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1

User's Guide Model RPM10  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, will provide years of safe reliable service. Meter Description 1. Photo Tachometer sensor, IR ThermometerUser's Guide Model RPM10 Laser Photo / Contact Tachometer with IR Thermometer Patented #12;RPM10 V1.4 8/072 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Introduction Congratulations on your purchase of Extech's Laser Photo

Haller, Gary L.

2

U-003:RPM Package Manager security update | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

and updating software packages. Impact: Multiple flaws were found in the way the RPM library parsed package headers. An attacker could create a specially-crafted RPM package...

3

Effects of Gain Changes on RPM Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA's) Office of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) is to strengthen the capability of foreign governments to deter, detect, and interdict the illicit trafficking of special nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime shipping system. The goal of this mission is to reduce the probability of these materials being fashioned into a weapon of mass destruction or radiological dispersal device that could be used against the United States or its international partners. This goal is achieved primarily through the installation and operation of radiation detection equipment at border crossings, airports, seaports, and other strategic locations around the world. In order to effectively detect the movement of radioactive material, the response of these radiation detectors to various materials in various configurations must be well characterized. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated two aspects of Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) settings, based on a preliminary investigation done by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL): source-to-detector distance effect on amplifier gain and optimized discriminator settings. This report discusses this investigation. A number of conclusions can be drawn from the ORNL testing. First, for increased distance between the source and the detector, thus illuminating the entire detector rather than just the center of the detector (as is done during detector alignments), an increase in gain may provide a 5-15% increase in sensitivity (Fig. 4). However, increasing the gain without adjusting the discriminator settings is not recommended as this makes the monitor more sensitive to electronic noise and temperature-induced fluctuations. Furthermore, if the discriminators are adjusted in relation to the increase in gain, thus appropriately discriminating against electronic noise, the sensitivity gains are less than 5% (Fig. 6). ORNL does not consider this slight increase in sensitivity to be a worthwhile pursuit. Second, increasing the ULD will increase sensitivity a few percent (Fig. 7); however, it is not clear that the slight increase in sensitivity is worth the effort required to make the change (e.g., reliability, cost, etc.). Additionally, while the monitor would be more sensitive to HEU, it would also be more sensitive to NORM. Third, the sensitivity of the system remains approximately the same whether it is calibrated to a small source on contact or a large source far away (Fig. 6). This affirms that no changes to the existing calibration procedure are necessary.

Lousteau, Angela L [ORNL; York, Robbie Lynn [ORNL; Livesay, Jake [ORNL

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Rotary torque and rpm indicator for oil well drilling rigs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Monitoring the torque applied by the rotary table to the drill string and the rpm of the drill string is provided. An intermediate adapter is positioned between the drill kelly and the rotary table. A strain gauge is attached to the intermediate adapter to measure torsional deformation and provide an indication of rotary torque. Transmission of torque data is accomplished by radio frequency transmission utilizing a transmitter on the intermediate adapter. A receiver is mounted to the side of the drill rig floor to receive and demodulate the torque signal. The intermediate adapter is rotating at the same rate as the drill string. Detection of the revolutions utilizing the changing R.F. Field strength is accomplished at the edge of the drill rig platform or elsewhere with a stationary sensor which doubles as the torque receiver. A highly directional torque transmitter antenna mounted on the adapter is used with the major lobe lying parallel to the rig floor and perpendicular to the pipe. By detecting the envelope of the radio frequency field strength, each rotation is marked by a peak. This enables continuous torque and rpm monitoring.

Chien, L.C.

1981-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

5

RPM-2: A recyclable porous material with unusual adsorption capability: self assembly via structural transformations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-assembly of molecular electronics and smart materials will bring a new era in the field of material science.1 HoweverRPM-2: A recyclable porous material with unusual adsorption capability: self assembly via, fully recyclable porous material (RPM-2) with a very high sorption capability. Self

Li, Jing

6

RPM Sections - RPM-2 RPM-2  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298, and 323 K.OfficeNote:BEAM MOUNTEDLawrence Berkeley

7

FIS Technical Services Page 1 5/23/2006 RPM Installation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FIS Technical Services Page 1 5/23/2006 RPM Installation Version 4.5.1.11 Revised: April 2005 clicking on an empty space on your desktop and choosing "new" and then "folder"). 2. Visit http://www.fis Desktop using the drop down menu next to the Save in text box as in the image below. #12;FIS Technical

Sibille, Etienne

8

16,000-rpm Interior Permanent Magnet Reluctance Machine with Brushless Field Excitation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reluctance interior permanent magnet (RIPM) motor is currently used by many leading auto manufacturers for hybrid vehicles. The power density for this type of motor is high compared with that of induction motors and switched reluctance motors. The primary drawback of the RIPM motor is the permanent magnet (PM) because during high-speed operation, the fixed PM produces a huge back electromotive force (emf) that must be reduced before the current will pass through the stator windings. This reduction in back-emf is accomplished with a significant direct-axis (d-axis) demagnetization current, which opposes the PM's flux to reduce the flux seen by the stator wires. This may lower the power factor and efficiency of the motor and raise the requirement on the alternate current (ac) power supply; consequently, bigger inverter switching components, thicker motor winding conductors, and heavier cables are required. The direct current (dc) link capacitor is also affected when it must accommodate heavier harmonic currents. It is commonly agreed that, for synchronous machines, the power factor can be optimized by varying the field excitation to minimize the current. The field produced by the PM is fixed and cannot be adjusted. What can be adjusted is reactive current to the d-axis of the stator winding, which consumes reactive power but does not always help to improve the power factor. The objective of this project is to avoid the primary drawbacks of the RIPM motor by introducing brushless field excitation (BFE). This offers both high torque per ampere (A) per core length at low speed by using flux, which is enhanced by increasing current to a fixed excitation coil, and flux, which is weakened at high speed by reducing current to the excitation coil. If field weakening is used, the dc/dc boost converter used in a conventional RIPM motor may be eliminated to reduce system costs. However, BFE supports a drive system with a dc/dc boost converter, because it can further extend the constant power speed range of the drive system and adjust the field for power factor and efficiency gains. Lower core losses at low torque regions, especially at high speeds, are attained by reducing the field excitation. Safety and reliability are increased by weakening the field when a winding short-circuit fault occurs, preventing damage to the motor. For a high-speed motor operating at 16,000-revolutions per minute (rpm), mechanical stress is a challenge. Bridges that link the rotor punching segments together must be thickened for mechanical integrity; consequently, increased rotor flux leakage significantly lowers motor performance. This barrier can be overcome by BFE to ensure sufficient rotor flux when needed.

Hsu, J.S.; Burress, T.A.; Lee, S.T.; Wiles, R.H.; Coomer, C.L.; McKeever, J.W.; Adams, D.J.

2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

9

UBC Centre for Blood Research: Fermentation Suite Brom A5 (F4) PDF.xls: FermentationProfile Air O2 rpm N2 Base Acid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UBC Centre for Blood Research: Fermentation Suite Brom A5 (F4) PDF.xls: FermentationProfile Air O2 rpm N2 Base Acid NH4OH Acetic Acid 8.6 16.0 Configuration 1 SP 4 - - - SP - 2 SP 3 0.000 Temp (oC) dO2 Fermentation (Hrs) pH rpm Temp Do OD CK (mg/50-L) MeOH (ml) dO2 (%)Temp (C) 40 20 60 80 0 100 6 8 4 2 0 10 28

Strynadka, Natalie

10

RPM Development Path Development Categories  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conservation Bin Sampling ­ use a raw discretionary conser ation c r econservation curve Planned Forced logic, perhaps enhanced Elasticity of EE ­ add a load-based scalar toElasticity of EE add a load based scalar to the LO conservation curve ­ possibly enhance for discretionary Price Responsive Hydro? 5 Phase

11

1 PMMA():PMMA 3% 1000rpm10  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

*40um)Blanking Power ON External( Contrast Brightness ) (8) SEM X,Y PROXY WRITER Exposure 6 MIBK+IPA(1:3) 70 IPA20 D.I.Water20 7 : 8 :... 9 (Lift off) PMMA PROXY WRITER E-Beam Writer Raith PROXY

12

Incremental adaptation to yaw head movements during 30 RPM centrifugation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Artificial Gravity (AG) provided by short-radius centrifugation is a promising countermeasure against the harmful physiological effects of prolonged weightlessness. However, the vestibular stimulus associated with making ...

Elias, Paul Z. (Paul Ziad)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Sliced Con guration Spaces for Curved Planar Elisha Sacks and Chandrajit Bajaj  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for geometric computations in robotics and engineering. To appear in International Journal of Robotics Research is important because it underlies algorithmic approaches to geometric reasoning. It supports the robotics tasks contact analysis, including mechanismdesign 26, 27 , fastener design 12 , part feeder design 9, 10

Texas at Austin, University of

14

Electronic structure of the dioxygen to transition metal bond: generalized molecular orbital calculations on models of manganese, iron, and cobalt porphyrins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are reported for FeP where P = porphinato(2-) ~ (NH2)4 , (NHCH2)4 , (N4C2H10) , (N4CBH6) and for Fe(02)PL where P = porphi nato(2-), (NH2)4 , (N4C2H6) and L = imidazole, NH3. The MO calculations indicate that (N4C2H6) is a better model for the porphyri n... ring in metal-dioxygen porphyrin complexes than the model (NH ) . This model was employed in generalized molecular orbital-confi guration interaction calculations of Fe(02)P(NH3), Co(02)P(NH3), and Mn(02)P where P = (N4C2H6) The ozone...

Newton, James Edward

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Appeared in IEEE Computer, February 1995 RPM: A RAPID PROTOTYPING ENGINE FOR MULTIPROCESSOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SYSTEMS1 Luiz Andre Barroso, Sasan Iman, Jaeheon Jeong, Koray Ă?ner, Krishnan Ramamurthy and Michel Dubois

Barroso, Luiz André

16

Grants.gov eRPM Steps 1. PAF worksheet Grants.gov submissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­ Grants.gov submissions 3 Look up FOA number to tie Grants.gov forms to PAF #12;Step 1 - PAF worksheet (PDFs) must be in a specific order. #12;Step 6 ­ Generate PDF 21 Click Generate PDF Version Status = Valid for Submission #12;Step 6 ­ Generate PDF 22 Select the box to include attachments & click OK. #12

Shyy, Wei

17

B-RPM: An Efficient One-to-Many Communication Framework for On-Chip Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. I am also grateful to all my High Performance Computing group colleagues, especially Lei Wang, Minseon Ahn, Hyunjun Jang, Baik Song An, Jagadish Chandar and Rahul Boyapati. I appreciate their time and effort which helped me in getting over...

Shaukat, Noman

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

18

RPM §2.05. Employee Relations (Rev. 06/14)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298, and 323 K.OfficeNote:BEAM MOUNTEDLawrence

19

/7 soF'/t,,,,n,re D toPm NT". Using a Co nf=guration Management Tool to CoordInate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for coordination they provide, and their role in supporting a model of work. KEYWORDS: configuration management (CM of coordinating group work. This particular technology, a configuration management (CM) tool, incorporates begins with a description of configuration management, and how it involves coordinating the work

Grinter, Rebecca Elizabeth

20

2528 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 43, NO. 6, JUNE 2007 A Highly Efficient 200 000 RPM Permanent Magnet Motor System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

presents the development of an ultra-high-speed permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) that produces large iron loss at high-speed. In ultra-high-speed applications, PMSM offers the advantage of high efficiency, and high stability, is generally considered for high performance PMSM control. However, for ultra

Wu, Thomas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Theory and simulations of principle of minimum dissipation rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reversed ?eld pinch and spheromak obtained from our modelguration, 18 and a spheromak con?guration. 19 Bhattacharyya

Shaikh, Dastgeer; Zank, G. P.; Hu, Q.; Dasgupta, B.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Robust emulation of shared memory using dynamic quorum-acknowledged broadcasts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In addition to processor and link failures, this emulation tolerates changes in quorum con gurations, i.e., on

Lynch, Nancy

23

Cooperative motions in supercooled liquids and glasses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

P. Heat capacity and entropy of an equilibrium liquid fromliquids should correlate inversely with the con?gurational heat capacity,

Stevenson, Jacob D.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Water Challenges for Geologic Carbon Capture and Sequestration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

subcritical and supercritical con?gurations, respectively Environmental Management (2010) 45:651–661 Fig. 5 Water

Newmark, Robin L.; Friedmann, Samuel J.; Carroll, Susan A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Electrical Signal Path Study and Component Assay for the MAJORANA N-Type Segmented Contact Detector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Study 3.1 Baseline Electrical Con?guration and DetectorElectrical Signal Path Study and Component Assay for thethe mechanical design, electrical readout performance, and

Amman, Mark

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

SYSTEMATIC CONTROL AND APPLICATION FOR 7 DOF UPPER-LIMB EXOSKELETON  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

con?gurations. a) shoulder abduction-adduction, b) should ?range of motion(Shoulder abduction-adduction, Shoulder ?in this ?gure means shoulder abduction-adduction, shoulder ?

Kim, Hyunchul

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

RIIO COPA rev1 11/09Page 1 of 3 Use this form to request approval for compensated outside professional activity, as defined in RPM 10.02. A separate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/prospective business relationship with LBNL? None that I am aware of Sponsored research, gift, or CRADA Technology

Eisen, Michael

28

Rotordynamic coefficients and leakage flow of parallel-grooved liquid-seals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

? 5300 RP51 6 ? 1200 RPV1 200000 300000 400000 Reynolds number Seal 8 087 06 4~ . 04r 02' Measured Theory 1000 RPM 2000 RPM 3000 RPM 4000 RPM 5300 RPM 1200 RP51 0. 100000 200000 300000 400000 Reynolds number Figure 17 Measured...

Kilgore, James Joseph

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

E-Print Network 3.0 - aau receipts targeted Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

gurated in 1974 and is thus a young... as in new, like e.g. the fields of information technology and the health sciences. Thus, AAU continu- ... Source: Hansen, Ren Rydhof -...

30

On the Use of Outer Approximations as an External Active Set Strategy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

guration of a two-link robot arm J Optim Theory Appl (2010)time interval where the robot arm travels from via point q iwith Schittkowski SQP, robot arm example Data # Native N

Chung, H.; Polak, E.; Sastry, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

A distributed hard real-time Java system for high mobility components  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

applications to adapt to changes in user requirements or to external events. We describe how we achieve run-time recon?guration in distributed Java applications by appropriately migrating servers. Guaranteed-rate schedulers at the servers provide...

Rho, Sangig

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

32

Film Cooling, Heat Transfer and Aerodynamic Measurements in a Three Stage Research Gas Turbine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

turbine rotational speeds namely, 2400rpm, 2550rpm and 3000rpm. Interstage aerodynamic measurements with miniature five hole probes are also acquired at these speeds. The aerodynamic data characterizes the flow along the first stage rotor exit, second...

Suryanarayanan, Arun

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

33

An experimental study of the relationship between cuttings deposition and wellbore inclination in eccentric annuli  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Inclination on Cuttings Deposition (0 rpm data) 6 90 % Confidence Band on Regression Mean (0 rpm, AV = 2 ft/sec) 7 90 % Confidence Band on Regression Mean (0 rpm, AV = 3 ft/sec) 8 90 % Confidence Band on Regression Mean (0 rptn, AV = 4 ft/sec) 9 Effect... of Flow Rate on Cuttings Deposition (0 rpm data) 10 Mobil Data Comparison (0 rpm, AV = 2 ft/sec) 11 Mobil Data Comparison (0 rpm, AV = 3 ft/sec) 12 Mobil Data Comparison (0 rpm, AV = 4 ft/sec) 13 Iyoho Data Comparison (0 rpm data) page 26 44 45...

Colbert, John Wesley

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Workshop in Regulation &  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Consultant, PJM Interconnection, "RPM: Reliability Pricing Model: A New Proposal from PJM" Mark Babula

Lin, Xiaodong

35

Effects of a platinum-based fuel additive on the performance of a single cylinder research diesel engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, at 1900 RPM. Exhaust Gas Concentration of Carbon Monoxide, CO, at 1300 RPM. . . . , . . . . . . 35 53 55 Figure 19: Figure 20: Figure 21: Figure 22: Figure 23: Figure 24: Figure 25: Figure 26: Figure 27: Figure 28: Figure 29: Figure 30...: Figure 31: Figure 32: Figure 33: Figure 34: Exhaust Gas Concentration of Carbon Monoxide, CO, at 1600 RPM. Exhaust Gas Concentration of Carbon Monoxide, CO, at 1900 RPM. Exhaust Gas Concentration of Carbon Dioxide, CO2, at 1300 RPM. Exhaust Gas...

Ruemmele, Warren Pietro

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

The Complex Core Level Spectra of CeO2: An Analysis in Terms of Atomic and Charge Transfer Effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a rigorous parameter-free theoretical treatment of the Ce 4s and 5s photoelectron spectra of CeO2. In the currently accepted model the satellite structure in the photoelectron spectra is explained in terms of a mixed valence (Ce 4f0 O 2p6, Ce 4f1 O 2p5, and Ce 4f2 O 2p4) con?guration. We show that charge transfer (CT) into Ce 5d as well as con?gurations involving intra-atomic movement of charge must be considered in addition and compute their contributions to the spectra.

Bagus, Paul S.; Nelin, Constance J.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Baron, Martin; Abbott, Heather; Primorac, Elena; Kuhlenbeck, Helmut; Shaikhutdinov, Shamil; Freund, Hans-Joachim

2010-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

37

A calculation of the van der Waals potential and the hyperfine pressure shift for H-He  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- lation, a ghost orb1tal approach is developed to a1d 1n choos1ng helium ground state conf1gurations. Configurations used to represent the van der Waals interact1on are chosen using osc1llator strength sum rules to determine most of the orb1tal... to represent H-He ground state . . . . 38 IV. Ground state valence bond conf1gurations 38 V. He ground state energ1es and H-He interact1on potential. VI. Bas1s functions used to represent van der Waals interact1on 41 VII. Comparison of dipole...

Hamm, Thomas Francis

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

General Operational Procedure for Pedestrian Radiation Portal Monitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document outlines the basic conduct of operation (CONOPS) for a pedestrian radiation portal monitor (RPM), provided that the CONOPS is not facility or RPM specific and that it is based on a general understanding of a pedestrian RPM operation. The described CONOPS for a pedestrian RPM is defined by: (1) RPM design and operational characteristics, (2) type of pedestrian traffic, and (3) goal for RPM installation. Pedestrian RPMs normally are deployed for the continuous monitoring of individuals passing through point of control to detect the unauthorized traffic of radioactive/nuclear materials. RPMs generally are designed to detect gamma- and neutron-emitting materials.

Belooussov, Andrei V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

39

Applications of the Generalized DDA Formalism and the Nature of Polarized Light in Deep Oceans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is applied to confi rmation of irregular invisibility cloaks made from metamaterials. In the second part, radiative transfer in a coupled atmosphere-ocean system is solved to study the asymptotic nature of the polarized light in deep oceans. The rate at which...

You, Yu

2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

40

A review of "Milton’s Cambridge Latin: Performing in the Genres 1625-1632." by John K. Hale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

he writes of it splendidly, with sure confi- dence and affection. John K. Hale. Milton?s Cambridge Latin: Performing in the Genres 1625-1632. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2005. xii + 305 pp. $32.00. Review by EUGENE...

Hill, Eugene D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Load Value Prediction Using Prediction Outcome Histories Martin Burtscher and Benjamin G. Zorn  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Load Value Prediction Using Prediction Outcome Histories Martin Burtscher and Benjamin G. Zorn system perform- ance. Load value prediction alleviates this problem by allowing the CPU to speculatively can only correctly predict about 40 to 70 percent of the load instructions. Confi- dence estimators

Burtscher, Martin

42

Understanding Loss Mechanisms and Efficiency Improvement Options for HCCI Engines Using Detailed Exergy Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Energy Balance of Ethanol Fuels,” Applied Energy, doi:bar, ?=0.40, 1800 RPM, Ethanol fuel Figure 7 - Crank-anglebar, ?=0.40, 1800 RPM, Ethanol fuel Figure 8 - BDC pressure

Saxena, Samveg

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Image resolution analysis: a new, robust approach to seismic survey design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?guration, parameters such as the structure and seismic velocity also in?uence image resolution. Understanding their e?ect on image quality, allows us to better interpret the resolution results for the surveys under examination. A salt model was used to simulate...

Tzimeas, Constantinos

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

44

The Quest for Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Jean-Pierre Hubaux  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

management or con guration. Although not all mobile ad hoc networks are self-organized, this propertyThe Quest for Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Jean-Pierre Hubaux Institute for Computer Communications and Applications Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ­ Lausanne CH-1015, Switzerland Jean

Capkun, Srdjan

45

Pis'ma v ZhETF, vol.91, iss.9, pp.532{535 c 2010 May 10 First-principles investigation of uranium monochalcogenides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pis'ma v ZhETF, vol.91, iss.9, pp.532{535 c 2010 May 10 First-principles investigation of uranium of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of uranium monochalcogenides: US, USe, UTe. The calculations. The electronic con guration 5f3 was found for all uranium compounds under investigation. Local Spin Density

Medvedeva, Julia E.

46

High energy density, thin-lm, rechargeable lithium batteries for marine eld operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High energy density, thin-®lm, rechargeable lithium batteries for marine ®eld operations Biying February 2001 Abstract All solid state, thin-®lm batteries with the cell con®guration of VOx, no binder) cathode consisted of a dense ®lm of vanadium oxide (200 nm thick), deposited on aluminum foil

Sadoway, Donald Robert

47

*Corresponding author. Tel: #972-4-851-5202; fax: #972-4-851-1911.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

collected 569 rainwater samples for chemical analyses. The geographical and meteorological (classi composition of rainwater and climatological conditions along a transition zone between large deserts"guration. The average rainwater salinity, mainly contributed by non-sea-salt fraction (NSSF), varies by more than one

Daniel, Rosenfeld

48

Design and Performance Analysis of a Geographic Routing Protocol for Highly Dynamic MANETs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 3.3.1.1 Beaconless Promiscuous Mode . . . . . . . . . . . 57 3.3.2 Hello Beacon Packet Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 3.4 Con guration... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3.19 Consideration for negative TTI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3.20 Nodes moving and staying within range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3.21 Nodes moving out of transmission range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 3.22 Ferrying packet...

Peters, Kevin James

2010-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

49

Energy Conservation in Heterogeneous Server Clusters Taliver Heath  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Conservation in Heterogeneous Server Clusters #3; Taliver Heath Dept. of Computer Science, measurement Keywords Energy conservation, server clusters, heterogeneity #3; This research has been supported.g., [3, 4, 9, 21]) and dynamic cluster recon#12;guration for energy conservation without per- formance

Bianchini, Ricardo

50

What is the Optimal Shape of a City? Carl M. Bender  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will pull itself into a con#12;guration of the same area, whose shape minimizes the total potential energy. This lowest-energy shape is the optimal city shape. In Sec. 2 of this paper we formulate this optimizationWhat is the Optimal Shape of a City? Carl M. Bender Department of Physics, Washington University St

Bender, Michael

51

Optimization in Computational Chemistry and Molecular Biology, pp. ??-?? C. A. Floudas and P. M. Pardalos, Editors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization in Computational Chemistry and Molecular Biology, pp. ??-?? C. A. Floudas and P. M, multivariate nonlinear optimization and optionally con gurational sampling is involved. The diversity problem. This problem is a combinatorial optimization task, and is known to have a non-polynomial time complexity 8, 24

Schlick, Tamar

52

ULF wave occurrence statistics in a high-latitude HF Doppler sounder D. M. Wright, T. K. Yeoman, T. B. Jones  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ULF wave occurrence statistics in a high-latitude HF Doppler sounder D. M. Wright, T. K. Yeoman, T was to establish the optimum con®guration for a new high-latitude Doppler sounder experiment, called DOPE (Wright, 1996; Wright et al., 1997), and to determine the likelihood of the experiment observing pulsation eects

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

53

A Robotic Case Study: Optimal Design for Laparoscopic Positioning Stands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Robotic Case Study: Optimal Design for Laparoscopic Positioning Stands ALI FARAZ SHAHRAM PAYANDEH Experimental Robotics Laboratory ERL, School of Engineering Science Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British- sition and lock endoscopic tools without the need for an assistant surgeon. The kinematic con guration

54

This research was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant MIP-9223812.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of RPM: An FPGA-based Multiprocessor Emulator Koray Ă?ner, Luiz A. Barroso, Sasan Iman, Jaeheon Jeong

Barroso, Luiz André

55

U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into plastic 250 ml bottles and centrifuged at about 1700 rpm for 45 minutes. The water and soluble salts were

56

Emission Characteristics of Jatropha- Dimethyl Ether Fuel Blends on A DI Diesel Engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

loads at the maximum torque.The engine speed was maintained at 1500 rpm. Here the jatropha oil is used

M. Loganathan; A. Anbarasu; A. Velmurugan

57

Product Development Plan for a New Pump Concept in North America  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rotating pump sizes for 3600 rpm and the 1800 rpm. At the 1800 rpm speed, hydraulic issues occur at the higher flow conditions. In addition, the efficiency drops (due to wasted energy) and the NPSH required is not as good as the 1800 rpm pump. Figure... ? xxx ? xxxx ? gpm ? gallons per minute ? typical measurement of flow with pumps HVAC ? Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning NPSH ? net positive suction head ? hydraulic technical term use to describe available liquid to the pump...

Towsley, Gregory S.

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

Antoine Fleury, 2009, Potsdamer Platz : l'envers du dcor , Le Mensuel de l'universit Potsdamer Platz : l'envers du dcor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, aujourd'hui occupé par des bureaux. Au nord-ouest de la place, un second projet est confié à Sony qui y installe son siège européen. Conçu par Helmut Jahn, le Sony Center est un ensemble de verre et d multinationales comme Daimler-Benz et Sony4 est emblématique d'un

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

59

Second Congrs Bisannuel du GIS -Rseau Amrique Latine Territoires et Socits dans les Amriques  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pampulha conçu par un jeune architecte, Oscar Niemeyer, qui fera ici ses premières armes avant de le plus emblématique reste l'aménagement du quartier de Pampulha confié à l'architecte Oscar Niemeyer construction de Brasília. Mots-clés : Belo Horizonte. Modernité. Niemeyer. Pampulha. Kubitschek. halshs

Boyer, Edmond

60

SU(2) Lattice Gauge Theory- Local Dynamics on Non-intersecting Electric flux Loops  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use Schwinger Bosons as prepotentials for lattice gauge theory to de?ne local linking oper- ators and calculate their action on linking states for 2 + 1 dimensional SU(2) lattice gauge theory. We develop a diagrammatic technique and associate a set of (lattice Feynman) rules to compute the entire loop dynamics diagrammatically. The physical loop space is shown to contain only non- intersecting loop con?gurations after solving the Mandelstam constraint. The smallest plaquette loops are contained in the physical loop space and other con?gurations are generated by the action of a set of fusion operators on this basic loop states enabling one to charaterize any arbitrary loop by the basic plaquette together with the fusion variables. Consequently, the full Kogut-Susskind Hamiltonian and the dynamics of all possible non-intersecting physical loops are formulated in terms of these fusion variables.

Ramesh Anishetty; Indrakshi Raychowdhury

2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Viscoelastic{Viscoplastic Damage Model for Asphalt Concrete  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.2.1 Yield surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.2.2 Viscoplastic potential energy function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.2.3 Hardening function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.3 Numerical... viii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1.1 Moisture-induced damage in pavements results in raveling and potholing 4 1.2 Adhesive and cohesive failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.3 Damaged and e ective undamaged con gurations...

Graham, Michael A.

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

62

Optimisation of NSLS-II Blade X-ray Beam Position Monitors: from Photoemission type to Diamond Detector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optimisation of blade type x-ray beam position monitors (XBPM) was performed for NSLS-II undulator IVU20. Blade material, con and #64257;guration and operation principle was analysed in order to improve XBPM performance. Optimisation is based on calculation of the XBPM signal spatial distribution. Along with standard photoemission type XBPM a Diamond Detector Blades (DDB) were analysed as blades for XBPMs. DDB XBPMs can help to overcome drawbacks of the photoemission blade XBPMs.

ILINSKI P.

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

63

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Multi-Stage Axial Turbine Performance at Design and Off-Design Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

blades not shown). . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 8.67 Cylindrical stator 2 blade 1800 RPM entropy iso-surfaces at various time steps (suction surface view). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 8.68 3D bowed stator 2 blade 1800 RPM... entropy iso-surfaces at various time steps (suction surface view). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 8.69 Cylindrical stator 2 blade 1800 RPM entropy iso-surfaces at various time steps (pressure surface view...

Abdelfattah, Sherif Alykadry

2013-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

64

A University Consortium on Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) for...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

- Guidance for developing HCCI range expansion HCCI Operating Range Single-cylinder gasoline HCCI with re-induction of residual, fixed exhaust cam lift, 2000 rpm....

65

T-572: VMware ESX/ESXi SLPD denial of service vulnerability  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

VMware ESX/ESXi SLPD denial of service vulnerability and ESX third party updates for Service Console packages bind, pam, and rpm.

66

PowerPoint Presentation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of low, medium, and high densities (4500 RPM) Sedimentation in centrifugal microfluidics Key Advantages * Fast: Sample-to-answer in <15 min * Inexpensive: <0.10 per...

67

Reactions of pulsed laser produced boron and nitrogen atoms in a condensing argon stream  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nitride (Johnson Mathey/Aesar and Carborundum) were affixed to a rod and rotated at 1 r.p.m., and boron

Martin, Jan M.L.

68

Reviewing progress in PJM's capacity market structure via the new reliability pricing model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Reliability Pricing Model introduces significant changes to the capacity market structure of PJM. The main feature of the RPM design is a downward-sloping demand curve, which replaces the highly volatile vertical demand curve. The authors review the latest RPM structure, results of the auctions, and the future course of the implementation process. (author)

Sener, Adil Caner; Kimball, Stefan

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

69

Electron Beam Lithography Optimizing energies using dose arrays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the filled shapes have residual scum. 90% Dose. Only a tiny bit of residual scum remains, however it is still wide by 50%. Recipe 1. Deposit PMMA A2 2. Spread 500rpm for 5 seconds 3. Spin 1700rpm for 30 seconds 4

Woodall, Jerry M.

70

Machinery Vibration Survey Test Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SF-85 High Priority ELECTRIC MOTOR: FAN: Mfg.: Dayton Mfg: Model: 5U917 Size: 73 RPM: 1190 RPM: 300 bearing. Spectral pattern suggests electrically induced fluting. The fact that a VFD is driving this motor ­ Exhaust Fan 1 EF-86 Moderate Priority ELECTRIC MOTOR: FAN: Mfg.: General Electric Mfg: Model: 5K4324A31465

Packard, Richard E.

71

A Novel Application of HEP Technology to the Problem of Audio Preservation*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Carl Haber Physics Division Lawrence Berkeley National Lab Berkeley, California USA *thanks to LBNL Tech Transfer for support Sept 16, 2003 LBNL Physics Division RPM 1 Vitaliy Fadeyev LBNL #12;Outline 16, 2003 LBNL Physics Division RPM 2 Vitaliy Fadeyev LBNL #12;Introduction · We have investigated

72

JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a twin screw extruder using a 2 mm die at 190 rpm, and a 3 mm die at 348 rpm. Analyses of the extrudatesJOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY Vol. 41, No. S1 February, 2010 Twin Screw Extrusion, soybean oil, vitamin and mineral mix). The blends were moisture balanced to 15% db, then extruded

73

Superfund state-lead remedial project-management handbook. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The handbook defines the roles and responsibilities of the Remedial Project Officer (RPM) with regard to State-lead remedial projects at uncontrolled hazardous-waste sites. It also discusses project-management techniques and the resources available to the RPM for accomplishing his mission.

Winter, B.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Superfund federal-lead remedial project-management handbook. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The handbook defines the roles and responsibilities of the Remedial Project Officer (RPM) with regard to Federal-lead remedial projects at uncontrolled hazardous-waste sites. It also discusses project management techniques and the resources available to the RPM for accomplishing his mission.

Hooper, S.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Milli-Biology Programmable Matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with engineered materials, in order to expand the range of length scales and properties beyond what is available gearing at low RPM, and power is required to maintain static position, requiring holding brakes. But this is exactly the regime needed for programmable materials; electropermanent motors are efficient at low RPM

Ishii, Hiroshi

76

Investigation of a Multiphase Twin-screw Pump Operating at High Gas Volume Fractions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Figure 4.21 LabView GVF Calculation ............................................................................... 63 Figure 5.1 Volumetric Efficiency Summary (All Speeds, 10 psi Inlet)............................... 67 Figure 5.2 Volumetric Efficiency... Summary (All Speeds, 50 psi Inlet)............................... 68 Figure 5.3 Volumetric Efficiency Summary (3600 RPM, Both Inlet Pressures) ................ 69 Figure 5.4 Volumetric Efficiency Summary (2700 RPM, Both Inlet Pressures...

Kroupa, Ryan Daniel

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

77

The University of Tennessee UT Tree Improvement Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Timing Higher Survival Accelerated Growth rate in field Believed earlier maturation Effects of RPM. Dibble transplanted into 3 gallon squat pots RPM® Step III Find seed source Collection Processing be planted with dibble bar Transplant shock Less costly shipping Conclusion Depends on the Customer Is RPM

Gray, Matthew

78

Experimental measurement of phase averaged wall-pressure distributions for a 25% eccentric whirling annular seal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Instantaneous wall-pressure data were recorded for a 25% eccentric whirling annular seal for rotor speeds of 1800RPM and 3600RPM, axial Reynolds numbers of 24000 and 12000, and whirl ratios of 0.1-1.0 following the procedure set forth by Winslow...

Cusano, Domenic

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

79

Participant Guide Cover Sheet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposal Management ­ State Transition (diagram) 4 Page 2 #12;eRPM Workflow eRPM system workflow starts Management - State Transitions Page 4 #12;Proposal Management Reviewer Participant Guide Last updated: 03Proposal Management Reviewer Participant Guide Cover Sheet Last updated: 03/20/09 1 of 1 http

Shyy, Wei

80

Design and Implementation of a Radiation Portal Monitor Multi-Lane Simulator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract - Deploying radiation portal monitors (RPMs) at U.S. ports of entry requires an understanding of an RPM system’s performance at sites with a large number of RPMs. This paper describes an RPM Multi-Lane Simulator that has been designed and implemented to simulate vehicle traffic at these sites. The Simulator’s flexible architecture simulates vehicle traffic with its associated radiation profiles and emulates each RPM’s radiation sensor panels. The RPM vendor’s embedded control computer firmware and supervisory software are left unchanged, thereby enabling hardware-in-the-loop testing of RPM system performance in configurations that exceed what is experienced in the field. The Simulator has proven to be a valuable and cost effective performance testing tool used by both Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and U.S. Customs and Border Protection systems integration and testing staff.

McKinnon, Archibald D.; Bass, Robert B.; Elder, Matthew S.; Johnson, Michelle Lynn

2009-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

In P. Durand et L. Goeldner-Gianella (dir.). 2005 Milieux littoraux. Nouvelles perspectives d'tude, L'Harmattan, 191p.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

'étude, L'Harmattan, 191p. 53 Mise en place d'un suivi morphosédimentaire dans l'archipel de Molène. Exemple'étude, L'Harmattan, 191p. 54 Fig. 1 : Localisation de l'archipel de Molène, roses des vents et des houles. Nouvelles perspectives d'étude, L'Harmattan, 191p. 55 d'Iroise dont la gestion a été confiée à l

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

82

informe comercial 8 de outubro de 2010 Qumica estratgica: estudos em  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

limpa: trabalho em ciência e tecnologia de alimentos ajuda município de Ponte Alta, a "capital da valorizada · Tecnologia mais limpa · Pág 10 · UFSC tem quatro INCTs · Págs. 11 e 12 · Células-tronco · Centro tráfego · Energia elétrica confiável · Cartório Virtual · Pág 23 · Gráficos indicadores da pesquisa na

Floeter, Sergio Ricardo

83

Formation and Sustainment of ITPs in ITER with the Baseline Heating Mix  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasmas with internal transport barriers (ITBs) are a potential and attractive route to steady-state operation in ITER. These plasmas exhibit radially localized regions of improved con nement with steep pressure gradients in the plasma core, which drive large bootstrap current and generate hollow current pro les and negative shear. This work examines the formation and sustainment of ITBs in ITER with electron cyclotron heating and current drive. It is shown that, with a trade-o of the power delivered to the equatorial and to the upper launcher, the sustainment of steady-state ITBs can be demonstrated in ITER with the baseline heating con guration.

Francesca M. Poli and Charles Kessel

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

84

Multiscale Methods for Fluid-Structure Interaction with Applications to Deformable Porous Media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

12 3-Level Hierarchy of Macro-grids : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 81 13 Pressure 1 (triangle shading) and velocity w1 (vectors) plots for = 1=2, h = 1=12 for (a) x1 = 0; (b) x1 = 1; in the periodic reference con guration...-Structure Interaction problems. Theorem II.1. Let (v"; p") satisfy (2.2) in the slowly varying geometry F". Let (v0; v1) be as in (2.13a), (2.20) where (w; ) satisfy (2.14) and ( ; ) satisfy (2.18),(2.19). Let p0 be as in the Darcy velocity (cf. (2.17)). Then, we...

Brown, Donald

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

85

Modeling of Shape Memory Alloys Considering Rate-independent and Rate-dependent Irrecoverable Strains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for martensite) Plastic back stress tensor (1-D form: ) 0 Plastic back stress tensor in the reference con guration " Total strain tensor (1-D form: ") "p Plastic strain tensor (1-D form: "p) p E ective plastic strain pcrit Critical e ective plastic strain... and martensite) ix Applied stress tensor (1-D form: ) 0 Deviatoric stress tensor Reference stress for the measurement of slopes CA and CM Mises equivalent stress crit Critical stress level below which no transformation strain is generated effp E ective...

Hartl, Darren J.

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

86

Chemical bond and entanglement of electrons in the hydrogen molecule  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We theoretically investigate the quantum correlations (in terms of concurrence of indistinguishable electrons) in a prototype molecular system (hydrogen molecule). With the assistance of the standard approximations of the linear combination of atomic orbitals and the con?guration interaction methods we describe the electronic wavefunction of the ground state of the H2 molecule. Moreover, we managed to ?find a rather simple analytic expression for the concurrence (the most used measure of quantum entanglement) of the two electrons when the molecule is in its lowest energy. We have found that concurrence does not really show any relation to the construction of the chemical bond.

Nikos Iliopoulos; Andreas F. Terzis

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Drilling optimization using drilling simulator software  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

equipment is being used on some rigs, adding more overall costs to the drilling operation. Other industries facing a similar dilemma-aerospace, airlines, utilities, and the military- have all resorted to sophisticated training and technology... and Gaebler3). Rotary Speed, RPM Weight on Bit, Klbs Rotary Speed, RPM Weight on Bit, Klbs Rotary Speed, RPM Weight on Bit, Klbs ROP,m/h 10 20 7 Fig. 3 shows the five basic processes encountered during the drilling of a well that account for more...

Salas Safe, Jose Gregorio

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

88

Sensorless Speed Control of Permanent Magnet-Assisted Synchronous Reluctance Motor (PMa-SynRM)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Page 5-17 (From top to bottom) Phase A current (DSP)-[1V/div], q-axis and d-axis currents-[1V/div] when motor speed is changed from 130RPM to 10RPM and back to 130RPM... torque at standstill (i.e., zero speed) and low speeds as well as constant output power over wide speed range. In order to meet these requirements, the PMa-SynRM machines are designed to operate not only in the constant torque region where the motor...

Chakali, Anil K.

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

89

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric pressure cell Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell Air Supply System1 Sylvain Gelfi2 , Anna G... of the fuel cell system. High stack power density is the main selling point of high-pressure sys- tems... RPM) and very...

90

Stat 511 (Corrected) Statistics M.S. Exam Spring 2008 page 1 of 7 This question concerns the analysis of some data like those collected in a study (by forestry/wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) and two processing conditions (the extruder's die temperature and screw speed rate) run-to-run. Within moisture (%) 6 CFA , Moisture , .25 3 raw die temperature ( C) 190 raw screw speed (rpm) 80 Temp

Vardeman, Stephen B.

91

CARB Verification of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters for...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

YR CATERPILLAR3406C2000, 14 Liter, 470 bhp @ 1800rpm * Fuel: California Diesel "red dye" 2, max. 500ppm Sulfur * EnviCat 2051, 15" Dia x 15" L, 200cpsi * Exhaust Temperature...

92

amies gel transystem: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1. Spin 3000 rpm in 5415C eppendorf centrifuge for 1 min to get ride of buffer. 2. Load probe onto the resin 3. Collect purified probe by spinning the loaded column at 3000...

93

Wood-Fiber/High-Density-Polyethylene Composites: Compounding Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood-Fiber/High-Density-Polyethylene Composites: Compounding Process J. Z. Lu,1 Q. Wu,1 I. I parameters for the wood-fiber/high-density-polyethylene blends at 60 rpm were a temperature of 180°C

94

Printing with PRISM Using Remote Print Manager 5.0.70.4 User Guide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

............................................................................................................................................. 15 NETWORK ADMINISTRATION with administrator rights. In order for RPM to work with network printers, the user must have managed rights. Please have your Network Administrator review the end of the document for network instructions

Benos, Panayiotis "Takis"

95

In-Flight Performance Optimization for Rotorcraft with Redundant Controls Gurbuz Taha Ozdemir  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

control system is designed to perform in-flight optimization of redundant control effectors on a compound controller is implemented for inner loop control of roll, pitch, yaw, heave, and rotor RPM. An outer loop

Maroncelli, Mark

96

AMO FOA Targets Advanced Components for Next-Generation Electric...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

power electronics (i.e., wide band gap devices) with high RPM, high power density and energy efficient megawatt (MW) class electric motors in three primary areas: (1) chemical...

97

For inquires concerning self inspections, please call Workplace Safety & Environment Protection (WSEP)966-4700  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

being conducted (i.e. gloves, goggles, safety glasses, boots, lab coats, face shields, etc.) 3.2 Other 4 - no open belts, gears or chains 11.4 Is maximum grinder shaft rpm clearly permanently marked on machine 11

Saskatchewan, University of

98

Effects of ethanol content on gasohol PFI engine wide-open-throttle operation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The NOx emission and knock characteristics of a PFI engine operating on ethanol/gasoline mixtures were assessed at 1500 and 2000 rpm with ? =1 under Wide-Open-Throttle condition. There was no significant charge cooling due ...

Cheng, Wai K.

99

Design and testing of a non-intrusive torque measurement system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rpm conditions. Two sensor types, phototransistor and photodiode, were tested. The photodiode sensor was tested with two emitter types: infrared LED and red laser. No significant difference in response was found using either the LED or red laser...

Wilson, Edwin Ernest

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Mining Gold from your Cooling Water System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to be achieved. GPM 2 /GPM 1 = RPM 2 /RPM 1 Equation (1) (RPM 2 /RPM 1 ) 3 = HP 2 /HP 1 Equation (2) ESL-IE-07-05-25 Proceedings from the Twenty-ninth Industrial Energy Technology Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 8-11, 2007. COOLING WATER PUMPING Pumping... Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Months Ri ver l eve l ( f t ) 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 T e mp er at ur e ( F) Average River Level Average River Temperature ESL-IE-07-05-25 Proceedings from the Twenty...

Mendez, T.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous acetic acid Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Heat at 70 C for 30'. 8. Add 100ml 5M potassium acetate, vortex 30". 9. Allow... to tube. 13. Invert to mix and spin 5' at 14K rpm. 14. Transfer ... Source: Singer, Mitchell -...

102

Aqueous, Room Temperature Electrochemical Deposition of Compact Si Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. For all Si deposi- tion experiments, the Al sample was rotated at 850 rpm with a rotat- ing disc electrode scanning electron microscope (FESEM), following Au=Pd sputtering. X-ray diffraction measure- ments were

Suni, Ian Ivar

103

MACHINE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE FUTURE ENERGY CHALLENGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to a permanent magnet machine efficiency of 70% is desired for shaft loads ranging from 50 W to 500 W in a speed range of 150 rpm to 5000

Kimball, Jonathan W.

104

Model-based Controllers for Active Control and Real-time Tests with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

N. Equipped with 3000rpm 400V permanent magnet motors, with a maximum torque of about 4Nm. powered by four for bidirectional coupling (Displ. control) (Wallace et al., 2005) NS Use ground input and force fedback from the PS

105

Apps for Vehicles: What sort of vehicle data isn't readily available...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

your car, the CAN bus is very busy with so-called "normal" messages. For example, the engine control unit (ECU) continuously sends a CAN message with the engine speed (in RPM)....

106

Imbalance response of a rotor supported on a floating ring fluid film bearing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

running speed (10,000 rpm). The system non linearity is evidenced by two self-excited subsynchronous vibration components identified from the experiments. The first subsynchronous component is associated with the instability of the inner film...

Naranjo, Julio Enrique

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Microsoft PowerPoint - Module 10f - GT PCS - final.ppt [Compatibility...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oil Radial Bearing Oil Radial & Thrust Bearing Dry Gas Seal Dry Gas Seal Oil Radial & Thrust Bearing Dry Gas Speed (rpm): Flow (kgs): 193 Seal Oil Radial Bearings Oil Radial...

108

R and D for improved efficiency small steam turbines. Phase II. Second quarterly technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The detailed design of a radial inflow steam turbine (RIT) comprised of two radial inflow turbine stages driving a common bull gear/output shaft designed for rated speeds of 70,000 rpm and 52,500 rpm, respectively, is described. Details are presented on: aerodynamic design; high speed rotors; high speed rotor bearings; high speed rotor sealing; gearing; output shaft; static structure; and predicted performance. (MCW)

Not Available

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Savings Through Power Quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vibration, leading to bearing failures. In addition, noise and vibration will be particularly severe on high rpm motors. Unbalanced voltage produces a corresponding negative-sequence flux causing unbalanced currents in excess of those under balanced.... In addition, noise and vibration will be particularly severe on high rpm motors. Voltage unbalance can be extremely detrimental to the proper operation and life of a three-phase motor. When line voltages supplying an induction motor are not equal...

