met Ultra Low Emission Vehicle requirements. Research points to the catalyst temperature being a critical factor in meeting emission requirements. Initial engine emissions pass through with minimal conversion until the catalyst is heated to typical operating temperatures of 300400C. PHEVs also have trouble maintaining the minimum catalyst temperature throughout the entire test because the engine is turned off when the battery can support the load. It has been observed in both HEVs and PHEVs that the catalyst is intermittently unable to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions, which causes further emission releases. Research needs to be done to combat the initial emission spikes caused by a cold catalyst. Research also needs to be done to improve the reduction of nitrogen oxides by the catalyst system.

Seidman, M.R.; Markel, T.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Renewable source controls for grid stability.  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study was to evaluate the small signal and transient stability of the Western Electric- ity Coordinating Council (WECC) under high penetrations of renewable energy, and to identify control technologies that would improve the system performance. The WECC is the regional entity responsible for coordinating and promoting bulk electric system reliability in the Western Interconnection. Transient stability is the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism after a large disturbance while small signal stability is the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism after a small disturbance. Tran- sient stability analysis usually focuses on the relative rotor angle between synchronous machines compared to some stability margin. For this study we employed generator speed relative to system speed as a metric for assessing transient stability. In addition, we evaluated the system transient response using the system frequency nadir, which provides an assessment of the adequacy of the primary frequency control reserves. Small signal stability analysis typically identi es the eigenvalues or modes of the system in response to a disturbance. For this study we developed mode shape maps for the di erent scenarios. Prony analysis was applied to generator speed after a 1.4 GW, 0.5 second, brake insertion at various locations. Six di erent WECC base cases were analyzed, including the 2022 light spring case which meets the renewable portfolio standards. Because of the di culty in identifying the cause and e ect relationship in large power system models with di erent scenarios, several simulations were run on a 7-bus, 5-generator system to isolate the e ects of di erent con gurations. Based on the results of the study, for a large power system like the WECC, incorporating frequency droop into wind/solar systems provides a larger bene t to system transient response than replacing the lost inertia with synthetic inertia. From a small signal stability perspective, the increase in renewable penetration results in subtle changes to the system modes. In gen- eral, mode frequencies increase slightly, and mode shapes remain similar. The system frequency nadir for the 2022 light spring case was slightly lower than the other cases, largely because of the reduced system inertia. However, the nadir is still well above the minimum load shedding frequency of 59.5 Hz. Finally, several discrepancies were identi ed between actual and reported wind penetration, and additional work on wind/solar modeling is required to increase the delity of the WECC models.

Byrne, Raymond Harry; Elliott, Ryan Thomas; Neely, Jason C.; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Schoenwald, David Alan; Grant, Lisa

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Radio frequency circuits for wireless receiver front-ends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The beginning of the 21st century sees great development and demands on wireless communication technologies. Wireless technologies, either based on a cable replacement or on a networked environment, penetrate our daily life more rapidly than ever. Low operational power, low cost, small form factor, and function diversity are the crucial requirements for a successful wireless product. The receiver??s front-end circuits play an important role in faithfully recovering the information transmitted through the wireless channel. Bluetooth is a short-range cable replacement wireless technology. A Bluetooth receiver architecture was proposed and designed using a pure CMOS process. The front-end of the receiver consists of a low noise ampli?er (LNA) and mixer. The intermediate frequency was chosen to be 2MHz to save battery power and alleviate the low frequency noise problem. A conventional LNA architecture was used for reliability. The mixer is a modi?ed Gilbert-cell using the current bleeding technique to further reduce the low frequency noise. The front-end draws 10 mA current from a 3 V power supply, has a 8.5 dB noise ?gure, and a voltage gain of 25 dB and -9 dBm IIP3. A front-end for dual-mode receiver is also designed to explore the capability of a multi-standard application. The two standards are IEEE 802.11b and Bluetooth. They work together making the wireless experience more exciting. The front-end is designed using BiCMOS technology and incorporating a direct conversion receiver architecture. A number of circuit techniques are used in the front-end design to achieve optimal results. It consumes 13.6 mA from a 2.5 V power supply with a 5.5 dB noise ?gure, 33 dB voltage gain and -13 dBm IIP3. Besides the system level contributions, intensive studies were carried out on the development of quality LNA circuits. Based on the multi-gated LNA structure, a CMOS LNA structure using bipolar transistors to provide linearization is proposed. This LNA con?guration can achieve comparable linearity to its CMOS multi-gated counterpart and work at a higher frequency with less power consumption. A LNA using an on-chip transformer source degeneration is proposed to realize input impedance matching. The possibility of a dual-band cellular application is studied. Finally, a study on ultra-wide band (UWB) LNA implementation is performed to explore the possibility and capability of CMOS technology on the latest UWB standard for multimedia applications.

Xin, Chunyu

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Geographical, spatial, and temporal distributions of multiple indoor air pollutants in four Chinese provinces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Exposure to indoor air pollution from household energy use depends on fuel, stove, housing characteristics, and stove use behavior. Three important indoor air pollutants - respirable particles (RPM), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) were monitored for a total of 457 household-days in four poor provinces in China (Gansu, 129 household-days; Guizhou, 127 household-days; Inner Mongolia, 65 household-days; and Shaanxi, 136 household-days), in two time intervals during the heating season to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of pollution. The two provinces where biomass is the primary fuel (Inner Mongolia and Gansu) had the highest RPM concentrations (719 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in the single cooking/living/bedroom in Inner Mongolia in December and 351-661 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in different rooms and months in Gansu); lower RPM concentration were observed in the primarily coal-burning provinces of Guizhou and Shaanxi (202-352 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and 187-361 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in different rooms and months in Guizhou and Shaanxi, respectively). Inner Mongolia and Gansu also had higher CO concentrations. Among the two primarily coal-burning provinces, Guizhou had lower concentrations of CO than Shaanxi. In the two coal-burning provinces, SO{sub 2} concentrations were substantially higher in Shaanxi than in Guizhou. Relative concentrations in different rooms and provinces indicate that in the northern provinces heating is an important source of exposure to indoor pollutants from energy use. Day-to-day variability of concentrations within individual households, although substantial, was smaller than variation across households. The implications of the findings for designing environmental health interventions in each province are discussed. 21 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Yinlong Jin; Zheng Zhou; Gongli He [and others] [Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China). National Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

NREL airfoil families for HAWTs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development of special-purpose airfoils for horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs) began in 1984 as a joint effort between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), and Airfoils, Incorporated. Since that time seven airfoil families have been designed for various size rotors using the Eppler Airfoil Design and Analysis Code. A general performance requirement of the new airfoil families is that they exhibit a maximum lift coefficient (c{sub l,max}) which is relatively insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoil families address the needs of stall-regulated, variable-pitch, and variable-rpm wind turbines. For stall-regulated rotors, better peak-power control is achieved through the design of tip airfoils that restrain the maximum lift coefficient. Restrained maximum lift coefficient allows the use of more swept disc area for a given generator size. Also, for stall-regulated rotors, tip airfoils with high thickness are used to accommodate overspeed control devices. For variable-pitch and variable-rpm rotors, tip airfoils having a high maximum lift coefficient lend themselves to lightweight blades with low solidity. Tip airfoils having low thickness result in less drag for blades having full-span pitch control. Annual energy improvements from the NREL airfoil families are projected to be 23% to 35% for stall-regulated turbines, 8% to 20% for variable-pitch turbines, and 8% to 10% for variable-rpm turbines. The improvement for stall-regulated turbines has been verified in field tests.

Tangler, J L [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Somers, D M [Airfoils Inc., State College, PA (United States)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development. Final report, September 28, 1990--November 30, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this program was to study the feasibility of operating a Detroit Diesel Series 149 engine at high speeds using a Coal-Water-Slurry (CWS) fuel. The CWS-fueled 149 engine is proposed for the mine-haul off-highway truck and work boat marine markets. Economic analysis studies indicate that, for these markets, the use of CWS fuel could have sufficient operating cost savings, depending upon the future diesel fuel price, emission control system capital and operating costs, and maintenance and overhaul costs. A major portion of the maintenance costs is expected to be due to lower life and higher cost of the CWS injectors. Injection and combustion systems were specially designed for CWS, and were installed in one cylinder of a Detroit Diesel 8V-149TI engine for testing. The objective was to achieve engine operation for sustained periods at speeds up to 1,900 rpm with reasonable fuel economy and coal burnout rate. A computer simulation predicted autoignition of coal fuel at 1,900 rpm would require an average droplet size of 18 microns and 19:1 compression ratio, so the injection system, and pistons were designed accordingly. The injection system was capable of supplying the required volume of CWS/injection with a duration of approximately 25 crank angle degrees and peak pressures on the order of 100 mpa. In addition to the high compression ratio, the combustion system also utilized hot residual gases in the cylinder, warm inlet air admission and ceramic insulated engine components to enhance combustion. Autoignition of CWS fuel was achieved at 1900 rpm, at loads ranging from 20--80 percent of the rated load of diesel-fuel powered cylinders. Limited emissions data indicates coal burnout rates in excess of 99 percent. NO{sub x} levels were significantly lower, while unburned hydrocarbon levels were higher for the CWS fueled cylinder than for corresponding diesel-fuel powered cylinders.

Kakwani, R.M.; Winsor, R.E.; Ryan, T.W. III; Schwalb, J.A.; Wahiduzzaman, S.; Wilson, R.P. Jr.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

ORCENT2. Nuclear Steam Turbine Cycle Analysis  

SciTech Connect

ORCENT2 performs heat and mass balance calculations at valves-wide-open design conditions, maximum guaranteed rating conditions, and an approximation of part-load conditions for steam turbine cycles supplied with throttle steam, characteristic of contemporary light-water reactors. The program handles both condensing and back-pressure turbine exhaust arrangements. Turbine performance calculations are based on the General Electric Company method for 1800-rpm large steam turbine-generators operating with light-water-cooled nuclear reactors. Output includes all information normally shown on a turbine-cycle heat balance diagram.

Fuller, L.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab, TN (United States)

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Application of PDC bits in the Kuparuk River Field, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

In soft to medium hard clays and shales, PDC bits have proven to be economically successful in the Kuparuk River Field, Alaska. Through the redesign and modification of PDC bits and rig equipment, the necessary operating parameters have been achieved and the use of PDC bits has become routine. These bits are typically run with a standpipe pressure of 4000 psi, pump rate of 400 to 450 gpm, and a rotary speed of 150 to 200 rpm. Using these high operating parameters, a savings of about $50,000 per PDC bit is being achieved when compared to roller cone bits.

Balkenbush, R.J.; Onisko, J.E.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Determining an Appropriate Method to Simulate Pump Shear on the Diatom Nitzschia sp. and a Methodology to Quantify the Effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When cultivated properly in bioreactors, microalgae have been found to produce vast amounts of biomass. In the case of diatom cultivation where the organisms will fall out of suspension quite easily, paddle wheels or pumps are the primary means to maintain the necessary velocity in the raceway. This study will focus on the potentially harmful shear stress these devices may impart onto the organisms. The system used to impart shear stress to a diatom culture was a cone and plate viscometer. Cells were counted using a fluorescein diacetate staining method with a fluorescent and brightfield microscope. Under the white light all cells were visible while only the healthy cells were visible under fluorescent light. The sample was exposed to shear stress with the cone and plate viscometer at 6 Pascals for 10 minutes and compared against a non-sheared sample. For each sample, 5 pairs of white and fluorescent light images were captured, counted, and averaged. A non-sheared sample was paired with a sheared sample to calculate the decrease in cell viability. The slope was calculated from the plot of shear stress and cell viability for 9 strains. In each case shear stress resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability; however, there was no statistical difference between strains. While effective, this method would be impractical for a commercial algae cultivation facility as the viscometer in this study costs approximately $100,000. Therefore, tests were performed to determine if a rotary mixer could be substituted for the viscometer. The hypothesis was that the cell damage was a product of shear stress and exposure time. For the viscometer test, the shear exposure was 3600 Pa s. Two rotational mixer tests were performed, one at 1250 RPM for 7 hours and one at 313 RPM for 28 hours, providing the same 3600 Pa s shear exposure. After staining, cell viability decreased 35.62% and 11.07% in the 1250 RPM and 313 RPM test, respectively. This difference was significant compared to the 6.04% decrease in the viscometer test. The increased cell damage was attributed to turbulence in the mixer tests and the basis for further study.

Lassig, Jarrett

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Film Cooling, Heat Transfer and Aerodynamic Measurements in a Three Stage Research Gas Turbine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The existing 3-stage turbine research facility at the Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory (TPFL), Texas A and M University, is re-designed and newly installed to enable coolant gas injection on the first stage rotor platform to study the effects of rotation on film cooling and heat transfer. Pressure and temperature sensitive paint techniques are used to measure film cooling effectiveness and heat transfer on the rotor platform respectively. Experiments are conducted at three turbine rotational speeds namely, 2400rpm, 2550rpm and 3000rpm. Interstage aerodynamic measurements with miniature five hole probes are also acquired at these speeds. The aerodynamic data characterizes the flow along the first stage rotor exit, second stage stator exit and second stage rotor exit. For each rotor speed, film cooling effectiveness is determined on the first stage rotor platform for upstream stator-rotor gap ejection, downstream discrete hole ejection and a combination of upstream gap and downstream hole ejection. Upstream coolant ejection experiments are conducted for coolant to mainstream mass flow ratios of MFR=0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% and downstream discrete hole injection tests corresponding to average hole blowing ratios of M = 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75 and 2.0 for each turbine speed. To provide a complete picture of hub cooling under rotating conditions, experiments with simultaneous injection of coolant gas through upstream and downstream injection are conducted for an of MFR=1% and Mholes=0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 for the three turbine speeds. Heat transfer coefficients are determined on the rotor platform for similar upstream and downstream coolant injection. Rotation is found to significantly affect the distribution of coolant on the platform. The measured effectiveness magnitudes are lower than that obtained with numerical simulations. Coolant streams from both upstream and downstream injection orient themselves towards the blade suction side. Passage vortex cuts-off the coolant film for the lower MFR for upstream injection. As the MFR increases, the passage vortex effects are diminished. Effectiveness was maximum when Mholes was closer to one as the coolant ejection velocity is approximately equal to the mainstream relative velocity for this blowing ratio. Heat transfer coefficient and film cooling effectiveness increase with increasing rotational speed for upstream rotor stator gap injection while for downstream hole injection the maximum effectiveness and heat transfer coefficients occur at the reference speed of 2550rpm.

Suryanarayanan, Arun

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Engine performance and exhaust emissions from a diesel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Non-road diesel engines are significant contributors to air pollution in the United States. Recent regulations put forth by EPA and other environmental agencies have laid out stringent guidelines for engine manufacturers and fuel producers. Recent increases in oil prices and foreign energy dependency has led to a push to produce renewable fuels, which will supplement current reserves. Biodiesel is a clean-burning renewable fuel, that can be blended with petroleum diesel. It is important to understand the effect on engine performance and exhaust emissions when using biodiesel from different feedstocks. The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between engine performance and emissions and cottonseed oil biodiesel used in a diesel engine rated for 14.2 kW. When using cottonseed oil biodiesel blends, CO, hydrocarbon, NOx, and SO2 emissions decreased as compared to petroleum diesel. Carbon dioxide emissions had no definitive trend in relation to cottonseed oil biodiesel blends. Carbon monoxide emissions increased by an average 15% using B5 and by an average of 19% using B100. Hydrocarbon emissions decreased by 14% using B5 and by 26% using B100. Nitrogen oxide emissions decreased by four percent with B5, five percent with B20, and 14% with B100. Sulfur dioxide emissions decreased by an average of 86% using B100, and by 94% using B50 blended with ultra-low sulfur diesel. The difference between peak output power when using biodiesel and diesel was insignificant in blends less that B40. Peak measured power using B100 was about five percent lower than for diesel fuel. Pure cottonseed oil biodiesel achieved and maintained a peak corrected measured power of 13.1 kW at speeds of 2990, 2875, and 2800 rpm at loads of 41.3, 42.7, and 43.8 N-m. Using B5 produced a peak power of 13.6 kW at 2990 rpm and 43.9 N-m and at 2800 rpm and 46.7 N-m, while using B20 produced a peak power of 13.4 kW at 2990 rpm and 43.7 N-m. Brake-specific fuel consumption at peak measured load and torque using B100 was 1238 g/kW-h. Brake-specific fuel consumption at peak measured power and loads using B5 and B20 were 1276 and 1155 g/kW-h.

Powell, Jacob Joseph

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Testing of pyrochemical centrifugal contactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A centrifugal contactor that performs oxidation and reduction exchange reactions between molten metals and salts at 500 degrees Centigrade has been tested successfully at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The design is based on contactors for aqueous- organic systems operation near room temperature. In tests to demonstrate the performance of the pyrocontactor, cadmium and LICl- KCl eutectic salt were the immiscible solvent phases, and rare earths were the distributing solutes. The tests showed that the pyrocontactor mixed and separated the phases well, with stage efficiencies approaching 99% at rotor speeds near 2700 rpm. The contactor ran smoothly and reliably over the entire range of speeds that was tested.

Chow, L.S.; Carls, E.L.; Basco, J.K.; Johnson, T.R.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

THE SNAP II POWER CONVERSION SYSTEM. Topical Report No. 6, Bearing Design and Development  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary analysis conducted on various types of bearings indicated that hydrodynamic type journal and thrust bearings lubricated with a portion of the mercury from the condensate return pump would best suit the SNAP II requirements. Experimental rssults confirmed the bearing design approach. Stable bearing operation was obtained at speeds in excess of the 40,000 rpm design objective with simulated loads of 1 to 10 g in the radial direction, and 0 to 2 g in the axial direction. Total power consumption of the bearing system is approximately 550 watts at the design speed. (auth)

Waldron, W.D.

1960-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

179

Prototyping of the ILC Baseline Positron Target  

SciTech Connect

The ILC positron system uses novel helical undulators to create a powerful photon beam from the main electron beam. This beam is passed through a titanium target to convert it into electron-positron pairs. The target is constructed as a 1 m diameter wheel spinning at 2000 RPM to smear the 1 ms ILC pulse train over 10 cm. A pulsed flux concentrating magnet is used to increase the positron capture efficiency. It is cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures to maximize the flatness of the magnetic field over the 1 ms ILC pulse train. We report on prototyping effort on this system.

Gronberg, J; Brooksby, C; Piggott, T; Abbott, R; Javedani, J; Cook, E

2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

180

A survey of shaped-based registration and segmentation techniques for cardiac images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the modern world. Cardiac imaging is routinely applied for assessment and diagnosis of cardiac diseases. Computerized image analysis methods are now widely applied to cardiac segmentation and registration ... Keywords: AAM, ASM, CT, CVD, Cardiac CT, Cardiac MR, Cardiac motion, Cardiac registration, Cardiac segmentation, EB, EDV, EF, EFFD, EM, ESV, Echocardiography, Endo, Epi, FE, FFD, Four CH, GMM, GRPM, LA, LADA, LAX, LCX, LV, MI, MIA, MRF, MRI, N, N/A, NMI, NURBS, P, PCA, PET, PM, RA, RPM, RV, Review article, SAD, SAX, SM, SPECT, SSD, TDI, TEE, TMI, US

Vahid Tavakoli, Amir A. Amini

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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181

Mixing device for materials with large density differences  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An auger-tube pump mixing device is disclosed for mixing materials with large density differences while maintaining low stirring RPM and low power consumption. The mixing device minimizes the formation of vortexes and minimizes the incorporation of small bubbles in the liquid during mixing. By avoiding the creation of a vortex the device provides efficient stirring of full containers without spillage over the edge. Also, the device solves the problem of effective mixing in vessels where the liquid height is large compared to the diameter. Because of the gentle stirring or mixing by the device, it has application for biomedical uses where cell damage is to be avoided. 2 figs.

Gregg, D.W.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

182

Optimized Maintenance of Generator Rotors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Generator rotor maintenance options are limited and expensive. The timing and scope of work done requires optimization to obtain the maximum benefits for continued long-term trouble-free operation. This document is a comprehensive guide to the maintenance of large generator rotors of 2 and 4 pole design that are cooled directly or indirectly by air or hydrogen. These include 50 and 60 Hz machines, operating at speeds of 1500, 1800, 3000, and 3600 RPM. The guide does not cover water-cooled rotors. The inf...

2004-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

183

Establishment of a Bovine Herpesvirus 4 based vector expressing a secreted form of the Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus structural glycoprotein E2 for immunization purposes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrophilic (as calculated by Hopp & Woods method (Hopp & Woods 1983)) non structured 14-amino-acid peptide (Fig. 1a and 1c), that we hypothe- sized would increase the secretion of the protein. To test this hypothesis, a second expression cassette, pCMV- IgKE2... and pelleted using 5000 r.p.m. (eppendorf centrifuge) at 0C for 5 min. The supernatant was poured off and the pellet was resuspended in 1 ml ice-cold ddH2O by gently swirling the tubes in ice/water bath slurry. Subsequently, 9 ml ice- cold ddH2O was added...

Donofrio, Gaetano; Sartori, Chiara; Ravanetti, Lara; Cavirani, Sandro; Gillet, Laurent; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Taddei, Simone; Flammini, Cesidio Filippo

2007-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

184

Method and system for managing an electrical output of a turbogenerator  

SciTech Connect

The system and method manages an electrical output of a turbogenerator in accordance with multiple modes. In a first mode, a direct current (DC) bus receives power from a turbogenerator output via a rectifier where turbogenerator revolutions per unit time (e.g., revolutions per minute (RPM)) or an electrical output level of a turbogenerator output meet or exceed a minimum threshold. In a second mode, if the turbogenerator revolutions per unit time or electrical output level of a turbogenerator output are less than the minimum threshold, the electric drive motor or a generator mechanically powered by the engine provides electrical energy to the direct current bus.

Stahlhut, Ronnie Dean (Bettendorf, IA); Vuk, Carl Thomas (Denver, IA)

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

185

Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System  

SciTech Connect

The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if operated at temperatures as high as is normally encountered in a vehicle engine. The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. A separate, comprehensive report on this thermal control study is available [1].

Staunton, Robert H [ORNL; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL; Chiasson, J. N. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Burress, Timothy A [ORNL; Marlino, Laura D [ORNL

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Method and system for managing an electrical output of a turbogenerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The system and method manages an electrical output of a turbogenerator in accordance with multiple modes. In a first mode, a direct current (DC) bus receives power from a turbogenerator output via a rectifier where turbogenerator revolutions per unit time (e.g., revolutions per minute (RPM)) or an electrical output level of a turbogenerator output meet or exceed a minimum threshold. In a second mode, if the turbogenerator revolutions per unit time or electrical output level of a turbogenerator output are less than the minimum threshold, the electric drive motor or a generator mechanically powered by the engine provides electrical energy to the direct current bus.

Stahlhut, Ronnie Dean (Bettendorf, IA); Vuk, Carl Thomas (Denver, IA)

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

187

New PGT 25 gas turbine for mechanical drive applications  

SciTech Connect

Italy's Nuovo Pignone developed a heavy-duty power turbine designed primarily to match General Electric's LM 2500 gas generator in its various configurations such as the -20, -30, and -33 models. A two-stage unit running at 6500 rpm, the PGT-25 gas turbine matches the speed of Nuovo Pignone's 20 MW-class pipeline compressors that can operate at their highest efficiency through a direct coupling to the turbine. The PGT-25's structural simplicity offers durability, advanced fluid dynamic design for maximum efficiency at partial loads, and modularity for easy transport and assembly.

Chellini, R.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System  

SciTech Connect

The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if operated at temperatures as high as is normally encountered in a vehicle engine. The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. A separate, comprehensive report on this thermal control study is available [1].

Staunton, R.H.; Ayers, C.W.; Chiasson, J.N. (U Tennessee-Knoxville); Burress, B.A. (ORISE); Marlino, L.D.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

STATIC SODIUM TEST OF WESTINGHOUSE FLOW CONTROLLER BEARING  

SciTech Connect

Tests were carried out to determine the action of a static sodium environment on a special high-temperature ball bearing while operating at the specified speed and loading. The test bearing was operated at 85 rpm and 870 pounds axial load for 385 hr at 1000 deg F. Visual inspection of the test bearing showed a very marked increase in roughness of both the balls and the ball races. Details of the measurements and a photograph of the bearing parts after test are given. On the basis of this test it did not appear that this bearing will be satisfactory for the service intended. (M.C.G.)

Cygan, R.

1960-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Detailed design, fabrication and testing of an engineering prototype compensated pulsed alternator. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The design, fabrication, and test results of a prototype compensated pulsed alternator are discussed. The prototype compulsator is a vertical shaft single phase alternator with a rotating armature and salient pole stator. The machine is designed for low rep rate pulsed duty and is sized to drive a modified 10 cm Beta amplifier. The load consists of sixteen 15 mm x 20 mm x 112 cm long xenon flashlamps connected in parallel. The prototype compulsator generates an open circuit voltage of 6 kV, 180 Hz, at a maximum design speed of 5400 rpm. At maximum speed, the inertial energy stored in the compulsator rotor is 3.4 megajoules.

Bird, W.L. Jr.; Woodson, H.H.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Experimental Testing of an Electrical Submersible Pump Undergoing Abrasive Slurry Erosion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP) manufactured by Baker Hughes, model no. WJE-1000 is designed for wells that are expected to have a high content of abrasive solids. It is a mixed flow, tandem compression type pump. Although the erosion of the pump diffuser and impeller stages are significant, the ESP study shows that the most sever failure is due to components that affect the pumps rotor dynamics such as radial bearings and impeller seals when eroded with 100 mesh sand. Erosion of these seals will result in an internal leakage that can significantly affect stage pressure rise, efficiency, power consumption, vibration, pump life and running cost. The erosion study utilizing 100 mesh fracture sand at 0.2% concentration, with the pump operating at 3600 RPM, 40 PSI intake pressure, 1150 GPM for over 117 hours comparisons are made to the pumps baseline performance. Measurements of the rotor bearings, impeller seals and their corresponding stators showed that the wear patterns generally increase with time and differ by location. Stage 1 bearings and seals suffered the least amount of erosion and stage 3 rotor components suffered the most erosion. The maximum change in stage 3 bearing clearances was 223% and the maximum change in stage 3 impeller seal clearances was 300%. Performance wise the total pump efficiency dropped by 6.77%, the total pressure rise dropped by 6.3%, the pumps best efficiency point decreased by 0.78%, and the power consumption increased by 0.49%. Pump vibration patterns also changed with time and by location. The maximum shaft orbit diameter was at stage 3 and it grew 643% in diameter after 117 hours of erosion. The waterfall plots of the pumps ramp up changed significantly with time. After 117 hours at 3600 RPM, sub-synchronous oscillations at 67% of the synchronous speed dominated the amplitude peaks showing that the rotor vibration locked with the rotors first natural frequency at around 2500 RPM. After 117 hours, another sub-synchronous started showing a peak at the rotors second natural frequency at 1500 RPM.

Saleh, Ramy Moaness M

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Applications of the Generalized DDA Formalism and the Nature of Polarized Light in Deep Oceans  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The first part of this study is focused on numerical studies of light scattering from a single microscopic particle using the Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA) method. The conventional DDA formalism is generalized to two cases: (a) inelastic light scattering from a dielectric particle and (b) light scattering from a particle with magnetic permeability u /= 1. The first generalization is applied to simulations of Raman scattering from bioaerosol particles, and the second generalization is applied to confi rmation of irregular invisibility cloaks made from metamaterials. In the second part, radiative transfer in a coupled atmosphere-ocean system is solved to study the asymptotic nature of the polarized light in deep oceans. The rate at which the radiance and the polarization approach their asymptotic forms in an ideal homogeneous water body are studied. Effects of the single scattering albedo and the volume scattering function are studied. A more realistic water body with vertical pro files for oceanic optical properties determined by a Case 1 water model is then assumed to study the e ffects of wavelength, Raman scattering, and surface waves. Simulated Raman scattering patterns computed from the generalized DDA formalism are found to be sensitive to the distribution of Raman active molecules in the host particle. Therefore one can infer how the Raman active molecules are distributed from a measured Raman scattering pattern. Material properties of invisibility cloaks with a few irregular geometries are given, and field distributions in the vicinity of the cloaked particles computed from the generalized DDA formalism con rm that the designated material properties lead to invisibility. The radiative transfer model calculation in deep oceans suggest that the underwater radiance approaches its asymptotic form more quickly than the polarization does. Therefore, a vector radiative transfer solution is necessary for asymptotic light field studies. For a typical homogeneous water body whose scattering property is characterized by the Petzold phase function, a single scattering albedo of w0 > 0:8 is required in order that the asymptotic regime can be reached before there are too few photons to be detected.

You, Yu

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

CONTROLLED GROWTH OF CARBON NANOTUBES ON CONDUCTIVE METAL SUBSTRATES FOR ENERGY STORAGE APPLICATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impressive mechanical and electronic properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) make them ideally suited for use in a variety of nanostructured devices, especially in the realm of energy production and storage. In particular, vertically-aligned CNT forests have been the focus of increasing investigation for use in supercapacitor electrodes and as hydrogen adsorption substrates. Vertically-aligned CNT growth was attempted on metal substrates by waterassisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD). CNT growth was catalyzed by iron-molybdenum (FeMo) nanoparticle catalysts synthesized by a colloidal method, which were then spin-coated onto Inconel foils. The substrates were loaded into a custom-built CVD apparatus, where CNT growth was initiated by heating the substrates to 750 C under the fl ow of He, H2, C2H4 and a controlled amount of water vapor. The resultant CNTs were characterized by a variety of methods including Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the growth parameters were varied in an attempt to optimize the purity and growth yield of the CNTs. The surface area and hydrogen adsorption characteristics of the CNTs were quantifi ed by the Brunauer- Emmett-Teller (BET) and Sieverts methods, and their capacitance was measured via cyclic voltammetry. While vertically-aligned CNT growth could not be verifi ed, TEM and SEM analysis indicated that CNT growth was still obtained, resulting in multiwalled CNTs of a wide range in diameter along with some amorphous carbon impurities. These microscopy fi ndings were reinforced by Raman spectroscopy, which resulted in a G/D ratio ranging from 1.5 to 3 across different samples, suggestive of multiwalled CNTs. Changes in gas fl ow rates and water concentration during CNT growth were not found to have a discernable effect on the purity of the CNTs. The specifi c capacitance of a CNT/FeMo/Inconel electrode was found to be 3.2 F/g, and the BET surface area of a characteristic CNT sample was measured to be 232 m2/g with a cryogenic (77K) hydrogen storage of 0.85 wt%. This level of hydrogen adsorption is slightly higher than that predicted by the Chahine rule, indicating that these CNTs may bind hydrogen more strongly than other carbonaceous materials. More work is needed to confi rm and determine the reason for increased hydrogen adsorption in these CNTs, and to test them for use as catalyst support networks. This study demonstrates the feasibility of producing CNTs for energy storage applications using water-assisted CVD.

Brown, P.; Engtrakul, C.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Office of Sponsored Projects and Industry Partnerships .:. Lawrence  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quicklinks: A-Z Index for the OCFO Berkeley Lab Home Contact Us: By Group Contact Us: By Subject Contact Us: Full Listing Employment Financial Systems Modernization (F$M) Fiscal Close Forms: By Group Forms: Full Listing Glossary OCFO EH&S OCFO HR OCFO Home Signature Authority Training ---------------------------------- UCOP University of California DOE CFO U.S. Department of Energy --------------------------------- Cost Accounting Standards DOE Accounting Handbook Federal Accounting Standards Generally Accepted Accounting Principles OMB Circular Regulations & Procedures Manual (RPM) UC Accounting Manual UC/DOE Prime Contract (Contract 31) Quicklinks: A-Z Index for the OCFO Berkeley Lab Home Contact Us: By Group Contact Us: By Subject Contact Us: Full Listing Employment Financial Systems Modernization (F$M) Fiscal Close Forms: By Group Forms: Full Listing Glossary OCFO EH&S OCFO HR OCFO Home Signature Authority Training ---------------------------------- UCOP University of California DOE CFO U.S. Department of Energy --------------------------------- Cost Accounting Standards DOE Accounting Handbook Federal Accounting Standards Generally Accepted Accounting Principles OMB Circular Regulations & Procedures Manual (RPM) UC Accounting Manual UC/DOE Prime Contract (Contract 31) CFO Departments: Budget Office Business Systems Analysis Conference Services Controller's Office Field Operations Management Financial Policy & Assurance Procurement & Property Office of Sponsored Projects & Industry Partnerships Training Travel Office

195

Experimental determination of dynamic force coefficients of a pocket damper seal at higher frequencies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental results are presented for a two-bladed pocket damper seal (PDS) with eight partition walls on a high-speed test rig. The objective of these experiments is to measure damping coefficients, stiffness coefficients and leakage rates at higher frequencies than tested previously. The seal coefficients are determined by measuring the logarithmic decrement and damped natural frequency in non-rotating free vibration tests and by computer simulations of these results using a computer program called XLTRC. Rotating tests, which consist of coastdown tests from 14000 rpm to 0 rpm were also conducted to corroborate the effectiveness of the PDS in suppressing the vibration amplitudes at the critical speeds. The initial rotating tests on the originally designed PDS were discouraging, and highlight the importance of the optimum design of the inlet plenum chamber of the PDS in producing damping. Suitable modifications are carried out in the PDS inlet plenum design and the non-rotating tests were repeated on the modified PDS. These tests show positive damping and negative stiffness in both the horizontal and vertical directions. The tests also show that the magnitude of both the damping and the stiffness coefficients increase with the inlet pressure. The rotating tests corroborate the effectiveness of the PDS in suppressing the vibration at critical speeds around 13,000 cpm, which is about twice the frequencies tested previously. Subsequently a comparison is made with the predictions from previous pocket damper seal codes.

Sharma, Ashish

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

NASA Lewis Stirling engine computer code evaluation  

SciTech Connect

In support of the US Department of Energy's Stirling Engine Highway Vehicle Systems program, the NASA Lewis Stirling engine performance code was evaluated by comparing code predictions without engine-specific calibration factors to GPU-3, P-40, and RE-1000 Stirling engine test data. The error in predicting power output was /minus/11 percent for the P-40 and 12 percent for the RE-1000 at design conditions and 16 percent for the GPU-3 at near-design conditions (2000 rpm engine speed versus 3000 rpm at design). The efficiency and heat input predictions showed better agreement with engine test data than did the power predictions. Concerning all data points, the error in predicting the GPU-3 brake power was significantly larger than for the other engines and was mainly a result of inaccuracy in predicting the pressure phase angle. Analysis into this pressure phase angle prediction error suggested that improvement to the cylinder hysteresis loss model could have a significant effect on overall Stirling engine performance predictions. 13 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

Sullivan, T.J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Major carcinogenic pathways identified by gene expression analysis of peritoneal mesotheliomas following chemical treatment in F344 rats  

SciTech Connect

This study was performed to characterize the gene expression profile and to identify the major carcinogenic pathways involved in rat peritoneal mesothelioma (RPM) formation following treatment of Fischer 344 rats with o-nitrotoluene (o-NT) or bromochloracetic acid (BCA). Oligo arrays, with over 20,000 target genes, were used to evaluate o-NT- and BCA-induced RPMs, when compared to a non-transformed mesothelial cell line (Fred-PE). Analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software revealed 169 cancer-related genes that were categorized into binding activity, growth and proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and invasion and metastasis. The microarray data were validated by positive correlation with quantitative real-time RT-PCR on 16 selected genes including igf1, tgfb3 and nov. Important carcinogenic pathways involved in RPM formation included insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), p38 MAPkinase, Wnt/{beta}-catenin and integrin signaling pathways. This study demonstrated that mesotheliomas in rats exposed to o-NT- and BCA were similar to mesotheliomas in humans, at least at the cellular and molecular level.

Kim, Yongbaek [Environmental Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, MD B3-08, 111 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Thai-Vu Ton [Environmental Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, MD B3-08, 111 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); De Angelo, Anthony B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Morgan, Kevin [Aventis, Bridgewater, NJ 08807 (United States); Devereux, Theodora R. [Environmental Carcinogenesis Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Anna, Colleen [Environmental Carcinogenesis Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Collins, Jennifer B. [Microarray Group, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Paules, Richard S. [Microarray Group, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Crosby, Lynn M. [Wyeth Research, Chazy, NY 12921 (United States); Sills, Robert C. [Environmental Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, MD B3-08, 111 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)]. E-mail: sills@niehs.nih.gov

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

198

A Wood-Fired Gas Turbine Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper covers the research and development of a wood-fired gas turbine unit that is used for generating electricity. The system uses one large cyclonic combustor and a cyclone cleaning system in series to provide hot gases to drive an Allison T-56 aircraft engine (the industrial version is the 501-k). A Westinghouse 3,000-kW generator is used on the prototype facility with a Philadelphia gear system reducing the 14,000-rpm turbine output speed to the 3,600-rpm generator operating speed. Fuel is fed into the combustor by a rotary valve system. The swirling effect of the cyclone combustor ensures that residence time is adequate to completely burn all solid particles in the combustor ahead of the cyclone filter. Burning of particles on the metal walls of the cyclone filter could cause overheating and deterioration of the walls. This wood-fired gas turbine unit could provide a low cost source of power for areas where conventional methods are now prohibitive and provide a means for recovering energy from a source that now poses disposal problems.

Powell, S. H.; Hamrick, J. T.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Submitting Organization:  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

i ii The focus of this project is to develop a new large-volume application for selfcementing coal combustion products, namely in situ stabilization of gravel roads using self-cementing CCPs. Within the reduced scope of the project, the emphasis was placed on assessing the engineering properties of two recycled materials and a natural aggregate. Laboratory experiments were conducted in which a road surface gravel (RSG), a recycled pavement material (RPM), a natural crushed aggregate (Class 5 base) were tested to determine the California bearing ratio (CBR), resilient modulus (Mr), and unconfined compressive strength (UCS). The recycled materials were blended with two fly ash contents (10 and 15%) and three curing times (7, 28, and 56 d). A Class C fly ash with 0.7 % loss on ignition was used. Resilient modulus and unconfined compression strength tests were also conducted after 5 cycles of freezing and thawing to asses the impact of freeze-thaw cycling. Unstabilized RSG and RPM had CBRs greater than that of Class 5 base, but all

Wilfung Martono; Board Regents; University Of Wisconsin-madison

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char. Technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The first step in the envisioned integrated, multi-product approach for utilizing Illinois coal is the production of ultra low-ash coal. Subsequent steps would convert low-ash coal to high-value products through mild gasification, char activation, and oxidation reactions. Approximately eight pounds of low-ash coal has been obtained from the crude reactor slurry produced for us at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC). After treatment to remove the remaining meta-cresol, this material will be subjected to mild gasification. Low-ash mild gasification char will be activated and a catalyst surface will be added by oxidation. A 20% coal: 80% diesel fuel slurry was tested in cylinder two of a two-cylinder, diesel engine after the necessary modifications in the engine`s fuel injection system were made. Four tests indicated that the coal successfully substitutes for diesel fuel in the slurry. The fuel burns in the cylinder, with slightly improved thermal and combustion efficiency. The tests were performed at 1800 rpm and 2200 rpm and 75% load. The change in the surface properties of Calgon F-400 commercial activated carbon caused by several treatments were examined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS).

Kruse, C.W.; Carlson, S.L. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Snoeyink, V.L.; Feizoulof, C.; Assanis, D.N.; Syrimis, M. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Fatemi, S.M. [Amoco Research Center, Naperville, IL (United States)

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Temperature control in a 30 stage, 5-cm Centrifugal Contactor Pilot Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Temperature profile testing was performed using a 30 stage 5-cm centrifugal contactor pilot plant. These tests were performed to evaluate the ability to control process temperature by adjusting feed solution temperatures. This would eliminate the need for complex jacketed heat exchanger installation on the centrifugal contactors. Thermocouples were installed on the inlet and outlets of each stage, as well as directly in the mixing zone of several of the contactor stages. Lamp oil, a commercially available alkane mixture of C14 to C18 chains, and tap water adjusted to pH 2 with nitric acid were the solution feeds for the temperature profile testing. Temperature data profiles for an array of total throughputs and contactor rpm values for both single-phase and two-phase systems were collected with selected profiles. The total throughput ranged from 0.5-1.4 L/min with rotor speeds from 3500-4000 rpm. Inlet solution temperatures ranging from ambient up to 50 C were tested. Results of the two-phase temperature profile testing are detailed

Jack D. Law; Troy G. Garn; David H. Meikrantz

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Mass Transfer Testing of a 12.5-cm Rotor Centrifugal Contactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TRUEX mass transfer tests were performed using a single stage commercially available 12.5 cm centrifugal contactor and stable cerium (Ce) and europium (Eu). Test conditions included throughputs ranging from 2.5 to 15 Lpm and rotor speeds of 1750 and 2250 rpm. Ce and Eu extraction forward distribution coefficients ranged from 13 to 19. The first and second stage strip back distributions were 0.5 to 1.4 and .002 to .004, respectively, throughout the dynamic test conditions studied. Visual carryover of aqueous entrainment in all organic phase samples was estimated at < 0.1 % and organic carryover into all aqueous phase samples was about ten times less. Mass transfer efficiencies of = 98 % for both Ce and Eu in the extraction section were obtained over the entire range of test conditions. The first strip stage mass transfer efficiencies ranged from 75 to 93% trending higher with increasing throughput. Second stage mass transfer was greater than 99% in all cases. Increasing the rotor speed from 1750 to 2250 rpm had no significant effect on efficiency for all throughputs tested.

