National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for rpd-16 rpd-19 russian

  1. Russian Health Studies Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Russian Health Studies Program assesses worker and public health risks from radiation exposure resulting from nuclear weapons production activities in the former Soviet Union.

  2. Russian Contract Procurement Document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, J G

    2010-03-29

    This contract supports the enhancement of physical protection or nuclear material control and accounting systems at institutes or enterprises of the newly independent states under the material protection control and accounting (MPC&A) program. The contract is entered into pursuant to the MPC&A Program, a gratuitous technical assistance program, in accordance with the bilateral Agreements between the Russian Federation and the United States of America concerning the Safe and Secure Transportation, Storage and Destruction of Weapons and the Prevention of Weapons Proliferation of June 1992, as extended and amended by Protocol signed of June 1999, Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation regarding Cooperation in the Area of Nuclear Materials Physical Protection, Control and Accounting of October 1999 and the Russian Federation law of May 1999 on the taxation exemption of gratuitous technical assistance with Russian Federation under registration No.DOE001000.

  3. EA-0841: Import of Russian Plutonium-238

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to purchase plutonium-238 from the Russian Federation (Russia) for use in the Nation's space program.

  4. Former Russian Nuclear Energy Official Sentenced to Four Years...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Former Russian Nuclear Energy Official Sentenced to Four Years in Prison for Money Laundering Conspiracy Former Russian Nuclear Energy Official Sentenced to Four Years in Prison ...

  5. Factors fragmenting the Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, E.

    1993-10-06

    This paper examines the factors that threaten the future of the Russian Federation (RF). The observations are based on a study that focused on eight republics: Mordova, Udmurtia, Tatarstan, Mari El, Bashkortostan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Buryatia, and Altay Republic. These republics were selected for their geographic and economic significance to the RF. Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Udmurtia, and Mari El are located on important supply routes, such as the Volga River and the trans-Siberian railroad. Some of these republics are relatively wealthy, with natural resources such as oil (e.g., Tatarstan and Bashkortostan), and all eight republics play significant roles in the military-industrial complex. The importance of these republics to the RF contrasts to the relative insignificance of the independence-minded Northern Caucasus area. The author chose not to examine the Northern Caucasus region (except Kabardino-Balkaria) because these republics may have only a minor impact on the rest of the RF if they secede. Their impact would be minimized because they lie on the frontiers of the RF. Many Russians believe that {open_quotes}it might be best to let such a troublesome area secede.{close_quotes}

  6. Russian Nuclear Energy Official Pleads Guilty | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Russian Nuclear Energy Official Pleads Guilty Russian Nuclear Energy Official Pleads Guilty PDF icon Russian Nuclear Energy Official Pleads Guilty More Documents & Publications Former Russian Nuclear Energy Official Sentenced to Four Years in Prison for Money Laundering Conspiracy Semiannual Report to Congress: April 1, 2015 - September 30, 2015 Two Men Charged With Wire Fraud

  7. CHALLENGES POSED BY RETIRED RUSSIAN NUCLEAR SUBMARINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudolph, Dieter; Kroken, Ingjerd; Latyshev, Eduard; Griffith, Andrew

    2003-02-27

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the challenges posed by retired Russian nuclear submarines, review current U.S. and International efforts and provide an assessment of the success of these efforts.

  8. Russian Health Studies Program- Program Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Russian Health Studies Program assesses worker and public health risks from radiation exposure resulting from nuclear weapons production activities in the former Soviet Union.

  9. Russian Health Studies Program- Program History

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S./Russian cooperation was initiated in 1994 under a bi-national agreement. The work is conducted under the management of the Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER)

  10. Russian: United States Environmental Restoration Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Russian - United States Environmental Restoration Workshop, held in Washington, D.C., and Richland, Washington, from April 5 through 18, 1993, was the first extended collaborative information exchange between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Russian scientists at the site level. In addition to the Russian scientists, workshop participants included scientists and staff from DOE, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), the US Environmental Training Institute (USETI), universities, and the private sector. The first week (April 5 through 10) of the workshop took place in Washington, D.C., where the Russian and US participants were presented with a US perspective on environmental restoration and remediation issues from representatives in DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The second week (April 11 through 18) occurred in Richland, Washington, where the participants were presented with site-specific environmental restoration and remediation issues related to Hanford Site cleanup. This report is a compilation of the presentations, discussions, and experiences shared during the second week of the workshop in Richland, Washington.

  11. US Energy Secretary Bodman Meets with Russian Federation Minister of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industry and Energy Victor Khristenko | Department of Energy Russian Federation Minister of Industry and Energy Victor Khristenko US Energy Secretary Bodman Meets with Russian Federation Minister of Industry and Energy Victor Khristenko May 23, 2005 - 12:50pm Addthis MOSCOW, RUSSIA -- US Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman (Right) and Russian Federation Minister of Industry and Energy Victor Khristenko meet to discuss progress in achieving the Bratislava Initiatives during Sec. Bodman's visit

  12. US Energy Secretary Samuel Bodman and Russian Atomic Energy Director

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alexander Rumyantsev Discuss Bratislava Agreement | Department of Energy US Energy Secretary Samuel Bodman and Russian Atomic Energy Director Alexander Rumyantsev Discuss Bratislava Agreement US Energy Secretary Samuel Bodman and Russian Atomic Energy Director Alexander Rumyantsev Discuss Bratislava Agreement May 24, 2005 - 12:51pm Addthis US Energy Secretary Samuel Bodman (right) and Russian Atomic Energy Director Alexander Rumyantsev discuss progress in achieving the Bratislava Nuclear

  13. Russian Health Studies Program - Relationship to Other Radiation Research

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Programs | Department of Energy Relationship to Other Radiation Research Programs Russian Health Studies Program - Relationship to Other Radiation Research Programs Relationship to Other Radiation Research Programs Russian Health Studies Program What is the relationship of the Russian Health Studies Program to other radiation health effects programs? Current radiation protection standards are derived primarily from studies of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and patients who received

  14. Russian Health Studies Program Peer Reviewed Publications and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    year 2015. PDF icon Russian Health Studies Program Peer Reviewed Publications and Outcomes - December 31, 2015 For Additional Information Contact Barrett N. Fountos (301) 903-6740

  15. US, Russian Federation Sign Joint Statement on Reactor Conversion |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy US, Russian Federation Sign Joint Statement on Reactor Conversion US, Russian Federation Sign Joint Statement on Reactor Conversion June 26, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 This release is cross-posted from NNSA.energy.gov. MOSCOW - The U.S. and Russian Federation jointly announced today that the first stage of work defined in the Implementing Agreement between the Russian State Corporation for Atomic Energy (Rosatom) and the Department of Energy

  16. Joint Venture Established Between Russian Weapons Plant And the...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home Library Press Releases Joint Venture Established Between Russian Weapons Plant ... Joint Venture Established...

  17. US Energy Secretary Bodman Meets with Russian Federation Minister...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Monday, May 23, 2005. The Bratislava agreement was struck by Presidents Bush and Putin during their February 2005 meeting and directed the US and Russian Ministers of Energy...

  18. News Release Closure of Russian Nuclear Plant.PDF

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    CONTACTS: FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Jonathan Kiell, 202586-7371 September 27, 2001 Date Set for Closure of Russian Nuclear Weapons Plant U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration ...

  19. Date Set for Closure of Russian Nuclear Weapons Plant - NNSA...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Date Set for Closure of Russian Nuclear Weapons Plant - NNSA Is Helping Make It Happen | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission ...

  20. US, Russian intelligence agencies offer proliferation assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfsthal, J.B.

    1993-03-01

    The CIA outlined for the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee (February 24, 1993) the prospects for the spread of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and ballistic missiles in the aftermath of the Cold War. The testimony came less than one month after the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service released an 118-page report that also stressed the importance of preventing proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. CIA testimony and the FIS report both provided details on several states of proliferation concern, including North Korea, Iran, India, and Pakistan.

  1. Analysis of the Russian Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lychuk, Taras; Evans, Meredydd; Halverson, Mark A.; Roshchanka, Volha

    2012-12-01

    This report provides analysis of the Russian energy efficiency market for the building sector from the perspective of U.S. businesses interested in exporting relevant technologies, products and experience to Russia. We aim to help U.S. energy efficiency and environmental technologies businesses to better understand the Russian building market to plan their market strategy.

  2. Overview of Russian HEU transparency issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempf, C.R.; Bieniawski, A.

    1993-09-01

    The U.S. has signed an agreement with the Russian Federation for the purchase of 500 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) taken from dismantled nuclear weapons. The HEU will be blended down to low-enriched uranium and will be transported to the U.S. to be used by fuel fabricators to make fuel for commercial nuclear power plants. Both the U.S. and Russia have been preparing to institute transparency measures to provide assurance that nonproliferation and arms control objectives specified in the agreement are met. This paper provides background information on the original agreement and on subsequent negotiations with the Russians, as well as discussion of technical aspects of developing transparency measures suited to the facilities and processes which are expected to be involved. Transparency has been defined as those agreed-upon measures which build confidence that arms control and non-proliferation objectives shared by the parties are met. Transparency is a departure from exhaustive, detailed arms control verification regimes of past agreements, which were based on a presumption of detecting transgressions as opposed to confirming compliance.

  3. COLLOQUIUM: Mikhail Lomonosov - Father of Russian Science | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Lab May 14, 2014, 4:00pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: Mikhail Lomonosov - Father of Russian Science Professor Robert Crease Stony Brook University Dr. Vladimir Shiltsev Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Presentation: PDF icon WC14MAY2014_Lomonosov_Colloquium_PPPL.pdf We will briefly review review the life and achievements of Russian polymath Mikhail Lomonosov (1711-1765) who is rightfully called the "Father of Russian science" for his tireless

  4. Russian Scientists Team with NREL on Innovative Weathering System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A unique collaboration between the Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the Russian Institute of Laser Optical Technology and Atlas Material Testing Technology of Chicago helps test the effects of sun damage.

  5. Overview of contamination from US and Russian nuclear complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    This paper briefly compares the United States and Russian weapons complexes and provides a perspective on the releases of radioactivity to the environment in both countries. Fortunately, the technologies, data, models, and scientific experience that have been gained over the last 50 years are being shared between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (MINATOM) which constitutes a new environmental partnership between the two countries.