Mehrdad, M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Feasibility study of a 6V-92TA homogeneous auto-ignited two-stroke (HAT) compressed-natural-gas-engine. Topical report, August 1989-May 1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the project was to modify a two-stroke 6V-92TA diesel engine to operate on natural gas using a simple system with gas addition to the compressor inlet and a spark plug for cold start and non-autoignition engine operation. The engine was to be operated at most speed-load conditions by autoignition of the premixed gas-air mixture. This concept is referred to as the Homogeneous Auto-Ignited Two-Stroke (HAT). Autoignition of carbureted natural gas was achieved at various loads and speeds in a 6V-92TA engine modified for operating on natural gas with the HAT concept. However, HAT engine operation up to 277 hp at 2100 rpm (diesel coach rating) was not achieved because early ignition in some cylinders caused knock and excessive heat transfer. Instead, the engine was operated up to 226 hp (767 N.m) at 2100 rpm, 181 hp (780 N.m) at 1650 rpm, 130 hp (773 N.m) at 1200 rpm, and 34 hp (368 N.m) at 650 rpm. Maximum brake thermal efficiency measured was 33.4% at 2100 rpm/219 hp. The corrected efficiency (to compensate for the unburned natural gas lost during the scavenging process) was higher than this. Steady-state emissions show very low NOx, total unburned HC lower than expected and reasonable CO levels. The lean air-fuel mixture and unburned exhaust gases in the cylinder resulted in very low NOx emissions.

Kakwani, R.M.; Winsor, R.E.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Utilize Cementitious High Carbon Fly Ash (CHCFA) to Stabilize Cold In-Place Recycled (CIR) Asphalt Pavement as Base Coarse  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of cementitious high carbon fly ash (CHCFA) stabilized recycled asphalt pavement as a base course material in a real world setting. Three test road cells were built at MnROAD facility in Minnesota. These cells have the same asphalt surface layers, subbases, and subgrades, but three different base courses: conventional crushed aggregates, untreated recycled pavement materials (RPM), and CHCFA stabilized RPM materials. During and after the construction of the three cells, laboratory and field tests were carried out to characterize the material properties. The test results were used in the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG) to predict the pavement performance. Based on the performance prediction, the life cycle analyses of cost, energy consumption, and greenhouse gasses were performed. The leaching impacts of these three types of base materials were compared. The laboratory and field tests showed that fly ash stabilized RPM had higher modulus than crushed aggregate and RPM did. Based on the MEPDG performance prediction, the service life of the Cell 79 containing fly ash stabilized RPM, is 23.5 years, which is about twice the service life (11 years) of the Cell 77 with RPM base, and about three times the service life (7.5 years) of the Cell 78 with crushed aggregate base. The life cycle analysis indicated that the usage of the fly ash stabilized RPM as the base of the flexible pavement can significantly reduce the life cycle cost, the energy consumption, the greenhouse gases emission. Concentrations of many trace elements, particularly those with relatively low water quality standards, diminish over time as water flows through the pavement profile. For many elements, concentrations below US water drinking water quality standards are attained at the bottom of the pavement profile within 2-4 pore volumes of flow.

Wen, Haifang; Li, Xiaojun; Edil, Tuncer; O'Donnell, Jonathan; Danda, Swapna

2011-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

112

A study of factors involved in quality of homestyle potato chips  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in means was rather small, 0 . 003 1 and 0 . 0027 respectively. Differences in specific gravity by lot showed to be significant at the 99K confi- dence level (Table 5). Specific gravity of lots of stored potatoes tended to be grouped by cultivar though... 15. 38 62. 86 c b 15. 99 64. 06 b b 17. 15 64. 61 a b 17. 11 68. 57 a a 14. 29 63. 35 d b 31. 16 31. 01 a 30. 72 a 26. 67 b 30. 84 a 5. 98 a 4. 83 b 4. 77 b 4. 82 b 5. 64 ab 0. 6702 30. 79 a b 0. 6746 b 0. 6765 b 27...

Schoelles, Dale Brian

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Classical ab initio van der Waals interactions from many-body dispersion and multipole machine learning models trained in chemical space  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Accurate predictions of van der Waals forces require faithful models of dispersion, permanent and induced multipole-moments, as well as penetration and repulsion. We introduce a universal combined physics- and data-driven model of dispersion and multipole-moment contributions, respectively. Atomic multipoles are estimated "on-the-fly" for any organic molecule in any conformation using a machine learning approach trained on quantum chemistry results for tens of thousands of atoms in varying chemical environments drawn from thousands of organic molecules. Globally neutral, cationic, and anionic molecular charge states can be treated with individual models. Dispersion interactions are included via recently-proposed classical many-body potentials. For nearly one thousand intermolecular dimers, this approximate van der Waals model is found to reach an accuracy similar to that of state-of-the-art force fields, while bypassing the need for parametrization. Estimates of cohesive energies for the benzene crystal confi...

Bereau, Tristan; von Lilienfeld, O Anatole

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

ANALYSIS OF X-RAY SPECTRA EMITTED FROM THE VENUS ECR ION SOURCE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Versatile Electron Cyclotron resonance ion source for Nuclear Science (VENUS), located at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab’s 88-inch cyclotron, extracts ion beams from a plasma created by ionizing a gas with energetic electrons. Liquid-helium cooled superconducting coils produce magnetic fi elds that confi ne the plasma and high microwave frequencies heat the electrons enough to allow for successive ionizations of the neutral gas atoms. The combination of strong plasma confi nement and high microwave frequencies results in VENUS’ production of record breaking ion beam currents and high charge state distributions. While in operation, VENUS produces signifi cant quantities of bremsstrahlung, in the form of x-rays, primarily through two processes: 1) electron-ion collisions within the plasma, and 2) electrons are lost from the plasma, collide with the plasma chamber wall, and radiate bremsstrahlung due to their sudden deceleration. The bremsstrahlung deposited into the plasma chamber wall is absorbed by the cold mass used to maintain superconductivity in the magnets and poses an additional heat load on the cryostat. In order for VENUS to reach its maximum operating potential of 10 kW of 28 GHz microwave heating frequency, the heat load posed by the emitted bremsstrahlung must be understood. In addition, studying the bremsstrahlung under various conditions will help further our understanding of the dynamics within the plasma. A code has been written, using the Python programming language, to analyze the recorded bremsstrahlung spectra emitted from the extraction end of VENUS. The code outputs a spectral temperature, which is relatively indicative of the temperature of the hot electrons, and total integrated count number corresponding to each spectra. Bremsstrahlung spectra are analyzed and compared by varying two parameters: 1) the heating frequency, 18 GHz and 28 GHz, and 2) the ratio between the minimum magnetic fi eld and the resonant magnetic fi eld, .44 and .70, at the electron resonant zone.

Benitez, J.; Leitner, D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

SHM of Galaxies Embedded within Condensed Neutrino Matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We re-examine the question of condensed neutrino objects (de- generate neutrino matter) based on new calculations. The potential show-stopper issue of free-streaming light neutrinos inhibiting galaxy formation is addressed. We compute the period associated with sim- ple harmonic motion (SHM) of galaxies embedded within condensed neutrino objects. For observational consequences, we examine the ro- tational velocities of embedded galaxies using Hickson 88A (N6978) as the prototype. Finally, we point out that degenerate neutrino objects repel each other in overlap and we compute directly the repulsive force between two interesting and relevant con?gurations. An outstanding issue is whether the accompanying tidal forces generated by condensed neutrino matter on embedded galaxies give rise to galactic bulges and halos.

Peter D. Morley; Douglas J. Buettner

2014-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

116

Experimental versus theoretical comparison of the effects of taper and static eccentricity on the rotordynamic coefficients of short, smooth, high-speed, liquid annular seals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 24 E 0. 085 Q 0. 080 g 0. 075 Pu0 070 0. 065 uO 060 0. 055 ~0 050 10200 rpm 17400 rpm t) 24600 rpm 3-02-01 00 01 02 03 E 24k MPa EO0 0) 0, 080 s& PI5 0. 075 Pu 0. 070 C3 0. 065 a 0. 060 0. 055 ~0 050 3-02-01 00 01 02 03 EO 085 Q...) 0 080 s& F50 075 o 0. 070 0. 065 u 0. 060 0 055 ~ 0, 050 3-02 ? 01 00 0. 1 02 03 ? 0. Taper Parameter Fig. 9 Minimum radial clearance versus taper parameter for all operating condittons. 25 Stiffness The direct stiffness is used...

Lindsey, William Todd

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

117

50 KW Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents an outline of the 50KW Stirling engine (4-189D.A.), called ''MT79'', as well as of its performance which was built by AISIN in 1980. The engine features a newly developed swash plate mechanism with floating plates. The engine, which uses Helium, has been successfully tested for over 1,000 hours, demonstrating a maximum horsepower of 52KW (71PS) /2,500rpm, maximum efficiency of 31% /700rpm, and maximum torque of 30kgf-m /500rpm. The performance of the engine is presented with these experimental results: Engine power, Torque, and Efficiency vs. Revolution; Heat balance; P-V diagram of expansion space and compression space; Noise level. The engine demonstrates the characteristics of a higher torque and a higher efficiency at lower speeds, and with low noise. Therefore, it was found that in a specific area, the engine shows characteristics surpassing those found in internal combustion engines.

Ishizaki, Y.; Haramura; Kondoh, T.; Yamaguchi, K.; Yamaguchi, S.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Effect of E85 on RCCI Performance and Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine - SAE World Congress  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper investigates the effect of E85 on load expansion and FTP modal point emissions indices under reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) operation on a light-duty multi-cylinder diesel engine. A General Motors (GM) 1.9L four-cylinder diesel engine with the stock compression ratio of 17.5:1, common rail diesel injection system, high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and variable geometry turbocharger was modified to allow for port fuel injection with gasoline or E85. Controlling the fuel reactivity in-cylinder by the adjustment of the ratio of premixed low-reactivity fuel (gasoline or E85) to direct injected high reactivity fuel (diesel fuel) has been shown to extend the operating range of high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) compared to the use of a single fuel alone as in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) or premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). The effect of E85 on the Ad-hoc federal test procedure (FTP) modal points is explored along with the effect of load expansion through the light-duty diesel speed operating range. The Ad-hoc FTP modal points of 1500 rpm, 1.0bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP); 1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP; 2000rpm, 2.0bar BMEP; 2300rpm, 4.2bar BMEP; and 2600rpm, 8.8bar BMEP were explored. Previous results with 96 RON unleaded test gasoline (UTG-96) and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) showed that with stock hardware, the 2600rpm, 8.8bar BMEP modal point was not obtainable due to excessive cylinder pressure rise rate and unstable combustion both with and without the use of EGR. Brake thermal efficiency and emissions performance of RCCI operation with E85 and ULSD is explored and compared against conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and RCCI operation with UTG 96 and ULSD.

Curran, Scott [ORNL; Hanson, Reed M [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Leakage estimation of incompressible fluids in stepped labyrinth seals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NO ROTATION . 2 . 22 . 1S CLEARANCE/PITCH FIGURE 7. Flow Coefficient vs. Clearance/Pitch for Two Different Straight-throrgh Labyrinth Seals. 16 YAMADA [13 ] STRAIGHT-THROUGH LABYRINTH SEALS. 10 THROTTLES PITCH. = 0. 787 IN. TOOTH HEIGHT = 0. 197 IN... through 22. As indicated in Figures 14 ano 18 hrough 22, the flow coefficient initially decreased as the shaft speed wen. from ze o to 2000 rpm. Then he flow coefficient increased with increasing rpm, when the axial location was 1. 0. As the shaft...

Chi, Daesung

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development. Annual technical progress report, October 1990--September 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this program are to study combustion feasibility by running Series 149 engine tests at high speeds with a fuel injection and combustion system designed for coal-water-slurry (CWS). The following criteria will be used to judge feasibility: (1) engine operation for sustained periods over the load range at speeds from 600 to 1900 rpm. The 149 engine for mine-haul trucks has a rated speed of 1900 rpm; (2) reasonable fuel economy and coal burnout rate; (3) reasonable cost of the engine design concept and CWS fuel compared to future oil prices.

Not Available

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this program are to study combustion feasibility by running Series 149 engine tests at high speeds with a fuel injection and combustion system designed for coal-water-slurry (CWS). The following criteria will be used to judge feasibility: (1) engine operation for sustained periods over the load range at speeds from 600 to 1900 rpm. The 149 engine for mine-haul trucks has a rated speed of 1900 rpm; (2) reasonable fuel economy and coal burnout rate; (3) reasonable cost of the engine design concept and CWS fuel compared to future oil prices.

Kakwani, R. M.; Winsor, R. E.; Ryan, III, T. W.; Schwalb, J. A.; Wahiduzzaman, S.; Wilson, Jr., R. P.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Notes 05. Dynamics of a simple rotor-fluid film bearing system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

geometry RPM_max 10000:= MAXIMUM & design speeds Nmax 50:= # of cases for analysis RPM design 7200:= a 0.2 c?:= Amplitude of imbalance on rotor disk Mechanical energy convected by lubricant. ? 0.8:= Thermal model conditions Heat carry over - thermal mixing... coefficient. ? 0.70:= T supply 50K:= Supply Oil Temperature Take deg-K as deg-C Lubricant properties PROPERTIES OF LUBRICANT MOBIL velocite No 10 (ISO VG 22) ? supply 0.0143 Ns? m 2 ?:= Lubricant viscosity at Tsupply in Pa-sec. ? 0.028 1 K ?:= Alpha...

San Andres, Luis

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

The effect of various mixers on the viscosity and flow properties of an oil well drilling fluid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, 1957 MaJor SubJect. Petroleum Englneerlng THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS MIXERS ON THE VISCOSITY AND FLOW PROPERTIES QF AN OIL WELL DRILLING FLUID A Thesis... on the 300 rpm Farm V-G Meter Reading 15 The Effect of Various Mixers on the 600 rpm Farm V-G Meter Reading 15 The Effect of Various Mixers on the Plastic Viscosity of a Bentonite Mud 16 Temperature Variation of the Drilling Mud Mixed in Variou...

Spannagel, Johnny Allen

1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

GILAD LAB LCL REPROGRAMMING PROTOCOL Days -2: Splitting LCL Lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from above try to spin down ~6-10x106 cells in a 15 mL conical tube. Spin cells at 1000 RPM for 5 different 15 mL conical (spin down 6 million cells in total in 3 different tubes) and spin at 1000 RPM for 5 + 50 µg/mL VitC and 0.5 mM Sodium Butyrate (NaB) 1. Using a 1 mL pipette, transfer cells to a 15 m

Pritchard, Jonathan

125

Resource Planning Model: An Integrated Resource Planning and Dispatch Tool for Regional Electric Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report introduces a new capacity expansion model, the Resource Planning Model (RPM), with high spatial and temporal resolution that can be used for mid- and long-term scenario planning of regional power systems. Although RPM can be adapted to any geographic region, the report describes an initial version of the model adapted for the power system in Colorado. It presents examples of scenario results from the first version of the model, including an example of a 30%-by-2020 renewable electricity penetration scenario.

Mai, T.; Drury, E.; Eurek, K.; Bodington, N.; Lopez, A.; Perry, A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Truck acoustic data analyzer system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive vehicle acoustic data analyzer system having at least one microphone disposed in the acoustic field of a moving vehicle and a computer in electronic communication the microphone(s). The computer detects and measures the frequency shift in the acoustic signature emitted by the vehicle as it approaches and passes the microphone(s). The acoustic signature of a truck driving by a microphone can provide enough information to estimate the truck speed in miles-per-hour (mph), engine speed in rotations-per-minute (RPM), turbocharger speed in RPM, and vehicle weight.

Haynes, Howard D.; Akerman, Alfred; Ayers, Curtis W.

2006-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

127

Localization and partial characterization of Listeria monocytogenes antigen(s) responsible for the induction of cell mediated immunity in Balb/c mice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

49 0 b f L. ~ ' HIB 37 d g Centigrade, 100 rpm. 52 Relation of photometer units to total cell number (L. ~B'BHIH37dg ~ Centigrade, 100 rpm. 55 Procedure for sonic fractionation of L. 57 10 Ag d bl d'ff f L. fractions with soluble antigen.... ~monoc- ~to ence sonicate fractions. 67 12. Calibration curve for molecular weight determinations using SDS-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. . . . . . . . . 68 13. Reactivity of immune and nonimmune spleen cells to FIGURE PAGE L. ~ d b I ll f...

Frazier, Charles Richard

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

128

Characteristics of a multiple disk pump with turbulent rotor flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DIRHETER IINIt tl, DISCHARGE OIANETER IINlt 3. CLEARANCE OETHEEN DISKS 0. 13636 IN. TYPE SEALJ PRCKING DISKFLO PUHP; NODEL K03 TOTRL HERO HORSEPOHER X EFFICIENCY + NPSH AVAIL V Figure 12. Performance of the 11 Disk Pump at 890 rpm (Test 2) C& C...: D. 13636 IN 111'E 5EAI. PACK(NO OISKFLD PL'. "P: HDD L 40 TOTAL HERO HDRSEPOHER X EFFICIENCY + NPSH AVAIL Y Figure 14 . Performance of the 1 1 Disk Pump at 1 790 rpm ( Tes t 1 ) CV o O C) CI O C) O \\ C CC C O I-!-W I o O O O 6 )3...

Roddy, Patrick James

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Comparison of the Leakage Characteristics of the Straight Annular and Convergent Seals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

independent analysis) ........ 17 Fig. 7 Comparison of the standard k-? and enhanced wall treatment models (convergent seal, Cex=0.1 mm) ..................................................................... 19 Fig. 8 Comparison of the standard k...-? and enhanced wall treatment models (straight annular seal, Cex=0.1 mm) ............................................................... 20 Fig. 9 Pressure contours for the convergent and straight annular seals (rotor wall, 20,200 rpm...

Ustun, Serafettin

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

130

C:\\Backup\\Plan 5\\Portfolio Work\\Olivia\\SAAC 2010\\110202 SAAC Meeting\\Notes\\110202 SAAC minutes 110520.docx Page 1 110202 SAAC minutes 110520.docx  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a few subtleties. Models that represent the region as part of a larger system, such as the WECC, may. It was mentioned in the meeting that just as WECC RPM results are difficult to interpret vis-ŕ-vis the "region" so

131

Response of DC and PAS to size fractionated particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Medium-duty, direct injection, turbocharged Diesel engine ­ all tests at 1400 rpm ­ 10% load, large nuclei mode, VOF 60% ­ 50% load, no nuclei mode, VOF 30% ­ 75% load, no nuclei mode, VOF 15 of monodisperse aerosols with a DMA ·All the measurement should be above the detection limit curve to yield

Minnesota, University of

132

430272-1732/06/$20.00 2006 IEEE Published by the IEEE Computer Society Computing today is highly data-dri-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is to ensure that the disk's operating temperature is always below a particular threshold--the thermal envelope-case operating conditions, the disk's temperature does not exceed the thermal envelope. Designers can achieve up the rpm. The main objective in designing disks to operate within the thermal envelope is relia

Gurumurthi, Sudhanva

133

Thermal Attacks on Storage Systems Nathanael Paul Sudhanva Gurumurthi David Evans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature, known as the thermal envelope. Exceeding the thermal envelope decreases the drive's reliability relationship between disk RPM and viscous heating. If the drive exceeds the thermal envelope, the drive canThermal Attacks on Storage Systems Nathanael Paul Sudhanva Gurumurthi David Evans University

Gurumurthi, Sudhanva

134

Understanding the Performance-Temperature Interactions in Disk I/O of Server Youngjae Kim  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, this study showed that such aggressive scaling of the RPM cannot be sustained within the thermal envelope the first infrastructure for integrated stud- ies of the performance and thermal behavior of storage systems disks. We then analyze the thermal profiles of real workloads that use such disk drives in their storage

Gurumurthi, Sudhanva

135

Purification of inclusion bodies and refolding of proteins Basic StrongLab protocol, based on a recipe concocted by Pingwei Li, (cite, if used: Steinle, A.,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DI, et al. (1998) 'Production, crystallization, and preliminary x-ray analysis of the human MHC class. Centrifuge to collect inclusion bodies (for example, 6000 rpm for 15 minutes). Crush the pellet and lysozyme can be added at this point to improve the purity of the pellet. e. Repeat step d two more times

Strong, Roland K.

136

Discussion Of Scenario ResultsDiscussion Of Scenario Results Michael Schilmoeller  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Btu/kWh) tons CO2/MWh RPM & Genesys (%) Council's Carbon Footprint paper Boardman 601.0 84% 504 $100/ton CO2 Policy No RPS Close Existing Coal Plants Dam Removal Low Conservation High Conservation-risk plan for each NPV study cost and TailVaR90 risk Average CO2 emission rate (MMt/year) over futures, 2030

137

Identification and Evaluation of Near-term Opportunities for...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

for the Department of Energy 1500 rpm, 2.6 bar BMEP - 2 nd Law Analysis of Experimental Data from MB 1.7-L HECC HECC 28.0% 2.2% 4.2% 10.9% 52.4% 2.3% Exhaust Other Friction &...

138

DOE External Advisory Mee4ng: Dec, 2013 Atlan&c Offshore Wind Consor&um  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

maintenance, oil degrada=on, contamina=on · Excessive bearing loads, excessive bearing slip N Speed: 660 RPM Temperature: 80°C Lubricant: Op=gear X320;5 Measuring wear and assessing contamina4on affects 250µm oil+0.5%water oil oil+0.5% 1

Firestone, Jeremy

139

Computer Based Motor Parameter Determination for High Speed Operation of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Synchronous Machines B. Szabados and U. Schaible McMaster University 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, Ontario PM synchronous machine parameters in the high speed operating range. The theory and real interior PM synchronous machine at up to 8000 rpm. Results are presented which show a significant variation

Szabados, Barna

140

LBNL-4183E-rev1 NNAATTUURRAALL GGAASS VVAARRIIAABBIILLIITTYY IINN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-4183E-rev1 NNAATTUURRAALL GGAASS VVAARRIIAABBIILLIITTYY IINN CCAALLIIFFOORRNNIIAA://www.energy.ca.gov/reports/. The report has an appendix that may be assigned a distinct LBNL report number and, if published, likely. Brett C. Singer at bcsinger@lbl.gov. 1 Disclaimer included verbatim as required by LBNL RPM Section 5

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Vortex Jitter in Hover Swathi M. Mula  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

78712, USA Abstract The trajectory of the tip vortex of a reduced-scale, 1 m diameter, four-bladed rotor condition of the rotor is at a blade loading of CT / = 0.0645 and a rotational speed of 1240RPM wake dominated by the tip vortices shed from the rotor blades. The complexity of the flow

Tinney, Charles E.

142

Proceedings of Proceedings of the ASME 2014 4th Joint US-European Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting and 11th International Conference on Nanochannels,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

between the rotors. Three counter-rotating fans, which have the same design point, have been designed(mm) Rhub Blade hub radius (mm) N Rotational speed of rotor (rpm) Rotational speed ratio NRR NFR L Distribution of load Pt,RR Pt,FR+Pt,RR Z Number of blades Pw Power consumption of the rotor (W) Zp Axial

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

143

Relationships between Beef Postharvest Biochemical Factors and Warner-Bratzler Shear Force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fragmentation index Mg2+ Magnesium mW Milliwatts ?l Microliter ?M Micromolar N Newtons (1 N = 0.102 kg force) Na+ Sodium ppm Parts per million PYG Preliminary Yield grade QG Quality grades viii REA Ribeye area RV Revalor IH + Revalor H rpm... ......................................................................................................... xiv 1. INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 1 2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE ......................................................................................... 4 2.1...

Orozco Hernandez, Pilar

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Control system for a vertical-axis windmill  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vertical-axis windmill having a rotating structure is provided with a series of articulated vertical blades whose positions are controlled to maintain a constant RPM for the rotating structure, when wind speed is sufficient. A microprocessor controller is used to process information on wind speed, wind direction and RPM of the rotating structure to develop an electrical signal for establishing blade position. The preferred embodiment of the invention, when connected to a utility grid, is designed to generate 40 kilowatts of power when exposed to a 20 mile per hour wind. The control system for the windmill includes electrical blade actuators that modulate the blades of the rotating structure. Blade modulation controls the blade angle of attack, which in turn controls the RPM of the rotor. In the preferred embodiment, the microprocessor controller provides the operation logic and control functions. A wind speed sensor provides inputs to start or stop the windmill, and a wind direction sensor is used to keep the blade flip region at 90 and 270/sup 0/ to the wind. The control system is designed to maintain constant rotor RPM when wind speed is between 10 and 40 miles per hour.

Brulle, R.V.

1981-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

145

Silica lipid composite microparticles as controlled release system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and high ionic strength (NaCl 0.1M), using a turbine Ika Eurostar (IKA® Werke GmbH & Co. KG, Germany), with a 3-blade Teflon® propeller at 750 rpm. Microparticles were obtained by cooling the hot emulsion at 20

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

146

Diesel-engine fumigation with aqueous ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A three cylinder, two cycle diesel engine, rated at 22KW at 2300 rpm, was fumigated with ethanol of 140-to-200 proofs. P-T diagrams and engine performance were analyzed with particular emphasis on the detection and evaluation of the knock phenomenon. Satisfactory full load operation was obtained with thirty percent of the fuel energy supplied as aqueous ethanol.

McLaughlin, S.L.; Stephenson, K.Q.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Electron tomography provides a direct link between the Payne e ect and the inter-particle spacing of rubber composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Zeosil 1165 MP from Solvay) in an internalmixer (ThermoHaake). Particular care was taken to avoid any trace of carbon black or ZnO nanoparticles. The mixing chamber is preheated and the rotor speed is adjusted during the process to between 95 and 105 RPM...

Staniewicz, Lech; Vaudey, Thomas; Degrandcourt, Christophe; Couty, Marc; Gaboriaud, Fabien; Midgley, Paul

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

148

Control system for a vertical axis windmill  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vertical axis windmill having a rotating structure is provided with a series of articulated vertical blades whose positions are controlled to maintain a constant RPM for the rotating structure, when wind speed is sufficient. A microprocessor controller is used to process information on wind speed, wind direction and RPM of the rotating structure to develop an electrical signal for establishing blade position. The preferred embodiment of the invention, when connected to a utility grid, is designed to generate 40 kilowatts of power when exposed to a 20 mile per hour wind. The control system for the windmill includes electrical blade actuators that modulate the blades of the rotating structure. Blade modulation controls the blade angle of attack, which in turn controls the RPM of the rotor. In the preferred embodiment, the microprocessor controller provides the operation logic and control functions. A wind speed sensor provides inputs to start or stop the windmill, and a wind direction sensor is used to keep the blade flip region at 90.degree. and 270.degree. to the wind. The control system is designed to maintain constant rotor RPM when wind speed is between 10 and 40 miles per hour.

Brulle, Robert V. (St. Louis County, MO)

1983-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

149

E-Print Network 3.0 - alginate gel beads Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

attached copy is furnished to the author for non-commercial research and Summary: mM CaCl20.9% NaCl, immersed in a 4 1C water bath and stirred at 250 rpm. The alginate beads...

150

University of Technology of Belfort-Montbeliard (UTBM) Doctoral School SPIM (Engineering Sciences and Microtechnology)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF PHILOSOPHY By Dongdong ZHAO Control of an Ultra-high Speed Centrifugal Compressor for the Air Management, an ultra-high speed, up to 280,000 rpm, centrifugal compressor is adopted. The centrifugal com- pressor. Air compressor supplying the oxygen to the stack is an important component in the fuel cell systems

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

151

The Development of an Accuracy of a Doppler Global System for One Dimensional Velocity Measurement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was calibrated to maintain the relationship between the transmission ratio and frequency shift of the laser. The system was tested by measuring the surface speed across a 99.06 mm white painted disc at 18000 and 10020 rpm when the transmission ratios of the ALF...

Karabacak, Mustafa

2014-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

152

Effects of Sand on the Components and Performance of Electric Submersible Pumps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and instrumentation diagram PID Proportial,-Integral-Derivative controller Q Flow rate QFP Volume flow rate of feed pump RPM Rotational speed in revolutions per minute T Torque ix VFD Variable frequency drive x TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT...! NOMENCLATURE ....................................................................................................... viii! TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................... x! LIST OF FIGURES...

Carvajal Diaz, Nicolas 1985-

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

153

PI & Project Team Step-By-Step Procedure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposal Management PI & Project Team Grants.gov Step-By-Step Procedure Last updated: 8/1/2013 1 Management PI & Project Team Grants.gov Step-By-Step Procedure Last updated: 8/1/2013 4 of 21 http of 21 http://eresearch.umich.edu Grants.gov from eRPM This procedure is a supplement to the rest

Shyy, Wei

154

2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim www.plant-soil.com 624 DOI: 10.1002/jpln.201000255 J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 2011, 174, 624633  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Mastersizer 2000 with Hydro MU attachment (Malvern Ltd., UK). It was found that for the investigated soils: (1) optimal speed of pump and stirrer was 2500 rpm, (2) optimal measurement time was 1 min, (3) there are two hexametaphosphate) or physical (by means of ultrasound application for 4 min at a maximum power of 35W), (4) one

Ahmad, Sajjad

155

Critical parameters of the restricted primitive model Athanassios Z. Panagiotopoulosa)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

research.7­10 Valleau and Torrie7 studied the heat capacity of the RPM near criticality using thermodynamic-scaling methods and report no indica- tion of an Ising-type divergence of the heat capacity. Luijten et al.,9 of Stell and co-workers1 established that the model has a vapor­liquid phase transition. Three recent

156

7,511,624 Wind Energy Overview: Device for monitoring the balance and integrity of wind turbine blades either in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

turbine blades either in service or as a quality control step in the manufacturing process Researchers oscillations (including imbalances and tracking variations) in wind turbine blades. This technology was tested covering the RPM rate of any wind turbine blade. This invention directly targets the operational monitoring

Maxwell, Bruce D.

157

Maximizing the enzymic saccharification of corn stover  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/g i3-glucosidase (Novozyme 188) and 5 FPU/g cellulase (Spezyme-CP) were added The flasks were then cultured in an incubated shaker (50 'C, 100 rpm, Amerex Instruments ' All enzyme loadings given as activity units per gram of dry biomass. Orbital...

Kaar, William Edward

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Characterization of the Tri10 gene from Fusarium sporotrichioides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

events. Novozyme 234 (InterSpex Products), 1% driselase (Sigma) and 0.025% chitinase (Sigma). The germlings were then incubated at 28°C for 20-60 min with gentle shaking (75-90 rpm) until most of the culture had been converted to protoplasts...

Tag, Andrew George

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

159

For inquires concerning self inspections, please call Workplace Safety & Environment Protection (WSEP)966-4700  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

being conducted (i.e. gloves, goggles, safety glasses, boots, lab coats, face shields, etc.) 3.2 Other 4 belts, gears or chains 9.4 Is maximum grinder shaft rpm clearly permanently marked on machine 9 - no open belts, gears or chains 10.2 Tool bit removed after use 10.3 Fillings and tailings cleaned up after

Saskatchewan, University of

160

Futurrex NR9-3000PY Lift-Off Ph iPhotoresist  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The following SEM image is of NR9-3000PY geared for thicker lift-off applications at approximately 5µm thickness9-3000PY 3 thi k3 µm thickness Spin Coat at 3000 rpm Post Coat Bake 120°C / 60 s eorcopy ASML / 80 i

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

The Use of WBM to Improve ROP in HTHP/Hard Rock Environments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on bit (WOB) and rotary speed (RPM) that are applied when drilling. These properties are dependent on the drillstring design and the available power of the drilling rig. Drillstring design has a direct effect on WOB the size and number of drill... Page VITA .......................................................................................................................... 65 vii vii LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1 Various Rotary Drilling Bits From Left: Tri-Cone Insert...

Kraussman, Andrew

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

162

Comparison of a Slanted-Tooth See-Through Labyrinth Seal to a Straight-Tooth See-Through Labyrinth Seal for Rotordynamic Coefficients and Leakage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-a (1015 psi-a), pressure ratios of 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6, rotor speeds of 10,200, 15,350, and 20,200 rpm, and a radial clearance of 0.2 mm (8 mils). The experiments were carried out at zero, medium, and high inlet preswirl ratios. The experimental results...

Mehta, Naitik

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

163

Comparison of Experimental and Theoretical Forces on a Model Dredge Cutterhead  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the laboratory. The effects of the depth of cut, direction of swing, and cutter rpm on the forces acting on the cutter head are evaluated. The forces on the cutterhead are determined through the use of a set of six load cells rated at 13.3 kN (3000 lb). The load...

Permenter, Rusty

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

164

Comparison of soy protein concentrates produced by membrane filtration and acid precipitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, respectively. A series of operations including pH adjustment (8.0), agitation (250 rpm, 30 min), sonication (40 dB, 20 min), homogenization (3 min), and centrifugation (3,000 x g, 15 min) were followed. For the membrane processing, the ultrafiltration cartridge...

Kim, Hyun Jung

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Ride-through for Autonomous Vehicles Aaron Kane and Philip Koopman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the usual approach of a This research was funded in part by General Motors through the GM-Carnegie Mellon of a property at which the system is no longer safe is its safety limit (e.g., a safety limit on the engine of 7500rpm might be set because the engine cannot operate above that speed without violent failure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

166

The Path to The Seventh Foundational Analytical Inputs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Process Flow 2 Load Forecast Model Regional Portfolio Model Generating Resource Potential Assessment & Availability Energy Efficiency Resource Potential Assessment Units & Baseline Unit Use Resource PortfolioCost RPM Peak Period definition Driven by Resource Adequacy Assessment and LOLP Single hour coincident

167

A comparison of the static and dynamic characteristics of straight-bore and convergent tapered-bore honeycomb annular gas seals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

seals was 3.1 mm and the cell width was 0.79 mm. Static and dynamic measurements are reported with air at three speeds out to 20,200 rpm, three supply pressures out to 17.2 bar, and with exit-to-inlet pressure ratios of 40% and 60%. The results...

Dawson, Matthew Peter

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Experimental evaluation of pocket damper seals with brush seal elements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

characteristics include leakage, starting torque and dynamic coefficients. The worn BHS leaks half as much as a PDS at all test pressures. The starting torque of a brush seal increases strongly with pressure, however, the power dissipated at 6,000 R.P.M. never...

Buchanan, Steven Eugene

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Radiation Transport Simulation Studies Using MCNP for a Cow Phantom to Determine an Optimal Detector Configuration for a New Livestock Portal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

scalable gamma radiation portal monitor (RPM) which can be used to assess the level of contamination on large animals like cattle. This work employed a Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code for the purpose. A virtual system of cow...

Joe Justina, -

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

170

A POWER SHAFT FOR THE MUNICH MP-TANDEM H. STEFFENS, L. ROHRER and S. J. SKORKA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

000 rpm was chosen. The generators are excited by permanent magnets and show a soft voltage1583 A POWER SHAFT FOR THE MUNICH MP-TANDEM H. STEFFENS, L. ROHRER and S. J. SKORKA power shaft developed for the Munich MP-Tandem is described. The shaft transfers energy at a rate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

171

0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 Fermentation (hours)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 Fermentation (hours) rpm Do Wet cell weight (g/L) Feed Rate (ml/L) Expon. (Wet cell weight (g/L)) Figure 2. Fermentation profile of a Fed-Batch conducted in the CBR Fermentation, succinate, propionate isobutyrate , and acetate by gas chromatography. They can be removed from the media

Strynadka, Natalie

172

C:\\Backup\\Plan 5\\Portfolio Work\\Olivia\\SAAC 2010\\130125 SAAC Meeting\\Meeting notes\\130125 SAAC notes 130822.docx Page1 130125 SAAC NOTES 130822.DOCX  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to a decision. Talk about tools and procedures for arriving at a decision. These are all things that we've done and Conservation Council's Systems Analysis Advisory Committee (SAAC) met on Friday, January 25, 2013. Attached of the recommendations of the RPM Review Committee was to have the Council develop a single risk metric additive to cost

173

Dell recommends Windows 7. Colorado State University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-1333MHz SDRAM, 2 DIMMS Internal Keyboard Internal English Dual Pointing Keyboard, Numpad Graphics Intel® HD Graphics 3000 Primary Storage 320GB 7200rpm Hard Drive Fingerprint and Contactless Smartcard Hardware Service with 3 Year NBD Limited Onsite Service After Remote Diagnosis Energy Star/E-PEAT Gold

174

CFD Simulation and Experimental Testing of Multiphase Flow Inside the MVP Electrical Submersible Pump  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to test the pump at different operating conditions. The pump is modeled and tested at two speeds; 3300 and 3600 rpm, using air-water mixtures with GVFs of 0, 5, 10, 25, 32 and 35%. The flow loop is controlled to produce different suction pressures up...

Rasmy Marsis, Emanuel 1983-

2012-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

175

Rotordynamic evaluation of a tangential-injection hybrid bearing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and Cre = 0.001 . Data are presented for 550C water at three speeds out to 25000 rpm and three pressures out to 7.0 MPa. Compared to a radial-injection hybrid bearing, experiments show injection against rotation enhances stability, yielding reductions...

Laurant, Franck Jean

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Gas Seal Leakage at High Temperature: A Labyrinth Seal and an All-Metal Complaint Seal of Similar Clearance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/5 the flow of a labyrinth seal for pressure ratios (Ps/Pa) > 3.5. The savings in leakage are maximized during operation at high pressure differentials. Leakage measurements with a rotor spinning to a maximum speed of 2,700 rpm (surface speed = 23.6 m...

Anderson, Alain

2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

177

Protein Expression: freshly transform pInt DNA into BL21 strain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Protein Expression: freshly transform pInt DNA into BL21 strain pick an isolated colony which facilitates easy transfer transfer to a 30mL homogenizer (glass mortar and teflon pestle type at 45,000 rpm for 45 minutes at 4C transfer supernatant to new tube quick freeze in dry ice/EtOH bath

Segall, Anca

178

|Research Focus A cost of disease resistance: paradigm or peculiarity?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was tested in a field trial in the absence of P. syringae pv maculicola. RPM1 þ plants were consistently in host­parasite interactions. Plants are good models for studies of co-evolution because, unlike animals-for-gene relationship [1], plants are resistant to some genotypes of a parasite species but not to others (Box 1

Brown, James

179

P-156 / G. Hegde P-156: Alignment of Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals with the Substrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from JSR. The polymer layers were spin coated at 3000 rpm on glass slides (2x3 cm) containing patterned layer source (ALS) with a race track shaped glow discharge area [7, 10]. In the beam mode, this source irradiation. The incidence angle of plasma beam was about 70 . The distance between discharge area and treated

180

Extrusion-cooking of sorghum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. , 1982). The mill was fitted with a 254 x 6. 35 mm carborundum stone mounted horizontally on the shat't of a 1/4 HP, 1, 450 rpm electric motor. The dehulling head plate held twelve steel sample cups. The clearance between the stone and the cups was set...

Gomez, Marta Hilda

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Evaluation of sorghum genotypes for agronomic and food quality characteristics for pitimi (rice-like product)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), using a Tangential Abrasive Dehulling device (TADD) ()2. It was fitted with a 254mn x 6. 35mn carborundum stone mounted horizontally on the shaft of a 1/4 hp, 1450 rpm electric motor. The dehulling headplate holds twelve stainless steel sample cups...

Blanchet, Claire Louise Colette

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

E-Print Network 3.0 - automated immunoradiometric assay Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1,25 OH-Vitamin D 1,25 VitD Summary: 2500 rpm 10 min 4*C NA 0.5 ml 2ml Plastic -sc -70*C RIA Core Two site immunoradiometric assay (IRMA... Plastic -sc -70*C RIA Core Two site...

183

Griffith 4/2004 Small Scale His Tag Enzyme Purification with TALON Affinity Column Resin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Griffith 4/2004 Small Scale His Tag Enzyme Purification with TALON Affinity Column Resin Overview: This is a small scale method for purifying a His-tagged protein using commercial affinity resin. Materials: TALON rotor, at 18 K rpm) at 4 °C. 7. Save supernatant fraction for column purification. Supernatant can

Doering, Tamara

184

SUPER HIGH-SPEED MINIATURIZED PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the design of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) to operate at super-high speed with high efficiency. The designed and fabricated PMSM was successfully tested to run upto 210,000 rpm The designed PMSM has 2000 W concept of electrical machines. After that, the modeling of PMSM for dynamic simulation is provided

Wu, Thomas

185

A real-time respiration position based passive breath gating equipment for gated radiotherapy: A preclinical evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To develop a passive gating system incorporating with the real-time position management (RPM) system for the gated radiotherapy. Methods: Passive breath gating (PBG) equipment, which consists of a breath-hold valve, a controller mechanism, a mouthpiece kit, and a supporting frame, was designed. A commercial real-time positioning management system was implemented to synchronize the target motion and radiation delivery on a linear accelerator with the patient's breathing cycle. The respiratory related target motion was investigated by using the RPM system for correlating the external markers with the internal target motion while using PBG for passively blocking patient's breathing. Six patients were enrolled in the preclinical feasibility and efficiency study of the PBG system. Results: PBG equipment was designed and fabricated. The PBG can be manually triggered or released to block or unblock patient's breathing. A clinical workflow was outlined to integrate the PBG with the RPM system. After implementing the RPM based PBG system, the breath-hold period can be prolonged to 15-25 s and the treatment delivery efficiency for each field can be improved by 200%-400%. The results from the six patients showed that the diaphragm motion caused by respiration was reduced to less than 3 mm and the position of the diaphragm was reproducible for difference gating periods. Conclusions: A RPM based PBG system was developed and implemented. With the new gating system, the patient's breath-hold time can be extended and a significant improvement in the treatment delivery efficiency can also be achieved.

Hu Weigang; Xu Anjie; Li Guichao; Zhang Zhen; Housley, Dave; Ye Jinsong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center and Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Swedish Cancer Institute, Seattle, Washington 98104 (United States)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

186

Computer simulations of the restricted primitive model at very low temperature and density  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The problem of successfully simulating ionic fluids at low temperature and low density states is well known in the simulation literature: using conventional methods, the system is not able to equilibrate rapidly due to the presence of strongly associated cation-anion pairs. In this manuscript we present a numerical method for speeding up computer simulations of the restricted primitive model (RPM) at low temperatures (around the critical temperature) and at very low densities (down to $10^{-10}\\sigma^{-3}$, where $\\sigma$ is the ion diameter). Experimentally, this regime corresponds to typical concentrations of electrolytes in nonaqueous solvents. As far as we are aware, this is the first time that the RPM has been equilibrated at such extremely low concentrations. More generally, this method could be used to equilibrate other systems that form aggregates at low concentrations.

Chantal Valeriani; Philip J. Camp; Jos W. Zwanikken; René van Roij; Marjolein Dijkstra

2010-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

187

Anomaly metrics to differentiate threat sources from benign sources in primary vehicle screening.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Discrimination of benign sources from threat sources at Port of Entries (POE) is of a great importance in efficient screening of cargo and vehicles using Radiation Portal Monitors (RPM). Currently RPM's ability to distinguish these radiological sources is seriously hampered by the energy resolution of the deployed RPMs. As naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are ubiquitous in commerce, false alarms are problematic as they require additional resources in secondary inspection in addition to impacts on commerce. To increase the sensitivity of such detection systems without increasing false alarm rates, alarm metrics need to incorporate the ability to distinguish benign and threat sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) and clustering technique were implemented in the present study. Such techniques were investigated for their potential to lower false alarm rates and/or increase sensitivity to weaker threat sources without loss of specificity. Results of the investigation demonstrated improved sensitivity and specificity in discriminating benign sources from threat sources.

Cohen, Israel Dov; Mengesha, Wondwosen

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Finding Extreme Subdwarfs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I develop a new technique to identify M-type extreme subdwarfs (esdMs) and demonstrate that it is substantially more efficient than previous methods. I begin by obtaining spectroscopy and improved photometry of a sample of 54 late-type halo candidates using the rNLTT reduced proper motion (RPM) diagram. From spectroscopy, I find that four of these are esdMs, three of which were previously unknown. From the improved photometry, I show that all four lie in a narrow RPM corridor that contains only 4 non-esdMs. Hence, with good photometry (i.e., without spectroscopy), it appears possible to select esdM candidates with a 50% esdM yield. This is more than an order of magnitude more efficient than previous methods.

J. L. Marshall

2007-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

189

A hydrodynamic model for asymmetric explosions of rapidly rotating collapsing supernovae with a toroidal atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We numerically solved the two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic problem of the explosion of a low-mass neutron star in a circular orbit. In the initial conditions, we assumed a nonuniform density distribution in the space surrounding the collapsed iron core in the form of a stationary toroidal atmosphere that was previously predicted analytically and computed numerically. The con?guration of the exploded neutron star itself was modeled by a torus with a circular cross section whose central line almost coincided with its circular orbit. Using an equation of state for the stellar matter and the toroidal atmosphere in which the nuclear statistical equilibrium conditions were satisfied, we performed a series of numerical calculations that showed the propagation of a strong divergent shock wave with a total energy of 0.2x10^51 erg at initial explosion energy release of 1.0x10^51 erg. In our calculations, we rigorously took into account the gravitational interaction, including the attraction from a higher-mass (1.9M_solar) neutron star located at the coordinate origin, in accordance with the rotational explosion mechanism for collapsing supernovae.W e compared in detail our results with previous similar results of asymmetric supernova explosion simulations and concluded that we found a lower limit for the total explosion energy.