D. H. Meikrantz; T. G. Garn; J. D. Law; N. R. Mann; T. A. Todd

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Band gap enhancement of glancing angle deposited TiO{sub 2} nanowire array  

SciTech Connect

Vertically oriented TiO{sub 2} nanowire (NW) arrays were fabricated by glancing angle deposition technique. Field emission-scanning electron microscopy shows the formation of two different diameters {approx}80 nm and {approx}40 nm TiO{sub 2} NW for 120 and 460 rpm azimuthal rotation of the substrate. The x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering depicted the presence of rutile and anatase phase TiO{sub 2}. The overall Raman scattering intensity decreased with nanowire diameter. The role of phonon confinement in anatase and rutile peaks has been discussed. The red (7.9 cm{sup -1} of anatase E{sub g}) and blue (7.4 cm{sup -1} of rutile E{sub g}, 7.8 cm{sup -1} of rutile A{sub 1g}) shifts of Raman frequencies were observed. UV-vis absorption measurements show the main band absorption at 3.42 eV, 3.48 eV, and {approx}3.51 eV for thin film and NW prepared at 120 and 460 rpm, respectively. Three fold enhance photon absorption and intense light emission were observed for NW assembly. The photoluminescence emission from the NW assembly revealed blue shift in main band transition due to quantum confinement in NW structures.

Chinnamuthu, P.; Mondal, A.; Singh, N. K.; Dhar, J. C. [National Institute of Technology Agartala, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Jirania, Tripura (West) 799055 (India); Chattopadhyay, K. K. [Jadavpur University, Department of Physics, Kolkata 700032 (India); Bhattacharya, Sekhar [SSN Research Centre, Tamil Nadu 603110 (India)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Unusual plant features gas turbines  

SciTech Connect

Gas turbines were chosen by Phillips Petroleum Co. to operate the first gas-injection plant in the world to use gas-type turbines to drive reciprocating compressors. The plant is located in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. Gas turbines were chosen because of their inherent reliability as prime movers and for their lack of vibration. Reciprocating compressors were decided upon because of their great flexibility. Now, for the first time, the advantages of both gas turbines and reciprocating compressors are coupled on a very large scale. In this installation, the turbines will operate at about 5,000 rpm, while the compressors will run at only 270 rpm. Speed will be reduced through the giant gear boxes. The compressor platform rests on seventy- eight 36-in. piles in 100 ft of water. Piles were driven 180 ft below water level. To dehydrate the gas, Phillips will install a triethylene glycol unit. Two nearby flow stations will gather associated gas produced at the field and will pipe the gas underwater to the gas injection platform. Lamar Field is in the S. central area of Lake Maracaibo. To date, it has produced a 150 million bbl in 10 yr. Studies have indicated that a combination of waterflooding and repressuring by gas injection could double final recovery. Waterflooding began in 1963.

Franco, A.

1967-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Isotopic Tracing of Particulate Matter from a Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Ethanol-in-Diesel Blends  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) was used to investigate the relative contribution to diesel engine particulate matter (PM) from the ethanol and diesel fractions of blended fuels. Four test fuels along with a diesel fuel baseline were investigated. The test fuels were comprised of {sup 14}C depleted diesel fuel mixed with contemporary grain ethanol (>400 the {sup 14}C concentration of diesel). An emulsifier (Span 85) or cosolvent (butyl alcohol) was used to facilitate mixing. The experimental test engine was a 1993 Cummins B5.9 diesel rated at 175 hp at 2500 rpm. Test fuels were run at steady-state conditions of 1600 rpm and 210 ft-lbs, and PM samples were collected on quartz filters following dilution of engine exhaust in a mini-dilution tunnel. AMS analysis of the filter samples showed that the ethanol contributed less to PM relative to its fraction in the fuel blend. For the emulsified blends, 6.4% and 10.3% contributions to PM were observed for 11.5% and 23.0% ethanol fuels, respectively. For the cosolvent blends, even lower contributions were observed (3.8% and 6.3% contributions to PM for 12.5% and 25.0% ethanol fuels, respectively).

Cheng, A.S.; Dibble, R.W.; Buchholz, B.

1999-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

206

Altering the volumetric expansion ratio of a Lysholm helical screw expander  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is an analysis of the effects of the volumetric expansion ratio on the operation of a Lysholm helical screw expander. Extensive testing of the University of California Lysholm engine with a 5.3 volumetric expansion ratio was performed. In this experiment, the expansion ratio has been reduced from 5.3 to 4.0. Tests were performed at a variety of speeds and qualities for a 5.0 pressure ratio and at a variety of speeds and pressure ratios for 99 percent quality. It was predicted that decreasing the volumetric expansion ratio would decrease the leakage fraction and thereby increase efficiency. This occurred as predicted. Isentropic efficiency increased 20 percent for 50 percent quality steam and 16 percent for 33 percent quality steam, all for an inlet pressure of 120 psia and a speed of 9000 rpm. A maximum efficiency of 47.2 percent was reached at 33 percent quality, 9000 rpm and a pressure ratio of 5.0. It was noted that the leakage rate did not appear to be a function of expansion ratio, as had been expected. Using this fact the previous empirical models of the engine were extended to include volumetric expansion ratio as a variable parameter.

Dunbar, M.K.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Giromill wind tunnel test and analysis. Volume I. Executive summary. Final report, June 1976--October 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The study described herein is a continuation of the Giromill investigation in which a wind tunnel test of a model Giromill rotor was performed. The primary objective of the wind tunnel test was to obtain data for comparison with the Larsen cyclogiro vortex theory program employed for predicting the Giromill performance. The model had a rotor diameter of 7 ft. (2.13 meters) and a solidity (total blade area divided by rotor span times diameter) of 0.3. This was achieved by a three bladed rotor having blade chords of 8.4 in. (21.3 cm) and a span of 5 ft. (1.52 meters). The blades were modulated by use of replaceable cams, that simulated the various operating conditions, and a push rod arrangement connected to a bellcrank about the blade pivot point. Rotor RPM control was achieved with an electric motor/generator that could be used to either drive the rotor or absorb the rotor power to maintain RPM.

Moran, W.A.

1977-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling  

SciTech Connect

The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill 'faster and deeper' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the 'ultra-high rotary speed drilling system' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm - usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document provides the progress through two phases of the program entitled 'Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling' for the period starting 30 June 2003 and concluding 31 March 2009. The accomplishments of Phases 1 and 2 are summarized as follows: (1) TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance (see Black and Judzis); (2) TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments (See Black and Judzis). Improvements were made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs were developed to provided a more consistent product with consistent performance. A test matrix for the final core bit testing program was completed; (3) TerraTek concluded small-scale cutting performance tests; (4) Analysis of Phase 1 data indicated that there is decreased specific energy as the rotational speed increases; (5) Technology transfer, as part of Phase 1, was accomplished with technical presentations to the industry (see Judzis, Boucher, McCammon, and Black); (6) TerraTek prepared a design concept for the high speed drilling test stand, which was planned around the proposed high speed mud motor concept. Alternative drives for the test stand were explored; a high speed hydraulic motor concept was finally used; (7) The high speed system was modified to accommodate larger drill bits than originally planned; (8) Prototype mud turbine motors and the high speed test stand were used to drive the drill bits at high speed; (9) Three different rock types were used during the testing: Sierra White granite, Crab Orchard sandstone, and Colton sandstone. The drill bits used included diamond impregnated bits, a polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit, a thermally stable PDC (TSP) bit, and a hybrid TSP and natural diamond bit; and (10) The drill bits were run at rotary speeds up to 5500 rpm and weight on bit (WOB) to 8000 lbf. During Phase 2, the ROP as measured in depth of cut per bit revolution generally increased with increased WOB. The performance was mixed with increased rotary speed, with the depth cut with the impregnated drill bit generally increasing and the TSP and hybrid TSP drill bits generally decreasing. The ROP in ft/hr generally increased with all bits with increased WOB and rotary speed. The mechanical specific energy generally improved (decreased) with increased WOB and was mixed with increased rotary speed.

TerraTek, A Schlumberger Company

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

209

HCCI Load Expansion Opportunities using a Fully Variable HVA Research Engine to Guide Development of a Production Intent Cam-based VVA Engine: The Low Load Limit  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of HCCI combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on identifying challenges and opportunities associated with a production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) system on a multi-cylinder engine in comparison to a fully flexible, naturally aspirated, hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) system on a single-cylinder engine, with both platforms sharing the same GDI fueling system and engine geometry. The multi-cylinder production intent VVA system uses a 2-step cam technology with wide authority cam phasing, allowing adjustments to be made to the negative valve overlap (NVO) duration but not the valve opening durations. On the single cylinder HVA engine, the valve opening duration and lift are variable in addition to the NVO duration. The content of this paper is limited to the low-medium operating load region at 2000rpm. Using different injection strategies, including the NVO pilot injection approach, the single-cylinder engine is operated over a load range from 160-390 kPa net IMEP at 2000 rpm. Changes to valve opening duration on the single-cylinder HVA engine illustrate opportunities for load expansion and efficiency improvement at certain conditions. For instance, the low load limit can be extended on the HVA engine by reducing breathing and operating closer to a stoichiometric air fuel ratio (AFR) by using valve deactivation. The naturally aspirated engine used here without external EGR confirmed that as operating load increases the emissions of NOx increases due to combustion temperature. NOx emissions are found to be one limitation to the maximum load limitation, the other being high pressure rise rate. It is found that the configuration of the production intent cam-based system represents a good compromise between valve lift and duration in the low to medium load region. Changing the extent of charge motion and breathing via valve deactivation prove beneficial at moderating the pressure rise rate and combustion stability and extending the low load limit at 2000rpm on the HVA engine. It also confirms that strategies using a pilot fuel injection are beneficial at low operating loads but that as operating load is increased, the benefits of multiple injection diminish to the point where a single injection offers the best performance.

Weall, Adam J [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Foster, Matthew [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi; Moore, Wayne [Delphi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Determining the Impact of Concrete Roadways on Gamma Ray Background Readings for Radiation Portal Monitoring Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dissolution of the Soviet Union coupled with the growing sophistication of international terror organizations has brought about a desire to ensure that a sound infrastructure exists to interdict smuggled nuclear material prior to leaving its country of origin. To combat the threat of nuclear trafficking, radiation portal monitors (RPMs) are deployed around the world to intercept illicit material while in transit by passively detecting gamma and neutron radiation. Portal monitors in some locations have reported abnormally high gamma background count rates. The higher background data has been attributed, in part, to the concrete surrounding the portal monitors. Higher background can ultimately lead to more material passing through the RPMs undetected. This work is focused on understanding the influence of the concrete surrounding the monitors on the total gamma ray background for the system. This research employed a combination of destructive and nondestructive analytical techniques with computer simulations to form a model that may be adapted to any RPM configuration. Six samples were taken from three different composition concrete slabs. The natural radiologcal background of these samples was determined using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector in conjunction with the Canberra In-Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) and Genie 2000 software packages. The composition of each sample was determined using thermal and fast neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques. The results from these experiments were incorporated into a Monte Carlo N-Particle (MNCP) photon transport simulation to determine the expected gamma ray count rate in the RPM due to the concrete. The results indicate that a quantitative estimate may be possible if the experimental conditions are optimized to eliminate sources of uncertainty. Comparisons of actual and simulated count rate data for 137Cs check sources showed that the model was accurate to within 15%. A comparison of estimated and simulated count rates in one concrete slab showed that the model was accurate to within 4%. Subsequent sensitivity analysis showed that if the elemental concentrations are well known, the carbon and hydrogen content could be easily estimated. Another sensitivity analysis revealed that the small fluctuations in density have a minimal impact on the gamma count rate. The research described by this thesis provides a method by which RPM end users may quantitatively estimate the expected gamma background from concrete foundations beneath the systems. This allows customers to adjust alarm thresholds to compensate for the elevated background due to the concrete, thereby increasing the probability of intercepting illicit radiological and nuclear material.

Ryan, Christopher Michael

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Temperature Profile Measurements in a Newly Constructed 30-Stage 5 cm Centrifugal Contactor pilot Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An annular centrifugal contactor pilot plant incorporating 30 stages of commercial 5 cm CINC V-02 units has been built and operated at INL during the past year. The pilot plant includes an automated process control and data acquisitioning system. The primary purpose of the pilot plant is to evaluate the performance of a large number of inter-connected centrifugal contactors and obtain temperature profile measurements within a 30-stage cascade. Additional solvent extraction flowsheet testing using stable surrogates is also being considered. Preliminary hydraulic testing was conducted with all 30 contactors interconnected for continuous counter-current flow. Hydraulic performance and system operational tests were conducted successfully but with higher single-stage rotor speeds found necessary to maintain steady interstage flow at flowrates of 1 L/min and higher. Initial temperature profile measurements were also completed in this configuration studying the performance during single aqueous and two-phase counter-current flow at ambient and elevated inlet solution temperatures. Temperature profile testing of two discreet sections of the cascade required additional feed and discharge connections. Lamp oil, a commercially available alkane mixture of C14 to C18 chains, and tap water adjusted to pH 2 were the solution feeds for all the testing described in this report. Numerous temperature profiles were completed using a newly constructed 30-stage centrifugal contactor pilot plant. The automated process control and data acquisition system worked very well throughout testing. Temperature data profiles for an array of total flowrates (FT) and contactor rpm values for both single-phase and two-phase systems have been collected with selected profiles and comparisons reported. Total flowrates (FT) ranged from 0.5-1.4 L/min with rotor speeds from 3500-4000 rpm. Solution inlet temperatures ranging from ambient up to 50 C were tested. Ambient temperature testing shows that a small amount of heat is added to the processed solution by the mechanical energy of the contactors. The temperature profiles match the ambient temperature of the laboratory but are nearly 10 C higher toward the middle of the cascade. Heated input solution testing provides temperature profiles with smaller temperature gradients and are more influenced by the temperature of the inlet solutions than the ambient laboratory temperature. The temperature effects of solution mixing, even at 4000 rpm, were insignificant in any of the studies conducted on lamp oil and water.

Troy G. Garn; Dave H. Meikrantz; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

HCCI Load Expansion Opportunities Using a Fully Variable HVA Research Engine to Guide Developments of a Production Intent Cam-Based VVA Engine: The Low Load Limit  

SciTech Connect

While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of HCCI combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on identifying challenges and opportunities associated with a production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) system on a multi-cylinder engine in comparison to a fully flexible, naturally aspirated, hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) system on a single-cylinder engine, with both platforms sharing the same GDI fueling system and engine geometry. The multi-cylinder production intent VVA system uses a 2-step cam technology with wide authority cam phasing, allowing adjustments to be made to the negative valve overlap (NVO) duration but not the valve opening durations. On the single cylinder HVA engine, the valve opening duration and lift are variable in addition to the NVO duration. The content of this paper is limited to the low-medium operating load region at 2000rpm. Using different injection strategies, including the NVO pilot injection approach, the single-cylinder engine is operated over a load range from 160-390 kPa net IMEP at 2000 rpm. Changes to valve opening duration on the single-cylinder HVA engine illustrate opportunities for load expansion and efficiency improvement at certain conditions. For instance, the low load limit can be extended on the HVA engine by reducing breathing and operating closer to a stoichiometric air fuel ratio (AFR) by using valve deactivation. The naturally aspirated engine used here without external EGR confirmed that as operating load increases the emissions of NOx increases due to combustion temperature. NOx emissions are found to be one limitation to the maximum load limitation, the other being high pressure rise rate. It is found that the configuration of the production intent cam-based system represents a good compromise between valve lift and duration in the low to medium load region. Changing the extent of charge motion and breathing via valve deactivation prove beneficial at moderating the pressure rise rate and combustion stability and extending the low load limit at 2000rpm on the HVA engine. It also confirms that strategies using a pilot fuel injection are beneficial at low operating loads but that as operating load is increased, the benefits of multiple injection diminish to the point where a single injection offers the best performance.

Weall, Adam J [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Foster, Matthew [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi; Moore, Wayne [Delphi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Development of a New Analysis Tool for Evaluating and Correcting for Weather Conditions that Constrain Radiation Portal Monitor Performance  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed the Adaptable, Multiplatform, Real-Time Analysis Package (AMRAP) for the continuous measurement of environmental radionuclide decay. AMRAP is a completely open source visualization and analysis package capable of combining a variety of data streams into an array of real-time plots. Once acquired, data streams are analyzed to store static images and extract data based on previously defined thresholds. AMRAP is currently used at ORNL to combine data streams from an Ortec Detective high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, a TSA Systems radiation portal monitor (RPM), and an Orion weather station. The combined data are used to study the rain-induced increase in RPM background radiation levels. RPMs experience an increase in background radiation during precipitation due to the deposition of atmospheric radionuclides on the ground. Using AMRAP results in a real-time analysis workstation specifically dedicated to the study of RPM background radiation levels. By means of an editable library of common inputs, AMRAP is adaptable to remote monitoring applications that would benefit from the real-time visualization and analysis of radiation measurements. To study rain-induced increases in background radiation levels observed in radiation portal monitors (RPMs), researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a software package that allows data with different formats to be analyzed and plotted in near real time. The Adaptable, Multiplatform, Real-Time Analysis Package (AMRAP) was developed to operate in the background and capture plots of important data based on previously defined thresholds. After executing AMRAP, segments of a data stream can be captured without additional post-processing. AMRAP can also display previously recorded data to facilitate a detailed offline analysis. Without access to these capabilities in a single software package, analyzing multiple continuously recorded data streams with different formats is impractical. Commercially available acquisition software packages record and analyze radiation measurements but are not designed to perform real-time analysis in conjunction with data from other vendors. The lack of collaboration between vendors is problematic when research requires different data streams to be correlated in time and immediately analyzed. AMRAP was specifically developed to provide a solution to this problem. AMRAP is a completely open source visualization and analysis package capable of plotting and analyzing data from different vendors in near real time.

Guzzardo, Tyler [ORNL; Livesay, Jake [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Design and Optimization of Condenser and Centrifuge Units for Enhancement of a Batch Vacuum Frying System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A batch vacuum frying system, which processes fruits and vegetables, includes a frying pan, a surface-condenser, and a vacuum pump. With health and safety issues in mind, this research focused on developing a modified surface-condenser to prevent cavitation of the vacuum pump. The final oil-content was reduced by centrifugal de- oiling of the product under vacuum, which make the product healthier than what is currently available. The de-oiling mechanism consists of a centrifuge with a motor attached to the basket shaft, rotating up to 750 rpm (63 g units). The condenser consists of a (counter- flow) spiral-coil heat exchanger (SHE) connected to a refrigeration system that uses R404a refrigerant. De-oiling for 40 s at 300 and 750 RPM removed up to 67% and 72% of the chips surface oil, respectively. At 750 RPM for 10 s, 40 s, and 60 s the oil-content was reduced by 38%, 44%, and 51%, respectively. The convective heat transfer coefficient (h) of the frying oil was determined at 120C and 140C using the lumped capacitance method. The h-values were 21713 W/m2K (120C) and 25837 W/m2K (140C) using a copper-ball thermocouple. The h- values increased to 3.6 times during the boiling period. COMSOLTM Multiphysics was used to model the heat transfer in the vacuum fryer pan. Based on the simulation results, a 1.5 cm thick insulation material was installed in the fryer to reduce the energy losses. The refrigeration system operates at Tevap = -26C and Tcond = 50C with 26C sub-cooling. Sensitivity analysis showed that the system Coefficient of Performance (COP) was about 3.87 at these conditions and compressor power requirement (CPR) was 74 W (85% efficiency) when frying 30 g of potatoes slices. The best results were obtained at Tevap = -10C and Tcond = 40C with 26C sub-cooling and superheat of 5C. The predicted COP was 4 and the CPR 70 W. The ice-formation on coils reduced the condensation rate. Reducing the refrigerant temperature to -10C (from -26C) reduced the condensation rate by 30%. These results show a more effective vacuum frying system for high-quality fruits and vegetables than the system previously used.

Pandey, Akhilesh

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Heat transfer in leading and trailing edge cooling channels of the gas turbine blade under high rotation numbers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The gas turbine blade/vane internal cooling is achieved by circulating the compressed air through the cooling passages inside the turbine blade. Leading edge and trailing edge of the turbine blade are two critical regions which need to be properly cooled. Leading edge region receives extremely hot mainstream flow and high heat transfer enhancement is required. Trailing edge region usually has narrow shaped geometry and applicable cooling techniques are restricted. Heat transfer will be investigated in the leading edge and trailing edge cooling channels at high rotation numbers close to the engine condition. Heat transfer and pressure drop has been investigated in an equilateral triangular channel (Dh=1.83cm) to simulate the cooling channel near the leading edge of the gas turbine blade. Three different rib configurations (45, inverted 45, and 90) were tested at four different Reynolds numbers (10000-40000), each with five different rotational speeds (0-400 rpm). By varying the Reynolds numbers (10000-40000) and the rotational speeds (0-400 rpm), the rotation number and buoyancy parameter reached in this study were 0-0.58 and 0-2.3, respectively. 45 angled ribs show the highest thermal performance at stationary condition. 90 ribs have the highest thermal performance at the highest rotation number of 0.58. Heat transfer coefficients are also experimentally measured in a wedge-shaped cooling channel (Dh =2.22cm, Ac=7.62cm2) to model an internal cooling passage near the trailing edge of a gas turbine blade where the coolant discharges through the slot to the mainstream flow. Tapered ribs are put on the leading and trailing surfaces with an angle of attack of 45. The ribs are parallel with staggered arrangement on opposite walls. The inlet Reynolds number of the coolant varies from 10,000 to 40,000 and the rotational speeds varies from 0 to 500 rpm. The inlet rotation number is from 0 - 1.0. The local rotation number and buoyancy parameter are determined by the rotational speeds and the local Reynolds number at each region. Results show that heat transfer is high near the regions where strong slot ejection exists. Both the rotation number and buoyancy parameter have been correlated to predict the rotational heat transfer enhancement.

Liu, Yao-Hsien

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Microsoft PowerPoint - 4-07 Herman _1000 hr test talk  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

L3100-2010-00229 L3100-2010-00229 Results of the 1000 Hour Rotary Microfilter Endurance Test D.T. Herman - SRNL W. Greene, J. Gilmour, T. Ho - SpinTek 11/16/10 EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange 2010 Print Close 2 SRNL-L3100-2010-00229 Rotary Microfilter 1000 Hour Test SpinTek Rotary Microfilter 1 - 25 filter disks ~11 inch diameter ~1 sq ft filter media per disk 1170 rpm 60 ft/s tip speed Turbulence promoters / baffles above and below disks increase shear at the membrane surface and reduce cake buildup 40 psi pressure drop across filter PERMEATE ROTATING MEMBRANES STATIONARY SHEAR ELEMENTS TIE RODS HOLLOW SHAFT Membrane Back plate Epoxy Bead Permeate carrier Print Close 3 SRNL-L3100-2010-00229 Rotary Microfilter 1000 Hour Test Design of the 2 nd Generation 25-Disk Rotary Filter Improvements:

217

VEHICLE SPECIFICATIONS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Page 1 of 5 Page 1 of 5 VEHICLE SPECIFICATIONS 1 Vehicle Features Base Vehicle: 2011 Nissan Leaf VIN: JN1AZ0CP5BT000356 Class: Mid-size Seatbelt Positions: 5 Type: EV Motor Type: Three-Phase, Four-Pole Permanent Magnet AC Synchronous Max. Power/Torque: 80 kW/280 Nm Max. Motor Speed: 10,390 rpm Cooling: Active - Liquid cooled Battery Manufacturer: Automotive Energy Supply Corporation Type: Lithium-ion - Laminate type Cathode/Anode Material: LiMn 2 O 4 with LiNiO 2 /Graphite Pack Location: Under center of vehicle Number of Cells: 192 Cell Configuration: 2 parallel, 96 series Nominal Cell Voltage: 3.8 V Nominal System Voltage: 364.8 V Rated Pack Capacity: 66.2 Ah Rated Pack Energy: 24 kWh Max. Cell Charge Voltage 2 : 4.2 V Min. Cell Discharge Voltage 2 : 2.5 V

218

NEPA CX Determination SS-SC-11-02 for Radiation Portal Monitor  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2 for Radiation Portal Monitor 2 for Radiation Portal Monitor National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Categorical Exclusion (CX) Determination A. SSO NEPA Control #: SS-SC-11-02 B. Brief Description of Proposed Action: SLAC has a long-term schedule for the disassembly and disposition (D&D) of metal objects released for offsite disposal from the SLAC B-Factory Detector (BaBar) and the upgraded SLAC positron-electron collider (PEP-II) experiments. As part of this effort, SLAC is proposing to install and operate a radiation portal monitor (RPM) to measure high-energy gamma radioisotopes of trucks transporting metals offsite. The proposed structure comprises two upright columns, one on either side of a turnout lane along the road toward SLAC's south gate at Alpine Road. Vehicles exiting the site will be directed to drive between the columns to have their cargo

219

MHK Technologies/Atlantisstrom | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Atlantisstrom Atlantisstrom < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Atlantisstrom.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Atlantisstrom Technology Resource Click here Current Technology Type Click here Cross Flow Turbine Technology Readiness Level Click here TRL 1 3 Discovery Concept Def Early Stage Dev Design Engineering Technology Description Five drop shaped vanes 20 meters length are placed between two circular metal plates 8 meter diameter and are held in place by two supports The assembly is fixed between two opposing rock faces in a narrow fjord and rotates at approximately 7 RPM Technology Dimensions Device Testing Date Submitted 51:25.6 << Return to the MHK database homepage Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=MHK_Technologies/Atlantisstrom&oldid=681544

220

Laurel | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Laurel Laurel Jump to: navigation, search Name Laurel Facility Laurel Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner MidAmerican Energy Developer RPM Access Wind Development Energy Purchaser MidAmerican Energy Location Haverhill IA Coordinates 41.89096884°, -92.97214508° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.89096884,"lon":-92.97214508,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

BioPower Application (United States) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

BioPower Application (United States) BioPower Application (United States) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: BioPower Application (United States) Focus Area: Ethanol Topics: Potentials & Scenarios Website: rpm.nrel.gov/biopower/biopower/launch Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/biopower-application-united-states,ht Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Demonstration & Implementation BioPower is an interactive map for comparing biomass feedstocks and biopower by location. This tool helps users select from and apply biomass data layers to a map as well as query and download biopower and feedstock data. The analysis function offers common conversion factors that allow users to determine the potential biopower production for a selected

222

Preparation of biliquid foam compositions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Technology developed by the late Dr. Felix Sebba of the VPI Chemical Engineering Department by which an oil phase can be broken up into small droplets and encapsulated in a continuous water phase led to research on the possible merits of a fuel prepared by this procedure. The resulting mixture is called a polyaphron. Part 1 of this report describes the testing of polyaphronated gasoline in an automobile engine. Nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions, total hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, and exhaust temperature were determined for various load and RPM combinations. Difficulties with viscosity and separation of the water phase have prevented complete testing at road load conditions. Rather than continue with engine testing, some bench tests of polyaphrons were performed to see the effect of various filtering processes on fuel stability as well as measuring viscosity and density. These results are reported in Part 2 of this paper. 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Jaasma, D.R.; Osucha, D.C.; Scheuren, J.

1990-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

223

FEMP ESPC Success Story - U.S. Naval Station, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

a m a m ESPC Success Stories Environmental Stewardship and Cost Savings These photographs chronicle the installation of the wind turbines at John Paul Jones Hill, Guantanamo Bay. The four wind turbine towers are about 185 feet high. The blade lengths are 90 feet. The top of the blades are about 275 feet off the g round. The blades rotate at a maximum of 22 RPM, or a rotation every three seconds. This translates to a blade tip speed of 140 mph. During construction there were as many as 20 workers on the project. However, operating the wind turbines will only take one part-time staff-person who will check on them daily. Photos courtesy of: Jeffrey M. Johnston, Public Works Officer, Guantanamo Bay; Paul DelSignore, NFESC; Daniel Ingold, NORESCO. U.S. NAVAL STATION

224

Vienna | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Vienna Vienna Jump to: navigation, search Name Vienna Facility Vienna Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner MidAmerican Energy Developer RPM Access Wind Development Energy Purchaser MidAmerican Energy Location Marshalltown IA Coordinates 42.159909°, -92.779639° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.159909,"lon":-92.779639,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

225

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

91 - 13900 of 28,905 results. 91 - 13900 of 28,905 results. Download FAQS Qualification Card - Radiation Protection A key element for the Department's Technical Qualification Programs is a set of common Functional Area Qualification Standards (FAQS) and associated Job Task Analyses (JTA). These standards are developed for various functional areas of responsibility in the Department, including oversight of safety management programs identified as hazard controls in Documented Safety Analyses (DSA). http://energy.gov/hss/downloads/faqs-qualification-card-radiation-protection Download Microsoft PowerPoint- Risk_Portfolio_Manager(RPM)_overview_Under_Sec_DOE__2011_V4 Final 3-22-2011.ppt [Read-Only] [Compatibili http://energy.gov/cio/downloads/microsoft-powerpoint-riskportfoliomanagerrpmoverviewundersecdoe2011v4-final-3-22

226

Microsoft PowerPoint - Real-Time Dynamic Brake Assessment poster.ppt [Compatibility Mode]  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dynamic Brake Assessment Dynamic Brake Assessment Purpose Conduct a proof-of-concept test to examine the feasibility of developing an on-board system to assess a vehicle's ability to stop based on typical low-pressure in-service braking events. Partnerships H.T. Hackney Company MGM Brakes Overview Funded through the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration's Vehicle and Roadside Operations Division Concept stemming from on the Department of Energy's Medium Truck Duty Cycle research as well as previous research conducted for the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration. Signals to be collected Real-time brake application pressure Vehicle speed and acceleration GPS location and grade information Vehicle weight (current load) Engine parameters such as RPM and torque To be conducted October 2010 -

227

Field Operations Management .:. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home OCFO Financial Calendar Home OCFO Financial Calendar Quicklinks: A-Z Index for the OCFO Berkeley Lab Home Contact Us: By Group Contact Us: By Subject Contact Us: Full Listing Employment Financial Systems Modernization (F$M) Fiscal Close Forms: By Group Forms: Full Listing Glossary OCFO EH&S OCFO HR OCFO Home Policies Signature Authority ---------------------------------- UCOP University of California DOE CFO U.S. Department of Energy --------------------------------- Cost Accounting Standards DOE Accounting Handbook Federal Accounting Standards Generally Accepted Accounting Principles OMB Circular Regulations & Procedures Manual (RPM) UC Accounting Manual UC/DOE Prime Contract (Contract 31) CFO Departments: Budget Office Business Systems Analysis Conference Services Controller's Office Field Operations Management Financial Policy & Assurance Procurement & Property Office of Sponsored Projects & Industry Partnerships Training Travel Office

228

CX-005191: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

91: Categorical Exclusion Determination 91: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-005191: Categorical Exclusion Determination Radiation Portal Monitor CX(s) Applied: B2.2 Date: 01/31/2011 Location(s): Menlo Park, California Office(s): Stanford Linear Accelerator Site Office SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has a long-term schedule for the disassembly and disposition (D&D) of metal objects released for offsite disposal from the SLAC B-Factory Detector (BaBar) and the upgraded SLAC positron-electron collider (PEP-II) experiments. As part of this effort, SLAC is proposing to install and operate a radiation portal monitor (RPM) to measure high-energy gamma radioisotopes of trucks transporting metals offsite. The proposed structure comprises two upright columns, one on either side of a turnout lane along the road toward SLAC?s south gate at

229

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Modeling Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modeling Projects Modeling Projects Below are models grouped by topic. These models are used to analyze hydrogen technology, infrastructure, and other areas related to the development and use of hydrogen. Cross-Cutting Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER_CAM) Hydrogen Deployment System (HyDS) Model and Analysis Hydrogen Technology Assessment and Selection Model (HyTASM) Renewable Energy Power System Modular Simulator (RPM-Sim) Stranded Biogas Decision Tool for Fuel Cell Co-Production Energy Infrastructure All Modular Industry Growth Assessment (AMIGA) Model Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER_CAM) Hydrogen Deployment System (HyDS) Model and Analysis Hydrogen Technology Assessment and Selection Model (HyTASM)

230

PERIODIC CRYO REPORT  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CRYO REPORT CRYO REPORT TIME: Jan 11 2014 11:29:09:000PM LN2 tank pressure, psi 63.00 LN2 main tank level,inch 48.05 LN2 resv tank level,inch 179.00 Cryostat pressure, psi 0.01 LN2 sump level, inch 0.00 LN2 pump speed, rpm 0.27 LN2 pump pressure, psi 0.00 Scanner OK DIBORANE SYSTEM CRYBOR CONC1 OK CRYBOR CONC2 OK CRYBOR INST1 OK CRYBOR INST2 OK RESISTANCE COIL TEMPERATURES, deg C EF1U, deg C 34.66 EF1L 21.94 EF2U 26.93 EF2L 21.70 EF3U 41.54 EF3L 36.42 EFCU 18.28 EFCL 8.16

231

T-572: VMware ESX/ESXi SLPD denial of service vulnerability | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

72: VMware ESX/ESXi SLPD denial of service vulnerability 72: VMware ESX/ESXi SLPD denial of service vulnerability T-572: VMware ESX/ESXi SLPD denial of service vulnerability March 8, 2011 - 3:05pm Addthis PROBLEM: A vulnerability was reported in VMware ESX. A remote user can cause denial of service conditions. PLATFORM: ESX/ESXi 4.0, 4.1 ABSTRACT: VMware ESX/ESXi SLPD denial of service vulnerability and ESX third party updates for Service Console packages bind, pam, and rpm. reference LINKS: VMware Security Advisory: VMSA-2011-0004 VMware vSphere 4 VMware ESXi 4.1 Update CVE-2010-3609 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Moderate Discussion: A remote user can send specially crafted data to cause the target Service Location Protocol daemon (SLPD) to enter an infinite loop and consume excessive CPU resources.A remote user can consume excessive CPU resources.

232

MHK Technologies/Multi Resonant Chambers MRC 1000 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Resonant Chambers MRC 1000 Resonant Chambers MRC 1000 < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Multi Resonant Chambers MRC 1000.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization ORECon Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology Type Click here Oscillating Water Column Technology Readiness Level Click here TRL 5 6 System Integration and Technology Laboratory Demonstration Technology Description A 1 5MW Multi Resonant Chamber MRC using Oscillating Water Column OWC principles Consists of 3 x 500kW independent chambers each with a Dresser Rand HydroAir turbine driving an induction generator Full power conversion system delivers grid compliant power 1 5MW 33kV 60Hz to shore Device is tension moored to maximise power capture and minimise footprint All maintenance is done on board No moving parts in the water Turbines are low speed 300rpm high efficiency 75 and low noise

233

Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program Mod I Stirling engine development  

SciTech Connect

The Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) Development Program was established to enable research and development of alternate propulsion systems. The program was awarded to Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for the purpose of developing an automotive Stirling engine, and transferring Stirling-engine technology to the United States. MTI has fabricated and tested four Mod I engines that have accumulated over 1900 test hours to date. The engines evaluated in the test cell have achieved an average of 34.5% efficiency at their maximum efficiency point (2000 rpm), and have developed an average maximum output power (power available to the drive train) level of 54.4 kW (73.2 bhp). All engines are still operating, and are being used to develop components and control strategy for the Upgraded Mod I engine design (predicted to increase maximum power output and efficiency while reducing total engine system weight).

Simetkosky, M.A.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Friction Stir Spot Welding of DP780 Carbon Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Friction stir spot welds were made in uncoated and galvannneled DP780 sheets using polycrystalline boron nitride stir tools. The tools were plunged at either a single continuous rate or in two segments consisting of a relatively high rate followed by a slower rate of shorter depth. Welding times ranged from 1-10 s. Increasing tool rotation speed from 800 to 1600 rpm increased strength values. The 2-segment welding procedures also produced higher strength joints. Average lap-shear strengths exceeding 10.3 kN were consistently obtained in 4 s on both the uncoated and the galvannealed DP780. The likelihood of diffusion and mechanical interlocking contributing to bond formation was supported by metallographic examinations. A cost analysis based on spot welding in automobile assembly showed that for friction stir spot welding to be economically competitive with resistance spot welding the cost of stir tools must approach that of resistance spot welding electrode tips.

Santella, M. L.; Hovanski, Yuri; Frederick, Alan; Grant, Glenn J.; Dahl, Michael E.

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

Application Of The Mold Sdm Process To The Fabrication Of Ceramic Parts For A Micro Gas Turbine Engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

... engine with silicon nitcon part is being developed. Inty1 project t he Mold Shape Deposit8fl Manufact23yP (Mold SDM) process is usedt fabricat highqualit yceramicpart wit complex shapes such ast herot/ group. The merit of micro gastsy1:W engines in general are described before focusing on processing and fabricat3C issues. Theobt23C: silicon nitcon part are charactCWWFfl concerningtonc mechanical and microstyPCWWFfl property12 The surface roughness, shrinkage during sinty1281 finaldensit yand achievablefeat /2 sizes have beendet/8fl8yPC Using Mold SDM a functPC81 rott group has been successfully fabricatul During spin tiny at roomt emperat/1 wit nit/1/ as driving gas 456,000 rpm rot28F:yP speed has been achieved.

Sangkyun Kang; Jrgen Stampfl; Alexander G. Cooper; Fritz B. Prinz

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

A Silicon-Based Micro Gas Turbine Engine for Power Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper reports on our research in developing a micro power generation system based on gas turbine engine and piezoelectric converter. The micro gas turbine engine consists of a micro combustor, a turbine and a centrifugal compressor. Comprehensive simulation has been implemented to optimal the component design. We have successfully demonstrated a silicon-based micro combustor, which consists of seven layers of silicon structures. A hairpin-shaped design is applied to the fuel/air recirculation channel. The micro combustor can sustain a stable combustion with an exit temperature as high as 1600 K. We have also successfully developed a micro turbine device, which is equipped with enhanced micro air-bearings and driven by compressed air. A rotation speed of 15,000 rpm has been demonstrated during lab test. In this paper, we will introduce our research results major in the development of micro combustor and micro turbine test device.

Shan, X -C; Maeda, R; Sun, Y F; Wu, M; Hua, J S

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Desktop Analysis Reporting Tool (DART) User's Guide  

SciTech Connect

The Desktop Analysis Reporting Tool (DART) is a software package that allows a user to easily view and analyze radiation portal monitor (RPM) daily files that span long periods. DART gives users the capability to determine the state of health of a monitor, troubleshoot and diagnose problems, and view data in various time frames to perform trend analysis. In short, it converts the data strings written in the daily files into meaningful tables and plots. DART is an application-based program that was designed to maximize the benefit of a centralized data repository while distributing the workload to individual desktop machines. This networked approach requires a more complex database manager (SQL Server); however, SQL Server is not currently provided with the DART Installation Disk. SQL Express is sufficient for local data analysis and requires the installation of SQL Express and DART on each machine intended for analysis.