  6. News Release Closure of Russian Nuclear Plant.PDF

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    CONTACTS: FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Jonathan Kiell, 202/586-7371 September 27, 2001 Date Set for Closure of Russian Nuclear Weapons Plant U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration Is Helping Make It Happen The Russian government has recently determined that it will cease all nuclear weapons activity at the Avangard nuclear weapons plant in the closed city of Sarov, Russia - by the end of 2003. The Avangard plant will transition to civilian commercial uses. This effort is facilitated by the

  7. Secretary Chu Looks at Russian Energy Technology Today and Tomorrow's

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Researchers | Department of Energy Looks at Russian Energy Technology Today and Tomorrow's Energy Researchers Secretary Chu Looks at Russian Energy Technology Today and Tomorrow's Energy Researchers June 8, 2011 - 3:44pm Addthis Scenic picture of St. Petersburg, Russia. | Courtesy of Dan Leistikow Scenic picture of St. Petersburg, Russia. | Courtesy of Dan Leistikow Lindsey Geisler Lindsey Geisler Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Earlier this week, we talked about

  8. Russian Health Studies Program - Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Effects Research (JCCRER) | Department of Energy Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER) Russian Health Studies Program - Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER) Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER) All About the Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research What is the JCCRER? Why is it important? DOE's Russian Health Studies Program Principal Areas of Cooperation Under the JCCRER

  9. Russian military in the year 2000. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIlmail, J.F.; Jaworski, J.L.

    1992-12-01

    Through the use of content analysis, this paper attempts to paint a picture of the Russian military in the year 2000 and its impact on the US national security strategy. The research begins by defining the origin of Russian national security policy and how that translates into military policy and doctrine. A framework for evaluating Russian military doctrines is provided with a chronology of the military reform process and the related doctrinal reforms that has its birth in the 1987 announcement of a defensive-defense. Following from the doctrinal variant framework the new strategic missions of the 1992 draft military doctrine are presented with an analysis that shows they are a clear departure from the past and truly represent a defensive-defense type doctrine. Additionally, a comparison is made with the current military reform ongoing in Russia with the historical precedent of the Russian military reform of 1924-25. A rough outline of the separate branches of the Russian military both present and future is provided based on the ongoing trends in the reform process. This thumbnail sketch of the Russian military then assists in the analysis and conclusion that even after a possible 50% cutback in US military spending, in the year 2000 the Russian military will not pose a threat to US national security. The major caveat to this conclusion is in the realm of nuclear weapons and this issue is therefore discussed in some length....Former Soviet Union, Russia, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Conventional Forces in Europe treaty (CFE), European Security, New National Security Strategy, Nuclear Weapons, Nuclear Strategy.

  10. Russian Containers for Transportation of Solid Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrushenko, V. G.; Baal, E. P.; Tsvetkov, D. Y.; Korb, V. R.; Nikitin, V. S.; Mikheev, A. A.; Griffith, A.; Schwab, P.; Nazarian, A.

    2002-02-28

    The Russian Shipyard ''Zvyozdochka'' has designed a new container for transportation and storage of solid radioactive wastes. The PST1A-6 container is cylindrical shaped and it can hold seven standard 200-liter (55-gallon) drums. The steel wall thickness is 6 mm, which is much greater than standard U.S. containers. These containers are fully certified to the Russian GOST requirements, which are basically identical to U.S. and IAEA standards for Type A containers. They can be transported by truck, rail, barge, ship, or aircraft and they can be stacked in 6 layers in storage facilities. The first user of the PST1A-6 containers is the Northern Fleet of the Russian Navy, under a program sponsored jointly by the U.S. DoD and DOE. This paper will describe the container design and show how the first 400 containers were fabricated and certified.

  11. U.S. and Russia Sign Plan for Russian Plutonium Disposition ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    November 19, 2007 - 4:31pm Addthis Will Eliminate Enough Russian Plutonium for Thousands of Nuclear Weapons WASHINGTON, DC -U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman and Russian ...

  12. Former Russian Nuclear Energy Official Sentenced to Four Years in Prison

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Money Laundering Conspiracy | Department of Energy Former Russian Nuclear Energy Official Sentenced to Four Years in Prison for Money Laundering Conspiracy Former Russian Nuclear Energy Official Sentenced to Four Years in Prison for Money Laundering Conspiracy PDF icon Former Russian Nuclear Energy Official Sentenced to Four Years in Prison for Money Laundering Conspiracy More Documents & Publications Russian Nuclear Energy Official Pleads Guilty Semiannual Report to Congress: April

  13. Cost estimating issues in the Russian integrated system planning context

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allentuck, J.

    1996-03-01

    An important factor in the credibility of an optimal capacity expansion plan is the accuracy of cost estimates given the uncertainty of future economic conditions. This paper examines the problems associated with estimating investment and operating costs in the Russian nuclear power context over the period 1994 to 2010.

  14. US/Russian Collaborations | National Nuclear Security Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    US/Russian Collaborations | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working

  15. Joint Venture Established Between Russian Weapons Plant And the Largest

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Dialysis Provider in the U.S. | National Nuclear Security Administration Venture Established Between Russian Weapons Plant And the Largest Dialysis Provider in the U.S. | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget

  16. Russian Health Studies Program - Overview of Active and Completed Projects

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    | Department of Energy Overview of Active and Completed Projects Russian Health Studies Program - Overview of Active and Completed Projects How Many Projects Does DOE Sponsor Through This Program? DOE currently sponsors five projects. Of these, four core projects focus on the epidemiology and dosimetry of the Techa River population and the Mayak workers: Project 1.1: Techa River Population Dosimetry; Project 1.2b: Techa River Population Cancer Morbidity and Mortality; Project 2.2: Mayak

  17. Environmental assessment of USAID housing projects in the Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loran, B.; Miller, C.

    1995-12-01

    Parsons was selected by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) as the general contractor for construction management for the construction of 2,500 housing units within the Russian Federation. These housing units, to be occupied by Russian officers returning from the Baltic States, are under construction on 15 sites, selected from an initial list of 200, based on habitability, capability of successful final construction. Cost meeting USAID guidelines, and impacts on the environment. USAID fulfilled NEPA requirements by preparing, with assistance of Parsons Engineering Science, a Programmatic Environmental Assessment and 15 site specific Environmental Assessments for the project. The sites were scattered over the entire Russian Federation west of the Ural Mountains. The site offerors completed an environmental checklist covering a broad range of possible impacts. Significant environmental issues and concerns were further identified during scoping meetings held at the site locations. The most important issues discussed were: soil contamination; gaseous, liquid, and solid pollutants to which the site may be exposed; incompatible adjacent land uses; ready access to utilities and social services; and socioeconomic situation favorable to resettlement of Russian military officers. No major environmental issues or concerns were identified for the 15 selected sites. Certificates indicating the absence of chemical and radiological surface and subsurface contamination at the proposed sites were provided by the local environmental officers. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were found present at one of the sites considered in a preliminary selection, and later rejected due to the failure of contractual negotiations. The environmental assessments included mitigation and monitoring measures for construction and operation (occupancy) impacts.

  18. Russian Navy Fresh Fuel MPC and A Training

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forehand, Harry M.; O'Shell, Parker; Opanassiouk, Yuri R.; Rexroth, Paul E.; Shmelev, Vladimir; Sukhoruchkin, Vladimir K.

    1999-07-06

    The goal of the Russian Navy Fuels Program is to incorporate nuclear fuel that is in the custody of the Russian Navy into a materials protection, control and accounting program. In addition to applying MPC and A upgrades to existing facilities, a program is underway to train site personnel in MPC and A activities. The goal is to assure that the upgraded facilities are managed, operated and maintained in an effective, sustainable manner. Training includes both the conceptual and necessary operational aspects of the systems and equipment. The project began with a Needs Assessment to identify priorities and objectives of required training. This led to the creation of a series of classes developed by Kurchatov Institute. One course was developed to allow attendees to get a general understanding of goals and objectives of nuclear MPC and A systems in the context of the Russian Navy. A follow-on course provided the detailed skills necessary for the performance of specialized duties. Parallel sessions with hands-on exercises provided the specific training needed for different personnel requirements. The courses were presented at KI facilities in Moscow. This paper reviews the work to date and future plans for this program.

  19. Successful Completion of the Largest Shipment of Russian Research Reactor High-Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel from Czech Republic to Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Tyacke; Dr. Igor Bolshinsky; Jeff Chamberlin

    2008-07-01

    On December 8, 2007, the largest shipment of high-enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel was successfully made from a Russian-designed nuclear research reactor in the Czech Republic to the Russian Federation. This accomplishment is the culmination of years of planning, negotiations, and hard work. The United States, Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency have been working together on the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program in support of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative. In February 2003, RRRFR Program representatives met with the Nuclear Research Institute in Re, Czech Republic, and discussed the return of their high-enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel to the Russian Federation for reprocessing. Nearly 5 years later, the shipment was made. This paper discusses the planning, preparations, coordination, and cooperation required to make this important international shipment.

  20. Focus on International Cooperation Continues, Secretary Chu Ends Trip with Visit to Russian Los Alamos

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Secretary Chu wrapped up his week-long visit in Russia today with a visit to the Russian equivalent of our Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  1. Rural electrification: Waste biomass Russian northern territories. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamian, S.

    1998-02-01

    The primary objective of this pre-feasibility evaluation is to examine the economic and technical feasibility of replacing distillate fuel with local waste biomass in the village of Verkhni-Ozerski, Arkhangelsk Region, Russia. This village is evaluated as a pilot location representing the off-grid villages in the Russian Northern Territories. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has agreed to provide technical assistance to the Ministry of Fuel and Energy (MFE). MFE has identified the Northern Territories as a priority area requiring NREL`s assistance. The program initially affects about 900 off-grid villages. Biomass and wind energy, and to a lesser extent small hydro (depending on resource availability) are expected to play the dominant role in the program, Geothermal energy may also have a role in the Russian Far East. The Arkhangelsk, Kariela, and Krasnoyarsk Regions, all in the Russian Northern Territories, have abundant forest resources and forest products industries, making them strong candidates for implementation of small-scale waste biomass-to-energy projects. The 900 or so villages included in the renewable energy program span nine administrative regions and autonomous republics. The regional authorities in the Northern Territories proposed these villages to MFE for consideration in the renewable energy program according to the following selection criteria: (a) Remote off-grid location, (b) high cost of transporting fuel, old age of existing power generation equipment, and (d) preliminary determination as to availability of alternative energy resources. Inclusion of indigenous minorities in the program was also heavily emphasized. The prefeasibility study demonstrates that the project merits continuation and a full feasibility analysis. The demonstrated rate of return and net positive cash flow, the willingness of Onegales and local/regional authorities to cooperate, and the immense social benefits are all good reasons to continue the project.

  2. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications: II, Clouds. Issue 159

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtis, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning clouds as they relate to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  3. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications. 4: General circulation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtis, M.D.; Razuvaev, V.N.; Sivachok, S.G.

    1996-10-01

    This report presents English-translated abstracts of important Russian-language literature concerning general circulation models as they relate to climate change. Into addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  4. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications: I, Surface energy budget

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtis, M.D.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning the surface energy budget as it relates to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included, to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  5. Environmental assessment of the import of Russian plutonium-238

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The United States (U.S.) is proposing to purchase plutonium-238 (Pu-238) from the Russian Federation (Russia) for use in the Nations`s space program. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended, requires the assessment of environmental consequences of all major Federal actions that may significantly affect the quality of the human environment. Accordingly, the US Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) to identify and evaluate the environmental consequences of importing Pu-238 fuel from Russia, and of the initial transport and processing of such fuel within the US., as necessary, to add the fuel to the existing US inventory. Since the proposed action involves ocean transport, DOE also considered the environmental consequences of this action on the global commons in accordance with Executive Order 12114 and DOE Guidelines for Compliance with Executive Order 12114. During the transportation sequence from point of origin in Russia to the US, and within the US from the port of entry to either SRS or LANL, various environments could be affected by the proposed action. These potentially affected environments include the Russian land and port environments, the marine environment, the US port locale, highway routes, LANL, and SRS. Each of these is discussed below the connection with the proposed action.

  6. Proceedings of the joint Russian-American hydrogeology seminar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsang, C.F.; Mironenko, V.; Pozdniakov, S.