V. S. Imshennik; K. V. Manukovskii

2004-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

190

High-resolution Tangential AXUV Arrays for Radiated Power Density Measurements on NSTX-U  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Precise measurements of the local radiated power density and total radiated power are a matter of the uttermost importance for understanding the onset of impurity-induced instabilities and the study of particle and heat transport. Accounting of power balance is also needed for the understanding the physics of various divertor con#12;gurations for present and future high-power fusion devices. Poloidal asymmetries in the impurity density can result from high Mach numbers and can impact the assessment of their flux-surface-average and hence vary the estimates of P[sub]rad (r, t) and (Z[sub]eff); the latter is used in the calculation of the neoclassical conductivity and the interpretation of non-inductive and inductive current fractions. To this end, the bolometric diagnostic in NSTX-U will be upgraded, enhancing the midplane coverage and radial resolution with two tangential views, and adding a new set of poloidally-viewing arrays to measure the 2D radiation distribution. These systems are designed to contribute to the near- and long-term highest priority research goals for NSTX-U which will integrate non-inductive operation at reduced collisionality, with high-pressure, long energy-confinement-times and a divertor solution with metal walls.

Delgado-Aparicio, L [PPPL; Bell, R E [PPPL; Faust, I [MIT; Tritz, K [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21209, USA; Diallo, A [PPPL; Gerhardt, S P [PPPL; Kozub, T A [PPPL; LeBlanc, B P [PPPL; Stratton, B C [PPPL

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Synthesis of Pt?Pd Core?Shell Nanostructures by Atomic Layer Deposition: Application in Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation to Propylene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was employed to synthesize supported Pt?Pd bimetallic particles in the 1 to 2 nm range. The metal loading and composition of the supported Pt?Pd nanoparticles were controlled by varying the deposition temperature and by applying ALD metal oxide coatings to modify the support surface chemistry. Highresolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images showed monodispersed Pt?Pd nanoparticles on ALD Al2O3 - and TiO2 -modi?ed SiO2 gel. X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the bimetallic nanoparticles have a stable Pt-core, Pd-shell nanostructure. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the most stable surface con?guration for the Pt? Pd alloys in an H2 environment has a Pt-core, Pd-shell nanostructure. In comparison to their monometallic counterparts, the small Pt?Pd bimetallic core?shell nanoparticles exhibited higher activity in propane oxidative dehydrogenation as compared to their physical mixture.

Lei, Y.; Liu, Bin; Lu, Junling; Lobo-Lapidus, Rodrigo J.; Wu, Tianpin; Feng, Hao; Xia, Xiaoxing; Mane, Anil U.; Libera, Joseph A.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Elam, J. W.

2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

192

Internal combustion engine with rotary valve assembly having variable intake valve timing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An internal combustion engine has rotary valves associated with movable shutters operable to vary the closing of intake air/fuel port sections to obtain peak volumetric efficiency over the entire range of speed of the engine. The shutters are moved automatically by a control mechanism that is responsive to the RPM of the engine. A foot-operated lever associated with the control mechanism is also used to move the shutters between their open and closed positions.

Hansen, Craig N. (Eden Prairie, MN); Cross, Paul C. (Shorewood, MN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Cycle simulation of coal-fueled engines utilizing low heat rejection concepts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

time step (kg) Total mass of' exhaust gas expelled during exhaust process (kg) Mean Effective Pressure (kPa) Nitric Oxide Emissions Thermal Efficiency (%) Cylinder Pressure (kPa) Piston Reversal Point PSZ RHCE RPM +cog Tcoo! Tech Tg... calculations. Results from the model indicated that autoignition of solid, non-volatile coal particles would not occur in a conventional compression ignition engine. A diesel pilot of 10 percent of the total energy input was required to achieve stable...

Roth, John M.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION Multispectral imaging with vertical silicon nanowires  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) 2. Spin e-beam resist (MicroChem PMMA 495K A2, 4000 rpm, 45 sec) 3. Softbake at 180 for 3 min 6. E-beam lithography of nanodisk arrays (Elionix, ELS-7000) 7. Develop in 1:3 MIBK to IPA for 90 sec 8. Rinse with IPA for 30 sec 9. Evaporate aluminium (40 nm) using thermal evaporator 10

195

Enforcement Project Management Handbook. Directive (Final)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The publication is a basic reference and training manual to assist EPA Superfund field personnel (Remedial Project Managers and On Scene Coordinators) in planning, negotiating, and managing potentially responsible party (PRP) searches and PRP-lead actions at Superfund sites. It provides an overview of each phase of the Superfund enforcement process and discusses specific roles and responsibilities of the RPM/OSC in the process.

Not Available

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

An analysis of the data collection modes of a digital weather radar system with respect to significant severe weather features  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. Conclusions Recommendations Page 109 109 111 REFERENCES. APPENDIX A. APPENDIX B. 113 115 131 143 viii LIST OF TABLES Table Page WSR/TAM-2 Weather Radar Technical Characteristics. . . 20 Antenna Scan Rates (rpm... reduction techniques can be applied. The usual pracr. ice is to measure the returned power in terms of decibels with respect to a standard reference power level, normally 1 mw. Power levels are then expressed in units of dBm, either above (+) or below...

Neyland, Michael Arthur

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Dharma Samvarddhani Ragam: Madhyamavati (22nd Mela Janyam)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

") , r S R-S ; nr || sn P r s R ; ; || Da nu ja Sam - - - Ma- rdda ni- - - 2. R ; R- R ; S || R ; rpM - R- ni - - s- r S R- sn sn nr || sn P r s R ; ; || - Da nu ja Sam - - - Ma- rdda ni- - - R , m R -M P- ni - - s- r S R- sn sn nr || rsnp ; r s R ; ; || - Da nu ja Sam - - - Ma- rdda ni- - - rm mppm R M P

Kalyanaraman, Shivkumar

198

THREE ESSAYS ON APPLIED ECONOMICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

supports for commonly used weak separability assumptions about food and meat demand. 2 Eq. (2-3) and 1=? jb satisfy the theoretical restrictions of adding-up, homogeneity, and symmetry (Deaton and Muellbauer, 1980). 6 The Marshallian demand... residual, supernumerary expenditure ?? k kk rpm , which is allocated between the goods in the fixed proportions jb .? Now let us turn our attention to the calculation of compensating variation. By substituting Eq. (2-3) into Eq. (2-2) we get...

Shin, Sang-Cheol

2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

199

Yeast Genomic DNA Preparation from Spheroplasts 1. Resuspend with 50 mM Tris, 25 mM EDTA (pH 8) in 10X the spheroplast pellet volume.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) in 10X the spheroplast pellet volume. 2. Immediately add 1/10 volume of 10% SDS. Mix. 3. Incubate 30 up pellets. Wash for at least 5 minutes at 25°C. 11. Centrifuge 10 minutes in SS-34 rotor at 10,000 rpm at 4°C. Discard supernatant. 12. Drain and dry pellets on bench. Dissolve each pellet completely

Aris, John P.

200

Why Reliability Options Are the Answer in New England  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In its market's current failed state, PJM sees evidence that electricity markets do not work. But that's the wrong conclusion. Price signals do work and generators predictably respond to price signals whether they are good price signals or bad price signals. Bad price signals caused New England's and PJM's problems. Here is why good price signals based on the RO approach and competitive markets will now solve New England's problems - and why PJM's RPM is not the answer. (author)

Bidwell, Miles

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

High-power baseline and motoring test results for the GPU-3 Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In support of the Department of Energy's Stirling Engine Highway Vehicle Systems program, the NASA Lewis Research Center has installed a 7.5-kilowatt (10-hp) GPU-3 Stirling engine with a motoring dynamometer to continue to obtain data for validating Stirling-cycle computer simulations and to prepare for future component testing. The engine was originally built by General Motors Research Laboratories for the US Army in 1965 as part of a 3-kilowatt engine-generator set. Baseline tests were run to map the engine over a range of mean compression-space pressures of 2.8 to 6.9 megapascals (400 to 1000 psi) and engine speeds of 1500 to 3500 rpm with both helium and hydrogen as the working fluid. All tests were run at a heater-tube gas temperature of 677/sup 0/C (1250/sup 0/F). Maximum power obtained with hydrogen was 6.82 kilowatts (9.14 hp) at 6.9 megapascals (1000 psi) and 3500 rpm. The maximum power with helium was 4.26 kilowatts (5.71 hp) at 6.9 megapascals (1000 psi) and 2500 rpm. The highest brake thermal efficiencies obtained were 26.4 percent for hydrogen and 21.3 percent for helium. These both occurred at 6.9-megapascal (1000-psi) mean compression-space pressure and 1500-rpm engine speed. The engine output was low at high speeds as compared with that for the previously reported low-power baseline tests that used the alternator and resistance load bank instead of the dynamometer. It is felt that this reduced power was caused by degradation of heat exchanger effectiveness as a result of contamination by rust and oil. However, efficiency was higher than in the previous tests because of the installation of a noncontaminated preheater that reduced combustion system losses.

Thieme, L.G.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE CootZoque C4, suppZdment au nOIO, Tome 42, octobre 1981 page C4-495  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

s arranged. The substrate i s heated by a ceramic heater and i s rotated a t the r a t e o f 50rpm f o r plasma reactor tube o f 200mm i n diameter and 800mm i n hight, around which a water cooled RF c o i l i an o i l d i f f u s i o n pump, and then the reaction gases are introduced under evacuation by rotary

Boyer, Edmond

203

Center Pivot Irrigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

362 Electric 1740 40:1 50:1 24 40 10.47 .8700 546 Electric 3450 40:1 52:1 38 54 14.13 1.6586 1406 Hi-Speed No. Hydraulic pump Tire size Rim & tire Last wheel End tower towers drive HP circum. ft. drive - RPM feet per hour Hydraulic 8 10 16.9X24 10...

New, Leon; Fipps, Guy

2000-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

204

Variable speed operation of generators with rotor-speed feedback in wind power applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of induction generators in wind power applications has been common since the early development of the wind industry. Most of these generators operate at fixed frequency and are connected directly to the utility grid. Unfortunately, this mode of operation limits the rotor speed to a specific rpm. Variable-speed operation is preferred in order to facilitate maximum energy capture over a wide range of wind speeds. This paper explores variable-speed operating strategies for wind turbine applications. The objectives are to maximize energy production, provide controlled start-up and reduce torque loading. This paper focuses on optimizing the energy captured by operating at maximum aerodynamic efficiency at any wind speed. The control strategy we analyze uses rotor speed and generator power as the feedback signals. In the normal operating region, rotor speed is used to compute a target power that corresponds to optimum operation. With power as the control objective, the power converter and generator are controlled to track the target power at any rpm. Thus, the torque-speed characteristic of the generator is shaped to optimize the energy capture. The target power is continuously updated at any rpm. in extreme areas of the operating envelope, during start-up, shutdown, generator overload, or overspeed, different strategies driven by other system considerations must be used.

Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C.P.; Migliore, P.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Variable speed operation of generators with rotor-speed feedback in wind power applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of induction generators in wind power applications has been common since the early development of the wind industry. Most of these generators operate at fixed frequency and are connected directly to the utility grid. Unfortunately, this mode of operation limits the rotor speed to a specific rpm. Variable-speed operation is preferred in order to facilitate maximum energy capture over a wide range of wind speeds. This paper explores variable-speed operating strategies for wind turbine applications. The objectives are to maximize energy production, provide controlled start-up and reduce torque loading. This paper focuses on optimizing the energy captured by operating at maximum aerodynamic efficiency at any wind speed. The control strategy analyzed uses rotor speed and generator power as the feedback signals. In the normal operating region, rotor speed is used to compute a target power that corresponds to optimum operation. With power as the control objective, the power converter and generator are controlled to track the target power at any rpm. Thus, the torque-speed characteristic of the generator is shaped to optimize the energy capture. The target power is continuously updated at any rpm. In extreme areas of the operating envelope, during start-up, shutdown, generator overload, or overspeed, different strategies driven by other system considerations must be used.

Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C.P.; Migliore, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Wind Technology Div.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Variable speed operation of generators with rotor-speed feedback in wind power applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of induction generators in wind power applications has been common since the early development of the wind industry. Most of these generators operate at fixed frequency and are connected directly to the utility grid. Unfortunately, this mode of operation limits the rotor speed to a specific rpm. Variable speed operation is preferred in order to facilitate maximum energy capture over a wide range of wind speeds. This paper explores variable speed operating strategies for wind turbine applications. The objectives are to maximize energy production, provide controlled start-up, and reduce torque loading. This paper focuses on optimizing the energy captured by operating at maximum aerodynamic efficiency at any wind speed. The control strategy the authors analyze uses rotor speed and generator power as the feedback signals. In the normal operating region, rotor speed is used to compute a target power that corresponds to optimum operation. With power as the control objective, the power converter and generator are controlled to track the target power at any rpm. Thus, the torque-speed characteristic of the generator is shaped to optimize the energy capture. The target power is continuously updated at any rpm. In extreme areas of the operating envelope, during start-up, shutdown, generator overload, or overspeed, different strategies driven by other system considerations must be used.

Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C.P.; Migliore, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Melter feed tank operating map from the FA-10.02 test data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The operability of the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) feed loops has been tested during the DWPF-FA-10.02 test. The ability to feed the melter at three distinct melter feed rates (0.20, 0.45, and 0.90 gpm), two distinct agitator speeds (65 and 130 rpm), varying liquid levels, and varying slurry rheologies was tested. This report correlates the operability of the feed loops with the above mentioned variables. The data are presented in the form of operating maps, Figs. 1 through 4, which are plots of the liquid level versus the wt% total solids (and yield stress) for two agitator speeds. The maps are divided into regions of acceptable feed loop operation and unacceptable feed loop operation. This report does not consider how closely the compositions of the MFT, the melter feed lines, and the Hydragard samples agree. The significant observations in this report are as follows: Both feed loops satisfy the operability criteria down to a liquid level below the upper impeller blade at low speed agitation (65 rpm). Under high speed agitation (130 rpm), feed loop No. 2 operates much more poorly than feed loop No. 1. The uncertainty associated with the wt% total solids of a slurry sample is larger than the current design basis range for total solids. The dilution of slurry due to pump priming is shown graphically in the chronological presentation of wt% total solids.

Spatz, T.L.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Fluid-Rock Characterization for NMR Well Logging and Special Core Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this effort is to develop, build and test a high-speed drilling motor that can meet the performance guidelines of the announcement, namely: 'The motors are expected to rotate at a minimum of 10,000 rpm, have an OD no larger than 7 inches and work downhole continuously for at least 100 hours. The motor must have common oilfield thread connections capable of making up to a drill bit and bottomhole assembly. The motor must be capable of transmitting drilling fluid through the motor'. To these goals, APS would add that the motor must be economically viable, in terms of both its manufacturing and maintenance costs, and be applicable to as broad a range of markets as possible. APS has taken the approach of using a system using planetary gears to increase the speed of a conventional mud motor to 10,000 rpm. The mud flow is directed around the outside of the gear train, and a unique flow diversion system has been employed. A prototype of the motor was built and tested in APS's high-pressure flow loop. The motor operated per the model up to {approx}4200 rpm. At that point a bearing seized and the performance was severely degraded. The motor is being rebuilt and will be retested outside of this program.

George Hirasaki; Kishore Mohanty

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

209

The Role of Spectroscopy Versus Detection for Border Security  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Countries around the world are deploying radiation portal monitor (RPM) systems and other radiation detection instrumentation to interdict the illegal shipment of radioactive material crossing international borders. These efforts include deployments in the U.S. and in a number of other countries by governments and international organizations. Because of their high efficiency for gamma-ray detection, most deployed RPM systems are based on plastic scintillators. Such systems, however, are largely non-spectroscopic in capability. Fully capable spectroscopic portal monitor systems are undergoing engineering development for deployment in the future. The ability to identify the detected radionuclides may allow improved operational handling of radiation alarms, particularly those arising from the normal cargo stream of naturally occurring radioactive material, commercial radioactive sources, and individuals treated with medical radiopharmaceuticals. The goal for improved RPM systems is to increase the sensitivity to threats while reducing the impact that nuisance alarms have on operations. This paper considers the roles for spectroscopic and non-spectroscopic systems for safeguards and border security.

Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.

2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

210

Gaz de France ordering high-efficiency drivers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For natural gas transmission, distribution, and storage operations, Gaz de France is installing Creusot-Loire's new line of high-efficiency gas-turbine packages, powered by Allison 501 and 570 generators for compressor speeds exceeding 10,000 rpm. The Type CA.3 driver comprises a 501 generator coupled to a two-stage power turbine; the ISO base rating is 3265 kW on gas fuel with a heat rate of 12,050 Btu/kWhr. The CA.5 driver with the stronger 570 gas-turbine engine is base-rated at 4805 kW with a heat rate of 11,360 Btu/kWhr. Designed for direct-drive, with no intermediary gearing, the high-speed compressor operates on the 13,820-rpm output shaft speed of the CA.3 for baseload requirements or on 11,500 rpm for the more powerful CA.5 set. These compressor packages will serve as boosters for the transmission and storage of regasified LNG from Algeria and natural gas from the North Sea, USSR, and France's own Lacq fields.

de Biasi, V.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Straddle Carrier Radiation Portal Monitoring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is the primary enforcement agency protecting the nation’s ports of entry. CBP is enhancing its capability to interdict the illicit import of nuclear and radiological materials and devices that may be used by terrorists. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is providing scientific and technical support to CBP in their goal to enable rapid deployment of nuclear and radiation detection systems at U. S. ports of entry to monitor 100% of the incoming international traffic and cargo while not adversely impacting the operations or throughput of the ports. The U.S. ports of entry include the following vectors: land border crossings, seaports, airports, rail crossings, and mail and express consignment courier facilities. U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) determined that a screening solution was needed for Seaport cargo containers being transported by Straddle Carriers (straddle carriers). A stationary Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) for Straddle Carriers (SCRPM) is needed so that cargo containers can be scanned while in transit under a Straddle Carrier. The Straddle Carrier Portal operational impacts were minimized by conducting a time-motion study at the Port, and adaptation of a Remotely Operated RPM (RO-RPM) booth concept that uses logical lighting schemes for traffic control, cameras, Optical Character Recognition, and wireless technology.

Andersen, Eric S.; Samuel, Todd J.; Mullen, O Dennis

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Spin-forming Project Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a second development order, spin-forming equipment was again evaluated using the test shape, a hemispherical shell. In this second development order, pure vanadium and alloy titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) were spin-formed, as well as additional copper and 21-6-9 stainless. In the first development order the following materials had been spin-formed: copper (alloy C11000 ETP), 6061 aluminum, 304L stainless steel, 21-6-9 stainless steel, and tantalum-2.5% tungsten. Significant challenges included properly adjusting the rotations-per-minute (RPM), cracking at un-beveled edges and laser marks, redressing of notches, surface cracking, non-uniform temperature evolution in the titanium, and cracking of the tailstock. Lessons learned were that 300 RPM worked better than 600 RPM for most materials (at the feed rate of 800 mm/min); beveling the edges to lower the stress reduces edge cracking; notches, laser marks, or edge defects in the preform doom the process to cracking and failure; coolant is required for vanadium spin-forming; increasing the number of passes to nine or more eliminates surface cracking for vanadium; titanium develops a hot zone in front of the rollers; and the tailstock should be redesigned to eliminate the cylindrical stress concentrator in the center.

Switzner, Nathan; Henry, Dick

2009-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

213

Application of organosilicon pre-sic polymer technology to optimize rapid prototyping of ceramic components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Developments of applications of advanced ceramics e.g., SiC, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, CMCs need to be on a faster track than what the current processing technologies can afford. Rapid reduction in time to market of new and complex products can be achieved by using Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing Technologies (RP&M) e.g., 3D-printing, selective laser sintering, stereolithography etc. These technologies will help advanced ceramics meet the performance challenges at an affordable price with reliable manufacturing technologies. The key variables of the RP&M technologies for ceramics are the nature of the polymer carrier and/or the binder, and the powder. Selection and/or the production of a proper class of polymer carrier/binder, understanding their impact on the processing of ceramics such as polymer-powder interaction, speed of hardening the green body in a controlled manner, ability to retain shape during forming and consolidation, delivering desirable properties at the end, are crucial to develop the low cost, high quality ceramic products. Organosilicon pre-SiC polymer technology route to advanced ceramics is currently being commercialized by Dow Corning. Methods to use this class of polymer as a processing aid in developing potentially better RP&M technologies to make better ceramics have been proposed in this work.

Saha, C.K.; Zank, G. [Dow Corning Corporation, Midland, MI (United States); Ghosh, A. [Philips Display Components Co., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL CROWN ETHERS BEARING THE exo-cis-2,3-NORBORNYL GROUP AS POTENTIAL Na+ AND K+ EXTRACTANTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The synthesis of a series of novel dinorbornyl-16-crown-5 and dinorbornyl-18-crown-6 ethers that incorporate the exo-cis-2,3-norbornyl moiety within the macrocycle framework is described. The key starting material for the crown ethers, exo-cis-2,3-norbornanediol, was successfully prepared on a large (>30g) scale in 88% yield from norbornylene by osmium tetroxide-catalyzed hydroxylation. The syn and anti isomers of the dinorbornyl-16-crown-5 ether family were prepared using diethylene glycol with ring closure achieved using a methallyl linkage. The isomers cis-syn-cis and cis-anti-cis di-norbornano-15-methyleno-16-crown-5 (6A and 6B) could be separated using column chromatography, and a single crystal of the syn isomer 6A suitable for X-ray crystal structure analysis was obtained, thereby confi rming the syn orientation. The syn and anti isomers of the dinorbornyl-18-crown-6 ether family were successfully prepared employing a different synthetic strategy, involving the potassium–templated cyclization of two bis-hydroxyethoxy-substituted exo-cis-2,3-norbornyl groups under high dilution conditions. Attempts to fully separate cis-syn-cis di-norbornano-18-crown-6 (10A) and cis-anti-cis di-norbornano-18-crown-6 (10B) from one another using column chromatography were unsuccessful. All intermediates and products were checked for purity using either thin layer chromatography or gas chromatography, and characterized by proton and carbon NMR. Crown ethers 6AB and 10AB are to our knowledge the fi rst crown ethers to incorporate the exo-cis-2,3-norbornyl moiety into the crown ring to be successfully synthesized and characterized.

Robeson, R.M.; Bonnesen, P.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

EXAMINATION OF DISLOCATIONS IN LATTICE-MISMATCHED GaInAs/BUFFER LAYER/GaAs FOR III-V PHOTOVOLTAICS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dislocations act as sites for nonradiative electron/hole pair recombination, which reduces the effi ciency of photovoltaics. Lattice-matched materials can be grown on top of one another without forming a high density of dislocations. However, when the growth of lattice-mismatched (LMM) materials is attempted, many dislocations result from the relaxation of strain in the crystal structure. In an attempt to reduce the number of dislocations that propagate into a solar device when using LMM materials, a compositionally step-graded buffer is placed between the two LMM materials. In order to confi ne the dislocations to the buffer layer and therefore increase material quality and device effi ciency, the growth temperature and thickness of the buffer layer were varied. A GaInP compositionally graded buffer and GaInAs p-n junction were grown on a GaAs substrate in a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. A multibeam optical stress sensor (MOSS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the strain in the epilayers. Electrical and optoelectronic properties were measured using a probe station and multimeter setup, solar simulator, and a quantum effi ciency instrument. It was determined that device functionality was highly dependent on the growth temperature of the graded buffer. As growth temperature increased, so did the dislocation density in the device despite an increase in the dislocation velocity, which should have increased the dislocation annihilation rate and the diffusion of dislocations to the edge of the crystal. The thickness of the graded buffer also affected device effi ciency with thinner samples performing poorly. The thinner graded buffer layers had high internal resistances from reduced carrier concentrations. In terms of effi ciency, the empirically derived recipe developed by the scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) produced the highest quality cells.

Levander, A.; Geisz, J.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development. Final report, September 28, 1990--November 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this program was to study the feasibility of operating a Detroit Diesel Series 149 engine at high speeds using a Coal-Water-Slurry (CWS) fuel. The CWS-fueled 149 engine is proposed for the mine-haul off-highway truck and work boat marine markets. Economic analysis studies indicate that, for these markets, the use of CWS fuel could have sufficient operating cost savings, depending upon the future diesel fuel price, emission control system capital and operating costs, and maintenance and overhaul costs. A major portion of the maintenance costs is expected to be due to lower life and higher cost of the CWS injectors. Injection and combustion systems were specially designed for CWS, and were installed in one cylinder of a Detroit Diesel 8V-149TI engine for testing. The objective was to achieve engine operation for sustained periods at speeds up to 1,900 rpm with reasonable fuel economy and coal burnout rate. A computer simulation predicted autoignition of coal fuel at 1,900 rpm would require an average droplet size of 18 microns and 19:1 compression ratio, so the injection system, and pistons were designed accordingly. The injection system was capable of supplying the required volume of CWS/injection with a duration of approximately 25 crank angle degrees and peak pressures on the order of 100 mpa. In addition to the high compression ratio, the combustion system also utilized hot residual gases in the cylinder, warm inlet air admission and ceramic insulated engine components to enhance combustion. Autoignition of CWS fuel was achieved at 1900 rpm, at loads ranging from 20--80 percent of the rated load of diesel-fuel powered cylinders. Limited emissions data indicates coal burnout rates in excess of 99 percent. NO{sub x} levels were significantly lower, while unburned hydrocarbon levels were higher for the CWS fueled cylinder than for corresponding diesel-fuel powered cylinders.

Kakwani, R.M.; Winsor, R.E.; Ryan, T.W. III; Schwalb, J.A.; Wahiduzzaman, S.; Wilson, R.P. Jr.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Portable Source Identification Device  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is the primary enforcement agency protecting the nation’s ports of entry. CBP is enhancing its capability to interdict the illicit import of nuclear and radiological materials and devices that may be used by terrorists. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is providing scientific and technical support to CBP in their goal to enable rapid deployment of nuclear and radiation detection systems at U. S. ports of entry to monitor 100% of the incoming international traffic and cargo while not adversely impacting the operations or throughput of the ports. As the deployment of radiation detection systems proceeds, there is a need to adapt the baseline radiation portal monitor (RPM) system technology to operations at these diverse ports of entry. When screening produces an alarm in the primary inspection RPM, the alarming vehicle is removed from the flow of commerce and the alarm is typically confirmed in a secondary inspection RPM. The portable source identification device (PSID) is a radiation sensor panel (RSP), based on thallium-doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) scintillation detector and gamma spectroscopic analysis hardware and software, mounted on a scissor lift on a small truck. The lift supports a box containing a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) sodium iodide detector that provides real-time isotopic identification, including neutron detectors to interdict Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and radiation dispersion devices (RDD). The scissor lift will lower the detectors to within a foot off the ground and raise them to approximately 24 feet in the air, allowing a wide vertical scanning range.

Andersen, Eric S.; Samuel, Todd J.; Gervais, Kevin L.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if operated at temperatures as high as is normally encountered in a vehicle engine. The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. A separate, comprehensive report on this thermal control study is available [1].

Staunton, Robert H [ORNL; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL; Chiasson, J. N. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Burress, Timothy A [ORNL; Marlino, Laura D [ORNL

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if operated at temperatures as high as is normally encountered in a vehicle engine. The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. A separate, comprehensive report on this thermal control study is available [1].

Staunton, R.H.; Ayers, C.W.; Chiasson, J.N. (U Tennessee-Knoxville); Burress, B.A. (ORISE); Marlino, L.D.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Coal-fueled diesel: Technology development: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project consisted of four tasks: (1) to determine if CWM could be ignited and burned rapidly enough for operation in a 1000-rpm diesel engine, (2) to demonstrate that a durable CWM-fueled engine could in principle be developed, (3) to assess current emissions control technology to determine the feasibility of cleaning the exhaust of a CWM-fueled diesel locomotive, and (4) to conduct an economic analysis to determine the attractiveness of powering US locomotives with CWM. 34 refs., 125 figs., 28 tabs.

Leonard, G.; Hsu, B.; Flynn, P.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Detailed design, fabrication and testing of an engineering prototype compensated pulsed alternator. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design, fabrication, and test results of a prototype compensated pulsed alternator are discussed. The prototype compulsator is a vertical shaft single phase alternator with a rotating armature and salient pole stator. The machine is designed for low rep rate pulsed duty and is sized to drive a modified 10 cm Beta amplifier. The load consists of sixteen 15 mm x 20 mm x 112 cm long xenon flashlamps connected in parallel. The prototype compulsator generates an open circuit voltage of 6 kV, 180 Hz, at a maximum design speed of 5400 rpm. At maximum speed, the inertial energy stored in the compulsator rotor is 3.4 megajoules.

Bird, W.L. Jr.; Woodson, H.H.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Developing a Methodology for Characterizing the Effects of Building Materials’ Natural Radiation Background on a Radiation Portal Monitoring System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, weather, and time of day. 6 Gamma rays are electromagnetic radiation emitted by excited nuclei in order for them to reach the ground state after decaying. Once emitted, these particles mainly interact with matter in three ways: photoelectric effect... and measured density were then used to define the MCNP material card for concrete. Pulse height tallies were used to determine the total gamma ray count rate in each of the four gamma detectors in the RPM. 5 CHAPTER II BACKGROUND II.A. Radiation...

Fitzmaurice, Matthew Blake 1988-

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

223

The effects of thermal processing on properties of fundamental food polymers in commercial Asian and experimental sorghum noodles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Newport Scientific, Sydney, Australia), A slurry of 10, 14 or 16% solids was analyzed with the following time (min): temp ('C) profile: 2;50, 6. 5:95, 10. 5;95, 15:50, 18:50. A 160-rpm stirring rate was used. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy... (ESEM) Selected dried, uncooked noodles were observed with an environmental scanning electron microscope (Electron Model E-3; Electroscan Corp. , Wilmington, MD) at an accelerating voltage of 20 KV, a condenser setting of 46 and a working distance...

Leach, Michelle R

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

224

Critical speed measurements in the Tevatron cold compressors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system utilizes high-speed centrifugal cold compressors, manufactured by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. (IHI), for high energy operations. Nominal operating range for these compressors is 43,000 to 85,000 rpm. Past foil bearing failures prompted investigation to determine if critical speeds for operating compressors fall within operating range. Data acquisition hardware and software settings will be discussed for measuring liftoff, first critical and second critical speeds. Several tests provided comparisons between an optical displacement probe and accelerometer measurements. Vibration data and analysis of the 20 Tevatron ring cold compressors will be presented.

DeGraff, B.; Bossert, R.; Martinez, A.; Soyars, W.M.; /Fermilab

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Variable Frequency Pump Drives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-frequency electric motor drive. What is happenin9 with variable frequency driven pun,ps is a classical illustration that evolution in technical products takes place not only because of changes in the processes served by these products, or because of innovations...-pole 3550 rpm squirrel caqe induction motor became available in the early 1930s that high pressure pumps operating at that speed could be buil t. And now, in the 1980s, the development of the solid-state, variable frequency electric motor drive...

Karassik, I. J.; Petraccaro, L. L.; McGuire, J. T.

226

EHL OIL FILM THICKNESS UNDER ROLLING-SLIDING CONTACT 2 W  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oil film Abstract: The Elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) minimum oil film thickness is theoretically investigated under rolling with sliding contact. The effects of contact pressure, rolling speed and slip ratio on the EHL minimum oil film thickness are calculated numerically. It is found that for a range of contact pressure from 0.5 to 3.5 GPa, the minimum oil film thickness gradually decreases with the increase in contact pressure. As the rolling speed increases from 3500 to 4500 rpm, oil film thickness is increased. It is also found that the oil film thickness is not much influenced by the slip ratio. 1

D. M. Nuruzzaman; M. A. A. Sheikh

227

Effect of a straight teeth-on-rotor labyrinth seal on rotordynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

functions were made with the rotor spinning at 4500 rpm with the pressure in the seal section ranging from 0 ? 175 psig, with 25 psi steps. The effects of the increased pressure are presented in the discussion of the results. There is one other point...EFFECT OF A STRAIGHT TEETH-ON-ROTOR LABYRINTH SEAL ON ROTORDYNAMICS A Thesis by JOSEPH JOHN ZIERER, JR. Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

Zierer, Joseph John

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Effect of mixing on polymerization of styrene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model R404 Differential Refractometer (DRI) was used to continuously monitor the reactor effluent. A portion of the liquid medium from the feed tank was used as a static reference in the DRI. To introduce a change in the refractive index of the fluid... the mixing pattern was made by desolving iodine crystals in the styrene used for pulse generation. A strobotact was used to monitor the rpm of the impeller shaft. To reduce the amount of degassing occurring in the reactor during the runs, the liquid...

Treybig, Michael Norris

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

229

A comparison of experimental results and theoretical predictions for the rotordynamic and leakage characteristics of short (L/D=1/6) honeycomb and smooth annular pressure seals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of absolute pressure vs. axial position for seals 1, 4, and 7 (Cr=0.41 mm) at high inlet preswirl, rotor speed of 16000 rpm, and inlet pressure of 18.3 bar 32 Fig. 19 A comparison of absolute pressure vs. axial position for seals 2, 5, 8, and 10 (Cr=0... angle (radians) y Specific heat ratio 5 Uncertainty identifier e Eccentricity perturbation (m) P Fluid viscosity (N-s/m2) P Fluid density (kg/m3) ? Flow coefficient CO Rotor angular velocity (rad/s) Subscripts 0, 1 Zeroth and first...

Kleynhans, George Frederick

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

The effect of imbalance distribution and measurement locations on critical speeds in a turboprop engine rotor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Imbalance Response at RY aud RX. imbalance Mass at tbe Coupling) 35 6 a. d 5 CL E 0 1IXXI 2000 3000 ?XXI SXm 6000 7OIXI SXXI 9000 10000111XXI12000 IXXXI1400016000 Spddd &rpm& TX 6 d N 'E 5 Ol 4 O. E 3 D 1000 2CCO 3000 4XXI SOXI 6000 7000.... 000- sa 0. 500? N "O. 00O E 0 0 Z 41 500 -' 2 4 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 26 Axial Location measured from the coupling (in) Figure 6. Measured Free-Free Vibration Frequency Spectrum and Mode Shape for Gas Generator Spool - 16 Maae Oot Date A CHI...

Marin, Manuel

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

231

The effect of asphalt deposition on permeability in miscible flooding with liquified petroleum gas (LPG  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

'teen milliliters of oil was mixed thoroughly with 85 milliliters of petroleum ether and centrifuged at 1750 rpm for 450 seconds. The results of the precipitation tests are shown in Table III. The petroleum ether used was 67. )fo N-Pentane and. $2. 7%%d Di.... 48 0. 114 21 ' 8 24. 7 36 ' 6 41. 4 39. 0 37. 7 37-3 ?Hawkins and Talco at 80'F, others at 74 F TABLE III PRECIPITATION BEHAVIOR OP OILS MIXED WITH PETROLEUM ETHER OILS Denton 75%%d Denton/25% "Heavy" 50% Denton/50%%d "Heavy" 25...

Pinson, Arthur Edward, Jr

1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Cost-Effective Energy Efficiency Measures for Above Code (ASHRAE 90.1-2001 and 2007) Restaurant Buildings in the City of Arlington  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) EPLUS file, Deru et al. 2011 c) College Station Restaurant SurveyPackaged single zone units w/ gas fired furnace Static pressure : 2.5 in-wc Fan efficiency: Overall Eff: 55% (Motor eff. @1800rpm: 87.5) Service Hot Water Peak Hot Water Flow Rate - 133....1 2001 Table 9.4.5 ASHRAE 90.1 2007 Extra Power Allowance N.A 5% Section 9.4.5 ASHRAE 90.1 2007 Equipment Electric Equipment in Dining Space Table 9, Deru et al., 2011 HVAC Systems Zoning HVAC System Type HVAC Efficiency ?240,000 Btu/hr and < 760...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Effect of Process Parameters on Abnormal Grain Growth during Friction Stir Processing of a Cast Al Alloy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of process parameters and friction stir processing (FSP) run configurations on the stability of nugget microstructure at elevated temperatures were evaluated. Cast plates of an Al-7Si- 0.6Mg alloy were friction stir processed using a combination of tool rotation rates and tool traverse speeds. All single pass runs showed some extent of abnormal grain growth (AGG), whereas multi-pass runs were more resistant to AGG. Additionally, higher tool rpm was found to be beneficial for controlling AGG. These effects were analyzed by comparing the result of this work with other published results and AGG models.

Jana, Saumyadeep; Mishra, Rajiv S.; Baumann, John A.; Grant, Glenn J.

2010-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

234

Method and system for managing an electrical output of a turbogenerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The system and method manages an electrical output of a turbogenerator in accordance with multiple modes. In a first mode, a direct current (DC) bus receives power from a turbogenerator output via a rectifier where turbogenerator revolutions per unit time (e.g., revolutions per minute (RPM)) or an electrical output level of a turbogenerator output meet or exceed a minimum threshold. In a second mode, if the turbogenerator revolutions per unit time or electrical output level of a turbogenerator output are less than the minimum threshold, the electric drive motor or a generator mechanically powered by the engine provides electrical energy to the direct current bus.

Stahlhut, Ronnie Dean (Bettendorf, IA); Vuk, Carl Thomas (Denver, IA)

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

235

Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the ultra-high rotary speed drilling system is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm--usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document details the progress to date on the program entitled ''Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling'' for the period starting 1 October 2004 through 30 September 2005. Additionally, research activity from 1 October 2005 through 28 February 2006 is included in this report: (1) TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance. (2) TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments. Some difficulties continue in obtaining ultra-high speed motors. Improvements have been made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs have been provided to vendors for production. A more consistent product is required to minimize the differences in bit performance. A test matrix for the final core bit testing program has been completed. (3) TerraTek is progressing through Task 3 ''Small-scale cutting performance tests''. (4) Significant testing has been performed on nine different rocks. (5) Bit balling has been observed on some rock and seems to be more pronounces at higher rotational speeds. (6) Preliminary analysis of data has been completed and indicates that decreased specific energy is required as the rotational speed increases (Task 4). This data analysis has been used to direct the efforts of the final testing for Phase I (Task 5). (7) Technology transfer (Task 6) has begun with technical presentations to the industry (see Judzis).

Arnis Judzis; Alan Black; Homer Robertson

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Application of PDC bits in the Kuparuk River Field, Alaska  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In soft to medium hard clays and shales, PDC bits have proven to be economically successful in the Kuparuk River Field, Alaska. Through the redesign and modification of PDC bits and rig equipment, the necessary operating parameters have been achieved and the use of PDC bits has become routine. These bits are typically run with a standpipe pressure of 4000 psi, pump rate of 400 to 450 gpm, and a rotary speed of 150 to 200 rpm. Using these high operating parameters, a savings of about $50,000 per PDC bit is being achieved when compared to roller cone bits.

Balkenbush, R.J.; Onisko, J.E.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

A study on two-phase, two-component Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The characteristics of a Stirling engine of Freon(R-113)-Air mixture as a working fluid are studied. A small Stirling engine is designed. The engine rotates by itself only at some mixture ratio of Freon and air at a speed from 40 to 60 rpm when the temperature of the heater and cooler should be kept at 373K and 288K respectively. By using a Freon-Air mixture, the average heat transfer coefficient at the heater wall is improved by a factor of 10, compared with using air only. In addition, the power output is positive even in the compression space.

Iwasaki, E.; Hirata, M.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Mixing device for materials with large density differences  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An auger-tube pump mixing device is disclosed for mixing materials with large density differences while maintaining low stirring RPM and low power consumption. The mixing device minimizes the formation of vortexes and minimizes the incorporation of small bubbles in the liquid during mixing. By avoiding the creation of a vortex the device provides efficient stirring of full containers without spillage over the edge. Also, the device solves the problem of effective mixing in vessels where the liquid height is large compared to the diameter. Because of the gentle stirring or mixing by the device, it has application for biomedical uses where cell damage is to be avoided. 2 figs.

Gregg, D.W.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

239

Changes in Moisture, Protein, and Fat Content of Fish and Rice Flour Coextrudates during Single-Screw Extrusion Cooking  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Changes in proximate composition of fish and rice flour coextrudates like moisture, protein, and fat content were studied with respect to extrusion process v ariables like barrel temperature, x1 (100–200 degrees C); screw speed, x2 (70–110 rpm); fish content of the feed, x3 (5–45 percent); and feed moisture content, x4 (20–60 percent). Experiments were conducted at five levels of the process variables based on rotatable experimental design. Response surface models (RSM) were developed that adequately described the changes in moisture, protein, and fat content of the extrudates based on the coeff icient of determination (R2) values of 0.95, 0.99, and 0.94. ANOVA analysis indicated that extrudate moisture content was influenced by x4, protein content by x1 and x3, and fat content by x3 and x4 at P < 0.001. Trends based on response surf ace plots indicated that the x1 of about 200 degrees C, x2 of about 90 rpm, x3 of about 25%, and x4 of about 20% minimized the moisture in the extrudates. Protein content was maximized at x1 of 100 degrees C, x2 > 80 rpm, x3 of about 45 percent, and x4 > 50 percent, and fat content was minimized at x1 of about 200 degrees C, x2 of about 85–95 rpm, x3 < 15 percent, and x4 of about >50 percent. Optimized process variables based on a genetic algorithm (GA) for minimum moisture and fat content and maximum protein content were x1 = 199.86, x2 = 109.86, x3 = 32.45, x4 = 20.03; x1 = 199.71, x2 = 90.09, x3 = 15.27, x4 = 58.47; and x1 = 102.97, x2 = 107.67, x3 = 44.56, x4 = 59.54. The predicted values were 17.52 percent, 0.57 percent, and 46.65 percent. Based on the RSM and GA analy sis, extrudate moisture and protein content was influenced by x1, x3, and x4 and fat content by x2, x3, and x4.

Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Sukumar Bandyopadhyay; A. S. Bawa

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Prototyping of the ILC Baseline Positron Target  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ILC positron system uses novel helical undulators to create a powerful photon beam from the main electron beam. This beam is passed through a titanium target to convert it into electron-positron pairs. The target is constructed as a 1 m diameter wheel spinning at 2000 RPM to smear the 1 ms ILC pulse train over 10 cm. A pulsed flux concentrating magnet is used to increase the positron capture efficiency. It is cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures to maximize the flatness of the magnetic field over the 1 ms ILC pulse train. We report on prototyping effort on this system.

Gronberg, J; Brooksby, C; Piggott, T; Abbott, R; Javedani, J; Cook, E

2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Investigating the morphological, mechanical and degradation properties of scaffolds comprising collagen, gelatin and elastin for use in soft tissue engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, collagen with or without (±) elastin were swollen in 0.05 M acetic acid at 4 ± 2°C overnight to produce a 1% (w/v) protein suspension. The resulting suspension was homogenised on ice for 10 min at 9,500 rpm using an Ultra-Turrax VD125 (VWR International... the optimal physical properties and microenvironment for cells. Various different materials have been used to produce scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering; collagen type I (van Luyn et al. 2002; Zimmermann et al. 2002), collagen and glycosaminoglycans...

Grover, CN; Best, Serena Michelle; Cameron, Ruth Elizabeth

2012-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

242

Nuclear DNA content variation in Helianthus annus and the detection of repetitive DNA sequences  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This wes shaken at 140 rpm overnight at 37 C, and the bacteria were recovered by centrifugation at 10, 000Xg for 10 min at 4 C. The bacteria were resuspended in 10 ml sterile 0. 01 N and stored at 4 C. Petri dishes were poured using 10 g agarose per... liter of NZC medium, with each dish containing 30 ml of media. Dishes were used within 24 hr. Top agarose was made using 3 g agarose per liter of media. Use of agar in plates apparently interferes with restriction endonuclease activity on DNA isolated...

Michaelson, Martin Joseph

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Innovative Energy Efficient Industrial Ventilation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?, a law of physics, shows why electricity savings can be high (Figure 5). 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 102030405060708090100 Air volume [CFM %] Power [H.P. %] P o w e r [ H .P . % ] A i r v o l u m e [ C FM %] C F M = 50 % of b l ast... and dust could settle. An on-demand dust collecting system solves this problem by using a PLC (industrial computer) which calculates necessary air volume based on information from the sensors. The PLC is adjusting the RPM of the fan accordingly...

Litomisky, A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Determination of the shear and extensional rheology of bubbly liquids with a shear-thinning continuous phase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;#7;?#7;angular velocity, rad/s#7;#7;Introduction Bubbly liquids are dispersions of a gas, ofair, in a liquid with low to medium volume fraction of the bubble phase so that the bubbles remain discrete, unlike foams, and do not phase separate (cream out) readily... °C and 21 °C, to ensure complete hydration of the gum. Some air was incorporated into the solution during stirring and deaerated samples of the continuous phase were obtained by centrifugation at 2250 rpm (500 g) for 5 min. Aeration of ???-hyb...

Torres, M.D.; Hallmark, B.; Wilson, D.I.

2015-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

245

Hydroxypropylation of cellulose as a pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Preparation of HPC 9 10 12 14 III MATERIALS AND METHODS 15 HPC Preparation Enzyme Hydrolysis Fermentation Analytical Procedures Molar Substitution Fraction of Substituted AHG Sugar Analysis Ethyl Alcohol Analysis IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 15 18... 125 8 50 30 125 9 b b 250 10 b b 250 1. 5 55 1. 5 45 1. 5 65 2. 5 55 1. 5 55 2. 5 55 1. 5 55 2. 5 55 1. 5 55 2. 5 55 90 psig nitrogen head Stirring rate 100 rpm Alkali steep time 3 min Total volume 400 mL Methanol dispersant 10 grams...