Lousteau, Angela L [ORNL; Alcala, Scott [ORNL

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Correlation between Organic Matter Degradation and the Rheological Performance of Waste Sludge During Anaerobic Digestion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anaerobic digestion has demonstrated to be a good possibility to reduce the organic matter contents in waste activated sludge resulting in the effluents treatment. An anaerobic digestion was carried out in a 3.5 L reactor at 35?C for a period of 20 days. An electronic thermostat controlled the temperature. The reactor was agitated at a rate of 200 rpm. The study of the rheological behavior of the waste activated sludge was done with an Anton Paar rheometer model MCR301 with a peltier plate for temperature control. Four?blade vane geometry was used with samples of 37 mL for determining rheological properties. Sampling (two samples) was taken every four days of anaerobic digestion through a peristaltic pump. The samples behavior was characterized by the Herschel?Bulkley model

Evangelina S. Morel; Jos A. Hernndez?Hernndes; Juan M. Mndez?Contreras; Denis Cant?Lozano

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Experimental hydrogen-fueled automotive engine design data-base project. Volume 1. Executive summary report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A preliminary hydrogen-fueled automotive piston engine design data-base now exists as a result of a research project at the University of Miami. The effort, which is overviewed here, encompassed the testing of 19 different configurations of an appropriately-modified, 1.6-liter displacement, light-duty automotive piston engine. The design data base includes engine performance and exhaust emissions over the entire load range, generally at a fixed speed (1800 rpm) and best efficiency spark timing. This range was sometimes limited by intake manifold backfiring and lean-limit restrictions; however, effective measures were demonstrated for obviating these problems. High efficiency, competitive specific power, and low emissions were conclusively demonstrated.

Swain, M.R.; Adt, R.R. Jr.; Pappas, J.M.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

A bubble-powered micro-rotor: conception, manufacturing, assembly, and characterization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A steady fluid flow, called microstreaming, can be generated in the vicinity of a micro-bubble excited by ultrasound. In this article, we use this phenomenon to assemble and power a microfabricated rotor at rotation speeds as high as 625 rpm. The extractible power is estimated to be on the order of a few femtowatts. A first series of experiments with uncontrolled rotor shapes is presented, demonstrating the possibility of this novel actuation scheme. A second series of experiments with 65 micron rotors micromanufactured in SU-8 resin are presented. Variables controlling the rotation speed and rotor stability are investigated, such as the bubble diameter, the acoustic excitation frequency and amplitude, and the rotor geometry. Finally, an outlook is provided on developing this micro-rotor into a MEMS-based motor capable of delivering tunable, infinitesimal rotary power at the microscale.

Kao, Jonathan; Warren, John; Xu, Jie; Attinger, Daniel; 10.1088/0960-1317/17/12/010

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Pumping performance of a new type of hybrid molecular pump  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new type of hybrid molecular pump of high performance and reliability has been developed. The pumps rotational speed is 18?000 rpm. The pump is constructed with eleven stages of a turbomolecular pump and a drum multigroove drum molecular pump in which the clearance between rotor and stationary part is 0.35 mm; the rotors deformation forms a cuneiform channel of the proper working clearance to ensure the pumps performance and working reliability. The pump can operate within the pressure range of 510210?6 Pa for a oil?free vacuum with the maximum speed of 400 l/s. The maximum compression ratio for H2 is over 4000. It can be widely used in vacuum processes

Dechun Ba; Naiheng Yang; Xiaodong Wang; Shijin Pang; Yu Zhu; Xiaozhen Wang

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Pilot Scale Tests Alden/Concepts NREC Turbine  

SciTech Connect

Alden Research Laboratory, Inc. has completed pilot scale testing of the new Alden/Concepts NREC turbine that was designed to minimize fish injury at hydropower projects. The test program was part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Hydropower Turbine Systems Program. The prototype turbine operating point was 1,000 cfs at 80ft head and 100 rpm. The turbine was design to: (1) limit peripheral runner speed; (2) have a high minimum pressure; (3) limit pressure change rates; (4) limit the maximum flow shear; (5) minimize the number and total length of leading blade edges; (6) maximize the distance between the runner inlet and the wicket gates and minimize clearances (i.e., gaps) between other components; and (7) maximize the size of flow passages.

Thomas C. Cook; George E.Hecker; Stephen Amaral; Philip Stacy; Fangbiao Lin; Edward Taft

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

243

Metrological digital audio reconstruction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Audio information stored in the undulations of grooves in a medium such as a phonograph record may be reconstructed, with little or no contact, by measuring the groove shape using precision metrology methods coupled with digital image processing and numerical analysis. The effects of damage, wear, and contamination may be compensated, in many cases, through image processing and analysis methods. The speed and data handling capacity of available computing hardware make this approach practical. Two examples used a general purpose optical metrology system to study a 50 year old 78 r.p.m. phonograph record and a commercial confocal scanning probe to study a 1920's celluloid Edison cylinder. Comparisons are presented with stylus playback of the samples and with a digitally re-mastered version of an original magnetic recording. There is also a more extensive implementation of this approach, with dedicated hardware and software.

Fadeyev; Vitaliy (Berkeley, CA), Haber; Carl (Berkeley, CA)

2004-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

244

In situ global method for measurement of oxygen demand and mass transfer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two aerobic microorganisms, Saccharomycopsis lipolytica and Brevibacterium lactofermentum, have been used in a study of mass transfer and oxygen uptake from a global perspective using a closed gas system. Oxygen concentrations in the gas and liquid were followed using oxygen electrodes, and the results allowed for easy calculation of in situ oxygen transport. The cell yields on oxygen for S. lipolytica and B. lactofermentum were 1.01 and 1.53 g/g respectively. The mass transfer coefficient was estimated as 10 h{sup {minus}1} at 500 rpm for both fermentations. The advantages with this method are noticeable since the use of model systems may be avoided, and the in situ measurements of oxygen demand assure reliable data for scale-up.

Klasson, K.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.; Lundbaeck, K.M.O.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L. [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Thirty Stage Annular Centrifugal Contactor Thermal Profile Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A thirty stage 5 cm annular centrifugal contactor cascade has been assembled and tested to obtain thermal profiles during both ambient and heated input conditions of operation. Thermocouples were installed on every stage as well as feed inputs and Real-time data was taken during experiments lasting from two to eight hours at total flow rates of 0.5 to 1.4 liters per minute. Ambient temperature profile results show that only a small amount of heat is generated by the mechanical energy of the contactors. Steady state temperature profiles mimic the ambient temperature of the lab but are higher toward the middle of the cascade. Heated inlet solutions gave temperature profiles with smaller temperature gradients, more driven by the temperature of the inlet solutions than ambient lab temperature. Temperature effects of solution mixing, even at rotor speeds of 4000 rpm, were not measurable.

David H. Meikrantz; Troy G. Garn; Jack D. Law

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Advanced Ultra-High Speed Motor for Drilling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three (3) designs have been made for two sizes, 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) and 4.29 cm (1.69 inch) outer diameters, of a patented inverted configured Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSM) electric motor specifically for drilling at ultra-high rotational speeds (10,000 rpm) and that can utilize advanced drilling methods. Benefits of these motors are stackable power sections, full control (speed and direction) of downhole motors, flow hydraulics independent of motor operation, application of advanced drilling methods (water jetting and abrasive slurry jetting), and the ability of signal/power electric wires through motor(s). Key features of the final designed motors are: fixed non-rotating shaft with stator coils attached; rotating housing with permanent magnet (PM) rotor attached; bit attached to rotating housing; internal channel(s) in a nonrotating shaft; electric components that are hydrostatically isolated from high internal pressure circulating fluids ('muds') by static metal to metal seals; liquid filled motor with smoothed features for minimized turbulence in the motor during operation; and new inverted coated metal-metal hydrodynamic bearings and seals. PMSM, Induction and Switched Reluctance Machines (SRM), all pulse modulated, were considered, but PMSM were determined to provide the highest power density for the shortest motors. Both radial and axial electric PMSM driven motors were designed with axial designs deemed more rugged for ultra-high speed, drilling applications. The 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) OD axial inverted motor can generate 4.18KW (5.61 Hp) power at 10,000 rpm with a 4 Nm (2.95 ft-lbs) of torque for every 30.48 cm (12 inches) of power section. The 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) OD radial inverted motor can generate 5.03 KW (6.74 Hp) with 4.8 Nm (3.54 ft-lb) torque at 10,000 rpm for every 30.48 cm (12 inches) of power section. The 4.29 cm (1.69 inch) OD radial inverted motor can generate 2.56 KW (3.43 Hp) power with 2.44 Nm (1.8 ft-lb) torque at full speed 10,000 rpm for every 30.48 cm (12 inches) of power section. Operating conditions are 300 voltage AC at the motor leads. Power voltage losses in the cables/wirelines to the motor(s) are expected to be about 10% for 5000 feet carrying 2 amperes. Higher voltages and better insulators can lower these losses and carry more amperes. Cutting elements for such high tip velocities are currently not available, consequently these motors will not be built at this time. However, 7.62 cm (3 inch) OD, low speed, PMSM radial electric motors based on this project design are being built under a 2006 Oklahoma Center for the Advancement of Science and Technology 'proof of concept' grant.

Impact Technologies LLC; University of Texas at Arlington

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

247

ROCK PROPERTIES MODEL ANALYSIS MODEL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Analysis and Model Report (AMR) is to document Rock Properties Model (RPM) 3.1 with regard to input data, model methods, assumptions, uncertainties and limitations of model results, and qualification status of the model. The report also documents the differences between the current and previous versions and validation of the model. The rock properties models are intended principally for use as input to numerical physical-process modeling, such as of ground-water flow and/or radionuclide transport. The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. This work was conducted in accordance with the following planning documents: WA-0344, ''3-D Rock Properties Modeling for FY 1998'' (SNL 1997, WA-0358), ''3-D Rock Properties Modeling for FY 1999'' (SNL 1999), and the technical development plan, Rock Properties Model Version 3.1, (CRWMS M&O 1999c). The Interim Change Notice (ICNs), ICN 02 and ICN 03, of this AMR were prepared as part of activities being conducted under the Technical Work Plan, TWP-NBS-GS-000003, ''Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model, Process Model Report, Revision 01'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b). The purpose of ICN 03 is to record changes in data input status due to data qualification and verification activities. These work plans describe the scope, objectives, tasks, methodology, and implementing procedures for model construction. The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The work scope for this activity consists of the following: (1) Conversion of the input data (laboratory measured porosity data, x-ray diffraction mineralogy, petrophysical calculations of bound water, and petrophysical calculations of porosity) for each borehole into stratigraphic coordinates; (2) Re-sampling and merging of data sets; (3) Development of geostatistical simulations of porosity; (4) Generation of derivative property models via linear coregionalization with porosity; (5) Post-processing of the simulated models to impart desired secondary geologic attributes and to create summary and uncertainty models; and (6) Conversion of the models into real-world coordinates. The conversion to real world coordinates is performed as part of the integration of the RPM into the Integrated Site Model (ISM) 3.1; this activity is not part of the current analysis. The ISM provides a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site and consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) RPM, which is the subject of this AMR; and (3) Mineralogic Model. The interrelationship of the three components of the ISM and their interface with downstream uses are illustrated in Figure 1. Figure 2 shows the geographic boundaries of the RPM and other component models of the ISM.

Clinton Lum

2002-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

248

Novel motor design for rotating anode x-ray tubes operating in the fringe field of a magnetic resonance imaging system  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Using hybrid x-ray/MR (XMR) systems for image guidance during interventional procedures could enhance the diagnosis and treatment of neurologic, oncologic, cardiovascular, and other disorders. The authors propose a close proximity hybrid system design in which a C-arm fluoroscopy unit is placed immediately adjacent to the solenoid magnet of a MR system with a minimum distance of 1.2 m between the x-ray and MR imaging fields of view. Existing rotating anode x-ray tube designs fail within MR fringe field environments because the magnetic fields alter the electron trajectories in the x-ray tube and act as a brake on the induction motor, reducing the rotation speed of the anode. In this study the authors propose a novel motor design that avoids the anode rotation speed reduction. Methods: The proposed design replaces the permanent magnet stator found in brushed dc motors with the radial component of the MR fringe field. The x-ray tube is oriented such that the radial component of the MR fringe field is orthogonal to the cathode-anode axis. Using a feedback position sensor and the support bearings as electrical slip rings, the authors use electrical commutation to eliminate the need for mechanical brushes and commutators. A vacuum compatible prototype of the proposed motor design was assembled, and its performance was evaluated at various operating conditions. The prototype consisted of a 3.1 in. diameter anode rated at 300 kHU with a ceramic rotor that was 5.6 in. in length and had a 2.9 in. diameter. The material chosen for all ceramic components was MACOR, a machineable glass ceramic developed by Corning Inc. The approximate weight of the entire assembly was 1750 g. The maximum rotation speed, angular acceleration, and acceleration time of the motor design were investigated, as well as the dependence of these parameters on rotor angular offset, magnetic field strength, and field orientation. The resonance properties of the authors' assembly were also evaluated to determine its stability during acceleration, and a pulse width modulation algorithm was implemented to control the rotation speed of the motor. Results: At a magnetic flux density of 41 mT orthogonal to the axis of rotation (on the lower end of the expected flux density in the MR suite) the maximum speed of the motor was found to be 5150 revolutions per minute (rpm). The acceleration time necessary to reach 3000 rpm was found to be approximately 10 s at 59 mT. The resonance frequency of the assembly with the anode attached was 1310 rpm (21.8 Hz) which is far below the desired operating speeds. Pulse width modulation provides an effective method to control the speed of the motor with a resolution of 100 rpm. Conclusions: The proposed design can serve as a direct replacement to the conventional induction motor used in rotating anode x-ray tubes. It does not suffer from a reduced rotation speed when operating in a MR environment. The presence of chromic steel bearings in the prototype prevented testing at the higher field strengths, and future iterations of the design could eliminate this shortcoming. The prototype assembly demonstrates proof of concept of the authors' design and overcomes one of the major obstacles for a MR compatible rotating anode x-ray tube.

Lillaney, Prasheel; Pelc, Norbert [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Shin Mihye [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Hinshaw, Waldo; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Bennett, N. Robert [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Qualcomm MEMS Technologies, San Jose, California 95134 (United States)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

249

Conceptual design of coal-fueled diesel system for stationary power applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A preliminary conceptual design of a coal-fueled diesel system was prepared as part of a previous systems study. Since then, our team has accumulated extensive results from testing coal-water slurry on the 13-inch bore JS engine (400 rpm) in 1987 and 1988. These results provided new insights into preferred design concepts for engine components. One objective, therefore, was to revise the preliminary design to incorporate these preferred design concepts. In addition there were certain areas where additional, more detailed analysis was required as a result of the previous conceptual design. Another objective, therefore was to perform additional detailed design efforts, such as: (1) market applications and engine sizes, (2) coal-water slurry cleaning and grinding processes, (3) emission controls and hot gas contaminant controls, (4) component durability, (5) cost and performance assessments. (VC)

Not Available

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Operation of an aircraft engine using liquefied methane fuel  

SciTech Connect

The operation of a reciprocating aircraft engine on methane fuel is demonstrated. Since storage of the methane fuel in the gaseous state would impractical for a flight fuel system, a liquid storage system was used. System valving was configured to deliver only liquid methane to the engine supply line. The equipment description includes photo and diagram illustrations of the liquid methane storage dewar, and photos of the methane heat exchanger, pressure regulator and air-fuel mixer. The engine test results are presented for gasoline and methane in terms of RPM, horsepower, fuel flow, specific energy consumption and standard conditions horsepower. Conclusions include the finding that conversion of an aircraft reciprocating engine to operate on liquified methane is possible with very satisfactory results.

Raymer, J.A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Role of temperature, solvent and agitation in coal dissolution and liquefaction. Quarterly report, December 1981-February 1982  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Plexiglas reactor was constructed and experiments carried out with three mixer configurations in a sand-water system to determine the best mixer configuration and the minimum rpm to produce uniform conditions during coal dissolution. Coal dissolution experiments on Kentucky No. 9 coal were made with combinations of tetralin and 2-methylnaphthalene to obtain the optimum ratio in the solvent. The effect of ..beta..-naphthol addition to the solvent on the dissolution of Kentucky No. 9 coal was studied. The effect of holding time at 400/sup 0/C on the dissolution of Kentucky No. 9 coal in a solvent containing 46.1 wt % tetralin, 46.1 wt % 2-methylnaphthalene, 2.9 wt % ..gamma..-picoline and 4.9 wt % ..beta..-naphthol was studied.

Briggs, D.E.; Ebnesajjad, S.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Pilot Scale Tests Alden/Concepts NREC Turbine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Alden Research Laboratory, Inc. has completed pilot scale testing of the new Alden/Concepts NREC turbine that was designed to minimize fish injury at hydropower projects. The test program was part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Hydropower Turbine Systems Program. The prototype turbine operating point was 1,000 cfs at 80ft head and 100 rpm. The turbine was design to: (1) limit peripheral runner speed; (2) have a high minimum pressure; (3) limit pressure change rates; (4) limit the maximum flow shear; (5) minimize the number and total length of leading blade edges; (6) maximize the distance between the runner inlet and the wicket gates and minimize clearances (i.e., gaps) between other components; and (7) maximize the size of flow passages.

Thomas C. Cook; George E.Hecker; Stephen Amaral; Philip Stacy; Fangbiao Lin; Edward Taft

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

253

Design, analyses and experimental study of a foil gas bearing with compression springs as a compliance support  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new foil bearing with compression springs is designed, built, analyzed, and tested. This foil gas bearing uses a series of compression springs as a compliant structure instead of corrugated bump foils. A spring model to estimate the stiffness of compression springs was developed and showed a good level of agreement with the experimental results. The spring dynamics model was combined with a non-linear orbit simulation to investigate the non-linear behavior of foil gas bearings. The approach could also predict the structural loss factor given the geometry of the underlying springs. A series of rotor-bearing orbit simulations using the compression spring with stiffness of the free-free case, predicted the critical speed and the onset speed of instability at around 7500 rpm and 14,500 rpm with a WFR ~ 0.5. The low critical speed was due to the relatively soft support. The hydrodynamic rotor instability was predicted under the equivalent viscous damping extracted from the spring dynamics, implying the viscous damping alone within the spring cannot suppress hydrodynamic instability of the foil gas bearings. The load capacity of the compression spring foil gas bearing was measured at 20,000 rpm with and without air cooling, to demonstrate the feasibility of the new foil bearing. The constructed bearing with rather soft springs showed a small load capacity of 96N at 20,000 rpm under no cooling. The developed cooling method using direct air supply holes machined on the bearing sleeve, proved to be very effective in cooling the test bearing. The measured level of structural stiffness and damping evidenced the existence of a necessary level of damping for stable bearing operation. The structural stiffness was highly nonlinear and showed different behavior for static loading and the sinusoidal dynamic loading. The measured equivalent viscous damping coefficients increased with the applied load amplitude. A series of parametric design studies were performed to investigate the effects of various design parameters on the bearing stiffness and overall rotordynamic performance. Rotor-bearing orbit simulations showed there is a range of spring stiffness for high onset speeds of instability. Increasing the pitch of the spring while maintaining the same stiffness increased the structural loss factor slightly, manifesting a smaller number of coils is better in terms of damping. The onset speed of instability increases slightly with the rotor mass due to increased static eccentricity and presumably smaller cross-coupled stiffness. However, increasing the rotor mass in order to render a high eccentricity was not effective in increasing the onset speed of instability because of reduced natural frequency and increased inertia. Instead, orbit simulations confirmed that small rotor mass with external loading is the most effective way to increase the bearing stability.

Song, Ju Ho

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Hybrid automobile  

SciTech Connect

The invention discloses a parallel hybrid drive system for self propelled vehicles including a direct current motor-generator having a drive shaft in common with an internal combustion engine leading to a variable speed transmission and a final drive train. The motor-generator has a no-load speed, established by a separate field exciter, below which it drives the shaft as a motor and above which it is driven by the shaft as a generator. Storage batteries are operatively connected to the motor-generator to supply power to it below the no-load speed. The internal combustion engine operates over a small RPM range around its most efficient speed at a power level established by a fixed throttle setting. The transmission is operatively connected to an accelerator and direction selector switch to vary the speed and direction of the vehicle.

Lynch, T.E.; Eastman, D.P.; Price, R.P.

1979-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

255

Velocity characteristics of the flow in motored engines. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The influence of piston-head geometry, compression and rotational speed has been investigated. Measurements and calculations, without compression have shown the influence of a cylindrical bowl to be negligible; it is expected, and work is in progress to obtain direct evidence, that the influence will be significant with compression. Measurements in a Petter engine have, however, shown that compression has little influence at bottom dead center on the expansion stroke and that a substantial region of solid-body rotation exists in both cases. The influence of rotational speed on the flow patterns and turbulence intensity have been shown to be small except in the immediate vicinity of the inlet port and for rotational speeds (<100 rpm) when the flow is not turbulent. 25 references, 11 figures.

Gosman, A.D.; Whitelaw, J.H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Effect of Biodiesel Blending on the Speciation of Soluble Organic Fraction from a Light Duty Diesel Engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel was volumetrically blended with 2007 certification ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel and run in a 1.7L direct-injection common rail diesel engine at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP). Engine fueling rate and injection timing were adjusted to maintain a constant load, while particulate samples were collected in a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and with a dilution tunnel sampling train. The samples collected at these two locations were found to contain different levels of soluble organic fraction (SOF) and the different hydrocarbon species in the SOF. This observation indicates that traditional SOF measurements, in light of the specific sampling procedure used, may not be appropriate to DPF applications.

Strzelec, Andrea [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Foster, Prof. Dave [University of Wisconsin; Rutland, Prof. Christopher J. [University of Wisconsin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Method and apparatus for water jet drilling of rock  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Rock drilling method and apparatus utilizing high pressure water jets for drilling holes of relatively small diameter at speeds significantly greater than that attainable with existing drilling tools. Greatly increased drilling rates are attained due to jet nozzle geometry and speed of rotation. The jet nozzle design has two orifices, one pointing axially ahead in the direction of travel and the second inclined at an angle of approximately 30.degree. from the axis. The two orifices have diameters in the ratio of approximately 1:2. Liquid jet velocities in excess of 1,000 ft/sec are used, and the nozzle is rotated at speeds up to 1,000 rpm and higher.

Summers, David A. (Rolla, MO); Mazurkiewicz, Marian (Wroclaw, PL); Bushnell, Dwight J. (Corvallis, OR); Blaine, James (Rolla, MO)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Performance characteristics of the Lysholm engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of a 5 in. diameter rotor Lysholm engine prototype running on simulated geothermal flows from 16 to 100% quality is described. Staging was performed with conventional Westinghouse 25 kW steam turbines demonstrating that such a process is feasible. Maximum efficiency and power noted were 37.2% and 26.3 kW respectively, but inhibiting factors were discovered which, upon correction, should allow efficiencies around 50% and powers up to 35 kW. Larger engines with minor modifications should get better efficiencies. Data was taken for inlet pressures of 75 to 120 psia and speeds of 3000 to 9000 rpm's. Further testing under similar conditions is planned.

Berger, R.E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Design study of a two-phase turbine bottoming cycle. Final report. [Therminol 66 heated in diesel exhaust  

SciTech Connect

The use of a biphase turbine system to recover waste heat from diesel engines was examined and found to have many favorable attributes. Among these were low rpm, high torque, low heat exchanger cost, and simplicity. Several candidate working fluid combinations were tested at temperatures of interest. The contact heat exchanger concept was substantiated by large scale experiment. The program includes subscale tests of key hardware components of a biphase turbine bottoming system. These are the two-phase nozzle, two-phase turbine, and direct contact heat exchanger. A comprehensive cost analysis was completed. A three-year program leading to a full-size system field demonstration has been planned. Progress in the first year of this program and the effort started on the second year program are reported.

Studhalter, W R

1979-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

This is the title of the presentation on three lines if you need it  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

30 30 Development of the Rotary Microfilter for Radioactive Waste Applications D.T. Herman M.R. Poirier, D.B. Stefanko, S.D. Fink 5/20/09 EM-21 Technology Exchange 2 Development of the Rotary Microfilter for Radioactive Waste Applications Introduction SRS developing processes to treat radioactive liquid waste Crossflow filter testing has shown filtration rates less than desired Funded by EM-21 to investigated methods to improve separation of sludge solids from high level waste salt solution Identified rotary microfilter as a potential alternative to a crossflow filter 3 Development of the Rotary Microfilter for Radioactive Waste Applications SpinTek Rotary Microfilter 1 - 25 filter disks ~11 inch diameter ~1 sq ft filter media per disk 1170 rpm 60 ft/s tip speed

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

KLD Energy Technologies | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

KLD Energy Technologies KLD Energy Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name KLD Energy Technologies Place Austin, Texas Zip 78746 Sector Efficiency, Vehicles Product Austin, Texas-based KLD Energy Technologies designs and licenses a high-frequency, low RPM, transmissionless motor system that increases the speed and efficiency of electric vehicles. Coordinates 30.267605°, -97.742984° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":30.267605,"lon":-97.742984,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

262

MHK Technologies/Sabella subsea tidal turbine | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

subsea tidal turbine subsea tidal turbine < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Technology Profile Technology Resource Click here Current/Tidal Technology Type Click here Axial Flow Turbine Technology Description It is characterised by a turbine configuration on the seafloor, without impinging on the surface. These turbines are stabilised by gravity and/or are anchored according to the nature of the seafloor. They are pre-orientated in the direction of the tidal currents, and the profile of their symmetrical blades helps to capture the ebb and flow. The rotor activated, at slow speeds (10 to 15 rpm), by the tides powers a generator, which exports the electricity produced to the coast via a submarine cable anchored and embedded at its landfall.

263

Not a Babe in the Woods: Using MotorMaster Software to Make Sophisticated Electric Motor Purchase Decisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three-phase motors use more than half of all electricity in the United States. Energy efficient models are available in most motor classes in the 1 to 500 horsepower range, offering simple pay backs under two years. In practice, few motor buyers have performed an economic analysis, resulting in missed energy and dollar savings. MotorMaster software helps identify the best motor for a specific application. Its database of 9,000 motors includes the majority of three-phase motors sold in the United State. Performance information such as Full-Load RPM, torque and amperage rating identify models that meet specific design criteria. MotorMaster calculates operating costs and simple paybacks. This paper reviews the importance of proper electric motor selection and explains how MotorMaster software can be used to identify the most efficient, cost effective and reliable motor for each specific application.

Litman, T.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Combustion optimization studies for stratified charge and diesel engines. Progress report, October 1, 1977--September 30, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of the program are to assess the feasibility and operating characteristics of the following high compression, spark ignition (or self ignition), stratified charge (or diesel) engine configuration: compression ratio: 16; open chember; direct fuel injection; unthrottled operation; 615 cc/cylinder; explored speed range 1000 to 4000 rpm (expected practical range 600 to 6000 rpm); fuels: ethanol-diesel mixtures; spark ignition (stratified charge) or self ignition (diesel), to continue the development and the testing of physical and numerical aspects of multi-dimensional combustion models in order to assess and improve their accuracy and to reduce their computation time, and to contribute to the achievement of a more fundamental and detailed understanding, characterization, and command of the processes wich control efficiency and emissions in internal combustion engines. Progress to date includes: engine modifications to obtain a transparent-piston, transparent-head configuration have been implemented; a gaseous fuel injection system has been designed, built, and operated; shadowgraph records of engine combustion have been obtained; a LDV system for in-cylinder gas velocity measurements has been selected; progress has been made toward measuring in-cylinder pressure, temperature, and composition for complete characterization of the charge; modeling of unsteady gaseous jets has yielded results which match asymptotically known steady state solutions; comparison with unsteady, two-dimensional bomb flames has yielded general scaling procedures for the computation of laminar flames; studies toward modeling of thick sprays have continued; DISC and other technical meetings have been attended and the results of the program made known to researchers and automotive industries; a very promising technique to apply television to unsteady events with short characteristic time (< 30 ms) has been developed and applied to obtain records of engine flames.

Steinberger, R.L.; Bracco, F.V.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

A comparison of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates using a direct-injection, spark-ignition (DISI) engine.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study was designed to evaluate a 'what if' scenario in terms of using butanol as an oxygenate in place of ethanol in an engine calibrated for gasoline operation. No changes to the stock engine calibration were performed for this study. Combustion analysis, efficiency, and emissions of pure gasoline, 10% ethanol, and 10% butanol blends in a modern direct-injection four-cylinder spark-ignition engine were analyzed. Data were taken at engine speeds of 1000 rpm up to 4000 rpm with load varying from 0 N m (idle) to 150 N m. Relatively minor differences existed between the three fuels for the combustion characteristics such as heat release rate, 50% mass fraction burned, and coefficient of variation in indicated mean effective pressure at low and medium engine loads. However at high engine loads the reduced knock resistance of the butanol blend forced the engine control unit to retard the ignition timing substantially, compared with the gasoline baseline and, even more pronounced, compared with the ethanol blend. Brake specific volumetric fuel consumption, which represented a normalized volumetric fuel flow rate, was lowest for the gasoline baseline fuel due to the higher energy density. The 10% butanol blend had a lower volumetric fuel consumption compared with the ethanol blend, as expected, based on energy density differences. The results showed little difference in regulated emissions between 10% ethanol and 10% butanol. The ethanol blend produced the highest peak specific NO{sub x} due to the high octane rating of ethanol and effective antiknock characteristics. Overall, the ability of butanol to perform equally as well as ethanol from an emissions and combustion standpoint, with a decrease in fuel consumption, initially appears promising. Further experiments are planned to explore the full operating range of the engine and the potential benefits of higher blend ratios of butanol.

Wallner, T.; Miers, S. A.; McConnell, S. (Energy Systems)

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Performance of twist-coupled blades on variable speed rotors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The load mitigation and energy capture characteristics of twist-coupled HAWT blades that are mounted on a variable speed rotor are investigated in this paper. These blades are designed to twist toward feather as they bend with pretwist set to achieve a desirable twist distribution at rated power. For this investigation, the ADAMS-WT software has been modified to include blade models with bending-twist coupling. Using twist-coupled and uncoupled models, the ADAMS software is exercised for steady wind environments to generate C{sub p} curves at a number of operating speeds to compare the efficiencies of the two models. The ADAMS software is also used to generate the response of a twist-coupled variable speed rotor to a spectrum of stochastic wind time series. This spectrum contains time series with two mean wind speeds at two turbulence levels. Power control is achieved by imposing a reactive torque on the low speed shaft proportional to the RPM squared with the coefficient specified so that the rotor operates at peak efficiency in the linear aerodynamic range, and by limiting the maximum RPM to take advantage of the stall controlled nature of the rotor. Fatigue calculations are done for the generated load histories using a range of material exponents that represent materials from welded steel to aluminum to composites, and results are compared with the damage computed for the rotor without twist-coupling. Results indicate that significant reductions in damage are achieved across the spectrum of applied wind loading without any degradation in power production.

Lobitz, D.W.; Veers, P.S.; Laino, D.J.

1999-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

267

Performance and market evaluation of the bladeless turbine  

SciTech Connect

The three-inch diameter prototype bladeless turbine was tested with air over a range of inlet pressures from 20 to 100 psia and speeds of 10, 20, 30 and 40 thousand rpm. The peak efficiency of 22.5 percent was recorded at a pressure of 98 psia and a speed of 40,000 rpm. Efficiency increased slightly with speed and inlet pressure over the range of test conditions. The test program was somewhat hindered by mechanical failures. The turbine bearings in particular were unreliable, with two instances of outright failure and numerous cases of erratic performance. A model of the bladeless turbine was developed to aid in interpreting the experimental results. A macroscopic approach, incorporating several favorable assumptions, was taken to place a reasonable upper bound on turbine efficiency. The model analytically examines the flow through the air inlet nozzles and the interaction between the fluid jet and the turbine blades. The analysis indicates that the maximum possible efficiency of a tangential flow turbine with straight axial blades is 50 percent. This is a direct consequence of turning the fluid only 90 degrees relative to the turbine blade. The adoption of the bladeless turbine as the expander in an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) will depend to a great extent on the efficiency of the turbine. The market potential for ORC technology will also impact the adoption of the bladeless turbine. Other expanders have demonstrated efficiencies of 60 to 80% in ORC systems. The Gamell turbine had a peak test efficiency of 22.5% and a maximum theoretical efficiency of 50%. Costs of the turbine are highly uncertain, relying to a great extent on cost reductions achieved through quantity production and through learning.

Garrett-Price, B.A.; Barnhart, J.S.; Eschbach, E.J.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Measurement in a wind tunnel of the modification of mean wind and turbulence characteristics due to induction effects near wind turbine rotors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is the purpose of this report to provide experimental data on the wind field surrounding a single model wind turbine rotor disk. These data should provide an improved physical insight into the induction effects of the air flow as it approaches the wind turbine. This insight should in turn improve an analytical model's predictive capabilities. A scaled model of a horizontal-axis wind turbine (a two-bladed rotor of diameter 53 cm) was placed into the Meteorological Wind Tunnel (MWT) facility at Colorado State University (cross-section width of 183 cm). Four different approach flow conditions were studied: low and moderate turbulence levels (0.1% and 1.5% intensity) at both 6 and 7.6 m/s freestream air velocities. For each of these flow conditions the rotor power coefficient versus tip speed ratio was obtained, and the 3-dimensional velocity field from 3 rotor diameters upwind to 0.5 diameter downwind was tabulated. The power output of the rotor was obtained via a simple prony brake friction device that imparts a torque (measured by the deflection of a spring) to the spinning shaft of the wind turbine. The rotor speed, measured by a strobe light, was observed to vary with load from 900 rpm up to 2100 rpm for the flow conditions described above. The 3-dimensional velocity field was measured via a three-hot-film probe. Details of the measurement techniques are provided. The test program and data results are also given. A short discussion of the implications of this data set is included. 12 refs., 19 figs., 11 tabs.

Neff, D.E.; Meroney, R.N.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Effects of suspended particles on the rate of mass transfer to a rotating disk electrode. [Ferric cyanide  

SciTech Connect

Limiting currents for the reduction of ferric cyanide at a rotating disk were determined in the presence of 0 to 40 percent by volume of spherical glass beads. Experiments were conducted with six different particle diameters, and with rotation speeds in the range of 387 to 270 rpm, usong both a 0.56 cm and a 1.41 cm radius disk electrode. It was established that at a given rpm upon addition of glass beads in the limiting current, i/sub L/, may increase to more than three times its value without solids. This increase in limiting current density is greater at high rotation speeds and with the larger disk electrode. i/sub L/ as a function of particle diameter yields at maximum at approx. 10 ..mu..m. Two mass transfer models are offered to explain this behavior, both of which assume that the beads are in contact with the disk electrode and moving parallel to its surface. In the surface renewal model it is assumed that complete mixing takes place with the passage of each bead and the boundary layer is replaced with fresh bulk solution. While with the particle film model it is assumed the bead and a clinging film of fluid rotate together. The film promotes mass transfer by alternately absorbing and desorbing the diffusing species. The particle film model best explains the observed behavior of the limiting current density. Calculations of stirring power required verses i/sub L/ observed, show that adding beads to increase i/sub L/ consumes less additional power than simply increasing the rotation speed alone and even permits a decrease in the amount of stirring energy required per unit reactant consumed, at limiting current conditions.

Roha, D.J.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

271

Experience and assessment of the DOE-NASA Mod-1 2000-kilowatt wind turbine generator at Boone, North Carolina  

SciTech Connect

The broad objectives of the Mod-1 program are defined, including the background information leading to the inception of the program. Activities on the Mod-1 program began in 1974, and the turbine was dedicated in July 1979. Rated power generation was accomplished in February 1980. The Mod-1 wind turbine is described in this report. In addition to the steel blade operated on the wind turbine, a composite blade was designed and manufactured. During the early phase of the manufacturing cycle a Mod-1A configuration was designed that identified concepts such as partial span control, a soft tower, and upwind teetered rotors that have been incorporated in second- and third-generation industry designs. The Mod-1 electrical system performed as designed, with voltage flicker characteristics within acceptable utility limits. Power output versus wind speed has equaled or exceeded design predictions. The wind turbine control system was operated successfully at the site and remotely from the utility dispatcher's office in Lenior, NC. During wind turbine operations, television interference was experienced by the local residents. As a consequence, operations were restricted. Although not implemented, two potential solutions were identified. In addition to television interference, a few local residents complained about objectionable sound, particularly the thump as the blade passed behind the tower. To eliminate the residents' objections, the sound generation level was reduced by 10 dB by reducing the rotor speed from 35 rpm to 23 rpm. During January 1981, bolts in the drive train fractured. A solution has been identified but not implemented as yet. During the past 2 years the public reaction toward the Mod-1 Turbine program has been overwhelmingly favorable. This includes the vast majority of Boone residents.

Collins, J.L.; Shaltens, R.K.; Poor, R.H.; Barton, R.S.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electic Drive System Interim Report - Revised  

SciTech Connect

The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery-powered electric motor. Both of these motive power sources are capable of providing mechanical drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak power output of 50 kW at 1300 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical performance of the 2004 Toyota Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. As a hybrid vehicle, the 2004 Prius uses both a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine and a battery-powered electric motor as motive power sources. Innovative algorithms for combining these two power sources results in improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions compared to traditional automobiles. Initial objectives of the laboratory tests were to measure motor and generator back-electromotive force (emf) voltages and determine gearbox-related power losses over a specified range of shaft speeds and lubricating oil temperatures. Follow-on work will involve additional performance testing of the motor, generator, and inverter. Information contained in this interim report summarizes the test results obtained to date, describes preliminary conclusions and findings, and identifies additional areas for further study.

Ayers, C.W.; Hsu, J.S.; Marlino, L.D.; Miller, C.W.; Ott, G.W., Jr.; Oland, C.B.; Burress, T.A.

2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

273

World Journal of Modelling and Simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. The paper discusses the FIAs World Motor Sport Council (WMSC) new regulations for F1 power trains. The new regulations will see the 2.4 liter V8s currently used replaced by 1.6 liter V6s engines starting in 2014. The power units will have high pressure gasoline direct injection up to 500 bar. Engine speed limits on the new engines will be reduced from the current 18,000 rpm to a maximum of 15,000 rpm. The more environmentally-friendly units will be supported by augmented power output of the engine via energymanagement and energy-recovery systems. The paper discusses the possible performances the novel F1 cars could achieve with these novel engines and kinetic energy recovery systems, as well as the declared goal of making the F1 racing greener, the relevance of F1 to road cars, and finally the use of resource restrictions in F1. The major issue with new F1 rules is not just the total cost of research and development within the budget, but the ability to make the most out of the investment made for a more sustainable and greener road transport. The proposed high torque 475 kW 1.6 liter V6 turbo engine coupled with the proposed small 0.3 MJ 120 kW mechanical KERS may permit fuel savings of 40 % vs. todays low torque 525 kW 2.4 liters V8 naturally aspirated and even better driving performances on the most part of the race tracks.

Albert Boretti

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Investigating the Use of Ion Exchange Resins for Processing Biodiesel Feedstocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ion exchange resins, commonly used in water treatment, demonstrate promise for the production of biodiesel from biomass feedstocks. The goal of this presented PhD research is to investigate novel uses of ion exchange resins for processing biodiesel feedstocks. Specifically, this research explored using ion exchange resins to remove free fatty acids (FFA) from soybean and waste cooking oils, catalyze transesterification of soybean oil, and catalyze in-situ conversion of dried algal biomass to biodiesel and other recoverable organics. The effect of temperature, moisture content, mixing rate, and resin drying on deacidification of soybean oil with 5% oleic acid feedstock was explored using Dowex Monosphere MR-450 UPW within a batch reactor. The resins were observed to remove up to 83 +/- 1.3% of FFA from soybean oil with less than 5% moisture content while operated at a 20% resin loading at 50 degrees C while mixing at 550 rpm. Once operation characteristics impacting deacidification were evaluated, a series of experiments were carried out to demonstrate the use of mixed bed resin to remove FFA from waste cooking oils. An investigation of wash solutions capable of regenerating the resins was also carried out. Using methanol to regenerate the resins resulted in more than 40% FFA removal over three regeneration cycles, highlighting the utility of resin regeneration as a cost saving measure. Transesterification of soybean oil on Amberlyst A26-OH, a basic ion exchange resin, in the presence of excess methanol was carried out to determine the mechanism of the reaction occurring on the surface. A batch reactor approach was used and reactions were carried out with and without FFA present in the soybean oil feed stock at a 20% resin loading at 50 degrees C while mixing at 550 rpm. When FFA was present in the feedstock and methanol is present in excess, the rate constant for methanol consumption increased. Based upon model fitting, the rate constant of methanol consumption was determined to be 2.08 x 10^-7 /sec with FFA absent and 5.39 x 10^-4/sec when FFA is present when the Eley-Rideal model was used to fit the data. In-situ conversion of dried algal biomass to biodiesel and other recoverable organics was investigated using a batch reaction system with 1 gram of algae. The system was operated with 40:60 methanol:hexane as the solvent system operated at 50 degrees C while mixing at 550 rpm over a range of catalyst loadings. The highest observed ester yield, approximately 60% yield (37 mg_ester/g_algae), was observed when air dried algae was reacted with a 20% resin. An evaluation of the reaction products showed a mixture of esters, phytol, alcohols, and ketones; highlighting the complexity of the reactions occurring during in-situ biomass conversion.