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogeology research has been very active in both Russia and the US because of the concerns for migration of radioactive and chemical contaminants in soils and geologic formations, as well as for water problems related to mining and other industrial operations. Russian hydrogeologists have developed various analysis and field testing techniques, sometimes in parallel with US counterparts. These Proceedings come out of a Seminar held to bring together a small group (about 15) of active Russian researchers in geologic flow and transport associated with the disposal of radioactive and chemical wastes either on the soils or through deep injection wells, with a corresponding group (about 25) of American hydrogeologists. The meeting was intentionally kept small to enable informal, detailed and in-depth discussions on hydrogeological issues of common interest. Out of this interaction, the authors hope that, firstly, they will have learned from each other and secondly, that research collaborations will be established where there is the opportunity. This proceedings presents the summaries and viewgraphs from the presentations. What cannot be conveyed here is the warm and cooperative atmosphere of these interactions, both inside and outside the formal sessions, which may well lead to future collaborations.

  7. Production of an English/Russian glossary of terminology for nuclear materials control and accounting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schachowskoj, S.; Smith, H.A. Jr.

    1995-05-01

    The program plans for Former Soviet Union National Nuclear Materials Control and Accounting (MC and A) Systems Enhancements call for the development of an English/Russian Glossary of MC and A terminology. This glossary was envisioned as an outgrowth of the many interactions, training sessions, and other talking and writing exercises that would transpire in the course of carrying out these programs. This report summarizes the status of the production of this glossary, the most recent copy of which is attached to this report. The glossary contains over 950 terms and acronyms associated with nuclear material control and accounting for safeguards and nonproliferation. This document is organized as follows: English/Russian glossary of terms and acronyms; Russian/English glossary of terms and acronyms; English/Russian glossary of acronyms; and Russian/English glossary of acronyms.

  8. Cold stress on Russian territory during last global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinogradov, V.V.

    1996-12-31

    A great part of Russian territory is characterized by climate discomfort of life. In winter cold stress covers nearly all territory. The purpose of this work is to learn how the climatic discomfort of life is affected by climate change. The effect of global warming for the period 1981--1990 on geographical distribution of bioclimatic indexes by seasons (compared with average figures) is analyzed. Indexes of enthalpy, dry cooling, wind chill, wet cooling, effective temperature, physiological deficit index for monthly average figures were calculated and the data bank for the period 1981--1990 was made up. The indexes of enthalpy, wet cooling, and dry cooling according to Bodman were chosen as the most informative and independent. Maps of the climatic indexes taking into account temperature, humidity and wind speed were made up on the basis of the calculated figures.

  9. The Russian Federation's Ministry of Atomic Energy: Programs and Developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Craig M.

    2000-07-24

    The Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom) is one of Russia's largest and most influential federal bodies. Throughout 1999 its head, Yevgeny Adamov, has worked to increase the Ministry's commercial competitiveness by consolidating redundant facilities and tightening control over subsidiary organizations. Economic difficulties and budget constraints, however, have hindered Minatom's ability to achieve many of its programs and goals. As a result, the Ministry has continued, renewed or initiated contracts with several countries possessing questionable commitments to nonproliferation and has sought to expand its role in international nuclear waste management and spent fuel reprocessing in order to raise new sources of revenue. While many of these programs are not likely to come to fruition, others raise significant nonproliferation and environmental concerns. This paper reviews select programs driving Minatom's efforts to raise funds, comments on their potential viability, and highlights areas likely to be of particular concern for the United States over the next three to five years.

  10. Certification of U.S. instrumentation in Russian nuclear processing facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.H. Powell; J.N. Sumner

    2000-07-12

    Agreements between the United States (U.S.) and the Russian Federation (R.F.) require the down-blending of highly enriched uranium (HEU) from dismantled Russian Federation nuclear weapons. The Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS) was jointly developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to continuously monitor the enrichments and flow rates in the HEU blending operations at the R.F. facilities. A significant requirement of the implementation of the BDMS equipment in R.F. facilities concerned the certification of the BDMS equipment for use in a Russian nuclear facility. This paper discusses the certification of the BDMS for installation in R.F. facilities, and summarizes the lessons learned from the process that can be applied to the installation of other U.S. equipment in Russian nuclear facilities.

  11. Energy-Saving Opportunities for Manufacturing Companies, (English/Russian Fact Sheet) (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    This English/Russian brochure describes the Industrial Technologies Program Save Energy Now model and provides information on tools and resources to help manufacturing facilities reduce industrial energy intensity.

  12. Evaluation of technology modifications required to apply clean coal technologies in Russian utilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    The report describes the following: overview of the Russian power industry; electric power equipment of Russia; power industry development forecast for Russia; clean coal technology demonstration program of the US Department of Energy; reduction of coal TPS (thermal power station) environmental impacts in Russia; and base options of advanced coal thermal power plants. Terms of the application of clean coal technology at Russian TPS are discussed in the Conclusions.

  13. Secretary Chu Visits Russian Seaport, Checks Out Second Line of Defense

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Nuclear Detection System | Department of Energy Russian Seaport, Checks Out Second Line of Defense Nuclear Detection System Secretary Chu Visits Russian Seaport, Checks Out Second Line of Defense Nuclear Detection System June 7, 2011 - 8:59am Addthis John Gerrard What does this mean for me? The Second Line of Defense program cracks down on nuclear smuggling by installing radiation detection equipment at ports, border crossings and airports around the world. We've all seen the movies where

  14. The Russian Federation's Ministry of Atomic Energy: Programs and Developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CM Johnson

    2000-07-24

    This paper reviews select programs driving the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation's (Minatom) efforts to raise funds, comments on their potential viability, and highlights areas likely to be of particular concern for the US over the next three to five years. The paper's findings are: (1) Despite numerous cabinet displacements throughout the Yeltsin administration, Yevgeny Adamov was reappointed Minister on four occasions. With Boris Yeltsin's January 1, 2000 resignation, Adamov's long-term position as the head of the Ministry is more tenuous, but he will likely retain his position until at least the March 2000 elections. Acting President Vladimir Putin is unlikely to reorganize his cabinet prior to that date and there are no signs that Putin is dissatisfied with Adamov's leadership of Minatom. (2) Adamov's chief priorities are downsizing Minatom's defense sector, increasing the oversight of subsidiary bodies by the central bureaucracy and consolidating commercial elements of the Ministry within an umbrella organization called Atomprom. (3) Viktor Mikhaylov, Adamov's predecessor and critic of his reform efforts, has been relieved of his duties as First Deputy Minister. While he retains his positions as Chief of the Science Councils and Chief Scientist at Arzamas-16, his influence on Minatom's direction is greatly diminished. Adamov will likely continue his efforts to further marginalize Mikhaylov in the coming year. (4) Securing extra-budgetary sources of income continues to be the major factor guiding Minatom's international business dealings. The Ministry will continue to aggressively promote the sale of nuclear technology abroad, often to countries with questionable nonproliferation commitments. (5) Given the financial difficulties in Russia and Minatom's client states, however, few nuclear development programs will come to fruition for a number of years, if ever. Nevertheless, certain peaceful nuclear cooperation agreements should be carefully monitored--particularly those negotiated with Cuba, Iran, Libya and Syria. (6) Waste management has also risen in importance for Minatom. Opportunities for raising funds by reprocessing, storing and permanently disposing of spent fuel from foreign states are being explored. Although currently prohibited by federal law, the Russian Parliament will likely pass legislation in support of this program.

  15. Russian Pulsating Mixer Pump. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-03-01

    This sludge mixing/mobilization system was developed in Russia. A prototype system was evaluated by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) and Industry and University Programs (INDP). The Russian Pulsating Mixer Pump showed promise for mixing highly viscous sludges. This project is to refine the system design (especially the control subsystem) and manufacture the system in Russia in accordance with quality standards required for deployment in radioactive waste storage tanks. Specifications and requirements are being developed by the TFA and INDP. The requirements may call for two or three of the sludge mixing systems to be delivered to Oak Ridge. DOE-Oak Ridge and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory will deploy the pulsating mixing pump system in their Gunite Tanks. These tanks are being emptied and cleaned prior to closure. Oak Ridge has deployed a number of innovative technologies in these efforts. If successful at Oak Ridge, the pulsating mixing pump system has potential application at several other DOE sites, including Savannah River, Hanford, and Idaho.

  16. Thermionic system evaluation test (TSET) facility construction: A United States and Russian effort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wold, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    The Thermionic System Evaluation Test (TSET) is a ground test of an unfueled Russian TOPAZ-II in-core thermionic space reactor powered by electric heaters. The facility that will be used for testing of the TOPAZ-II systems is located at the New Mexico Engineering Research Institute (NMERI) complex in Albuquerque, NM. The reassembly of the Russian test equipment is the responsibility of International Scientific Products (ISP), a San Jose, CA, company and Inertek, a Russian corporation, with support provided by engineers and technicians from Phillips Laboratory (PL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the University of New Mexico (UNM). This test is the first test to be performed under the New Mexico Strategic Alliance agreement. This alliance consist of the PL, SNL, LANL, and UNM. The testing is being funded by the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) with the PL responsible for project execution.

  17. An English translation of the 50-year chronicle of historical events of the State Scientific Center - Russian Federation Physico-Energetics Institute 1946-1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berman, G.; Gudowski, W.; Doolen, G.

    1998-02-01

    This document is an English translation of a Russian document which gives a brief overview of the historical events of the Russian State Scientific Center over the first 50 years of its existence.

  18. Performance evaluation of the quarter-scale Russian retrieval equipment for the removal of hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enderlin, C.W.; Mullen, O.D.; Terrones, G.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the test program for evaluating the Russian Retrieval Equipment fabricated by the Integrated Mining Chemical Company (IMCC) and delivered to the US by Radiochem Services Company (RCSC), both of Russia. The testing and fabrication of this equipment were sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The tests described in this report were conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) at the DOE Hanford Site by the Retrieval Process Development and Enhancement (RPD and E) team of the Tank Focus Area program (TFA). Tests were carried out jointly by Russian and US personnel for the purpose of evaluating the Russian Retrieval Equipment for potential deployment within the DOE complex. Section 1.0 of this report presents the objectives and a brief background for the test program. The Russian Equipment is described in Section 2.0. Section 3.0 describes the approach taken for testing the equipment. The results of the tests and an analysis of the data are described in Section 4.0. The results and observations obtained from the tests are discussed in Section 5.0. Recommendations and conclusions are presented in Section 6.0.

  19. US/Russian MPC{ampersand}A program at the VNIITF Institute, Chelyabinsk 70

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teryohin, V.; Tsygankov, G.; Churikov, Y,

    1997-09-22

    The All Russian Institute of Technical Physics (VNIITF) is one of the major sites in the nuclear weapons complex in Russia. The site contains a number of research facilities which use nuclear material as well as assembly, disassembly, and testing of prototypes (pilot samples) of nuclear weapons. Chelyabinsk-70 (C-70) also has ties to the major nuclear materials production facilities in the Urals region of Russia. Under the U.S./Russian Materials Protection Control and Accounting (MPC&A) cooperative program, enhanced safeguards systems are being implemented, initially at a reactor test area that contains two pulse reactors and a nuclear material storage facility. Current year projects include site-wide improvements and next year, expansion of work into other facilities at the site. C-70 has developed an extensive computerized system that integrates the physical security alarm station with elements of the nuclear material control system. Under the MPC&A program, the existing systems have been augmented with Russian and US technologies. Additional facilities were added in 1997 to broaden the impact of the MPC&A program at the site. The integrated MPC&A system will be demonstrated to US and Russian audiences when completed in the spring, 1998. This paper describes the on-going activities and describe the cooperative effort between the Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, Sandia, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Brookhaven US Department of Energy National Laboratories in support of VNIITF.