Brix, Scott Tyson

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Mixing device for materials with large density differences  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An auger-tube pump mixing device for mixing materials with large density differences while maintaining low stirring RPM and low power consumption. The mixing device minimizes the formation of vortexes and minimizes the incorporation of small bubbles in the liquid during mixing. By avoiding the creation of a vortex the device provides efficient stirring of full containers without spillage over the edge. Also, the device solves the problem of effective mixing in vessels where the liquid height is large compared to the diameter. Because of the gentle stirring or mixing by the device, it has application for biomedical uses where cell damage is to be avoided.

Gregg, David W. (Moraga, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Mass Transfer Testing of a 12.5-cm Rotor Centrifugal Contactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

TRUEX mass transfer tests were performed using a single stage commercially available 12.5 cm centrifugal contactor and stable cerium (Ce) and europium (Eu). Test conditions included throughputs ranging from 2.5 to 15 Lpm and rotor speeds of 1750 and 2250 rpm. Ce and Eu extraction forward distribution coefficients ranged from 13 to 19. The first and second stage strip back distributions were 0.5 to 1.4 and .002 to .004, respectively, throughout the dynamic test conditions studied. Visual carryover of aqueous entrainment in all organic phase samples was estimated at < 0.1 % and organic carryover into all aqueous phase samples was about ten times less. Mass transfer efficiencies of = 98 % for both Ce and Eu in the extraction section were obtained over the entire range of test conditions. The first strip stage mass transfer efficiencies ranged from 75 to 93% trending higher with increasing throughput. Second stage mass transfer was greater than 99% in all cases. Increasing the rotor speed from 1750 to 2250 rpm had no significant effect on efficiency for all throughputs tested.

D. H. Meikrantz; T. G. Garn; J. D. Law; N. R. Mann; T. A. Todd

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

The structure and properties of a simple model mixture of amphiphilic molecules and ions at a solid surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate microscopic structure, adsorption, and electric properties of a mixture that consists of amphiphilic molecules and charged hard spheres in contact with uncharged or charged solid surfaces. The amphiphilic molecules are modeled as spheres composed of attractive and repulsive parts. The electrolyte component of the mixture is considered in the framework of the restricted primitive model (RPM). The system is studied using a density functional theory that combines fundamental measure theory for hard sphere mixtures, weighted density approach for inhomogeneous charged hard spheres, and a mean-field approximation to describe anisotropic interactions. Our principal focus is in exploring the effects brought by the presence of ions on the distribution of amphiphilic particles at the wall, as well as the effects of amphiphilic molecules on the electric double layer formed at solid surface. In particular, we have found that under certain thermodynamic conditions a long-range translational and orientational order can develop. The presence of amphiphiles produces changes of the shape of the differential capacitance from symmetric or non-symmetric bell-like to camel-like. Moreover, for some systems the value of the potential of the zero charge is non-zero, in contrast to the RPM at a charged surface.

Pizio, O., E-mail: pizio@unam.mx [Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 México, D.F. (Mexico); Soko?owski, S., E-mail: stefan.sokolowski@gmail.com [Department for the Modeling of Physico-Chemical Processes, Maria Curie-Sk?odowska University, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Soko?owska, Z. [Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Do?wiadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin (Poland)] [Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Do?wiadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin (Poland)

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

249

Solvent extraction of bitumen from tar sands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on the measurement of mass transfer rates for the extraction of bitumen from tar sands using organic solvents. The experiment was carried out in an agitated vessel using a six-blade turbine mixer on a laboratory scale. To facilitate the determination of absolute mass transfer coefficients, tar sands were specially prepared in the form of spherical particles so that mass transfer area can be computed. The variables investigated in the study included: (1) solvent type (kerosene, toluene, benzene), (2) stirrer speed, 25 rpm to 1000 rpm, and (3) particle diameter, 0.4 cm to 1.2 cm. The results indicated that solvency power varied markedly with the various solvents used and that high aromatic content promoted rapid dissolution when compared with paraffinic solvents. The mass transfer rates increased with increasing stirrer speed in accordance with the relationship: k {alpha} N{sup 0.56} where k is the mass transfer coefficient and N the stirrer speed. Increasing particle diameter also resulted in decreased mass transfer rates. The results were satisfactorily correlated in terms of a Frossling type equation, Sh {alpha} Re{sub p}{sup a}Sc{sup b}.

Hoon, A.Y.; Thomas, S. [Univ. of West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

250

Thermal modeling of core sampling in flammable gas waste tanks. Part 2: Rotary-mode sampling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The radioactive waste stored in underground storage tanks at Hanford site includes mixtures of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite with organic compounds. The waste can produce undesired violent exothermic reactions when heated locally during the rotary-mode sampling. Experiments are performed varying the downward force at a maximum rotational speed of 55 rpm and minimum nitrogen purge flow of 30 scfm. The rotary drill bit teeth-face temperatures are measured. The waste is simulated with a low thermal conductivity hard material, pumice blocks. A torque meter is used to determine the energy provided to the drill string. The exhaust air-chip temperature as well as drill string and drill bit temperatures and other key operating parameters were recorded. A two-dimensional thermal model is developed. The safe operating conditions were determined for normal operating conditions. A downward force of 750 at 55 rpm and 30 scfm nitrogen purge flow was found to yield acceptable substrate temperatures. The model predicted experimental results reasonably well. Therefore, it could be used to simulate abnormal conditions to develop procedures for safe operations.

Unal, C.; Poston, D.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Nuclear Systems Design and Analysis Group; Witwer, K.S. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States). Engineering Testing Lab.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Time Series Evaluation of Portal Monitor Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radiation portal monitors screen cargo and personal vehicle traffic at international border crossings to detect and interdict illicit sources which may be present in the commerce stream. One difficulty faced by RPM systems is the prospect of false alarms, or undesired alarms due to background fluctuation, or Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) sources in the commerce stream. In general, NORM alarms represent a significant fraction of the nuisance alarms at international border crossings, particularly with Polyvinyl-Toluene (PVT) RPM detectors, which have only very weak spectral differentiation capability. With PVT detectors, the majority of detected photon events fall within the Compton continuum of the material, allowing for very little spectral information to be preserved [1]. Previous work has shown that these detectors can be used for limited spectroscopy, utilizing around 8 spectral bins to further differentiate some NORM and other nuisance sources [2]. NaI based systems achieve much more detailed spectral resolution from each measurement of a source, but still combine all measurements over a vehicle's occupancy in order to arrive at a spectrum to be analyzed.

Robinson, Sean M.; Bender, Sarah E.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

252

SMALLER FOOTPRINT DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEEP AND HARD ROCK ENVIRONMENTS; FEASIBILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED DIAMOND DRILLING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high (greater than 10,000 rpm) rotational speeds. The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development and test results that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with rigs having a smaller footprint to be more mobile. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The project draws on TerraTek results submitted to NASA's ''Drilling on Mars'' program. The objective of that program was to demonstrate miniaturization of a robust and mobile drilling system that expends small amounts of energy. TerraTek successfully tested ultrahigh speed ({approx}40,000 rpm) small kerf diamond coring. Adaptation to the oilfield will require innovative bit designs for full hole drilling or continuous coring and the eventual development of downhole ultra-high speed drives. For domestic operations involving hard rock and deep oil and gas plays, improvements in penetration rates is an opportunity to reduce well costs and make viable certain field developments. An estimate of North American hard rock drilling costs is in excess of $1,200 MM. Thus potential savings of $200 MM to $600 MM are possible if drilling rates are doubled [assuming bit life is reasonable]. The net result for operators is improved profit margin as well as an improved position on reserves. The significance of the ''ultra-high rotary speed drilling system'' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm--usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document details the progress to date on the program entitled ''SMALLER FOOTPRINT DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEEP AND HARD ROCK ENVIRONMENTS; FEASIBILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED DIAMOND DRILLING'' for the period starting June 23, 2003 through September 30, 2004. (1) TerraTek has reviewed applicable literature and documentation and has convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance. (2) TerraTek has designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments. Some difficulties in obtaining ultra-high speed motors for this feasibility work were encountered though they were sourced mid 2004. (3) TerraTek is progressing through Task 3 ''Small-scale cutting performance tests''. Some improvements over early NASA experiments have been identified.

Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

SMALLER FOOTPRINT DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEEP AND HARD ROCK ENVIRONMENTS; FEASIBILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED DIAMOND DRILLING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high (greater than 10,000 rpm) rotational speeds. The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development and test results that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with rigs having a smaller footprint to be more mobile. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The project draws on TerraTek results submitted to NASA's ''Drilling on Mars'' program. The objective of that program was to demonstrate miniaturization of a robust and mobile drilling system that expends small amounts of energy. TerraTek successfully tested ultrahigh speed ({approx}40,000 rpm) small kerf diamond coring. Adaptation to the oilfield will require innovative bit designs for full hole drilling or continuous coring and the eventual development of downhole ultra-high speed drives. For domestic operations involving hard rock and deep oil and gas plays, improvements in penetration rates is an opportunity to reduce well costs and make viable certain field developments. An estimate of North American hard rock drilling costs is in excess of $1,200 MM. Thus potential savings of $200 MM to $600 MM are possible if drilling rates are doubled [assuming bit life is reasonable]. The net result for operators is improved profit margin as well as an improved position on reserves. The significance of the ''ultra-high rotary speed drilling system'' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm--usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document details the progress to date on the program entitled ''SMALLER FOOTPRINT DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEEP AND HARD ROCK ENVIRONMENTS; FEASIBILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED DIAMOND DRILLING'' for the period starting June 23, 2003 through September 30, 2004. TerraTek has reviewed applicable literature and documentation and has convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance. TerraTek has designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments. Some difficulties in obtaining ultra-high speed motors for this feasibility work were encountered though they were sourced mid 2004. TerraTek is progressing through Task 3 ''Small-scale cutting performance tests''. Some improvements over early NASA experiments have been identified.

Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill 'faster and deeper' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the 'ultra-high rotary speed drilling system' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm - usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document provides the progress through two phases of the program entitled 'Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling' for the period starting 30 June 2003 and concluding 31 March 2009. The accomplishments of Phases 1 and 2 are summarized as follows: (1) TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance (see Black and Judzis); (2) TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments (See Black and Judzis). Improvements were made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs were developed to provided a more consistent product with consistent performance. A test matrix for the final core bit testing program was completed; (3) TerraTek concluded small-scale cutting performance tests; (4) Analysis of Phase 1 data indicated that there is decreased specific energy as the rotational speed increases; (5) Technology transfer, as part of Phase 1, was accomplished with technical presentations to the industry (see Judzis, Boucher, McCammon, and Black); (6) TerraTek prepared a design concept for the high speed drilling test stand, which was planned around the proposed high speed mud motor concept. Alternative drives for the test stand were explored; a high speed hydraulic motor concept was finally used; (7) The high speed system was modified to accommodate larger drill bits than originally planned; (8) Prototype mud turbine motors and the high speed test stand were used to drive the drill bits at high speed; (9) Three different rock types were used during the testing: Sierra White granite, Crab Orchard sandstone, and Colton sandstone. The drill bits used included diamond impregnated bits, a polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit, a thermally stable PDC (TSP) bit, and a hybrid TSP and natural diamond bit; and (10) The drill bits were run at rotary speeds up to 5500 rpm and weight on bit (WOB) to 8000 lbf. During Phase 2, the ROP as measured in depth of cut per bit revolution generally increased with increased WOB. The performance was mixed with increased rotary speed, with the depth cut with the impregnated drill bit generally increasing and the TSP and hybrid TSP drill bits generally decreasing. The ROP in ft/hr generally increased with all bits with increased WOB and rotary speed. The mechanical specific energy generally improved (decreased) with increased WOB and was mixed with increased rotary speed.

TerraTek, A Schlumberger Company

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

255

CONTROLLED GROWTH OF CARBON NANOTUBES ON CONDUCTIVE METAL SUBSTRATES FOR ENERGY STORAGE APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The impressive mechanical and electronic properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) make them ideally suited for use in a variety of nanostructured devices, especially in the realm of energy production and storage. In particular, vertically-aligned CNT “forests” have been the focus of increasing investigation for use in supercapacitor electrodes and as hydrogen adsorption substrates. Vertically-aligned CNT growth was attempted on metal substrates by waterassisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD). CNT growth was catalyzed by iron-molybdenum (FeMo) nanoparticle catalysts synthesized by a colloidal method, which were then spin-coated onto Inconel® foils. The substrates were loaded into a custom-built CVD apparatus, where CNT growth was initiated by heating the substrates to 750 °C under the fl ow of He, H2, C2H4 and a controlled amount of water vapor. The resultant CNTs were characterized by a variety of methods including Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the growth parameters were varied in an attempt to optimize the purity and growth yield of the CNTs. The surface area and hydrogen adsorption characteristics of the CNTs were quantifi ed by the Brunauer- Emmett-Teller (BET) and Sieverts methods, and their capacitance was measured via cyclic voltammetry. While vertically-aligned CNT growth could not be verifi ed, TEM and SEM analysis indicated that CNT growth was still obtained, resulting in multiwalled CNTs of a wide range in diameter along with some amorphous carbon impurities. These microscopy fi ndings were reinforced by Raman spectroscopy, which resulted in a G/D ratio ranging from 1.5 to 3 across different samples, suggestive of multiwalled CNTs. Changes in gas fl ow rates and water concentration during CNT growth were not found to have a discernable effect on the purity of the CNTs. The specifi c capacitance of a CNT/FeMo/Inconel® electrode was found to be 3.2 F/g, and the BET surface area of a characteristic CNT sample was measured to be 232 m2/g with a cryogenic (77K) hydrogen storage of 0.85 wt%. This level of hydrogen adsorption is slightly higher than that predicted by the Chahine rule, indicating that these CNTs may bind hydrogen more strongly than other carbonaceous materials. More work is needed to confi rm and determine the reason for increased hydrogen adsorption in these CNTs, and to test them for use as catalyst support networks. This study demonstrates the feasibility of producing CNTs for energy storage applications using water-assisted CVD.

Brown, P.; Engtrakul, C.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Renewable source controls for grid stability.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this study was to evaluate the small signal and transient stability of the Western Electric- ity Coordinating Council (WECC) under high penetrations of renewable energy, and to identify control technologies that would improve the system performance. The WECC is the regional entity responsible for coordinating and promoting bulk electric system reliability in the Western Interconnection. Transient stability is the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism after a large disturbance while small signal stability is the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism after a small disturbance. Tran- sient stability analysis usually focuses on the relative rotor angle between synchronous machines compared to some stability margin. For this study we employed generator speed relative to system speed as a metric for assessing transient stability. In addition, we evaluated the system transient response using the system frequency nadir, which provides an assessment of the adequacy of the primary frequency control reserves. Small signal stability analysis typically identi es the eigenvalues or modes of the system in response to a disturbance. For this study we developed mode shape maps for the di erent scenarios. Prony analysis was applied to generator speed after a 1.4 GW, 0.5 second, brake insertion at various locations. Six di erent WECC base cases were analyzed, including the 2022 light spring case which meets the renewable portfolio standards. Because of the di culty in identifying the cause and e ect relationship in large power system models with di erent scenarios, several simulations were run on a 7-bus, 5-generator system to isolate the e ects of di erent con gurations. Based on the results of the study, for a large power system like the WECC, incorporating frequency droop into wind/solar systems provides a larger bene t to system transient response than replacing the lost inertia with synthetic inertia. From a small signal stability perspective, the increase in renewable penetration results in subtle changes to the system modes. In gen- eral, mode frequencies increase slightly, and mode shapes remain similar. The system frequency nadir for the 2022 light spring case was slightly lower than the other cases, largely because of the reduced system inertia. However, the nadir is still well above the minimum load shedding frequency of 59.5 Hz. Finally, several discrepancies were identi ed between actual and reported wind penetration, and additional work on wind/solar modeling is required to increase the delity of the WECC models.

Byrne, Raymond Harry; Elliott, Ryan Thomas; Neely, Jason C.; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Schoenwald, David Alan; Grant, Lisa

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

HCCI Load Expansion Opportunities Using a Fully Variable HVA Research Engine to Guide Developments of a Production Intent Cam-Based VVA Engine: The Low Load Limit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of HCCI combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on identifying challenges and opportunities associated with a production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) system on a multi-cylinder engine in comparison to a fully flexible, naturally aspirated, hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) system on a single-cylinder engine, with both platforms sharing the same GDI fueling system and engine geometry. The multi-cylinder production intent VVA system uses a 2-step cam technology with wide authority cam phasing, allowing adjustments to be made to the negative valve overlap (NVO) duration but not the valve opening durations. On the single cylinder HVA engine, the valve opening duration and lift are variable in addition to the NVO duration. The content of this paper is limited to the low-medium operating load region at 2000rpm. Using different injection strategies, including the NVO pilot injection approach, the single-cylinder engine is operated over a load range from 160-390 kPa net IMEP at 2000 rpm. Changes to valve opening duration on the single-cylinder HVA engine illustrate opportunities for load expansion and efficiency improvement at certain conditions. For instance, the low load limit can be extended on the HVA engine by reducing breathing and operating closer to a stoichiometric air fuel ratio (AFR) by using valve deactivation. The naturally aspirated engine used here without external EGR confirmed that as operating load increases the emissions of NOx increases due to combustion temperature. NOx emissions are found to be one limitation to the maximum load limitation, the other being high pressure rise rate. It is found that the configuration of the production intent cam-based system represents a good compromise between valve lift and duration in the low to medium load region. Changing the extent of charge motion and breathing via valve deactivation prove beneficial at moderating the pressure rise rate and combustion stability and extending the low load limit at 2000rpm on the HVA engine. It also confirms that strategies using a pilot fuel injection are beneficial at low operating loads but that as operating load is increased, the benefits of multiple injection diminish to the point where a single injection offers the best performance.

Weall, Adam J [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Foster, Matthew [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi; Moore, Wayne [Delphi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

HCCI Load Expansion Opportunities using a Fully Variable HVA Research Engine to Guide Development of a Production Intent Cam-based VVA Engine: The Low Load Limit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of HCCI combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on identifying challenges and opportunities associated with a production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) system on a multi-cylinder engine in comparison to a fully flexible, naturally aspirated, hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) system on a single-cylinder engine, with both platforms sharing the same GDI fueling system and engine geometry. The multi-cylinder production intent VVA system uses a 2-step cam technology with wide authority cam phasing, allowing adjustments to be made to the negative valve overlap (NVO) duration but not the valve opening durations. On the single cylinder HVA engine, the valve opening duration and lift are variable in addition to the NVO duration. The content of this paper is limited to the low-medium operating load region at 2000rpm. Using different injection strategies, including the NVO pilot injection approach, the single-cylinder engine is operated over a load range from 160-390 kPa net IMEP at 2000 rpm. Changes to valve opening duration on the single-cylinder HVA engine illustrate opportunities for load expansion and efficiency improvement at certain conditions. For instance, the low load limit can be extended on the HVA engine by reducing breathing and operating closer to a stoichiometric air fuel ratio (AFR) by using valve deactivation. The naturally aspirated engine used here without external EGR confirmed that as operating load increases the emissions of NOx increases due to combustion temperature. NOx emissions are found to be one limitation to the maximum load limitation, the other being high pressure rise rate. It is found that the configuration of the production intent cam-based system represents a good compromise between valve lift and duration in the low to medium load region. Changing the extent of charge motion and breathing via valve deactivation prove beneficial at moderating the pressure rise rate and combustion stability and extending the low load limit at 2000rpm on the HVA engine. It also confirms that strategies using a pilot fuel injection are beneficial at low operating loads but that as operating load is increased, the benefits of multiple injection diminish to the point where a single injection offers the best performance.

Weall, Adam J [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL] [ORNL; Foster, Matthew [Delphi] [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi] [Delphi; Moore, Wayne [Delphi] [Delphi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Development of a New Analysis Tool for Evaluating and Correcting for Weather Conditions that Constrain Radiation Portal Monitor Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed the Adaptable, Multiplatform, Real-Time Analysis Package (AMRAP) for the continuous measurement of environmental radionuclide decay. AMRAP is a completely open source visualization and analysis package capable of combining a variety of data streams into an array of real-time plots. Once acquired, data streams are analyzed to store static images and extract data based on previously defined thresholds. AMRAP is currently used at ORNL to combine data streams from an Ortec Detective high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, a TSA Systems radiation portal monitor (RPM), and an Orion weather station. The combined data are used to study the rain-induced increase in RPM background radiation levels. RPMs experience an increase in background radiation during precipitation due to the deposition of atmospheric radionuclides on the ground. Using AMRAP results in a real-time analysis workstation specifically dedicated to the study of RPM background radiation levels. By means of an editable library of common inputs, AMRAP is adaptable to remote monitoring applications that would benefit from the real-time visualization and analysis of radiation measurements. To study rain-induced increases in background radiation levels observed in radiation portal monitors (RPMs), researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a software package that allows data with different formats to be analyzed and plotted in near real time. The Adaptable, Multiplatform, Real-Time Analysis Package (AMRAP) was developed to operate in the background and capture plots of important data based on previously defined thresholds. After executing AMRAP, segments of a data stream can be captured without additional post-processing. AMRAP can also display previously recorded data to facilitate a detailed offline analysis. Without access to these capabilities in a single software package, analyzing multiple continuously recorded data streams with different formats is impractical. Commercially available acquisition software packages record and analyze radiation measurements but are not designed to perform real-time analysis in conjunction with data from other vendors. The lack of collaboration between vendors is problematic when research requires different data streams to be correlated in time and immediately analyzed. AMRAP was specifically developed to provide a solution to this problem. AMRAP is a completely open source visualization and analysis package capable of plotting and analyzing data from different vendors in near real time.

Guzzardo, Tyler [ORNL] [ORNL; Livesay, Jake [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Digital autoland system for unmanned aerial vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Identification (OKID) [23] is used to determine a linear time-invariant (LTI) state-space representation of the C700. The linear state-space model is in the form ?x = Ax+Bu state equation y = Cx+Du output equation (3.1) 9 where x?Rn×1 is a state vector with n... states, u?Rm×1 is an input vector with m inputs, y ? Rp×1 is an output vector with p outputs, A ? Rn×n is a plant matrix, B ? Rn×m is a control distribution matrix, and C ? Rp×n and D ? Rp×m are matrices that determine the elements of the output vector...

Wagner, Thomas William, Jr.

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

ROCK PROPERTIES MODEL ANALYSIS MODEL REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this Analysis and Model Report (AMR) is to document Rock Properties Model (RPM) 3.1 with regard to input data, model methods, assumptions, uncertainties and limitations of model results, and qualification status of the model. The report also documents the differences between the current and previous versions and validation of the model. The rock properties models are intended principally for use as input to numerical physical-process modeling, such as of ground-water flow and/or radionuclide transport. The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. This work was conducted in accordance with the following planning documents: WA-0344, ''3-D Rock Properties Modeling for FY 1998'' (SNL 1997, WA-0358), ''3-D Rock Properties Modeling for FY 1999'' (SNL 1999), and the technical development plan, Rock Properties Model Version 3.1, (CRWMS M&O 1999c). The Interim Change Notice (ICNs), ICN 02 and ICN 03, of this AMR were prepared as part of activities being conducted under the Technical Work Plan, TWP-NBS-GS-000003, ''Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model, Process Model Report, Revision 01'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b). The purpose of ICN 03 is to record changes in data input status due to data qualification and verification activities. These work plans describe the scope, objectives, tasks, methodology, and implementing procedures for model construction. The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The work scope for this activity consists of the following: (1) Conversion of the input data (laboratory measured porosity data, x-ray diffraction mineralogy, petrophysical calculations of bound water, and petrophysical calculations of porosity) for each borehole into stratigraphic coordinates; (2) Re-sampling and merging of data sets; (3) Development of geostatistical simulations of porosity; (4) Generation of derivative property models via linear coregionalization with porosity; (5) Post-processing of the simulated models to impart desired secondary geologic attributes and to create summary and uncertainty models; and (6) Conversion of the models into real-world coordinates. The conversion to real world coordinates is performed as part of the integration of the RPM into the Integrated Site Model (ISM) 3.1; this activity is not part of the current analysis. The ISM provides a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site and consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) RPM, which is the subject of this AMR; and (3) Mineralogic Model. The interrelationship of the three components of the ISM and their interface with downstream uses are illustrated in Figure 1. Figure 2 shows the geographic boundaries of the RPM and other component models of the ISM.

Clinton Lum

2002-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

262

Friction Stir Welding Of Ma957 Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Ferritic Steel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 1-in. (25.4 mm) diameter yttria-dispersion-strengthened MA957 ferritic steel alloy tube with a 0.125" (3.18 mm) wall thickness was successfully plasticized by friction stir welding. The pin tool was a W-Re tool with 0.125" (3.17 mm) diameter tip. It showed no discernable wear for the total 12" (305 mm) of weld. Weld conditions were 1000 and 1400 RPM, 4 in/min (101 mm/min), with and without preheating to 135şC. Metallographic analysis of the post friction-stir welded material showed a decrease in material hardness to 225±22 HV compared to the parent material at 373±21 HV. All weld conditions produced plasticization; however, improved plasticization was observed for preheated samples

Howard, Stanley M.; Jasthi, Bharat K.; Arbegast, William J.; Grant, Glenn J.; Koduri, Santhosh K.; Herling, Darrell R.; Gelles, David S.

2005-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

263

A comparison of theoretical and experimental rotordynamic coefficients for a smooth gas seal at eccentric operation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

D 1300 1100 ODD 70D 500 300 1300 I I DO 900 700 500 300 100 1500 100 0 D. l 0. 2 0. 3 0. 4 0. 5 0. 0 1500 100 0. 1 0. 2 0. 3 0. 4 0. 5 0. 0 1500 0. 1 0. 2 0. 3 0. 4 0. 5 1300 1300 1300 L 4 Sl I IDO OOD 1100 eoo I 1 00 700... smooth seal at 5, 000 rpm 900 SWIRL: NONE PRESSURE RATIOS I =. 072=. 50 I = . 5D 4 = . 45 900 INTERIIEDIATE DOD HIGH I Al Sl 700 5DO 70D 500 700 500 900 0 300 300 100 100 IDO -100 -100 0 0. 1 0. 2 0. 3 0. 4 0. 5 0 -100 0. 1 0. 2 0...

Alexander, Christopher Richard

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Reconstruction of mechanically recorded sound by image processing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Audio information stored in the undulations of grooves in a medium such as a phonograph record may be reconstructed, with no or minimal contact, by measuring the groove shape using precision metrology methods and digital image processing. The effects of damage, wear, and contamination may be compensated, in many cases, through image processing and analysis methods. The speed and data handling capacity of available computing hardware make this approach practical. Various aspects of this approach are discussed. A feasibility test is reported which used a general purpose optical metrology system to study a 50 year old 78 r.p.m. phonograph record. Comparisons are presented with stylus playback of the record and with a digitally re-mastered version of the original magnetic recording. A more extensive implementation of this approach, with dedicated hardware and software, is considered.

Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Haber, Carl

2003-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

265

Experimental testing of corpuscular-radiation detectors. Volume 1. Revision 1. Final report, 1 November 1987-31 January 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Observations were performed by using Prof. Joe Weber's torsion balance, a room-temperature instrument that was constructed by University of Maryland under a subcontract from Raytheon, and was installed at LANL in Summer 1988. The torsion balance was mounted at a fixed location, close to the edge of a rotating table (1 RPM rotational speed) that Raytheon had constructed and moved to Los Alamos, NM. As the table rotated, the tritium-filled container (neutrino source) and the deuterium filled container (that provided a Newtonian force reference) were sensed by the instrument. At the time of writing this report, the results of the measurements are not fully conclusive. A six-month Contract extension, expected to last until 31 December 1989, will provide the final answer whether or not we could observe repulsion forces, attributable to neutrino pressure, with the torsion balance.

Grossi, M.D.

1989-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

266

Experimental testing of corpuscular-radiation detectors. Volume 2. Revision 1. Final report, 1 November 1987-31 January 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Observations were performed by using Prof. Joe Weber's torsion balance, a room-temperature instrument that was constructed by University of Maryland under a subcontract from Raytheon, and was installed at LANL in Summer 1988. The torsion balance was mounted at a fixed location, close to the edge of a rotating table (1 RPM rotational speed) that Raytheon had constructed and moved to Los Alamos, NM. As the table rotated, the tritium-filled container (neutrino source) and the deuterium-filled container (that provided a newtonian force reference) were sensed by the instrument. At the time of writing of this Report, the results of the measurements are not fully conclusive. A six-month Contract extension, expected to last until 31 December 1989, will provide the final answer whether or not we could observe repulsion forces, attributable to neutrino pressure, with the torsion balance.

Grossi, M.D.

1989-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

267

System engineering and energy costs of small and medium wind turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A preliminary system-level, computational model was developed to allow broad assessment and optimization of wind turbine design and costs analysis at The Wind Energy Research Center, Solar Energy Research Institute under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE). This paper briefly describes the basic principles used in the model for energy capture and cost-of-energy (COE), and demonstrates the model's usefulness in determining the effects of rotor and system design modifications. The model's utilization for conducting parametric studies and defining the energy cost of small and medium-sized wind turbines is also shown. Topics of interest to wind turbine engineers and designers include the effects on rotor performance of airfoil geometry, blade pitch angle setting, and the system RPM schedule, etc.

Tu, P.K.C.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Development of turbodrill tachometer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A reliable tachometer has been developed for use with turbodrills. The tachometer utilizes a set of partially blanked turbine blades to produce a pressure pulse in the drilling mud flow stream each time the turbodrill rotates one revolution. The pressure pulses are transmitted through the mud in the drill pipes to the surface where they are detected, processed and RPM read out. The frequency of the pulse signals is a direct measure of the turbodrill rotary speed. Drilling motor test stand trials demonstrated the reliabiity and accuracy of the tachometer. The pulsing blades were then installed on geothermal turbodrills used in drilling the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory geothermal well EE-2. The tachometer allowed continual monitoring and control of turbodrill speed at LASL and was successfully used to depths in excess of 10,000 feet. The success of the high temperature turbodrills in EE-2 is attributed in part to the tachometer.

McDonald, W.J.; Maurer, W.C.; Neudecker, J.W.; Shoemaker, H.D.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Evaluation of the rabies immune status of stray dogs in Beaumont and Port Arthur, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RPM. The serum was poured into a second tube which was then either refrigerated or frozen until it was analyzed. 20 ~SA msai sa The serum analysis for RVNAT was performed by the laboratory of the Texas Department of Health. The technique used... 20 20 20 30 30 35 10 8 8 40 15 30 12 30 40 20 20 15 30 25 10 8 70 50 90 15 35 6 mo 6 mo 6 mo 2 yr 10 yr 1 yr 5 mo 6 mo 1 yr Z yr 2 1/2 yr 2 yr 6 mo 6 mo 4 mo 1 yr 4 mo 4 mo 4 mo 6 yr 1 1/2 yr 1 yr 1 1...

Massey, James Leonidas

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

270

Conceptual design of coal-fueled diesel system for stationary power applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A preliminary conceptual design of a coal-fueled diesel system was prepared as part of a previous systems study. Since then, our team has accumulated extensive results from testing coal-water slurry on the 13-inch bore JS engine (400 rpm) in 1987 and 1988. These results provided new insights into preferred design concepts for engine components. One objective, therefore, was to revise the preliminary design to incorporate these preferred design concepts. In addition there were certain areas where additional, more detailed analysis was required as a result of the previous conceptual design. Another objective, therefore was to perform additional detailed design efforts, such as: (1) market applications and engine sizes, (2) coal-water slurry cleaning and grinding processes, (3) emission controls and hot gas contaminant controls, (4) component durability, (5) cost and performance assessments. (VC)

Not Available

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Application of a simple asynchronous mechanical light chopper to multielectron coincidence spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simple asynchronous mechanical light chopper, based on modification of a turbo-molecular pump, has been developed to extend the interval between light pulses in single bunch operation at the Photon Factory storage ring. A pulse repetition rate of 80 kHz was achieved using a cylinder rotating at 48000 rpm, with 100 slits of 80 {mu}m width. This allows absolute timing of particles up to 12.48 {mu}s instead of the single-bunch period of 624 ns. We have applied the chopper together with a light pulse monitor to measure multielectron coincidence spectra using a magnetic bottle time-of-flight electron spectrometer. With such a system, the electron energies are determined without any ambiguity, the folding of coincidence spectra disappears and the effect of false coincidences is drastically reduced.

Ito, Kenji; Suzuki, Isao H. [Photon Factory, IMSS, KEK, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Penent, Francis; Lablanquie, Pascal [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); CNRS, LCPMR (UMR 7614), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Hikosaka, Yasumasa; Shigemasa, Eiji [UVSOR Facility, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Eland, John H. D. [PTCL, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

272

Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the ''ultra-high rotary speed drilling system'' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm-usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document details the progress at the end of Phase 1 on the program entitled ''Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling'' for the period starting 1 March 2006 and concluding 30 June 2006. (Note: Results from 1 September 2005 through 28 February 2006 were included in the previous report (see Judzis, Black, and Robertson)). Summarizing the accomplished during Phase 1: {lg_bullet} TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kickoff meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance (see Black and Judzis). {lg_bullet} TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments (See Black and Judzis). Some difficulties continued in obtaining ultra-high speed motors. Improvements were made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs were developed to provided a more consistent product with consistent performance. A test matrix for the final core bit testing program was completed. {lg_bullet} TerraTek concluded Task 3 ''Small-scale cutting performance tests.'' {sm_bullet} Significant testing was performed on nine different rocks. {sm_bullet} Five rocks were used for the final testing. The final tests were based on statistical design of experiments. {sm_bullet} Two full-faced bits, a small diameter and a large diameter, were run in Berea sandstone. {lg_bullet} Analysis of data was completed and indicates that there is decreased specific energy as the rotational speed increases (Task 4). Data analysis from early trials was used to direct the efforts of the final testing for Phase I (Task 5). {lg_bullet} Technology transfer (Task 6) was accomplished with technical presentations to the industry (see Judzis, Boucher, McCammon, and Black).

Arnis Judzis; Homer Robertson; Alan Black

2006-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

273

Development of a high efficiency compressor/expander for an air cycle air conditioning system. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents the methods and procedures used and the results obtained in the design, fabrication, and testing of a rotary vane type compressor operated on air cycle thermodynamics. The history and results of the testing of a similar expander are summarized and the full report of that work is referenced. The machine design used was based on one patented by Ecton Corporation. The goal of the reported effort was to demonstrate the attainable efficiencies of these machines. Appropriate test rigs were assembled and the machines were tested at various operating conditions. The compressor testing did not achieve the full design speed because of time constraints but important data was obtained at 87% speed (3000 rpm). The maximum measured total efficiencies were 78% for the expander and 71% for the compressor. Various design improvements which may yield improved performance were identified and reported.

Summers, R.L.; Smolinski, R.E.

1982-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

274

Electrostatic charge generation during impeller mixing in two-phase systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of water to toluene was varied during the tests by adding 18 megaohm-cm, deionized, ultrapure water and using a vacuum apparatus to remove precisely measured quantities of toluene. The variance in concentra- tion of water was 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 104...) 500 RPM 700 PN 1000 RPN 7. 48 E-13 2. 75 E-13 9. 00 E-12 2. 00 E-11 4. 74 E-11 7. 46 E-11 1. 18 E-10 1. 5 E-9 3. 0 E-9 4. 15 E-9 1. 65 E-9 3. 5 E-9 7. 5 E-9 2. 5 E-10 3. 85 E-9 5. 0 E-9 8. 3 E-9 8. 0 E-9 9. 0 E-9 3. 5 E-10 8. 0 E-9 8...

Hernandez, Andrew

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Metrological digital audio reconstruction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Audio information stored in the undulations of grooves in a medium such as a phonograph record may be reconstructed, with little or no contact, by measuring the groove shape using precision metrology methods coupled with digital image processing and numerical analysis. The effects of damage, wear, and contamination may be compensated, in many cases, through image processing and analysis methods. The speed and data handling capacity of available computing hardware make this approach practical. Two examples used a general purpose optical metrology system to study a 50 year old 78 r.p.m. phonograph record and a commercial confocal scanning probe to study a 1920's celluloid Edison cylinder. Comparisons are presented with stylus playback of the samples and with a digitally re-mastered version of an original magnetic recording. There is also a more extensive implementation of this approach, with dedicated hardware and software.

Fadeyev; Vitaliy (Berkeley, CA), Haber; Carl (Berkeley, CA)

2004-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

276

Extended performance of alcohol fumigation in diesel engines through different multipoint alcohol injection timing cycles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on the results of using multipoint port injection alcohol fumigation of a four-cycle turbocharged diesel engine in which the fumigation injection cycle was varied. The three cycles, dual with one-half of the alcohol injection on each engine revolution, single with all of the alcohol injection during the open intake valve revolution, and single with all of the alcohol injected during the closed intake valve revolution, lead to significant differences in the engines pressure-volume history and alcohol energy replacement tolerance. The engine was fumigated with both industrial grade ethanol and methanol and complete performance and emissions data (excluding aldehydes) were measured at low, medium, and high values of BMEP and rpm.

Savage, L.D.; White, R.A.; Cole, S.; Pritchett, G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

STORAGE, NUTRITIONAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF HIGH-FAT FISH AND RICE FLOUR COEXTRUDATES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present research is on understanding the storage, nutritional and sensory characteristics of high-fat fish (khoira) and rice flour coextrudates at storage temperature of 30C. The extruder processing conditions used are barrel temperature (200C), screw speed (109 rpm), fish content of feed (44%) and feed moisture content (39%). Sorption isotherm data indicated that the safe aw level was about 0.4–0.7. Guggenheim -Anderson -de Boer model described the sorption data adequately with an r2 value of 0.99. During the initial 15 days of storage, there was a loss of vitamin A and total tocopherols by 64.4 and 20.6%, and an increase in peroxides and free fatty acid content by about 116 mg/kg and 21.7%. The nonlinear mathematical model developed has adequately described the changes in nutritional and storage properties. Sensory attributes indicated that the product fried for 15 s was most acceptable.

Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Sukumar Bandyopadhyay; Amarender Singh Bawa

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Power and Torque Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fuelled by Palm-Kernel Oil Biodiesel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Short-term engine performance tests were carried out on test diesel engine fuelled with Palm kernel oil (PKO) biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel was produced through transesterification process using 100g PKO, 20.0 % ethanol (wt%), 1.0 % potassium hydroxide catalyst at 60°C reaction temperature and 90min. reaction time. The diesel engine was attached to a general electric dynamometer. Torque and power delivered by the engine were monitored throughout the 24-hour test duration at 1300, 1500, 1700, 2000, 2250 and 2500rpm. At all engine speeds tested, results showed that torque and power outputs for PKO biodiesel were generally lower than those for petroleum diesel. Also, Peak torque for PKO biodiesel occurred at a lower engine speed compared to diesel.

Oguntola J Alamu; Ezra A Adeleke; Nurudeen O. Adekunle; Salam O; Oguntola J Alamu; Ezra A Adeleke; Nurudeen O Adekunle; Salam O Ismaila

279

Pilot Scale Tests Alden/Concepts NREC Turbine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alden Research Laboratory, Inc. has completed pilot scale testing of the new Alden/Concepts NREC turbine that was designed to minimize fish injury at hydropower projects. The test program was part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Hydropower Turbine Systems Program. The prototype turbine operating point was 1,000 cfs at 80ft head and 100 rpm. The turbine was design to: (1) limit peripheral runner speed; (2) have a high minimum pressure; (3) limit pressure change rates; (4) limit the maximum flow shear; (5) minimize the number and total length of leading blade edges; (6) maximize the distance between the runner inlet and the wicket gates and minimize clearances (i.e., gaps) between other components; and (7) maximize the size of flow passages.

Thomas C. Cook; George E.Hecker; Stephen Amaral; Philip Stacy; Fangbiao Lin; Edward Taft

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

280

In situ global method for measurement of oxygen demand and mass transfer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two aerobic microorganisms, Saccharomycopsis lipolytica and Brevibacterium lactofermentum, have been used in a study of mass transfer and oxygen uptake from a global perspective using a closed gas system. Oxygen concentrations in the gas and liquid were followed using oxygen electrodes, and the results allowed for easy calculation of in situ oxygen transport. The cell yields on oxygen for S. lipolytica and B. lactofermentum were 1.01 and 1.53 g/g respectively. The mass transfer coefficient was estimated as 10 h{sup {minus}1} at 500 rpm for both fermentations. The advantages with this method are noticeable since the use of model systems may be avoided, and the in situ measurements of oxygen demand assure reliable data for scale-up.

Klasson, K.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.; Lundbaeck, K.M.O.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L. [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

A Silicon-Based Micro Gas Turbine Engine for Power Generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper reports on our research in developing a micro power generation system based on gas turbine engine and piezoelectric converter. The micro gas turbine engine consists of a micro combustor, a turbine and a centrifugal compressor. Comprehensive simulation has been implemented to optimal the component design. We have successfully demonstrated a silicon-based micro combustor, which consists of seven layers of silicon structures. A hairpin-shaped design is applied to the fuel/air recirculation channel. The micro combustor can sustain a stable combustion with an exit temperature as high as 1600 K. We have also successfully developed a micro turbine device, which is equipped with enhanced micro air-bearings and driven by compressed air. A rotation speed of 15,000 rpm has been demonstrated during lab test. In this paper, we will introduce our research results major in the development of micro combustor and micro turbine test device.

Shan, X -C; Maeda, R; Sun, Y F; Wu, M; Hua, J S

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Turbocharging of small internal combustion engine as a means of improving engine/application system fuel economy-further turbocharger improvements. Final report Oct 80-Feb 82  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improvements to a small diesel engine turbocharger were made based on data gathered during a previous Army contract. The improved turbocharger was fabricated and tested on a small, four cylinder, 239 CID diesel engine. Engine dynamometer test data revealed a 2 to 9 percent reduction in fuel consumption at all points over the operating envelope. A turbocharger was operated for 1011 hours at speeds between 70000 and 78000 rpm without incident. The ball bearings were in excellent condition at the end of the test. A math model of the engine and turbocharger was generated. The model was used to estimate 13 Mode Federal Diesel Emissions Cycle, the LA4 driving cycle and the application of the variable area turbine nozzle (VATN) turbocharger to a diesel engine driven generator set. A recommendation was made to build a gen set demo unit. A fuel savings of 8 to 10 percent was estimated for a 30KW DED generator set.

Arvin, J.R.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Measurement Versus Predictions of Rotordynamic Coefficients and Leakage Rates for a Hole-Pattern Gas Seal with Negative Preswirl  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) (rpm) (-) 0.5 70 70 70 0.6 70 70 70 0.7 70 70 70 0.5 70 70 70 0.6 70 70 70 0.7 70 70 70 0.5 70 70 70 0.6 70 70 70 0.7 70 70 70 Inlet Pressure (bar) 0.2 10200 15350 20200 Negative High 0.125 in Hole Diameter 0.130 in Hole Depth.... At the inlet to the test seals, the circumferential velocity of the air is measured and used to calculate fluid pre-swirl. The motor used to control the speed of the rotor is a 93 kW (125 hp) AC electric motor. The AC motor is coupled to a Lufkin 6...

Brown, Philip David

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

284

Advanced Ultra-High Speed Motor for Drilling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three (3) designs have been made for two sizes, 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) and 4.29 cm (1.69 inch) outer diameters, of a patented inverted configured Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSM) electric motor specifically for drilling at ultra-high rotational speeds (10,000 rpm) and that can utilize advanced drilling methods. Benefits of these motors are stackable power sections, full control (speed and direction) of downhole motors, flow hydraulics independent of motor operation, application of advanced drilling methods (water jetting and abrasive slurry jetting), and the ability of signal/power electric wires through motor(s). Key features of the final designed motors are: fixed non-rotating shaft with stator coils attached; rotating housing with permanent magnet (PM) rotor attached; bit attached to rotating housing; internal channel(s) in a nonrotating shaft; electric components that are hydrostatically isolated from high internal pressure circulating fluids ('muds') by static metal to metal seals; liquid filled motor with smoothed features for minimized turbulence in the motor during operation; and new inverted coated metal-metal hydrodynamic bearings and seals. PMSM, Induction and Switched Reluctance Machines (SRM), all pulse modulated, were considered, but PMSM were determined to provide the highest power density for the shortest motors. Both radial and axial electric PMSM driven motors were designed with axial designs deemed more rugged for ultra-high speed, drilling applications. The 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) OD axial inverted motor can generate 4.18KW (5.61 Hp) power at 10,000 rpm with a 4 Nm (2.95 ft-lbs) of torque for every 30.48 cm (12 inches) of power section. The 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) OD radial inverted motor can generate 5.03 KW (6.74 Hp) with 4.8 Nm (3.54 ft-lb) torque at 10,000 rpm for every 30.48 cm (12 inches) of power section. The 4.29 cm (1.69 inch) OD radial inverted motor can generate 2.56 KW (3.43 Hp) power with 2.44 Nm (1.8 ft-lb) torque at full speed 10,000 rpm for every 30.48 cm (12 inches) of power section. Operating conditions are 300 voltage AC at the motor leads. Power voltage losses in the cables/wirelines to the motor(s) are expected to be about 10% for 5000 feet carrying 2 amperes. Higher voltages and better insulators can lower these losses and carry more amperes. Cutting elements for such high tip velocities are currently not available, consequently these motors will not be built at this time. However, 7.62 cm (3 inch) OD, low speed, PMSM radial electric motors based on this project design are being built under a 2006 Oklahoma Center for the Advancement of Science and Technology 'proof of concept' grant.

Impact Technologies LLC; University of Texas at Arlington

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

285

Gamma-Ray Signatures for State-Of-Health Analysis and Monitoring of Widely-Arrayed Radiation Portal Monitor Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has deployed a large array of radiation portal monitors for the Department of Homeland Security U.S. Customs and Border Protection. These portal monitors scan incoming vehicles crossing the U.S. border and shipping containers leaving international ports for radioactive material via gamma-ray and neutron detection. Data produced and captured by these systems are recorded for every vehicle related to radiation signature, sensor/system status, and local background, as well as a host of other variables. Within the Radiation Portal Monitor Project at PNNL, state-of-health observation and analysis for the whole RPM system using these data to determine functionality and performance is being developed. (PIET-43741-TM-492)

Woodring, Mitchell L.; Ely, James H.; Angel, Linda K.; Wright, Ingrid H.; Eslinger, Melany A.; Pospical, A. Jill; Ellis, John E.