Jamal, Yousuf 1973-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Determination and Mitigation of Precipitation Effects on Portal Monitor Gamma Background Levels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to establish a correlation between precipitation and background gamma radiation levels at radiation portal monitors (RPM) deployed at various ports worldwide, and to devise a mechanism by which the effects of these precipitation-induced background fluctuations could be mitigated. The task of detecting special nuclear materials (SNM) by passive gamma spectroscopy is very difficult due to the low signal-to-noise ratio observed in an uncontrolled environment. Due to their low activities and the low energies of their characteristic gamma rays, the signals from many types of SNM can easily be obscured by background radiation. While this can be somewhat mitigated by taking regular background radiation measurements, even this cannot resolve the issue if background levels change suddenly and dramatically. Furthermore, any increase in background count rate will increase the statistical uncertainty of the count rate measurement, and thus decrease the minimum quantity of SNM that can be reliably detected. Existing research suggests that the advent of precipitation is the culprit behind many such large and sudden increases in background radiation. The correlation between precipitation and background levels was explored by in-situ testing on a full-scale portal monitor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and by comparing previously recorded background radiation and weather data from portal monitors located at ports worldwide. The first was utilized to determine the frequency and magnitude at which precipitation introduces background activity, and the second was used to quantify the effects of various quantities and types of precipitation in various parts of the world. Once this analysis was complete, various methods of mitigating these changes in background radiation were developed based on the collected data. Precipitation was found to be the most common culprit for rapid increases in background count rate, and was attributable to 85.6% of all such events. Based on extensive simulation via the Origen-ARP and MCNP software, a response function for the portal monitor was developed, and an algorithm designed to predict the contribution of the precipitation to the background count rate was developed. This algorithm was able to attenuate the contribution of precipitation to the background count rate by an average of 45% with very minimal over-correction. Such an algorithm could be utilized to adjust the alarm levels of the RPM to better allow it to compensate for the rise and fall in background count rate due to precipitation. Additionally, the relative contribution of precipitation which landed at various distances from the portal monitor to the increase in background count rate was measured via simulation. This simulation demonstrated that 37.2% of all background counts were due to the radon daughters which landed within a 2.76 m radius from the center of the portal monitor. This radius encompasses the area between the two portals. Based on this, several designs for shielding were simulated, the most successful of which was a concrete structure that was able to attenuate 71.3% of the background radiation caused by a given precipitation event at a materials cost of approximately $6,000 per RPM. This method is recommended as the primary means of mitigating this issue.

Revis, Stephen

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Direct mechanical energy measures of hammer mill comminution of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover and analysis of their particle size distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass particle size impacts handling, storage, conversion, and dust control systems. Size reduction mechanical energy was directly measured for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), and corn stover (Zea mays L.) in an instrumented hammer mill. Direct energy inputs were determined for hammer mill operating speeds from 2000 to 3600 rpm for 3.2 mm integral classifying screen and mass input rate of 2.5 kg/min with 90 - and 30 -hammers. Overall accuracy of specific energy measurement was calculated as 0.072 MJ/Mg. Particle size distributions created by hammer mill were determined for mill operating factors using ISO sieve sizes from 4.75 to 0.02 mm in conjunction with Ro-Tap sieve analyzer. A wide range of analytical descriptors were examined to mathematically represent the range of particle sizes in the distributions. Total specific energy (MJ/Mg) was defined as size reduction energy to operate the hammer mill plus that imparted to biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as energy imparted to biomass. Total specific energy for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover grinding increased by 37, 30, and 45% from 114.4, 125.1, and 103.7 MJ/Mg, respectively, with an increase in hammer mill speed from 2000 to 3600 rpm for 90 -hammers. Corresponding total specific energy per unit size reduction was 14.9, 19.7, and 13.5 MJ/Mg mm, respectively. Effective specific energy of 90 -hammers decreased marginally for switchgrass and considerably for wheat straw and it increased for corn stover with an increase in speed from 2000 to 3600 rpm. However, effective specific energy increased with speed to a certain extent and then decreased for 30 -hammers. Rosin Rammler equation fitted the size distribution data with R2 > 0.995. Mass relative span was greater than 1, which indicated a wide distribution of particle sizes. Hammer milling of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover with 3.2 mm screen resulted in well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic particles. Uniformity coefficient was corn stover, which indicated a moderate assortment of particles. Size-related parameters, namely, geometric mean diameter, Rosin Rammler size parameter, median diameter, and effective size had strong correlation among themselves and good negative correlation with speed. Distribution-related parameters, namely, Rosin Rammler distribution parameter, mass relative span, inclusive graphic skewness, graphic kurtosis, uniformity index, uniformity coefficient, coefficient of gradation and distribution geometric standard deviation had strong correlation among themselves and a weak correlation with mill speed. Results of this extensive analysis of specific energy and particle sizes can be applied to selection of hammer mill operating factors to produce a particular size of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover grind, and will serve as a guide for relations among the energy and various analytic descriptors of biomass particle distributions.

Bitra, V.S.P [University of Tennessee; Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Chevanan, Nehru [University of Tennessee; Miu, P.I. [University of Tennessee; Smith, D.R. [University of Tennessee; Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

KNIFE MILL COMMINUTION ENERGY ANALYSIS OF SWITCHGRASS, WHEAT STRAW, AND CORN STOVER AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass preprocessing and pretreatment technologies such as size reduction and chemical preconditioning are aimed at reducing the cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Size reduction is an energy-intensive biomass preprocessing unit operation. In this study, switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover were chopped in an instrumented knife mill to evaluate size reduction energy and corresponding particle size distribution as determined with a standard forage sieve analyzer. Direct mechanical power inputs were determined using a dedicated data acquisition system for knife mill screen openings from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, rotor speeds between 250 and 500 rpm, and mass feed rates from 1 to 11 kg/min. A speed of 250 rpm gave optimum performance of the mill. Optimum feed rates for 25.4 mm screen and 250 rpm were 7.6, 5.8, and 4.5 kg/min for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. Total specific energy (MJ/Mg) was defined as the size reduction energy required to operate the knife mill plus that imparted to the biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as the energy imparted to the biomass. For these conditions, total specific energies were 27.3, 37.9, and 31.9 MJ/Mg and effective specific energies were 10.1, 15.5, and 3.2 MJ/Mg for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. These results demonstrated that biomass selection affects the size reduction energy, even for biomass with similar features. Second-order polynomial equations for the total specific energy requirement fitted well (R2 > 0.95) as a function of knife mill screen size, mass feed rate, and speed for biomass materials tested. The Rosin-Rammler equation fitted the cumulative undersize mass of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chop passed through ASABE sieves with high R2 (>0.983). Knife mill chopping of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover resulted in particle size distributions classified as 'well-graded strongly fine-skewed mesokurtic', 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', and 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', respectively, for small knife mill screen sizes (12.7 to 25.4 mm) and distributions classified as 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', 'well-graded strongly fine-skewed mesokurtic', and 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', respectively, for the large screen size (50.8 mm). Total and effective specific energy values per unit size reduction of wheat straw were greater compared to those for switchgrass. Corn stover resulted in reduced total and effective specific energy per unit size reduction compared to wheat straw for the same operating conditions, but higher total specific energy per unit size reduction and lesser effective specific energy per unit size reduction compared to switchgrass. Data on minimized total specific energy with corresponding particle spectra will be useful for preparing feed material with a knife mill for subsequent grinding with finer size reduction devices.

Bitra, V.S.P. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Igathinathane, C. [North Dakota State University

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Membranes and MEAs at Freezing Temperatures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reduction Reaction Reduction Reaction O 2 + 1 e - + M = M(O 2 - ) ad (rds) M(O 2 - ) ad + H 3 O + = H 2 O + M(O 2 H) ad M(O 2 H) ad + H 3 O + + 1 e - + M = 2 MOH ad M(O 2 H) ad + H 3 O + + 1 e - = H 2 O 2 [MOH ad + H 3 O + + 1 e - = H 2 O] x2 E [V RHE ] 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 I [mA] -1.0 -0.5 0.0 I [mA] -1.0 -0.5 0.0 I [mA] -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.05 M H 2 SO 4 (a) (b) (c) E [V RHE ] 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 I [mA] -1.0 -0.5 0.0 I [mA] -1.0 -0.5 0.0 I [mA] -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.1 M KOH (f) (g) (e) 10 µA 10 µA 10 µA 293 K, 900 rpm 293 K, 900 rpm 100 µA 100 µA 100 µA 15 µA 15 µA 15 µA 15 µA 15 µA 15 µA I II III I II III ) / exp( ) / exp( ) 1 ( * 2 RT G RT FE nFKc i x ad O Θ ∆ - - Θ - = β Pt(111) 0.1M KOH Θ ad is mostly OH ad and A ad , not (O 2 - ) ad (1-Θ ad ) term Effect on availability of metal sites Effect on ∆G ad ∆G ad term O 2 adsorption strength is uniquely related to the electronic properties of the electrode material

279

HIGH-POWER TURBODRILL AND DRILL BIT FOR DRILLING WITH COILED TUBING  

SciTech Connect

Commercial introduction of Microhole Technology to the gas and oil drilling industry requires an effective downhole drive mechanism which operates efficiently at relatively high RPM and low bit weight for delivering efficient power to the special high RPM drill bit for ensuring both high penetration rate and long bit life. This project entails developing and testing a more efficient 2-7/8 in. diameter Turbodrill and a novel 4-1/8 in. diameter drill bit for drilling with coiled tubing. The high-power Turbodrill were developed to deliver efficient power, and the more durable drill bit employed high-temperature cutters that can more effectively drill hard and abrasive rock. This project teams Schlumberger Smith Neyrfor and Smith Bits, and NASA AMES Research Center with Technology International, Inc (TII), to deliver a downhole, hydraulically-driven power unit, matched with a custom drill bit designed to drill 4-1/8 in. boreholes with a purpose-built coiled tubing rig. The U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory has funded Technology International Inc. Houston, Texas to develop a higher power Turbodrill and drill bit for use in drilling with a coiled tubing unit. This project entails developing and testing an effective downhole drive mechanism and a novel drill bit for drilling 'microholes' with coiled tubing. The new higher power Turbodrill is shorter, delivers power more efficiently, operates at relatively high revolutions per minute, and requires low weight on bit. The more durable thermally stable diamond drill bit employs high-temperature TSP (thermally stable) diamond cutters that can more effectively drill hard and abrasive rock. Expectations are that widespread adoption of microhole technology could spawn a wave of 'infill development' drilling of wells spaced between existing wells, which could tap potentially billions of barrels of bypassed oil at shallow depths in mature producing areas. At the same time, microhole coiled tube drilling offers the opportunity to dramatically cut producers' exploration risk to a level comparable to that of drilling development wells. Together, such efforts hold great promise for economically recovering a sizeable portion of the estimated remaining shallow (less than 5,000 feet subsurface) oil resource in the United States. The DOE estimates this U.S. targeted shallow resource at 218 billion barrels. Furthermore, the smaller 'footprint' of the lightweight rigs utilized for microhole drilling and the accompanying reduced drilling waste disposal volumes offer the bonus of added environmental benefits. DOE analysis shows that microhole technology has the potential to cut exploratory drilling costs by at least a third and to slash development drilling costs in half.

Robert Radtke; David Glowka; Man Mohan Rai; David Conroy; Tim Beaton; Rocky Seale; Joseph Hanna; Smith Neyrfor; Homer Robertson

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

280

Direct measures of mechanical energy for knife mill size reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lengthy straw/stalk of biomass may not be directly fed into grinders such as hammer mills and disc refiners. Hence, biomass needs to be preprocessed using coarse grinders like a knife mill to allow for efficient feeding in refiner mills without bridging and choking. Size reduction mechanical energy was directly measured for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), and corn stover (Zea mays L.) in an instrumented knife mill. Direct power inputs were determined for different knife mill screen openings from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, rotor speeds between 250 and 500 rpm, and mass feed rates from 1 to 11 kg/min. Overall accuracy of power measurement was calculated to be 0.003 kW. Total specific energy (kWh/Mg) was defined as size reduction energy to operate mill with biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as the energy that can be assumed to reach the biomass. The difference is parasitic or no-load energy of mill. Total specific energy for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chopping increased with knife mill speed, whereas, effective specific energy decreased marginally for switchgrass and increased for wheat straw and corn stover. Total and effective specific energy decreased with an increase in screen size for all the crops studied. Total specific energy decreased with increase in mass feed rate, but effective specific energy increased for switchgrass and wheat straw, and decreased for corn stover at increased feed rate. For knife mill screen size of 25.4 mm and optimum speed of 250 rpm, optimum feed rates were 7.6, 5.8, and 4.5 kg/min for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively, and the corresponding total specific energies were 7.57, 10.53, and 8.87 kWh/Mg and effective specific energies were 1.27, 1.50, and 0.24 kWh/Mg for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. Energy utilization ratios were calculated as 16.8%, 14.3%, and 2.8% for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. These data will be useful for preparing the feed material for subsequent fine grinding operations and designing new mills.

Bitra, V.S.P. [University of Tennessee; Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Miu, P.I [University of Tennessee; Yang, Y.T. [University of Tennessee; Smith, D.R. [University of Tennessee; Chevanan, Nehru [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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281

Utilizing a cycle simulation to examine the use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for a spark-ignition engine: including the second law of thermodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system has been widely used to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission, improve fuel economy and suppress knock by using the characteristics of charge dilution. However, previous studies have shown that as the EGR rate at a given engine operating condition increases, the combustion instability increases. The combustion instability increases cyclic variations resulting in the deterioration of engine performance and increasing hydrocarbon emissions. Therefore, the optimum EGR rate should be carefully determined in order to obtain the better engine performance and emissions. A thermodynamic cycle simulation of the four-stroke spark-ignition engine was used to determine the effects of EGR on engine performance, emission characteristics and second law parameters, considering combustion instability issues as EGR level increases. A parameter, called 'Fuel Fraction Burned,' was introduced as a function of the EGR percentage and used in the simulation to incorporate the combustion instability effects. A comprehensive parametric investigation was conducted to examine the effects of variations in EGR, load and speed for a 5.7 liter spark-ignition automotive engine. Variations in the thermal efficiencies, brake specific NOx emissions, average combustion temperature, mean exhaust temperature, maximum temperature and relative heat transfer as functions of exhaust gas recycle were determined for both cooled and adiabatic EGR configurations. Also effects of variations in the load and speed on thermal efficiencies, relative heat transfers and destruction of availability due to combustion were determined for 0% EGR and 20% EGR cases with both cooled and adiabatic configurations. For both EGR configurations, thermal efficiencies first increase, reach a maximum at about 16% EGR and then decrease as the EGR level increases. Thermal efficiencies are slightly higher for cooled EGR configuration than that for adiabatic configuration. Concentration of nitric oxide emissions decreases from about 2950 ppm to 200 ppm as EGR level increases from 0% to 20% for cooled EGR configuration. The cooled EGR configuration results in lower nitric oxide emissions relative to the adiabatic EGR configuration. Also second law parameters show the expected trends as functions of EGR. Brake thermal efficiency is higher for the 20% EGR case than that for the no EGR case over the range of load (0 to WOT) and speed (600 rpm to 6000 rpm). Predictions made from the simulation were compared with some of the available experimental results. Predicted thermal efficiencies showed a similar trend when compared to the available experimental data. Also, percentage of unused fuel availability increases as the EGR level increases, and it can be seen as one of the effects of deteriorating combustion quality as the EGR level increases.

Shyani, Rajeshkumar Ghanshyambhai

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Development and characterization of extruded/expanded products containing pork and nonmeat ingredients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Blends of pork lean (20%), defatted soy flour (25%), high-amylose corn starch and added water were extrusion-cooked using a laboratory-scale single-screw extruder (15:1 length-to-diameter ratio, 4:1 screw compression ratio, 6.35 mm die nozzle diameter). Experiments conducted according to a central composite rotatable design for response surface methodology and additions statistical techniques determined the extrusion condition that would result in extradites with high expansion ratio and low shear force to be 22.78% feed moisture, 160C? process temperature and any screw speed between 153-187 rpm. Response surfaces and predictive models indicated feed moisture to be the most influential extrusion variable, and process temperature secondary, to expansion ratio, bulk density and shear force values of the extrudates. Pork-soy flour-starch blends with or without additional nutmeat ingredients-onion powder (1%), alone or in combination with carrot powder (1.5%) or carrot extract (1.5%), or defatted oat flour (5%)-were formulated and extruded at 170 rpm screw speed, 22.78% feed moisture and 160C? process temperature. Instrumentally-measured hardness (shear force) of extrudates without the additional nutmeat ingredients was comparable to that of commercially available wheat-based snack sticks or pretzels. Additional ingredients generally decreased expansion and increased bulk density and shear force values. When extrudates with or without onion powder were evaluated by trained sensory panelists, "grain complex'' was the most intense flavor note. Addition of 1% onion powder to raw material mixes made "onion'' flavor distinctly detectable in extrudates. Peroxide values were a better indicator of lipid oxidation than 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values for these expanded, dry extradites with high protein and starch contents. The onion powder, carrot powder or extract, and defatted oat and soy products used here limited lipid oxidation in extradites stored at 37C? for 60 days. The base product-extrudates from pork-soy flour-starch blends without additional nutmeat ingredients-had low moisture (4%) and fat (3%) and contained 34% protein. Oleic acid was the predominant fatty acid (36% of total fatty acids). Essential amino acids were present in greater amounts in that product than in analogous snacks containing only corn. Since only small amounts of additional nutmeat ingredients were used in other test products, all products were considered to be higher in protein and lower in fat compared to some fried or baked, extruded cereal-based snacks.

Jamora, Jennifer Rachel Jacinto

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

BCM 1 Equipment Inventory | Sample Preparation Laboratories  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 Equipment Inventory 1 Equipment Inventory « Biology Chemistry & Material Science Laboratory 1 Title Equipment Type Description Agilent 8453 UV-Vis Spectrophotometer Analytical Agilent 8453 UV-VIS diode-array spectrophotometer. Wavelength range 190-1100 nm with a 1 nm optical slit width. Disposable plastic cuvettes are available in the lab, and quartz cuvettes and microcuvettes are available on a check-out basis. Beckman GPKR Centrifuge Centrifuge Beckman GPKR refrigerated centrifuge with fixed angle rotor, 8000 rpm max speed, temperature range -10°C to 40°C, fits 50mL tubes. Corning 430 pH Meter pH Meter The Corning 430 pH meter is designed to handle laboratory applications from the most routine to the highly complex. Encased in spill-resistant housings and feature chemical-resistant, sealed keypad. Model 430 (pH range 0.00 to 14.00) is a basic, yet reliable meter providing accurate, efficient digital measurements. Offers simplified, four-button operation, automatic calibration and temperature compensation, % slope readout, self-diagnostics test on powerup and analog recorder output. Unique LCD shows pH, mV

284

untitled  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

720 lbs 720 lbs Delivered Curb Weight: 3698 lbs Distribution F/R (%): 60.4/39.6 GVWR: 4701 lbs GAWR F/R: 2492/2209 lbs Payload 5 : 850 lbs Performance Goal: 400 lbs DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 107.4 in Track F/R: 61.7/61.3 in Length: 190.6 in Width: 72.2 in Height: 56.9 in Ground Clearance: 7 in Performance Goal: 5.0 in TIRES Tire Mfg: Michelin Tire Model: Energy MXV4 SS Tire Size: P225/50VR17 Tire Pressure F/R: 33/33 psi Spare Installed: Yes ENGINE Model: 2.5L Atkinson Cycle Output: 156 hp @ 6000 rpm Configuration: Inline Four-cylinder Displacement: 2.5 L Fuel Tank Capacity: 17.5 gal Fuel Type: Unleaded Gasoline © 2009 Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved VEHICLE FEATURES Base Vehicle: 2010 Ford Fusion Hybrid VIN: 3FADP0L34AR144757 Seatbelt Positions: Five

285

Appliances and Commercial Equipment Standards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electric Motors Electric Motors Sign up for e-mail updates on regulations for this and other products The Department of Energy (DOE) has regulated the energy efficiency level of electric motors since 1997. Electric motors convert electrical energy to rotating mechanical energy. When operating, the electrical energy is transferred as useful mechanical energy to some driven device such as a fan, pump, blower, compressor, or conveyor. The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as amended by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007), covers three broad categories of electric motors: general purpose, definite purpose and special purpose. These broad categories include a variety of motors including single-speed, continuous-duty polyphase motors with voltages not greater than 600 volts; motors with or without mounting feet; motors built in a T- or U-frame; motors built with synchronous speeds of 3600, 1800, 1200, or 900 rpm (two, four, six, or eight poles, respectively); National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) Design B motors from 1 to 500 horsepower, NEMA Design A and C motors from 1 to 200 horsepower; and motors that are close-coupled pump or vertical solid-shaft normal thrust motors.

286

PERFORMANCE STATISTICS WEIghTS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

365 lbs 365 lbs Delivered Curb Weight: 4510 lbs Distribution F/R: 57/43 % GVWR: 5520 lbs GAWR F/R: 2865/2865 lbs Payload: 1010 lbs Performance Goal: 400 lbs DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 107.0 inches Track F/R: 62/61.2 inches Length: 187.2 inches Width: 72.6 inches Height: 66.4 inches Ground Clearance: 7.1 inches Performance Goal: 5.0 inches TIRES Tire Mfg: Goodyear Tire Model: Eagle RS-A Tire Size: P215/55R18 Tire Pressure F/R: 30/30 psi Spare Installed: Yes ENgINE Model: 3MZ-FE Output: 208 hp @ 5600 rpm Configuration: DOHC V6 Displacement: 3.3 L Fuel Tank Capacity: 17.2 Gallons Fuel Type: Unleaded Gasoline © 2010 Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved VEhICLE FEATuRES Base Vehicle: 2006 Lexus RX 400h VIN: JTJHW31U160002575 Seatbelt Positions: Five

287

High Temperature, Buried Permanent Magnet, Brushless DC Motor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A high temperature magnetic bearing system using high temperature permanent magnets from Electron Energy Corporation (EEC) is under development. The system consists of two radial bearings, one thrust bearing, two radial catcher bearings and one motor. The purpose of this research is to develop one of the critical components of the system, namely, the High Temperature Permanent Magnet motor. A novel High Temperature Permanent Magnet (HTPM) Brushless DC(BLDC) motor capable of operating at 1000 degrees F (538 degrees C) is designed. HTPMs developed at Electron Energy Corporation are buried into the rotor. The high temperature motor is designed to produce 5.1kw of power at a top running speed of 20000 rpm. The numerical values of the motor voltage, power and torque output are predicted from calculations of the nonlinear finite element model of the motor. The motor stator is wound, potted, cured and high potential tested at 1000 degrees F. A servo amplifier from Advanced Motion Control is used to drive the high temperature motor. High temperature displacement sensors are set up for sensing the rotor position to form a closed loop motion control. However, the noise problem of the high temperature sensors causes a failure of this approach. An open loop approach is then developed and this approach succeeds in spinning the rotor with the capability of self-starting. The status of the full system assembling is introduced. Some other components of the system are briefly presented.

Zhang, Zhengxin

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

FINAL PERFORMANCE TESTS OF TWO-COOLANT-REGION SODIUM PUMP SHAFT FREEZE- SELAS  

SciTech Connect

A prototype of the two-coolant-region pump shaft freezeseals intended for application to the Hallam Power Reactor sodium pumps was fabricated. Tests under simulated reactor service conditions revealed satisfactory operation only when the lower of the two regions received heat from the circulating fluid (tetralin in the tests). With the inlet temperature of tetralin to the upper region of the seal maintained at 95 deg F and that to the lower region held in the range 240 to 285 deg F the sealfunctioned satisfactorily for 1100 hr. When 95 deg F coolant was circulated through both sections of the seal excessive cooling occurred, resulting in either improper formation of the seal or in seizure of the shaft when rotative speed was low. In this case, the cooling load on the seal varied directly with both shaft speed and bulk sodium temperature. A maximum cooling load of 2.56 kw occurred at a shaft speed of 840 rpm and with a bulk sodium temperature of 1000 deg F. (C.J.G.)

Streck, F.O.

1960-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

289

PERFORMANCE STATISTICS WEIghTS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2650 lbs 2650 lbs Delivered Curb Weight 9 : 2615 lbs Distribution F/R 9 (%): 58.6/41.4 GVWR: 3164 lbs GAWR F/R: 1797/1378lbs Payload 5 : 564 lbs Performance Goal: 400 lbs DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 95.9 in Track F/R: 59.6/59.1 in Length: 160.6 in Width: 68.5 in Height: 54.9 in Ground Clearance: 5.3 in Performance Goal: 5.0 in TIRES Tire Mfg: Dunlop Tire Model: SP Sport 1000m Tire Size: 195 / 55 R16 86V Tire Pressure F/R: 30/30 psi Spare Installed: Yes ENgINE Model: 1.5 L I4 Output 8 : 122 hp @ 6000 rpm Configuration: Inline Four-cylinder Displacement: 1.5 L Fuel Tank Capacity: 10.6 gal Fuel Type: Unleaded Gasoline © 2010 Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved VEhICLE FEATuRES Base Vehicle: 2011 Honda CRZ EX Hybrid VIN: JHMZF1C64BS002982

290

PowerPoint Presentation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Year 5/13-5/14 2003 Year 5/13-5/14 2003 Jim Irby MIT-PSFC 5 Year 5/13-5/14 2003 Outline * Alcator C-Mod Facility * Recent accomplishments - Mods/Upgrades - Inspections - MIT Support * Five Year Plan - Upgrades - Data system - Diagnostics * Statistics * Summary 5 Year 5/13-5/14 2003 Alcator C-Mod Facility Power Sources * 13.8 kV, 24 MVA line from NSTAR - Alternator drive - ICRF transmitters - LH sources - EFC, EF2 magnets * Alternator - 125 ton, 4 pole rotor - 1800 RPM - 2 GJ stored energy (72 ton flywheel) - 200 MW loads with 500 MJ extracted 5 Year 5/13-5/14 2003 5 Year 5/13-5/14 2003 ICRF Systems * 2 transmitters at 80 MHz, 2 MW CW each * 2 transmitters tunable from 40 to 80 MHz, 2 MW CW each * 2 two-strap antennas, 1.5 MW each * 1 four-strap antenna, 3 MW 5 Year 5/13-5/14 2003 Other Major Systems * 11 power supplies power 14 magnets

291

Microsoft PowerPoint - Proceedings Cover Sheets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Te Te e es s st t ti i in n ng g g o o of f f W W We e el l ll l lb b bo o or r re e e I I Is s so o ol l la a at t ti i in n ng g g C C Ce e em m me e en n nt t ts s s w w wi i it t th h h C C CO O 2 2 M. Supp, T. S. Ramakrishnan, E. Nelson and B. Dargaud Schlumberger O Ob b bj j je e ec c ct t ti i iv v ve e es s T Te e es s st t t P P Pr r ro o oc c ce e ed d du u ur r re e * Design and construct apparatus to simulate environments in CO 2 sequestration wells. * Apparatus designed for testing cements, rocks or any other materials that may encounter CO 2 (wet, dry or H 2 O rich phase). * Perform CO 2 exposure experiments and analyze the effects. S Sp p pe e ec c ci i if f fi i ic c ca a at t ti i io o on n ns s * Two 1-gal 316SS reactors with Alloy C-276 lining * Maximum Pressure: 2900 psi, Maximum Temperature: 350° C * Magnetically coupled stirrer (0- 600 RPM) * Programmable depressurization system * Reactors operate independently. * 1 Lt supercritical CO2 reservoir * Two 260-mL reciprocating

292

ReEDS | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ReEDS ReEDS Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: ReEDS Agency/Company /Organization: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy Resource Type: Maps, Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Website: www.nrel.gov/analysis/reeds/ Country: United States Web Application Link: rpm.nrel.gov/refhighre/expansion/expansion.html Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): Featured Northern America Coordinates: 39.7412019515°, -105.172290802° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.7412019515,"lon":-105.172290802,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

293

PERFORMANCE STATISTICS WEIghTS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

245 lbs 245 lbs Delivered Curb Weight: 4118 lbs GVWR: 5675 lbs GAWR F/R: 2865/3130 lbs Distribution F/R: 59/41 % Payload: 1557 lbs Performance Goal: 400 lbs DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 106.7 in Track F/R: 61.9/61.1 in Length: 185.3 in Width: 71.5 in Height: 68.6 in Ground Clearance: 5.9 in Performance Goal: 5.0 in TIRES Tire Mfg: Goodyear Tire Model: Integrity Tire Size: P225/65R17 Tire Pressure F/R: 32/32 Spare Installed: Yes ENgINE Model: 3MZ-FE Output: 208 hp @ 5600 rpm Configuration: V6 Displacement: 3.3 L Fuel Tank Capacity: 17.2 gal Fuel Type: Unleaded Gasoline © 2010 Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved VEhICLE FEATuRES Base Vehicle: 2006 Highlander VIN: JTEDW21A860005681 Seatbelt Positions: Seven Standard Features: Air Conditioning

294

untitled  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2723 lbs 2723 lbs Delivered Curb Weight: 2756 lbs Distribution F/R (%): 58/42 GVWR: 3630 lbs GAWR F/R: 1881/1782lbs Payload 5 : 907 lbs Performance Goal: 400 lbs DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 100.4 in Track F/R: 58.7/58.1 in Length: 172.3 in Width: 66.7 in Height: 56.2 in Ground Clearance: 5.5 in Performance Goal: 5.0 in TIRES Tire Mfg: Dunlop Tire Model: SP31 A/S Tire Size: 175 / 65 R15 84S Tire Pressure F/R: 33/33 psi Spare Installed: Yes ENGINE Model: 1.3 L LDA series I4 Output: 98 hp @ 5800 rpm Configuration: Inline Four-cylinder Displacement: 1.3 L Fuel Tank Capacity: 10.6 gal Fuel Type: Unleaded Gasoline © 2009 Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved VEHICLE FEATURES Base Vehicle: 2010 Honda Insight Hybrid VIN: JHMZE2H78AS010141 Seatbelt Positions: Five Standard Features:

295

Design and testing of a non-intrusive torque measurement system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis details the initial development of a non-intrusive torque measurement system to measure torque in a rotating driveshaft like those commonly found on internal combustion engine powered irrigation pumping plants. A typical driveshaft used in pumping plant applications consists of flanged U-joints on each end with a constant cross-section steele tube portion connecting the U-joints. The photoelectric sensor based system was able to predict torque to within 3?9.1 N-m (346 in-lbs) under constant rpm conditions. Two sensor types, phototransistor and photodiode, were tested. The photodiode sensor was tested with two emitter types: infrared LED and red laser. No significant difference in response was found using either the LED or red laser emmitters. Both the photoelectric and photodiode sensor measurements showed correlation to actual torque. The photoelectric sensor configuration correlation had a standard error of 5?% of a typical natural-gas pumping plant installation running at 773.9 N-m of torque. The sensors were mounted independent of the driveshaft and measured the phaseshift of two pins mounted on the shaft as they passed through the photosensing area. This caused extreme sensitivity to vibration of the engine and driveshaft. A similar design with a temporary mount connected to the shaft and transmitting the response signal via radio frequency telemetry could decrease the effects of vibration on the system.

Wilson, Edwin Ernest

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

High pressure testing of see-through labyrinth seals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detailed results are presented for teeth-on-stator labyrinth seals tested under high pressure of 70 bar-a (1015 psi-a) and 52 bar-a (754 psi-a) in the centered position. The seals were tested at pressure ratios of 0.52, 0.36 and 0.16, speeds of 10,200, 15,200 and 20,200 rpm and clearances of 0.1 and 0.2 mm. The effects of changes in radial clearance and pressure differential across the seal are studied for various inlet tangential velocities. The results confirm the existence of negative direct stiffness, positive cross-coupled stiffness as shown by Benckert and Wachter and low direct damping (when compared to hole-pattern seals). Experimental results are compared with predictions from the one-control-volume model (Childs and Scharrer) and two-control-volume model (Scharrer). Results show that both models under-predict the rotordynamic coefficients significantly. Leakage is also under predicted by both the codes. However, the effective damping and whirl frequency ratio (wfr) predicted by the one-control volume theory is comparable with the test results.

Picardo, Arthur Michael

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Giromill wind tunnel test and analysis. Volume II. Technical discussion. Final report, June 1976--October 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A wind tunnel test of a Giromill rotor was conducted. The objective of this test was to substantiate the performance computed by the Larsen cyclogiro vortex theory. Additional objectives were to obtain performance comparison data between the Giromill, a sinusoidal blade modulation Giromill, a Darrieus rotor, and a modified Darrieus rotor that flips the blades a few degrees. A three bladed Giromill rotor having a diameter of 2.13 m (7 ft) and a span of 1.52 m (5 ft) was tested in the McDonnell Aircraft Company 15 x 20 ft Mini Speed Wind Tunnel. The blade modulations were accomplished through use of a cam and push rod arrangement. Replaceable cams provided the desired blade modulation at the various operating points. Various operating conditions were achieved by adjusting the rotor RPM and tunnel speed. The results show that the Giromill has good performance, equal to or much better than that predicted by theory, and outperforms the other types of vertical axis wind turbines tested.

Moran, W.A.

1977-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

The effect of TDC temperature and density on the liquid-phase fuel penetration in a D.I. Diesel engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A parametric study of the liquid-phase fuel penetration of evaporating Diesel fuel jets has been conducted in a directinjection Diesel engine using laser elastic-scatter imaging. The experiments were conducted in an optically accessible Diesel engine of the ``heavy-duty`` size class at a representative medium speed (1200 rpm) operating condition. The density and temperature at TDC were varied systematically by adjusting the intake temperature and pressure. At all operating conditions the measurements show that initially the liquid fuel penetrates almost linearly with increasing crank angle until reaching a maximum length. Then, the liquid-fuel penetration length remains fairly constant although fuel injection continues. At a TDC density of 16.6 kg/m{sup 3} and a temperature of about 1000 K the maximum penetration length is approximately 23 mm. However, it varies significantly as TDC conditions are changed, with the liquid-length being less at higher temperatures and at higher densities. The corresponding apparent heat release rate plots are presented and the results of the liquid-phase fuel penetration are discussed with respect to the ignition delay and premixed bum fraction.

Espey, C. [Daimler-Benz AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Dec, J.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

CFD Simulation and Experimental Testing of Multiphase Flow Inside the MVP Electrical Submersible Pump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The MVP is a special type of Electrical Submersible Pumps (ESPs) manufactured by Baker Hughes, model no. G470, and is capable of handling multiphase flow up to 70% Gas Volume Fraction (GVF). Flows at high GVF cause conventional ESPs to surge. However, the special design of the impeller blades of the MVP ESP enables it to handle higher GVF. Dynamic behavior of the multiphase flow is studied experimentally and theoretically for this pump for the first time. In this work, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of an entire pump and detailed experimental analysis are performed. Meshing and CFD simulations are performed using the commercially available software ANSYS Fluent. An experimental facility has been designed and constructed to test the pump at different operating conditions. The pump is modeled and tested at two speeds; 3300 and 3600 rpm, using air-water mixtures with GVFs of 0, 5, 10, 25, 32 and 35%. The flow loop is controlled to produce different suction pressures up to 300psi. Pump pressure head is used to validate the CFD model for both single and two phase flows. Single phase CFD model was validated at 100 psi inlet pressure, while two phase models were validated at 200 psi inlet pressure. CFD simulations can predict the behavior of the pump at different speeds, flow rates, GVFs, and inlet pressures. Different diffuser designs are studied and simulated to improve the multistage pump performance. Enhanced diffuser designs increased the pump pressure head to up to 3.2%.

Rasmy Marsis, Emanuel 1983-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Dynamic Thermal Management for High-Performance Storage Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermal-aware design of disk drives is important because high temperatures can cause reliability problems. Dynamic Thermal Management (DTM) techniques have been proposed to operate the disk at the average case temperature, rather than at the worse case by modulating the activities to avoid thermal emergencies. The thermal emergencies can be caused by unexpected events, such as fan-breaks, increased inlet air temperature, etc. One of the DTM techniques is a delay-based approach that adjusts the disk seek activities, cooling down the disk drives. Even if such a DTM approach could overcome thermal emergencies without stopping disk activity, it suffers from long delays when servicing the requests. Thus, in this chapter, we investigate the possibility of using a multispeed disk-drive (called dynamic rotations per minute (DRPM)) that dynamically modulates the rotational speed of the platter for implementing the DTM technique. Using a detailed performance and thermal simulator of a storage system, we evaluate two possible DTM policies (- time-based and watermark-based) with a DRPM disk-drive and observe that dynamic RPM modulation is effective in avoiding thermal emergencies. However, we find that the time taken to transition between different rotational speeds of the disk is critical for the effectiveness of the DRPM based DTM techniques.

Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Gurumurthi, Dr Sudhanva [University of Virginia; Sivasubramaniam, Anand [Pennsylvania State University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Surface Morphology and Topology of TiO{sub 2} Nanocoating on Metal Substrates at Different Molar Concentrations and Speed  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mild steel is low carbon steel content of carbon less than 0.25 wt%. This type of steels is low cost to produce while has good toughness and outstanding ductility. Nanocoated mild steel surface is greatly many applications such as in automobile body component, pipelines, wall of operation's room and operation's theatre. Anatase TiO{sub 2} coating were successfully synthesized by optimize the sol-gel solution wherein glacial acetic acid and controlling of annealing temperature. In this paper initial study of TiO{sub 2} nanocoating on mild steel surface was presented. TiO{sub 2} nanocoating was prepared by spin coating technique. Spin coating technique is low processing temperature and ease of compositional modifications. The sol-gel concentration and speed (rpm) of spin coating were varied to produce different surface morphology and topology of samples. The surface phase, morphology and topology of coating were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) while the roughness of coating was determined by Surface Profiler (SP).

Achoi, Mohd F.; Nor, Asiah M.; Abdullah, S.; Rusop, M. [NANO-SciTech Centre, Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia and Schools of Physics and Materials Studies, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

302

Rain-Induced Increase in Background Radiation Detected by Radiation Portal Monitors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A complete understanding of both the steady state and transient background measured by Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) is essential to predictable system performance, as well as maximization of detection sensitivity. To facilitate this understanding, a test bed for the study of natural background in RPMs has been established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This work was performed in support of the Second Line of Defense Program's mission to detect the illicit movement of nuclear material. In the present work, transient increases in gamma ray counting rates in RPMs due to rain are investigated. The increase in background activity associated with rain, which has been well documented in the field of environmental radioactivity, originates from the atmospheric deposition of two radioactive daughters of radon-222, namely lead-214 and bismuth-214 (henceforth {sup 222}Rn, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi). In this study, rainfall rates recorded by a co-located weather station are compared with RPM count rates and High Purity Germanium spectra. The data verifies these radionuclides are responsible for the dominant transient natural background fluctuations in RPMs. Effects on system performance and potential mitigation strategies are discussed.

Hausladen, Paul [ORNL; Blessinger, Christopher S [ORNL; Guzzardo, Tyler [ORNL; Livesay, Jake [ORNL

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Implications of Low Particulate Matter Emissions on System Fuel Efficiency for High Efficiency Clean Combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Advanced diesel combustion regimes such as High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) offer the benefits of reduced engine out NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Lower PM emissions during advanced combustion reduce the demand on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and can, thereby, reduce the fuel penalty associated with DPF regeneration. In this study, a SiC DPF was loaded and regenerated on a 1.7-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine operated in conventional and advanced combustion modes at different speed and load conditions. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a lean NOX trap (LNT) were also installed in the exhaust stream. Five steady-state speed and load conditions were weighted to estimate Federal Test Procedure (FTP) fuel efficiency. The DPF was loaded using lean-rich cycling with frequencies that resulted in similar levels of NOX emissions downstream of the LNT. The pressure drop across the DPF was measured at a standard point (1500 rpm, 5.0 bar) before and after loading, and a P rise rate was determined for comparison between conventional and advanced combustion modes. Higher PM emissions in conventional combustion resulted in a higher rate of backpressure rise across the DPF at all of the load points leading to more frequent DPF regenerations and higher fuel penalty. The fuel penalty during conventional combustion was 4.2% compared with 3.1% for a mixture of conventional and advanced modes.

Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

An experimental investigation of low octane gasoline in diesel engines.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conventional combustion techniques struggle to meet the current emissions norms. In particular, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) emissions have limited the utilization of diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Advance combustion concepts have proved the potential to combine fuel efficiency and improved emission performance. Low-temperature combustion (LTC) offers reduced NO{sub x} and PM emissions with comparable modern diesel engine efficiencies. The ability of premixed, low-temperature compression ignition to deliver low PM and NO{sub x} emissions is dependent on achieving optimal combustion phasing. Diesel operated LTC is limited by early knocking combustion, whereas conventional gasoline operated LTC is limited by misfiring. So the concept of using an unconventional fuel with the properties in between those two boundary fuels has been experimented in this paper. Low-octane (84 RON) gasoline has shown comparable diesel efficiencies with the lowest NO{sub x} emissions at reasonable high power densities (NO{sub x} emission was 1 g/kW h at 12 bar BMEP and 2750 rpm).

Ciatti, S. A.; Subramanian, S. (Energy Systems)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Can the Podkletnov effect be explained by quantised inertia?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Podkletnov effect is an unexplained loss of weight of between 0.05% and 0.07% detected in test masses suspended above supercooled levitating superconducting discs exposed to AC magnetic fields. A larger weight loss of up to 0.5% was seen over a disc spun at 5000 rpm. The effect has so far been observed in only one laboratory. Here, a new model for inertia that assumes that inertial mass is caused by Unruh radiation which is subject to a Hubble-scale Casimir effect (called MiHsC or quantised inertia) is applied to this anomaly. When the disc is exposed to the AC magnetic field it vibrates (accelerates), and MiHsC then predicts that the inertial mass of the nearby test mass increases, so that to conserve momentum it must accelerate upwards against freefall by 0.0029 m/s^2 or 0.03% of g, about half of the weight loss observed. With disc rotation, MiHsC predicts an additional weight loss, but 28 times smaller than the rotational effect observed. MiHsC suggests that the effect should increase with disc radius and rotation rate, the AC magnetic field strength (as observed), and also with increasing latitude and for lighter discs.

M. E. McCulloch

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

Radiation Transport Simulation Studies Using MCNP for a Cow Phantom to Determine an Optimal Detector Configuration for a New Livestock Portal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A large radiological accident will result in the contamination of surrounding people, animal, vegetation etc. In such a situation assessing of the level of contamination becomes necessary to plan for the decontamination. There are plans existing for evaluating contamination on people. However, there are limited to no plans to evaluate animals. It is the responsibility of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to decontaminate animals. So the objective of this thesis work was to design a scalable gamma radiation portal monitor (RPM) which can be used to assess the level of contamination on large animals like cattle. This work employed a Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code for the purpose. A virtual system of cow, radiation source representing the contamination, cattle chute and different detector configurations were modeled. NaI scintillation detectors were modeled for this work. To find the optimal detector size and configuration, different detector orientations were simulated for different source positions using the MCNP code. Also simulations were carried out using different number and size of the detectors. It was found that using 2" x 4" x 16" detector yielded a minimum detectable activity (MDA) value of 0.4 microCi for 137Cs source.

Joe Justina, -

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Dynamic Rotor Deformation and Vibration Monitoring Using a Non-Incremental Laser Doppler Distance Sensor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monitoring rotor deformations and vibrations dynamically is an important task for improving the safety and the lifetime as well as the energy efficiency of motors and turbo machines. However, due to the high rotor speed encountered in particular at turbo machines, this requires concurrently a high measurement rate and high accuracy, which can not be fulfilled by most commercially available sensors. To solve this problem, we developed a non-incremental laser Doppler distance sensor (LDDS), which is able to measure simultaneously the in-plane velocity and the out-of-plane position of moving rough solid objects with micrometer precision. In addition, this sensor concurrently offers a high temporal resolution in the microsecond range, because its position uncertainty is in principle independent of the object velocity in contrast to conventional distance sensors, which is a unique feature of the LDDS. Consequently, this novel sensor enables precise and dynamic in-process deformation and vibration measurements on rotating objects, such as turbo machine rotors, even at very high speed. In order to evidence the capability of the LDDS, measurements of rotor deformations (radial expansion), vibrations and wobbling motions are presented at up to 50,000 rpm rotor speed.

Pfister, Thorsten; Guenther, Philipp; Dreier, Florian; Czarske, Juergen [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Laboratory for Measurement and Testing Techniques, Helmholtzstrasse 18, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

2010-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

308

Modeling of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) of methane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The operation of piston engines on a compression ignition cycle using a lean, homogeneous charge has many potential attractive features. These include the potential for extremely low NO{sub x} and particulate emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency and not requiring the expensive high pressure injection system of the typical modem diesel engine. Using the HCT chemical kinetics code to simulate autoignition of methane-air mixtures, we have explored the ignition timing, burn duration, NO{sub x} production, indicated efficiency and power output of an engine with a compression ratio of 15:1 at 1200 and 2400 rpm. HCT was modified to include the effects of heat transfer. This study used a single control volume reaction zone that varies as a function of crank angle. The ignition process is controlled by varying the intake equivalence ratio and varying the residual gas trapping (RGT). RGT is internal exhaust gas recirculation which recycles both heat and combustion product species. It is accomplished by varying the timing of the exhaust valve closure. Inlet manifold temperature was held constant at 330 Kelvins. Results show that there is a narrow range of operational conditions that show promise of achieving the control necessary to vary power output while keeping indicated efficiency above 50% and NO{sub x} levels below 100 ppm.

Smith, J.R.; Aceves, S.M.; Westbrook, C.; Pitz, W.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

ATLAS: A Small, Light Weight, Time-Synchronized Wind-Turbine Data Acquistion System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Wind energy researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed a small, lightweight, time- synchronized, robust data acquisition system to acquire long-term time-series data on a wind turbine rotor. A commercial data acquisition module is utilized to acquire data simultaneously from multip!e strain-gauge, analog, and digital channels. Acquisition of rotor data at precisely the same times as acquisition of ground data is ensured by slaving the acquisition clocks on the rotor- based data unit and ground-based units to the Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) system with commercial GPS receiver units and custom-built and programmed programmable logic devices. The acquisition clocks will remain synchronized within two microseconds indefinitely. Field tests have confirmed that synchronization can be maintained at rotation rates in excess of 350 rpm, Commercial spread-spectrum radio modems are used to transfer the rotor data to a ground- based computer concurrently with data acquisition, permitting continuous acquisition of data over a period of several hours, days or even weeks.

Berg, D.E.; Robertson, P.; Zayas, J.

1998-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

310

Hydrogen turbines for space power systems: A simplified axial flow gas turbine model  

SciTech Connect

This paper descirbes a relatively simple axial flow gas expansion turbine mass model, which we developed for use in our space power system studies. The model uses basic engineering principles and realistic physical properties, including gas conditions, power level, and material stresses, to provide reasonable and consistent estimates of turbine mass and size. Turbine design modifications caused by boundary layer interactions, stress concentrations, stage leakage, or bending and thermal stresses are not accounted for. The program runs on an IBM PC, uses little computer time and has been incorporated into our system-level space power platform analysis computer codes. Parametric design studies of hydrogen turbines using this model are presented for both nickel superalloy and carbon/carbon composite turbines. The effects of speed, pressure ratio, and power level on hydrogen turbine mass are shown and compared to a baseline case 100-MWe, 10,000-rpm hydrogen turbine. Comparison with more detailed hydrogen turbine designs indicates that our simplified model provides mass estimates that are within 25% of the ones provided by more complex calculations. 8 figs.

Hudson, S.L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Optimization of enterokinase fermentation using a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The optimization of enterokinase fermentation was performed with a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The maximum enterokinase yield and specific yield were obtained when the ratio of yeast extract to bacto peptone was 5:5. However, the fraction of plasmid-containing cells was approximately 65 % for most nitrogen source ratios. From batch cultures, the minimum DOT level was found to be a key factor. Through DO-stat cultivations, the value was further optimized. As the minimum DOT level increased, the product yield and plasmid-containing cell fraction increased, whereas the ethanol concentration decreased. The optimum agitation speed and aeration rate in a 5 l jar were determined as 700 rpm and 2 vvm, respectively. Under these conditions, a high enterokinase yield of 3.8 mg/l was obtained with the final ethanol concentration of 0.4 g/l. The minimum DOT level was maintained to be 60 % or more. Scale-up of enterokinase fermentation from a 5 l jar to a 300 l jar was successfully accomplished based on strategies to maintain a constant impeller tip speed and a minimum DOT level at 60 % or more.

Hyun Jung Kim; Young Hwan Kim; Young Hoon Roh; Baik L. Seong; Chul Soo Shin

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Evaluation and silicon nitride internal combustion engine components  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The feasibility of silicon nitride (Si[sub 3]N[sub 4]) use in internal combustion engines was studied by testing three different components for wear resistance and lower reciprocating mass. The information obtained from these preliminary spin rig and engine tests indicates several design changes are necessary to survive high-stress engine applications. The three silicon nitride components tested were valve spring retainers, tappet rollers, and fuel pump push rod ends. Garrett Ceramic Components' gas-pressure sinterable Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] (GS-44) was used to fabricate the above components. Components were final machined from densified blanks that had been green formed by isostatic pressing of GS-44 granules. Spin rig testing of the valve spring retainers indicated that these Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] components could survive at high RPM levels (9,500) when teamed with silicon nitride valves and lower spring tension than standard titanium components. Silicon nitride tappet rollers showed no wear on roller O.D. or I.D. surfaces, steel axles and lifters; however, due to the uncrowned design of these particular rollers the cam lobes indicated wear after spin rig testing. Fuel pump push rod ends were successful at reducing wear on the cam lobe and rod end when tested on spin rigs and in real-world race applications.

Voldrich, W. (Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Torrance, CA (United States). Garrett Ceramic Components Div.)

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Evaluation and silicon nitride internal combustion engine components. Final report, Phase I  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The feasibility of silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) use in internal combustion engines was studied by testing three different components for wear resistance and lower reciprocating mass. The information obtained from these preliminary spin rig and engine tests indicates several design changes are necessary to survive high-stress engine applications. The three silicon nitride components tested were valve spring retainers, tappet rollers, and fuel pump push rod ends. Garrett Ceramic Components` gas-pressure sinterable Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (GS-44) was used to fabricate the above components. Components were final machined from densified blanks that had been green formed by isostatic pressing of GS-44 granules. Spin rig testing of the valve spring retainers indicated that these Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} components could survive at high RPM levels (9,500) when teamed with silicon nitride valves and lower spring tension than standard titanium components. Silicon nitride tappet rollers showed no wear on roller O.D. or I.D. surfaces, steel axles and lifters; however, due to the uncrowned design of these particular rollers the cam lobes indicated wear after spin rig testing. Fuel pump push rod ends were successful at reducing wear on the cam lobe and rod end when tested on spin rigs and in real-world race applications.

Voldrich, W. [Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Torrance, CA (United States). Garrett Ceramic Components Div.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Characteristics on High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental study was performed to understand fuel property effects on low temperature combustion (LTC) processes in a light-duty diesel engine. These types of combustion modes are often collectively referred to as high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). A statistically designed set of research fuels, the Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE), were used for this study. Engine conditions consistent with low speed cruise (1500 rpm, 2.6 bar BMEP) were chosen for investigating fuel property effects on HECC operation in a GM 1.9-L common rail diesel engine. The FACE fuel matrix includes nine combinations of fuel properties including cetane number (30 to 55), aromatic contents (20 to 45 %), and 90 % distillation temperature (270 to 340 C). HECC operation was achieved with high levels of EGR and adjusting injection parameters, e.g. higher fuel rail pressure and single injection event, which is also known as Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion. Engine performance, pollutant emissions, and details of the combustion process are discussed in this paper. Cetane number was found to significantly affect the combustion process with variations in the start of injection (SOI) timing, which revealed that the ranges of SOI timing for HECC operation and the PM emission levels were distinctively different between high cetane number (55) and low cetane number fuels (30). Low cetane number fuels showed comparable levels of regulated gas emissions with high cetane number fuels and had an advantage in PM emissions.

Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Han, Manbae [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Sedimentation stability and aging of aqueous dispersions of Laponite in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work discusses the sedimentation stability and aging of aqueous suspension of Laponite in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The concentration of Laponite was fixed at the constant level $C_l=2$ %wt, which corresponds to the threshold between equilibrium gel IG$_1$ and repulsive gel IG$_2$ phases. The concentration of CTAB $C_s$ was within 0-0.3 %wt. In the presence of CTAB the Laponite aqueous suspensions were unstable against sedimentation and they separated out into upper and bottom layers (U- and B-layers, respectively). The dynamic light scattering technique revealed that the addition of CTAB even at rather small concentration, $C_s=0.0164$ %wt ($0.03 CEC$), induced noticeable changes in the aging dynamics of U-layer, and it was explained by equilibration of CTAB molecules that were initially non-uniformly distributed between different Laponite particles. Accelerated stability analysis by means of analytical centrifugation with rotor speed ${\\omega}=500-4000$ rpm revealed three sedimentation regimes: continuous (I, $C_s0.2$ %wt). It was demonstrated that B-layer was "soft" in the zone-like regime. The increase of ${\\omega}$ resulted in its supplementary compressing and the collapse of "soft" sediment above certain critical centrifugal acceleration.

V. Savenko; L. Bulavin; M. Rawiso; M. Loginov; E. Vorobiev; N. I. Lebovka

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

316

Segmented and self-adjusting wind turbine rotors. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An investigation was carried out to examine the use of blade aeroelastic properties for providing rotational speed control for a wind turbine generator (WTG). The study was specifically directed at obtaining a rotor configuration that has the capability for maintaining nearly constant torque at constant RPM in the presence of varying wind conditions and is aimed at eliminating the current requirement for mechanical pitch change devices. The approach considered is one in which rotor twist due to aerodynamic loading is used to adjust the blade's pitch as the wind speed changes. The preliminary design concept that has evolved is a flexible rotor blade formed from a series of individual, light, rigid segments that are arranged along the blade spar. Each segment can rotate around the spar but is restricted in pitch by a nonlinear mechanical spring. The results of performance calculations as well as vibration and flutter analyses are presented. Based on these results, the concept appears to provide an attractive solution to the problem of WTG operation in a varying wind field.

Jordan, P.F.; Goldman, R.L.

1976-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

BF3 Neutron Detector Tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world; thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and detection capabilities are being investigated. Reported here are the results of tests of the efficiency of BF3 tubes at a pressure of 800 torr. These measurements were made partially to validate models of the RPM system that have been modified to simulate the performance of BF3-filled tubes. While BF3 could be a potential replacement for 3He, there are limitations to its use in deployed systems.

Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

2009-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

318

Contol of Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Motors with Special Application to Motors with Fractional-Slot Concentrated Windings  

SciTech Connect

A 30-pole, 6-kW prototype of a fractional-slot permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) design has been developed to operate at a maximum speed of 6000 rpm [1,2]. This machine has significantly more inductance than regular PMSMs with distributed windings. The prototype was delivered in April 2006 to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for testing and development of a suitable controller. To prepare for this test/control development effort, ORNL used PMSM models developed over a number of previous studies to preview the control issues that arise when a dynamic controller drives a high inductance PMSM machine during steady state performance evaluations. The detailed steady state model developed includes all motor and inverter loss mechanisms and was useful for assessing the performance of the dynamic controller before it was put into operation. This report documents the results of tests demonstrating the effectiveness of ORNL's simple low-cost control scheme during characterization of the fractional-slot concentrated windings (FSCW) PMSM motor. The control scheme is simple because only the supply voltage magnitude and the phase angle between the back-electromotive force (emf) and the supply voltage is controlled. It is low-cost because it requires no current or phase voltage sensors.

Patil, N.; Lawler, J.S.; McKeever, J.

2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

319

Topping cycles and advanced conversion machinery for central power stations  

SciTech Connect

From thermal power conference; Pullman, Washington, USA (3 Oct 1973). The possibility of developing dynamic conversion machines for topping cycles --- expanders and turbines ---that might utilize refractory materials not previously applied to this purpose is investigated. A technological basis for topping cycle systems that will extend the conversion efficiency of central power stations to the range of 55 to 60% is provided. The performance of a small (500 cm/sup 3/ displacement) graphite helical rotor compressor-expander set operating on inert gas for nearly 300 hr at temperatures up to 1500 deg C and rotor speeds to 14,000 rpm is described. In a related program, turbine blades and sound monolithic bodies up to 36 in. characteristic dimension were fabricated of the refractory compounds silicon nitride (Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/) and silicon carbide (SiC), which are compatible with air and combustion products. The application of available materials and power-conversion technology to permit a significant improvement in energy conversion efficiency is discussed. The demonstration of this capability is proposed by devising topping cycle systems incorporating ceramic engines capable of extracting useful energy from combustion heat sources at conditions presently inaccessible. 12 references. (auth)

Mohr, P.B.; Rienecker, F.

1973-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

320

Field Demonstration of Acetone Pretreatment and Composting of Particulate-TNT-Contaminated Soil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid fragments of explosives in soil are common in explosives testing and training areas. In this study we initially sieved the upper 6 in of contaminated soil through a 3-mm mesh, and found 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) fragments. These contributed to an estimated concentration of 1.7 kg per cubic yard soil, or for 2000 ppm TNT in the soil. Most of the fragments ranged 4 mm to 10 mm diameter in size, but explosives particles weighing up to 56 g (about 4 cm diameter) were frequently observed. An acetone pretreatment/composting system was then demonstrated at field scale. The amount of acetone required for a TNT-dissolving slurry process was controlled by the viscosity of the soil/acetone mix rather than the TNT dissolution rate. The amount needed was estimated at about 55 gallons acetone per cubic yard soil. Smaller, 5- to 10-mm-diameter fragments went into solution in less than 15 min at a mixer speed of 36 rpm, with a minimum of 2 g TNT going into solution per 30 min for the larger chunks. The slurries were than mixed with compost starting materials and composted in a vented 1 yd3 container. After 34 days incubation time TNT was below the site-specific regulatory threshold of 44 ppm. TNT metabolites and acetone were also below their regulatory thresholds established for the site.

Radtke, Corey William; Smith, D.; Owen, S.; Roberto, Francisco Figueroa

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Investigation and Optimization of Biodiesel Chemistry for HCCI Combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past 5 years, ORNL has run 95 diesel range fuels in homogene-ous charge compression ignition (HCCI), including 40 bio-diesels and associated diesel fuels in their blending. The bio-diesel blends varied in oxygen content, iodine number, cetane, boiling point distribution, chemical composition, and some contained nitrogen. All fuels were run in an HCCI engine at 1800 rpm, in the power range of 2.5 to 4.5 bar IMEP, using intake air heating for combustion phasing control, and at a compression ratio of 10.6. The engine response to fuel variables has been analyzed statistically. Generally, the engine responded well to fuels with lower nitrogen and oxygen, lower cetane, and lower aromatics. Because of the wide range of fuels combined in the model, it provides only a broad overview of the engine response. It is recommended that data be truncated and re-modeled to obtain finer resolution of engine response to particular fuel variables.

Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Bunce, Michael [ORNL; Joyce, Blake [ORNL; Crawford, Robert W [Rincon Ranch Consulting

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Eddy current transducing system  

SciTech Connect

In a program funded by the Office of Energy Related Inventions of the Department of Energy, Vatell Corporation developed a prototype Turbine Blade Condition Monitor. This microcomputer-based system was tested to determine its performance in measuring individual blade clearance and time of arrival on a Pratt Whitney (Canada) JT15D jet engine. A Vatell eddy-current sensor mounted in the housing of the engine at mid-chord of the N1 first stage provided the signals. The N1 first stage is a 31 in. diameter fan with 28 titanium blades, operating over a speed range of approximately 7000 to 14,000 rpm. Tests showed that the monitoring system transduced blade clearances with a precision of .0001 in., simultaneously indicating times of arrival within 0.1 microseconds, equivalent to a pitch of .0015 in. Patterns of blade clearances and timing variations were observed for various engine operating conditions, and the clearance and time of arrival signatures'' of the fan stage were recorded. Manufacturing variations in blade pitch were readily detected, as were indications of blade and hub vibration. The report contains a detailed description of the development program, examples of waveforms and recorded data, circuit diagrams, software, setup and operating procedures for the monitoring system. 66 refs.

1991-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

323

Turbine Reliability and Operability Optimization through the use of Direct Detection Lidar Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this Department of Energy (DOE) project is to increase wind turbine efficiency and reliability with the use of a Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system. The LIDAR provides wind speed and direction data that can be used to help mitigate the fatigue stress on the turbine blades and internal components caused by wind gusts, sub-optimal pointing and reactionary speed or RPM changes. This effort will have a significant impact on the operation and maintenance costs of turbines across the industry. During the course of the project, Michigan Aerospace Corporation (MAC) modified and tested a prototype direct detection wind LIDAR instrument; the resulting LIDAR design considered all aspects of wind turbine LIDAR operation from mounting, assembly, and environmental operating conditions to laser safety. Additionally, in co-operation with our partners, the National Renewable Energy Lab and the Colorado School of Mines, progress was made in LIDAR performance modeling as well as LIDAR feed forward control system modeling and simulation. The results of this investigation showed that using LIDAR measurements to change between baseline and extreme event controllers in a switching architecture can reduce damage equivalent loads on blades and tower, and produce higher mean power output due to fewer overspeed events. This DOE project has led to continued venture capital investment and engagement with leading turbine OEMs, wind farm developers, and wind farm owner/operators.

Johnson, David K; Lewis, Matthew J; ,; Pavlich, Jane C; Wright, Alan D; Johnson, Kathryn E; Pace, Andrew M

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Effect of rib spacing on heat transfer and friction in a rotating two-pass rectangular (AR=1:2) channel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The research focuses on testing the heat transfer enhancement in a channel for different spacing of the rib turbulators. Those ribs are put on the surface in the two pass rectangular channel with an aspect ratio of AR=1:2. The cross section of the rib is 1.59 x 1.59 mm. Those ribs are put on the leading and trailing walls of the channel with the angle of flow attack to the mainstream of 45?°. The rotating speed is fixed at 550-RPM with the channel orientation at ?²=90?°. Air is used as the coolant through the cooling passage with the coolant-to-wall density ratio ( ρ ρ â?? ) maintained around 0.115 in the first pass and 0.08 in the second pass. The Reynolds numbers are controlled at 5000, 10000, 25000, and 40000. The rib spacing-to-height ratios (P/e) are 3, 5, 7.5, and 10. The heat transfer coefficient and friction factor are measured to determine the effect of the different rib distributions. Stationary cases and rotational cases are examined and compared. The result shows that the highest thermal performance is P/e=5 for the stationary case and P/e=7.5 for the rotating case.

Liu, Yao-Hsien

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

New PDC system making hole in Midland - And fast  

SciTech Connect

A new PDC drilling system being field tested in West Texas is penetrating hard rock at unheard of rates, controlling bit balling and slowing bit body erosion, thanks to an ingenious bit stabilization system and an unusual bit nozzle design. The new system also uses lower drill string weight and less mud pump pressure, while running at lower rpms than is common in the area. In one recent shallow-well test in the McElroy Ranch field near Crane, Tex., the Sta-bit system (short for stabilized bit), drilled from 660 ft to 2403 ft (1743 ft total) through shale, siltstone, sands and anhydrite stringers at nearly 70 ft/hr-some two to four times above typical West Texas penetration rates. At the same time, the bit required a drill string weight of only 16,000 lb, and 800-psi mud pump pressure and ran at 70 rpm. The patented Sta-bit system consists of two parts - a spiral-patterned PDC bit and a separate, pressure-actuated stabilizer. But the stabilizer is both the heart of the system and the source of most of its problems. It's designed to eliminate vibrational and rotational whip, which it is believed destroys PDC cutters in hard formations.

Not Available

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Open cycle - OTEC turbine design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design of a low-pressure, open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system (OTEC) is described. Near-surface ocean water at 80 F is allowed to expand in a one-half psi evaporator for passage through a turbine cold water (40 F), pumped upward from a 3,000 ft depth, is used to recondense the steam. Plans for a 2.5-3 MWe prototype plant, as a proof-of-principle project for a 100 MWe plant, include seawater pumps driven off the generator shaft, potable water as a by-product of the condensor, ease of access for O and M, and an integrated, gear-driven deaerator system with reinjection into the warm seawater discharge. An inlet flow of 3,000,000 cu ft/sec, a single stage vertical turbine with 40 ft fiber reinforced composite blades, 200 rpm operation on a 65 ft diameter disk, and an overall efficiency of 3% are features of the 100 MWe plant. A flowfield analysis, a velocity triangle analysis, and a structural dynamics analysis are outlined, along with materials applications and manufacturing process considerations in blade design. The 3MWe OTEC will be one-sixth the size of a 100MWe OTEC.

Coleman, W.H. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Lester, PA); Rogers, J.D. (TM Development, Inc., Chester, PA); Thompson, D.F. (Delaware University, Newark, DE)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Maintenance and operation of a small wind generator in the marine environment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the maintenance and operation of a wind-turbine generator that has been undergoing tests as a source of energy for remote Coast Guard lighthouses. The report documents both the effects of operating the wind machine in the marine environment and the maintenance that it required. Design parameters and performance records of the generator are also evaluated. The HR2 is a horizontal-axis, upwind-oriented, three-bladed wind machine. It is equipped with a direct-drive system that allows the kinetic force captured by the propeller to be converted directly into rotational force driving the main shaft. The HR2 alternator and blade/hub system are allowed to tilt out of a near-vertical plane about a shaft and bearing mechanism. The VARCS is a torsion spring- and hinge-mechanism that acts against the lifting dynamics of the spinning blades. As high winds or gusts tilt the alternator about the hinge, the VARCS's spring opposes this force and regulates the blades angle of attack into the wind; the propeller's RPM drop when tilted because of the feathering action. If the wind subsides, the force of the VARCS spring drives the alternator assembly down and presents the blades back into the wind.

Heerlein, W.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Use of a thermodynamic cycle simulation to determine the difference between a propane-fuelled engine and an iso-octane-fuelled engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A thermodynamic cycle simulation of the four-stroke spark-ignition engine was used to determine the effects of variations in engine design and operating parameters on engine performance and emission characteristics. The overall objective was to use the engine cycle simulation to determine the difference between a propane-fuelled and an iso-octane-fuelled engine for the same operating conditions and engine specifications. A comprehensive parametric investigation was conducted to examine the effects of variations in load, speed, combustion duration, spark timing, equivalence ratio, exhaust gas recycle, and compression ratio for a 3.3 liter, Chrysler Minivan, V 6 engine operating on propane. Parameters were selected for the analysis. Variations in the brake specific fuel consumption, brake specific NOx emissions, and mean exhaust temperature were determined for both the propane-fuelled and the iso-octane-fuelled engines. Brake specific fuel consumption and mean exhaust temperature values for the propane-fuelled engine were consistently lower (3 to 5 %) than the corresponding values for the iso-octane-fuelled engine. Fuel structure did not have a significant effect on brake specific nitric oxide emissions. Predictions made from the simulation were compared with some of the available experimental results. Predicted brake torque and brake power showed acceptable quantitative agreement (less than 10 % variation) in the low engine speed range (1,000 to 3,000 rpm) and similar trends with the available experimental data.

Pathak, Dushyant

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Operation of a Four-Cylinder 1.9L Propane Fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine: Basic Operating Characteristics and Cylinder-to-Cylinder Effects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A four-cylinder 1.9 Volkswagen TDI Engine has been converted to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode. The stock configuration is a turbocharged direct injection Diesel engine. The combustion chamber has been modified by discarding the in-cylinder Diesel fuel injectors and replacing them with blank inserts (which contain pressure transducers). The stock pistons contain a reentrant bowl and have been retained for the tests reported here. The intake and exhaust manifolds have also been retained, but the turbocharger has been removed. A heater has been installed upstream of the intake manifold and fuel is added just downstream of this heater. The performance of this engine in naturally aspirated HCCI operation, subject to variable intake temperature and fuel flow rate, has been studied. The engine has been run with propane fuel at a constant speed of 1800 rpm. This work is intended to characterize the HCCI operation of the engine in this configuration that has been minimally modified from the base Diesel engine. The performance (BMEP, IMEP, efficiency, etc) and emissions (THC, CO, NOx) of the engine are presented, as are combustion process results based on heat release analysis of the pressure traces from each cylinder.

Flowers, D; Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Smith, J R; Au, M; Girard, J; Dibble, R

2001-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

330

Prospectus of ignition enhancement in a two-stroke SI engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conventional two-stroke spark-ignition (SI) engines have difficulty meeting the ignition requirements of lean fuel-air mixtures and high compression ratios, due to their breaker operated, magneto-coil ignition systems. In the present work, a breakerless, high-energy electronic ignition system was developed and tested with and without a platinum-tipped electrode spark plug. The high-energy ignition system showed an improved lean-burn capability at high compression ratios relative to the conventional ignition system. At a high compression ratio of 9:1 with lean fuel-air mixtures, the maximum percentage improvement in the brake thermal efficiency was about 16.5% at 2.7 kW and 3000 rpm. Cylinder peak pressures-were higher ignition delay was lower, and combustion duration was shorter at both normal and high compression ratios. Combustion stability as measured by the coefficient of variation in peak cylinder pressure was also considerably improved with the high-energy ignition system.

Manivannan, P.V.; Ramesh, A. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India); Poola, R.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Dhinadgar, S.J. [Tata Engineering & Locomotive Co., New Delhi (India)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Contol of Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Motors with Special Application to Motors with Fractional-Slot Concentrated Windings  

SciTech Connect

A 30-pole, 6-kW prototype of a fractional-slot permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) design has been developed to operate at a maximum speed of 6000 rpm [1,2]. This machine has significantly more inductance than regular PMSMs with distributed windings. The prototype was delivered in April 2006 to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for testing and development of a suitable controller. To prepare for this test/control development effort, ORNL used PMSM models developed over a number of previous studies to preview the control issues that arise when a dynamic controller drives a high inductance PMSM machine during steady state performance evaluations. The detailed steady state model developed includes all motor and inverter loss mechanisms and was useful for assessing the performance of the dynamic controller before it was put into operation. This report documents the results of tests demonstrating the effectiveness of ORNL's simple low-cost control scheme during characterization of the fractional-slot concentrated windings (FSCW) PMSM motor. The control scheme is simple because only the supply voltage magnitude and the phase angle between the back-electromotive force (emf) and the supply voltage is controlled. It is low-cost because it requires no current or phase voltage sensors.

Patil, N.; Lawler, J.S.; McKeever, J.

2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

332

Integral inverter/battery charger for use in electric vehicles. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The design and test results of a thyristor based inverter/charger are discussed. A battery charger is included integral to the inverter by using a subset of the inverter power circuit components. The resulting charger provides electrical isolation between the vehicle propulsion battery and ac line and is capable of charging a 25 kWh propulsion battery in 8 hours from a 220 volt ac line. The integral charger employs the inverter commutation components as a resonant ac/dc isolated converter rated at 3.6 kW. Charger efficiency and power factor at an output power of 3.6 kW are 86% and 95%, respectively. The inverter, when operated with a matching polyphase ac induction motor and nominal 132 volt propulsion battery, can provide a peak shaft power of 34 kW (45 hp) during motoring operation and 45 kW (60 hp) during regeneration. Thyristors are employed for the inverter power switching devices and are arranged in an input-commutated topology. This configuration requires only two thyristors to commutate the six main inverter thyristors. Inverter efficiency during motoring operation at motor shaft speeds above 450 rad/sec (4300 rpm) is 92 to 94% for output power levels above 11 KW (15 hp). The combined ac inverter/charger package weighs 47 kg (103 lbs).

Thimmesch, D.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Nanocrystalline non-stoichiometric SBT: Effect of milling duration on structural and electrical characteristics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present work, nanocrystalline specimens of non-stoichiometric Strontium Bismuth Tantalate (SBT) ferroelectric ceramics were synthesized by mechanical activation process using a high energy planetary ball mill. The powders were milled for different milling durations (5, 10, 20 h) keeping the milling speed fixed at 300 rpm. Microstructural characterizations have been performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, electron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Nanocrystallites with average grain size in the range of 30-50 nm are observed to be formed. Grain size is observed to decrease with increasing milling duration. Detailed dielectric study as a function of temperature has been carried out. It is observed that dielectric constant increases and dielectric loss decreases with increasing milling duration. The observed characteristics have been explained in terms of increased number of grain boundaries due to the reduction of granular size. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the present work nano crystalline non-stoichiometric SBT has been synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The technique involved is mechanical activation (high energy ball milling). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The milling duration has been optimized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sr0.8Bi2.2Ta2O9 milled for 20 hours exhibit enhanced electrical characteristics.

Sugandha, E-mail: miglani.sugandha@gmail.com [Thin Film and Material Science Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University (Formerly Delhi College of Engineering), Delhi-110042 (India); Jha, A.K., E-mail: Prof.akjha@gmail.com [Thin Film and Material Science Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University (Formerly Delhi College of Engineering), Delhi-110042 (India); Department of Applied Sciences, Ambedkar Institute of Technology, GGSIPU, Geeta Colony, Delhi-110092 (India)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

Fabrication, assembly, bench and drilling tests of two prototype downhole pneumatic turbine motors: Final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The first and second prototype downhole pneumatic turbine motors have been fabricated, assembled and tested. All bench tests showed that the motor will produce horsepower and bit speeds approximating the predicted values. Specifically, the downhole pneumatic turbine motor produced approximately 50 horsepower at 100 rpm, while being supplied with about 3600 SCFM of compressed air. The first prototype was used in a drilling test from a depth of 389 feet to a depth of 789 feet in the Kirtland formation. This first prototype motor drilled at a rate exceeding 180 ft/hr, utilizing only 3000 SCFM of compressed air. High temperature tests (at approximately 460/sup 0/F) were carried out on the thrust assembly and the gearboxes for the two prototypes. These components operated successfully at these temperatures. Although the bench and drilling tests were successful, the tests revealed design changes that should be made before drilling tests are carried out in geothermal boreholes at the Geysers area, near Santa Rosa, California.

Bookwalter, R.; Duettra, P.D.; Johnson, P.; Lyons, W.C.; Miska, S.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were scanned after tank supernatant was removed. 4. Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds. This sampler was designed and built to remove small sections of the mounds to evaluate concentrations of the stainless steel solids at different special locations. 5. Computer driven positioner that placed the laser rangefinders and the core sampler in appropriate locations over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank where mixing is poor. These devices and techniques were effective to estimate the movement, location, and concentrations of the solids representing heavier particles and could perform well at a larger scale The experiment contained two campaigns with each comprised of ten cycles to fill and empty the scaled staging tank. The tank was filled without mixing, but emptied, while mixing, in seven batches; the first six were of equal volumes of 13.1 gallons each to represent the planned fullscale batches of 145,000 gallons, and the last, partial, batch of 6.9 gallons represented a full-scale partial batch of 76,000 gallons that will leave a 72-inch heel in the staging tank for the next cycle. The sole difference between the two campaigns was the energy to mix the scaled staging tank, i.e., the nozzle velocity and jet rotational speed of the two jet pumps. Campaign 1 used 22.9 ft/s, at 1.54 rpm based on past testing and Campaign 2 used 23.9 ft/s at 1.75 rpm, based on visual observation of minimum velocity that allowed fast settling solids, i.e., sand and stainless steel, to accumulate on the scaled tank bottom.

Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

336

Barriers to the Application of High-Temperature Coolants in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify practical approaches, technical barriers, and cost impacts to achieving high-temperature coolant operation for certain traction drive subassemblies and components of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). HEVs are unique in their need for the cooling of certain dedicated-traction drive subassemblies/components that include the electric motor(s), generators(s), inverter, dc converter (where applicable), and dc-link capacitors. The new coolant system under study would abandon the dedicated 65 C coolant loop, such as used in the Prius, and instead rely on the 105 C engine cooling loop. This assessment is important because automotive manufacturers are interested in utilizing the existing water/glycol engine cooling loop to cool the HEV subassemblies in order to eliminate an additional coolant loop with its associated reliability, space, and cost requirements. In addition, the cooling of power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology (FCVT) goals for power rating, volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost. All of these have been addressed in this study. Because there is high interest by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in reducing manufacturing cost to enhance their competitive standing, the approach taken in this analysis was designed to be a positive 'can-do' approach that would be most successful in demonstrating the potential or opportunity of relying entirely on a high-temperature coolant system. Nevertheless, it proved to be clearly evident that a few formidable technical and cost barriers exist and no effective approach for mitigating the barriers was evident in the near term. Based on comprehensive thermal tests of the Prius reported by ORNL in 2005 [1], the continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures were projected from test data at 900 rpm. They are approximately 15 kW with 103 C coolant and 20 kW with 50 C coolant. To avoid this 25% drop1 in continuous power, design changes for improved heat dissipation and carefully managed changes in allowable thermal limits would be required in the hybrid subsystems. This study is designed to identify the technical barriers that potentially exist in moving to a high-temperature cooling loop prior to addressing the actual detailed design. For operation at a significantly higher coolant temperature, there were component-level issues that had to be addressed in this study. These issues generally pertained to the cost and reliability of existing or near-term components that would be suitable for use with the 105 C coolant. The assessed components include power electronic devices/modules such as diodes and insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), inverter-grade high-temperature capacitors, permanent magnets (PM), and motor-grade wire insulation. The need for potentially modifying/resizing subassemblies such as inverters, motors, and heat exchangers was also addressed in the study. In order to obtain pertinent information to assist ORNL researchers address the thermal issues at the component, module, subassembly, and system levels, pre-existing laboratory test data conducted at varying temperatures was analyzed in conjunction with information obtained from technical literature searches and industry sources.

Staunton, Robert H [ORNL; Hsu, John S [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Full-Scale Test  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Full-Scale Test (FST) program was performed by Parsons and its team members General Atomics and Energy Solutions to assess the performance of full-scale centrifugal contactors specified for the Department of Energy Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The SWPF, to be located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina, will remove highly radioactive waste constituents, principally actinides, strontium (Sr), and cesium (Cs) radionuclides, from salt waste solutions currently stored in SRS high-level waste tanks. Caustic-side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) removes Cs from waste feed that has been treated upstream to remove actinides and Sr. CSSX uses a custom solvent to extract Cs from the salt solution in a series of single stage centrifugal contactors. The test system comprised (a) eleven 25.4 cm (10'') full-scale contactors (versus 36 in SWPF) for the extraction, scrub, strip, and wash stages; (b) two solvent recovery coalescers; and (c) the associated hardware and control system, packaged in four skid mounted modules. This paper describes the results of tests performed to define both hydraulic performance parameters (maximum hydraulic capacity and phase carryover) and solvent extraction performance parameters (Cs mass transfer efficiencies) using simulated SWPF waste and actual CSSX solvent. The test results confirmed key design features of the CSSX process and, as a consequence, the use of CSSX in the SWPF. In conclusion: Total throughput was initially limited to 85% of maximum flow during FST. Minor system modifications performed prior to mass transfer testing series resulted in the realization of 100% throughput. The 100% flow equates to slightly more than 35.6 x 10{sup 6} L/yr (9.4 Mgal/yr) of waste processed in SWPF which is anticipated to be the peak plant throughput. To achieve the best hydraulic performance in extraction, it is recommended that the extraction contactors be operated at the highest reasonable speed possible (>2100 rpm). Vibration, hardware limitations, bearing life, and other factors should be considered prior to final selection of extraction contactor speeds in SWPF. In strip (also scrub and wash) aqueous carryover decreased and organic carryover increased as the rotor speeds increased. It is recommended that the strip, scrub, and wash contactors be operated at intermediate speeds (between 1500 and 2100 rpm) to achieve a performance compromise between aqueous and organic carryover. Curved-vane bottom plates showed a significant hydraulic performance (aqueous and organic carryover) advantage over straight-vane bottom plates in extraction. There was no significant mass transfer performance advantage for either plate type in extraction. Thus, curved-vane bottom plates in extraction may be the better option for use in SWPF. There was no significant hydraulic performance difference between the plate types in strip. Straight-vanes provided significantly better mass transfer performance in strip compared to curved-vanes. Based solely on mass transfer performance, straight-vane bottom plates in the strip, scrub, and wash contactors are recommended for use in SWPF. Utilizing straight-vanes in the stripping section, the overall SWPF CSSX performance is expected to meet or exceed the target DF of 40,000 with minimum extraction D{sub Cs} of 10. (authors)

Lentsch, R.D.; Stephens, A.B. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Bartling, K.E. [Parsons, Aiken, SC (United States); Singer, S.A. [Energy Solutions, Aiken, SC (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Barriers to the Application of High-Temperature Coolants in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This study was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify practical approaches, technical barriers, and cost impacts to achieving high-temperature coolant operation for certain traction drive subassemblies and components of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). HEVs are unique in their need for the cooling of certain dedicated-traction drive subassemblies/components that include the electric motor(s), generators(s), inverter, dc converter (where applicable), and dc-link capacitors. The new coolant system under study would abandon the dedicated 65 C coolant loop, such as used in the Prius, and instead rely on the 105 C engine cooling loop. This assessment is important because automotive manufacturers are interested in utilizing the existing water/glycol engine cooling loop to cool the HEV subassemblies in order to eliminate an additional coolant loop with its associated reliability, space, and cost requirements. In addition, the cooling of power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology (FCVT) goals for power rating, volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost. All of these have been addressed in this study. Because there is high interest by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in reducing manufacturing cost to enhance their competitive standing, the approach taken in this analysis was designed to be a positive 'can-do' approach that would be most successful in demonstrating the potential or opportunity of relying entirely on a high-temperature coolant system. Nevertheless, it proved to be clearly evident that a few formidable technical and cost barriers exist and no effective approach for mitigating the barriers was evident in the near term. Based on comprehensive thermal tests of the Prius reported by ORNL in 2005 [1], the continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures were projected from test data at 900 rpm. They are approximately 15 kW with 103 C coolant and 20 kW with 50 C coolant. To avoid this 25% drop1 in continuous power, design changes for improved heat dissipation and carefully managed changes in allowable thermal limits would be required in the hybrid subsystems. This study is designed to identify the technical barriers that potentially exist in moving to a high-temperature cooling loop prior to addressing the actual detailed design. For operation at a significantly higher coolant temperature, there were component-level issues that had to be addressed in this study. These issues generally pertained to the cost and reliability of existing or near term components that would be suitable for use with the 105 C coolant. The assessed components include power electronic devices/modules such as diodes and insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), inverter-grade high-temperature capacitors, permanent magnets (PM), and motor-grade wire insulation. The need for potentially modifying/resizing subassemblies such as inverters, motors, and heat exchangers was also addressed in the study. In order to obtain pertinent information to assist ORNL researchers address the thermal issues at the component, module, subassembly, and system levels, pre-existing laboratory test data conducted at varying temperatures was analyzed in conjunction with information obtained from technical literature searches and industry sources.