  20. About the ASC/Russian Science & Technology Cooperative Program | National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Security Administration the ASC/Russian Science & Technology Cooperative Program | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters

  1. Neutronics Benchmarks for the Utilization of Mixed-Oxide Fuel: Joint US/Russian Progress Report for Fiscal 1997. Volume 3 - Calculations Performed in the Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-06-01

    This volume of the progress report provides documentation of reactor physics and criticality safety studies conducted in the Russian Federation during fiscal year 1997 and sponsored by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program of the US Department of Energy. Descriptions of computational and experimental benchmarks for the verification and validation of computer programs for neutron physics analyses are included. All benchmarks include either plutonium, uranium, or mixed uranium and plutonium fuels. Calculated physics parameters are reported for all of the contaminated benchmarks that the United States and Russia mutually agreed in November 1996 were applicable to mixed-oxide fuel cycles for light-water reactors.

  2. Development and Attestation of Gamma-Ray Measurement Methodologies for use by Rostekhnadzor Inspectors in the Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeff Sanders

    2006-09-01

    Development and attestation of gamma-ray non-destructive assay measurement methodologies for use by inspectors of the Russian Federal Service for Environmental, Technological, and Nuclear Oversight (Rostekhnadzor, formerly Gosatomnadzor or GAN), as well as for use by Russian nuclear facilities, has been completed. Specifically, a methodology utilizing the gamma-ray multi group analysis (MGA) method for determining plutonium isotopic composition has been developed, while existing methodologies to determining uranium enrichment and isotopic composition have been revised to make them more appropriate to the material types and conditions present in nuclear facilities in the Russian Federation. This paper will discuss the development and revision of these methodologies, the metrological characteristics of the final methodologies, as well as the limitations and concerns specific to the utilization of these analysis methods in the Russian Federation.

  3. Health and safety considerations for U. S. monitors in the Russian transparency program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boggs, C. J.

    1998-10-22

    In 1993 the US and the Russian Federation signed an agreement allowing the US to purchase highly enriched uranium (HEU) from Russia over a 20-year period. This Highly Enriched Uranium Purchase Agreement permits the purchase of 500 metric tons of HEU from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons in the form of low-enriched uranium (LEU) for use as power reactor fuel in the US. Under the HEU Agreement, the US and Russia are cooperating in a ''Transparency Program'' to ensure that arms control and nonproliferation objectives are being met. The Transparency Program measures, which are a departure from traditional, intrusive measures of verification, include sending individuals from the US to Russia to monitor the processing of the HEU.

  4. Proposal for broader United States-Russian transparency of nuclear arms reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Percival, C.M.; Ingle, T.H.; Bieniawski, A.J.

    1995-07-01

    During the January 1994 Summit Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin agreed on the goal of ensuring the ``transparency and irreversibility`` of the nuclear arms reduction process. As a result, negotiations are presently underway between the United States Government and the Russian Federation to confirm the stockpiles of plutonium and highly enriched uranium removed from nuclear weapons. In December 1994 the United States presented a paper to the Russian Federation proposing additional measures to provide broader transparency of nuclear arms reduction. The US Department of Energy is studying the implementation of these broader transparency measures at appropriate DOE facilities. The results of the studies include draft protocols for implementation, assessments of the implementation procedures and the impacts on the facilities and estimates of the cost to implement these measures at various facilities.

  5. Overview of transparency issues under the US-Russian highly enriched uranium purchase agreement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniawski, A.J.; Dougherty, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    The US has signed an Agreement with the Russian Federation for the purchase of 500 metric tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) derived from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons. The BEU will be blended down to low-enriched uranium (LEU) in Russia and will be transported to the US to be used by fuel Fabricators to make fuel for commercial nuclear power plants. Both the United States and Russia have been preparing to institute transparency measures to provide confidence that the nonproliferation, physical protection, and material control and accounting requirements specified in the Agreement are met. This paper provides a background on the Agreement and subsequent on-going negotiations to develop transparency measures suited to the facilities and processes which are expected to be involved.

  6. 6th US-Russian Pu Science Workshop Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    US-Russian Pu Science Workshop Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory University of California, Livermore, California July 14 and 15, 2006 Local Chairs: Michael Fluss, James Tobin, Adam Schwartz LLNL, Livermore, USA Alexander V. Petrovtsev, RFNC * VNIITF, Snezhinsk, Russia Boris A. Nadykto, RFNC * VNIIEF, Sarov, Russia Lidia F. Timofeeva, VNIINM, Moscow, Russia Siegfried S. Hecker, (Luis Morales POC) LANL, Los Alamos, USA Valentin E. Arkhipov, IMP, Ural Branch of RAS, Yekaterinburg, Russia This

  7. Date Set for Closure of Russian Nuclear Weapons Plant - NNSA Is Helping

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Make It Happen | National Nuclear Security Administration Date Set for Closure of Russian Nuclear Weapons Plant - NNSA Is Helping Make It Happen | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library

  8. United States-Russian laboratory-to-laboratory cooperation on protection, control, and accounting for naval nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sukhoruchkin, V.; Yurasov, N.; Goncharenko, Y.; Mullen, M.; McConnell, D.

    1996-12-31

    In March 1995, the Russian Navy contacted safeguards experts at the Kurchatov Institute (KI) and proposed the initiation of work to enhance nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) at Russian Navy facilities. Because of KI`s successful experience in laboratory-to-laboratory MPC and A cooperation with US Department of Energy Laboratories, the possibility of US participation in the work with the Russian Navy was explored. Several months later, approval was received from the US Government and the Russian Navy to proceed with this work on a laboratory-to-laboratory basis through Kurchatov Institute. As a first step in the cooperation, a planning meeting occurred at KI in September, 1995. Representatives from the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Department of Defense (DOD), the Russian Navy, and KI discussed several areas for near-term cooperative work, including a vulnerability assessment workshop and a planning study to identify and prioritize near-term MPC and A enhancements that might be implemented at Russian facilities which store or handle unirradiated highly enriched uranium fuel for naval propulsion applications. In subsequent meetings, these early proposals have been further refined and extended. This MPC and A cooperation will now include enhanced protection and control features for storage facilities and refueling service ships, computerized accounting systems for naval fuel, methods and equipment for rapid inventories, improved security of fresh fuel during truck transportation, and training. This paper describes the current status and future plans for MPC and A cooperation for naval nuclear materials.

  9. Development of Regulatory Documents for Creation (Upgrade) of Physical Protection Systems under the Russian/American MPC&A Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izmaylov, Alexandr V.; Babkin, Vladimir; Kurov, Valeriy; Piskarev, Alexander; O'Brien, Patricia E.; Wright, Troy L.; Schlegel, Stephen C.; Hazel, Michael J.; Miller, Daniel R.; Tuttle, John D.; Kovchegin, Dmitry

    2009-10-07

    The development of new or the upgrade of existing physical protection systems (PPS) for nuclear facilities involves a multi-step and multidimensional process. The process consists of conceptual design, design, and commissioning stages. The activities associated with each of these stages are governed by Russian government and agency regulations. To ensure a uniform approach to development or upgrading of PPS at Russian nuclear facilities, the development of a range of regulatory and methodological documents is necessary. Some issues of PPS development are covered by the regulatory documents developed by Rosatom, as well as other Russian agencies with nuclear facilities under their control. This regulatory development has been accomplished as part of the U.S.-Russian MPC&A cooperation or independently by the Russian Federation. While regulatory coverage is extensive, there are a number of issues such as vulnerability analysis, effectiveness assessment, upgrading PPS, and protection of information systems for PPS that require additional regulations be developed. This paper reports on the status of regulatory coverage for PPS development or upgrade, and outlines a new approach to regulatory document development. It describes the evolutionary process of regulatory development through experience gained in the design, development and implementation of PPS as well as experience gained through the cooperative efforts of Russian and U.S. experts involved the development of MPC&A regulations.

  10. Russian surety research projects in the Sandia National Laboratories Cooperative Measures Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.E.

    1996-07-01

    Over forty safety and security related research and development projects have been initiated between Sandia National Laboratories and the Russian nuclear weapons laboratories VNIIEF and VNIITF. About half of these projects have been completed. All relate to either safety or security methodology development, processes, accident environment analysis and testing, accident databases, assessments or product design of devices. All projects have a potential benefit to various safety or security programs and some may directly have commercial applications. In general, these projects could benefit risk assessments associated with systems that could result in accidents or incidents having high public consequences. These systems typically have already been engineered to have very low assessed probabilities of occurrence of such accidents or incidents. This paper gives an overview of the Sandia surety program with a focus on the potential for future collaboration between Sandia, three Russian Institutes; VNIIEF, VNIITF and VNIIA, and other industry and government organizations. The intent is to serve as an introduction to a roundtable session on Russian Safety Collaboration at the 14th International System Safety Conference. The current Sandia collaboration program scope and rationale is presented along with the evolved program focus. An overview of the projects is given and a few specific projects are briefly highlighted with tangible results to date.

  11. Petroleum and geothermal production technology in Russia: Summary of information obtained during informational meetings with several Russian Institutes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schafer, D.M.; Glowka, D.A.; Teufel, L.W.

    1995-04-01

    Russian scientists and engineers have drilled the deepest holes in the world. It is recognized that this experience has given them an expertise in drilling superdeep holes, as well as other aspects of drilling, completions, and geophysics. More and more US oil and gas companies are vigorously expanding their exploration and development into Russia. It is important for them to identify and use Russian technology in drilling, completion, logging, and reservoir characterization to the extent possible, in order to both reduce drilling costs and help support the Russian economy. While these US companies are interested in becoming involved in and/or sponsoring research in Russia, they have been unsure as to which scientists and institutes are working on problems of interest. It was also important to determine in which areas Russian technology is farther advanced than in the West. Such technology could then be commercialized as part of the Industrial Partnering Program. In order to develop a clear understanding of these issues, two Sandia engineers with drilling and completions expertise and a geophysicist with expertise in reservoir analysis traveled to Russia to meet with Russian scientists and engineers to discuss their technologies and areas of interest. This report contains a summary of the information obtained during the visit.

  12. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Orphan Source Recovery Project in the Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, J. W.; Ahumada, A. D.; Blanchard, T. A.