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

286

Structure of multilayered Cr(Al)N/SiO{sub x} nanocomposite coatings fabricated by differential pumping co-sputtering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Cr(Al)N/38 vol. % SiO{sub x} hard coating was prepared on a (001) Si substrate at 250 °C in a differential pumping co-sputtering system, which has two chambers for radio frequency (RF) sputtering and a substrate holder rotating on the chambers. The composite coating was grown by alternate sputter-depositions from CrAl and SiO{sub 2} targets with flows of N{sub 2}+Ar and Ar at RF powers of 200 and 75 W, respectively, on transition layers grown on the substrate. Analytical electron microscopy reveled that the Cr(Al)N/SiO{sub x} coating had a multilayered structure of Cr(Al)N crystal layers ?1.6 nm thick and two-dimensionally dispersed amorphous silicon oxide (a-SiO{sub x}) particles with sizes of ?1 nm or less. The a-SiO{sub x} particles were enclosed with the Cr(Al)N layers. The coating had a low indentation hardness of ?25 GPa at room temperature, due to a high oxide fraction of 38 vol. % and a low substrate rotational speed of 1 rpm. Faster rotation and lower oxide fraction would make a-SiO{sub x} particles smaller, resulting in the formation of Cr(Al)N crystal including the very fine a-SiO{sub x} particles with small number density. They would work as obstacles for the lattice deformation of the Cr(Al)N crystals. We have fabricated a superhard coating of Cr(Al)N/17 vol. % SiO{sub x} with a hardness of 46 GPa prepared at 12 rpm.

Kawasaki, Masahiro [JEOL USA Inc., 11 Dearborn Road, Peabody, Massachusetts 01960 (United States)] [JEOL USA Inc., 11 Dearborn Road, Peabody, Massachusetts 01960 (United States); Nose, Masateru [Faculty of Art and Design, University of Toyama, 180 Futagami-machi, Takaoka 933-8588 (Japan)] [Faculty of Art and Design, University of Toyama, 180 Futagami-machi, Takaoka 933-8588 (Japan); Onishi, Ichiro [JEOL Ltd. 3-1-2 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan)] [JEOL Ltd. 3-1-2 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Shiojiri, Makoto [Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)] [Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

287

Performance of twist-coupled blades on variable speed rotors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The load mitigation and energy capture characteristics of twist-coupled HAWT blades that are mounted on a variable speed rotor are investigated in this paper. These blades are designed to twist toward feather as they bend with pretwist set to achieve a desirable twist distribution at rated power. For this investigation, the ADAMS-WT software has been modified to include blade models with bending-twist coupling. Using twist-coupled and uncoupled models, the ADAMS software is exercised for steady wind environments to generate C{sub p} curves at a number of operating speeds to compare the efficiencies of the two models. The ADAMS software is also used to generate the response of a twist-coupled variable speed rotor to a spectrum of stochastic wind time series. This spectrum contains time series with two mean wind speeds at two turbulence levels. Power control is achieved by imposing a reactive torque on the low speed shaft proportional to the RPM squared with the coefficient specified so that the rotor operates at peak efficiency in the linear aerodynamic range, and by limiting the maximum RPM to take advantage of the stall controlled nature of the rotor. Fatigue calculations are done for the generated load histories using a range of material exponents that represent materials from welded steel to aluminum to composites, and results are compared with the damage computed for the rotor without twist-coupling. Results indicate that significant reductions in damage are achieved across the spectrum of applied wind loading without any degradation in power production.

Lobitz, D.W.; Veers, P.S.; Laino, D.J.

1999-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

288

ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

289

Testing to expand the rotary mode core sampling system operating envelope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rotary sampling using the Rotary Mode Core Sampling System (RMCSS) is constrained by what is referred to as the ``Operating Envelope``. The Operating Envelop defines the maximum downward force, maximum rotational speed and minimum purge gas flow allowed during operation of the RMCSS. The original values of 1170 lb. down force, 55 RPM rotational speed, and 30 SCFM nitrogen purge gas were determined during original envelope testing. This envelope was determined by observing the temperature rise on the bitface while drilling into waste simulants. The maximum temperature in single-shell tanks (SSTS) is considered to be approximately 9O C and the critical drill bit temperature, which is the temperature at which an exothermic reaction could be initiated in the tank waste, was previously determined to be 150 C. Thus, the drill bit temperature increase was limited to 60 C. Thermal properties of these simulants approximated typical properties of waste tank saltcake. Later, more detailed envelope testing which used a pumice block simulant, showed a notably higher temperature rise while drilling. This pumice material, which simulated a ``worst case`` foreign object embedded in the waste, has lower thermal conductivity and lower thermal diffusivity than earlier simulants. These properties caused a slower heat transfer in the pumice than in the previous simulants and consequently a higher temperature rise. The maximum downward force was subsequently reduced to 750 lb (at a maximum 55 RPM and minimum 30 SCFM purge gas flow) which was the maximum value at which the drill bit could be operated and still remain below the 60 C temperature rise.

Witwer, K.S.

1998-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

290

Sizes, graphitic structures and fractal geometry of light-duty diesel engine particulates.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The particulate matter of a light-duty diesel engine was characterized in its morphology, sizes, internal microstructures, and fractal geometry. A thermophoretic sampling system was employed to collect particulates directly from the exhaust manifold of a 1.7-liter turbocharged common-rail direct-injection diesel engine. The particulate samples collected at various engine-operating conditions were then analyzed by using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) and an image processing/data acquisition system. Results showed that mean primary particle diameters (dp), and radii of gyration (Rg), ranged from 19.4 nm to 32.5 nm and 77.4 nm to 134.1 nm, respectively, through the entire engine-operating conditions of 675 rpm (idling) to 4000 rpm and 0% to 100% loads. It was also revealed that the other important parameters sensitive to the particulate formation, such as exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) rate, equivalence ratio, and temperature, affected particle sizes significantly. Bigger primary particles were measured at higher EGR rates, higher equivalence ratios (fuel-rich), and lower exhaust temperatures. Fractal dimensions (D{sup f}) were measured at a range of 1.5 - 1.7, which are smaller than those measured for heavy-duty direct-injection diesel engine particulates in our previous study. This finding implies that the light-duty diesel engine used in this study produces more stretched chain-like shape particles, while the heavy-duty diesel engine emits more spherical particles. The microstructures of diesel particulates were observed at high TEM magnifications and further analyzed by a Raman spectroscope. Raman spectra revealed an atomic structure of the particulates produced at high engine loads, which is similar to that of typical graphite.

Lee, K. O.; Zhu, J.; Ciatti, S.; Choi, M. Y.; Energy Systems; Drexel Univ.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Preliminary design study of compressed-air energy storage in a salt dome. Volume 5. System, subsystem, and component design approach. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The approach to system, subsystem, and component design for a compressed-air energy storage (CAES) plant located in the Middle South Services, Inc., is presented in this final report. The design approach is based on the facility design criteria described in Volume 2 and the site conditions at the Carmichael salt dome located near Jackson, Mississippi. For the selected weekly cycle, Brown Boveri Corporation selected a single-casing design of fired-high-power and fired-low-power turbines. The high-power (HP) turbine operates at inlet conditions of 609.2 psia (42 bar) and 1021.4/sup 0/F (550/sup 0/C), while the low-power (LP) turbine operates at 159.5 psia (11 bar) and 1633.4/sup 0/F (890/sup 0/C). A tubular design of exhaust gas recuperator heats the incoming air from the storage cavern from 138.4/sup 0/F (60/sup 0/C) to 692/sup 0/F (367/sup 0/C). The compressor design is a single-shaft, tandem-compound arrangement with a 3600-rpm LP compressor and a 6850-rpm HP compressor. The LP compressor is a combination six-stage axial, three-stage radial compressor with an integral cooler and diffuser built into the casing. The HP compressor is a five-stage radial compressor with external intercooler provided after both the second and fourth stages. Fenix and Scisson, Inc., selected two half-size air storage caverns, each capable of delivering full-turbine air mass flow. A solutioning rate of 1750 gpm will allow completion of both caverns without prolonging construction schedule. Fuel is No. 2 distillate, which is delivered on a weekly basis. Rather than construct a rail siding to the plant, a trade-off study showed it more economical to pump the fuel oil to the CAES plant through a seven-mile buried pipeline from the nearest existing rail line. The exhaust gas recuperator, synchronous clutches, and gear case between the HP and LP compressors are key components which require special attention in design and fabrication to ensure reliable CAES plant operation.

Not Available

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

HIGH-POWER TURBODRILL AND DRILL BIT FOR DRILLING WITH COILED TUBING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Commercial introduction of Microhole Technology to the gas and oil drilling industry requires an effective downhole drive mechanism which operates efficiently at relatively high RPM and low bit weight for delivering efficient power to the special high RPM drill bit for ensuring both high penetration rate and long bit life. This project entails developing and testing a more efficient 2-7/8 in. diameter Turbodrill and a novel 4-1/8 in. diameter drill bit for drilling with coiled tubing. The high-power Turbodrill were developed to deliver efficient power, and the more durable drill bit employed high-temperature cutters that can more effectively drill hard and abrasive rock. This project teams Schlumberger Smith Neyrfor and Smith Bits, and NASA AMES Research Center with Technology International, Inc (TII), to deliver a downhole, hydraulically-driven power unit, matched with a custom drill bit designed to drill 4-1/8 in. boreholes with a purpose-built coiled tubing rig. The U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory has funded Technology International Inc. Houston, Texas to develop a higher power Turbodrill and drill bit for use in drilling with a coiled tubing unit. This project entails developing and testing an effective downhole drive mechanism and a novel drill bit for drilling 'microholes' with coiled tubing. The new higher power Turbodrill is shorter, delivers power more efficiently, operates at relatively high revolutions per minute, and requires low weight on bit. The more durable thermally stable diamond drill bit employs high-temperature TSP (thermally stable) diamond cutters that can more effectively drill hard and abrasive rock. Expectations are that widespread adoption of microhole technology could spawn a wave of 'infill development' drilling of wells spaced between existing wells, which could tap potentially billions of barrels of bypassed oil at shallow depths in mature producing areas. At the same time, microhole coiled tube drilling offers the opportunity to dramatically cut producers' exploration risk to a level comparable to that of drilling development wells. Together, such efforts hold great promise for economically recovering a sizeable portion of the estimated remaining shallow (less than 5,000 feet subsurface) oil resource in the United States. The DOE estimates this U.S. targeted shallow resource at 218 billion barrels. Furthermore, the smaller 'footprint' of the lightweight rigs utilized for microhole drilling and the accompanying reduced drilling waste disposal volumes offer the bonus of added environmental benefits. DOE analysis shows that microhole technology has the potential to cut exploratory drilling costs by at least a third and to slash development drilling costs in half.

Robert Radtke; David Glowka; Man Mohan Rai; David Conroy; Tim Beaton; Rocky Seale; Joseph Hanna; Smith Neyrfor; Homer Robertson

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

293

QFT, String Temperature and the String Phase of de Sitter Space-time  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The density of mass levels \\rho(m) and the critical temperature for strings in de Sitter space-time are found. QFT and string theory in de Sitter space are compared. A `Dual'-transform is introduced which relates classical to quantum string lengths, and more generally, QFT and string domains. Interestingly, the string temperature in De Sitter space turns out to be the Dual transform of the QFT-Hawking-Gibbons temperature. The back reaction problem for strings in de Sitter space is addressed selfconsistently in the framework of the `string analogue' model (or thermodynamical approach), which is well suited to combine QFT and string study.We find de Sitter space-time is a self-consistent solution of the semiclassical Einstein equations in this framework. Two branches for the scalar curvature R(\\pm) show up: a classical, low curvature solution (-), and a quantum high curvature solution (+), enterely sustained by the strings. There is a maximal value for the curvature R_{\\max} due to the string back reaction. Int...

Medrano, M R

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

New high-capacity, calcium-based sorbents, calcium silicate sorbents. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A search is being carried out for new calcium-based SO{sub 2} sorbents for induct injection. More specifically, a search is being carried out for induct injection calcium silicate sorbents that are highly cost effective. The current year objectives include the study of sorbents made by hydrating ordinary or Type I portland cement or portland cement clinker (a cement intermediate) under carefully selected conditions. Results of this study show that an excellent portland cement sorbent can be prepared by milling cement at 120{degrees}C at 600 rpm for 15 minutes with MgO-stabilized ZrO{sub 2} beads. They also show that clinker, which is cheaper than cement can be used interchangeably with cement as a starting material. Further, it is clear that while a high surface area may be a desirable property of a good sorbent, it is not a requisite property. Among the hydration reaction variables, milling time is highly important, reaction temperature is important and stirring rate and silicate-to-H{sub 2}O ratio are moderately important. The components of hydrated cement sorbent are various combinations of C-S-H, calcium silicate hydrate:Ca(OH){sub 2};AFm. a phase in hydrated cement.

Kenney, M.E.

1996-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

295

Assessment and Optimization of Lidar Measurement Availability for Wind Turbine Control: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Turbine-mounted lidars provide preview measurements of the incoming wind field. By reducing loads on critical components and increasing the potential power extracted from the wind, the performance of wind turbine controllers can be improved [2]. As a result, integrating a light detection and ranging (lidar) system has the potential to lower the cost of wind energy. This paper presents an evaluation of turbine-mounted lidar availability. Availability is a metric which measures the proportion of time the lidar is producing controller-usable data, and is essential when a wind turbine controller relies on a lidar. To accomplish this, researchers from Avent Lidar Technology and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory first assessed and modeled the effect of extreme atmospheric events. This shows how a multirange lidar delivers measurements for a wide variety of conditions. Second, by using a theoretical approach and conducting an analysis of field feedback, we investigated the effects of the lidar setup on the wind turbine. This helps determine the optimal lidar mounting position at the back of the nacelle, and establishes a relationship between availability, turbine rpm, and lidar sampling time. Lastly, we considered the role of the wind field reconstruction strategies and the turbine controller on the definition and performance of a lidar's measurement availability.

Davoust, S.; Jehu, A.; Bouillet, M.; Bardon, M.; Vercherin, B.; Scholbrock, A.; Fleming, P.; Wright, A.

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Turbine Reliability and Operability Optimization through the use of Direct Detection Lidar Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this Department of Energy (DOE) project is to increase wind turbine efficiency and reliability with the use of a Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system. The LIDAR provides wind speed and direction data that can be used to help mitigate the fatigue stress on the turbine blades and internal components caused by wind gusts, sub-optimal pointing and reactionary speed or RPM changes. This effort will have a significant impact on the operation and maintenance costs of turbines across the industry. During the course of the project, Michigan Aerospace Corporation (MAC) modified and tested a prototype direct detection wind LIDAR instrument; the resulting LIDAR design considered all aspects of wind turbine LIDAR operation from mounting, assembly, and environmental operating conditions to laser safety. Additionally, in co-operation with our partners, the National Renewable Energy Lab and the Colorado School of Mines, progress was made in LIDAR performance modeling as well as LIDAR feed forward control system modeling and simulation. The results of this investigation showed that using LIDAR measurements to change between baseline and extreme event controllers in a switching architecture can reduce damage equivalent loads on blades and tower, and produce higher mean power output due to fewer overspeed events. This DOE project has led to continued venture capital investment and engagement with leading turbine OEMs, wind farm developers, and wind farm owner/operators.

Johnson, David K; Lewis, Matthew J; Pavlich, Jane C; Wright, Alan D; Johnson, Kathryn E; Pace, Andrew M

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Improvement in surface fatigue life of hardened gears by high-intensity shot peening  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two groups of carburized, hardened, and ground spur gears that were manufactured from the same heat vacuum induction melted vacuum arc melted (VIM VAR) AISI 9310 steel were endurance tested for surface fatigue. Both groups were manufactured with a standard ground 16 rms surface finish. One group was subjected to a shot peening (SP) intensity of 7 to 9A, and the second group was subjected to a SP intensity of 15 to 17A. All gears were honed after SP to a surface finish of 16 rms. The gear pitch diameter was 8.89 cm. Test conditions were a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa, a gear temperature of 350 K, and a speed of 10000 rpm. The lubricant used for the tests was a synthetic paraffinic oil with an additive package. The following results were obtained: The 10 pct. surface fatigue (pitting) life of the high intensity (15 to 17A) SPed gears was 2.15 times that of the medium intensity (7 to 9A) SPed gears, the same as that calculated from measured residual stress at a depth of 127 microns. The measured residual stress for the high intensity SPed gears was 57 pct. higher than that for the medium intensity SPed gears at a depth of 127 microns and 540 pct. higher at a depth of 51 microns.

Townsend, D.P.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

HCCI engine control by thermal management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work investigates a control system for HCCI engines, where thermal energy from exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and compression work in the supercharger are either recycled or rejected as needed. HCCI engine operation is analyzed with a detailed chemical kinetics code, HCT (Hydrodynamics, Chemistry and Transport), that has been extensively modified for application to engines. HCT is linked to an optimizer that determines the operating conditions that result in maximum brake thermal efficiency, while meeting the restrictions of low NO{sub x} and peak cylinder pressure. The results show the values of the operating conditions that yield optimum efficiency as a function of torque and RPM. For zero torque (idle), the optimizer determines operating conditions that result in minimum fuel consumption. The optimizer is also used for determining the maximum torque that can be obtained within the operating restrictions of NO{sub x} and peak cylinder pressure. The results show that a thermally controlled HCCI engine can successfully operate over a wide range of conditions at high efficiency and low emissions.

Martinez-Frias, J; Aceves, S M; Flowers, D; Smith, J R; Dibble, R

2000-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

299

Equivalence Ratio-EGR Control of HCCI Engine Operation and the Potential for Transition to Spark-Ignited Operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research investigates a control system for HCCI engines, where equivalence ratio, fraction of EGR and intake pressure are adjusted as needed to obtain satisfactory combustion. HCCI engine operation is analyzed with a detailed chemical kinetics code, HCT (Hydrodynamics, Chemistry and Transport), that has been extensively modified for application to engines. HCT is linked to an optimizer that determines the operating conditions that result in maximum brake thermal efficiency, while meeting the peak cylinder pressure restriction. The results show the values of the operating conditions that yield optimum efficiency as a function of torque and rpm. The engine has high NO{sub x} emissions for high power operation, so the possibility of switching to stoichiometric operation for high torque conditions is considered. Stoichiometric operation would allow the use of a three-way catalyst to reduce NO{sub x} emissions to acceptable levels. Finally, the paper discusses the possibility of transitioning from HCCI operation to SI operation to achieve high power output.

Martinez-Frias, J; Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L; Smith, J R; Dibble, R

2001-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

300

Investigation and Optimization of Biodiesel Chemistry for HCCI Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the past 5 years, ORNL has run 95 diesel range fuels in homogene-ous charge compression ignition (HCCI), including 40 bio-diesels and associated diesel fuels in their blending. The bio-diesel blends varied in oxygen content, iodine number, cetane, boiling point distribution, chemical composition, and some contained nitrogen. All fuels were run in an HCCI engine at 1800 rpm, in the power range of 2.5 to 4.5 bar IMEP, using intake air heating for combustion phasing control, and at a compression ratio of 10.6. The engine response to fuel variables has been analyzed statistically. Generally, the engine responded well to fuels with lower nitrogen and oxygen, lower cetane, and lower aromatics. Because of the wide range of fuels combined in the model, it provides only a broad overview of the engine response. It is recommended that data be truncated and re-modeled to obtain finer resolution of engine response to particular fuel variables.

Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL] [ORNL; Bunce, Michael [ORNL] [ORNL; Joyce, Blake [ORNL] [ORNL; Crawford, Robert W [Rincon Ranch Consulting] [Rincon Ranch Consulting

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Operation of a Four-Cylinder 1.9L Propane Fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine: Basic Operating Characteristics and Cylinder-to-Cylinder Effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A four-cylinder 1.9 Volkswagen TDI Engine has been converted to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode. The stock configuration is a turbocharged direct injection Diesel engine. The combustion chamber has been modified by discarding the in-cylinder Diesel fuel injectors and replacing them with blank inserts (which contain pressure transducers). The stock pistons contain a reentrant bowl and have been retained for the tests reported here. The intake and exhaust manifolds have also been retained, but the turbocharger has been removed. A heater has been installed upstream of the intake manifold and fuel is added just downstream of this heater. The performance of this engine in naturally aspirated HCCI operation, subject to variable intake temperature and fuel flow rate, has been studied. The engine has been run with propane fuel at a constant speed of 1800 rpm. This work is intended to characterize the HCCI operation of the engine in this configuration that has been minimally modified from the base Diesel engine. The performance (BMEP, IMEP, efficiency, etc) and emissions (THC, CO, NOx) of the engine are presented, as are combustion process results based on heat release analysis of the pressure traces from each cylinder.

Flowers, D; Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Smith, J R; Au, M; Girard, J; Dibble, R

2001-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

302

Operation of a Four-Cylinder 1.9L Propane Fueled HCCI Engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A four-cylinder 1.9 Volkswagen TDI Engine has been converted to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode. The stock configuration is a turbocharged direct injection Diesel engine. The combustion chamber has been modified by discarding the in-cylinder Diesel fuel injectors and replacing them with blank inserts (which contain pressure transducers). The stock pistons contain a reentrant bowl and have been retained for the tests reported here. The intake and exhaust manifolds have also been retained, but the turbocharger has been removed. A heater has been installed upstream of the intake manifold and fuel is added just downstream of this heater. The performance of this engine in naturally aspirated HCCI operation, subject to variable intake temperature and fuel flow rate, has been studied. The engine has been run with propane fuel at a constant speed of 1800 rpm. This work is intended to characterize the HCCI operation of the engine in this configuration that has been minimally modified from the base Diesel engine. The performance (BMEP, IMEP, efficiency, etc) and emissions (THC, CO, NOx) of the engine are presented, as are combustion process results based on heat release analysis of the pressure traces from each cylinder.

Flowers, D; Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Smith, J R; Au, M; Girard, J; Dibble, R

2001-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

303

Modelling of the dynamics of a low-speed gas-liquid heat engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper deals with the simulation model of a gas-liquid heat engine which is characterized by very low speeds (1-3 rpm) and relatively high torque. The engine operates according to the Minto Thermal Wheel' principle. It is based on the conversion of thermal energy from the heat source, through gas expansion, into mechanical work, by means of the fall of a mass of liquid. A prototype has already been constructed showing great ability to operate at very low temperature differences between the heat source and heat sink. This makes the engine quite suitable to the utilization of low temperature heat sources such as solar energy and waste heat. On the other hand, the number of moving parts is kept to a minimum, since the piston of traditional positive displacement engines (PDE) is now replaced simply by a mass of liquid. The mathematical model consists of applying the energy equation, in it time-derivative form, to representative engine control volumes, resulting in a set of linear ordinary differential equations. Their integration provides the time variation of pressure and temperature of the working fluid. The engine performance can thus be predicted as a function of engine operating conditions and geometric characteristics. In this paper, the engine dynamics (i.e., variable angular speed) have been taken into account, as well as heat losses in the engine structure. Results and further design considerations are discussed.

Cunha, C.M.P.; Parise, J.A.R. (Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Joint strength in high speed friction stir spot welded DP 980 steel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High speed friction stir spot welding was applied to 1.2 mm thick DP 980 steel sheets under different welding conditions, using PCBN tools. The range of vertical feed rates used during welding was 2.5 mm – 102 mm per minute, while the range of spindle speeds was 2500 – 6000 rpm. Extended testing was carried out for five different sets of welding conditions, until tool failure. These welding conditions resulted in vertical welding loads of 3.6 – 8.2 kN and lap shear tension failure loads of 8.9 – 11.1 kN. PCBN tools were shown, in the best case, to provide lap shear tension fracture loads at or above 9 kN for 900 spot welds, after which tool failure caused a rapid drop in joint strength. Joint strength was shown to be strongly correlated to bond area, which was measured from weld cross sections. Failure modes of the tested joints were a function of bond area and softening that occurred in the heat-affected zone.

Saunders, Nathan; Miles, Michael; Hartman, Trent; Hovanski, Yuri; Hong, Sung Tae; Steel, Russell

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Microstructure characterization of the stir zone of submerged friction stir processed aluminum alloy 2219  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aluminum alloy 2219-T6 was friction stir processed using a novel submerged processing technique to facilitate cooling. Processing was conducted at a constant tool traverse speed of 200 mm/min and spindle rotation speeds in the range from 600 to 800 rpm. The microstructural characteristics of the base metal and processed zone, including grain structure and precipitation behavior, were studied using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Microhardness maps were constructed on polished cross sections of as-processed samples. The effect of tool rotation speed on the microstructure and hardness of the stir zone was investigated. The average grain size of the stir zone was much smaller than that of the base metal, but the hardness was also lower due to the formation of equilibrium ? precipitates from the base metal ?? precipitates. Stir zone hardness was found to decrease with increasing rotation speed (heat input). The effect of processing conditions on strength (hardness) was rationalized based on the competition between grain refinement strengthening and softening due to precipitate overaging. - Highlights: • SZ grain size (? 1 ?m) is reduced by over one order of magnitude relative to the BM. • Hardness in the SZ is lower than that of the precipitation strengthened BM. • Metastable ?? in the base metal transforms to equilibrium ? in the stir zone. • Softening in the SZ results from a decrease of precipitation strengthening.

Feng, Xiuli, E-mail: feng.97@osu.edu [Welding Engineering Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu, Huijie, E-mail: liuhj@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Lippold, John C., E-mail: lippold.1@osu.edu [Welding Engineering Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

A spinning mirror for fast angular scans of EBW emission for magnetic pitch profile measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A tilted spinning mirror rapidly steers the line of sight of the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) emission radiometer at the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). In order to resist high mechanical stresses at rotation speeds of up to 12 000 rpm and to avoid eddy current induced magnetic braking, the mirror consists of a glass-reinforced nylon substrate of a special self-balanced design, coated with a reflecting layer. By completing an angular scan every 2.5-10 ms, it allows one to characterize with good time resolution the Bernstein-extraordinary-ordinary mode-conversion efficiency as a function of the view angles. Angular maps of conversion efficiency are directly related to the magnetic pitch angle at the cutoff layer for the ordinary mode. Hence, measurements at various frequencies provide the safety factor profile at the plasma edge. Initial measurements and indications of the feasibility of the diagnostic are presented. Moreover, angular scans indicate the best launch conditions for EBW heating.

Volpe, Francesco [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

307

Design and Testing of a Prototype Spallation Neutron Source Rotating Target Assembly  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mechanical aspects of an extended vertical shaft rotating target have been evaluated in a full-scale mockup test. A prototype assembly based on a conceptual target design for a 1 to 3-MW spallation facility was built and tested. Key elements of the drive/coupling assembly implemented in the prototype include high integrity dynamic face seals, commercially available bearings, realistic manufacturing tolerances, effective monitoring and controls, and fail-safe shutdown features. A representative target disk suspended on a 3.5 meter prototypical shaft was coupled with the drive to complete the mechanical tests. After1800 hours of operation the test program has confirmed the overall mechanical feasibility of the extended vertical shaft rotating target concept. Precision alignment of the suspended target disk; successful containment of the water and verification of operational stability over the full speed range of 30 to 60 rpm were primary indications the proposed mechanical design is valid for use in a high power target station.

Rennich, Mark J [ORNL; McManamy, Thomas J [ORNL; Graves, Van [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Garmendia, Amaia Zarraoa [IDOM Bilbao; Sorda, Fernando [ESS Bilbao

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Full-scale turbine-missile-casing tests. Final report. [PWR; BWR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results are presented of two full-scale tests simulating the impact of turbine disk fragments on simple ring and shell structures that represent the internal stator blade ring and the outer housing of an 1800-rpm steam turbine casing. The objective was to provide benchmark data on both the energy-absorbing mechanisms of the impact process and, if breakthrough occured, the exit conditions of the turbine missile. A rocket sled was used to accelerate a 1527-kg (3366-lb) segment of a turbine disk, which impacted a steel ring 12.7 cm (5 in.) thick and a steel shell 3.2 cm (1.25 in.) thick. The impact velocity of about 150 m/s (492 ft/s) gave a missile kinetic energy corresponding to the energy of a fragment from a postulated failure at the design overspeed (120% of operating speed). Depending on the orientation of the missile at impact, the steel test structure either slowed the missile to 60% of its initial translational velocity or brought it almost to rest (an energy reduction of 65 and 100%, respectively). The report includes structural and finite element analysis and data interpretation, estimates of energy during impact, missile displacement and velocity histories, and selected strain gage data.

Yoshimura, H.R.; Schamaun, J.T.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Modeling of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) of methane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The operation of piston engines on a compression ignition cycle using a lean, homogeneous charge has many potential attractive features. These include the potential for extremely low NO{sub x} and particulate emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency and not requiring the expensive high pressure injection system of the typical modem diesel engine. Using the HCT chemical kinetics code to simulate autoignition of methane-air mixtures, we have explored the ignition timing, burn duration, NO{sub x} production, indicated efficiency and power output of an engine with a compression ratio of 15:1 at 1200 and 2400 rpm. HCT was modified to include the effects of heat transfer. This study used a single control volume reaction zone that varies as a function of crank angle. The ignition process is controlled by varying the intake equivalence ratio and varying the residual gas trapping (RGT). RGT is internal exhaust gas recirculation which recycles both heat and combustion product species. It is accomplished by varying the timing of the exhaust valve closure. Inlet manifold temperature was held constant at 330 Kelvins. Results show that there is a narrow range of operational conditions that show promise of achieving the control necessary to vary power output while keeping indicated efficiency above 50% and NO{sub x} levels below 100 ppm.

Smith, J.R.; Aceves, S.M.; Westbrook, C.; Pitz, W.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Impeller deflection and modal finite element analysis.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deflections of an impeller due to centripetal forces are calculated using finite element analysis. The lateral, or out of plane, deflections are an important design consideration for this particular impeller because it incorporates an air bearing with critical gap tolerances. The target gap distance is approximately 10 microns at a rotational velocity of 2500 rpm. The centripetal forces acting on the impeller cause it deflect in a concave fashion, decreasing the initial gap distance as a function of radial position. This deflection is characterized for a previous and updated impeller design for comparative purposes. The impact of design options such as material selection, geometry dimensions, and operating rotational velocity are also explored, followed by a sensitivity study with these parameters bounded by specific design values. A modal analysis is also performed to calculate the impeller's natural frequencies which are desired to be avoided during operation. The finite element modeling techniques continue to be exercised by the impeller design team to address specific questions and evaluate conceptual designs, some of which are included in the Appendix.

Spencer, Nathan A.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Including shielding effects in application of the TPCA method for detection of embedded radiation sources.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional full spectrum gamma spectroscopic analysis has the objective of quantitative identification of all the radionuclides present in a measurement. For low-energy resolution detectors such as NaI, when photopeaks alone are not sufficient for complete isotopic identification, such analysis requires template spectra for all the radionuclides present in the measurement. When many radionuclides are present it is difficult to make the correct identification and this process often requires many attempts to obtain a statistically valid solution by highly skilled spectroscopists. A previous report investigated using the targeted principal component analysis method (TPCA) for detection of embedded sources for RPM applications. This method uses spatial/temporal information from multiple spectral measurements to test the hypothesis of the presence of a target spectrum of interest in these measurements without the need to identify all the other radionuclides present. The previous analysis showed that the TPCA method has significant potential for automated detection of target radionuclides of interest, but did not include the effects of shielding. This report complements the previous analysis by including the effects of spectral distortion due to shielding effects for the same problem of detection of embedded sources. Two examples, one with one target radionuclide and the other with two, show that the TPCA method can successfully detect shielded targets in the presence of many other radionuclides. The shielding parameters are determined as part of the optimization process using interpolation of library spectra that are defined on a 2D grid of atomic numbers and areal densities.

Johnson, William C.; Shokair, Isaac R.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Variations of the Respiration Signals for Respiratory-Gated Radiotherapy Using the Video Coached Respiration Guiding System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT) has been used to minimize the dose to normal tissue in lung-cancer radiotherapy. The present research aims to improve the regularity of respiration in RGRT using a video coached respiration guiding system. In the study, 16 patients with lung cancer were evaluated. The respiration signals of the patients were measured by a real-time position management (RPM) Respiratory Gating System (Varian, USA) and the patients were trained using the video coached respiration guiding system. The patients performed free breathing and guided breathing, and the respiratory cycles were acquired for ~5 min. Then, Microsoft Excel 2010 software was used to calculate the mean and standard deviation for each phase. The standard deviation was computed in order to analyze the improvement in the respiratory regularity with respect to the period and displacement. The standard deviation of the guided breathing decreased to 65.14% in the inhale peak and 71.04% in the exhale peak compared with the...

Lee, Hyun Jeong; Oh, Se An

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Dynamic Rotor Deformation and Vibration Monitoring Using a Non-Incremental Laser Doppler Distance Sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Monitoring rotor deformations and vibrations dynamically is an important task for improving the safety and the lifetime as well as the energy efficiency of motors and turbo machines. However, due to the high rotor speed encountered in particular at turbo machines, this requires concurrently a high measurement rate and high accuracy, which can not be fulfilled by most commercially available sensors. To solve this problem, we developed a non-incremental laser Doppler distance sensor (LDDS), which is able to measure simultaneously the in-plane velocity and the out-of-plane position of moving rough solid objects with micrometer precision. In addition, this sensor concurrently offers a high temporal resolution in the microsecond range, because its position uncertainty is in principle independent of the object velocity in contrast to conventional distance sensors, which is a unique feature of the LDDS. Consequently, this novel sensor enables precise and dynamic in-process deformation and vibration measurements on rotating objects, such as turbo machine rotors, even at very high speed. In order to evidence the capability of the LDDS, measurements of rotor deformations (radial expansion), vibrations and wobbling motions are presented at up to 50,000 rpm rotor speed.

Pfister, Thorsten; Guenther, Philipp; Dreier, Florian; Czarske, Juergen [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Laboratory for Measurement and Testing Techniques, Helmholtzstrasse 18, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

2010-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

314

Environmental wear testing of nonmetallic materials for compressor applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A full-size prototypical test facility was designed and built to test nonmetallic materials in support of reciprocating compressor applications. Conventional test rigs utilize a pin- or ring-on-disk configuration to produce wear data in rotary motion under relatively low applied loads. In contrast, the subject test facility is constructed around a 9-inch (23-cm) stroke compressor frame. The test specimen and counterface configurations are similar to compressor packing rings and piston rods, respectively, and specimens are spring-loaded to variable levels encompassing actual compressor conditions. Testing to date has been performed at 500 rpm, 200 F (93 C), and three different load levels [65, 130 and 195 psi (450, 900 and 1,350 kPa)]. Material wear rate in air versus specimen pressure reveals a linear relationship with a slope of approximately 0.12 mils/day/psi (0.44 {micro}m/day/kPa). The wear performance of six different materials has been ranked in air. Future testing will focus on creating a database for material wear rates in air and nitrogen.

Parrington, R.J.; Hinchliff, E.M.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Combustion characteristics of dry coal-powder-fueled adiabatic diesel engine: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at investigating the combustion characteristics of dry coal powder fueled diesel engine. During this program, significant achievements were made in overcoming many problems facing the coal-powder-fueled engine. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept was used to enhance the combustion of coal powder fuel. The major coal-fueled engine test results and accomplishments are as follows: design, fabrication and engine testing of improved coal feed system for fumigation of coal powder to the intake air; design, fabrication and engine testing of the TICS chamber made from a superalloy material (Hastelloy X); design, fabrication and engine testing of wear resistant chrome oxide ceramic coated piston rings and cylinder liner; lubrication system was improved to separate coal particles from the contaminated lubricating oil; control of the ignition timing of fumigated coal powder by utilizing exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and variable TICS chamber temperature; coal-fueled engine testing was conducted in two configurations: dual fuel (with diesel pilot) and 100% coal-fueled engine without diesel pilot or heated intake air; cold starting of the 100% coal-powder-fueled engine with a glow plug; and coal-fueled-engine was operated from 800 to 1800 rpm speed and idle to full load engine conditions.

Kakwani, R.M.; Kamo, R.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Microturbines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Microturbines are small combustion turbines, approximately the size of a refrigerator, with outputs of 25-500 kilowatt (kW). They evolved from automotive and truck turbochargers, auxiliary power units for airplanes, and small jet engines and are composed of a compressor, a combustor, a turbine, an alternator, a recuperator, and a generator. Microturbines offer a number of potential advantages over other technologies for small-scale power generation. These include their small number of moving parts, compact size, light weight, greater efficiency, lower emissions, lower electricity costs, and ability to use waste fuels. They can be located on sites with space limitations for the production of power, and waste heat recovery can be used to achieve efficiencies of more than 80%. Turbines are classified by the physical arrangement of their component parts: single-shaft or two-shaft, simple-cycle or recuperated, inter-cooled, and reheat. The machines generally rotate more than 40,000 rotations per minute (rpm). Bearing selection, whether the manufacturer uses oil or air, is dependent on use. Single-shaft is the more common design because it is simpler and less expensive to build. Conversely, the split shaft is necessary for machine drive applications because it does not require an inverter to change the frequency of the AC power.

317

Stirling engine performance optimization with different working fluids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design flexibility of Stirling cycle devices is evident from the wide variety of mechanical configurations that have been developed as well as the many differing applications that have been shown to be technically feasible. The choice of working fluid is one option that strongly influences engine design. Hydrogen permits the most compact engine (for a given power output and efficiency) of any gaseous working fluid investigated and has therefore been the choice in Stirling development programs directed at the automotive application where engine size is a major concern. Systems using helium or air are presently under development for applications where size is not as important a consideration. This paper describes calculated characteristics of engines optimized for four working fluids (hydrogen, helium, air and methane). A comparison is given between engines whose exterior dimensions are minimized and with lower rpm, lower pressure engine designs calculated by maximizing the dimensionless parameter known as the Beale number. Design point power and efficiency are the same in the resulting eight conceptual designs but great variation is shown in engine characteristics due both to working fluid differences and to the two different design objectives. 5 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Daley, J.G.; Marr, W.W.; Heames, T.J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Low pressure high speed Stirling air engine. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project was to design, construct and test a simple, appropriate technology low pressure, high speed, wood-fired Stirling air engine of 100 W output. The final design was a concentric piston/displacer engine of 454 in. bore and 1 in. stroke with a rhombic drive mechanism. The project engine was ultimately completed and tested, using a propane burner for all tests as a matter of convenience. The 100 W aim was exceeded, at atmospheric pressure, over a wide range of engine speed with the maximum power being 112 W at 1150 rpm. A pressure can was constructed to permit pressurization; however the grant funds were running out, and the only pressurized power test attempted was unsuccessful due to seal difficulties. This was a disappointment because numerous tests on the 4 cubic inch engine suggested power would be more than doubled with pressurization at 25 psig. A manifold was designed and constructed to permit operation of the engine over a standard No. 40 pot bellied stove. The engine was run successfully, but at reduced speed and power, over this stove. The project engine started out being rather noisy in operation, but modifications ultimately resulted in a very quiet engine. Various other difficulties and their solutions also are discussed. (LCL)

Ross, M.A.

1980-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

319

Evaluation and silicon nitride internal combustion engine components. Final report, Phase I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The feasibility of silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) use in internal combustion engines was studied by testing three different components for wear resistance and lower reciprocating mass. The information obtained from these preliminary spin rig and engine tests indicates several design changes are necessary to survive high-stress engine applications. The three silicon nitride components tested were valve spring retainers, tappet rollers, and fuel pump push rod ends. Garrett Ceramic Components` gas-pressure sinterable Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (GS-44) was used to fabricate the above components. Components were final machined from densified blanks that had been green formed by isostatic pressing of GS-44 granules. Spin rig testing of the valve spring retainers indicated that these Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} components could survive at high RPM levels (9,500) when teamed with silicon nitride valves and lower spring tension than standard titanium components. Silicon nitride tappet rollers showed no wear on roller O.D. or I.D. surfaces, steel axles and lifters; however, due to the uncrowned design of these particular rollers the cam lobes indicated wear after spin rig testing. Fuel pump push rod ends were successful at reducing wear on the cam lobe and rod end when tested on spin rigs and in real-world race applications.

Voldrich, W. [Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Torrance, CA (United States). Garrett Ceramic Components Div.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Evaluation and silicon nitride internal combustion engine components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The feasibility of silicon nitride (Si[sub 3]N[sub 4]) use in internal combustion engines was studied by testing three different components for wear resistance and lower reciprocating mass. The information obtained from these preliminary spin rig and engine tests indicates several design changes are necessary to survive high-stress engine applications. The three silicon nitride components tested were valve spring retainers, tappet rollers, and fuel pump push rod ends. Garrett Ceramic Components' gas-pressure sinterable Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] (GS-44) was used to fabricate the above components. Components were final machined from densified blanks that had been green formed by isostatic pressing of GS-44 granules. Spin rig testing of the valve spring retainers indicated that these Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] components could survive at high RPM levels (9,500) when teamed with silicon nitride valves and lower spring tension than standard titanium components. Silicon nitride tappet rollers showed no wear on roller O.D. or I.D. surfaces, steel axles and lifters; however, due to the uncrowned design of these particular rollers the cam lobes indicated wear after spin rig testing. Fuel pump push rod ends were successful at reducing wear on the cam lobe and rod end when tested on spin rigs and in real-world race applications.

Voldrich, W. (Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Torrance, CA (United States). Garrett Ceramic Components Div.)

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Investigation and Optimization of Biodiesel Chemistry for HCCI Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the past 5 years, ORNL has run 95 diesel range fuels in homogene-ous charge compression ignition (HCCI), including 40 bio-diesels and associated diesel fuels in their blending. The bio-diesel blends varied in oxygen content, iodine number, cetane, boiling point distribution, chemical composition, and some contained nitrogen. All fuels were run in an HCCI engine at 1800 rpm, in the power range of 2.5 to 4.5 bar IMEP, using intake air heating for combustion phasing control, and at a compression ratio of 10.6. The engine response to fuel variables has been analyzed statistically. Generally, the engine responded well to fuels with lower nitrogen and oxygen, lower cetane, and lower aromatics. Because of the wide range of fuels combined in the model, it provides only a broad overview of the engine response. It is recommended that data be truncated and re-modeled to obtain finer resolution of engine response to particular fuel variables.

Bunting, Bruce G. [ORNL; Bunce, Michael [ORNL; Joyce, Blake [ORNL; Crawford, Robert W. [Rincon Ranch Consulting

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

322

Analysis Of Exhaust Emission Of Internal Combustion Engine Using Biodiesel Blend  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract-The main purpose of this research is to study the effect of various blends of an environmental friendly alternative fuel such as biodiesel on the performance of diesel engine. In the Present investigation experimental work has been carried out to analyze the performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a single cylinder internal combustion engine fuelled with biodiesel blend at the different load. In this experiment the biodiesel which is use as a waste cooking oil (WCO) biodiesel.To investigation of the emission characteristics of the engine loads, which is supplied from the alternator. The experiment was carried out different load i.e. (NO LOAD, 100W 200W, 500W, 1000W, 1500W, 2000W, 2500W & 3000Watt) at engine speed 1500 rpm/min. A test was applied in which an engine was fuel with diesel and seven different blends of diesel. Biodiesel (B5, B10, B20, B40, B60, B80, B100) made from waste cooking oil and the results were analyzed.The emission of were measured carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon carbon(HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and oxygen ().The experimental results will be compared with biodiesel blends and diesel. The biodiesel results of (WCO) in lower emission of hydro carbon (HC) and (CO) and increase emission of (NO2). This study showed that the results of exhaust emission of biodiesel blends were lower than the diesel fuel. Keyword- Biodiesel (WCO), diesel engine, gas analyzer, Exhaust emission. I.

Suvendu Mohanty; Dr. Om Prakash; Reasearch Scholar

323

An experimental investigation of low octane gasoline in diesel engines.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional combustion techniques struggle to meet the current emissions norms. In particular, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) emissions have limited the utilization of diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Advance combustion concepts have proved the potential to combine fuel efficiency and improved emission performance. Low-temperature combustion (LTC) offers reduced NO{sub x} and PM emissions with comparable modern diesel engine efficiencies. The ability of premixed, low-temperature compression ignition to deliver low PM and NO{sub x} emissions is dependent on achieving optimal combustion phasing. Diesel operated LTC is limited by early knocking combustion, whereas conventional gasoline operated LTC is limited by misfiring. So the concept of using an unconventional fuel with the properties in between those two boundary fuels has been experimented in this paper. Low-octane (84 RON) gasoline has shown comparable diesel efficiencies with the lowest NO{sub x} emissions at reasonable high power densities (NO{sub x} emission was 1 g/kW h at 12 bar BMEP and 2750 rpm).

Ciatti, S. A.; Subramanian, S. (Energy Systems)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Continuing work in controlled testing uses a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout the gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NOX emissions. Technologies including one pre-combustion chamber, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing have been evaluated in previous reports. Current work focuses on final preparations for testing pre-combustion chambers with different characteristics and using mid-to-high-pressure fuel valves and initial runs of these tests. By using the Ajax DP-115 these tests are completed in a low-cost and efficient manner. The various technologies can be quickly exchanged with different hardware, and it is inexpensive to run the engine. Progress in moving toward field testing is discussed, and changes to the first planned field test are presented. Although changes have been made to the previous plan, it is expected that several new sites will be selected soon. Field tests will begin in the next quarter.

Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Contol of Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Motors with Special Application to Motors with Fractional-Slot Concentrated Windings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 30-pole, 6-kW prototype of a fractional-slot permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) design has been developed to operate at a maximum speed of 6000 rpm [1,2]. This machine has significantly more inductance than regular PMSMs with distributed windings. The prototype was delivered in April 2006 to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for testing and development of a suitable controller. To prepare for this test/control development effort, ORNL used PMSM models developed over a number of previous studies to preview the control issues that arise when a dynamic controller drives a high inductance PMSM machine during steady state performance evaluations. The detailed steady state model developed includes all motor and inverter loss mechanisms and was useful for assessing the performance of the dynamic controller before it was put into operation. This report documents the results of tests demonstrating the effectiveness of ORNL's simple low-cost control scheme during characterization of the fractional-slot concentrated windings (FSCW) PMSM motor. The control scheme is simple because only the supply voltage magnitude and the phase angle between the back-electromotive force (emf) and the supply voltage is controlled. It is low-cost because it requires no current or phase voltage sensors.

Patil, N.; Lawler, J.S.; McKeever, J.

2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

326

Multi-stage axial-flux PM machine for wheel direct drive  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design of direct-driven wheel motors must comply with diameter restriction due to housing the motor in a wheel rim and allow the achievement of very high torque density and overload capability. Slotless axial-flux permanent magnet machines (AFPMs) prove to be one best candidate for application in electric vehicles as direct-drive wheel motors, as in comparison with conventional machines they allow designs with higher compactness, lightness and efficiency. The paper presents a newly-conceived AFPM which has multi-stage structure and water-cooled ironless stator. In the proposed new topology of the machine the space formerly occupied by the toroidal core becomes a water duct, which removes heat directly from the interior surface of the stator winding. The high efficiency of the machine cooling arrangement allows long-term 100% overload operation and great reduction of the machine weight. The multistage structure of the machine is suited to overcome the restriction on the machine diameter and meet the torque required at the wheel shaft. The paper gives guidelines for the design of a multi-stage AFPM with water-cooled ironless stator, and describes characteristics of a two-stage prototype machine rated 220 Nm, 1,100 rpm.

Caricchi, F.; Crescimbini, F.; Mezzetti, F.; Santini, E. [Univ. of Rome La Sapienza (Italy). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

327

Design of a high power density, permanent magnet, axial gap dc motor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the design of drive motors for undersea vehicles, the premium placed on noise suppression suggests the use of a brush-commutated dc motor. The additional constraints of weight and volume, as well as unusual configuration, presents the axial air-gap configuration, with a permanent magnet field, as a viable candidate. In such a configuration the design of the brushes and commutator and the resulting structure becomes critical. The report describes a novel solution to this problem. The basic motor consists of two discs containing permanent magnets on either side of a magnetic structure containing the copper windings. An advantage of this motor concept is that copper cooling may easily be accomplished through the use of liquid circulating through the stator windings. The role of field and armature in a conventional disc motor configuration are reversed. The two discs containing the permanent magnets are rotating. The brushes are on the discs. The magnetic structure with the coils is stationary. The commutator bars are imbedded in the stationary member. Input power is supplied to the brushes through a brush-and-slip ring assembly. An electromagnetic design analysis for a 92 ft-lb, 700 rpm motor was performed. A finite element analysis has been conducted and the results show that magnetic saturation is not a limiting factor in this design. The motor torque is achievable within weight and volume constraints. 9 figs., 1 tab.

Hawsey, R.A.; Daniel, D.S.; Thomas, R.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Bailey, J.M. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Comparison of propane and methane performance and emissions in a turbocharged direct injection dual fuel engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With increasingly restrictive NO x and particulate matter emissions standards, the recent discovery of new natural gas reserves, and the possibility of producing propane efficiently from biomass sources, dual fueling strategies have become more attractive. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel operation of a four-cylinder turbocharged direct injection (DI) diesel engine with propane or methane (a natural gas surrogate) as the primary fuel and diesel as the ignition source. Experiments were performed with the stock engine control unit at a constant speed of 1800 rpm, and a wide range of brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) (2.7-11.6 bars) and percent energy substitutions (PESs) of C 3 H 8 and CH 4. Brake thermal efficiencies (BTEs) and emissions (NO x, smoke, total hydrocarbons (THCs), CO, and CO 2) were measured. Maximum PES levels of about 80-95% with CH 4 and 40-92% with C 3 H 8 were achieved. Maximum PES was limited by poor combustion efficiencies and engine misfire at low loads for both C 3 H 8 and CH 4, and the onset of knock above 9 bar BMEP for C 3 H 8. While dual fuel BTEs were lower than straight diesel BTEs at low loads, they approached diesel BTE values at high loads. For dual fuel operation, NO x and smoke reductions (from diesel values) were as high as 66-68% and 97%, respectively, but CO and THC emissions were significantly higher with increasing PES at all engine loads

Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

329

Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were scanned after tank supernatant was removed. 4. Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds. This sampler was designed and built to remove small sections of the mounds to evaluate concentrations of the stainless steel solids at different special locations. 5. Computer driven positioner that placed the laser rangefinders and the core sampler in appropriate locations over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank where mixing is poor. These devices and techniques were effective to estimate the movement, location, and concentrations of the solids representing heavier particles and could perform well at a larger scale The experiment contained two campaigns with each comprised of ten cycles to fill and empty the scaled staging tank. The tank was filled without mixing, but emptied, while mixing, in seven batches; the first six were of equal volumes of 13.1 gallons each to represent the planned fullscale batches of 145,000 gallons, and the last, partial, batch of 6.9 gallons represented a full-scale partial batch of 76,000 gallons that will leave a 72-inch heel in the staging tank for the next cycle. The sole difference between the two campaigns was the energy to mix the scaled staging tank, i.e., the nozzle velocity and jet rotational speed of the two jet pumps. Campaign 1 used 22.9 ft/s, at 1.54 rpm based on past testing and Campaign 2 used 23.9 ft/s at 1.75 rpm, based on visual observation of minimum velocity that allowed fast settling solids, i.e., sand and stainless steel, to accumulate on the scaled tank bottom.

Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

330

Barriers to the Application of High-Temperature Coolants in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify practical approaches, technical barriers, and cost impacts to achieving high-temperature coolant operation for certain traction drive subassemblies and components of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). HEVs are unique in their need for the cooling of certain dedicated-traction drive subassemblies/components that include the electric motor(s), generators(s), inverter, dc converter (where applicable), and dc-link capacitors. The new coolant system under study would abandon the dedicated 65 C coolant loop, such as used in the Prius, and instead rely on the 105 C engine cooling loop. This assessment is important because automotive manufacturers are interested in utilizing the existing water/glycol engine cooling loop to cool the HEV subassemblies in order to eliminate an additional coolant loop with its associated reliability, space, and cost requirements. In addition, the cooling of power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology (FCVT) goals for power rating, volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost. All of these have been addressed in this study. Because there is high interest by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in reducing manufacturing cost to enhance their competitive standing, the approach taken in this analysis was designed to be a positive 'can-do' approach that would be most successful in demonstrating the potential or opportunity of relying entirely on a high-temperature coolant system. Nevertheless, it proved to be clearly evident that a few formidable technical and cost barriers exist and no effective approach for mitigating the barriers was evident in the near term. Based on comprehensive thermal tests of the Prius reported by ORNL in 2005 [1], the continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures were projected from test data at 900 rpm. They are approximately 15 kW with 103 C coolant and 20 kW with 50 C coolant. To avoid this 25% drop1 in continuous power, design changes for improved heat dissipation and carefully managed changes in allowable thermal limits would be required in the hybrid subsystems. This study is designed to identify the technical barriers that potentially exist in moving to a high-temperature cooling loop prior to addressing the actual detailed design. For operation at a significantly higher coolant temperature, there were component-level issues that had to be addressed in this study. These issues generally pertained to the cost and reliability of existing or near term components that would be suitable for use with the 105 C coolant. The assessed components include power electronic devices/modules such as diodes and insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), inverter-grade high-temperature capacitors, permanent magnets (PM), and motor-grade wire insulation. The need for potentially modifying/resizing subassemblies such as inverters, motors, and heat exchangers was also addressed in the study. In order to obtain pertinent information to assist ORNL researchers address the thermal issues at the component, module, subassembly, and system levels, pre-existing laboratory test data conducted at varying temperatures was analyzed in conjunction with information obtained from technical literature searches and industry sources.

Hsu, J.S.; Staunton, M.R.; Starke, M.R.

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

331

Barriers to the Application of High-Temperature Coolants in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify practical approaches, technical barriers, and cost impacts to achieving high-temperature coolant operation for certain traction drive subassemblies and components of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). HEVs are unique in their need for the cooling of certain dedicated-traction drive subassemblies/components that include the electric motor(s), generators(s), inverter, dc converter (where applicable), and dc-link capacitors. The new coolant system under study would abandon the dedicated 65 C coolant loop, such as used in the Prius, and instead rely on the 105 C engine cooling loop. This assessment is important because automotive manufacturers are interested in utilizing the existing water/glycol engine cooling loop to cool the HEV subassemblies in order to eliminate an additional coolant loop with its associated reliability, space, and cost requirements. In addition, the cooling of power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology (FCVT) goals for power rating, volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost. All of these have been addressed in this study. Because there is high interest by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in reducing manufacturing cost to enhance their competitive standing, the approach taken in this analysis was designed to be a positive 'can-do' approach that would be most successful in demonstrating the potential or opportunity of relying entirely on a high-temperature coolant system. Nevertheless, it proved to be clearly evident that a few formidable technical and cost barriers exist and no effective approach for mitigating the barriers was evident in the near term. Based on comprehensive thermal tests of the Prius reported by ORNL in 2005 [1], the continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures were projected from test data at 900 rpm. They are approximately 15 kW with 103 C coolant and 20 kW with 50 C coolant. To avoid this 25% drop1 in continuous power, design changes for improved heat dissipation and carefully managed changes in allowable thermal limits would be required in the hybrid subsystems. This study is designed to identify the technical barriers that potentially exist in moving to a high-temperature cooling loop prior to addressing the actual detailed design. For operation at a significantly higher coolant temperature, there were component-level issues that had to be addressed in this study. These issues generally pertained to the cost and reliability of existing or near-term components that would be suitable for use with the 105 C coolant. The assessed components include power electronic devices/modules such as diodes and insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), inverter-grade high-temperature capacitors, permanent magnets (PM), and motor-grade wire insulation. The need for potentially modifying/resizing subassemblies such as inverters, motors, and heat exchangers was also addressed in the study. In order to obtain pertinent information to assist ORNL researchers address the thermal issues at the component, module, subassembly, and system levels, pre-existing laboratory test data conducted at varying temperatures was analyzed in conjunction with information obtained from technical literature searches and industry sources.

Staunton, Robert H [ORNL; Hsu, John S [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Arabelle: The most powerful steam turbine in the world  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On the 30th of August 1996 at the CHOOZ power station in the Ardennes, the first 1,500 MW turbine was started up under nuclear steam and connected to the grid. It will reach full power in the spring of 1997, followed shortly afterwards by a second identical machine. This turbine, known as ARABELLE, is currently the most powerful in the world, with a single line rotating at 1,500 rpm. It has been entirely designed, manufactured and installed by the teams of GEC ALSTHOM, within the framework of the Electricite de France N4 PWR program. It represents a new type of nuclear turbine, the fruit of much research and development work which started in the 1980s. It benefits from GEC ALSTHOM's considerable experience in the field of nuclear turbines: 143 machines with a total power output of 100,000 MW and more than ten million hours of operation. It should be remembered that the first 1,000 MW unit for a PWR plant was connected at Fessenheim in 1977, and since then the different EDF plants have been equipped with 58 GEC ALSTHOM turbines, ranging from 1,000 MW to 1,350 MW, this providing the company with a vast amount of information. The process which led to a new design for ARABELLE was based on: Feedback of service experience from previous machines; this provides precious learning material with a view to improving the performance of operating equipment. Research and development work resulting in significant technical advances which could then be integrated into the design of a new generation of turbines. Taking account of the major concerns of the customer-user: Electricite de France (EDF): Improved reliability and operating availability, increased efficiency, reduced investment and maintenance costs.

Lamarque, F.; Deloroix, V.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Correlation between internal fiducial tumor motion and external marker motion for liver tumors imaged with 4D-CT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: We investigated the correlation between the motions of an external marker and internal fiducials implanted in the liver for 8 patients undergoing respiratory-based computed tomography (four-dimensional CT [4D-CT]) procedures. Methods and Materials: The internal fiducials were gold seeds, 3 mm in length and 1.2 mm in diameter. Four patients each had one implanted fiducial, and the other four had three implanted fiducials. The external marker was a plastic box, which is part of the Real-Time Position Management System (RPM) used to track the patient's respiration. Each patient received a standard helical CT scan followed by a time-correlated CT-image acquisition (4D-CT). The 4D-CT images were reconstructed in 10 separate phases covering the entire respiratory cycle. Results: The internal fiducial motion is predominant in the superior-inferior direction, with a range of 7.5-17.5 mm. The correlation between external respiration and internal fiducial motion is best during expiration. For 2 patients with their three fiducials separated by a maximum of 3.2 cm, the motions of the fiducials were well correlated, whereas for 2 patients with more widely spaced fiducials, there was less correlation. Conclusions: In general, there is a good correlation between internal fiducial motion imaged by 4D-CT and external marker motion. We have demonstrated that gating may be best performed at the end of the respiratory cycle. Special attention should be paid to gating for patients whose fiducials do not move in synchrony, because targeting on the correct respiratory amplitude alone would not guarantee that the entire tumor volume is within the treatment field.

Beddar, A. Sam [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: abeddar@mdanderson.org; Kainz, Kristofer [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Briere, Tina Marie [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Tsunashima, Yoshikazu [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Pan Tinsu [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Prado, Karl [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gillin, Michael [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Krishnan, Sunil [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Accuracy and Consistency of Respiratory Gating in Abdominal Cancer Patients  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate respiratory gating accuracy and intrafractional consistency for abdominal cancer patients treated with respiratory gated treatment on a regular linear accelerator system. Methods and Materials: Twelve abdominal patients implanted with fiducials were treated with amplitude-based respiratory-gated radiation therapy. On the basis of daily orthogonal fluoroscopy, the operator readjusted the couch position and gating window such that the fiducial was within a setup margin (fiducial-planning target volume [f-PTV]) when RPM indicated “beam-ON.” Fifty-five pre- and post-treatment fluoroscopic movie pairs with synchronized respiratory gating signal were recorded. Fiducial motion traces were extracted from the fluoroscopic movies using a template matching algorithm and correlated with f-PTV by registering the digitally reconstructed radiographs with the fluoroscopic movies. Treatment was determined to be “accurate” if 50% of the fiducial area stayed within f-PTV while beam-ON. For movie pairs that lost gating accuracy, a MATLAB program was used to assess whether the gating window was optimized, the external-internal correlation (EIC) changed, or the patient moved between movies. A series of safety margins from 0.5 mm to 3 mm was added to f-PTV for reassessing gating accuracy. Results: A decrease in gating accuracy was observed in 44% of movie pairs from daily fluoroscopic movies of 12 abdominal patients. Three main causes for inaccurate gating were identified as change of global EIC over time (?43%), suboptimal gating setup (?37%), and imperfect EIC within movie (?13%). Conclusions: Inconsistent respiratory gating accuracy may occur within 1 treatment session even with a daily adjusted gating window. To improve or maintain gating accuracy during treatment, we suggest using at least a 2.5-mm safety margin to account for gating and setup uncertainties.

Ge, Jiajia; Santanam, Lakshmi; Yang, Deshan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Parikh, Parag J., E-mail: pparikh@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States)

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Thermodynamic restrictions on mechanosynthesis of strontium titanate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical potential phase stability diagrams were calculated from relevant thermodynamic properties and used to predict the thermodynamic driving force under prospective conditions of room temperature mechanosynthesis. One analysed the dependence of chemical potential diagrams on temperature and partial pressure of evolving gases such as oxygen or carbon dioxide, as expected on using strontium peroxide or strontium carbonate as precursor reactants for the alkali earth component. Thermodynamic calculations were also obtained for changes in titania precursor reactants, including thermodynamic predictions for reactivity of strontium carbonate with amorphous titania. Experimental evidence showed that strontium titanate can be obtained by mechanosynthesis of strontium carbonate+anatase mixtures, due to previous amorphization under high energy milling. Ability to perform mechanosynthesis with less energetic milling depends on the suitable choice of alternative precursor reactants, which meet the thermodynamic requirements without previous amorphization; this was demonstrated by mechanosynthesis from anatase+strontium peroxide mixtures. - Graphical abstract: X-Ray diffractograms of the starting TiO{sub 2} (anatase)+SrCO{sub 3} mixture and after mechanical activation at 650 rpm, for 1, 2, and 7 h. Different symbols are used to identify reflections ascribed to anatase (diamonds), SrCO{sub 3} (squares) and SrTiO{sub 3} (triangles). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prediction of thermodynamic driving force for room temperature mechanosynthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dependence of chemical potential diagrams on temperature and partial pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermodynamic calculations for changes in titania precursor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental support for thermodynamic predictions.

Monteiro, J.F. [Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Ferreira, A.A.L. [Instituto Politecnico de Viana do Castelo, 4900-347 Viana do Castelo (Portugal); Antunes, I. [Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Fagg, D.P., E-mail: duncan@ua.pt [Centro de Tecnologia Mecanica e Automacao, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Frade, J.R. [Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

Analysis of HFIR pressurizer pump overspeed transients and relief valve performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pressurizer pump overspeed transients at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fall in the category of {open_quotes}increase in coolant inventory transients.{close_quotes} They are among the accident transients to be performed for Chapter 15 of the HFIR safety analysis report (SAR). The pressurizer pump speed starting to increase inadvertently to reach its maximum speed of 3,560 rpm while the reactor operates under normal conditions is the cause of this transient. Increased primary coolant system pressure due to increased pressurizer pump flow into the primary coolant head tank challenges the relief valves to open. If the relief valves do not open, increased primary coolant system pressure will challenge the integrity of the high pressure boundary. Two sets of analyses were performed to analyze the pressurizer pump overspeed transients. The purpose of the first analysis is to estimate how long it will take for the relief valves to open under different conditions and whether or not they will chatter or flutter for a considerable amount of time. The analysis estimates relief valve performance and stability using four different relief valve subsystem models. The relief valve subsystem models are not attached to the primary coolant system model. Vigorous pressure oscillations were produced in all of the computations performed as part of the first analysis. The second analysis includes new simulations of the pressurizer pump overspeed transients that were previously simulated using the RELAP5 thermal-hydraulic computer code. The HFIRSYS, High Flux Isotope Reactor System Transient Analysis computer code, was utilized for these simulations providing referable results for comparisons. The increased pressurizer pump flow due to runaway pressurizer pump speed pressurizes the primary coolant system. The assumptions were made in such a way to form constraining conditions at initiation of and during the transients to generate as high an overpressure situation as possible.

Sozer, M.C.

1992-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

337

Studies on the in situ electrooxidation and selective permeation of cerium(IV) across a bulk liquid membrane containing tributyl phosphate as the ion transporter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of experiments carried out to develop a liquid membrane (LM) technique for the extractive permeation of cerium from nitric acid solutions are described. In-situ electrooxidation of Ce{sup 3+} to extractable Ce{sup 4+} and its transport across bulk LM (BLM) composed of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/dodecane mixtures was systematically studied under varied hydrodynamical and chemical conditions. The permeability of metal ions across the BLM was dependent on the efficiency of extraction, ionic activity of feed solutions, stirring rate, composition of the receiving phase, etc. The transport rates were found to vary linearly (a log-log correlation) with the cation concentration in feed solutions and concentration of TBP in BLM. A permeation velocity equation for cerium ion through the membrane has been proposed. More than 90% permeation of Ce with a maximum flux of 8.63 x 10{sup {minus}5} mol/m{sup 2}/s could be accomplished under the experimental conditions: stirring rates at feed and strip solutions were 380 and 300 rpm, respectively; feed was 1 mol/dm{sup 3} of HNO{sub 3} containing 0.005 mol/dm{sup 3} Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}; LM contained 30% TBP/dodecane; and the receiving phase was distilled water. Radiochemically pure Ce-144 was partitioned from the Ce-Am mixture obtained by extraction chromatographic fractioning of high level radioactive waste. This also resulted in the purification of Am-241 in the feed solution with a decontamination factor of {approximately} 12 from Ce.

Kedari, C.S.; Pandit, S.S.; Ramanujam, A. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay (India). Fuel Reprocessing Div.] [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay (India). Fuel Reprocessing Div.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Experimental Investigation of Fuel-Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion Mode in a Multi-Cylinder, Light-Duty Diesel Engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study was performed to provide the combustion and emission characteristics resulting from fuel-reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion mode utilizing dual-fuel approach in a light-duty, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel injection of gasoline before intake valve opening (IVO) and early-cycle, direct injection of diesel fuel was used as the charge preparation and fuel blending strategy. In order to achieve the desired auto-ignition quality through the stratification of the fuel-air equivalence ratio ( ), blends of commercially available gasoline and diesel fuel were used. Engine experiments were performed at an engine speed of 2300rpm and an engine load of 4.3bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). It was found that significant reduction in both nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was realized successfully through the RCCI combustion mode even without applying exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). However, high carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were observed. The low combustion gas temperature during the expansion and exhaust processes seemed to be the dominant source of high CO emissions in the RCCI combustion mode. The high HC emissions during the RCCI combustion mode could be due to the increased combustion quenching layer thickness as well as the -stratification at the periphery of the combustion chamber. The slightly higher brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of the RCCI combustion mode was observed than the other combustion modes, such as the conventional diesel combustion (CDC) mode, and single-fuel, premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion mode. The parametric study of the RCCI combustion mode revealed that the combustion phasing and/or the peak cylinder pressure rise rate of the RCCI combustion mode could be controlled by several physical parameters premixed ratio (rp), intake swirl intensity, and start of injection (SOI) timing of directly injected fuel unlike other low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies.

Cho, Kukwon [ORNL] [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL] [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL] [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Formation of solar cells based on Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} (BST) ferroelectric thick film  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Growth of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} (BST) 1 M thick films are conducted with variation of annealing hold time of 8 hours, 15 hours, 22 hours, and 29 hours at a constant temperature of 850 °C on p-type Si (100) substrate using sol-gel method then followed by spin coating process at 3000 rpm for 30 seconds. The BST thick film electrical conductivity is obtained to be 10{sup ?5} to 10{sup ?4} S/cm indicate that the BST thick film is classified as semiconductor material. The semiconductor energy band gap value of BST thick film based on annealing hold time of 8 hours, 15 hours, 22 hours, and 29 hours are 2.58 eV, 3.15 eV, 3.2 eV and 2.62 eV, respectively. The I-V photovoltaic characterization shows that the BST thick film is potentially solar cell device, and in accordance to annealing hold time of 8 hours, 15 hours, 22 hours and 29 hours have respective solar cell energy conversion efficiencies of 0.343%, 0.399%, 0.469% and 0.374%, respectively. Optical spectroscopy shows that BST thick film solar cells with annealing hold time of 8 hours, 15 hours, and 22 hours absorb effectively light energy at wavelength of ? 700 nm. BST film samples with annealing hold time of 29 hours absorb effectively light energy at wavelength of ? 700 nm. The BST thick film refraction index is between 1.1 to 1.8 at light wavelength between ±370 to 870 nm.

Irzaman,, E-mail: irzaman@yahoo.com; Syafutra, H., E-mail: irzaman@yahoo.com; Arif, A., E-mail: irzaman@yahoo.com; Alatas, H., E-mail: irzaman@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, FMIPA Bogor Agricultural Unversity, Campus Darmaga Gedung Wing S Bogor (Indonesia); Hilaluddin, M. N.; Kurniawan, A.; Iskandar, J.; Dahrul, M.; Ismangil, A.; Yosman, D.; Aminullah [Department of Biophysics, FMIPA Bogor Agricultural Unversity (Indonesia); Prasetyo, L. B. [Department of Forest Resources Conservation, FAHUTAN, Bogor Agricultural Unversity, Campus Darmaga Bogor (Indonesia); Yusuf, A.; Kadri, T. M. [LAPAN Rancabungur Ciampea Bogor (Indonesia)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

340

Numerical controlled polishing, continued force wear and part correction experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This abstract reports the near completion of the first phase of this program. It is the aim of this program to provide the operator of a N/C diamond turning machine or N/C grinding machine (jig grinder) with the wear characteristics necessary to achieve uniform material removal. The second phase of this program addresses a different problem, although solving this problem is highly dependent on the results of the first phase. Diamond turned, or any lathe turned surface, exhibits regular tool marks due to the tool passing over the surface being cut. Changes in depth of cut, feed rate and work rpm will change the character of these groves, but will not eliminate them. Optical surfaces produced by this process exhibit increased scattering as the light wavelength decreases limiting their use; at least for optical purposes, to IR and some visible applications. Utilizing wear information gathered in the first part of this program we will attempt to reduce these residual tool marks by polishing. The polishing of diamond turned surfaces is not new. Diamond turned metal surfaces, especially in electroless nickel and high phosphorus nickel electroplate have been polished to improve their scatter characteristics. What we believe is unique is the use of a spherical wheel, rotating on axis and being moved over the part in a prescribed manner by numerical control. Over the past year we have made some major changes in our polishing methods and procedures. We have listed below these changes, as a refresher for the reader as to our previous procedures. These changes will be addressed in the body of the text.

Hannah, P.R.; Day, R.D.; Hatch, D.J.; McClure, E.R.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rpm confi guration" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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341

Continued force wear and part correction experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This abstract reports the near completion of the first phase of this program. It is the aim of this program to provide the operator of a N/C diamond turning machine or N/C grinding machine (jig grinder) with the wear characteristics necessary to achieve uniform material removal. The second phase of this program addresses a different problem, although solving this problem is highly dependent on the results of the first phase. Diamond turned, or any lathe turned surface, exhibits regular tool marks due to the tool passing over the surface being cut. Changes in depth of cut, feed rate and work rpm will change the character of these groves, but will not eliminate them. Optical surfaces produced by this process exhibit increased scattering as the light wavelength decreases limiting their use; at least for optical purposes, to IR and some visible applications. Utilizing wear information gathered in the first part of this program we will attempt to reduce these residual tool marks by polishing. The polishing of diamond turned surfaces is not new. Diamond turned metal surfaces, especially in electroless nickel and high phosphorus nickel electroplate have been polished to improve their scatter characteristics. What we believe is unique is the use of a spherical wheel, rotating on axis and being moved over the part in a prescribed manner by numerical control. Over the past year we have made some major changes in our polishing methods and procedures. We have listed below these changes, as a refresher for the reader as to our previous procedures.

Hannah, P.R.; Day, R.D.; Hatch, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

342

Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating with In-Cylinder Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blending  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advanced combustion regimes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer benefits of reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, these combustion strategies often generate higher carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. In addition, aldehydes and ketone emissions can increase in these modes. In this study, the engine-out emissions of a compression-ignition engine operating in a fuel reactivity- controlled PCCI combustion mode using in-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuel have been characterized. The work was performed on a 1.9-liter, 4-cylinder diesel engine outfitted with a port fuel injection system to deliver gasoline to the engine. The engine was operated at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with the ratio of gasoline to diesel fuel that gave the highest engine efficiency and lowest emissions. Engine-out emissions for aldehydes, ketones and PM were compared with emissions from conventional diesel combustion. Sampling and analysis was carried out following micro-tunnel dilution of the exhaust. Particle geometric mean diameter, number-size distribution, and total number concentration were measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). For the particle mass measurements, samples were collected on Teflon-coated quartz-fiber filters and analyzed gravimetrically. Gaseous aldehydes and ketones were sampled using dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated solid phase extraction cartridges and the extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In addition, emissions after a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) were also measured to investigate the destruction of CO, HC and formaldehydes by the catalyst.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Gasoline-like Fuel Effects on High-load, Boosted HCCI Combustion Employing Negative Valve Overlap Strategy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In recent years a number of studies have demonstrated that boosted operation combined with external EGR is a path forward for expanding the high load limit of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation with the negative valve overlap (NVO) valve strategy. However, the effects of fuel composition with this strategy have not been fully explored. In this study boosted HCCI combustion is investigated in a single-cylinder research engine equipped with direct injection (DI) fueling, cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), laboratory pressurized intake air, and a fully-variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) valve train. Three fuels with significant compositional differences are investigated: regular grade gasoline (RON = 90.2), 30% ethanol-gasoline blend (E30, RON = 100.3), and 24% iso-butanol-gasoline blend (IB24, RON = 96.6). Results include engine loads from 350 to 800 kPa IMEPg for all fuels at three engine speeds 1600, 2000, and 2500 rpm. All operating conditions achieved thermal efficiency (gross indicated efficiency) between 38 and 47%, low NOX emissions ( 0.1 g/kWh), and high combustion efficiency ( 96.5%). Detailed sweeps of intake manifold pressure (atmospheric to 250 kPaa), EGR (0 25% EGR), and injection timing are conducted to identify fuel-specific effects. The major finding of this study is that while significant fuel compositional differences exist, in boosted HCCI operation only minor changes in operational conditions are required to achieve comparable operation for all fuels. In boosted HCCI operation all fuels were able to achieve matched load-speed operation, whereas in conventional SI operation the fuel-specific knock differences resulted in significant differences in the operable load-speed space. Although all fuels were operable in boosted HCCI, the respective air handling requirements are also discussed, including an analysis of the demanded turbocharger efficiency.

Kalaskar, Vickey B [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

The Effects of Fuel Characteristics on Stoichiometric Spark-Assisted HCCI  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The characteristics of fuel lean HCCI operation using a variety of fuels are well known and have been demonstrated using different engine concepts in the past. In contrast, stoichiometric operation of HCCI is less well documented. Recent studies have highlighted the benefits of operating at a stoichiometric condition in terms of load expansion combined with the applicability of three way catalyst technology to reduce NOx emissions. In this study the characterization of stoichiometric HCCI using gasoline-like fuels was undertaken. The fuels investigated are gasoline, a 50 vol% blend of iso-butanol and gasoline (IB50), and an 85% vol blend of ethanol and gasoline (E85). A single cylinder engine operating with direct injection and spark assist combined with a fully variable hydraulic valve actuation system allowed a wide range of operating parameters to be studied. This included the effects of negative valve overlap duration, intake valve closing and valve lift. Furthermore, the interaction between fuel injection timing and spark and how they can affect the required valve timing to achieve stoichiometric HCCI combustion are also studied. A comprehensive combustion and emissions analysis is conducted using gasoline, IB50 and E85 at an engine speed of 2000rpm over a range of operating loads. The resultant fuel properties which differed in terms of octane rating, fuel oxygenation and heat of vaporization show that stoichiometric HCCI is possible using a range of fuels but that these fuel characteristics do have some effect on the combustion characteristics. How these fuel properties can enable an increased engine operating envelope to be achieved, in comparison with both fuel lean HCCI and conventional spark ignited combustion, is then discussed.

Weall, Adam J [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Development of a High Pressure/High Temperature Down-hole Turbine Generator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As oil & natural gas deposits become more difficult to obtain by conventional means, wells must extend to deeper more heat-intensive environments. The technology of the drilling equipment required to reach these depths has exceeded the availability of electrical power sources needed to operate these tools. Historically, logging while drilling (LWD) and measure while drilling (MWD) devices utilized a wireline to supply power and communication from the operator to the tool. Lithium ion batteries were used in scenarios where a wireline was not an option, as it complicated operations. In current downhole applications, lithium ion battery (LIB) packs are the primary source for electrical power. LIB technology has been proven to supply reliable downhole power at temperatures up to 175 °C. Many of the deeper well s reach ambient temperatures above 200 °C, creating an environment too harsh for current LIB technology. Other downfalls of LIB technology are cost, limitations on charge cycles, disposal issues and possible safety hazards including explosions and fires. Downhole power generation can also be achieved by utilizing drilling fluid flow and converting it to rotational motion. This rotational motion can be harnessed to spin magnets around a series of windings to produce power proportional to the rpm experienced by the driven assembly. These generators are, in most instances, driven by turbine blades or moyno-based drilling fluid pumps. To date, no commercially available downhole power generators are capable of operating at ambient temperatures of 250 °C. A downhole power g enerator capable of operation in a 250 °C and 20,000 psi ambient environment will be an absolute necessity in the future. Dexter Magnetic Technologies’ High-Pressure High-Temperature (HPHT) Downhole Turbine Generator is capable of operating at 250 °C and 20, 000 psi, but has not been tested in an actual drilling application. The technology exists, but to date no company has been willing to test the tool.

Ben Plamp

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

346

Microstructural characterization in dissimilar friction stir welding between 304 stainless steel and st37 steel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present study, 3 mm-thick plates of 304 stainless steel and st37 steel were welded together by friction stir welding at a welding speed of 50 mm/min and tool rotational speed of 400 and 800 rpm. X-ray diffraction test was carried out to study the phases which might be formed in the welds. Metallographic examinations, and tensile and microhardness tests were used to analyze the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joint. Four different zones were found in the weld area except the base metals. In the stir zone of the 304 stainless steel, a refined grain structure with some features of dynamic recrystallization was evidenced. A thermomechanically-affected zone was characterized on the 304 steel side with features of dynamic recovery. In the other side of the stir zone, the hot deformation of the st37 steel in the austenite region produced small austenite grains and these grains transformed to fine ferrite and pearlite and some products of displacive transformations such as Widmanstatten ferrite and martensite by cooling the material after friction stir welding. The heat-affected zone in the st37 steel side showed partially and fully refined microstructures like fusion welding processes. The recrystallization in the 304 steel and the transformations in the st37 steel enhanced the hardness of the weld area and therefore, improved the tensile properties of the joint. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FSW produced sound welds between st37 low carbon steel and 304 stainless steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SZ of the st37 steel contained some products of allotropic transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material in the SZ of the 304 steel showed features of dynamic recrystallization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The finer microstructure in the SZ increased the hardness and tensile strength.

Jafarzadegan, M. [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China); Feng, A.H. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China); Abdollah-zadeh, A., E-mail: zadeh@modares.ac.ir [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saeid, T. [Advanced Materials Research Center, Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box: 51335-1996, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Advanced Materials Research Center, Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box: 51335-1996, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shen, J. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China); Assadi, H. [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

347

Detection of embedded radiation sources using temporal variation of gamma spectral data.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional full spectrum gamma spectroscopic analysis has the objective of quantitative identification of all the isotopes present in a measurement. For low energy resolution detectors, when photopeaks alone are not sufficient for complete isotopic identification, such analysis requires template spectra for all the isotopes present in the measurement. When many isotopes are present it is difficult to make the correct identification and this process often requires many trial solutions by highly skilled spectroscopists. This report investigates the potential of a new analysis method which uses spatial/temporal information from multiple low energy resolution measurements to test the hypothesis of the presence of a target spectrum of interest in these measurements without the need to identify all the other isotopes present. This method is referred to as targeted principal component analysis (TPCA). For radiation portal monitor applications, multiple measurements of gamma spectra are taken at equally spaced time increments as a vehicle passes through the portal and the TPCA method is directly applicable to this type of measurement. In this report we describe the method and investigate its application to the problem of detection of a radioactive localized source that is embedded in a distributed source in the presence of an ambient background. Examples using simulated spectral measurements indicate that this method works very well and has the potential for automated analysis for RPM applications. This method is also expected to work well for isotopic detection in the presence of spectrally and spatially varying backgrounds as a result of vehicle-induced background suppression. Further work is needed to include effects of shielding, to understand detection limits, setting of thresholds, and to estimate false positive probability.

Shokair, Isaac R.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Design and Performance Characteristics of the ORNL AdvancedMicroscopy Laboratory and JEOL 2200FS-AC Aberration-CorrectedSTEM/TEM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At ORNL, the new Advanced Microscopy Laboratory (AML) has recently been completed, with two aberration-corrected instruments installed, and two more planned in the near future to fill the 4-laboratory building. The installed JEOL 2200FS-AC has demonstrated aTEM information limit of 0.9A. This limit is expected given the measured instrument parameters (HT and OL power supply stabilities, beam energy spread, etc.), and illustrates that the environmental influences are not adversely affecting the instrument performance. In STEM high-angle annular dark-field (HA-ADF) mode, images of a thin Si crystal in<110>zone axis orientation, after primary aberrations in the illuminating beam were optimally corrected, showed a significant vibration effect. The microscope is fitted with three magnetically levitated turbo pumps (one on the column at about the specimen position,and two near floor level) that pump the Omega energy filter and detector chamber. These pumps run at 48,000 rpm, precisely equivalent to 800Hz. It was determined that the upper turbo pump was contributing essentially all of the 800Hz signal to the image, and in fact that the pump was defective. After replacing the pump with one significantly quieter than the original, the Si atomic column image and associated diffractogram(Fig. 4b) show a much-reduced effect of the 800Hz signal, but still some residual effect from the turbo pump. The upper pump will be removed from the main column to an adjacent frame on the floor, and will have a large-diameter, well-damped, pump line to the original connection to the column to effectively isolate the pump from the column. If the 800Hz signal results from mechanical vibrations, they will be damped, and if the signal results from acoustic coupling to the column, it can be damped by appropriate acoustic materials.

Allard, Lawrence F.; Blom, Douglas A.; O'Keefe, Michael A.; Mishina, S.

2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

349

Operational Results of a Closed Brayton Cycle Test-Loop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A number of space and terrestrial power system designs plan to use nuclear reactors that are coupled to Closed-loop Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems to generate electrical power. Because very little experience exists regarding the operational behavior of these systems, Sandia National Laboratories (through its Laboratory Directed Research and Development program) is developing a closed-loop test bed that can be used to determine the operational behavior of these systems and to validate models for these systems. Sandia has contracted Barber-Nichols Corporation to design, fabricate, and assemble a Closed-loop Brayton Cycle (CBC) system. This system was developed by modifying commercially available hardware. It uses a 30 kWe Capstone C-30 gas-turbine unit (www.capstoneturbine.com) with a modified housing that permits the attachment of an electrical heater and a water cooled chiller that are connected to the turbo-machinery in a closed loop. The test-loop reuses the Capstone turbine, compressor, and alternator. The Capstone system's nominal operating point is 1150 K turbine inlet temperature at 96,000 rpm. The annular recuperator and portions of the Capstone control system (inverter) and starter system are also reused. The rotational speed of the turbo-machinery is controlled either by adjusting the alternator load by either using the electrical grid or a separate load bank. This report describes the test-loop hardware SBL-30 (Sandia Brayton Loop-30kWe). Also presented are results of early testing and modeling of the unit. The SBL-30 hardware is currently configured with a heater that is limited to 80 kWth with a maximum outlet temperature of {approx}1000 K.

Wright, Steven A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Brown, Nicholas [Sandia National Laboratories, Org 6872 MS-1146, PO Box 5800 Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Fuller, Robert; Nichols, Kenneth [Barber Nichols 6325 W 55th Ave., Arvada, Colorado 80002 (United States)

2005-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

350

In-Cylinder Fuel Blending of Gasoline/Diesel for Improved Efficiency and Lowest Possible Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In-cylinder fuel blending of gasoline/diesel fuel is investigated on a multi-cylinder light-duty diesel engine as a potential strategy to control in-cylinder fuel reactivity for improved efficiency and lowest possible emissions. This approach was developed and demonstrated at the University of Wisconsin through modeling and single-cylinder engine experiments. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential and challenges of this method on a multi-cylinder engine. More specifically, the effect of cylinder-to-cylinder imbalances, heat rejection, and in-cylinder charge motion as well as the potential limitations imposed by real-world turbo-machinery were investigated on a 1.9-liter four-cylinder engine. This investigation focused on one engine condition, 2300 rpm, 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). Gasoline was introduced with a port-fuel-injection system. Parameter sweeps included gasoline-to-diesel fuel ratio, intake air mixture temperature, in-cylinder swirl number, and diesel start-of-injection phasing. In addition, engine parameters were trimmed for each cylinder to balance the combustion process for maximum efficiency and lowest emissions. An important observation was the strong influence of intake charge temperature on cylinder pressure rise rate. Experiments were able to show increased thermal efficiency along with dramatic decreases in oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). However, indicated thermal efficiency for the multi-cylinder experiments were less than expected based on modeling and single-cylinder results. The lower indicated thermal efficiency is believed to be due increased heat transfer as compared to the model predictions and suggest a need for improved cylinder-to-cylinder control and increased heat transfer control.

Curran, Scott [ORNL] [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Cho, Kukwon [ORNL] [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL] [ORNL; Kokjohn, Sage [University of Wisconsin, Madison] [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Reitz, Rolf [University of Wisconsin] [University of Wisconsin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Operational results of a Closed Brayton Cycle test-loop.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A number of space and terrestrial power system designs plan to use nuclear reactors that are coupled to Closed-loop Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems to generate electrical power. Because very little experience exists regarding the operational behavior of these systems, Sandia National Laboratories (through its Laboratory Directed Research and Development program) is developing a closed-loop test bed that can be used to determine the operational behavior of these systems and to validate models for these systems. Sandia has contracted Barber-Nichols Corporation to design, fabricate, and assemble a Closed-loop Brayton Cycle (CBC) system. This system was developed by modifying commercially available hardware. It uses a 30 kWe Capstone C-30 gas-turbine unit (www.capstoneturbine.com) with a modified housing that permits the attachment of an electrical heater and a water cooled chiller that are connected to the turbo-machinery in a closed loop. The test-loop reuses the Capstone turbine, compressor, and alternator. The Capstone system's nominal operating point is 1150 K turbine inlet temperature at 96,000 rpm. The annular recuperator and portions of the Capstone control system (inverter) and starter system are also reused. The rotational speed of the turbo-machinery is controlled either by adjusting the alternator load by either using the electrical grid or a separate load bank. This report describes the test-loop hardware SBL-30 (Sandia Brayton Loop-30kWe). Also presented are results of early testing and modeling of the unit. The SBL-30 hardware is currently configured with a heater that is limited to 80 kW{sub th} with a maximum outlet temperature of {approx}1000 K.

Fuller, Robert (Barber Nichols, Arvada, Colorado); Wright, Steven Alan; Nichols, Kenneth Graham. (Barber Nichols, Arvada, Colorado); Brown, Nicholas; Lipinski, Ronald J.

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

The use of artificial neural networks in PVT-based radiation portal monitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polyvinyl toluene (PVT) based gamma-ray scintillation detectors are cost effective for use in radiation portal monitors (RPMs) applied to screening for illicit radioactive materials at international border crossings. While PVT detectors provide good sensitivity in detecting the presence of radioactive materials, they provide poor spectral resolution, limiting their ability to identify the isotopic content of the source of radiation. Thus using only total-spectrum or gross-count alarm algorithms, PVT-based RPMs cannot distinguish innocent materials that contain low-levels of normally occurring radioactivity from special nuclear materials of concern. To reduce the number of “nuisance” alarms produced in PVT-based RPMs by innocent materials, algorithms that analyze spectra from PVT detectors must be optimized to make use of the limited information contained in their energy spectra. This paper discusses how artificial neural networks (ANNs) can be used in such an analysis. The objective was to reduce the nuisance/false alarm probability while maintaining high detection probabilities, thus allowing gross count alarm thresholds to be raised without loss of performance and sensitivity to radioactive materials of interest. The spectra used in this study were obtained from actual PVT-based RPM data, and included cases where simulated spectra were inserted into the measured spectra. This paper also includes an analysis of spectral channel importance and shows evaluations of two methods used to rebin energy spectra into smaller sets. The results show that ANNs can be used with RPMs to reduce nuisance alarms. The algorithms described can be used in analyzing PVT spectra, and potentially sodium iodide spectra.

Kangas, Lars J.; Keller, Paul E.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.

2008-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

353

Characterization of boron carbide particulate reinforced in situ copper surface composites synthesized using friction stir processing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Friction stir processing has evolved as a novel solid state technique to fabricate surface composites. The objective of this work is to apply the friction stir processing technique to fabricate boron carbide particulate reinforced copper surface composites and investigate the effect of B{sub 4}C particles and its volume fraction on microstructure and sliding wear behavior of the same. A groove was prepared on 6 mm thick copper plates and packed with B{sub 4}C particles. The dimensions of the groove was varied to result in five different volume fractions of B{sub 4}C particles (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 vol.%). A single pass friction stir processing was done using a tool rotational speed of 1000 rpm, travel speed of 40 mm/min and an axial force of 10 kN. Metallurgical characterization of the Cu/B{sub 4}C surface composites was carried out using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The sliding wear behavior was evaluated using a pin-on-disk apparatus. Results indicated that the B{sub 4}C particles significantly influenced the area, dispersion, grain size, microhardness and sliding wear behavior of the Cu/B{sub 4}C surface composites. When the volume fraction of B{sub 4}C was increased, the wear mode changed from microcutting to abrasive wear and wear debris was found to be finer. Highlights: • Fabrication of Cu/B{sub 4}C surface composite by friction stir processing • Analyzing the effect of B{sub 4}C particles on the properties of Cu/B4C surface composite • Increased volume fraction of B{sub 4}C particles reduced the area of surface composite. • Increased volume fraction of B{sub 4}C particles enhanced the microhardness and wear rate. • B{sub 4}C particles altered the wear mode from microcutting to abrasive.