Hsu, J.S.; Staunton, M.R.; Starke, M.R.

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

339

SOLIDS ACCUMULATION SCOUTING STUDIES  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were scanned after tank supernatant was removed. 4. Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds. This sampler was designed and built to remove small sections of the mounds to evaluate concentrations of the stainless steel solids at different special locations. 5. Computer driven positioner that placed the laser rangefinders and the core sampler in appropriate locations over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank where mixing is poor. These devices and techniques were effective to estimate the movement, location, and concentrations of the solids representing heavier particles and could perform well at a larger scale The experiment contained two campaigns with each comprised of ten cycles to fill and empty the scaled staging tank. The tank was filled without mixing, but emptied, while mixing, in seven batches; the first six were of equal volumes of 13.1 gallons each to represent the planned fullscale batches of 145,000 gallons, and the last, partial, batch of 6.9 gallons represented a full-scale partial batch of 76,000 gallons that will leave a 72-inch heel in the staging tank for the next cycle. The sole difference between the two campaigns was the energy to mix the scaled staging tank, i.e., the nozzle velocity and jet rotational speed of the two jet pumps. Campaign 1 used 22.9 ft/s, at 1.54 rpm based on past testing and Campaign 2 used 23.9 ft/s at 1.75 rpm, based on visual observation of minimum velocity that allowed fast settling solids, i.e., sand and stainless steel, to accumulate on the scaled tank bottom.

Duignan, M.; Steeper, T.; Steimke, J.

2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

340

Barriers to the Application of High-Temperature Coolants in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This study was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify practical approaches, technical barriers, and cost impacts to achieving high-temperature coolant operation for certain traction drive subassemblies and components of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). HEVs are unique in their need for the cooling of certain dedicated-traction drive subassemblies/components that include the electric motor(s), generators(s), inverter, dc converter (where applicable), and dc-link capacitors. The new coolant system under study would abandon the dedicated 65 C coolant loop, such as used in the Prius, and instead rely on the 105 C engine cooling loop. This assessment is important because automotive manufacturers are interested in utilizing the existing water/glycol engine cooling loop to cool the HEV subassemblies in order to eliminate an additional coolant loop with its associated reliability, space, and cost requirements. In addition, the cooling of power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology (FCVT) goals for power rating, volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost. All of these have been addressed in this study. Because there is high interest by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in reducing manufacturing cost to enhance their competitive standing, the approach taken in this analysis was designed to be a positive 'can-do' approach that would be most successful in demonstrating the potential or opportunity of relying entirely on a high-temperature coolant system. Nevertheless, it proved to be clearly evident that a few formidable technical and cost barriers exist and no effective approach for mitigating the barriers was evident in the near term. Based on comprehensive thermal tests of the Prius reported by ORNL in 2005 [1], the continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures were projected from test data at 900 rpm. They are approximately 15 kW with 103 C coolant and 20 kW with 50 C coolant. To avoid this 25% drop1 in continuous power, design changes for improved heat dissipation and carefully managed changes in allowable thermal limits would be required in the hybrid subsystems. This study is designed to identify the technical barriers that potentially exist in moving to a high-temperature cooling loop prior to addressing the actual detailed design. For operation at a significantly higher coolant temperature, there were component-level issues that had to be addressed in this study. These issues generally pertained to the cost and reliability of existing or near term components that would be suitable for use with the 105 C coolant. The assessed components include power electronic devices/modules such as diodes and insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), inverter-grade high-temperature capacitors, permanent magnets (PM), and motor-grade wire insulation. The need for potentially modifying/resizing subassemblies such as inverters, motors, and heat exchangers was also addressed in the study. In order to obtain pertinent information to assist ORNL researchers address the thermal issues at the component, module, subassembly, and system levels, pre-existing laboratory test data conducted at varying temperatures was analyzed in conjunction with information obtained from technical literature searches and industry sources.

Hsu, J.S.; Staunton, M.R.; Starke, M.R.

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

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341

Barriers to the Application of High-Temperature Coolants in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This study was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify practical approaches, technical barriers, and cost impacts to achieving high-temperature coolant operation for certain traction drive subassemblies and components of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). HEVs are unique in their need for the cooling of certain dedicated-traction drive subassemblies/components that include the electric motor(s), generators(s), inverter, dc converter (where applicable), and dc-link capacitors. The new coolant system under study would abandon the dedicated 65 C coolant loop, such as used in the Prius, and instead rely on the 105 C engine cooling loop. This assessment is important because automotive manufacturers are interested in utilizing the existing water/glycol engine cooling loop to cool the HEV subassemblies in order to eliminate an additional coolant loop with its associated reliability, space, and cost requirements. In addition, the cooling of power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology (FCVT) goals for power rating, volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost. All of these have been addressed in this study. Because there is high interest by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in reducing manufacturing cost to enhance their competitive standing, the approach taken in this analysis was designed to be a positive 'can-do' approach that would be most successful in demonstrating the potential or opportunity of relying entirely on a high-temperature coolant system. Nevertheless, it proved to be clearly evident that a few formidable technical and cost barriers exist and no effective approach for mitigating the barriers was evident in the near term. Based on comprehensive thermal tests of the Prius reported by ORNL in 2005 [1], the continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures were projected from test data at 900 rpm. They are approximately 15 kW with 103 C coolant and 20 kW with 50 C coolant. To avoid this 25% drop1 in continuous power, design changes for improved heat dissipation and carefully managed changes in allowable thermal limits would be required in the hybrid subsystems. This study is designed to identify the technical barriers that potentially exist in moving to a high-temperature cooling loop prior to addressing the actual detailed design. For operation at a significantly higher coolant temperature, there were component-level issues that had to be addressed in this study. These issues generally pertained to the cost and reliability of existing or near-term components that would be suitable for use with the 105 C coolant. The assessed components include power electronic devices/modules such as diodes and insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), inverter-grade high-temperature capacitors, permanent magnets (PM), and motor-grade wire insulation. The need for potentially modifying/resizing subassemblies such as inverters, motors, and heat exchangers was also addressed in the study. In order to obtain pertinent information to assist ORNL researchers address the thermal issues at the component, module, subassembly, and system levels, pre-existing laboratory test data conducted at varying temperatures was analyzed in conjunction with information obtained from technical literature searches and industry sources.

Staunton, Robert H [ORNL; Hsu, John S [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Lab-Based Measurement of Remediation Techniques for Radiation Portal Monitors (Initial Report)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation Portal Monitors (RPM) deployed by the Second Line of Defense (SLD) are known to be sensitive to the natural environmental radioactive background. There are several techniques used to mitigate the effects of background on the monitors, but since the installation environments can vary significantly from one another the need for a standardized, systematic, study of remediation techniques was proposed and carried out. This study is not meant to serve as the absolute last word on the subject. The data collected are, however, intelligible and useful. Some compromises were made, each of which will be described in detail. The hope of this initial report is to familiarize the SLD science teams with ORNL's effort to model the effect of various remediation techniques on simple, static backgrounds. This study provides a good start toward benchmarking the model, and each additional increment of data will serve to make the model more robust. The scope of this initial study is limited to a few basic cases. Its purpose is to prove the utility of lab-based study of remediation techniques and serve as a standard data set for future use. This importance of this first step of standardization will become obvious when science teams are working in parallel on issues of remediation; having a common starting point will do away with one category of difference, thereby making easier the task of determining the sources of disagreement. Further measurements will augment this data set, allowing for further constraint of the universe of possible situations. As will be discussed in the 'Going Forward' section, more data will be included in the final report of this work. Of particular interest will be the data taken with the official TSA lead collimators, which will provide more direct results for comparison with installation data.

Livesay, Jake [ORNL; Guzzardo, Tyler [ORNL; Lousteau, Angela L [ORNL

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Twin-Screw Extruder Development for the ITER Pellet Injection System  

SciTech Connect

The ITER pellet injection system is comprised of devices to form and accelerate pellets, and will be connected to inner wall guide tubes for fueling, and outer wall guide tubes for ELM pacing. An extruder will provide a stream of solid hydrogen isotopes to a secondary section, where pellets are cut and accelerated with a gas gun into the plasma. The ITER pellet injection system is required to provide a plasma fueling rate of 120 Pa-m3/s (900 mbar-L/s) and durations of up to 3000 s. The fueling pellets will be injected at a rate up to 10 Hz and pellets used to trigger ELMs will be injected at higher rates up to 20 Hz. A twin-screw extruder for the ITER pellet injection system is under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A one-fifth ITER scale prototype has been built and has demonstrated the production of a continuous solid deuterium extrusion. The 27 mm diameter, intermeshed, counter-rotating extruder screws are rotated at a rate up to ?5 rpm. Deuterium gas is pre-cooled and liquefied and solidified in separate extruder barrels. The precooler consists of a deuterium gas filled copper coil suspended in a separate stainless steel vessel containing liquid nitrogen. The liquefier is comprised of a copper barrel connected to a Cryomech AL330 cryocooler, which has a machined helical groove surrounded by a copper jacket, through which the pre-cooled deuterium condenses. The lower extruder barrel is connected to a Cryomech GB-37 cryocooler to solidify the deuterium (at ?15 K) before it is forced through the extruder die. The die forms the extrusion to a 3 mm x 4 mm rectangular cross section. Design improvements have been made to improve the pre-cooler and liquefier heat exchangers, to limit the loss of extrusion through gaps in the screws. This paper will describe the design improvements for the next iteration of the extruder prototype.

Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Fehling, Dan T [ORNL; McGill, James M [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL; Leachman, J. W. [University of Wisconsin, Madison

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Results of the first two seasons of underwater surveys at Episkopi Bay and Akrotiri, Cyprus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the summers of 2003 and 2004, a small team of graduate students initiated an underwater archaeological survey off the coast of Cyprus as part of the University of Cincinnati excavations at Episkopi-Bamboula. With the support of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology (INA) at Texas A&M University and RPM Nautical Foundation, the project explored the seabed south and west of the Akrotiri Peninsula at Episkopi Bay. The overall aim of this ongoing diachronic survey is to determine the extent and nature of maritime contacts at Episkopi-Bamboula and its Greco-Roman successor, Kourion, from the Bronze Age through the Byzantine period. Efforts during these first two seasons concentrated on simple visual inspection of several promising areas near dangerous cliffs, offshore rocks and shallow reefs, as well as potential harbors and anchorages. The team recorded substantial pottery and anchor assemblages at Dreamer?s Bay, Cape Zevgari, and Avdimou Bay, including at least three shipwreck sites. Throughout the area, amphoras and anchors attest to varying levels of maritime activity over the past three millennia.The underwater material record reveals a modest level of Classical trade, followed by a respectable increase during the Hellenistic era. While very little material thus far can be attributed to the earlier Imperial centuries, the greatest quantities in terms of both individual sherds and coherent assemblages speaks strongly to intense trade during the Late Roman (Early Byzantine) period, from the fourth through the seventh century. Not surprisingly, this rapid floruit in maritime trade parallels the expansion of settlement throughout the island, including its eventual collapse in the middle of the seventh century.

Leidwanger, Justin Ryan

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Mechanisms of spray formation and combustion from a multi-hole injector with E85 and gasoline  

SciTech Connect

The spray formation and combustion characteristics of gasoline and E85 (85% ethanol, 15% gasoline) have been investigated using a multi-hole injector with asymmetric nozzle-hole arrangement. Experiments were carried out in a quiescent optical chamber using high-speed shadowgraphy (9 kHz) to characterise the spray sensitivity to both injector temperature and ambient pressure in the range of 20-120 C and 0.5, 1.0 bar. Spray-tip penetrations and 'umbrella' spray cone angles were calculated for all conditions. Phase Doppler Anemometry was also used to measure droplet sizes in the core of one of the spray plumes, 25 mm below the injector tip. To study the effect of fuel properties on vaporisation and mixture preparation under realistic operating conditions, a separate set of experiments was carried out in a direct-injection spark-ignition optical engine. The engine was run at 1500 RPM under cold and fully warmed-up conditions (20 C and 90 C) at part load and full load (0.5 and 1.0 bar intake pressure). Floodlit laser Mie-scattering images of the sprays on two orthogonal planes corresponding to the swirl and tumble planes of in-cylinder flow motion were acquired to study the full injection event and post-injection mixing stage. These were used to make comparisons with the static chamber sprays and to quantify the liquid-to-vapour phase evaporation process for both fuels by calculating the projected 'footprint' of the sprays at different conditions. Analysis of the macroscopic structure and turbulent primary break-up properties of the sprays was undertaken in light of jet exit conditions described in terms of non-dimensional numbers. The effects on stoichiometric combustion were investigated by imaging the natural flame chemiluminescence through the engine's piston crown (swirl plane) and by post-processing to derive flame growth rates and trajectories of flame motion. (author)

Aleiferis, P.G.; Serras-Pereira, J.; van Romunde, Z. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London (United Kingdom); Caine, J. [Ford Motor Company, Dunton Engineering Centre (United Kingdom); Wirth, M. [Ford Werke GmbH, Merkenich, Cologne (Germany)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

346

Particulate Characteristics for Varying Engine Operation in a Gasoline Spark Ignited, Direct Injection Engine  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is a detailed investigation of particulate sizing and number count from a direct-injection spark-ignited (DISI) engine at different operating conditions. The engine is a 549 [cc] single-cylinder, four valve engine with a flat-top piston, fueled by Tier II EEE. A baseline engine operating condition, with a low number of particulates, was established and repeatability at this condition was ascertained. This baseline condition is specified as 2000 rpm, 320 kPa IMEP, 280 [bTDC] end of injection (EOI), and 25 [bTDC] ignition timing. The particle size distributions were recorded for particle sizes between 7 and 289 [nm]. The baseline particle size distribution was relatively flat, around 1E6 [dN/dlogDp], for particle diameters between 7 and 100 [nm], before dropping off to decreasing numbers at larger diameters. Distributions resulting from a matrix of different engine conditions were recorded. These varied parameters include load, air-to-fuel ratio (A/F), spark timing, injection timing, fuel rail pressure, and oil and coolant temperatures. Most conditions resulted with uni-modal type distributions usually with an increase in magnitude of particles in comparison to the baseline, with the exception of lean operation with retarded ignition timing. Further investigation revealed high sensitivity of the particle number and size distribution to changes in the engine control parameters. There was also a high sensitivity of the particle size distributions to small variations in A/F, ignition timing, and EOI. Investigations revealed the possibility of emissions oxidation in the exhaust and engine combustion instability at later EOI timings which therefore ruled out late EOI as the benchmark condition. Attempts to develop this benchmark revealed engine sensitivity to A/F and ignition timing, especially at later EOI operation

Farron, Carrie; Matthias, Nick; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Mike; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun; Zelenyuk, Alla

2011-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

347

Development of a model to calculate mechanical specific energy for air hammer drilling systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Drilling for hydrocarbons is an expensive operation; consequently operators try to save costs by reducing the number of days spent during this operation. Drilling efficiently with the highest attainable rate of penetration is one of the ways drilling time could be reduced. Real-time monitoring of Mechanical Specific Energy will enable drilling engineers to detect when the optimum drilling rate for a given set of drilling parameters is not being achieved. Numerous works have been done on air hammers and rock Mechanical Specific Energy. Previous research has shown that Mechanical Specific Energy, which is a ratio that quantifies the input energy and Rate of Penetration (ROP) of a drilling system, is directly proportional to the rock compressive strength being drilled. The Mechanical Specific Energy model utilizes drilling parameters such as ROP, Weight on bit (WOB), RPM, torque, flow-rate, bottom-hole pressure, and bottom-hole temperature to show how effectively energy being put into the drill string is being converted to ROP at the bit. This research effort proposes a new model to calculate the Mechanical Specific Energy for air hammer drilling systems. A thermodynamic model for the air hammer from which the piston impact velocity and kinetic energy is obtained is presented. To be able to estimate the effective energy delivered to the rock by the hammer, the stress wave propagation model is used and factored into the Mechanical Specific Energy model. The Mechanical Specific Energy values obtained from the application of this model provide a qualitative indicator of formation pressure changes and a means for drilling engineers to detect when optimum drilling rate is not being achieved. It can be deduced from the model that the impact energy of the hammer is greatly affected by the pressure drop across the hammer and since the hammer accounts for about sixty percent of the energy required for destroying the rock, the ROP can be varied by varying the pressure drop across the hammer.

Okuchaba, Boma Jeremiah

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Design of high efficiency blowers for future aerosol applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High efficiency air blowers to meet future portable aerosol sampling applications were designed, fabricated, and evaluated. A Centrifugal blower was designed to achieve a flow rate of 100 L/min (1.67 x 10^-3 m^3/s) and a pressure rise of WC " 4 (1000 PA). Commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, FLUENT 6.1.22, was used extensively throughout the entire design cycle. The machine, Reynolds number (Re) , was around 10^5 suggesting a turbulent flow field. Renormalization Group (RNG) ?ºâ???µ turbulent model was used for FLUENT simulations. An existing design was scaled down to meet the design needs. Characteristic curves showing static pressure rise as a function of flow rate through the impeller were generated using FLUENT and these were validated through experiments. Experimentally measured efficiency (?·EXP) for the base-design was around 10%. This was attributed to the low efficiency of the D.C. motor used. CFD simulations, using the ?ºâ???µ turbulent model and standard wall function approach, over-predicted the pressure rise values and the percentage error was large. Enhanced wall function under-predicted the pressure rise but gave better agreement (less than 6% error) with experimental results. CFD predicted a blower scaled 70% in planar direction (XZ) and 28% in axial direction (Y) and running at 19200 rpm (70xz_28y@19.2k) as the most appropriate choice. The pressure rise is 1021 Pa at the design flow rate of 100 L/min. FLUENT predicts an efficiency value based on static head (?·FLU) as 53.3%. Efficiency value based on measured static pressure rise value and the electrical energy input to the motor (?·EXP) is 27.4%. This is almost a 2X improvement over the value that one gets with the hand held vacuum system blower.

Chadha, Raman

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Directionally Sensitive Neutron Detector For Homeland Security Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With an increase in the capabilities and sophistication of terrorist networks worldwide comes a corresponding increase in the probability of a radiological or nuclear device being detonated within the borders of the United States. One method to decrease the risk associated with this threat is to interdict the material during transport into the US. Current RPMS have limitations in their ability to detect shielded nuclear materials. It was proposed that directionally sensitive neutron detectors might be able to overcome many of these limitations. This thesis presents a method to create a directionally sensitive neutron detector using a unique characteristic of 10B. This characteristic is the Doppler broadening of the de-excitation gamma-ray from the 10B(n, alpha) reaction. Using conservation principles and the method of cone superposition, the mathematics for determining the incoming neutron direction vector from counts in a boron loaded cloud chamber and boron loaded semiconductor were derived. An external routine for MCNPX was developed to calculate the Doppler broaden de-excitation gamma-rays. The calculated spectrum of Doppler broadened de-excitation gamma-rays was then compared to measured and analytical spectrums and matched with a high degree of accuracy. MCNPX simulations were performed for both a prototype 10B loaded cloud chamber and prototype 10B loaded semiconductor detector. These simulations assessed the detectors' abilities to determine incoming neutron direction vectors using simulated particle reactant data. A sensitivity analysis was also performed by modifying the energy and direction vector of the simulated output data for 7Li* particles. Deviation coefficients showed a respective angular uncertainty of 1.86 degrees and 6.07 degrees for the boron loaded cloud chamber and a boron loaded semiconductor detectors. These capabilities were used to propose a possible RPM design that could be implemented.

Spence, Grant

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

On use of CO{sub 2} chemiluminescence for combustion metrics in natural gas fired reciprocating engines.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Flame chemiluminescence is widely acknowledged to be an indicator of heat release rate in premixed turbulent flames that are representative of gas turbine combustion. Though heat release rate is an important metric for evaluating combustion strategies in reciprocating engine systems, its correlation with flame chemiluminescence is not well studied. To address this gap an experimental study was carried out in a single-cylinder natural gas fired reciprocating engine that could simulate turbocharged conditions with exhaust gas recirculation. Crank angle resolved spectra (266-795 nm) of flame luminosity were measured for various operational conditions by varying the ignition timing for MBT conditions and by holding the speed at 1800 rpm and Brake Mean effective Pressure (BMEP) at 12 bar. The effect of dilution on CO*{sub 2}chemiluminescence intensities was studied, by varying the global equivalence ratio (0.6-1.0) and by varying the exhaust gas recirculation rate. It was attempted to relate the measured chemiluminescence intensities to thermodynamic metrics of importance to engine research -- in-cylinder bulk gas temperature and heat release rate (HRR) calculated from measured cylinder pressure signals. The peak of the measured CO*{sub 2} chemiluminescence intensities coincided with peak pressures within {+-}2 CAD for all test conditions. For each combustion cycle, the peaks of heat release rate, spectral intensity and temperature occurred in that sequence, well separated temporally. The peak heat release rates preceded the peak chemiluminescent emissions by 3.8-9.5 CAD, whereas the peak temperatures trailed by 5.8-15.6 CAD. Such a temporal separation precludes correlations on a crank-angle resolved basis. However, the peak cycle heat release rates and to a lesser extent the peak cycle temperatures correlated well with the chemiluminescent emission from CO*{sub 2}. Such observations point towards the potential use of flame chemiluminescence to monitor peak bulk gas temperatures as well as peak heat release rates in natural gas fired reciprocating engines.

Gupta, S. B.; Bihari, B.; Biruduganti, M.; Sekar, R.; Zigan, J. (Energy Systems); (Cummins Technical Center)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Thermodynamic restrictions on mechanosynthesis of strontium titanate  

SciTech Connect

Chemical potential phase stability diagrams were calculated from relevant thermodynamic properties and used to predict the thermodynamic driving force under prospective conditions of room temperature mechanosynthesis. One analysed the dependence of chemical potential diagrams on temperature and partial pressure of evolving gases such as oxygen or carbon dioxide, as expected on using strontium peroxide or strontium carbonate as precursor reactants for the alkali earth component. Thermodynamic calculations were also obtained for changes in titania precursor reactants, including thermodynamic predictions for reactivity of strontium carbonate with amorphous titania. Experimental evidence showed that strontium titanate can be obtained by mechanosynthesis of strontium carbonate+anatase mixtures, due to previous amorphization under high energy milling. Ability to perform mechanosynthesis with less energetic milling depends on the suitable choice of alternative precursor reactants, which meet the thermodynamic requirements without previous amorphization; this was demonstrated by mechanosynthesis from anatase+strontium peroxide mixtures. - Graphical abstract: X-Ray diffractograms of the starting TiO{sub 2} (anatase)+SrCO{sub 3} mixture and after mechanical activation at 650 rpm, for 1, 2, and 7 h. Different symbols are used to identify reflections ascribed to anatase (diamonds), SrCO{sub 3} (squares) and SrTiO{sub 3} (triangles). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prediction of thermodynamic driving force for room temperature mechanosynthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dependence of chemical potential diagrams on temperature and partial pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermodynamic calculations for changes in titania precursor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental support for thermodynamic predictions.

Monteiro, J.F. [Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Ferreira, A.A.L. [Instituto Politecnico de Viana do Castelo, 4900-347 Viana do Castelo (Portugal); Antunes, I. [Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Fagg, D.P., E-mail: duncan@ua.pt [Centro de Tecnologia Mecanica e Automacao, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Frade, J.R. [Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

352

Devices to improve the performance of a conventional two-stroke spark ignition engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents research efforts made in three different phases with the objective of improving the fuel economy of and reducing exhaust emissions from conventional, carbureted, two-stroke spark ignition (SI) engines, which are widely employed in two-wheel transportation in India. A review concerning the existing two-stroke engine technology for this application is included. In the first phase, a new scavenging system was developed and tested to reduce the loss of fresh charge through the exhaust port. In die second phase, the following measures were carried out to improve the combustion process: (1) using an in-cylinder catalyst, such as copper, chromium, and nickel, in the form of coating; (2) providing moderate thermal insulation in the combustion chamber, either by depositing thin ceramic material or by metal inserts; (3) developing a high-energy ignition system; and (4) employing high-octane fuel, such as methanol, ethanol, eucalyptus oil, and orange oil, as a blending agent with gasoline. Based on the effectiveness of the above measures, an optimized design was developed in the final phase to achieve improved performance. Test results indicate that with an optimized two-stroke SI engine, the maximum percentage improvement in brake thermal efficiency is about 31%, together with a reduction of 3400 ppm in hydrocarbons (HC) and 3% by volume of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions over the normal engine (at 3 kW, 3000 rpm). Higher cylinder peak pressures (3-5 bar), lower ignition delay (2-4{degrees}CA){degrees} and shorter combustion duration (4-10 {degrees}CA) are obtained. The knock-limited power output is also enhanced by 12.7% at a high compression ratio (CR) of 9:1. The proposed modifications in the optimized design are simple, low-cost and easy to adopt for both production and existing engines.

Poola, R.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nagalingam, B.; Gopalakrishnan, K.V. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Biological conversion of synthesis gas. [Quarterly] project status report, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The anaerobic, photosynthetic bacterium Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum is able to convert H{sub 2}S and COS in synthesis gas to elemental sulfur. The bacterium grows on CO{sub 2} as its carbon source at 30{degrees}C. In the absence of sulfide, the formed elemental sulfur is converted to sulfate. Thus, bioreactor designs must incorporate sulfur removal as an integral part of the bioprocess. In this initial study, C. thiosulfatophilum was used to convert H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in a continuous stirred tank reactor with continuous gas and liquid feed. Sulfur removal was not part of this initial system design, but will be an added feature in future work. The gas used in this study contained 2.52 percent H{sub 2}S, 10.00 percent CO{sub 2}, 14.99 percent CH{sub 4} and 72.49 percent He. The liquid flow rate to the 1380 mL reactor volume ranged from 10.8--23.6 mL/min and was a variable in the study. The initial gas flow rate was 11.6 standard mL/min, although it was also changed twice during the study. The temperature was maintained at 31{degrees}C and the agitation rate was held at 200 rpm in the Bioflo reactor. Cell density was monitored by the chlorophyl method and gas composition was monitored by gas-solid chromatography. Light at 2200 lux was supplied using two 40W tungsten light bulbs on the outside of the glass reactor vessel.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Comparison of soy protein concentrates produced by membrane filtration and acid precipitation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The recovery of proteins using ultrafiltration (UF) process is an attractive alternative compared to conventional acid precipitation method. The mild processing condition, which leads to less protein denaturation, may be one of major virtues of this method. This research was directed to identify such assumptions of the products. Three soy protein concentrates were obtained in this study. Full-fat soybean flour and hexane-defatted soybean flour were dispersed into distilled water (1:8) at 60?C, respectively. A series of operations including pH adjustment (8.0), agitation (250 rpm, 30 min), sonication (40 dB, 20 min), homogenization (3 min), and centrifugation (3,000 x g, 15 min) were followed. For the membrane processing, the ultrafiltration cartridge used molecular weight cut-off 100,000 daltons. Acid-precipitated protein (at pH 4.5) was produced from hexane-defatted soybean flour following the identical procedures as above. Protein content of the membrane-processed product from full-fat soybean flour was 63.5% and that of the acid precipitated product was 71.9%. All samples were comparable in their functional properties. Nitrogen solubility at pH 7.0 was exhibited better in the protein produced by membrane filtration than the protein produced by acid precipitation due to protein denaturation. Also the membrane-processed soy protein showed good heat coagulation, emulsifying stability, and foaming stability. Amino acid patterns were similar to the typical one of soy proteins. However, relatively low lysine, threonine and valine contents in the acid-precipitated protein were noteworthy. The sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns were almost comparable among samples. In appearance, the acid-precipitated protein was light and slightly greenish tint.

Kim, Hyun Jung

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

A Rotating Electrode System for the Generation of Metal Alloy Microspheres  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TerraPower LLC is designing a fast breed and burn reactor intended to operate for up to 40 years without refueling, designated as the Travelling Wave Reactor (TWR). Various U-Zr alloy fuel designs have been proposed for the TWR that may require a powder feed for fabrication. A simple and economic option for laboratory scale powder production is the Rotating Electrode Process (REP), which produces microsphere shaped powder by melting the tip of a rotating bar with an electric arc. In order to fully characterize this process for various U-Zr alloys and provide the feed material for testing fabrication techniques, a Rotating Electrode System (RES) was designed and built. The RES is largely based on a combination of two designs; an early REP system developed by Starmet Corporation in the 19xxa and a later design optimized for U-Mo powder production by Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The RES designed for this work was improved based on input from vendors specializing in their respective areas of expertise and is capable of atomizing up to a 1.26 cm diameter metal alloy rod at 40,000 RPM. Every component of the machine can be disassembled and transferred through a 35.56 cm (14 in) diameter air lock of a glovebox so that it can operate in a controlled environment. The RES was tested by atomizing various diameter copper rods to prove system functionality. The tests were carried out in air using an argon cover gas in the powder collection chamber, known as the catch pan to limit oxidation rates of the newly generated microspheres. The powder produced showed strong sphericity ranging from 50 m to 500 m in diameter. Problems and areas of concern that were encountered during operation have been addressed so that the RES can be further optimized to better atomize U-Zr alloys once transferred into the glovebox.

Thompson, Chad 1984-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston/ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and emissions. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis, are being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston/ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrated the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Various low-friction strategies and ring-design concepts have been explored, and engine experiments have been done on a full-scale Waukesha VGF F18 in-line 6 cylinder power generation engine rated at 370 kW at 1800 rpm. Current accomplishments include designing and testing ring-packs using a subtle top-compression-ring profile (skewed barrel design), lowering the tension of the oil-control ring, employing a negative twist to the scraper ring to control oil consumption. Initial test data indicate that piston ring-pack friction was reduced by 35% by lowering the oil-control ring tension alone, which corresponds to a 1.5% improvement in fuel efficiency. Although small in magnitude, this improvement represents a first step towards anticipated aggregate improvements from other strategies. Other ring-pack design strategies to lower friction have been identified, including reduced axial distance between the top two rings, tilted top-ring groove. Some of these configurations have been tested and some await further evaluation. Colorado State University performed the tests and Waukesha Engine Dresser, Inc. provided technical support. Key elements of the continuing work include optimizing the engine piston design, application of surface and material developments in conjunction with improved lubricant properties, system modeling and analysis, and continued technology demonstration in an actual full-sized reciprocating natural-gas engine.

Victor W. Wong; Tian Tian; Grant Smedley; Jeffrey Jocsak

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

357

Optimization of Operating Parameters for Minimum Mechanical Specific Energy in Drilling  

SciTech Connect

Efficiency in drilling is measured by Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE). MSE is the measure of the amount of energy input required to remove a unit volume of rock, expressed in units of energy input divided by volume removed. It can be expressed mathematically in terms of controllable parameters; Weight on Bit, Torque, Rate of Penetration, and RPM. It is well documented that minimizing MSE by optimizing controllable factors results in maximum Rate of Penetration. Current methods for computing MSE make it possible to minimize MSE in the field only through a trial-and-error process. This work makes it possible to compute the optimum drilling parameters that result in minimum MSE. The parameters that have been traditionally used to compute MSE are interdependent. Mathematical relationships between the parameters were established, and the conventional MSE equation was rewritten in terms of a single parameter, Weight on Bit, establishing a form that can be minimized mathematically. Once the optimum Weight on Bit was determined, the interdependent relationship that Weight on Bit has with Torque and Penetration per Revolution was used to determine optimum values for those parameters for a given drilling situation. The improved method was validated through laboratory experimentation and analysis of published data. Two rock types were subjected to four treatments each, and drilled in a controlled laboratory environment. The method was applied in each case, and the optimum parameters for minimum MSE were computed. The method demonstrated an accurate means to determine optimum drilling parameters of Weight on Bit, Torque, and Penetration per Revolution. A unique application of micro-cracking is also presented, which demonstrates that rock failure ahead of the bit is related to axial force more than to rotation speed.

Hamrick, Todd

2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

358

Design and Analysis of a Test Rig for Modeling the Bit/Formation Interface in Petroleum Drilling Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Equipment failure and well deviations are prevailing contributors to production delays within the petroleum industry. Particular monetary focus is given to the drilling operations of wells to overcome these deficits, in order to extract natural resources as efficiently, and as safely, as possible. The research presented here focuses on minimizing vibrations of the drill string near the bottom-hole assembly (BHA) by identifying the cause of external forcing on the drillstring in vertical and horizontal wells and measuring the effects of various factors on the stability of perturbations on the system. A test rig concept has been developed to accurately measure the interaction forces and torques between the bit, formation and fluids during drilling in order to clearly define a bit/formation interface law (BFIL) for the purpose vibrational analysis. As a secondary function, the rig will be able to measure the potential inputs to a drilling simulation code that can be used to model drillstring vibrations. All notable quantities will be measured including torque on bit (TOB), weight on bit (WOB), lateral impact loads (LIL), formation stiffness, bit specific properties, fluid damping coefficients and rate of penetration (ROP). The conceptual design has been analyzed and refined, in detail, to verify its operational integrity and range of measurement error. The operational envelope of the rig is such that a drill bit of up to 8 inches in diameter can be effectively tested at desired operational parameters (WOB: 0-55,000 lbf, RPM: 60-200) with various rock formations and multiple fluid types. Future use and design possibilities are also discussed to enhance the functionality of the rig and the potential for further research in the area of oil and gas drilling and vibrational modeling.

Wilson, Joshua Kyle

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Patient training in respiratory-gated radiotherapy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Respiratory gating is used to counter the effects of organ motion during radiotherapy for chest tumors. The effects of variations in patient breathing patterns during a single treatment and from day to day are unknown. We evaluated the feasibility of using patient training tools and their effect on the breathing cycle regularity and reproducibility during respiratory-gated radiotherapy. To monitor respiratory patterns, we used a component of a commercially available respiratory-gated radiotherapy system (Real Time Position Management (RPM) System, Varian Oncology Systems, Palo Alto, CA 94304). This passive marker video tracking system consists of reflective markers placed on the patient's chest or abdomen, which are detected by a wall-mounted video camera. Software installed on a PC interfaced to this camera detects the marker motion digitally and records it. The marker position as a function of time serves as the motion signal that may be used to trigger imaging or treatment. The training tools used were audio prompting and visual feedback, with free breathing as a control. The audio prompting method used instructions to 'breathe in' or 'breathe out' at periodic intervals deduced from patients' own breathing patterns. In the visual feedback method, patients were shown a real-time trace of their abdominal wall motion due to breathing. Using this, they were asked to maintain a constant amplitude of motion. Motion traces of the abdominal wall were recorded for each patient for various maneuvers. Free breathing showed a variable amplitude and frequency. Audio prompting resulted in a reproducible frequency; however, the variability and the magnitude of amplitude increased. Visual feedback gave a better control over the amplitude but showed minor variations in frequency. We concluded that training improves the reproducibility of amplitude and frequency of patient breathing cycles. This may increase the accuracy of respiratory-gated radiation therapy.

Kini, Vijay R.; Vedam, Subrahmanya S.; Keall, Paul J.; Patil, Sumukh; Chen, Clayton; Mohan, Radhe

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

360

High efficiency shale oil recovery. Final report, January 1, 1992--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Adams Counter-current shale oil recovery process is an improved retorting technology enabling highly efficient oil recovery from oil shale. The high efficiency results primarily from the following facts: it (1) recovers the ash heat to preheat the feed ore; (2) burns and uses the coke energy and (3) operates without using hot ash recycling as a heat carrier. This latter feature is doubly important, contributing to high oil yield and to the generation of highly reactive coke which can be burned below 1000{degree}F, avoiding the endothermal calcination of the mineral carbonates and helping to clean the ash of contaminants. This project demonstrates that oil shale can be retorted under the specified conditions and achieve the objectives of very high efficiency. The project accomplished the following: 51 quartz sand rotary kiln runs provided significant engineering data. A heat transfer value of 107 Btu/hr/ft{sup 2}/{degree}F was obtained at optimum RPM; eight oil shale samples were obtained and preliminary shakedown runs were made. Five of the samples were selected for kiln processing and twelve pyrolysis runs were made on the five different oil shales;average off recovery was 109% of Fisher Assay; retorted residue from all five samples was oxidized at approximately 1000{degree}F. The ash from these runs was oxidized to varying extents, depending on the oil shale and oxidizing temperatures. While 1000{degree}F is adequately hot to provide process heat from coke combustion for these ores, some Eastern oil shales, without mineral carbonates, may be oxidized at higher temperatures, perhaps 100--300 degrees hotter, to obtain a more complete oxidation and utilization of the coke.

Adams, D.C.

1993-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

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361

Soot and liquid-phase fuel distributions in a newly designed optically accessible D.I. diesel engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two-dimensional (2-D) laser-sheet imaging has been used to examine the soot and liquid-phase fuel distributions in a newly designed, optically accessible, direct-injection Diesel engine of the heavy-duty size class. The design of this engine preserves the intake port geometry and basic dimensions of a Cummins N-series production engine. It also includes several unique features to provide considerable optical access. Liquid-phase fuel and soot distribution studies were conducted at a medium speed (1,200 rpm) using a Cummins closed-nozzle fuel injector. The scattering was used to obtain planar images of the liquid-phase fuel distribution. These images show that the leading edge of the liquid-phase portion of the fuel jet reaches a maximum length of 24 mm, which is about half the combustion bowl radius for this engine. Beyond this point virtually all the fuel has vaporized. Soot distribution measurements were made at a high load condition using three imaging diagnostics: natural flame luminosity, 2-D laser-induced incandescence, and 2-D elastic scattering. This investigation showed that the soot distribution in the combusting fuel jet develops through three stages. First, just after the onset of luminous combustion, soot particles are small and nearly uniformly distributed throughout the luminous region of the fuel jet. Second, after about 2 crank angle degrees a pattern develops of a higher soot concentration of larger sized particles in the head vortex region of the jet and a lower soot concentration of smaller sized particles upstream toward the injector. Third, after fuel injection ends, both the soot concentration and soot particle size increase rapidly in the upstream portion of the fuel jet.

Dec, J.E. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Espey, C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

In-Cylinder Fuel Blending of Gasoline/Diesel for Improved Efficiency and Lowest Possible Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In-cylinder fuel blending of gasoline/diesel fuel is investigated on a multi-cylinder light-duty diesel engine as a potential strategy to control in-cylinder fuel reactivity for improved efficiency and lowest possible emissions. This approach was developed and demonstrated at the University of Wisconsin through modeling and single-cylinder engine experiments. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential and challenges of this method on a multi-cylinder engine. More specifically, the effect of cylinder-to-cylinder imbalances, heat rejection, and in-cylinder charge motion as well as the potential limitations imposed by real-world turbo-machinery were investigated on a 1.9-liter four-cylinder engine. This investigation focused on one engine condition, 2300 rpm, 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). Gasoline was introduced with a port-fuel-injection system. Parameter sweeps included gasoline-to-diesel fuel ratio, intake air mixture temperature, in-cylinder swirl number, and diesel start-of-injection phasing. In addition, engine parameters were trimmed for each cylinder to balance the combustion process for maximum efficiency and lowest emissions. An important observation was the strong influence of intake charge temperature on cylinder pressure rise rate. Experiments were able to show increased thermal efficiency along with dramatic decreases in oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). However, indicated thermal efficiency for the multi-cylinder experiments were less than expected based on modeling and single-cylinder results. The lower indicated thermal efficiency is believed to be due increased heat transfer as compared to the model predictions and suggest a need for improved cylinder-to-cylinder control and increased heat transfer control.