    2012-06-04

    After 9/11, officials at the United States Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grew more concerned about radiological materials that were vulnerable to theft and illicit use around the world. The concern was that terrorists could combine stolen radiological materials with explosives to build and detonate a radiological dispersal device (RDD), more commonly known as a dirty bomb. In response to this and other terrorist threats, the DOE/NNSA formed what is now known as the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) to consolidate and accelerate efforts to reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide. Although a cooperative program was already underway in the Russian Federation to secure nuclear materials at a range of different facilities, thousands of sealed radioactive sources remained vulnerable at medical, research, and industrial sites. In response, GTRI began to focus efforts on addressing these materials. GTRIs Russia Orphan Source Recovery Project, managed at the Nevada National Security Sites North Las Vegas facility, was initiated in 2002. Throughout the life of the project, Joint Stock Company Isotope has served as the primary Russian subcontractor, and the organization has proven to be a successful partner. Since the first orphan source recovery of an industrial cobalt-60 irradiator with 647 curies (Ci) at an abandoned facility in Moscow in 2003, the GTRI Orphan Source Recovery Project in the Russian Federation has accomplished substantial levels of threat reduction. To date, GTRI has recovered and securely disposed of more than 5,100 sources totaling more that 628,000 Ci. This project serves as an extraordinary example of how international cooperation can be implemented by partners with mutual interests to achieve significant goals.

  13. Potential Impact of Atmospheric Releases at Russian Far East Nuclear Submarine Complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, F.; Mahura, A.; Compton, K.; Brown, K.; Takano, M.; Novikov, V.; Soerensen, J. H.; Baklanov, A.

    2003-02-25

    An ''Assessment of the Impact of Russian Nuclear Fleet Operations on Far Eastern Coastal Regions'' is being performed as part of the Radiation Safety of the Biosphere Project (RAD) of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) of Laxenburg, Austria. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive unclassified analysis of the potential impact of accidents at the Russian Far East nuclear submarine sites near Vladivostok and Petropavlovsk. We have defined the situation there based upon available information and studies commissioned by RAD in collaboration with Russian research institutes including Russian Research Center-''Kurchatov Institute'', Institute of Northern Environmental Problems and Lazurit Central Design Bureau. Further, in our original work, some in collaboration with the staff of the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) and members of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, we have calculated the nuclide trajectories from these sites in the atmospheric boundary layer, less than 1.5 kilometers high, and determined their probability of crossing any of the nearby countries as well as Asiatic Russia. We have further determined the concentrations in each of these crossings as well as the total, dry and wet depositions of nuclides on these areas. Finally, we have calculated the doses to the Japanese Island population from typical winter airflow patterns (those most likely to cross the Islands in the minimum times), strong north winds, weak north winds and cyclonic winds for conditions similar to the Chazhma Bay criticality accident (fresh fuel) and for a criticality accident for the same type of reactor with fuel being withdrawn (spent fuel). The maximum individual committed dosages were less than 2 x 10-7 and 2 x 10-3 mSv, respectively. The long-term external doses by radionuclides deposited on the ground and the internal doses by consumption of foods were not evaluated as it is believed that such doses can be avoided by social controls. In other calculations taking these longer term doses into account and determining the sum of the maximum individual committed dosages (SMICD), we found for each of the surrounding countries to be less than 1 mSv. In that part of Russia the (SMICD) is less than 6 mSv. For releases from the Petropavlovsk sites the (SMICD) for each of the surrounding countries is less than 0.3 mSv. In that part of Russia the (SMICD) is less than 6 mSv.

  14. REVIEW OF EQUIPMENT USED IN RUSSIAN PRACTICE FOR ACCOUNTING MEASUREMENTS OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NEYMOTIN,L.

    1999-07-25

    The objective of this work was to analyze instrumentation and methodologies used at Russian nuclear facilities for measurement of item nuclear materials, materials in bulk form, and waste streams; specify possibilities for the application of accounting measurements; and develop recommendations for improvement. The major steps and results: Representative conversion, enrichment (gas centrifuge), fuel fabrication, spent fuel reprocessing, and chemical-metallurgical production facilities in Russia were selected; Full lists of nuclear materials were prepared; Information about measurement methods and instrumentation for each type of nuclear material were gathered; and Recommendations on methodological and instrumentation support of accounting measurements for all types of materials were formulated. The analysis showed that the existing measurement methods and instrumentation serve mostly to support the technological process control and nuclear and radiation safety control. Requirements for these applications are lower than requirements for MC and A applications. To improve the state of MC and A at Russian nuclear facilities, significant changes in instrumentation support will be required, specifically in weighing equipment, volume measurements, and destructive and non-destructive analysis equipment, along with certified reference materials.

  15. NORTHWEST RUSSIA AS A LENS FOR CHANGE IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seward, Amy M.

    2009-04-18

    The region of Northwest Russia encompassing the Kola Peninsula and the Arctic seas to its north offers a lens through which to view the political, economic, ecological and cultural change occurring in the Russian Federation (RF) today. Amidst the upheaval that followed the collapse of the Soviet Union, this region was left to address the legacy of a Cold War history in which it was home to the Soviet (and now Russian) Navys Northern Fleet. This paper addresses the naval nuclear legacy from an ecological and environmental and perspective, first addressing the situation of radioactive contamination of the region. The focus then turns to one of the largest problems facing the RF today: the management and disposal of SNF and RW, much of which was produced by the Northern Fleet. Through the international programs to address these issues, and Russia's development of a national infrastructure to support spent nuclear fuel and waste management, the author discusses political, economic, environmental and cultural change in Russia.

  16. Systems Sustainability: Implementation of Enhanced Maintenance Programs at the Kurchatov Institute, the All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental physics and the All-Russian Scientific Institute for Technical Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coppinger, M.; Pikula, M.; Randolph, J.D.; Windham, M.

    1999-09-20

    Implementation of quality maintenance programs is essential to enhancing sustainable continuous operations of United States funded Materials Protection, Control and Accountability (MPC and A) equipment/systems upgrades at various Russian nuclear facilities. An effective maintenance program is expected to provide assurances to both parties for achieving maximum continuous systems operations with minimum down time. To be effective, the program developed must focus on minimum down time for any part of a system. Minimum down time is realized through the implementation of a quality maintenance program that includes preventative maintenance, necessary diagnostic tools, properly trained technical staff, and an in-house inventory of required spare parts for repairing the impacted component of the system. A centralized maintenance management program is logistically essential for the success of this effort because of the large volume of MPC and A equipment/systems installed at those sites. This paper will discuss current programs and conditions at the Russian Research Center-Kurchatov Institute, the All-Russian Scientific Institute for Technical Physics and the All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics and will address those steps necessary to implement an upgraded program at those sites.

  17. Russian Experience in the Regulatory Supervision of the Uranium Legacy Sites - 12441

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiselev, M.F.; Romanov, V.V.; Shandala, N.K.; Titov, A.V.; Kiselev, S.M.; Seregin, V.A.; Metlyaev, E.G.; Novikova, N.; Khokhlova, E.A.

    2012-07-01

    Management of the uranium legacy is accompanied with environmental impact intensity of which depends on the amount of the waste generated, the extent of that waste localization and environmental spreading. The question is: how hazardous is such impact on the environment and human health? The criterion for safety assurance is adequate regulation of the uranium legacy. Since the establishment of the uranium industry, the well done regulatory system operates in the FMBA of Russia. Such system covers inter alia, the uranium legacy. This system includes the extent laboratory network of independent control and supervision, scientific researches, regulative practices. The current Russian normative and legal basis of the regulation and its application practice has a number of problems relating to the uranium legacy, connected firstly with the environmental remediation. To improve the regulatory system, the urgent tasks are: -To introduce the existing exposure situation into the national laws and standards in compliance with the ICRP system. - To develop criteria for site remediation and return, by stages, to uncontrolled uses. The similar criteria have been developed within the Russian-Norwegian cooperation for the purpose of remediation of the sites for temporary storage of SNF and RW. - To consider possibilities and methods of optimization for the remediation strategies under development. - To separate the special category - RW resulted from uranium ore mining and dressing. The current Russian RW classification is based on the waste subdivision in terms of the specific activities. Having in mind the new RW-specific law, we receive the opportunity to separate some special category - RW originated from the uranium mining and milling. Introduction of such category can simplify significantly the situation with management of waste of uranium mining and milling processes. Such approach is implemented in many countries and approved by IAEA. The category of 'RW originated from uranium mining and milling' is to be introduced as the legal acts and regulatory documents. The recent ICRP recommendations provide the flexible approaches for solving of such tasks. The FMBA of Russia recognizes the problems of radiation safety assurance related to the legacy of the former USSR in the uranium mining industry. Some part of the regulatory problems assumes to be solved within the EurAsEC inter-state target program 'Reclamation of the territories of the EurAsEC member states affected by the uranium mining and milling facilities'. Using the example of the uranium legacy sites in Kyrgyz and Tajikistan which could result in the tran-boundary disasters and require urgent reclamation, the experience will be gained to be used in other states as well. Harmonization of the national legislations and regulative documents on radiation safety assurance is envisaged. (authors)

  18. US/Russian laboratory-to-laboratory MPC&A Program at the VNIITF Institute, Chelyabinsk-70 May 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsygankov, G.; Churikov, Y.; Teryokhin, V.

    1996-05-01

    The AR Russian Institute of Technical Physics (VNIITF), also called Chelyabinsk-70, is one of two Russian federal nuclear centers established to design, test and support nuclear weapons throughout their life cycle. The site contains research facilities which use nuclear materials, two experimental plants which manufacture prototype samples for nuclear weapons, and a site for various ground tests. Chelyabinsk-70 also has cooperative relationships with the major nuclear materials production facilities in the Urals region of Russia. Chelyabinsk-70 has been participating in the US/Russian Laboratory-to-laboratory cooperative program for approximately one year. Six US Department of Energy Laboratories are carrying out a program of cooperation with VNIITF to improve the capabilities and facilities for nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A) at VNIITF. A Safeguards Effectiveness Evaluation Workshop was conducted at VNIITF in July, 1995. Enhanced safeguards systems are being implemented, initially at a reactor test area that contains three pulse reactors. Significant improvements to physical security and access control systems are under way. C-70 is developing an extensive computerized system that integrates the physical security alarm station with elements of the nuclear material control system. The existing systems will be augmented with Russian and US technologies. This paper will describe the on-going activities and describe the cooperative effort between the Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, Sandia, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Brookhaven US Department of Energy National Laboratories and VNIITF.

  19. U.S./Russian Laboratory-to-Laboratory MPC&A Program at the VNIITF Institute, Chelyabinsk-70

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teryohin, V.; Tzygankov, G.; Blasy, J.

    1995-07-01

    The All Russian Institute of Technical Physics (VNIITF) is one of the major sites in the nuclear weapons complex in Russia. The site contains a number of research facilities which use nuclear material as well as facilities active in disassembly and disposition of nuclear weapons. Chelyabinsk-70 (C-70) also has ties to the major nuclear materials production facilities in the Urals region of Russia. Under the U.S./Russian Laboratory -to- Laboratory cooperative program, enhanced safeguards systems are being implemented, initially at a reactor test area that contains two pulse reactors and a nuclear material storage facility. C-70 is developing an extensive computerized system that integrates the physical security alarm station with elements of the nuclear material control system. Under the Lab-to-Lab program, the existing systems will bi augmented with Russian and US technologies. The integrated MPC&A system for the test facilities will be demonstrated to US and Russian audiences when completed and follow-on work at additional C-70 facilities will be identified. This paper will describe the on-going activities and describe the cooperative effort between the Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, Sandia, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Brookhaven US Department of Energy National Laboratories in support of VNIITF.