Sathiskumar, R., E-mail: sathiscit2011@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 014 Tamil Nadu (India); Murugan, N., E-mail: murugan@cit.edu.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 014 Tamil Nadu (India); Dinaharan, I., E-mail: dinaweld2009@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, V V College of Engineering, Tisaiyanvilai, 627 657 Tamil Nadu (India); Vijay, S.J., E-mail: vijayjoseph@karunya.edu [Centre for Research in Metallurgy (CRM), School of Mechanical Sciences, Karunya University, Coimbatore, 641 114 Tamil Nadu (India)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

Solar hydrogen for urban trucks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Clean Air Now (CAN) Solar Hydrogen Project, located at Xerox Corp., El Segundo, California, includes solar photovoltaic powered hydrogen generation, compression, storage and end use. Three modified Ford Ranger trucks use the hydrogen fuel. The stand-alone electrolyzer and hydrogen dispensing system are solely powered by a photovoltaic array. A variable frequency DC-AC converter steps up the voltage to drive the 15 horsepower compressor motor. On site storage is available for up to 14,000 standard cubic feet (SCF) of solar hydrogen, and up to 80,000 SCF of commercial hydrogen. The project is 3 miles from Los Angeles International airport. The engine conversions are bored to 2.9 liter displacement and are supercharged. Performance is similar to that of the Ranger gasoline powered truck. Fuel is stored in carbon composite tanks (just behind the driver`s cab) at pressures up to 3600 psi. Truck range is 144 miles, given 3600 psi of hydrogen. The engine operates in lean burn mode, with nil CO and HC emissions. NO{sub x} emissions vary with load and rpm in the range from 10 to 100 ppm, yielding total emissions at a small fraction of the ULEV standard. Two trucks have been converted for the Xerox fleet, and one for the City of West Hollywood. A public outreach program, done in conjunction with the local public schools and the Department of Energy, introduces the local public to the advantages of hydrogen fuel technologies. The Clean Air Now program demonstrates that hydrogen powered fleet development is an appropriate, safe, and effective strategy for improvement of urban air quality, energy security and avoidance of global warming impact. Continued technology development and cost reduction promises to make such implementation market competitive.

Provenzano, J.: Scott, P.B.; Zweig, R. [Clean Air Now, Northridge, CA (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

355

Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the results from a testing phase of the project that evaluates emission control technologies applied to a two-stroke cycle natural gas-fueled engine. In this phase, a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) is used to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. This report describes potential emission reduction technologies followed by a battery of tests that demonstrate synergies between some of the more promising technologies. While the end-goal is a closed loop control, low cost NO{sub x} retrofit package, additional work remains. The battery of tests include pre-combustion chambers, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing. During several phases of the tests, the ignition timing also was varied to determine the optimal point for ignition timing. The results from these tests suggest that an optimum exists where fuel consumption is minimized along with NO{sub x} emissions. By using the Ajax DP-115 these tests are completed in a low-cost and efficient manner. The various technologies can be quickly exchanged with different hardware, and the cost to operate the engine is very inexpensive.

Kirby S. Chapman

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses continuing work in the testing phase of the project that evaluates emission control technologies applied to a two-stroke cycle natural gas-fueled engine. In this phase, a one cylinder Ajax DP-115 (a 13.25 in bore x 16 in stroke, 360 rpm engine) is used to assess a sequential analysis and evaluation of a series of engine upgrades. As with most of the engines used in the natural gas industry, the Ajax engine is a mature engine with widespread usage throughout the gas gathering industry. The end point is an assessment of these technologies that assigns a cost per unit reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. This report describes potential emission reduction technologies, some of which have already been tested, and describes progress toward completing remaining tests to evaluate further synergies between some of the more promising technologies. While the end-goal is a closed-loop control system coupled with a low cost NO{sub x} retrofit package, additional work remains. Technologies including pre-combustion chambers, in-cylinder sensors, the means to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio, and modification of the air filter housing have been evaluated in previous reports. Current work focuses on preparing the test cell for tests using a 180 psig fuel valve. By using the Ajax DP-115 these tests are completed in a low-cost and efficient manner. The various technologies can be quickly exchanged with different hardware, and it is inexpensive to run the engine.

Sarah R. Nuss-Warren; Kirby S. Chapman

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Surface plasmon coupled emission studies on engineered thin film hybrids of nano ??Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on silver  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the first time engineering and fabrication of a novel thin film hybrid of nano ?-alumina doped in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix along with rhodamine b (Rh.B) on a silver thin film. Silver films of 50 nm thickness on glass slides were fabricated by thermal evaporation. Nano ?-alumina was synthesized through the combustion route and characterized by XRD. The ?-alumina was dispersed in the PVA-Rh.B matrix by tip sonication. The resultant solution was spin coated on the Ag thin film at 3000 rpm to generate an overcoat of ?30 nm. We have designed and constructed an opto-mechanical setup for performing the SPCE studies. Excitation with a 532 nm continuous laser, led to the coupling of the energy of Rh.B emission to the surface plasmon modes of silver. The emission @ 580 nm was recorded using an Ocean Optics(copyright, serif) fiber optic spectrometer. Calculation of the ratio of signal intensity between the directional SPCE and isotropic fluorescence gives us the factor of signal enhancements which SPCE offers. We report an '8 fold' signal enhancement attributed to SPCE arising from the metal oxide doped thin film hybrid. We observed only a '5 fold' signal enhancement in the case of a thin film hybrid without ?-alumina. The emission was also 92% P-polarized which is in coherence with the theory of SPCE. The greater degree of signal enhancement observed in the ?-alumina doped thin film substrate can be attributed to the surface roughness which alumina offers to silver, which along with the porous nature of alumina enables a greater degree of adsorption of Rh.B which results in a higher emission intensity. Computational modeling was also performed, based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) calculations to provide theoretical background to observed experimental data. The ?-alumina thin film hybrid can be extended as an economical sensing platform towards the high sensitive detection of analytes.

Mulpur, Pradyumna; Chunduri, Avinash; Rattan, Tanu Mimani; Kamisetti, Venkataramaniah [Department of Physics, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthi Nilayam, Andhra Pradesh, India 515134 (India); Lingam, Kiran; Rao, Apparao M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 202C Kinard Laboratory, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

358

Optimization of Operating Parameters for Minimum Mechanical Specific Energy in Drilling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efficiency in drilling is measured by Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE). MSE is the measure of the amount of energy input required to remove a unit volume of rock, expressed in units of energy input divided by volume removed. It can be expressed mathematically in terms of controllable parameters; Weight on Bit, Torque, Rate of Penetration, and RPM. It is well documented that minimizing MSE by optimizing controllable factors results in maximum Rate of Penetration. Current methods for computing MSE make it possible to minimize MSE in the field only through a trial-and-error process. This work makes it possible to compute the optimum drilling parameters that result in minimum MSE. The parameters that have been traditionally used to compute MSE are interdependent. Mathematical relationships between the parameters were established, and the conventional MSE equation was rewritten in terms of a single parameter, Weight on Bit, establishing a form that can be minimized mathematically. Once the optimum Weight on Bit was determined, the interdependent relationship that Weight on Bit has with Torque and Penetration per Revolution was used to determine optimum values for those parameters for a given drilling situation. The improved method was validated through laboratory experimentation and analysis of published data. Two rock types were subjected to four treatments each, and drilled in a controlled laboratory environment. The method was applied in each case, and the optimum parameters for minimum MSE were computed. The method demonstrated an accurate means to determine optimum drilling parameters of Weight on Bit, Torque, and Penetration per Revolution. A unique application of micro-cracking is also presented, which demonstrates that rock failure ahead of the bit is related to axial force more than to rotation speed.

Hamrick, Todd

2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

359

UTILIZING WATER EMULSIFICATION TO REDUCE NOX AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BIODIESEL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A key barrier limiting extended utilization of biodiesel is higher NOx emissions compared to petrodiesel fuels. The reason for this effect is unclear, but various researchers have attributed this phenomena to the higher liquid bulk modulus associated with biodiesel and the additional heat released during the breaking of C-C double bonds in the methyl ester groups. In this study water was incorporated into neat biodiesel (B100) as an emulsion in an attempt to lower NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. A biodiesel emulsion containing 10wt% water was formulated and evaluated against an ultra-low sulfur petroleum diesel (ULSD) and neat biodiesel (B100) in a light-duty diesel engine operated at 1500RPM and at loads of 68Nm (50ft-lbs) and 102Nm (75ft-lbs). The influence of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was also examined. The incorporation of water was found to significantly lower the NOx emissions of B100, while maintaining fuel efficiency when operating at 0 and 27% EGR. The soot fraction of the particulates (as determined using an opacity meter) was much lower for the B100 and B100-water emulsion compared ULSD. In contrast, total PM mass (for the three fuel types) was unchanged for the 0% EGR condition but was significantly lower for the B100 and B100-emulsion during the 27% EGR condition compared to the ULSD fuel. Analysis of the emissions and heat release data indicate that water enhances air-fuel premixing to maintain fuel economy and lower soot formation. The exhaust chemistry of the biodiesel base fuels (B100 and water-emulsified B100) was found to be unique in that they contained measurable levels of methyl alkenoates, which were not found for the ULSD. These compounds were formed by the partial cracking of the methyl ester groups during combustion.

Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Lee, Doh-Won [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Swartz, Matthew M [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL] [ORNL; Eibl, Mary A [ORNL] [ORNL; Nafziger, Eric J [ORNL] [ORNL; Kaul, Brian C [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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361

LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston/ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and emissions. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis, are being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston/ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrated the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Various low-friction strategies and ring-design concepts have been explored, and engine experiments have been done on a full-scale Waukesha VGF F18 in-line 6 cylinder power generation engine rated at 370 kW at 1800 rpm. Current accomplishments include designing and testing ring-packs using a subtle top-compression-ring profile (skewed barrel design), lowering the tension of the oil-control ring, employing a negative twist to the scraper ring to control oil consumption. Initial test data indicate that piston ring-pack friction was reduced by 35% by lowering the oil-control ring tension alone, which corresponds to a 1.5% improvement in fuel efficiency. Although small in magnitude, this improvement represents a first step towards anticipated aggregate improvements from other strategies. Other ring-pack design strategies to lower friction have been identified, including reduced axial distance between the top two rings, tilted top-ring groove. Some of these configurations have been tested and some await further evaluation. Colorado State University performed the tests and Waukesha Engine Dresser, Inc. provided technical support. Key elements of the continuing work include optimizing the engine piston design, application of surface and material developments in conjunction with improved lubricant properties, system modeling and analysis, and continued technology demonstration in an actual full-sized reciprocating natural-gas engine.

Victor W. Wong; Tian Tian; Grant Smedley; Jeffrey Jocsak

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

362

SPIN (Version 3. 83): A Fortran program for modeling one-dimensional rotating-disk/stagnation-flow chemical vapor deposition reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In rotating-disk reactor a heated substrate spins (at typical speeds of 1000 rpm or more) in an enclosure through which the reactants flow. The rotating disk geometry has the important property that in certain operating regimes{sup 1} the species and temperature gradients normal to the disk are equal everywhere on the disk. Thus, such a configuration has great potential for highly uniform chemical vapor deposition (CVD),{sup 2--5} and indeed commercial rotating-disk CVD reactors are now available. In certain operating regimes, the equations describing the complex three-dimensional spiral fluid motion can be solved by a separation-of-variables transformation{sup 5,6} that reduces the equations to a system of ordinary differential equations. Strictly speaking, the transformation is only valid for an unconfined infinite-radius disk and buoyancy-free flow. Furthermore, only some boundary conditions are consistent with the transformation (e.g., temperature, gas-phase composition, and approach velocity all specified to be independent of radius at some distances above the disk). Fortunately, however, the transformed equations will provide a very good practical approximation to the flow in a finite-radius reactor over a large fraction of the disk (up to {approximately}90% of the disk radius) when the reactor operating parameters are properly chosen, i.e, high rotation rates. In the limit of zero rotation rate, the rotating disk flow reduces to a stagnation-point flow, for which a similar separation-of-variables transformation is also available. Such flow configurations ( pedestal reactors'') also find use in CVD reactors. In this report we describe a model formulation and mathematical analysis of rotating-disk and stagnation-point CVD reactors. Then we apply the analysis to a compute code called SPIN and describe its implementation and use. 31 refs., 4 figs.

Coltrin, M.E. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Kee, R.J.; Evans, G.H.; Meeks, E.; Rupley, F.M.; Grcar, J.F. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Sulfur Tolerant Pd/Cu and Pd/Au Alloy Membranes for H2 Separation with High Pressure CO2 for Sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of H{sub 2}S poisoning on Pd, Pd/Cu, and Pd/Au alloy composite membranes prepared by the electroless deposition method on porous Inconel supports was investigated to provide a fundamental understanding of the durability and preparation of sulfur tolerant membranes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies showed that the exposure of pure Pd to 50 ppm H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} mixtures caused bulk sulfide formation at lower temperatures and surface sulfide formation at higher temperatures. Lower temperatures, longer exposure times, and higher H{sub 2}S concentrations resulted in a higher degree of sulfidation. In a Pd membrane, the bulk sulfide formation caused a drastic irrecoverable H{sub 2} permeance decline and an irreparable loss in selectivity. Pd/Cu and Pd/Au alloy membranes exhibited permeance declines due to surface sulfide formation upon exposure to 50 ppm H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} gas mixtures. However in contrast to the pure Pd membrane, the permeances of the Pd/Cu and Pd/Au alloy membranes were mostly recovered in pure H{sub 2} and the selectivity of the Pd alloy layers remained essentially intact throughout the characterization in H{sub 2}, He and H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} mixtures which lasted several thousand hours. The amount of irreversible sulfur poisoning decreased with increasing temperature due to the exothermicity of H{sub 2}S adsorption. Longer exposure times increased the amount of irreversible poisoning of the Pd/Cu membrane but not the Pd/Au membrane. Pd/Au coupon studies of the galvanic displacement method showed that higher Au{sup 3+} concentrations, lower pH values, higher bath temperatures and stirring the bath at a rate of 200 rpm yielded faster displacement rates, more uniform depositions, and a higher Au content within the layers. While 400 C was found to be sufficient to form a Pd/Au alloy on the surface, high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) studies showed that even after annealing between 500-600 C, the Pd/Cu alloys could have part or all of the surface in the less sulfur resistant {beta} phase.

Yi Hua Ma; Natalie Pomerantz; Chao-Huang Chen

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

364

IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY VIA OPTIMIZED CHARGE MOTION AND SLURRY FLOW IN PLANT SCALE SAG MILLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. mining industry operates approximately 80 semi-autogenesis grinding mills (SAG) throughout the United States. Depending on the mill size the SAG mills draws between 2 MW and 17 MW. The product from the SAG mill is further reduced in size using pebble crushers and ball mills. Hence, typical gold or copper ore requires between 2.0 and 7.5 kWh per ton of energy to reduce the particle size. Considering a typical mining operation processes 10,000 to 100,000 tons per day the energy expenditure in grinding is 50 percent of the cost of production of the metal. A research team from the University of Utah is working to make inroads into saving energy in these SAG mills. In 2003, Industries of the Future Program of the Department of Energy tasked the University of Utah team to build a partnership between the University and the mining industry for the specific purpose of reducing energy consumption in SAG mills. A partnership was formed with Cortez Gold Mines, Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation, Process Engineering Resources Inc. and others. In the current project, Cortez Gold Mines played a key role in facilitating the 26-ft SAG mill at Cortez as a test mill for this study. According to plant personnel, there were a number of unscheduled shut downs to repair broken liners and the mill throughput fluctuated depending on ore type. The University team had two softwares, Millsoft and FlowMod to tackle the problem. Millsoft is capable of simulating the motion of charge in the mill. FlowMod calculates the slurry flow through the grate and pulp lifters. Based on this data the two models were fine-tuned to fit the Cortez SAG will. In the summer of 2004 a new design of shell lifters were presented to Cortez and in September 2004 these lifters were installed in the SAG mill. By December 2004 Cortez Mines realized that the SAG mill is drawing approximately 236-kW less power than before while maintaining the same level of production. In the first month there was extreme cycling and operators had to learn more. Now the power consumption is 0.3-1.3 kWh/ton lower than before. The actual SAG mill power draw is 230-370 kW lower. Mill runs 1 rpm lesser in speed on the average. The re-circulation to the cone crusher is reduced by 1-10%, which means more efficient grinding of critical size material is taking place in the mill. All of the savings have resulted in reduction of operating cost be about $0.023-$0.048/ ton.

Raj K. Rajamani; Sanjeeva Latchireddi; Sravan K. Prathy; Trilokyanath Patra

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

CENTRIFUGAL MEMBRANE FILTRATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc., the developer of a centrifugal membrane filtration technology, has engineered and developed a system for use within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program. The technology uses supported microporous membranes rotating at high rpm, under pressure, to separate suspended and colloidal solids from liquid streams, yielding a solids-free permeate stream and a highly concentrated solids stream. This is a crosscutting technology that falls under the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program, with potential application to tank wastes, contaminated groundwater, landfill leachate, and secondary liquid waste streams from other remediation processes, including decontamination and decommissioning systems. SpinTek II High Shear Rotary Membrane Filtration System is a unique compact crossflow membrane system that has large, demonstrable advantages in performance and cost compared to currently available systems: (1) High fluid shear prevents membrane fouling even with very high solids content; hazardous and radioactive components can be concentrated to the consistency of a pasty slurry without fouling. (2) Induced turbulence and shear across the membrane increases membrane flux by a factor of ten over existing systems and allows operation on fluids not otherwise treatable. (3) Innovative ceramic membrane and mechanical sealing technology eliminates compatibility problems with aggressive DOE waste streams. (4) System design allows rapid, simple disassembly for inspection or complete decontamination. (5) Produces colloidal- and suspended-solids-free filtrate without the addition of chemicals. The first phase of this project (PRDA maturity stage 5) completed the physical scale-up of the SpinTek unit and verified successful scale-up with surrogate materials. Given successful scale-up and DOE concurrence, the second phase of this project (PRDA maturity stage 6) will provide for the installation and operation of the full-scale two-stage SpinTek unit for treatment of a DOE waste-stream at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This technology has very broad application across the DOE system. Nineteen DOE technical needs areas (Appendix C) have been identified. Following successful full-scale demonstration for treatment of DOE wastes, this innovative technology will be rapidly deployed on a wide range of waste and process streams throughout the DOE system.

William A. Greene; Patricia A. Kirk; Richard Hayes; Joshua Riley

2005-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

366

Load Expansion of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and Hydraulic Valve Actuation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A spark-assist homogeneous charge compression ignition (SA-HCCI) operating strategy is presented here that allows for stoichiometric combustion from 1000-3000 rpm, and at loads as high as 750 kPa net IMEP. A single cylinder gasoline engine equipped with direct fuel injection and fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is used for this experimental study. The HVA system enables negative valve overlap (NVO) valve timing for hot internal EGR. Spark-assist stabilizes combustion over a wide range of engine speeds and loads, and allows for stoichiometric operation at all conditions. Characteristics of both spark-ignited combustion and HCCI are present, with combustion analysis showing a distinctive spark ignited phase of combustion, followed by a much more rapid HCCI combustion phase. At high load, the maximum pressure rise rate is controlled by a combination of spark timing and retarding the intake valve closing angle. The latter reduces the effective compression ratio, and therefore the compressive temperatures, allowing the high load limit of the operating range to be expanded. The SA-HCCI operating strategy exhibits improved thermal efficiency at most operating conditions, with fuel consumption improvements up to 9% realized at light engine loads. The SA-HCCI operating strategy presented here does not provide an efficiency advantage at all operating points compared to SI combustion; a decrease was observed at the highest speed and at loads above 500 kPa net IMEP. At light engine loads the majority of the heat release takes place during the HCCI phase of the heat release, and as such the NOx emissions are very low and are similar to levels observed in pure HCCI. At higher loads, a larger portion of the heat release takes place during the spark ignited phase of combustion, which produces NOx emissions that are much higher than is typically associated with HCCI, but still represent a decrease from conventional SI combustion. By limiting the fuel/air mixture to stoichiometric conditions, the higher NOx emissions do not represent an implementation barrier to this strategy because compatibility is maintained with very effective conventional 3-way catalysts.

Szybist, James P [ORNL; Nafziger, Eric J [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Characteristics of isopentanol as a fuel for HCCI engines.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Long chain alcohols possess major advantages over the currently used ethanol as bio-components for gasoline, including higher energy content, better engine compatibility, and less water solubility. The rapid developments in biofuel technology have made it possible to produce C{sub 4}-C{sub 5} alcohols cost effectively. These higher alcohols could significantly expand the biofuel content and potentially substitute ethanol in future gasoline mixtures. This study characterizes some fundamental properties of a C{sub 5} alcohol, isopentanol, as a fuel for HCCI engines. Wide ranges of engine speed, intake temperature, intake pressure, and equivalence ratio are investigated. Results are presented in comparison with gasoline or ethanol data previously reported. For a given combustion phasing, isopentanol requires lower intake temperatures than gasoline or ethanol at all tested speeds, indicating a higher HCCI reactivity. Similar to ethanol but unlike gasoline, isopentanol does not show two-stage ignition even at very low engine speed (350 rpm) or with considerable intake pressure boost (200 kPa abs.). However, isopentanol does show considerable intermediate temperature heat release (ITHR) that is comparable to gasoline. Our previous work has found that ITHR is critical for maintaining combustion stability at the retarded combustion phasings required to achieve high loads without knock. The stronger ITHR causes the combustion phasing of isopentanol to be less sensitive to intake temperature variations than ethanol. With the capability to retard combustion phasing, a maximum IMEP{sub g} of 5.4 and 11.6 bar was achieved with isopentanol at 100 and 200 kPa intake pressure, respectively. These loads are even slightly higher than those achieved with gasoline. The ITHR of isopentanol depends on operating conditions and is enhanced by simultaneously increasing pressures and reducing temperatures. However, increasing the temperature seems to have little effect on ITHR at atmospheric pressure, but it does promote hot ignition. Finally, the dependence of ignition timing on equivalence ratio, here called {phi}-sensitivity, is measured at atmospheric intake pressure, showing that the ignition of isopentanol is nearly insensitive to equivalence ratio when thermal effects are removed. This suggests that partial fuel stratification, which has been found effective to control the HRR with two-stage ignition fuels, may not work well with isopentanol at these conditions. Overall, these results indicate that isopentanol has a good potential as a HCCI fuel, either in neat form or in blend with gasoline.

Simmons, Blake Alexander; Dec, John E.; Yang, Yi; Dronniou, Nicolas

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Characterization of Engine Control Authority on HCCI Combustion as the High Load Limit is Approached  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on characterizing the authority of the available engine controls as the high load limit of HCCI combustion is approached. The experimental work is performed on a boosted single-cylinder research engine equipped with direct injection (DI) fueling, cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and a hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) valve train to enable the negative valve overlap (NVO) breathing strategy. Valve lift and duration are held constant while phasing is varied in an effort to make the results as relevant as possible to production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) systems on multi-cylinder engines. Results presented include engine loads from 350 to 650 kPa IMEPnet and manifold pressure from 98 to 190 kPaa at 2000 rpm. It is found that in order to increase engine load to 650 kPa IMEPnet, it is necessary to increase manifold pressure and external EGR while reducing the NVO duration. Both NVO duration and fuel injection timing are effective means of controlling combustion phasing, with NVO duration being a coarse control and fuel injection timing being a fine control. NOX emissions are low throughout the study, with emissions below 0.1 g/kW-h at all boosted HCCI conditions, while good combustion efficiency is maintained (>96.5%). Net indicated thermal efficiency increases with load up to 600 kPa IMEPnet, where a peak efficiency of 41% is achieved. Results of independent parametric investigations are presented on the effect of external EGR, intake effect of manifold pressure, and the effect of NVO duration. It is found that increasing EGR at a constant manifold pressure and increasing manifold pressure at a constant EGR rate both have the effect of retarding combustion phasing. It is also found that combustion phasing becomes increasingly sensitive to NVO duration as engine load increases. Finally, comparisons are made between three commonly used noise metrics (AVL noise meter, ringing intensity (RI), and maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR)). It is found that compared to the AVL noise meter, RI significantly underestimates combustion noise under boosted conditions.

Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL] [ORNL; Foster, Matthew [Delphi] [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi] [Delphi; Moore, Wayne [Delphi] [Delphi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Smoothing HCCI heat release with vaporization-cooling-induced thermal stratification using ethanol.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends are being widely considered as alternative fuels for light-duty automotive applications. At the same time, HCCI combustion has the potential to provide high efficiency and ultra-low exhaust emissions. However, the application of HCCI is typically limited to low and moderate loads because of unacceptably high heat-release rates (HRR) at higher fueling rates. This work investigates the potential of lowering the HCCI HRR at high loads by using partial fuel stratification to increase the in-cylinder thermal stratification. This strategy is based on ethanol's high heat of vaporization combined with its true single-stage ignition characteristics. Using partial fuel stratification, the strong fuel-vaporization cooling produces thermal stratification due to variations in the amount of fuel vaporization in different parts of the combustion chamber. The low sensitivity of the autoignition reactions to variations of the local fuel concentration allows the temperature variations to govern the combustion event. This results in a sequential autoignition event from leaner and hotter zones to richer and colder zones, lowering the overall combustion rate compared to operation with a uniform fuel/air mixture. The amount of partial fuel stratification was varied by adjusting the fraction of fuel injected late to produce stratification, and also by changing the timing of the late injection. The experiments show that a combination of 60-70% premixed charge and injection of 30-40 % of the fuel at 80{sup o}CA before TDC is effective for smoothing the HRR. With CA50 held fixed, this increases the burn duration by 55% and reduces the maximum pressure-rise rate by 40%. Combustion stability remains high but engine-out NO{sub x} has to be monitored carefully. For operation with strong reduction of the peak HRR, ISNO{sub x} rises to around 0.20 g/kWh for an IMEP{sub g} of 440 kPa. The single-cylinder HCCI research engine was operated naturally aspirated without EGR at 1200 rpm, and had low residual level using a CR = 14 piston.

Dec, John E.; Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

SU-E-J-75: Importance of 4DCT for Target Volume Definition in Stereotactic Lung Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: We aimed to investigate the importance of 4DCT for lung tumors treated with SBRT and whether maximum intensity projection (MIP) and free breathing (FB) images can compansate for tumor movement. Methods: Six patients with primary lung cancer and 2 patients with lung metastasis with a median age of 69.5 (42–86) were included. Patients were positioned supine on a vacuum bag. In addition to FB planning CT images, 4DCT images were obtained at 3 mm intervals using Varian RPM system with (Siemens Somatom Sensetion 64). MIP series were reconstructed using 4DCT images. PTV-FB and PTV-MIP (GTV+5mm) volumes were contoured using FB and MIP series, respectively. GTVs were defined on each of eight different breathing phase images and were merged to create the ITV. PTV-4D was generated with a 5 mm margin to ITV. PTV-MIP and PTV-4D contours were copied to FB CT series and treatment plans for PTV-MIP and PTV-FB were generated using RapidArc (2 partial arc) technique in Eclipse (version 11, AAA algorithm). The prescription dose was 5600cGy in 7 fractions. ITV volumes receiving prescription dose (%) and V95 for ITV were calculated for each treatment plan. Results: The mean PTV-4B, PTV-MIP and PTV-FB volumes were 23.2 cc, 15.4cc ve 11cc respectively. Median volume of ITV receiving the prescription dose was 34.6% (16.4–70 %) and median V95 dose for ITV was 1699cGy (232cGy-5117cGy) in the plan optimized for PTV-FB as the reference. When the plan was optimized for PTV-MIP, median ITV volume receiving the prescription dose was 67.15% (26–86%) and median V95 dose for ITV was 4231cGy (1735cGy-5290cGy). Conclusion: Images used in lung SBRT are critical for treatment quality; FB and MIP images did not compensate target movement, therefore 4DCT images should be obtained for all patients undergoing lung SBRT or the safety margins should be adjusted.

Goksel, E; Cone, D; Kucucuk, H; Senkesen, O; Yilmaz, M; Aslay, I [Acibadem Kozyatgi Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Tezcanli, E; Garipagaoglu, M; Sengoz, M [Acibadem University, Istanbul (Turkey)

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

HCCI experiments with gasoline surrogate fuels modeled by a semidetailed chemical kinetic model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine have been conducted with four gasoline surrogate fuel blends. The pure components in the surrogate fuels consisted of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene, ethanol and diisobutylene and fuel sensitivities (RON-MON) in the fuel blends ranged from two to nine. The operating conditions for the engine were p{sub in}=0.1 and 0.2 MPa, T{sub in}=80 and 250 C, {phi}=0.25 in air and engine speed 1200 rpm. A semidetailed chemical kinetic model (142 species and 672 reactions) for gasoline surrogate fuels, validated against ignition data from experiments conducted in shock tubes for gasoline surrogate fuel blends at 1.0{<=} p{<=}5.0MPa, 700{<=} T{<=}1200 K and {phi}=1.0, was successfully used to qualitatively predict the HCCI experiments using a single zone modeling approach. The fuel blends that had higher fuel sensitivity were more resistant to autoignition for low intake temperature and high intake pressure and less resistant to autoignition for high intake temperature and low intake pressure. A sensitivity analysis shows that at high intake temperature the chemistry of the fuels ethanol, toluene and diisobutylene helps to advance ignition. This is consistent with the trend that fuels with the least Negative Temperature Coefficient (NTC) behavior show the highest octane sensitivity, and become less resistant to autoignition at high intake temperatures. For high intake pressure the sensitivity analysis shows that fuels in the fuel blend with no NTC behavior consume OH radicals and acts as a radical scavenger for the fuels with NTC behavior. This is consistent with the observed trend of an increase in RON and fuel sensitivity. With data from shock tube experiments in the literature and HCCI modeling in this work, a correlation between the reciprocal pressure exponent on the ignition delay to the fuel sensitivity and volume percentage of single-stage ignition fuel in the fuel blend was found. Higher fuel sensitivity and single-stage fuel content generally gives a lower value of the pressure exponent. This helps to explain the results obtained while boosting the intake pressure in the HCCI engine. (author)

Andrae, J.C.G. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Head, R.A. [Shell Technology Centre Thornton, P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

372

Report on Testing to Expand the Rotary Mode Core Sampling Operating Envelope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Characterization Equipment Group requested that the Numatec Hanford Corporation--Engineering Testing Laboratory (ETL) perform Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) Operating Envelope (OE) testing. This testing was based upon Witwer 1998a and was performed at different time periods between May and September 1998. The purpose of this testing was to raise the maximum down force limit for rotary mode core sampling as outlined in the current OE. If testing could show that a higher down force could be used while drilling into a concrete/pumice block simulant while still remaining below the 60 C limitation, then the current OE could be revised to include the new, higher, down force limit. Although the Test Plan discussed varying the purge flow rate and rotation rate to find ''optimal'' drilling conditions, the number of drill bits that could be destructively tested was limited. Testing was subsequently limited in scope such that only the down force would be varied while the purge flow rate and rotation rate were kept constant at 30 scfm and 55 rpm respectively. A second objective, which was not part of the original test plan, was added prior to testing. The Bit Improvement testing, mentioned previously, revealed that the drill bits tested in the OE testing were made of a slightly different metal matrix than the ones currently used. The older bits, a Longyear part number 100IVD/5 (/5 bit), had tungsten carbide mixed into the metal matrix that forms the cutting teeth. The currently used bits, Longyear part number 100IVD/8 (/8 bit), instead have tungsten metal in the matrix and no tungsten carbide. Rockwell C hardness testing showed that the /5 bit was significantly harder than the /8 bit, with values of /8 vs. 8, respectively. The change from the /5 bit to the /8 bit was made immediately after the previous OE testing in 1996 because of sparking concerns with the tungsten carbide in the /5 bit. This difference in hardness between the two bit materials was discovered in the Bit Improvement Testing and was expected to affect this OE testing. The second objective, therefore, was to quantify what affect this change in material had and define the OE, based on the current /8 bit design rather than the old /5 bit design.

BOGER, R.M.

1999-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

373

Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M&O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and the repository design. These downstream models include the hydrologic flow models and the radionuclide transport models. All the models and the repository design, in turn, will be incorporated into the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of the potential radioactive waste repository block and vicinity to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a host for the repository. The interrelationship of the three components of the ISM and their interface with downstream uses are illustrated in Figure 2.

R. Clayton

2000-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

374

Employee Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Welcome to Berkeley Lab. You are joining or are already a part of a laboratory with a sterling tradition of scientific achievement, including eleven Nobel Laureates and thirteen National Medal of Science winners. No matter what job you do, you make Berkeley Lab the outstanding organization that it is. Without your hard work and dedication, we could not achieve all that we have. We value you and thank you for choosing to be part of our community. This Employee Handbook is designed to help you navigate the Lab. With over 3,000 employees, an additional 3,000 guests visiting from countries around the world, a 200-acre campus and many policies and procedures, learning all the ins and outs may seem overwhelming, especially if you're a new employee. However, even if you have been here for a while, this Handbook should be a useful reference tool. It is meant to serve as a guide, highlighting and summarizing what you need to know and informing you where you can go for more detailed information. The general information provided in this Handbook serves only as a brief description of many of the Lab's policies. Policies, procedures and information are found in the Lab's Regulations and Procedures Manual (RPM), Summary Plan Descriptions, University of California policies, and provisions of Contract 31 between the Regents of the University and the U.S. Department of Energy. In addition, specific terms and conditions for represented employees are found in applicable collective bargaining agreements. Nothing in this Handbook is intended to supplant, change or conflict with the previously mentioned documents. In addition, the information in this Handbook does not constitute a contract or a promise of continued employment and may be changed at any time by the Lab. We believe employees are happier and more productive if they know what they can expect from their organization and what their organization expects from them. The Handbook will familiarize you with the privileges, benefits, and responsibilities of being an employee at Berkeley Lab. In this organization, as in the rest of the world, circumstances are constantly changing. Policies and procedures can change at any time, so it is advisable to keep apprised of these changes by checking in frequently to the electronic version of this Employee Handbook found at www.lbl.gov/Workplace/HumanResources/EmployeeHandbook.

Bello, Madelyn

2008-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

375

A COMPARISON OF MEASURED AND CALCULATED GAMMA RAY ATTENUATION FOR A COMMON COUNTING GEOMETRY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to perform quantitative gamma spectroscopy, it is necessary to know the sample-specific detection efficiency for photons as a function of energy. The detection efficiency, along with the branching ratio for the isotope and gamma ray of interest, is used to convert observed counts/second to actual disintegrations/second, and, hence, has a large effect on the accuracy of the measurement. In cases where the geometry of the source is simple and reproducible, such as a point source, small vial of solid, or jar of liquid, geometry-specific standards may be counted to determine the detection efficiency. In cases where the samples are large, irregular, or unique, this method generally cannot be used. For example, it is impossible to obtain a NIST-traceable standard glovebox or 55-gallon drum. In these cases, a combination of measured absolute detector efficiency and calculated sample-specific correction factors is commonly used. The correction factors may be calculated via Monte Carlo simulation of the item (the method used by Canberra's ISOCS system), or via semi-empirical calculation of matrix and container attenuations based on the thickness and composition of the container and radioactive matrix (ISOTOPIC by EG&G Ortec uses this method). The accuracy of these correction factors for specific geometries is often of vital interest when assessing the quality of gamma spectroscopy data. During the Building 251 Risk-Reduction Project, over 100 samples of high activity actinides will be characterized via gamma spectroscopy, typically without removing the material from the current storage containers. Most of the radioactive materials in B-251 are stored in cylindrical stainless steel canisters (called USV containers, after the Underground Storage Vaults they are commonly stored in), 13 cm in diameter, by 28 cm high, with walls that are 1.8 mm thick. While the actual samples have a variety of configurations inside the USV container, a very common configuration is the material (usually as an oxide powder pellet of approximately 2 cm diameter by {approx}2 mm thick) in a squat glass jar, with the jar placed in a thin steel food-pack can, which is then placed in the bottom of the USV canister. During data acquisition, the USV containers are typically rotated at approximately 4 rpm on a turntable to eliminate errors due to the material not being centered in the can, or attenuation not being isotropic. An aluminum plate is placed over the container, secured by three vertical rods, to securely hold the container. Pictures of both the containers, and this typical counting configuration are shown below.

Gaylord, R F

2004-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

376

Examining the temporal evolution of hypervelocity impact phenomena via high-speed imaging and ultraviolet-visible emission spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The temporal evolution of a previously observed hypervelocity impact-induced vapor cloud [Mihaly et al., Int. J. Impact Eng. 62, 13 (2013)] was measured by simultaneously recording several full-field, near-IR images of the resulting emission using an OMA-V high-speed camera. A two-stage light-gas gun was used to accelerate 5?mg Nylon 6/6 right-cylinders to speeds between 5?km/s and 7?km/s to impact 1.5?mm thick 6061-T6 aluminum target plates. Complementary laser-side-lighting [Mihaly et al., Int. J. Impact Eng. 62, 13 (2013); Proc. Eng. 58, 363 (2013)] and front-of-target (without laser illumination) images were also captured using a Cordin ultra-high-speed camera. The rapid expansion of the vapor cloud was observed to contain a bright, emitting exterior, and a darker, optically thick interior. The shape of this phenomenon was also observed to vary considerably between experiments due to extremely high-rate (>250?000?rpm) of tumbling of the cylindrical projectiles. Additionally, UV-vis emission spectra were simultaneously recorded to investigate the temporal evolution of the atomic and molecular composition of the up-range, impact-induced vapor plume. A PI-MAX3 high-speed camera coupled to an Acton spectrograph was utilized to capture the UV-vis spectra, which shows an overall peak in emission intensity between approximately 6–10??s after impact trigger, corresponding to an increased quantity of emitting vapor/plasma passing through the spectrometer slit during this time period. The relative intensity of the numerous spectral bands was also observed to vary according to the exposure delay of the camera, indicating that the different atomic/molecular species exhibit a varied temporal evolution during the vapor cloud expansion. Higher resolution spectra yielded additional emission lines/bands that provide further evidence of interaction between fragmented projectile material and the 1?mmHg atmosphere inside the target chamber. A comparison of the data to down-range emission spectra also revealed differences in the relative intensities of the atomic/molecular composition of the observed vapor clouds.

Tandy, J. D., E-mail: jt245@le.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Mihaly, J. M.; Adams, M. A.; Rosakis, A. J. [Graduate Aerospace Laboratories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

377

Improved Engine Design Concepts Using the Second Law of Thermodynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was aimed at developing and using numerical tools which incorporate the second law of thermodynamics to better understand engine operation and particularly the combustion process. A major activity of this project was the continual enhancement and use of an existing engine cycle simulation to investigate a wide range of engine parameters and concepts. The major motivation of these investigations was to improve engine efficiency. These improvements were examined from both the first law and second law perspective. One of the most important aspects of this work was the identification of the combustion irreversibilities as functions of engine design and operating parameters. The combustion irreversibility may be quantified in a number of ways but one especially useful way is by determining the destruction of exergy (availability) during the combustion process. This destruction is the penalty due to converting the fuel exergy to thermal energy for producing work. The engine cycle simulation was used to examine the performance of an automotive (5.7 liter), V-8 spark-ignition engine. A base case was defined for operation at 1400 rpm, stoichiometric, MBT spark timing with a bmep of 325 kPa. For this condition, the destruction of exergy during the combustion process was 21.0%. Variations of many engine parameters (including speed, load, and spark timing) did not alter the level of destruction very much (with these variations, the exergy destruction was within the range of 20.5-21.5%). Also, the use of turbocharging or the use of an over-expanded engine design did not significantly change the exergy destruction. The exergy destruction during combustion was most affected by increased inlet oxygen concentration (which reduced the destruction due to the higher combustion temperatures) and by the use of cooled EGR (which increased the destruction). This work has demonstrated that, in general, the exergy destruction for conventional engines is fairly constant ({approx}21%) for a range of operating and design parameters. Further, to achieve high efficiency engines requires that the exergy be managed and not necessarily reduced. The overall thermodynamics is the final discriminator regarding high efficiency engines.

None

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

378

Control of Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Motors with Special Application to Fractional-Slot Concentrated Windings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is well known that the ability of the permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) to operate over a wide constant power speed range (CPSR) is dependent upon the machine inductance [1,2,3,4,5]. Early approaches for extending CPSR operation included adding supplementary inductance in series with the motor [1] and the use of anti-parallel thyristor pairs in series with the motor-phase windings [5]. The increased inductance method is compatible with a voltage-source inverter (VSI) controlled by pulse-width modulation (PWM) which is called the conventional phase advance (CPA) method. The thyristor method has been called the dual mode inverter control (DMIC). Neither of these techniques has met with wide acceptance since they both add cost to the drive system and have not been shown to have an attractive cost/benefit ratio. Recently a method has been developed to use fractional-slot concentrated windings to significantly increase the machine inductance [6]. This latest approach has the potential to make the PMSM compatible with CPA without supplemental external inductance. If the performance of such drive is acceptable, then the method may make the PMSM an attractive option for traction applications requiring a wide CPSR. A 30 pole, 6 kW, 6000 maximum revolutions per minute (rpm) prototype of the fractional-slot PMSM design has been developed [7]. This machine has significantly more inductance than is typical of regular PMSMs. The prototype is to be delivered in late 2005 to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for testing and development of a suitable controller. In advance of the test/control development effort, ORNL has used the PMSM models developed over a number of previous studies to study the steady-state performance of high-inductance PMSM machines with a view towards control issues. The detailed steady-state model developed includes all motor and inverter-loss mechanisms and will be useful in assessing the performance of the dynamic controller to be developed in future work. This report documents the results of this preliminary investigation.

Lawler, J.S.

2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

379

Effects of Process Parameters on Ultrasonic Micro-Hole Drilling in Glass and Ruby  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Brittle materials such as ceramics, glasses and oxide single crystals find increasing applications in advanced micro-engineering products. Machining small features in such materials represents a manufacturing challenge. Ultrasonic drilling constitutes a promising technique for realizing simple micro-holes of high diameter-to-depth ratio. The process involves impacting abrasive particles in suspension in a liquid slurry between tool and work piece. Among the process performance criteria, the drilling time (productivity) is one of the most important quantities to evaluate the suitability of the process for industrial applications.This paper summarizes recent results pertaining to the ultrasonic micro-drilling process obtained with a semi-industrial 3-axis machine. The workpiece is vibrated at 40 kHz frequency with an amplitude of several micrometers. A voice-coil actuator and a control loop based on the drilling force impose the tool feed. In addition, the tool is rotated at a prescribed speed to improve the drilling speed as well as the hole geometry. Typically, a WC wire serves as tool to bore 200 {mu}m diameter micro-holes of 300 to 1,000 {mu}m depth in glass and ruby. The abrasive slurry contains B4C particles of 1 {mu}m to 5 {mu}m diameter in various concentrations.This paper discusses, on the basis of the experimental results, the influence of several parameters on the drilling time. First, the results show that the control strategy based on the drilling force allows to reach higher feed rates (avoiding tool breakage). Typically, a 8 um/s feed rate is achieved with glass and 0.9 {mu}m/s with ruby. Tool rotation, even for values as low as 50 rpm, increases productivity and improves holes geometry. Drilling with 1 {mu}m and 5 {mu}m B4C particles yields similar productivity results. Our future research will focus on using the presented results to develop a model that can serve to optimize the process for different applications.

Schorderet, Alain; Deghilage, Emmanuel; Agbeviade, Kossi [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), School of Engineering (STI), Mechanical Systems Design Laboratory - LCSM, Station No. 9, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

380

Radial-Gap Permanent Magnet Motor and Drive Research FY 2004  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this task was to study permanent magnet (PM) radial-gap traction drive systems that could meet the U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR Program's 2010 goals to expose weaknesses or identify strengths. Initially, the approach was to compare attributes such as physical deformations during operation, performance (torque, power, efficiency versus speed), material requirements (strength), material costs, manufacturability, weight, power density, specific power, reliability, and drivability for specific motors. Three motors selected were the commercially available 60-kW radial-gap surface-mounted PM motor manufactured by UQM Technologies, Inc.; a hypothetical PM motor with rotor-supported magnets similar to the Honda MCF-21; and Delphi's automotive electric machine drive motor, whose rotor is a ferromagnetic cylinder, held at one end by a shaft that supports the magnets on its inner surface. Potential problems have appeared related to PM motors, such as (1) high no-load spin losses and high operational power losses, probably from eddy current losses in the rotor; (2) the undemonstrated dual mode inverter control (DMIC) for driving a brushless dc motor (BDCM) (UQM and Delphi motors); (3) uncertainty about the potential for reducing current with DMIC; and (4) uncertainty about the relation between material requirements and maximum rotor speed. Therefore, the approach was changed to study in detail three of the comparison attributes: drivability, performance, and material requirements. Drivability and related problems were examined by demonstrating that DMIC may be used to drive an 18-pole 30-kW PM motor to 6000 rpm, where the maximum electrical frequency is 900 Hz. An available axial-gap test motor with 18 poles was used because its control is identical to that of a radial gap PM motor. Performance was analytically examined, which led to a derivation showing that DMIC controls a PM motor so that the motor uses minimum current to produce any power regardless of speed for relative speeds, n = {omega}/{omega}{sub base} {ge} 2. Performance was also examined with efficiency measurements during the 30-kW PM motor test. Material requirements were examined with finite-element analyses (FEA) to determine the speed and location where yield starts and the corresponding deformations and stresses.

McKeever, J.W.

2005-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

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381

High Efficiency Engine Technologies Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Caterpillar's Product Development and Global Technology Division carried out a research program on waste heat recovery with support from DOE (Department of Energy) and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The objective of the program was to develop a new air management and exhaust energy recovery system that would demonstrate a minimum 10% improvement in thermal efficiency over a base heavy-duty on-highway diesel truck engine. The base engine for this program was a 2007 C15 15.2L series-turbocharged on-highway truck engine with a LPL (low-pressure loop) exhaust recirculation system. The focus of the program was on the development of high efficiency turbomachinery and a high efficiency turbocompound waste heat recovery system. The focus of each area of development was as follows: (1) For turbine stages, the focus was on investigation and development of technologies that would improve on-engine exhaust energy utilization compared to the conventional radial turbines in widespread use today. (2) For compressor stages, the focus was on investigating compressor wheel design parameters beyond the range typically utilized in production, to determine the potential efficiency benefits thereof. (3) For turbocompound, the focus was on the development of a robust bearing system that would provide higher bearing efficiencies compared to systems used in turbocompound power turbines in production. None of the turbocharger technologies investigated involved addition of moving parts, actuators, or exotic materials, thereby increasing the likelihood of a favorable cost-value tradeoff for each technology. And the turbocompound system requires less hardware addition than competing bottoming cycle technologies, making it a more attractive solution from a cost and packaging standpoint. Main outcomes of the program are as follows: (1) Two turbine technologies that demonstrated up to 6% improvement in turbine efficiency on gas stand and 1-3% improvement in thermal efficiency in on-engine testing. (2) A compressor technology that demonstrated 1.5% improvement in compressor efficiency on gas stand compared to production available compressors. (3) A power turbine with high efficiency bearing system that demonstrated excellent rotordynamic stability throughout the required speed range, up to 60,000 rpm. (4) A predicted improvement (using engine simulation) in engine thermal efficiency of 7% at the peak torque design point, when combining the technologies developed in this program.