Curran, Scott [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Kokjohn, Sage [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Reitz, Rolf [University of Wisconsin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Modifications to, and Vibration Analysis of Tank 7 Slurry Pumps, F Tank Farm  

SciTech Connect

Slurry pumps have demonstrated short life spans when operated in nuclear waste tanks. Their life approximates one thousand hours or approximately 42 days of continuous operation, evidenced by past performance in H-Area and F-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Several investigations over the past six years have isolated the most significant reliability problems. These problems are seal and bearing failures caused by the vibrations of the long drive shafts in the pump, manufacturing tolerance accumulations, failures caused by material incompatibility between the waste and the lowest process bearing that is exposed to the waste, and vibrations which occur when the pump operates at critical speeds. Only vibration and material problems were corrected. Potential bearing and seal degradation still exists for those pumps with a critical speed near the operating speed. Bearing damage can be expected below 700 rpm. The pumps are used to mix or slurry nuclear waste products contained in waste storage tanks prior to transferring the tank contents for further processing. In particular, Lawrence Pumps, Inc. slurry pumps are installed on Tank 7 in F Tank Farm. Appendix A provides the initial recommendations, and further states that this follow up report would provide detailed descriptions of the pump components, failure mechanisms, and corrective actions which include tilt pad bearings, a Stellite process bearing, and modified split shaft retainers. By testing the pumps in a non-radioactive test facility, these corrections have been shown to significantly decrease the vibrations associated with bearing and seal failures, and consequently are expected to improve reliability.

Lieshear, R.A.

2002-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

364

Reducing the moisture content of clean coals  

SciTech Connect

Coal moisture content can profoundly effect the cost of burning coal in utility boilers. Because of the large effect of coal moisture, the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO) contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute to investigate advanced coal dewatering methods at its Coal Quality Development Center. This report contains the test result on the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge, the second of four devices to be tested. The high-G solid-bowl centrifuge removes water for coal by spinning the coal/water mixture rapidly in a rotating bowl. This causes the coal to cling to the sides of the bowl where it can be removed, leaving the water behind. Testing was performed at the CQDC to evaluate the effect of four operating variables (G-ratio, feed solids concentration, dry solids feed rate, and differential RPM) on the performance of the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge. Two centrifuges of different bowl diameter were tested to establish the effect of scale-up of centrifuge performance. Testing of the two centrifuges occurred from 1985 through 1987. CQDC engineers performed 32 tests on the smaller of the two centrifuges, and 47 tests on the larger. Equations that predict the performance of the two centrifuges for solids recovery, moisture content of the produced coal, and motor torque were obtained. The equations predict the observed data well. Traditional techniques of establishing the performance of centrifuge of different scale did not work well with the two centrifuges, probably because of the large range of G-ratios used in the testing. Cost of operating a commercial size bank of centrifuges is approximately $1.72 per ton of clean coal. This compares well with thermal drying, which costs $1.82 per ton of clean coal.

Kehoe, D. (CQ, Inc., Homer City, PA (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Experimental Investigation of Fuel-Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion Mode in a Multi-Cylinder, Light-Duty Diesel Engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An experimental study was performed to provide the combustion and emission characteristics resulting from fuel-reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion mode utilizing dual-fuel approach in a light-duty, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel injection of gasoline before intake valve opening (IVO) and early-cycle, direct injection of diesel fuel was used as the charge preparation and fuel blending strategy. In order to achieve the desired auto-ignition quality through the stratification of the fuel-air equivalence ratio ( ), blends of commercially available gasoline and diesel fuel were used. Engine experiments were performed at an engine speed of 2300rpm and an engine load of 4.3bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). It was found that significant reduction in both nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was realized successfully through the RCCI combustion mode even without applying exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). However, high carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were observed. The low combustion gas temperature during the expansion and exhaust processes seemed to be the dominant source of high CO emissions in the RCCI combustion mode. The high HC emissions during the RCCI combustion mode could be due to the increased combustion quenching layer thickness as well as the -stratification at the periphery of the combustion chamber. The slightly higher brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of the RCCI combustion mode was observed than the other combustion modes, such as the conventional diesel combustion (CDC) mode, and single-fuel, premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion mode. The parametric study of the RCCI combustion mode revealed that the combustion phasing and/or the peak cylinder pressure rise rate of the RCCI combustion mode could be controlled by several physical parameters premixed ratio (rp), intake swirl intensity, and start of injection (SOI) timing of directly injected fuel unlike other low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies.

Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Analytical and experimental investigations of hybrid air foil bearings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air foil bearings offer several advantages over oil-lubricated bearings in high speed micro-turbomachinery. With no contact between the rotor and bearings, the air foil bearings have higher service life and consequently lesser standstills between operations. However, the foil bearings have reliability issues that come from dry rubbing during start-up/shutdown and limited heat dissipation capability. Regardless of lubricating media, the hydrodynamic pressure generated provides only load support but no dissipation of parasitic energy generated by viscous drag and the heat conducted from other parts of the machine through the rotor. The present study is a continuation of the work on hybrid air foil bearings (HAFB) developed by Kim and Park, where they present a new concept of air foil bearing combining hydrodynamic air foil bearing with hydrostatic lift. Their experimental studies show that HAFB has superior performance compared to its hydrodynamic counterpart in load capacity and cooling performance. In this article, the bearing stiffness and damping coefficients of HAFB are calculated using a linear perturbation method developed for HAFB. The study focuses on circular HAFB with a single continuous top foil supported by bump foil. The research also includes a parametric study which outlines the dependence of the stiffness and damping coefficients on various design parameters like supply pressure ( P s ), feed parameter ( ? s ), excitation frequency (v), and bearing number (?). Furthermore the present research also includes experimental investigation of HAFB with bump foil as compliant structure. In the first phase of the experimental research a high speed test facility was designed and fabricated. The facility has the capability of running up to 90,000 RPM and has an electric motor drive. This article gives detailed description of this test rig and also includes data acquired during the commissioning phase of the test rig. The test rig was then used to measure the load capacity of HAFB.

Kumar, Manish

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

The Effects of Fuel Characteristics on Stoichiometric Spark-Assisted HCCI  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The characteristics of fuel lean HCCI operation using a variety of fuels are well known and have been demonstrated using different engine concepts in the past. In contrast, stoichiometric operation of HCCI is less well documented. Recent studies have highlighted the benefits of operating at a stoichiometric condition in terms of load expansion combined with the applicability of three way catalyst technology to reduce NOx emissions. In this study the characterization of stoichiometric HCCI using gasoline-like fuels was undertaken. The fuels investigated are gasoline, a 50 vol% blend of iso-butanol and gasoline (IB50), and an 85% vol blend of ethanol and gasoline (E85). A single cylinder engine operating with direct injection and spark assist combined with a fully variable hydraulic valve actuation system allowed a wide range of operating parameters to be studied. This included the effects of negative valve overlap duration, intake valve closing and valve lift. Furthermore, the interaction between fuel injection timing and spark and how they can affect the required valve timing to achieve stoichiometric HCCI combustion are also studied. A comprehensive combustion and emissions analysis is conducted using gasoline, IB50 and E85 at an engine speed of 2000rpm over a range of operating loads. The resultant fuel properties which differed in terms of octane rating, fuel oxygenation and heat of vaporization show that stoichiometric HCCI is possible using a range of fuels but that these fuel characteristics do have some effect on the combustion characteristics. How these fuel properties can enable an increased engine operating envelope to be achieved, in comparison with both fuel lean HCCI and conventional spark ignited combustion, is then discussed.

Weall, Adam J [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Self propelled drilling rig starts offshore exploration  

SciTech Connect

Ocean Drilling and Exploration Co. recently commissioned its new $12 million self-propelled, semisubmersible drilling rig, Ocean Prospector, at Mitsubishi Shipyard, Japan, where the rig was built. Initial trail runs completed adjacent to the shipyard indicated that the ship has a speed of 7 kn ahead and 3 kn astern. Steering also is reported to be excellent. The rig has a minimum turning radius of approx. 2 barge lengths and shows instant response. This rig is powered by 4 Fairbanks Morse, 10-cylinder opposed piston, model 38D8-1/8 diesel engines. Each engine is rated at 1,600 hp at 720 rpm and they drive eight 1,600 kw, traction type D-C generators and two 1,000 kw A-C generators. The rated operating depth of the unit afloat is 600 ft of water. The overall length of Ocean Prospector is just over 344 ft, with the beam measuring 263-1/2 ft. During transit, when the rig will be completely deballasted, it will have a draft of approx. 20 ft. When it reaches the drilling site, ballast water will be pumped into the 18 ballast tanks until the draft is increased to 70 ft. At this point, the underside of the main deck will be 50 ft above the mean surface of the sea. Drilling operations will be conducted while the rig is at the 70 ft draft. The mooring system will consist of eight 2-3/4 in. chains, each measuring 3,300 ft in length and connected to a 15-ton anchor.

1971-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Development of a High Pressure/High Temperature Down-hole Turbine Generator  

SciTech Connect

As oil & natural gas deposits become more difficult to obtain by conventional means, wells must extend to deeper more heat-intensive environments. The technology of the drilling equipment required to reach these depths has exceeded the availability of electrical power sources needed to operate these tools. Historically, logging while drilling (LWD) and measure while drilling (MWD) devices utilized a wireline to supply power and communication from the operator to the tool. Lithium ion batteries were used in scenarios where a wireline was not an option, as it complicated operations. In current downhole applications, lithium ion battery (LIB) packs are the primary source for electrical power. LIB technology has been proven to supply reliable downhole power at temperatures up to 175 C. Many of the deeper well s reach ambient temperatures above 200 C, creating an environment too harsh for current LIB technology. Other downfalls of LIB technology are cost, limitations on charge cycles, disposal issues and possible safety hazards including explosions and fires. Downhole power generation can also be achieved by utilizing drilling fluid flow and converting it to rotational motion. This rotational motion can be harnessed to spin magnets around a series of windings to produce power proportional to the rpm experienced by the driven assembly. These generators are, in most instances, driven by turbine blades or moyno-based drilling fluid pumps. To date, no commercially available downhole power generators are capable of operating at ambient temperatures of 250 C. A downhole power g enerator capable of operation in a 250 C and 20,000 psi ambient environment will be an absolute necessity in the future. Dexter Magnetic Technologies High-Pressure High-Temperature (HPHT) Downhole Turbine Generator is capable of operating at 250 C and 20, 000 psi, but has not been tested in an actual drilling application. The technology exists, but to date no company has been willing to test the tool.

Ben Plamp

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

370

Report on Toyota Prius Motor Thermal Management  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the current hybrid vehicle market, the Toyota Prius drive system is considered the leader in electrical, mechanical, and manufacturing innovations. It is a significant accomplishment that Toyota is able to manufacture and sell the vehicle for a profit. The Toyota Prius traction motor design approach for reducing manufacturing costs and the motor s torque capability have been studied and tested. The findings were presented in two previous Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reports. The conclusions from this report reveal, through temperature rise tests, that the 2004 Toyota Prius (THSII) motor is applicable only for use in a hybrid automobile. It would be significantly undersized if used in a fuel cell vehicle application. The power rating of the Prius motor is limited by the permissible temperature rise of the motor winding (170 C) and the motor cooling oil (158 C). The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. They are approximately 15 kW with 105 C coolant and 21 kW with 35 C coolant. These continuous ratings are much lower than the 30 kW specified as a technical motor target of the U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR Program. All tests were conducted at about 24 C ambient temperature. The load angle of each torque adjustment was monitored to prevent a sudden stop of the motor if the peak torque were exceeded, as indicated by the load angle in the region greater than 90 electrical degrees. For peak power with 400 Nm torque at 1200 rpm, the permissible running time depends upon the initial winding temperature condition. The projected rate of winding temperature rise is approximately 2.1 C/sec. The cooling-oil temperature does not change much during short peak power operation. For light and medium load situations, the efficiency varies from 80% to above 90%, and the power factor varies from 70% to above 90%, depending on the load and speed. When the motor is loaded heavily near the peak-torque (400-Nm) region, the efficiency goes down to the 40-50% range, and the power factor is nearly 100%. The efficiency is not a major concern at the high-torque region. The water-ethylene-glycol heat exchanger attached to the motor is small. During continuous operation, it dissipates about 76% of the total motor heat loss with 35 C coolant. The heat exchanger is less effective when the coolant temperature increases. With 75 C coolant, the heat exchanger dissipates about 38% of the motor heat. When the coolant temperature is 105 C, the heat exchanger not only stops cooling the motor but also adds heat to the large motor housing that acts as an air-cooled heat sink. From start to the base speed, 400 Nms of torque can be produced by the Prius motor with a reasonably low stator current. However, the permissible running time of the motor depends on the load drawn from the motor and the coolant temperature. In the Toyota Prius hybrid configuration, if the motor gets too hot and cannot keep running, the load can be shifted back to the engine. The motor acts to improve the system efficiency without being overly designed. A detailed thermal model was developed to help predict the temperature levels in key motor components. The model was calibrated and compared with the experimentally measured temperatures. Very good agreement was obtained between model and experiment. This model can now be used to predict the temperature of key motor components at a variety of operating conditions and to evaluate the thermal characteristics of new motor designs. It should be pointed out that a fuel-cell motor does not have an engine to fall back on to provide the needed wheel power. Therefore, the design philosophy of a fuel-cell motor is very different from that of a hybrid Prius motor. Further thermal management studies in the high-speed region of the Prius motor, fed by its inverter, are planned.

Hsu, J.S.

2005-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

371

Sulfur Tolerant Pd/Cu and Pd/Au Alloy Membranes for H2 Separation with High Pressure CO2 for Sequestration  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effect of H{sub 2}S poisoning on Pd, Pd/Cu, and Pd/Au alloy composite membranes prepared by the electroless deposition method on porous Inconel supports was investigated to provide a fundamental understanding of the durability and preparation of sulfur tolerant membranes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies showed that the exposure of pure Pd to 50 ppm H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} mixtures caused bulk sulfide formation at lower temperatures and surface sulfide formation at higher temperatures. Lower temperatures, longer exposure times, and higher H{sub 2}S concentrations resulted in a higher degree of sulfidation. In a Pd membrane, the bulk sulfide formation caused a drastic irrecoverable H{sub 2} permeance decline and an irreparable loss in selectivity. Pd/Cu and Pd/Au alloy membranes exhibited permeance declines due to surface sulfide formation upon exposure to 50 ppm H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} gas mixtures. However in contrast to the pure Pd membrane, the permeances of the Pd/Cu and Pd/Au alloy membranes were mostly recovered in pure H{sub 2} and the selectivity of the Pd alloy layers remained essentially intact throughout the characterization in H{sub 2}, He and H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} mixtures which lasted several thousand hours. The amount of irreversible sulfur poisoning decreased with increasing temperature due to the exothermicity of H{sub 2}S adsorption. Longer exposure times increased the amount of irreversible poisoning of the Pd/Cu membrane but not the Pd/Au membrane. Pd/Au coupon studies of the galvanic displacement method showed that higher Au{sup 3+} concentrations, lower pH values, higher bath temperatures and stirring the bath at a rate of 200 rpm yielded faster displacement rates, more uniform depositions, and a higher Au content within the layers. While 400 C was found to be sufficient to form a Pd/Au alloy on the surface, high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) studies showed that even after annealing between 500-600 C, the Pd/Cu alloys could have part or all of the surface in the less sulfur resistant {beta} phase.

Yi Hua Ma; Natalie Pomerantz; Chao-Huang Chen

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

372

Minimizing the production of unwanted activation products in the AR40/AR39 dating method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A fast flux irradiation device (FFID) was developed for the Texas A&M Nuclear Science Center's one-megawatt (I-MW) TRIGA reactor, primarily to service the fields of geochronology and thermochronology with unprecedented irradiation characteristics for the Ar40/Ar39 dating technique. The FFID consisted of a dry vertical tube port that extended from the reactor core to the reactor support bridge. A boron-shielded rotisserie, inserted into the vertical tube port, was used to house the samples in the core region, being stabilized radially from below the rotisserie by a bayonet and above the rotisserie by polyethylene plugs. The polyethylene plugs also served as shields to minimize the gamma and neutron dose rates at the reactor bridge level. The rotisserie employs a 0.71 rpm motor for continual rotation during irradiation. The FFID was intended to be operated at full reactor power (one-megawatt thermal). The first four irradiations revealed that the FFID provided nearly ideal irradiation characteristics for the dating technique. The extent of the thermal neutron interference reaction K40(n,p)Ar4O was reduced to levels too small to be measured by the existing standards (K salts and K glass) used by the experimenters. Additionally, the boron shield reduced the quantities of thermal neutron-induced activation products by two to three order s of magnitude. This reduction allowed decay periods to be decreased from several weeks to as little as three days. The radial stability provided by the FFID reduced circumferential flux gradients to below 0.4%, far less than the 2.4% to 3.4% observed at other reactor facilities. The one major drawback in the FFID design was the evidence of temperatures in the sample region in excess of 600' F, indicated by the melting of cadmium metal during characterization. This problem could be reduced by either decreasing the reaction rate (operating at a lower reactor power), or instituting a heat removal system involving the continual flow of a gas that does not easily activate.

Brightwell, Michael Shane

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

The viscosity plate thrust bearing  

SciTech Connect

The results of tests on a viscosity plate thrust bearing indicated that serious differences existed between theoretical predictions by existing methods and experimental values. In particular the load carrying capacity at any speed and plate gap was much overestimated by calculation, and the variation of load with speed, at constant gap, appeared to be quite different in theory and experiment. While the theoretical load speed curve departed by only a small amount from linearity, the experimental curves indicated a definite flattening out at high speed, and corresponding to a given gap, a maximum load was reached and maintained independent of speed. It is the aim of this investigation to find the reason for this flattening out of the curve, and to indicate why it is not shown by the theoretical methods. The aerodynamic theory of viscosity plate bearings is considered, and taking into account as many aerodynamic effects as possible, a new method of performance prediction is developed. Results by this method agree quite well with those of existing methods, and therefore the effect which is being looked for cannot be an aerodynamic one already included in the method. Other possible explanations are considered including centrifugal action on the gas, heating up the gas due to frictional losses, a comparison of the plate gap with the mean free path of molecules of the gas, and distortion of the grooved plate under pressure load. Of these it is shown that the first three are not important, but that with the type of plate mounting used in the experiments very serious deflections of the stationary plate can be expected at high speed. At 21,000 rpm and a plate gap of 2.0 x 10/sup -4/ in. and with the theoretically predicted load, the plate deflection reaches a maximum of about five times the nominal gap and moreover varies considerably with radius and around the disc. Because of these distortions the theoretical methods discussed are not applicable to the experimental conditions and the calculated and measured results cannot be compared. It will be seen that constant plate clearance is not involved in the theories in a simple manner and a method which took into account both aerodynamic and elastic effects would be most complex. Although it has not been demonstrated that these additional elastic effects would lead to the flattening out of the calculated curves, it seems most likey that they are responsible for the discrepancies between the theoretical and experimental results. This could be most easily shown by tests on a similar bearing with the grooved plate considerably thicker to increase its stiffness. (auth)

Wordsworth, D.V.

1958-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

MHK Technologies/Kinetic Hydropower System KHPS | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kinetic Hydropower System KHPS Kinetic Hydropower System KHPS < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Verdantpower.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Verdant Power Project(s) where this technology is utilized *MHK Projects/Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy RITE *MHK Projects/Cornwall Ontario River Energy CORE Technology Resource Click here Current/Tidal Technology Type Click here Axial Flow Turbine Technology Readiness Level Click here TRL 7/8: Open Water System Testing & Demonstration & Operation Technology Description Verdant Power's central technology is the Kinetic Hydropower System (KHPS), a water-to-wire system that consists of three main components: 1) KHPS TURBINE: a three-bladed horizontal-axis turbine with four major assemblies: a) Composite rotor with 3-fixed blades that rotate at the relatively slow and constant speed of approximately 40 RPM, with tip-speeds of 35 feet per second. This is well below normal water vessel propeller speeds and conventional hydropower turbine blade speeds. b) Sealed nacelle, pylon and passive yaw mechanism that is hydrodynamically designed to allow the turbine to self-rotate into the prevailing current (like a weathervane) so that the blades are optimally aligned to generate energy. c) Custom-designed drivetrain unit (with induction generator) enclosed within the nacelle that integrates the bearing housing with a special long-life planetary gearbox, with mechanical shaft seals and a minimum of sealed lubricants. d) Streambed mounting system that can vary depending on site conditions as a single drilled monopile, a single gravity-based structure, or a gravity-based triframe mount that supports 3 turbines. 2) UNDERWATER CABLING: low-voltage shielded cable of short distance; and shoreline switchgear vaults, control room, and interconnection point(s). 3) APPURTENANT FACILITIES: for navigation safety, such as Public Aides to Navigation (PATON) buoys and lighted warning signs, as well as instrumentation including Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs). In order to maximize the application of the KHPS within the global MHK resource, Verdant Power has designed the technology as a simple and uniquely scalable system that can be operated in tidal, river and ocean current settings. Possible KHPS installations range from distributed generation arrangements in near-shore urban and village settings to base power generation at offshore deepwater locales.

375

Fiber optic sensing technology for measuring in-cylinder pressure in automotive engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new fiber optic sensing technology for measuring in-cylinder pressure in automotive engines was investigated. The optic sensing element consists of two mirrors in an in-line single mode fiber that are separated by some distance. To withstand the harsh conditions inside an engine, the Fiber Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FFPI) element was coated with gold and copper. The metal-protected fiber sensor was embedded into a small cut in the metal casing of the spark plug. At first, the sensing element was dipped in liquid gold and cured. Then the gold-coated fiber sensor was electroplated with copper. Finally, the metal-coated fiber sensor was embedded in the spark plug. The spark-plug-embedded FFPI sensor was monitored using a signal conditioning unit. Field tests were carried out in a 3-cylinder automotive engine with a piezoelectric pressure sensor as a reference transducer up to about 3500 rpm. The fiber optic sensor data generally matched those measured by the piezoelectric reference sensor. The use of a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) diode as a light source in an FFPI optic sensor system was investigated. Reflected light from the FFPI sensing element was used to measure the optical path difference. With a 1550nm VCSEL as the light source in a 12mm cavity length Fiber Fabry-Perot Interferometer, spectral characteristics were examined to determine the proper combination of dc bias current, modulation current amplitude and modulation frequency. Single VCSEL operation and regular fringe patterns were achieved. The laser tuning was -41.2 GHz/mA and was determined from measurements of the shift in the spectral peak of the VCSEL diode output as a function of dc bias current. By testing the fringe movement as the FFPI sensor was heated, the temperature tuning coefficient for the optical length was determined to be 11 x 10-6 ?ºC. The results of these experiments indicate that the use of VCSEL diode as a light source for the FFPI sensor offers a viable alternative to the use of Distributed Feedback (DFB) laser diodes for monitoring at a lower bias current and modulating current amplitude.

Bae, Taehan

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

A study of the effects of inlet preswirl on the dynamic coefficients of a straight-bore honeycomb gas damper seal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In high-pressure centrifugal compressors, honeycomb seals are often used as replacements for labyrinth seals to enhance dynamic stability. A concern exists with the loss of this enhanced stability if the honeycomb cavities become clogged with debris over time. So, as a first objective, static and dynamic tests were conducted on a constant-clearance honeycomb and a constant-clearance smooth-bore seal under three inlet preswirl conditions to determine the effects of inlet preswirl. The resulting leakage flowrate and dynamic parameters, effective stiffness and damping of the seal, were measured for each seal and then compared, with the smooth-bore seal representing the honeycomb seal with completely clogged cells. The second objective was to evaluate a two-control volume theory by Kleynhans and Childs with the measured data under the influence of preswirl. Both seals have a 114.7mm bore with a radial clearance of 0.2mm from the test rotor. The honeycomb seal has a cell width of 0.79mm and cell depth of 3.2mm. The target test matrix for each preswirl setting consisted of three exit-to-inlet pressure ratios of 15%, 35%, and 50%, and three rotor speeds out to 20,200 rpm. The target inlet air pressure was 70 bar-a. Experimental results show that, for a clean honeycomb seal, preswirl has little effect on effective stiffness, Keff*, and decreases effective damping, Ceff*, by about 20% at the high inlet preswirl ratio (~0.6). However, comparing smooth and honeycomb seal results at higher inlet preswirl shows a potential reduction in Keff* by up to 68%, and a large drop and shift in positive Ceff* values, which could cause an instability in the lower frequency range. Measured leakage shows a potential increase of about 80%, regardless of test conditions. A swirl brake at the seal entrance would fix this loss in stability by significantly reducing inlet preswirl. The two-control-volume theory model by Kleynhans and Childs seems to follow the frequency-dependent experimental data well for the honeycomb seal. Theory predicts conservatively (under-predicts) for stability parameters such as k* and Ceff* and for leakage. Predictions for K and Keff may possibly be improved with better measured friction factor coefficients for each seal.

Sprowl, Tony Brandon

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Film cooling effectiveness measurements on rotating and non-rotating turbine components  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detailed film cooling effectiveness distributions were measured on the stationary blade tip and on the leading edge region of a rotating blade using a Pressure Sensitive Paint technique. Air and nitrogen gas were used as the film cooling gases and the oxygen concentration distribution for each case was measured. The film cooling effectiveness information was obtained from the difference of the oxygen concentration between air and nitrogen gas cases by applying the mass transfer analogy. In the case of the stationary blade tip, plane tip and squealer tip blades were used while the film cooling holes were located (a) along the camber line on the tip or (b) along the span of the pressure side. The average blowing ratio of the cooling gas was controlled to be 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. Tests were conducted in a five-bladed linear cascade with a blow down facility. The free stream Reynolds number, based on the axial chord length and the exit velocity, was 1,100,000 and the inlet and the exit Mach number were 0.25 and 0.59, respectively. Turbulence intensity level at the cascade inlet was 9.7%. All measurements were made at three different tip gap clearances of 1%, 1.5%, and 2.5% of blade span. Results show that the locations of the film cooling holes and the presence of squealer have significant effects on surface static pressure and film-cooling effectiveness. Same technique was applied to the rotating turbine blade leading edge region. Tests were conducted on the first stage rotor of a 3-stage axial turbine. The Reynolds number based on the axial chord length and the exit velocity was 200,000 and the total to exit pressure ratio was 1.12 for the first rotor. The effects of the rotational speed and the blowing ratio were studied. The rotational speed was controlled to be 2400, 2550, and 3000 rpm and the blowing ratio was 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. Two different film cooling hole geometries were used; 2-row and 3-row film cooling holes. Results show that the rotational speed changes the directions of the coolant flows. Blowing ratio also changes the distributions of the coolant flows. The results of this study will be helpful in understanding the physical phenomena regarding the film injection and designing more efficient turbine blades.

Ahn, Jaeyong

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

IEMDC -IN-LINE ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVEN COMPRESSOR  

SciTech Connect

Dresser-Rand completed the preliminary aerodynamic flowpath of the volute and inlet design for the compressor section. This has resulted in considerable progress being made on the development of the compressor section and ultimately towards the successful integration of the IEMDC System design. Significant effort was put forth in the design of aerodynamic components which resulted in a design that meets the limits of aerodynamically induced radial forces previously established. Substantial effort has begun on the mechanical design of the compressor pressure containing case and other internal components. These efforts show progression towards the successful integration of a centrifugal compressor and variable speed electric motor ventilated by the process gas. All efforts continue to confirm the feasibility of the IEMDC system design. During the third quarter reporting period, the focus was to further refine the motor design and to ensure that the IEMDC rotor system supported on magnetic bearing is in compliance with the critical speed and vibration requirements of the API standards 617 and 541. Consequently specification to design magnetic bearings was developed and an RFQ to three magnetic bearing suppliers was issued. Considerable work was also performed to complete preliminary reports on some of the deliverable tasks under phase 1.0. These include specification for the VFD, RFQ for the magnetic bearings, and preliminary write-up for motor instrumentation and control schematic. In order to estimate motor efficiency at various operating points, plots of calculated motor losses, and motor cooling gas flow rates were also prepared. Preliminary evaluations of motor support concepts were performed via FEA to determine modal frequencies. Presentation was made at DOE Morgantown on August 12, 2003 to provide project status update. Preparations for the IEMDC motor-compressor presentation, at the GMRC conference in Salt Lake City to be held on October 5, 2003, were also started. Detailed calculations of cooling gas flow requirements for the motor and magnetic bearings, per several new operating points designated by DR, confirmed that the required gas flow was within the compressor design guidelines. Previous thrust load calculations had confirmed that the magnetic thrust bearing design load capacity of 6,000 lb. was sufficient to handle the net thrust load produced by the motor and compressor pressure loading. Thus the design data that has been generated, for the variable speed 10 MW 12,000 rpm motor, during the last three quarters, continue to confirm the feasibility of an efficient and robust motor design.

Michael J. Crowley; Prem N. Bansal; John E. Tessaro

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Windback seal design for gas compressors: a numerical and experimental study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Seals are considered one of the important flow elements of a turbomachinery device. Traditional labyrinth seals have proven their performance functionality by reducing leakage rates. Significant improvements on labyrinth seal functionality were obtained through altering the design geometry of labyrinth seals to prevent contamination across a seal and maintaining small leakage flowrates. This results in a windback seal that has only one tooth which continuously winds around the shaft like a screw thread. These seals are used in gas compressors to isolate the gas face seal from bearing oil. A purge gas is passed through the seal into the bearing housing. The helical design allows the seal to clear itself of any oil contamination. Windback seal performance is controlled through changing the seal geometry. A 2D graphical design tool for calculating the total and cavity leakage flowrates for windback seals is introduced. The effectiveness of the Fluent CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) commercial code to accurately predict the leakage rate for windback seals was evaluated. The objective is to determine if CFD simulations can be used along with a few experimental tests to study windback seals of this design with air as the working fluid. Comparison of measurement and predictions for a windback seal using the ?º-?µ turbulence model with enhanced wall treatment functions show predictions and measurements comparing very well with a maximum difference of 5% for leakage rate. Similarly, the leakage rate of the tested smooth seal compares favorably with two dimensional CFD predictions, with a difference of 2%-11% and 8%-15% using laminar and ?º-?µ turbulent flow models, respectively. The variation of leakage with shaft speed and pressure ratio across the seals is accurately predicted by the CFD simulations. Increasing the rotor speed to 15000 rpm increases the measured leakage flowrate for the windback seal by 2% at high differential pressure and 4.5% at low differential pressure, and decreases it by 10 % for the smooth seal. The effects of seal clearance, tooth pitch, cavity depth and the tooth number of starts on leakage flowrate, velocity and pressure distributions were studied numerically for three differential pressures and four rotor speeds.

Al-Ghasem, Adnan Mahmoud

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

High Efficiency Engine Technologies Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Caterpillar's Product Development and Global Technology Division carried out a research program on waste heat recovery with support from DOE (Department of Energy) and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The objective of the program was to develop a new air management and exhaust energy recovery system that would demonstrate a minimum 10% improvement in thermal efficiency over a base heavy-duty on-highway diesel truck engine. The base engine for this program was a 2007 C15 15.2L series-turbocharged on-highway truck engine with a LPL (low-pressure loop) exhaust recirculation system. The focus of the program was on the development of high efficiency turbomachinery and a high efficiency turbocompound waste heat recovery system. The focus of each area of development was as follows: (1) For turbine stages, the focus was on investigation and development of technologies that would improve on-engine exhaust energy utilization compared to the conventional radial turbines in widespread use today. (2) For compressor stages, the focus was on investigating compressor wheel design parameters beyond the range typically utilized in production, to determine the potential efficiency benefits thereof. (3) For turbocompound, the focus was on the development of a robust bearing system that would provide higher bearing efficiencies compared to systems used in turbocompound power turbines in production. None of the turbocharger technologies investigated involved addition of moving parts, actuators, or exotic materials, thereby increasing the likelihood of a favorable cost-value tradeoff for each technology. And the turbocompound system requires less hardware addition than competing bottoming cycle technologies, making it a more attractive solution from a cost and packaging standpoint. Main outcomes of the program are as follows: (1) Two turbine technologies that demonstrated up to 6% improvement in turbine efficiency on gas stand and 1-3% improvement in thermal efficiency in on-engine testing. (2) A compressor technology that demonstrated 1.5% improvement in compressor efficiency on gas stand compared to production available compressors. (3) A power turbine with high efficiency bearing system that demonstrated excellent rotordynamic stability throughout the required speed range, up to 60,000 rpm. (4) A predicted improvement (using engine simulation) in engine thermal efficiency of 7% at the peak torque design point, when combining the technologies developed in this program.

Rich Kruiswyk

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

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381

Employee Handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Welcome to Berkeley Lab. You are joining or are already a part of a laboratory with a sterling tradition of scientific achievement, including eleven Nobel Laureates and thirteen National Medal of Science winners. No matter what job you do, you make Berkeley Lab the outstanding organization that it is. Without your hard work and dedication, we could not achieve all that we have. We value you and thank you for choosing to be part of our community. This Employee Handbook is designed to help you navigate the Lab. With over 3,000 employees, an additional 3,000 guests visiting from countries around the world, a 200-acre campus and many policies and procedures, learning all the ins and outs may seem overwhelming, especially if you're a new employee. However, even if you have been here for a while, this Handbook should be a useful reference tool. It is meant to serve as a guide, highlighting and summarizing what you need to know and informing you where you can go for more detailed information. The general information provided in this Handbook serves only as a brief description of many of the Lab's policies. Policies, procedures and information are found in the Lab's Regulations and Procedures Manual (RPM), Summary Plan Descriptions, University of California policies, and provisions of Contract 31 between the Regents of the University and the U.S. Department of Energy. In addition, specific terms and conditions for represented employees are found in applicable collective bargaining agreements. Nothing in this Handbook is intended to supplant, change or conflict with the previously mentioned documents. In addition, the information in this Handbook does not constitute a contract or a promise of continued employment and may be changed at any time by the Lab. We believe employees are happier and more productive if they know what they can expect from their organization and what their organization expects from them. The Handbook will familiarize you with the privileges, benefits, and responsibilities of being an employee at Berkeley Lab. In this organization, as in the rest of the world, circumstances are constantly changing. Policies and procedures can change at any time, so it is advisable to keep apprised of these changes by checking in frequently to the electronic version of this Employee Handbook found at www.lbl.gov/Workplace/HumanResources/EmployeeHandbook.

Bello, Madelyn

2008-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

382

Comparison of Experimental and Theoretical Forces on a Model Dredge Cutterhead  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dredging is a critical part of maintaining the nations ports and harbors that play a major role in international trade. The design of dredge equipment requires knowledge of the forces expected on an average dredge. For a cutter suction dredge one of the largest forces is applied on the cutter head. To determine the design criteria for a given cutter suction dredge the forces on the cutter head must be known. Forces on a 33 cm (13 inch) model cutter head have been measured using a model cutter suction dredge 10.2 cm ( (4 inch)) suction and 3 inch (7.6 cm) discharge) in the Haynes Coastal Engineering Laboratory. The experimental results are compared to the results of a previously developed theory for estimating cutterhead forces. A MATLAB program is written and used to solve the theoretical equations. The sediment used in the study had a d50 of 0.27 mm and an angle of internal friction of 21.6. The sediment is contained in the deep sediment pit 7.6 m (25 ft long), 3.7 m wide(12 ft ) and 1.5 m deep(5 ft) in the dredge/tow tank that is 45.7 m long(150 ft), 3.7 m wide(12 ft), and 3.0 m deep(10 ft). The objectives of the study are to calculate the forces using existing theory and MATLAB program and compare the theoretical results to those measured in the laboratory. The effects of the depth of cut, direction of swing, and cutter rpm on the forces acting on the cutter head are evaluated. The forces on the cutterhead are determined through the use of a set of six load cells rated at 13.3 kN (3000 lb). The load cell measurements allow direct calculation of the forces on the cutter head through the use of static equilibrium equations with the assumption of a constant swing speed. Once the forces are determined the results can be scaled to fit an actual dredge and then be applied in the determination of dredge design characteristics. The study shows the ability of the theory to determine the forces within an order or magnitude. The theoretical forces allow design of a cutter using a factor of safety. The variability of the forces in the laboratory study shows the assumption that the cutting forces are generally steady is not always valid.

Permenter, Rusty

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Smoothing HCCI heat release with vaporization-cooling-induced thermal stratification using ethanol.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends are being widely considered as alternative fuels for light-duty automotive applications. At the same time, HCCI combustion has the potential to provide high efficiency and ultra-low exhaust emissions. However, the application of HCCI is typically limited to low and moderate loads because of unacceptably high heat-release rates (HRR) at higher fueling rates. This work investigates the potential of lowering the HCCI HRR at high loads by using partial fuel stratification to increase the in-cylinder thermal stratification. This strategy is based on ethanol's high heat of vaporization combined with its true single-stage ignition characteristics. Using partial fuel stratification, the strong fuel-vaporization cooling produces thermal stratification due to variations in the amount of fuel vaporization in different parts of the combustion chamber. The low sensitivity of the autoignition reactions to variations of the local fuel concentration allows the temperature variations to govern the combustion event. This results in a sequential autoignition event from leaner and hotter zones to richer and colder zones, lowering the overall combustion rate compared to operation with a uniform fuel/air mixture. The amount of partial fuel stratification was varied by adjusting the fraction of fuel injected late to produce stratification, and also by changing the timing of the late injection. The experiments show that a combination of 60-70% premixed charge and injection of 30-40 % of the fuel at 80{sup o}CA before TDC is effective for smoothing the HRR. With CA50 held fixed, this increases the burn duration by 55% and reduces the maximum pressure-rise rate by 40%. Combustion stability remains high but engine-out NO{sub x} has to be monitored carefully. For operation with strong reduction of the peak HRR, ISNO{sub x} rises to around 0.20 g/kWh for an IMEP{sub g} of 440 kPa. The single-cylinder HCCI research engine was operated naturally aspirated without EGR at 1200 rpm, and had low residual level using a CR = 14 piston.

Dec, John E.; Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Investigations of flow and film cooling on turbine blade edge regions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The inlet temperature of modern gas turbine engines has been increased to achieve higher thermal efficiency and increased output. The blade edge regions, including the blade tip, the leading edge, and the platform, are exposed to the most extreme heat loads, and therefore, must be adequately cooled to maintain safety. For the blade tip, there is tip leakage flow due to the pressure gradient across the tip. This leakage flow not only reduces the blade aerodynamic performance, but also yields a high heat load due to the thin boundary layer and high speed. Various tip configurations, such as plane tip, double side squealer tip, and single suction side squealer tip, have been studied to find which one is the best configuration to reduce the tip leakage flow and the heat load. In addition to the flow and heat transfer on the blade tip, film cooling with various arrangements, including camber line, upstream, and two row configurations, have been studied. Besides these cases of low inlet/outlet pressure ratio, low temperature, non-rotating, the high inlet/outlet pressure ratio, high temperature, and rotating cases have been investigated, since they are closer to real turbine working conditions. The leading edge of the rotor blade experiences high heat transfer because of the stagnation flow. Film cooling on the rotor leading edge in a 1-1/2 turbine stage has been numerically studied for the design and off-design conditions. Simulations find that the increasing rotating speed shifts the stagnation line from the pressure side, to the leading edge and the suction side, while film cooling protection moves in the reverse direction with decreasing cooling effectiveness. Film cooling brings a high unsteady intensity of the heat transfer coefficient, especially on the suction side. The unsteady intensity of film cooling effectiveness is higher than that of the heat transfer coefficient. The film cooling on the rotor platform has gained significant attention due to the usage of low-aspect ratio and low-solidity turbine designs. Film cooling and its heat transfer are strongly influenced by the secondary flow of the end-wall and the stator-rotor interaction. Numerical predictions have been performed for the film cooling on the rotating platform of a whole turbine stage. The design conditions yield a high cooling effectiveness and decrease the cooling effectiveness unsteady intensity, while the high rpm condition dramatically reduces the film cooling effectiveness. High purge flow rates provide a better cooling protection. In addition, the impact of the turbine work process on film cooling effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient has been investigated. The overall cooling effectiveness shows a higher value than the adiabatic effectiveness does.