  20. Status of the United States-Russian Federation safeguards, transparency and irreversibility (STI) initiative for nuclear arms reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czajkowski, A.F.; Bieniawski, A.J.; Percival, C.M.

    1996-12-31

    The US-Russian Federation initiative to provide safeguards, transparency, and irreversibility (STI) of nuclear arms reductions has been emphasized by several Presidential Joint Summit Statements as well as various agreements between the two parties. Beginning with the US and Russian Federation agreement in March, 1994, to host reciprocal inspections to confirm the stockpiles of plutonium removed from nuclear weapons, the US and Russia have been negotiating an STI regime to increase the transparency and irreversibility of nuclear arms reduction. In December, 1994, the US presented a paper to the Russian Federation proposing a regime of specific transparency measures to provide broader transparency and irreversibility of nuclear arms reductions. Presently the US considers STI to consist of the following measures: (1) agreement for cooperation (AFC); (2) stockpile data exchange agreement (SDEA); (3) mutual reciprocal inspections (MRI); (4) spot checks to confirm data exchanges (SC); and (5) limited Chain of Custody of Warheads Being Dismantled (LCC). The US and Russian have begun negotiations, which are in various stages of progress, on the first three of these measures. This paper will present a brief historical background of STI and discuss the transparency measures including the status of negotiation for each of the measures.

  1. Playing Hot and Cold: How Can Russian Heat Policy Find Its Way Toward Energy Efficiency?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roshchanka, Volha; Evans, Meredydd

    2012-09-15

    The Russian district heating has a large energy-saving potential, and, therefore, need for investments. The scale of needed investments is significant: the government estimates that 70 percent of the district heating infrastructure needs replacement or maintenance, a reflection of decades of under investment. Government budgets will be unable to cover them, and iInvolvingement ofthe private industry will be critical to attracting the necessary investementis necessary. For private parties to invest in district heating facilities across Russia, and not only in pockets of already successful enterprises, regulators have to develop a comprehensive policy that works district heating systems under various conditionscost-reflective tariffs, metering, incentives for efficiency and social support for the neediest (instead of subsidies for all).

  2. ``White Land``...new Russian closed-cycle nuclear technology for global deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, C.D.

    1996-07-01

    A Russian technology called ``White Land`` is being pursued which is based on their heavy-metal-cooled fast spectrum reactor technology developed to power their super-fast Alpha Class submarines. These reactors have important safety advantages over the more conventional sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors but preserve some of the attractive operational features of the fast spectrum systems. Perhaps chief among these advantages in the current political milieu is their ability to generate energy from any nuclide heavier than thorium including HEU, weapons plutonium, commercial plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium. While there are several scenarios for deployment of these systems, the most attractive perhaps is containment in submarine-like enclosures to be placed underwater near a coastal population center. A Russian organization named the Alphabet Company would build the reactors and maintain title to them. The company would be paid on the basis of kilowatt-hours delivered. The reactors would not require refueling for 10--15 years and no maintenance violating the radiation containment would be required or would be carried out at the deployment site. The host country need not develop any nuclear technology or accept any nuclear waste. When the fuel load has been burned, the entire unit would be towed to Archangel, Russia for refueling. The fission product would be removed from the fuel by ``dry`` molten salt technology to minimize the waste stream and the fissile material would be returned to the reactor for further burning. The fission product waste would be stored at New Land Island, their current nuclear test site in the Arctic. If concerns over fission product justify it, the long-lived species will be transmuted in an accelerator-driven system. Apparently this project is backed at the highest levels of MINATOM and the Alphabet Company has the funding to proceed.

  3. Joint US/Russian study on the development of a decommissioning strategy plan for RBMK-1000 unit No. 1 at the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this joint U.S./Russian study was to develop a safe, technically feasible, economically acceptable strategy for decommissioning Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant (LNPP) Unit No. 1 as a representative first-generation RBMK-1000 reactor. The ultimate goal in developing the decommissioning strategy was to select the most suitable decommissioning alternative and end state, taking into account the socioeconomic conditions, the regulatory environment, and decommissioning experience in Russia. This study was performed by a group of Russian and American experts led by Kurchatov Institute for the Russian efforts and by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. efforts and for the overall project.

  4. Joint Report Issued by the U.S. Secretary of Energy and the Director of the Russian Federation's Federal Atomic Energy Agency (Rosatom)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Samuel Bodman announced today that he and Russian Federal Atomic Energy Agency Director Sergey Kiriyenko have submitted to Presidents Bush...

  5. Opportunities for Russian Nuclear Weapons Institute developing computer-aided design programs for pharmaceutical drug discovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-09-23

    The goal of this study is to determine whether physicists at the Russian Nuclear Weapons Institute can profitably service the need for computer aided drug design (CADD) programs. The Russian physicists` primary competitive advantage is their ability to write particularly efficient code able to work with limited computing power; a history of working with very large, complex modeling systems; an extensive knowledge of physics and mathematics, and price competitiveness. Their primary competitive disadvantage is their lack of biology, and cultural and geographic issues. The first phase of the study focused on defining the competitive landscape, primarily through interviews with and literature searches on the key providers of CADD software. The second phase focused on users of CADD technology to determine deficiencies in the current product offerings, to understand what product they most desired, and to define the potential demand for such a product.

  6. Conversion of Russian Defense Enterprises to the production of rechargeable batteries and battery packs. Volume 1. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    This report, prepared by E-Tech, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the International Integration Association of Moscow, Russia. It presents the results of a study which was conducted to assess the economic and technical feasibility of converting the facilities of three Russian defense enterprises to the production of rechargeable batteries and battery packs for sale to the Russian domestic market and to international commercial markets. The three issues that are addressed in the report include: (1) Whether or not a project of this nature can be successful in present-day Russia; (2) Are the Russian enterprises identified for this study are capable of executing the project; and (3) Whether a U.S. company with extensive battery manufacturing experience can carry out a project in Russia. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Introduction; (3) Background; (4) Technical Overview; (5) Market Overview; (6) Project Description; (7) Socioeconomic Benefits; (8) Legal Structure; (9) Appendices.

  7. US-Russian Cooperation in Upgrading MC&A System at Rosatom Facilities: Measurement of Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Danny H; Jensen, Bruce A

    2011-01-01

    Improve protection of weapons-usable nuclear material from theft or diversion through the development and support of a nationwide sustainable and effective Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) program based on material measurement. The material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) cooperation has yielded significant results in implementing MC&A measurements at Russian nuclear facilities: (1) Establishment of MEM WG and MEMS SP; (2) Infrastructure for development, certification, and distribution of RMs; and (3) Coordination on development and implementation of MMs.

  8. Development of Physical Protection Regulations for Rosatom State Corporation Sites under the U.S.-Russian MPC&A Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izmaylov, Alexander; Babkin, Vladimir; Shemigon, Nikolai N.; O'Brien, Patricia; Wright, Troy L.; Hazel, Michael J.; Tuttle, John D.; Cunningham, Mitchel E.; Lane, Melinda; Kovchegin, Dmitry

    2012-07-14

    This paper describes issues related to upgrading the physical protection regulatory basis for Rosatom State Corporation sites. It is underlined that most of the regulatory and methodological documents for this subject area have been developed under the U.S.-Russian MPC&A Program. According to the joint management plan developed and agreed upon by the parties in 2005, nearly 50 physical protection documents were identified to be developed, approved and implemented at Rosatom sites by 2012. It is also noted that, on the whole, the plans have been fulfilled.

  9. U.S. transparency monitoring of HEU oxide conversion and blending to LEU hexafluoride at three Russian blending plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leich, D., LLNL

    1998-07-27

    The down-blending of Russian highly enriched uranium (HEU) takes place at three Russian gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants. The fluorination of HEU oxide and down-blending of HEU hexafluoride began in 1994, and shipments of low enriched uranium (LEU) hexafluoride product to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) began in 1995 US transparency monitoring under the HEU Purchase Agreement began in 1996 and includes a permanent monitoring presence US transparency monitoring at these facilities is intended to provide confidence that HEU is received and down-blended to LEU for shipment to USEC The monitoring begins with observation of the receipt of HEU oxide shipments, including confirmation of enrichment using US nondestructive assay equipment The feeding of HEU oxide to the fluorination process and the withdrawal of HEU hexafluoride are monitored Monitoring is also conducted where the blending takes place and where shipping cylinders are filled with LEU product. A series of process and material accountancy documents are provided to US monitors.

  10. Lithium Ceramic Blankets for Russian Fusion Reactors and Influence of Breeding Operation Mode on Parameters of Reactor Tritium Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapyshev, Victor K.; Chernetsov, Mikhail Yu.; Zhevotov, Sergej I.; Kersnovskij, Alexandr Yu.; Kolbasov, Boris N.; Kovalenko, Victor G.; Paltusov, Nikolaj P.; Sernyaev, Georgeij A.; Sterebkov, Juri S.; Zyryanov, Alexej P.

    2005-07-15

    Russian controlled fusion program supposes development of a DEMO reactor design and participation in ITER Project. A solid breeder blanket of DEMO contains a ceramic lithium orthosilicate breeder and a beryllium multiplier. Test modules of the blanket are developed within the scope of ITER activities. Experimental models of module tritium breeding zones (TBZ), materials and fabrication technology of the TBZ, tritium reactor systems to analyse and process gas released from lithium ceramics are being developed. Two models of tritium breeding and neutron multiplying elements of the TBZ have been designed, manufactured and tested in IVV-2M nuclear reactor. Initial results of the in-pile experiments and outcome of lithium ceramics irradiation in a water-graphite nuclear reactor are considered to be a data base for development of the test modules and initial requirements for DEMO tritium system design. Influence of the tritium release parameters and hydrogen concentration in a purge gas on parameters of reactor system are discussed.

  11. Comments on Presentation on Industrial Nuclear Explosion Sites in the Russian Federation: Recovery and Institutional Monitoring Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, Donald J.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. National Academy of Sciences selected 6 U.S. scientists to review papers prepared by Russian specialists in 6 specific areas of radioactive waste management concern. As one of the U.S. specialists selected, Don Bradley attended a meeting in Moscow, Russia where the papers were formally presented. Following the presentation, eah one was critiqued by the U.S. specialist. In Mr. Bradley's case the topic was contamination at Peaceful Nuclear Explosion test sites (PNE's). The formal title of the meeting was: "Cleaning Up Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Materials". Following discussions with the U.S. team, each of the U.S. specialists was charged with writing up a short comment paper for the U.S. Academy of Sciences. This is Mr. Bradley's comments on the presentation by Kasatkin V.V., Kamnev Ye.N. and Ilyichev V.A. (Rosatom, FGUP VNIPIpromtechnologii) .

  12. Report on the Effect the Low Enriched Uranium Delivered Under the Highly Enriched Uranium Agreement Between the Government of the United States and the Government of the Russian Federation has on the

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Report on the Effect the Low Enriched Uranium Delivered Under the Highly Enriched Uranium Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Russian Federation has on the Domestic Uranium Mining, Conversion, and Enrichment Industries and the Operation of the Gaseous Diffusion Plant 2008 Information Date: December 31, 2008 1 Introduction The Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Russian Federation

  13. Environmental Radiation Monitoring at the Areas of the Former Military Technical Bases at the Russian Far East - 12445

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiselev, Sergey M.; Shandala, Nataliya K.; Titov, Alexey V.; Seregin, Vladimir A.; Akhromeev, Sergey V.; Lucyanec, Anatoly I.; Glinsky, Mark L.; Glagolev, Andrey V.