Rich Kruiswyk

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

382

GROUT HOPPER MODELING STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Saltstone facility has a grout hopper tank to provide agitator stirring of the Saltstone feed materials. The tank has about 300 gallon capacity to provide a larger working volume for the grout slurry to be held in case of a process upset, and it is equipped with a mechanical agitator, which is intended to keep the grout in motion and agitated so that it won't start to set up. The dry feeds and the salt solution are already mixed in the mixer prior to being transferred to the hopper tank. The hopper modeling study through this work will focus on fluid stirring and agitation, instead of traditional mixing in the literature, in order to keep the tank contents in motion during their residence time so that they will not be upset or solidified prior to transferring the grout to the Saltstone disposal facility. The primary objective of the work is to evaluate the flow performance for mechanical agitators to prevent vortex pull-through for an adequate stirring of the feed materials and to estimate an agitator speed which provides acceptable flow performance with a 45{sup o} pitched four-blade agitator. In addition, the power consumption required for the agitator operation was estimated. The modeling calculations were performed by taking two steps of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach. As a first step, a simple single-stage agitator model with 45{sup o} pitched propeller blades was developed for the initial scoping analysis of the flow pattern behaviors for a range of different operating conditions. Based on the initial phase-1 results, the phase-2 model with a two-stage agitator was developed for the final performance evaluations. A series of sensitivity calculations for different designs of agitators and operating conditions have been performed to investigate the impact of key parameters on the grout hydraulic performance in a 300-gallon hopper tank. For the analysis, viscous shear was modeled by using the Bingham plastic approximation. Steady state analyses with a two-equation turbulence model were performed with the FLUENT{trademark} codes. All analyses were based on three-dimensional results. Recommended operational guidance was developed by using the basic concept that local shear rate profiles and flow patterns can be used as a measure of hydraulic performance and spatial stirring. Flow patterns were estimated by a Lagrangian integration technique along the flow paths from the material feed inlet. The modeling results show that when the two-stage agitator consisting of a 45{sup o} pitched propeller and radial flat-plate blades is run at 140 rpm speed with 28 in diameter, the agitator provides an adequate stirring of the feed materials for a wide range of yield stresses (1 to 21 Pa) and the vortex system is shed into the remote region of the tank boundary by the blade passage in an efficient way. The results of this modeling study were used to develop the design guidelines for the agitator stirring and dispersion of the Saltstone feed materials in a hopper tank.

Lee, S.

2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

383

3-D Deep Penetration Neutron Imaging of Thick Absorgin and Diffusive Objects Using Transport Theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A current area of research interest in national security is to effectively and efficiently determine the contents of the many shipping containers that enter ports in the United States. This interest comes as a result of the 9/11 Commission Act passed by Congress in 2007 that requires 100% of inbound cargo to be scanned by 2012. It appears that this requirement will be achieved by 2012, but as of February of 2009 eighty percent of the 11.5 million inbound cargo containers were being scanned. The systems used today in all major U.S. ports to determine the presence of radioactive material within cargo containers are Radiation Portal Monitors (RPM). These devices generally exist in the form of a gate or series of gates that the containers can be driven through and scanned. The monitors are effective for determining the presence of radiation, but offer little more information about the particular source. This simple pass-fail system leads to many false alarms as many everyday items emit radiation including smoke detectors due to the Americium-241 source contained inside, bananas, milk, cocoa powder and lean beef due to the trace amounts of Potassium-40, and fire brick and kitty litter due to their high clay content which often contains traces of uranium and thorium. In addition, if an illuminating source is imposed on the boundary of the container, the contents of the container may become activated. These materials include steel, aluminum and many agricultural products. Current portal monitors also have not proven to be that effective at identifying natural or highly enriched uranium (HEU). In fact, the best available Advanced Spectroscopic Portal Monitors (ASP) are only capable of identifying bare HEU 70-88% of the time and masked HEU and depleted uranium (DU) only 53 percent of the time. Therefore, a better algorithm that uses more information collected from better detectors about the specific material distribution within the container is desired. The work reported here explores the inverse problem of optical tomography applied to heterogeneous domains. The neutral particle transport equation was used as the forward model for how neutral particles stream through and interact within these heterogeneous domains. A constrained optimization technique that uses Newtons method served as the basis of the inverse problem. Optical tomography aims at reconstructing the material properties using (a) illuminating sources and (b) detector readings. However, accurate simulations for radiation transport require that the particle (gamma and/or neutron) energy be appropriate discretize in the multigroup approximation. This, in turns, yields optical tomography problems where the number of unknowns grows (1) about quadratically with respect to the number of energy groups, G, (notably to reconstruct the scattering matrix) and (2) linearly with respect to the number of unknown material regions. As pointed out, a promising approach could rely on algorithms to appropriately select a material type per material zone rather than G2 values. This approach, though promising, still requires further investigation: (a) when switching from cross-section values unknowns to material type indices (discrete integer unknowns), integer programming techniques are needed since derivative information is no longer available; and (b) the issue of selecting the initial material zoning remains. The work reported here proposes an approach to solve the latter item, whereby a material zoning is proposed using one-group or few-groups transport approximations. The capabilities and limitations of the presented method were explored; they are briefly summarized next and later described in fuller details in the Appendices. The major factors that influenced the ability of the optimization method to reconstruct the cross sections of these domains included the locations of the sources used to illuminate the domains, the number of separate experiments used in the reconstruction, the locations where measurements were collected, the optical thickness of the domain, the amount of sign

Jean Ragusa; Wolfgang Bangerth

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - ADAMANT CIRCULAR SAW OENHP{number_sign}: 2001-05, VERSION A  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting up specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactive contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Adamant circular saw was assessed on August 14, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Adamant was only used during a limited ''test'' on a regular plywood crate due to safety considerations of the tool for this application. The Adamant circular saw, a counter-rotating twin-cutter, constructed with blades that work differently than conventional cutting wheels with twin blades, each rotating in opposite directions. It is used to cut wood and metals. Each blade is approximately 8 3/4 inches in diameter with a maximum cutting depth of 2 1/2 inches. The machine has two rotation speeds: 1,900 and 2,900 rotations per minute (rpm). The saw is operated with an interlocked, guarded trigger switch located at the end of the saw opposite the cutting blades. To operate the saw, the safety interlock must be depressed prior to powering the saw with the trigger control. The saw is supported by a handle at the front of the saw near the cutting blades. The top part of the blades is guarded near the handle, with approximately three-fourths of the face of the blades exposed. The Adamant circular saw is an innovative technology used to cut metals and wood. Its safety features include: interlocking switch for powering the saw, overload indicator and shutoff, and an electronic brake that stops the engine immediately when the start button is released. The top part of the blades is guarded near the motor. With approximately three-fourths of the face of the blades open, the operator is exposed to the potential risk of serious and minor cuts and abrasions when using and handling the saw. There is also potential for damage to the blades if the saw is not stored properly. Without guarding on the lower part of the blades, these can be damaged if the saw is dropped or rested on the cutting blades. Based upon the industrial hygiene sampling conducted for the other four saws demonstrated at FIU, noise levels, nuisance dust, and airborne fiberglass may be a problem when using this technology for the cutting of fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. No industrial hygiene sampling was conducted while the Adamant saw was in use. Engineering controls should be used to eliminate these problems whenever possible. Where this is not possible, administrative controls, training, and proper personal protective equipment (PPE) should be used. Respirators should be used if engineering controls do not sufficiently control the dust or fiberglass generated. Respirators should be equipped with an organic vapor and acid gas cartridge with High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter, since during the demonstration, the workers complained of an odd smell, which may have been the breakdown of the fiberglass.

Unknown

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

A Novel Approach to Mineral Carbonation: Enhancing Carbonation While Avoiding Mineral Pretreatment Process Cost  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly-stirred/circulating carbonation. We are exploring the mechanisms that govern carbonation reactivity and the impact that (1) modeling/controlling the slurry fluid-flow conditions, (2) varying the aqueous ion species/size and concentration (e.g., Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cl-, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}), and (3) incorporating select sonication offer to enhance exfoliation and carbonation. Thus far, we have succeeded in nearly doubling the extent of carbonation observed compared with the optimum procedure previously developed by the Albany Research Center. Aqueous carbonation reactivity was found to be a strong function of the ionic species present and their aqueous activities, as well as the slurry fluid flow conditions incorporated. High concentration sodium, potassium, and sodium/potassium bicarbonate aqueous solutions have been found to be the most effective solutions for enhancing aqueous olivine carbonation to date. Slurry-flow modeling using Fluent indicates that the slurry-flow dynamics are a strong function of particle size and mass, suggesting that controlling these parameters may offer substantial potential to enhance carbonation. During the first project year we developed a new sonication exfoliation apparatus with a novel sealing system to carry out the sonication studies. We also initiated investigations to explore the potential that sonication may offer to enhance carbonation reactivity. During the second project year, we extended our investigations of the effects of sonication on the extent of carbonation as a function of the following parameters: particle size distribution, the mass of solid reactant, volume fraction of aqueous solution present, sonication power, time, temperature, and CO{sub 2} pressure. To date, none of the conditions investigated have significantly enhanced carbonation. Mechanistic investigations of the stirred ({approx}1,500 rpm) aqueous olivine carbonation process indicate the carbonation process involves both incongruent magnesium dissolution and silica precipitation, which results in robust silica-rich passivating layer formation. Secondary ion mass spectrometry observation of H within the passivating layer that forms during static carbonation suggests 2H{sup +}/Mg{sup 2+} ion exchange is associated with incongruent dissolution. Apparently, H{sub 2}O forms at or near the olivine/passivating-layer interface during the process and diffuses out through the passivating layers during the carbonation reaction. This is

Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya; Michael J. McKelvy; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamdallah Bearat

2007-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

386

Closed Brayton cycle power conversion systems for nuclear reactors :  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a Sandia National Laboratories internally funded research program to study the coupling of nuclear reactors to gas dynamic Brayton power conversion systems. The research focused on developing integrated dynamic system models, fabricating a 10-30 kWe closed loop Brayton cycle, and validating these models by operating the Brayton test-loop. The work tasks were performed in three major areas. First, the system equations and dynamic models for reactors and Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems were developed and implemented in SIMULINKTM. Within this effort, both steady state and dynamic system models for all the components (turbines, compressors, reactors, ducting, alternators, heat exchangers, and space based radiators) were developed and assembled into complete systems for gas cooled reactors, liquid metal reactors, and electrically heated simulators. Various control modules that use proportional-integral-differential (PID) feedback loops for the reactor and the power-conversion shaft speed were also developed and implemented. The simulation code is called RPCSIM (Reactor Power and Control Simulator). In the second task an open cycle commercially available Capstone C30 micro-turbine power generator was modified to provide a small inexpensive closed Brayton cycle test loop called the Sandia Brayton test-Loop (SBL-30). The Capstone gas-turbine unit housing was modified to permit the attachment of an electrical heater and a water cooled chiller to form a closed loop. The Capstone turbine, compressor, and alternator were used without modification. The Capstone systems nominal operating point is 1150 K turbine inlet temperature at 96,000 rpm. The annular recuperator and portions of the Capstone control system (inverter) and starter system also were reused. The rotational speed of the turbo-machinery is controlled by adjusting the alternator load by using the electrical grid as the load bank. The SBL-30 test loop was operated at the manufacturers site (Barber-Nichols Inc.) and installed and operated at Sandia. A sufficiently detailed description of the loop is provided in this report along with the design characteristics of the turbo-alternator-compressor set to allow other researchers to compare their results with those measured in the Sandia test-loop. The third task consisted of a validation effort. In this task the test loop was operated and compared with the modeled results to develop a more complete understanding of this electrically heated closed power generation system and to validate the model. The measured and predicted system temperatures and pressures are in good agreement, indicating that the model is a reasonable representation of the test loop. Typical deviations between the model and the hardware results are less than 10%. Additional tests were performed to assess the capability of the Brayton engine to continue to remove decay heat after the reactor/heater is shutdown, to develop safe and effective control strategies, and to access the effectiveness of gas inventory control as an alternative means to provide load following. In one test the heater power was turned off to simulate a rapid reactor shutdown, and the turbomachinery was driven solely by the sensible heat stored in the heater for over 71 minutes without external power input. This is an important safety feature for CBC systems as it means that the closed Brayton loop will keep cooling the reactor without the need for auxiliary power (other than that needed to circulate the waste heat rejection coolant) provided the heat sink is available.

Wright, Steven A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Sanchez, Travis

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Fractional-Slot Surface Mounted PM Motors with Concentrated Windings for HEV Traction Drives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-power density and efficiency resulting from elimination of rotor windings and reduced magnetic-flux losses have made the rare earth permanent magnet (PM) motor a leading candidate for the Department of Energy's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVTs) traction drive motor. These traction drives are generally powered by radial-gap motors, having the magnets on or embedded in a rotating cylinder separated from the inside surface of a slotted cylindrical stator by an annular gap. The two main types of radial-gap PM rotors are those with magnets mounted on the surface of a supporting back iron, called PM surface mounted (PMSM) motors, and those with magnets mounted in slots in the rotor, called interior PM (IPM) motors. Most early PM motor research was on the PMSM motor, which was thought to have an inherently low stator inductance. A low stator inductance can lead to currents dangerously exceeding rated current as the back-emf across the inductance increases with speed; consequently, part of the attempted solution has been to increase the stator inductance to reduce the rate of current rise. Although analysis suggested that there should be no problem designing sufficiently high stator inductance into PMSMs, attempts to do so were often not successful and a motor design was sought that would have a higher intrinsic inductance. Commercial research at Toyota has focused on IPM motors because they can achieve a high-saliency ratio, which helps them operate over a high constant power speed ratio (CPSR), but they are more difficult to fabricate. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) position has been to continue research on brushless direct current (dc) motors (BDCMs) because of ease of fabrication and increased power output. Recently there has been a revival of interest in a fractional-slot PMSMs [15] made with concentrated windings because they possess three important features. First, they can increase the motor's inductance sufficiently to reduce the characteristic current to value of the rated current, which will enable them to operate at high CPSR. This feature also limits short-circuit fault currents. Second, their segmented structure simplifies assembly problems and is expected to reduce assembly costs. Third, the back-emf waveform is nearly sinusoidal with low cogging. To examine in depth this design ORNL entered into a collaborative agreement with the University of Wisconsin to build and test a 6 kW laboratory demonstration unit. Design, fabrication, and testing of the unit to 4000 rpm were completed during FY 2005. The motor will be sent to ORNL to explore ways to control its inverter to achieve higher efficiency during FY 2006. This paper first reviews the concept of characteristic current and what is meant by optimal flux weakening. It then discusses application of the fractional-slot concentrated winding technique to increase the d-axis inductance of a PMSM showing how this approach differs from an integral-slot motor with sinusoidal-distributed windings. This discussion is followed by a presentation of collaborative analyses and comparison with the University of Wisconsin's measured data on a 6 kW, 36-slot, 30-pole motor with concentrated windings. Finally ORNL presents a PMSM design with integral-slot windings that appears to meet the FreedomCAR Specifications, but has some disadvantages. Further collaboration with the University of Wisconsin is planned for FY 2006 to design a motor that meets FreedomCAR specifications.

Bailey, J.M.

2005-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

388

K-311-1/K-310-3 Purge Cascade Process Description, Oak Ridge Environmental Management Accelerated Cleanup Project, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

K-311-1 was constructed along with the rest of the K-25 Building in the 1943-1945 timeframe. K-311-1 was equipped with Size 3 converters and Size 38 Allis Chalmers{trademark} single-stage centrifugal compressors driven by 3600 rpm electric motors, and the unit operated as the 'bottom' unit flow-wise in K-25. The depleted flow from the bottom stage in K-311-1 passed through booster compressors and flowed to the K-601 Building where the depleted or 'tails' material was removed. In 1948, after the K-27 Building was completed, the decision was made to operate K-27 and K-25 in series rather than operate the two buildings as separate entities. To facilitate this operation, concrete bases were poured and two sets of booster compressors were installed in the extreme West end of the K-311-1 cell floor. These compressors were enclosed in heated housings and consisted of Size 38 compressors. One pair was to boost the 'B' flow between K-25 and K-27, and one pair was to boost the 'A' flow between the buildings. Each station operated with one compressor on-stream and the other in standby. (Reference 9) Each station also was equipped with a Size 2 after-cooler located in the discharge stream downstream of the junction of the onstream and standby compressors. Additional gaseous diffusion capacity was added at Oak Ridge as K-29, K-31, and K-33 were constructed and placed in service in the early 1950s. As a result of the additional process equipment added by these buildings, in-leakage of light gases to the cascade including light gases introduced into the cascade as a result of purging operations threatened to exceed the capacity of the existing K-312 Purge Cascade facilities in the K-25 Building. As a result, in 1954 K-311-1 was converted to a side purge cascade to remove light gases from the process gas stream as the stream entered K-25 from K-27. Low molecular weight gas in-leakage in K-33, K-31, K-29, and K-27 was removed by the K-311-1 Side Purge Facility and a relatively pure stream of UF6 then passed from K-311-1 into the upstream cells in K-25. In-leakage of light gases in the K-25 Building continued to be removed by the K-312 Purge Facilities. K-311-1 operated as a Side Purge Cascade from 1954 until the K-25 Building was shut down in 1964; at that time K-311-1 became the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) Top (and only) Purge Cascade. The adjacent K-310-3 Unit was operated along with K-311-1 as the top purge cascade and K-310-2 was also operated at times to supplement cells in the K311-1/K-310-3 Purge Cascade. K-311-1 was shut down on February 14, 1977, after the newer, larger capacity K-402-9 Purge Cascade was placed in operation. K-310-3 continued to operate until the K-402-8 Coolant Removal Unit was placed in service, and K-310-3 was shut down on March 14, 1978. Since the K-311-1 and K-310-3 units continued to operate after K-25 shutdown, removal of equipment such as valves and piping for other projects did not occur in this area. As a result, these two units have not been exposed to atmospheric wet air over the years as much of the remainder of K-25 has been exposed. Any deposits or residual gases contained in K-311-1 or K-310-3 are not likely to be fully hydrolyzed.

Shoemaker J.E.

2009-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

389

Diamond Wire Saw for Precision Machining of Laser Target Components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fabrication of precision laser targets requires a wide variety of specialized mesoscale manufacturing techniques. The diamond wire saw developed in this study provides the capability to precisely section meso-scale workpieces mounted on the assembly stations used by the Target Fabrication Group. This new capability greatly simplifies the fabrication of many types of targets and reduces the time and cost required to build the targets. A variety of materials are used to fabricate targets, including metals, plastics with custom designed chemical formulas, and aerogels of various densities. The materials are usually provided in the form of small pieces or cast rods that must be machined to the required shape. Many of these materials, such as metals and some plastics, can be trimmed using a parting tool on a diamond turning machine. However, other materials, such as aerogels and brittle materials, cannot be adequately cut with a parting tool. In addition, the geometry of the parts often requires that the workpieces be held in a special assembly station, which excludes the use of a parting tool. In the past, these materials were sectioned using a small, handheld coping saw that used a diamond-impregnated wire as a blade. This miniature coping saw was effective, but it required several hours to cut through certain materials. Furthermore, the saw was guided by hand and often caused significant damage to fragile aerogels. To solve these problems, the diamond wire saw shown in Figure 1 was developed. The diamond wire saw is designed to machine through materials that are mounted in the Target Fabrication Group's benchtop assembly stations. These assembly stations are the primary means of aligning and assembling target components, and there is often a need to machine materials while they are mounted in the assembly stations. Unfortunately, commercially available saws are designed for very different applications and are far too large to be used with the assembly stations. Therefore, a custom diamond wire saw was designed and constructed. The diamond wire saw cuts through workpieces using a continuous loop of diamond-impregnated wire of length 840 mm. The wire loop runs around several idler pulleys and is driven by a simple geared DC motor that rotates at 17 rpm. The linear speed of the wire is 107 inches/minute. The saw is oriented at an angle of 20{sup o} from horizontal, so the operator can view the wire through the cutout at the front end of the saw. When looking through a microscope or camera with a horizontal line of sight, the operator can clearly see the wire as it cuts through the workpiece, as shown in the right side of Figure 1. The saw is mounted on a two-axis stage that allows the operator to align the wire with the workpiece. To cut through the workpiece, the operator drives the wire through the workpiece by turning the feed micrometer. An image of the interior of the diamond wire saw appears in Figure 2. This picture was taken after removing the protective cover plate from the saw.

Bono, M J; Bennett, D W

2005-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

390

Temporary Cementitious Sealers in Enhanced Geothermal Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unlike conventional hydrothennal geothermal technology that utilizes hot water as the energy conversion resources tapped from natural hydrothermal reservoir located at {approx}10 km below the ground surface, Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) must create a hydrothermal reservoir in a hot rock stratum at temperatures {ge}200 C, present in {approx}5 km deep underground by employing hydraulic fracturing. This is the process of initiating and propagating a fracture as well as opening pre-existing fractures in a rock layer. In this operation, a considerable attention is paid to the pre-existing fractures and pressure-generated ones made in the underground foundation during drilling and logging. These fractures in terms of lost circulation zones often cause the wastage of a substantial amount of the circulated water-based drilling fluid or mud. Thus, such lost circulation zones must be plugged by sealing materials, so that the drilling operation can resume and continue. Next, one important consideration is the fact that the sealers must be disintegrated by highly pressured water to reopen the plugged fractures and to promote the propagation of reopened fractures. In response to this need, the objective of this phase I project in FYs 2009-2011 was to develop temporary cementitious fracture sealing materials possessing self-degradable properties generating when {ge} 200 C-heated scalers came in contact with water. At BNL, we formulated two types of non-Portland cementitious systems using inexpensive industrial by-products with pozzolanic properties, such as granulated blast-furnace slag from the steel industries, and fly ashes from coal-combustion power plants. These byproducts were activated by sodium silicate to initiate their pozzolanic reactions, and to create a cemetitious structure. One developed system was sodium silicate alkali-activated slag/Class C fly ash (AASC); the other was sodium silicate alkali-activated slag/Class F fly ash (AASF) as the binder of temper-try sealers. Two specific additives without sodium silicate as alkaline additive were developed in this project: One additive was the sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as self-degradation promoting additive; the other was the hard-burned magnesium oxide (MgO) made from calcinating at 1,000-1,500 C as an expansive additive. The AASC and AASF cementitious sealers made by incorporating an appropriate amount of these additives met the following six criteria: 1) One dry mix component product; 2) plastic viscosity, 20 to 70 cp at 300 rpm; 3) maintenance of pumpability for at least 1 hour at 85 C; 4) compressive strength >2000 psi; 5) self-degradable by injection with water at a certain pressure; and 6) expandable and swelling properties; {ge}0.5% of total volume of the sealer.

Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Butcher, T.; Brothers, L.; Bour, D.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

391

Advanced underground Vehicle Power and Control: The locomotive Research Platform  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Develop a fuelcell mine locomotive with metal-hydride hydrogen storage. Test the locomotive for fundamental limitations preventing successful commercialization of hydride fuelcells in underground mining. During Phase 1 of the DOE-EERE sponsored project, FPI and its partner SNL, completed work on the development of a 14.4 kW fuelcell power plant and metal-hydride energy storage. An existing battery-electric locomotive with similar power requirements, minus the battery module, was used as the base vehicle. In March 2001, Atlas Copco Wagner of Portland, OR, installed the fuelcell power plant into the base vehicle and initiated integration of the system into the vehicle. The entire vehicle returned to Sandia in May 2001 for further development and integration. Initial system power-up took place in December 2001. A revision to the original contract, Phase 2, at the request of DOE Golden Field Office, established Vehicle Projects LLC as the new prime contractor,. Phase 2 allowed industry partners to conduct surface tests, incorporate enhancements to the original design by SNL, perform an extensive risk and safety analysis, and test the fuelcell locomotive underground under representative production mine conditions. During the surface tests one of the fuelcell stacks exhibited reduced power output resulting in having to replace both fuelcell stacks. The new stacks were manufactured with new and improved technology resulting in an increase of the gross power output from 14.4 kW to 17 kW. Further work by CANMET and Hatch Associates, an engineering consulting firm specializing in safety analysis for the mining industry, both under subcontract to Vehicle Projects LLC, established minimum requirements for underground testing. CANMET upgraded the Programmable Logic Control (PLC) software used to monitor and control the fuelcell power plant, taking into account locomotive operator's needs. Battery Electric, a South Africa manufacturer, designed and manufactured (at no cost to the project) a new motor controller capable of operating the higher rpm motor and different power characteristics of the fuelcells. In early August 2002, CANMET, with the technical assistance of Nuvera Fuel Cells and Battery Electric, installed the new PLC software, installed the new motor controller, and installed the new fuelcell stacks. After minor adjustments, the fuelcell locomotive pulled its first fully loaded ore cars on a surface track. The fuelcell-powered locomotive easily matched the battery powered equivalent in its ability to pull tonnage and equaled the battery-powered locomotive in acceleration. The final task of Phase 2, testing the locomotive underground in a production environment, occurred in early October 2002 in a gold mine. All regulatory requirements to allow the locomotive underground were completed and signed off by Hatch Associates prior to going underground. During the production tests, the locomotive performed flawlessly with no failures or downtime. The actual tests occurred during a 2-week period and involved moving both gold ore and waste rock over a 1,000 meter track. Refueling, or recharging, of the metal-hydride storage took place on the surface. After each shift, the metal-hydride storage module was removed from the locomotive, transported to surface, and filled with hydrogen from high-pressure tanks. The beginning of each shift started with taking the fully recharged metal-hydride storage module down into the mine and re-installing it onto the locomotive. Each 8 hour shift consumed approximately one half to two thirds of the onboard hydrogen. This indicates that the fuelcell-powered locomotive can work longer than a similar battery-powered locomotive, which operates about 6 hours, before needing a recharge.

Vehicle Projects LLC

2003-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

392

Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By returning the desorbed, concentrated NOx into the engine intake and through the combustion chamber, a percentage of the NOx is decomposed during the combustion process. An initial study of NOx decomposition during lean-burn combustion was concluded in 2004 using a 1993 Cummins L10G 240hp natural gas engine. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio, injected NO (nitric oxide) quantity and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates of the engine. Chemical kinetic modeling results were also used to determine optimum NOx decomposition operating points and were published in the 2004 annual report. A NOx decomposition rate of 27% was measured from this engine under lean-burn conditions while the software model predicted between 35-42% NOx decomposition for similar conditions. A later technology 1998 Cummins L10G 280hp natural gas engine was procured with the assistance of Cummins Inc. to replace the previous engine used for 2005 experimental research. The new engine was equipped with an electronic fuel management system with closed-loop control that provided a more stable air/fuel ratio control and improved the repeatability of the tests. The engine was instrumented with an in-cylinder pressure measurement system and electronic controls, and was adapted to operate over a range of air/fuel ratios. The engine was connected to a newly commissioned 300hp alternating current (AC) motoring dynamometer. The second experimental campaign was performed to acquire both stoichiometric and slightly rich (0.97 lambda ratio) burn NOx decomposition rates. Effects of engine load and speed on decomposition were quantified, but Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) was not varied independently. Decomposition rates of up to 92% were demonstrated. Following recommendations at the 2004 ARES peer review meeting at Argonne National Laboratories, in-cylinder pressure was measured to calculate engine indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) changes due to NOx injections and EGR variations, and to observe conditions in the cylinder. The third experimental campaign gathered NOx decomposition data at 800, 1200 and 1800 rpm. EGR was added via an external loop, with EGR ranging from zero to the point of misfire. The air/fuel ratio was set at both stoichiometric and slightly rich conditions, and NOx decomposition rates were calculated for each set of runs. Modifications were made to the engine exhaust manifold to record individual exhaust temperatures. The three experimental campaigns have provided the data needed for a comprehensive model of NOx decomposition during the combustion process, and data have confirmed that there was no significant impact of injected NO on in-cylinder pressure. The NOx adsorption system provided by Sorbent Technologies Corp. (Twinsburg, OH), comprised a NOx adsorber, heat exchanger and a demister. These components were connected to the engine, and data were gathered to show both the adsorption of NOx from the engine, and desorption of NOx from the carbon-based sorbent material back into the engine intake, using a heated air stream. In order to quantify the NOx adsorption/desorption characteristics of the sorbent material, a bench top adsorption system was constructed and instrumented with thermocouples and the system output was fed into a NOx analyzer. The temperature of this apparatus was controlled while gathering data on the characteristics of the sorbent material. These data were required for development of a system model. Preliminary data were gathered in 2005, and will continue in early 2006. To assess the economic benefits of the proposed SNR technology the WVU research team has been joined in the last quarter by Dr Richard Turton (WVU-Chemical Engineering), who is modeling, sizing and costing the major components. The tasks will address modeling and preliminary design of the heat exchanger, demister and NOx sorbent chamber s

Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Richard Turton; Chamila Tissera; Emre Tatli; Andy Zimmerman

2005-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

393

Laboratory Experiments on the Effects of Blade Strike from Hydrokinetic Energy Technologies on Larval and Juvenile Freshwater Fishes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is considerable interest in the development of marine and hydrokinetic energy projects in rivers, estuaries, and coastal ocean waters of the United States. Hydrokinetic (HK) technologies convert the energy of moving water in river or tidal currents into electricity, without the impacts of dams and impoundments associated with conventional hydropower or the extraction and combustion of fossil fuels. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) maintains a database that displays the geographical distribution of proposed HK projects in inland and tidal waters (FERC 2012). As of March 2012, 77 preliminary permits had been issued to private developers to study HK projects in inland waters, the development of which would total over 8,000 MW. Most of these projects are proposed for the lower Mississippi River. In addition, the issuance of another 27 preliminary permits for HK projects in inland waters, and 3 preliminary permits for HK tidal projects (totaling over 3,100 MW) were under consideration by FERC. Although numerous HK designs are under development (see DOE 2009 for a description of the technologies and their potential environmental effects), the most commonly proposed current-based projects entail arrays of rotating devices, much like submerged wind turbines, that are positioned in the high-velocity (high energy) river channels. The many diverse HK designs imply a diversity of environmental impacts, but a potential impact common to most is the risk for blade strike to aquatic organisms. In conventional hydropower generation, research on fish passage through reaction turbines at low-head dams suggested that strike and mortality for small fish could be low. As a consequence of the large surface area to mass ratio of small fish, the drag forces in the boundary layer flow at the surface of a rotor blade may pull small fish around the leading edge of a rotor blade without making physical contact (Turnpenny 1998, Turnpenny et al. 2000). Although there is concern that small, fragile fish early life stages may be unable to avoid being struck by the blades of hydrokinetic turbines, we found no empirical data in the published literature that document survival of earliest life-stage fish in passage by rotor blades. In addition to blade strike, research on passage of fish through conventional hydropower turbines suggested that fish mortalities from passage through the rotor swept area could also occur due to shear stresses and pressure chances in the water column (Cada et al. 1997, Turnpenny 1998). However, for most of the proposed HK turbine designs the rotors are projected to operate a lower RPM (revolutions per minute) than observed from conventional reaction turbines; the associated shear stress and pressure changes are expected to be lower and pose a smaller threat to fish survival (DOE 2009). Only a limited number of studies have been conducted to examine the risk of blade strike from hydrokinetic technologies to fish (Turnpenny et al. 1992, Normandeau et al. 2009, Seitz et al. 2011, EPRI 2011); the survival of drifting or weakly swimming fish (especially early life stages) that encounter rotor blades from hydrokinetic (HK) devices is currently unknown. Our study addressed this knowledge gap by testing how fish larvae and juveniles encountered different blade profiles of hydrokinetic devices and how such encounters influenced survivorship. We carried out a laboratory study designed to improve our understanding of how fish larvae and juvenile fish may be affected by encounters with rotor blades from HK turbines in the water column of river and ocean currents. (For convenience, these early life stages will be referred to as young of the year, YOY). The experiments developed information needed to quantify the risk (both probability and consequences) of rotor-blade strike to YOY fish. In particular, this study attempted to determine whether YOY drifting in a high-velocity flow directly in the path of the blade leading edge will make contact with the rotor blade or will bypass the blade while entrained in the boundary l

Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL; Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Experimental Measurement of the Flow Field of Heavy Trucks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flat flaps that enclose the trailer base on the sides and top are known to reduce truck drag and reduce fuel consumption. Such flapped-truck geometries have been studied in laboratory wind tunnels and in field tests. A recent review of wind tunnel data for a variety of truck geometries and flow Reynolds numbers show roughly similar values of peak drag reduction, but differ in the determination of the optimum flap angle. Optimum angles lie in the range 12 degrees-20 degrees, and may be sensitive to Reynolds number and truck geometry. The present field test is undertaken to provide additional estimates of the magnitude of the savings to be expected on a typical truck for five flap angles 10, 13, 16, 19, and 22 degrees. The flaps are constructed from a fiberglass-epoxy-matrix material and are one-quarter of the base width in length (about 61 cm, or 2 feet). They are attached along the rear door hinge lines on either side of the trailer, so that no gap appears at the joint between the flap and the side of the trailer The flap angle is adjusted by means of two aluminum supports. The present test is performed on the NASA Crows Landing Flight Facility at the northern end of the San Joaquin valley in California. The main runway is approximately 2400 meters in length, and is aligned approximately in a north-south direction The test procedure is to make a series of runs starting at either end of the runway. All runs are initiated under computer control to accelerate the truck to a target speed of 60 mph (96 6 km/hr), to proceed at the target speed for a fixed distance, and to decelerate at the far end of the runway. During a run, the broadcast fuel rate, the engine rpm, forward speed, elapsed time--as well as several other parameters (10 in all)--are digitized at a rate of 100 digitizations per second. Various flapped-conditions are interspersed with the ''no flaps'' control, and are sequenced in a different order on different days. Approximately 310 runs are accumulated over the 5-day test period, May 17-21, 2004. The runway slopes rather uniformly upward from north-to-south. Over the distance of 2424 meters between our two ''start'' markers at either end of the runway, the net change in elevation is a little over ten meters. Test results clearly show the greater fuel consumption required to lift the truck against gravity in the southbound direction For this reason, it is important that the tests be averaged over a round trip circuit--that is, a run in both directions over the identical portion of the roadway. Northbound-southbound averages require an overlap segment of the runway (near the middle of the runway) where the truck--starting from either end--has achieved its target speed. For the target truck speed of 60 mph, this overlap region is approximately 700 meters in length. Typically a run and the return run are accomplished within a time interval of 6 minutes. Analysis of the data show fuel consumption savings at all flap angle settings tested, when compared to the ''no flaps'' condition. The most beneficial flap angle appears to be 13 degrees, for which the fuel consumption is 0.3778 {+-} 0.0025 liters/km compared to the ''no flaps'' control of 0.3941 {+-} 0.0034 liters/km. The error bounds expressed above mark the 99% confidence interval in the mean values given. That is, additional estimates of the mean fuel consumption would be expected to lie within the bounds given, approximately 99% of the time. The fuel consumption saving is--to reasonable accuracy--about 1.63 liters/100 kilometers. These savings represent the increment associated only with the change in drag due to the presence or absence of flaps. The result will hold for any truck of similar size and shape and engine performance regardless of the loading of the truck or the rolling resistance. The economy achieved by use of base flaps can be compared to the economy resulting from driving two trucks in a tandem configuration. In December 2003, such fuel consumption tests were performed at the same Crows Landing testsite. In the tests, two identical trucks are ope

Fred Browand; Charles Radovich

2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

395

New Accessory for Cleaning the Inside of the Machine Tool Cavity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The best way to extend the life of a metalworking fluid (MWF) is to make sure the machine tool and MWF delivery system are properly cleaned at least once per year. The dilemma the MWF manager is faced with is: How does one clean the machine tool and the MWF system on a large machine tool with an enclosure in a timely manner without impacting production schedules? Remember the walls and roof of the machine enclosure are coated with a film of dried contaminated MWF that must also be removed. If not removed, the deposits on these surfaces can recontaminate the fresh charge of MWF. I have found a product that with this revised procedure helps to shorten the machine tool down time involved with machine cleaning. (1) Discuss with your MWF supplier if they have a machine cleaning product that can be used with your current water based MWF during normal machining operations. Most MWF manufacturers have a machine cleaner that can be used at a lower concentration (1-2% vs. 5%) and can be used while still making production parts for a short period of time (usually 24-48 hours). (2) Make sure this machine cleaner is compatible with the work-piece material you are machining into product. Most cleaners are compatible with ferrous alloys. Because of the increased alkalinity of the fluid you might experience staining if you are machining copper or aluminum alloys. (3) Remove the chips from the chips pans and fluid channels. (4) During off shift hours circulate the MWF using a new product marketed by Rego-Fix called a 'Hydroball'. This device has a 5/8 inch diameter straight shank which allows it to be installed in any collet or solid quick change tool holder. It has multiple nozzles so that the user can control the spray pattern generated when the MWF is circulated. It allows the user to utilize the high pressure, through spindle MWF delivery capability of your machine tool for cleaning purposes. The high pressure MWF system can now be effectively used for cleaning purposes. This will also work with standard pressure system but you must reduce the number of nozzles utilized. By combining the movement of the machine axis around the operating envelope and the MWF circulation you can do a reasonably effective job of washing the inside of the machine tool operating cavity. Way covers will be moved and surfaces exposed because of axis movement. Spray direction will change to better wash fixtures and machine tool components. Deposits will start to breakdown and be washed into the machine tool sump. Since the cycle will run four or more hours it can be done with a weaker cleaning solution. The distributor states that the unit can be rotated up to 50 RPM. When running it has the same effect as the washing rotor inside of your home dishwasher. Inside the cavity on a machining center there is a lot of splash. During normal operations, MWF deposits buildup on the walls and roof of the enclosures. If these deposits (containing bacteria, mold and other contaminants) are not removed they will inoculate the fresh charge of MWF when they are resaturated. When you clean the inside of machine tool cavity, time is spent removing these deposits on the walls and roof of the enclosure. Getting to these surfaces is very difficult usually requiring that a member of the cleaning crew get inside the machine tool to reach them. The Hydro ball is effective in distributing the cleaning solution on all surfaces of the enclosure under high pressure. The only negative we have found is you get to find all the gaps and leaks in your machine tool enclosure. By running the hydro ball with the machine cleaner enriched MWF during off shift (4-8 hours) you can effectively remove these deposits and buildups on the internal surfaces of the cavity of the machine tool and wash them down into the sump. You also clean the internal components of the MWF system without interrupting normal scheduled work. (5) Pump out the spent MWF. You will have found that most of the deposits have been washed from the internal surfaces of the enclosure. For extremely dirty machines you might have to

Lazarus, Lloyd

2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

396

Control of Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Motors with Special Application to Fractional-Slot Motors with Concentrated Windings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 30 pole, 6 kW, and 6000 maximum revolutions per minute (rpm) prototype of the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) with fractional-slot concentrated windings (FSCW) has been designed, built, and tested at the University of Wisconsin at Madison (UWM). This machine has significantly more inductance than that of regular PMSMs. The prototype was delivered in April 2006 to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for testing and development of a controller that will achieve maximum efficiency. In advance of the test/control development effort, ORNL has used the PMSM models developed over a number of previous studies to study how steady state performance of high inductance PMSM machines relates to control issues. This report documents the results of this research. The amount of inductance that enables the motor to achieve infinite constant power speed ratio (CPSR) is given by L{sub {infinity}} = E{sub b}/{Omega}{sub b}I{sub R}, where E{sub b} is the root-mean square (rms) magnitude of the line-to-neutral back-electromotive force (emf) at base speed, {Omega}{sub b} is the base speed in electrical radians per second, and I{sub R} is the rms current rating of the motor windings. The prototype machine that was delivered to ORNL has about 1.5 times as much inductance as a typical PMSM with distributed integral slot windings. The inventors of the FSCW method, who designed the prototype machine, remarked that they were 'too successful' in incorporating inductance into their machine and that steps would be taken to modify the design methodology to reduce the inductance to the optimum value. This study shows a significant advantage of having the higher inductance rather than the optimal value because it enables the motor to develop the required power at lower current thereby reducing motor and inverter losses and improving efficiency. The main problem found with high inductance machines driven by a conventional phase advance (CPA) method is that the motor current at high speed depends solely on machine parameters and is virtually independent of the load level and the direct current (dc) supply voltage. Thus, the motor current is virtually the same at no load as at full load resulting in poor efficiency at less than full load conditions. While an inductance higher than the value cited above is warranted, it still does not ensure that the motor current is proportional to load; consequently, the problem of low efficiency at high speed and partial load is not resolved but is only mitigated. A common definition of 'base speed' is the speed at which the voltage applied to the motor armature is equal to the magnitude of the back-emf. The results in this study indicate that the dc supply voltage should be adequate to drive rated current into the motor winding at the specified base speed. At a minimum this requires sufficient voltage to overcome not only the back-emf but also the voltage drop across the internal impedance of the machine. For a high inductance PMSM, the internal impedance at base speed can be considerable and substantial additional voltage is required to overcome the internal voltage drop. It is further shown that even more voltage than the minimum required for injecting rated current at base speed can be beneficial by allowing the required power to be developed at lower current, which reduces losses in the motor and inverter components. Further, it is shown that the current is minimized at a unique speed; consequently, there may be room for optimization if the drive spends a substantial amount of its operating life at a certain speed (for example 60 mph). In this study, fundamental frequency phasor models are developed for a synchronous PMSM and the control systems that drive them is CPA. The models were compared with detailed simulations to show their validity. The result was used to design a traction drive control system with optimized efficiency to drive the fractional-slot motor with concentrated windings. The goal is to meet or exceed the FreedomCAR inverter cost and performance targets.

McKeever, John W [ORNL; Patil, Niranjan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Lawler, Jack [ORNL

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Tidal Energy System for On-Shore Power Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Addressing the urgent need to develop LCOE competitive renewable energy solutions for US energy security and to replace fossil-fuel generation with the associated benefits to environment impacts including a reduction in CO2 emissions, this Project focused on the advantages of using hydraulic energy transfer (HET) in large-scale Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) systems for harvesting off-shore tidal energy in US waters. A recent DOE resource assessment, identifies water power resources have a potential to meet 15% of the US electric supply by 2030, with MHK technologies being a major component. The work covered a TRL-4 laboratory proof-in-concept demonstration plus modeling of a 15MW full scale system based on an approach patented by NASA-JPL, in which submerged high-ratio gearboxes and electrical generators in conventional MHK turbine systems are replaced by a submerged hydraulic radial pump coupled to on-shore hydraulic motors driving a generator. The advantages are; first, the mean-time-between-failure (MTBF), or maintenance, can be extended from approximately 1 to 5 years and second, the range of tidal flow speeds which can be efficiently harvested can be extended beyond that of a conventional submerged generator. The approach uses scalable, commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components, facilitating scale-up and commercialization. All the objectives of the Project have been successfully met (1) A TRL4 system was designed, constructed and tested. It simulates a tidal energy turbine, with a 2-m diameter blade in up to a 2.9 m/sec flow. The system consists of a drive motor assembly providing appropriate torque and RPM, attached to a radial piston pump. The pump circulates pressurized, environmentally-friendly, HEES hydraulic fluid in a closed loop to an axial piston motor which drives an electrical generator, with a resistive load. The performance of the components, subsystems and system were evaluated during simulated tidal cycles. The pump is contained in a tank for immersion testing. The COTS pump and motor were selected to scale to MW size and were oversized for the TRL-4 demonstration, operating at only 1-6% of rated values. Nevertheless, in for 2-18 kW drive power, in agreement with manufacturer performance data, we measured efficiencies of 85-90% and 75-80% for the pump and motor, respectively. These efficiencies being 95-96% at higher operating powers. (2) Two follow-on paths were identified. In both cases conventional turbine systems can be modified, replacing existing gear box and generator with a hydraulic pump and on-shore components. On a conventional path, a TRL5/6 15kW turbine system can be engineered and tested on a barge at an existing site in Maine. Alternatively, on an accelerated path, a TRL-8 100kW system can be engineered and tested by modifying a team member's existing MHK turbines, with barge and grid-connected test sites in-place. On both paths the work can be expedited and cost effective by reusing TRL-4 components, modifying existing turbines and using established test sites. (3) Sizing, performance modeling and costing of a scaled 15MW system, suitable for operation in Maine's Western Passage, was performed. COTS components are identified and the performance projections are favorable. The estimated LCOE is comparable to wind generation with peak production at high demand times. (4) We determined that a similar HET approach can be extended to on-shore and off-shore wind turbine systems. These are very large energy resources which can be addressed in parallel for even great National benefit. (5) Preliminary results on this project were presented at two International Conferences on renewable energy in 2012, providing a timely dissemination of information. We have thus demonstrated a proof-in-concept of a novel, tidal HET system that eliminates all submerged gears and electronics to improve reliability. Hydraulic pump efficiencies of 90% have been confirmed in simulated tidal flows between 1 and 3 m/s, and at only 1-6% of rated power. Total system efficiencies have also been modeled, up to MW-scale, for ti

Bruce, Allan J

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z