Yang, Huitao

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Experimental response of a rotor supported on Rayleigh step gas bearings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas bearings enable successful applications in high speed oil-free microturbomachinery. This thesis presents analysis and experiments of the dynamic performance of a rotor supported on Rayleigh step gas bearings. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate that Rayleigh step hybrid gas bearings exhibit adequate stiffness and damping capability in a narrow range of shaft speeds, up to ~ 20 krpm. Rotor coastdown responses were performed for two test bearing sets with nominal radial clearance of 25.4 ?m and 38.1 ?m, respectively. A near-frictionless carbon (NFC) coating was applied on the rotor to reduce friction against its bearings at liftoff and touchdown. However, the rotor still experienced dry friction at low shaft speeds (below ~ 4,000 rpm). Experiments show that the supply pressure raises the rotor critical speed and decreases the system damping ratio. The geometry of the Rayleigh steps distributed on the rotor surface generates a time varying pressure field and results in a sizable 4X super synchronous component of bearing transmitted load. The external supply gas pressure affects slightly the onset speed of instability of the rotor-bearing system. The unstable whirl frequencies are nearly fixed at the system natural frequency (~ 120 Hz). Analysis with a finite element model predicts the stiffness and damping force coefficients for the bearing accounting for a purely hydrodynamic operation condition. Predictions show the synchronous stiffness and damping coefficients decrease with shaft speed. Predicted threshold speeds of instability are lower, ~ 50% or less than the measurement due to the analytical model limitations assuming a grooved stator. The predicted synchronous responses to imbalance correlate well with the measurements, however. The Rayleigh step gas bearing shows similar characteristics to the flexure pivot tilting pad bearing (FPTPB) tested in 2003. However, the test Rayleigh step gas bearings exhibit a much reduced stable operating speed range, below 20 krpm. The maximum speed achieved is much lower to that determined with an identical rotor supported on FPTPBs, i.e. rotor dynamically stable up to 100 krpm. The FPTPB is more reliable in high speed oil-free applications due to its excellent stability characteristics.

Zhu, Xuehua

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

A COMPARISON OF MEASURED AND CALCULATED GAMMA RAY ATTENUATION FOR A COMMON COUNTING GEOMETRY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to perform quantitative gamma spectroscopy, it is necessary to know the sample-specific detection efficiency for photons as a function of energy. The detection efficiency, along with the branching ratio for the isotope and gamma ray of interest, is used to convert observed counts/second to actual disintegrations/second, and, hence, has a large effect on the accuracy of the measurement. In cases where the geometry of the source is simple and reproducible, such as a point source, small vial of solid, or jar of liquid, geometry-specific standards may be counted to determine the detection efficiency. In cases where the samples are large, irregular, or unique, this method generally cannot be used. For example, it is impossible to obtain a NIST-traceable standard glovebox or 55-gallon drum. In these cases, a combination of measured absolute detector efficiency and calculated sample-specific correction factors is commonly used. The correction factors may be calculated via Monte Carlo simulation of the item (the method used by Canberra's ISOCS system), or via semi-empirical calculation of matrix and container attenuations based on the thickness and composition of the container and radioactive matrix (ISOTOPIC by EG&G Ortec uses this method). The accuracy of these correction factors for specific geometries is often of vital interest when assessing the quality of gamma spectroscopy data. During the Building 251 Risk-Reduction Project, over 100 samples of high activity actinides will be characterized via gamma spectroscopy, typically without removing the material from the current storage containers. Most of the radioactive materials in B-251 are stored in cylindrical stainless steel canisters (called USV containers, after the Underground Storage Vaults they are commonly stored in), 13 cm in diameter, by 28 cm high, with walls that are 1.8 mm thick. While the actual samples have a variety of configurations inside the USV container, a very common configuration is the material (usually as an oxide powder pellet of approximately 2 cm diameter by {approx}2 mm thick) in a squat glass jar, with the jar placed in a thin steel food-pack can, which is then placed in the bottom of the USV canister. During data acquisition, the USV containers are typically rotated at approximately 4 rpm on a turntable to eliminate errors due to the material not being centered in the can, or attenuation not being isotropic. An aluminum plate is placed over the container, secured by three vertical rods, to securely hold the container. Pictures of both the containers, and this typical counting configuration are shown below.

Gaylord, R F

2004-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

387

Mathematical model parameters for describing the particle size spectra of knife-milled corn stover  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Particle size distributions of Corn stover (Zea mays L.) created by a knife mill were determined using integral classifying screens with sizes from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, operating at speeds from 250 to 500 rpm, and mass input rates ranging from 1 to 9 kg min_1. Particle distributions were classified using American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) standardised sieves for forage analysis that incorporated a horizontal sieving motion. The sieves were made from machined-aluminium with their thickness proportional to the sieve opening dimensions. A wide range of analytical descriptors that could be used to mathematically represent the range of particle sizes in the distributions were examined. The correlation coefficients between geometric mean length and screen size, feed rate, and speed were 0.980, 0.612, and _0.027, respectively. Screen size and feed rate directly influenced particle size, whereas operating speed had a weak indirect relation with particle size. The Rosin Rammler equation fitted the chopped corn stover size distribution data with coefficient of determination (R2) > 0.978. This indicated that particle size distribution of corn stover was well-fit by the Rosin Rammler function. This can be attributed to the fact that Rosin Rammler expression was well suited to the skewed distribution of particle sizes. Skewed distributions occurred when significant quantities of particles, either finer or coarser, existed or were removed from region of the predominant size. The mass relative span was slightly greater than 1, which indicated that it was a borderline narrow to wide distribution of particle sizes. The uniformity coefficient was corn stover produced fine-skewed mesokurtic particles with 12.7 50.8 mm screens. Size-related parameters, namely, geometric mean length, Rosin Rammler size parameter, median length, effective length, and size guide number, were well predicted at R2 values of 0.981, 0.982, 0.979, 0.950 and 0.978, respectively as a function of knife mill screen size, feed rate, and speed. Results of this analysis of particle sizes could be applied to the selection of knife mill operating parameters to produce a particular size of corn stover chop, and could serve as a guide for the relationships among various analytic descriptors of biomass particle distributions.

Bitra, V.S.P [University of Tennessee; Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Yang, Y.T. [University of Tennessee; Miu, P.I. [University of Tennessee; Igathanathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU)

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Radial-Gap Permanent Magnet Motor and Drive Research FY 2004  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this task was to study permanent magnet (PM) radial-gap traction drive systems that could meet the U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR Program's 2010 goals to expose weaknesses or identify strengths. Initially, the approach was to compare attributes such as physical deformations during operation, performance (torque, power, efficiency versus speed), material requirements (strength), material costs, manufacturability, weight, power density, specific power, reliability, and drivability for specific motors. Three motors selected were the commercially available 60-kW radial-gap surface-mounted PM motor manufactured by UQM Technologies, Inc.; a hypothetical PM motor with rotor-supported magnets similar to the Honda MCF-21; and Delphi's automotive electric machine drive motor, whose rotor is a ferromagnetic cylinder, held at one end by a shaft that supports the magnets on its inner surface. Potential problems have appeared related to PM motors, such as (1) high no-load spin losses and high operational power losses, probably from eddy current losses in the rotor; (2) the undemonstrated dual mode inverter control (DMIC) for driving a brushless dc motor (BDCM) (UQM and Delphi motors); (3) uncertainty about the potential for reducing current with DMIC; and (4) uncertainty about the relation between material requirements and maximum rotor speed. Therefore, the approach was changed to study in detail three of the comparison attributes: drivability, performance, and material requirements. Drivability and related problems were examined by demonstrating that DMIC may be used to drive an 18-pole 30-kW PM motor to 6000 rpm, where the maximum electrical frequency is 900 Hz. An available axial-gap test motor with 18 poles was used because its control is identical to that of a radial gap PM motor. Performance was analytically examined, which led to a derivation showing that DMIC controls a PM motor so that the motor uses minimum current to produce any power regardless of speed for relative speeds, n = {omega}/{omega}{sub base} {ge} 2. Performance was also examined with efficiency measurements during the 30-kW PM motor test. Material requirements were examined with finite-element analyses (FEA) to determine the speed and location where yield starts and the corresponding deformations and stresses.

McKeever, J.W.

2005-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

389

Improved Engine Design Concepts Using the Second Law of Thermodynamics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was aimed at developing and using numerical tools which incorporate the second law of thermodynamics to better understand engine operation and particularly the combustion process. A major activity of this project was the continual enhancement and use of an existing engine cycle simulation to investigate a wide range of engine parameters and concepts. The major motivation of these investigations was to improve engine efficiency. These improvements were examined from both the first law and second law perspective. One of the most important aspects of this work was the identification of the combustion irreversibilities as functions of engine design and operating parameters. The combustion irreversibility may be quantified in a number of ways but one especially useful way is by determining the destruction of exergy (availability) during the combustion process. This destruction is the penalty due to converting the fuel exergy to thermal energy for producing work. The engine cycle simulation was used to examine the performance of an automotive (5.7 liter), V-8 spark-ignition engine. A base case was defined for operation at 1400 rpm, stoichiometric, MBT spark timing with a bmep of 325 kPa. For this condition, the destruction of exergy during the combustion process was 21.0%. Variations of many engine parameters (including speed, load, and spark timing) did not alter the level of destruction very much (with these variations, the exergy destruction was within the range of 20.5-21.5%). Also, the use of turbocharging or the use of an over-expanded engine design did not significantly change the exergy destruction. The exergy destruction during combustion was most affected by increased inlet oxygen concentration (which reduced the destruction due to the higher combustion temperatures) and by the use of cooled EGR (which increased the destruction). This work has demonstrated that, in general, the exergy destruction for conventional engines is fairly constant ({approx}21%) for a range of operating and design parameters. Further, to achieve high efficiency engines requires that the exergy be managed and not necessarily reduced. The overall thermodynamics is the final discriminator regarding high efficiency engines.

None

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

390

Aspect ratio effect on heat transfer in rotating two-pass rectangular channels with smooth walls and ribbed walls  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study experimentally investigates the effects of rotation, the buoyancy force, and the channel aspect ratio on heat transfer in two-pass rotating rectangular channels. The experiments are conducted with two surface conditions: smooth walls and 45?? angled ribbed walls. The channel aspect ratios include 4:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:4. Four Reynolds numbers are studied: 5000, 10000, 25000 and 40000. The rotation speed is fixed at 550 rpm for all tests, and for each channel, two channel orientations are studied: 90?? and 45?? or 135??, with respect to the plane of rotation. Rib turbulators are placed on the leading and trailing walls of the channels at an angle of 45?? to the flow direction. The ribs have a 1.59 by 1.59 mm square cross section, and the rib pitch-to-height ratio (P/e) is 10 for all tests. The effects of the local buoyancy parameter and channel aspect ratio on the regional Nusselt number ratio are presented. Pressure drop data are also measured for both smooth and ribbed channels in rotating and non-rotating conditions. The results show that increasing the local buoyancy parameter increases the Nusselt number ratio on the trailing surface and decreases the Nusselt number ratio on the leading surface in the first pass for all channels. However, the trend of the Nusselt number ratio in the second pass is more complicated due to the strong effect of the 180?? turn. Results are also presented for this critical turn region of the two-pass channels. In addition to these regions, the channel averaged heat transfer, friction factor, and thermal performance are determined for each channel. With the channels having comparable Nusselt number ratios, the 1:4 channel has the superior thermal performance because it incurs the least pressure penalty. In this study, the author is able to systematically analyze, correlate, and conclude the thermal performance comparison with the combination of rotation effects on five different aspect ratio channels with both smooth walls and rib turbulated walls.

Fu, Wen-Lung

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Characterization of Engine Control Authority on HCCI Combustion as the High Load Limit is Approached  

SciTech Connect

While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on characterizing the authority of the available engine controls as the high load limit of HCCI combustion is approached. The experimental work is performed on a boosted single-cylinder research engine equipped with direct injection (DI) fueling, cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and a hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) valve train to enable the negative valve overlap (NVO) breathing strategy. Valve lift and duration are held constant while phasing is varied in an effort to make the results as relevant as possible to production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) systems on multi-cylinder engines. Results presented include engine loads from 350 to 650 kPa IMEPnet and manifold pressure from 98 to 190 kPaa at 2000 rpm. It is found that in order to increase engine load to 650 kPa IMEPnet, it is necessary to increase manifold pressure and external EGR while reducing the NVO duration. Both NVO duration and fuel injection timing are effective means of controlling combustion phasing, with NVO duration being a coarse control and fuel injection timing being a fine control. NOX emissions are low throughout the study, with emissions below 0.1 g/kW-h at all boosted HCCI conditions, while good combustion efficiency is maintained (>96.5%). Net indicated thermal efficiency increases with load up to 600 kPa IMEPnet, where a peak efficiency of 41% is achieved. Results of independent parametric investigations are presented on the effect of external EGR, intake effect of manifold pressure, and the effect of NVO duration. It is found that increasing EGR at a constant manifold pressure and increasing manifold pressure at a constant EGR rate both have the effect of retarding combustion phasing. It is also found that combustion phasing becomes increasingly sensitive to NVO duration as engine load increases. Finally, comparisons are made between three commonly used noise metrics (AVL noise meter, ringing intensity (RI), and maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR)). It is found that compared to the AVL noise meter, RI significantly underestimates combustion noise under boosted conditions.

Szybist, James P [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Foster, Matthew [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi; Moore, Wayne [Delphi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Sludge Heel Removal Analysis for Slurry Pumps of Tank 11  

SciTech Connect

Computational fluid dynamics methods were used to develop and recommend a slurry pump operational strategy for sludge heel removal in Tank 11. Flow patterns calculated by the model were used to evaluate the performance of various combinations of operating pumps and their orientation. The models focused on removal of the sludge heel located at the edge of Tank 11 using the four existing slurry pumps. The models and calculations were based on prototypic tank geometry and expected normal operating conditions as defined by Tank Closure Project (TCP) Engineering. Computational fluid dynamics models of Tank 11 with different operating conditions were developed using the FLUENT(tm) code. The modeling results were used to assess the efficiency of sludge suspension and removal operations in the 75-ft tank. The models employed a three-dimensional approach, a two-equation turbulence model, and an approximate representation of flow obstructions. The calculated local velocity was used as a measure of sludge removal and mixing capability. For the simulations, a series of the modeling calculations was performed with indexed pump orientations until an efficient flow pattern near the potential location of the sludge mound was established for sludge removal. The calculated results demonstrated that the existing slurry pumps running at 1600 rpm could remove the sludge mound from the tank with a 103 in. liquid level, based on a minimum sludge suspension velocity of 2.27 ft/sec. In this case, the only exception is the region within about 2 ft. from the tank wall. Further results showed that the capabilities of sludge removal were affected by the indexed pump orientation, the number of operating pumps, and the pump speed. A recommended operational strategy for an efficient flow pattern was developed to remove the sludge mound assuming that local fluid velocity can be used as a measure of sludge suspension and removal. Sensitivity results showed that for a given pump speed, a higher tank level and a lower pump nozzle elevation would result in better performance in suspending and removing the sludge. The results also showed that the presence of flow obstructions such as valve housing structure were advantageous for certain pump orientations.

Lee, S.Y.

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

393

Control of Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Motors with Special Application to Fractional-Slot Concentrated Windings  

SciTech Connect

It is well known that the ability of the permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) to operate over a wide constant power speed range (CPSR) is dependent upon the machine inductance [1,2,3,4,5]. Early approaches for extending CPSR operation included adding supplementary inductance in series with the motor [1] and the use of anti-parallel thyristor pairs in series with the motor-phase windings [5]. The increased inductance method is compatible with a voltage-source inverter (VSI) controlled by pulse-width modulation (PWM) which is called the conventional phase advance (CPA) method. The thyristor method has been called the dual mode inverter control (DMIC). Neither of these techniques has met with wide acceptance since they both add cost to the drive system and have not been shown to have an attractive cost/benefit ratio. Recently a method has been developed to use fractional-slot concentrated windings to significantly increase the machine inductance [6]. This latest approach has the potential to make the PMSM compatible with CPA without supplemental external inductance. If the performance of such drive is acceptable, then the method may make the PMSM an attractive option for traction applications requiring a wide CPSR. A 30 pole, 6 kW, 6000 maximum revolutions per minute (rpm) prototype of the fractional-slot PMSM design has been developed [7]. This machine has significantly more inductance than is typical of regular PMSMs. The prototype is to be delivered in late 2005 to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for testing and development of a suitable controller. In advance of the test/control development effort, ORNL has used the PMSM models developed over a number of previous studies to study the steady-state performance of high-inductance PMSM machines with a view towards control issues. The detailed steady-state model developed includes all motor and inverter-loss mechanisms and will be useful in assessing the performance of the dynamic controller to be developed in future work. This report documents the results of this preliminary investigation.

Lawler, J.S.

2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

394

Assessing the Impacts of Reduced Noise Operations of Wind Turbines on Neighbor Annoyance: A Preliminary Analysis in Vinalhaven, Maine  

SciTech Connect

Neighbors living near the 3 turbine, 4.5 MW Vinalhaven, Maine wind power facility, which began operations in late 2009, have complained that the noise from the turbines is unwelcome and annoying. Fox Islands Wind, the owner of the facility, hypothesized that implementing a Noise Reduced Operation (NRO) for the turbines, which effectively limits the turbines maximum rpm and power output, would reduce the sound levels produced by the turbines, and therefore might also reduce the degree to which the neighbors report being annoyed by those sounds. To test this hypothesis in a preliminary fashion, a pilot study was conducted in early 2010, the results of which are the subject of this brief report. The study included asking near-by residents - those within roughly 3000 feet - to rate the sounds and the degree to which they were annoyed by them using logs which they filled out at multiple times during the day on as many days as were possible in the 35 day study period in February and March, 2010. Meanwhile, FIW adjusted the NRO settings of the turbines in a random fashion in the evenings during the same period, but in a pattern that the respondents were not made aware of. Ultimately, nine individuals turned in roughly 200 log entries (i.e., responses), each of which was time coded to allow testing if the response was correlated with the wind facility operating conditions at that time. The analysis of these data found small, non-statistically-significant differences in self-reported turbine loudness and annoyance ratings between the periods when the NRO was enacted and when it was not, after controlling for many of the relationships that could independently influence perceived loudness and annoyance (e.g., wind direction, time of day). Possible explanations for these small differences in self-reported turbine loudness and annoyance ratings include: the relative difference in sound output from the turbines when NRO was engaged and when it was not was small; and/or that differences in turbine sound outputs that did exist might have been masked by higher (non-turbine) wind sound levels that were coincident with NRO periods. Because this preliminary test only included a small portion of the population surrounding the turbines, the sample of self-reported ratings was itself very small. In addition, the conditions varied greatly over the study period, as described in the report that follows. Consequently, the results presented here should be considered preliminary, and further data collection and analysis are warranted. The main findings of this preliminary study are: (1) As planned, periods in which the NRO was engaged were found to have noticeably lower turbine rotational speeds (rpm), based on turbine operational data. (2) 11% of responses overall indicated that the turbines were perceived as either 'very' or 'extremely' loud at the time they were logged, and roughly two thirds of those (7% overall) indicated the sounds to be 'very' or 'extremely' annoying. (3) Self-reported turbine loudness and annoyance ratings were higher during the night and when the wind was from the North (participants in the study were located to the east and south of the turbines). (4) Self-reported turbine loudness and annoyance ratings were generally found to be lower during the NRO periods, but these observed differences are relatively small in magnitude, and are not statistically significant. (5) There is some limited evidence that high-speed surface winds mask self-reported turbine loudness and annoyance ratings. Therefore, because NRO settings are only engaged during periods of high winds, the true effects of the NRO adjustments might be diluted to some degree. (6) The results of this preliminary assessment should not be applied to the full population of homeowners near the turbines in Vinalhaven, Maine because the potentially most-sensitive individuals (those most vocal of their dislike of the turbine sounds) opted not to participate in the study, and because the study did not include the relatively large numbe

Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Eckholdt, Haftan

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

395

Fractional-Slot Surface Mounted PM Motors with Concentrated Windings for HEV Traction Drives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-power density and efficiency resulting from elimination of rotor windings and reduced magnetic-flux losses have made the rare earth permanent magnet (PM) motor a leading candidate for the Department of Energy's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVTs) traction drive motor. These traction drives are generally powered by radial-gap motors, having the magnets on or embedded in a rotating cylinder separated from the inside surface of a slotted cylindrical stator by an annular gap. The two main types of radial-gap PM rotors are those with magnets mounted on the surface of a supporting back iron, called PM surface mounted (PMSM) motors, and those with magnets mounted in slots in the rotor, called interior PM (IPM) motors. Most early PM motor research was on the PMSM motor, which was thought to have an inherently low stator inductance. A low stator inductance can lead to currents dangerously exceeding rated current as the back-emf across the inductance increases with speed; consequently, part of the attempted solution has been to increase the stator inductance to reduce the rate of current rise. Although analysis suggested that there should be no problem designing sufficiently high stator inductance into PMSMs, attempts to do so were often not successful and a motor design was sought that would have a higher intrinsic inductance. Commercial research at Toyota has focused on IPM motors because they can achieve a high-saliency ratio, which helps them operate over a high constant power speed ratio (CPSR), but they are more difficult to fabricate. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) position has been to continue research on brushless direct current (dc) motors (BDCMs) because of ease of fabrication and increased power output. Recently there has been a revival of interest in a fractional-slot PMSMs [15] made with concentrated windings because they possess three important features. First, they can increase the motor's inductance sufficiently to reduce the characteristic current to value of the rated current, which will enable them to operate at high CPSR. This feature also limits short-circuit fault currents. Second, their segmented structure simplifies assembly problems and is expected to reduce assembly costs. Third, the back-emf waveform is nearly sinusoidal with low cogging. To examine in depth this design ORNL entered into a collaborative agreement with the University of Wisconsin to build and test a 6 kW laboratory demonstration unit. Design, fabrication, and testing of the unit to 4000 rpm were completed during FY 2005. The motor will be sent to ORNL to explore ways to control its inverter to achieve higher efficiency during FY 2006. This paper first reviews the concept of characteristic current and what is meant by optimal flux weakening. It then discusses application of the fractional-slot concentrated winding technique to increase the d-axis inductance of a PMSM showing how this approach differs from an integral-slot motor with sinusoidal-distributed windings. This discussion is followed by a presentation of collaborative analyses and comparison with the University of Wisconsin's measured data on a 6 kW, 36-slot, 30-pole motor with concentrated windings. Finally ORNL presents a PMSM design with integral-slot windings that appears to meet the FreedomCAR Specifications, but has some disadvantages. Further collaboration with the University of Wisconsin is planned for FY 2006 to design a motor that meets FreedomCAR specifications.

Bailey, J.M.

2005-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

396

Cl atom recombination on silicon oxy-chloride layers deposited on chamber walls in chlorine-oxygen plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Chlorine atom recombination coefficients were measured on silicon oxy-chloride surfaces deposited in a chlorine inductively coupled plasma (ICP) with varying oxygen concentrations, using the spinning wall technique. A small cylinder embedded in the walls of the plasma reactor chamber was rapidly rotated, repetitively exposing its surface to the plasma chamber and a differentially pumped analysis chamber housing a quadruple mass spectrometer for line-of-sight desorbing species detection, or an Auger electron spectrometer for in situ surface analysis. The spinning wall frequency was varied from 800 to 30 000 rpm resulting in a detection time, t (the time a point on the surface takes to rotate from plasma chamber to the position facing the mass or Auger spectrometer), of {approx}1-40 ms. Desorbing Cl{sub 2}, due to Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) Cl atom recombination on the reactor wall surfaces, was detected by the mass spectrometer and also by a pressure rise in one of the differentially pumped chambers. LH Cl recombination coefficients were calculated by extrapolating time-resolved desorption decay curves to t = 0. A silicon-covered electrode immersed in the plasma was either powered at 13 MHz, creating a dc bias of -119 V, or allowed to electrically float with no bias power. After long exposure to a Cl{sub 2} ICP without substrate bias, slow etching of the Si wafer coats the chamber and spinning wall surfaces with an Si-chloride layer with a relatively small amount of oxygen (due to a slow erosion of the quartz discharge tube) with a stoichiometry of Si:O:Cl = 1:0.38:0.38. On this low-oxygen-coverage surface, any Cl{sub 2} desorption after LH recombination of Cl was below the detection limit. Adding 5% O{sub 2} to the Cl{sub 2} feed gas stopped etching of the Si wafer (with no rf bias) and increased the oxygen content of the wall deposits, while decreasing the Cl content (Si:O:Cl = 1:1.09:0.08). Cl{sub 2} desorption was detectable for Cl recombination on the spinning wall surface coated with this layer, and a recombination probability of {gamma}{sub Cl} = 0.03 was obtained. After this surface was conditioned with a pure oxygen plasma for {approx}60 min, {gamma}{sub Cl} increased to 0.044 and the surface layer was slightly enriched in oxygen fraction (Si:O:Cl = 1:1.09:0.04). This behavior is attributed to a mechanism whereby Cl LH recombination occurs mainly on chlorinated oxygen sites on the silicon oxy-chloride surface, because of the weak Cl-O bond compared to the Cl-Si bond.

Khare, Rohit; Srivastava, Ashutosh; Donnelly, Vincent M. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

397

Test versus predictions for rotordynamic and leakage characteristics of a convergent-tapered, honeycomb-stator/smooth-rotor annular gas seal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents the results for measured and predicted rotordynamic coefficients and leakage for a convergent-tapered honeycomb seal (CTHC). The test seals had a diameter of 114.968 mm (4.5263 in) at the entrance, and a diameter of 114.709 mm (4.5161 in) at the exit. The honeycomb cell depth was 3.175 mm (0.125 in), and the cell width was 0.79 mm (0.0311 in). Measurements are reported with air as the test fluid at three different speeds: 10,200, 15,200, and 20,200 rpm; with a supply pressure of 69 bar (1,000 psi), with exit-to-inlet pressure ratios from 20% to 50%, and using two rotors that are 114.3 mm (4.500 in) and 114.5 mm (4.508 in) respectively; this enables the same seals to be tested under two different conditions. The q factor, which is just a simple way to quantify taper is defined as the taperangle seal parameter and is calculated using the inlet and exit radial clearance. Two taper-angles parameters were calculated; q = 0.24 for the 114.3 mm (4.500 in) rotor, and q = 0.386 for the 114.5 mm (4.508 in) rotor. The q = 0.24 condition was compared to a constant clearance honeycomb seal (CCHC q = 0) because both sets of data were taken with the same rotor diameter. The direct stiffness, effective stiffness, and direct damping coefficients were larger for q = 0.24. The CTHC q = 0.24 eliminates the direct negative static stiffness obtained with CCHC ( q = 0). The cross-coupled stiffness and damping also were larger for q = 0.24, especially at low frequencies. Effective damping is one of the best indicators in determining the stability of a roughened stator annular gas seal. The frequency at which it changes sign is called the cross-over frequency. In applications, this frequency needs to be lower than the rotorsystems first natural frequency. Otherwise, the seal will be highly destabilizing instead of highly stabilizing. The magnitude of effective damping and the cross-over frequency also increases with q for all frequencies. Constant clearance honeycomb seals have less leakage than convergenttapered honeycomb seals. CTHC ( q = 0.24), has approximately 20 percent more leakage than CCHC ( q = 0). The experimental results for rotordynamic characteristics and leakage were compared to theoretical predictions by the two-control-volume developed by Kleynhans and Childs. All rotordynamic coefficients were reasonably predicted for all cases. The model does a better job predicting the cross-coupled stiffness and damping coefficients rather than the direct stiffness and damping coefficients. Also, the two-control-volume model predicts the dynamic characteristics of CCHC ( q = 0) better, and does not predict well the effective stiffness and damping for CTHC q = 0.386.

Van Der Velde Alvarez, Daniel Eduardo

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Heat Transfer in Rectangular Channels (AR=2:1) of the Gas Turbine Blade at High Rotation Numbers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas turbine blade/vane cooling is obtained by circulating the high pressure air from compressor to the internal cooling passage of the blade/vane. Heat transfer and cooling effect in the rotating blade is highly affected by rotation. The typical rotation number for the aircraft engine is in the range of 0~0.25 and for the land based power generation turbine in the range of 0~05. Currently, the heat transfer data at high rotation numbers are limited. Besides, the investigation of heat transfer phenomena in the turn region, especially near hub portion is rare. This dissertation is to study the heat transfer in rectangular channels with turns in the tip or the hub portion respectively at high rotation numbers close to the engine condition. The dissertation experimentally investigates the heat transfer phenomena in a two-pass rectangular channel (AR=W/H=2:1) with a 180 degree sharp turn in the tip portion. The flow in the first passage is radial outward and after the turn in the second passage, the flow direction is radial inward. The hydraulic diameter (Dh) of the channel is 16.9 mm. Parallel square ribs with an attack angle (alpha) of 45 degrees are used on leading and trailing surfaces to enhance the heat transfer. The rib height-to-hydraulic diameter ratio (e/Dh) is 0.094. For the baseline smooth case and the case with rib pitch-to-height ratio (P/e) 10, channel orientation angles (beta) of 90 degrees and 135 degrees were tried to model the cooling passage in the mid and rear portion of the blade respectively. Two other P/e ratios of 5 and 7.5 were studied at beta=135 degrees to investigate their effect on heat transfer. The data are presented under high rotation numbers and buoyancy parameters by varying the Reynolds number (Re=10,000~40,000) and rotation speed (rpm=0~400). Corresponding rotation number and buoyancy parameter are ranged as 0~0.45 and 0~0.8 respectively. The dissertation also studies the heat transfer in a two-pass channel (AR=2:1) connected by a 180 degree U bend in the hub portion. The flow in the first passage is radial inward and after the U bend, the flow in the second passage is radial outward. The cross-section dimension of this channel is the same as the previous one. To increase heat transfer, staggered square ribs (e/Dh=0.094) are pasted on leading and trailing walls with an attack angle (alpha) of 45 degrees and pitch-to-height ratio (P/e) of 8. A turning vane in the shape of half circle (R=18.5 mm, t=1.6 mm) is used in the turn region to guide the flow for both smooth and ribbed cases. Channel orientation angles (beta) of 90 degrees and 135 degrees were taken for both smooth and ribbed cases. The heat transfer data were taken at high rotation numbers close to previous test section.

Lei, Jiang 1980-

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Evaluation of the geometric accuracy of surrogate-based gated VMAT using intrafraction kilovoltage x-ray images  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the geometric accuracy of beam targeting in external surrogate-based gated volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using kilovoltage (kV) x-ray images acquired during dose delivery. Methods: Gated VMAT treatments were delivered using a Varian TrueBeam STx Linac for both physical phantoms and patients. Multiple gold fiducial markers were implanted near the target. The reference position was created for each implanted marker, representing its correct position at the gating threshold. The gating signal was generated from the RPM system. During the treatment, kV images were acquired immediately before MV beam-on at every breathing cycle, using the on-board imaging system. All implanted markers were detected and their 3D positions were estimated using in-house developed software. The positioning error of a marker is defined as the distance of the marker from its reference position for each frame of the images. The overall error of the system is defined as the average over all markers. For the phantom study, both sinusoidal motion (1D and 3D) and real human respiratory motion was simulated for the target and surrogate. In the baseline case, the two motions were synchronized for the first treatment fraction. To assess the effects of surrogate-target correlation on the geometric accuracy, a phase shift of 5% and 10% between the two motions was introduced. For the patient study, intrafraction kV images of five stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) patients were acquired for one or two fractions. Results: For the phantom study, a high geometric accuracy was achieved in the baseline case (average error: 0.8 mm in the superior-inferior or SI direction). However, the treatment delivery is prone to geometric errors if changes in the target-surrogate relation occur during the treatment: the average error was increased to 2.3 and 4.7 mm for the phase shift of 5% and 10%, respectively. Results obtained with real human respiratory curves show a similar trend. For a target with 3D motion, the technique is able to detect geometric errors in the left-right (LR) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. For the patient study, the average intrafraction positioning errors are 0.8, 0.9, and 1.4 mm and 95th percentile errors are 1.7, 2.1, and 2.7 mm in the LR, AP, and SI directions, respectively. Conclusions: The correlation between external surrogate and internal target motion is crucial to ensure the geometric accuracy of surrogate-based gating. Real-time guidance based on kV x-ray images overcomes the potential issues in surrogate-based gating and can achieve accurate beam targeting in gated VMAT.

Li Ruijiang; Mok, Edward; Han, Bin; Koong, Albert; Xing Lei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

400

MARITIME GAS-COOLED REACTOR PROGRAM QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT FOR THE PERIOD ENDING MARCH 31, 1959  

SciTech Connect

Turbomachinery considerations indicated that it would be desirable to reduce the cycle pressure from 1,000 to 800 psia. The problem of determining the temperature distribution and the resulting thermal stress pattern within the graphite was considered. Preliminary designs for a heterogeneous fuel element and a semihomogeneous fuel element were developed. Utilization of the Hanford in- pile gas loop for fuel element testing is discussed. Two-group PDQ calculations were run to estimate control rod worth for the preliminary design core under cold, clean conditions. Curves of rod worth versus position were developed for the hot, clean and the cold, clean preliminary design core. A detailed lifetime calculation was made for the preliminary design heterogeneous core. Fuel cycle costs were estimated on the basis of the effect of B in the fuel elements. The schedule and facilities for the critical experiments are discussed in some detail. The speed of the main turbine shaft was tentatively set at about 12,200 rpm. The design and fabrication of a test stand to evaluate shaft seals and seal systems were completed and trial runs were made. The effects of minor heat transfer due to heat leakage, fluid flow, and thermodynamic phenomena on MGCR full-load cycle performance were studied. Operating characteristics of the heat exchanger test facility are described. A critical review was conducted on the desirability of using concentric ducts and valves. Block diagrams outlining reactor power level, outlet temperature, and plant inventory control are presented. Equations which permit the dynamic analysis of a closed-cycle gas-turbine plant were programed for a digital computer. Descriptions were prepared for fluid-mechanical systems. Several methods of purifying He in both storage bank and main loop were investigated. Investigations into the maximum operating temperatures of the various electrical equipment indicate that temperatures up to 140 deg F can be tolerated. Preliminary design work was carried out on an emergency cooldown system which uses a stored inert coolant. Work on the irradiation stability of fuel materials indicated that conversion from the monocarbide to the dicarbide can take place at 2,350 deg F in graphite bodies containing UC. Densities as high as 96.6% theoretical were obtalned in alumina pellets sintered in H. Xenon released from irradiated UO/sub 2/ granules was measured. Progress was made in the development of high-temperature x-ray-diffraction techniques. Tests were conducted to investigate the effects of coolant and impurities in the coolant on plant materials and the effects of gettering on inhibiting reactions. Economic studies were continued with the objective of determining the optimum size and power ranges for both nuclear and conventionally powered ships. (For preceding period see GA-744.) (W.D.M.)

1960-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

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401

INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - ADAMANT CIRCULAR SAW OENHP{number_sign}: 2001-05, VERSION A  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting up specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactive contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Adamant circular saw was assessed on August 14, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Adamant was only used during a limited ''test'' on a regular plywood crate due to safety considerations of the tool for this application. The Adamant circular saw, a counter-rotating twin-cutter, constructed with blades that work differently than conventional cutting wheels with twin blades, each rotating in opposite directions. It is used to cut wood and metals. Each blade is approximately 8 3/4 inches in diameter with a maximum cutting depth of 2 1/2 inches. The machine has two rotation speeds: 1,900 and 2,900 rotations per minute (rpm). The saw is operated with an interlocked, guarded trigger switch located at the end of the saw opposite the cutting blades. To operate the saw, the safety interlock must be depressed prior to powering the saw with the trigger control. The saw is supported by a handle at the front of the saw near the cutting blades. The top part of the blades is guarded near the handle, with approximately three-fourths of the face of the blades exposed. The Adamant circular saw is an innovative technology used to cut metals and wood. Its safety features include: interlocking switch for powering the saw, overload indicator and shutoff, and an electronic brake that stops the engine immediately when the start button is released. The top part of the blades is guarded near the motor. With approximately three-fourths of the face of the blades open, the operator is exposed to the potential risk of serious and minor cuts and abrasions when using and handling the saw. There is also potential for damage to the blades if the saw is not stored properly. Without guarding on the lower part of the blades, these can be damaged if the saw is dropped or rested on the cutting blades. Based upon the industrial hygiene sampling conducted for the other four saws demonstrated at FIU, noise levels, nuisance dust, and airborne fiberglass may be a problem when using this technology for the cutting of fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. No industrial hygiene sampling was conducted while the Adamant saw was in use. Engineering controls should be used to eliminate these problems whenever possible. Where this is not possible, administrative controls, training, and proper personal protective equipment (PPE) should be used. Respirators should be used if engineering controls do not sufficiently control the dust or fiberglass generated. Respirators should be equipped with an organic vapor and acid gas cartridge with High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter, since during the demonstration, the workers complained of an odd smell, which may have been the breakdown of the fiberglass.

Unknown

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Diamond Wire Saw for Precision Machining of Laser Target Components  

SciTech Connect

The fabrication of precision laser targets requires a wide variety of specialized mesoscale manufacturing techniques. The diamond wire saw developed in this study provides the capability to precisely section meso-scale workpieces mounted on the assembly stations used by the Target Fabrication Group. This new capability greatly simplifies the fabrication of many types of targets and reduces the time and cost required to build the targets. A variety of materials are used to fabricate targets, including metals, plastics with custom designed chemical formulas, and aerogels of various densities. The materials are usually provided in the form of small pieces or cast rods that must be machined to the required shape. Many of these materials, such as metals and some plastics, can be trimmed using a parting tool on a diamond turning machine. However, other materials, such as aerogels and brittle materials, cannot be adequately cut with a parting tool. In addition, the geometry of the parts often requires that the workpieces be held in a special assembly station, which excludes the use of a parting tool. In the past, these materials were sectioned using a small, handheld coping saw that used a diamond-impregnated wire as a blade. This miniature coping saw was effective, but it required several hours to cut through certain materials. Furthermore, the saw was guided by hand and often caused significant damage to fragile aerogels. To solve these problems, the diamond wire saw shown in Figure 1 was developed. The diamond wire saw is designed to machine through materials that are mounted in the Target Fabrication Group's benchtop assembly stations. These assembly stations are the primary means of aligning and assembling target components, and there is often a need to machine materials while they are mounted in the assembly stations. Unfortunately, commercially available saws are designed for very different applications and are far too large to be used with the assembly stations. Therefore, a custom diamond wire saw was designed and constructed. The diamond wire saw cuts through workpieces using a continuous loop of diamond-impregnated wire of length 840 mm. The wire loop runs around several idler pulleys and is driven by a simple geared DC motor that rotates at 17 rpm. The linear speed of the wire is 107 inches/minute. The saw is oriented at an angle of 20{sup o} from horizontal, so the operator can view the wire through the cutout at the front end of the saw. When looking through a microscope or camera with a horizontal line of sight, the operator can clearly see the wire as it cuts through the workpiece, as shown in the right side of Figure 1. The saw is mounted on a two-axis stage that allows the operator to align the wire with the workpiece. To cut through the workpiece, the operator drives the wire through the workpiece by turning the feed micrometer. An image of the interior of the diamond wire saw appears in Figure 2. This picture was taken after removing the protective cover plate from the saw.

Bono, M J; Bennett, D W

2005-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

403

DEMONSTRATION OF SIMULATED WASTE TRANSFERS FROM TANK AY-102 TO THE HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

In support of Hanford's AY-102 Tank waste certification and delivery of the waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked by the Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the effectiveness of mixing and transferring the waste in the Double Shell Tank (DST) to the WTP Receipt Tank. This work is a follow-on to the previous 'Demonstration of Internal Structures Impacts on Double Shell Tank Mixing Effectiveness' task conducted at SRNL 1. The objective of these transfers was to qualitatively demonstrate how well waste can be transferred out of a mixed DST tank and to provide insights into the consistency between the batches being transferred. Twelve (12) different transfer demonstrations were performed, varying one parameter at a time, in the Batch Transfer Demonstration System. The work focused on visual comparisons of the results from transferring six batches of slurry from a 1/22nd scale (geometric by diameter) Mixing Demonstration Tank (MDT) to six Receipt Tanks, where the consistency of solids in each batch could be compared. The simulant used in this demonstration was composed of simulated Hanford Tank AZ-101 supernate, gibbsite particles, and silicon carbide particles, the same simulant/solid particles used in the previous mixing demonstration. Changing a test parameter may have had a small impa