    2012-07-01

    After termination of operation at the serviced facilities of the nuclear fleet of the former Soviet Union, the Military Technical Base in Sysoeva Bay has been reorganized to the site for SNF and RW temporary storage (STS). The main activities of STS are receipt, storage and transmission to radioactive waste reprocessing. Establishment of the RW management regional centre in the Far-Eastern region at the STS in Sysoeva Bay implies intensification of SNF and RW management in this region that can result in increasing ecological load to the adjacent areas and settlements. Regulatory supervision of the radiation safety at the areas of the Former Military Technical Bases at the Russian Far East is one of the regulatory functions of the Federal Medical Biological Agency (FMBA of Russia). To regulate SNF an RW management and provide the effective response to changing radiation situation, the environmental radiation monitoring system is arranged. For this purpose, wide range of environmental media examinations at the Sysoeva Bay STS was performed by Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre - a technical support organization of FMBA of Russia in collaboration with the Federal State Geological Enterprise 'Hydrospecgeology' (Federal Agency for Entrails). Regulation during the RW and SNF management is continuous process, which the FMBA of Russia implements in close cooperation with other Russian responsible authorities - the State Atomic Energy Corporation 'Rosatom' and Federal Agency for Entrails. The Environmental radiation monitoring findings served as a basis for the associated databank arrangement. The radio ecological monitoring system was arranged at the facilities under inspection for the purpose of the dynamic control of the radiation situation. It presupposes regular radiometry inspections in-situ, their analysis and assessment of the radiation situation forecast in the course of the STS remediation main stages. Some new data on the radiation situation at the facilities will appear in future and the prognostic assessment will become more precise. The mentioned natural, practical and theoretical works is a base for the development of the set of regulatory documents to assure radiation protection and safety of workers, public and environment, as well as development of documents to regulate SNF and RW management at the STS facilities. (authors)

  14. Russian Policy on Methane Emissions in the Oil and Gas Sector: A Case Study in Opportunities and Challenges in Reducing Short-Lived Forcers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Meredydd; Roshchanka, Volha

    2014-08-04

    This paper uses Russian policy in the oil and gas sector as a case study in assessing options and challenges for scaling-up emission reductions. We examine the challenges to achieving large-scale emission reductions, successes that companies have achieved to date, how Russia has sought to influence methane emissions through its environmental fine system, and options for helping companies achieve large-scale emission reductions in the future through simpler and clearer incentives.

  15. Preparation of the Second Shipment of Spent Nuclear Fuel from the Ustav Jaderneho Vyzkumu Rez (UJV Rez), a.s., Czech Republic to the Russian Federation for Reprocessing - 13478

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trtilek, Radek; Podlaha, Josef [UJV Rez, a. s., Hlavni 130, 25068 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic)] [UJV Rez, a. s., Hlavni 130, 25068 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic)

    2013-07-01

    After more than 50 years of operation of the LVR-15 research reactor operated by the UJV Rez, a. s. (formerly Nuclear Research Institute - NRI), a large amount of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of Russian origin has been accumulated. In 2005 UJV Rez, a. s. jointed the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) program under the United States (US) - Russian Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) and started the process of SNF shipment from the LVR-15 research reactor back to the Russian Federation (RF). In 2007 the first shipment of SNF was realized. In 2011, preparation of the second shipment of spent fuel from the Czech Republic started. The experience obtained from the first shipment will be widely used, but some differences must be taken into the account. The second shipment will be realized in 2013 and will conclude the return transport of all, both fresh and spent, high-enriched nuclear fuel from the Czech Republic to the Russian Federation. After the shipment is completed, there will be only low-enriched nuclear fuel on the territory of the Czech Republic, containing maximum of 20% of U-235, which is the conventionally recognized limit between the low- and high-enriched nuclear materials. The experience (technical, organizational, administrative, logistic) obtained from the each SNF shipment as from the Czech Republic as from other countries using the Russian type research reactors are evaluated and projected onto preparation of next shipment of high enriched nuclear fuel back to the Russian Federation. The results shown all shipments provided by the UJV Rez, a. s. in the frame of the GTRI Program have been performed successfully and safely. It is expected the experience and results will be applied to preparation and completing of the Chinese Miniature Neutron Source Reactors (MNSR) Spent Nuclear Fuel Repatriation in the near future. (authors)

  16. Extended Cold Testing of a Russian Pulsating Mixer Pump at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, BE

    2002-12-23

    The effectiveness of a mixer is dependent on the size of the tank to be mixed, the characteristics of the waste, and the operating conditions. Waste tanks throughout the U.S. Department of Energy Complex require mixing and mobilization systems capable of (1) breaking up and suspending materials that are difficult to mix and pump, without introducing additional liquids into the tank; (2) complementing and augmenting the performance of other remotely operated and/or robotic waste retrieval systems; and (3) operating in tanks with various quantities of waste. The Oak Ridge Russian pulsating mixer pump (PMP) system was designed with the flexibility to permit deployment in a variety of cylindrical tanks. The PMP was installed at the Tanks Technology Cold Test Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assess the performance of the system over an extended range of operating conditions, including supply pressures up to 175 psig. Previously conducted cold tests proved the applicability of the PMP for deployment in ORNL gunite tank TH-4. The previous testing and hot demonstrations had been limited to operating at air supply pressures of <100 psig. The extended cold testing of the Russian PMP system showed that the system was capable of mobilizing waste simulants in tanks in excess of 20-ft diam. The waste simulant used in these tests was medium-grain quartz sand. The system was successfully installed, checked out, and operated for 406 pulse discharge cycles. Only minor problems (i.e., a sticking air distributor valve and a few system lockups) were noted. Some improvements to the design of the air distributor valve may be needed to improve reliability. The air supply requirements of the PMP during the discharge cycle necessitated the operation of the system in single pulse discharge cycles to allow time for the air supply reservoir to recharge to the required pressure. During the test program, the system was operated with sand depths of 2, 4, and 4.5 in.; at operating pressures from 100 to 175 psig; and elevations of 1 to 10 in. off the floor of the mock tank. The higher operating pressures resulted in larger values for the effective cleaning radius (ECR). The maximum observed ECR value, 144 in., occurred with the PMP elevated {approx}4 in. off the floor of the mock tank; a 2-in. layer of sand as the waste simulant, and 175-psig air supply pressure. Tests were conducted both within the confines of the 20-ft diam mock tank (confined) and with a portion of the tank wall removed (unconfined). The mixing mode during the confined tests changed from direct to indirect as the PMP was elevated above 4 in. off the floor of the mock tank. The direct mode of mixing pushes solids toward the wall of the waste tank, while the indirect mode tends to push solids toward the center of the tank. The mixing mode did not change during tests conducted in the unconfined tank. Changing the mode of mixing from direct to indirect should have a beneficial effect on the amount of solids mobilized and retrieved from a waste tank.

  17. Russian/DOE Visit

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    and Training Center (RMTC) The RMTC, located at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk, Russia has been designated to: * Provide nuclear...

  18. Russian Health Studies Program - Joint Coordinating Committee...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Which institutions in Russia are currently participating in JCCRER activities? Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI), Ozersk Mayak Production Association, Ozersk Urals ...

  19. Russian Culture | National Nuclear Security Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Culture | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home

  20. Russian Locations | National Nuclear Security Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Locations | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog

  1. Secretary Chu Visits Russian Seaport, Checks Out Second Line...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    It's pretty safe to say that this is a scenario no one wants to see play out in real life. In fact, in his first foreign policy speech, President Obama called it the "most ...

  2. DO EIEA-0841 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPORT OF RUSSIAN

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of the chemical form (dioxide), reducing its mobility in the environment, if released q Low gamma-radiation level and acceptable neutron emission level The Pu-238 fuel form...

  3. Russian-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Middle East, including the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Burkina Faso, China, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Korea, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  4. US Energy Secretary Samuel Bodman and Russian Atomic Energy Director...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tuesday, May 24, 2005. The Bratislava agreement was struck by Presidents Bush and Putin during their February 2005 meeting and includes initiatives to encourage USRussia...

  5. Secretary Chu Looks at Russian Energy Technology Today and Tomorrow...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The Optogan LED Factory opened their doors so the Secretary could see their production ... in the U.S. Workers at Russia's Optagon LED Factory during Secretary Chu's visit. | ...

  6. Famur delivers longwall system to Russian coal mine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-08-15

    The first complete Polish longwall system that was recently delivered to Russia for mining coal seams with a thickness exceeding 5 m is described. 2 photos.

  7. EA-1290: Disposition of Russian Federation Titled Natural Uranium

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to transport up to an average of 9,000 metric tons per year of natural uranium as uranium hexafluoride (UF6) from the United...

  8. Russian Health Studies Program Peer Reviewed Publications and Outcomes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Projects in this Program provide the foundation for the derivation of radiation risk from studies of the Techa River Cohort and the Mayak Worker Cohort.

  9. Pulsed magnetohydrodynamic generator with a superconducting magnetic system. [Translated from Russian

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirillin, V.A.; Sheyndlin, A.Ye.; Asinovskiy, E.I.; Sychev, V.V.; Zenkevich, V.B.

    1985-11-08

    An urgent need for creating independent sources of electric power capable of generating a power of tens or hundreds of megawatts in a few milliseconds has now emerged. A pulsed MHD generator, in which the conversion of mechanical energy of explosion products into electrical energy is accomplished, can serve as such a power source. There are published reports on testing of such MHD generators with ordinary magnetic systems. It seemed advisable to study the operation of a pulsed generator with a superconductive magnetic system in the overall plan of research on the creation of magnetohydrodynamic generators. The creation of a pulsed MHD generator with a superconductive magnetic system would make it possible to improve substantially the operational indicators of the installation and to ensure its continuous operation, regardless of the presence of additional power sources for feeding the magnet. The problem of creating an optimum generator and a magnetic system with the maximum acceptable field intensity was not raised in the first stage. The purpose of the work was to investigate the set of questions which arise in the joint use of a pulsed MHD generator and a superconductive magnetic system.

  10. U.S. and Russian Collaboration in the Area of Nuclear Forensics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristo, M J

    2007-10-22

    Nuclear forensics has become increasingly important in the fight against illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials. The illicit trafficking of nuclear materials is, of course, an international problem; nuclear materials may be mined and milled in one country, manufactured in a second country, diverted at a third location, and detected at a fourth. There have been a number of articles in public policy journals in the past year that call for greater interaction between the U. S. and the rest of the world on the topic of nuclear forensics. Some believe that such international cooperation would help provide a more certain capability to identify the source of the nuclear material used in a terrorist event. An improved international nuclear forensics capability would also be important as part of the IAEA verification toolkit, particularly linked to increased access provided by the additional protocol. A recent study has found that, although international progress has been made in securing weapons-usable HEU and Pu, the effort is still insufficient. They found that nuclear material, located in 40 countries, could be obtained by terrorists and criminals and used for a crude nuclear weapon. Through 2006, the IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database had recorded a total of 607 confirmed events involving illegal possession, theft, or loss of nuclear and other radioactive materials. Although it is difficult to predict the future course of such illicit trafficking, increasingly such activities are viewed as significant threats that merit the development of special capabilities. As early as April, 1996, nuclear forensics was recognized at the G-8 Summit in Moscow as an important element of an illicit nuclear trafficking program. Given international events over the past several years, the value and need for nuclear forensics seems greater than ever. Determining how and where legitimate control of nuclear material was lost and tracing the route of the material from diversion through interdiction are important goals for nuclear forensics and attribution. It is equally important to determine whether additional devices or materials that pose a threat to public safety are also available. Finding the answer to these questions depends on determining the source of the material and its method of production. Nuclear forensics analysis and interpretation provide essential insights into methods of production and sources of illicit radioactive materials. However, they are most powerful when combined with other sources of information, including intelligence and traditional detective work. The certainty of detection and punishment for those who remove nuclear materials from legitimate control provides the ultimate deterrent for such diversion and, ultimately, for the intended goal of such diversion, including nuclear terrorism or proliferation. Consequently, nuclear forensics is an integral part of 'nuclear deterrence' in the 21st century. Nuclear forensics will always be limited by the diagnostic information inherent in the interdicted material. Important markers for traditional forensics (fingerprints, stray material, etc.) can be eliminated or obscured, but many nuclear materials have inherent isotopic or chemical characteristics that serve as unequivocal markers of specific sources, production processes, or transit routes. The information needed for nuclear forensics goes beyond that collected for most commercial and international verification activities. Fortunately, the international nuclear engineering enterprise has a restricted number of conspicuous process steps that makes the interpretation process easier. Ultimately, though, it will always be difficult to distinguish between materials that reflect similar source or production histories, but are derived from disparate sites. Due to the significant capital costs of the equipment and the specialized expertise of the personnel, work in the field of nuclear forensics has been restricted so far to a handful of national and international laboratories. There are a limited number of

  11. United States-Russian workshop on the stochastic health effects of radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-12-31

    In August 1988, two years after the Chernobyle accident, the United States and the Soviet Union signed an agreement to sponsor a Joint coordinating Committee on Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety, (JCCCNRS). The Soviet Union agreed to provide some information on late effects of radiation exposures and to attempt to add some new insights into low dose and low dose rate radiation consequences. At that time, it had just been revealed that significant radiation exposures had occurred in the South Ural Mountains, associated with the early years of operation of the MAYAK nuclear complex. The need to be able to better predict the long term consequences of overexposures, such as occurred with the Chernobyl accident, was a major factor in organizing this workshop. We decided to invite a small number of experts from the Soviet Union, who had direct knowledge of the situation. A small group of American experts was invited to help in a discussion of the state of knowledge of continual low level exposure. The experts and expertise included: Aspects of bask theoretical radiobiological models, studies on experimental animals exposed to chronic or fractionated external or internal radiation, studies on populations exposed to chronic intake and continual exposures, workers exposed to low or high continual levels of radiation. The intent was to begin a dialog on the issue of a better understanding of the dose rate effect in humans. No detailed conclusions could be reached at this first interaction between out two countries, but a model was prepared which seems to support a range of what are known as low dose and dose rate effectiveness factors. A beginning of an evaluation of the role of radiation dose rate on leukemia risk was also accomplished.

  12. Dual fuel Russian urban transit buses: Economical reduced emissions. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    This study, conducted by Caterpillar, was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The scope of this project was to examine the financial and environmental aspects of introducing new alternative fuel engines to the buses of Russia`s public transportation system. The report consists of the following: (1) executive summary; (2) background/overview; (3) 3306 design, development, test; (4) electronic governed engines; (5) Moscow bus testing; (6) conclusions; (7) appendices. The appendices include: (1) Caterpillar emissions lab report; (2) dyno tests -- dual fuel data sheets; (3) 3360 horizontal engine lub tilt test; (4) 1000 hour endurance test -- engine operator sheets; (5) 1000 hour endurance test -- 250 hour check; (6) Caterpillar dual fuel electronic engines; (7) product description -- dual fuel electronic governed engines; (8) California Environmental Protection Agency -- certification of caterpillar electronic governed engines; (9) annual payback data.

  13. SAGE: Solar Neutrino Data from SAGE, the Russian-American Gallium Solar Neutrino Experiment

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    SAGE Collaboration

    SAGE is a solar neutrino experiment based on the reaction 71Ga + n goes to 71Ge + e-. The 71Ge atoms are chemically extracted from a 50-metric ton target of Ga metal and concentrated in a sample of germane gas mixed with xenon. The atoms are then individually counted by observing their decay back to 71Ga in a small proportional counter. The distinguishing feature of the experiment is its ability to detect the low-energy neutrinos from proton-proton fusion. These neutrinos, which are made in the primary reaction that provides the Sun's energy, are the major component of the solar neutrino flux and have not been observed in any other way. To shield the experiment from cosmic rays, it is located deep underground in a specially built facility at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory in the northern Caucasus mountains of Russia. Nearly 100 measurements of the solar neutrino flux have been made during 1990-2000, and their combined result is a neutrino capture rate that is well below the prediction of the Standard Solar Model. The significant suppression of the solar neutrino flux that SAGE and other solar neutrino experiments have observed gives a strong indication for the existence of neutrino oscillations. [copied from the SAGE homepage at http://ewi.npl.washington.edu/SAGE/SAGE.html

  14. A Better Use of Wind Energy in Alaska and Applicability for Russian...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd, Golden, CO 80401 USA, brian.hirsch@nrel.gov John Lyons, Division Manager of Alternative Energy, Marsh Creek, LLC., 2000 E 88th Ave ...

  15. Black carbon emissions from Russian diesel sources. Case study of Murmansk

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Evans, M.; Kholod, N.; Malyshev, V.; Tretyakova, S.; Gusev, E.; Yu, S.; Barinov, A.

    2015-07-27

    Black carbon (BC) is a potent pollutant because of its effects on climate change, ecosystems and human health. Black carbon has a particularly pronounced impact as a climate forcer in the Arctic because of its effect on snow albedo and cloud formation. We have estimated BC emissions from diesel sources in the Murmansk Region and Murmansk City, the largest city in the world above the Arctic Circle. In this study we developed a detailed inventory of diesel sources including on-road vehicles, off-road transport (mining, locomotives, construction and agriculture), ships and diesel generators. For on-road transport, we conducted several surveys tomore » understand the vehicle fleet and driving patterns, and, for all sources, we also relied on publicly available local data sets and analysis. We calculated that BC emissions in the Murmansk Region were 0.40 Gg in 2012. The mining industry is the largest source of BC emissions in the region, emitting 69 % of all BC emissions because of its large diesel consumption and absence of emissions controls. On-road vehicles are the second largest source, emitting about 13 % of emissions. Old heavy duty trucks are the major source of emissions. Emission controls on new vehicles limit total emissions from on-road transportation. Vehicle traffic and fleet surveys show that many of the older cars on the registry are lightly or never used. We also estimated that total BC emissions from diesel sources in Russia were 50.8 Gg in 2010, and on-road transport contributed 49 % of diesel BC emissions. Agricultural machinery is also a significant source Russia-wide, in part because of the lack of controls on off-road vehicles.« less

  16. Black carbon emissions from Russian diesel sources. Case study of Murmansk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, M.; Kholod, N.; Malyshev, V.; Tretyakova, S.; Gusev, E.; Yu, S.; Barinov, A.

    2015-07-27

    Black carbon (BC) is a potent pollutant because of its effects on climate change, ecosystems and human health. Black carbon has a particularly pronounced impact as a climate forcer in the Arctic because of its effect on snow albedo and cloud formation. We have estimated BC emissions from diesel sources in the Murmansk Region and Murmansk City, the largest city in the world above the Arctic Circle. In this study we developed a detailed inventory of diesel sources including on-road vehicles, off-road transport (mining, locomotives, construction and agriculture), ships and diesel generators. For on-road transport, we conducted several surveys to understand the vehicle fleet and driving patterns, and, for all sources, we also relied on publicly available local data sets and analysis. We calculated that BC emissions in the Murmansk Region were 0.40 Gg in 2012. The mining industry is the largest source of BC emissions in the region, emitting 69 % of all BC emissions because of its large diesel consumption and absence of emissions controls. On-road vehicles are the second largest source, emitting about 13 % of emissions. Old heavy duty trucks are the major source of emissions. Emission controls on new vehicles limit total emissions from on-road transportation. Vehicle traffic and fleet surveys show that many of the older cars on the registry are lightly or never used. We also estimated that total BC emissions from diesel sources in Russia were 50.8 Gg in 2010, and on-road transport contributed 49 % of diesel BC emissions. Agricultural machinery is also a significant source Russia-wide, in part because of the lack of controls on off-road vehicles.

  17. The Russian-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE) Cr Neutrino Source Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdurashitov, J.; Gavrin, V.; Girin, S.; Gorbachev, V.; Ibragimova, T.; Kalikhov, A.; Khairnasov, N.; Knodel, T.; Kornoukhov, V.; Mirmov, I.; Shikhin, A.; Veretenkin, E.; Vermul, V.; Yants, V.; Zatsepin, G.; Bowles, T.; Nico, J.; Teasdale, W.; Wark, D.; Cherry, M.; Karaulov, V.; Levitin, V.; Maev, V.; Nazarenko, P.; Shkolnik, V.; Skorikov, N.; Cleveland, B.; Daily, T.; Davis, R. Jr.; Lande, K.; Lee, C.; Wildenhain, P.; Khomyakov, Y.; Zvonarev, A.; Elliott, S.; Wilkerson, J.

    1996-12-01

    The solar neutrino capture rate measured by SAGE is well below that predicted by solar models. To check the overall experimental efficiency, we exposed 13tonnes of Ga metal to a reactor-produced 517kCi source of {sup 51}Cr. The ratio of the measured production rate to that predicted from the source activity is 0.95{plus_minus}0.11(stat)+0.05/{minus}0.08(syst). This agreement verifies that the experimental efficiency is measured correctly, establishes that there are no unknown systematic errors at the 10{percent} level, and provides considerable evidence for the reliability of the solar neutrino measurement. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  18. UNDERSTANDING METHANE EMISSIONS SOURCES AND VIABLE MITIGATION MEASURES IN THE NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS: RUSSIAN AND U.S. EXPERIENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishkov, A.; Akopova, Gretta; Evans, Meredydd; Yulkin, Grigory; Roshchanka, Volha; Waltzer, Suzie; Romanov, K.; Picard, David; Stepanenko, O.; Neretin, D.

    2011-10-01

    This article will compare the natural gas transmission systems in the U.S. and Russia and review experience with methane mitigation technologies in the two countries. Russia and the United States (U.S.) are the world's largest consumers and producers of natural gas, and consequently, have some of the largest natural gas infrastructure. This paper compares the natural gas transmission systems in Russia and the U.S., their methane emissions and experiences in implementing methane mitigation technologies. Given the scale of the two systems, many international oil and natural gas companies have expressed interest in better understanding the methane emission volumes and trends as well as the methane mitigation options. This paper compares the two transmission systems and documents experiences in Russia and the U.S. in implementing technologies and programs for methane mitigation. The systems are inherently different. For instance, while the U.S. natural gas transmission system is represented by many companies, which operate pipelines with various characteristics, in Russia predominately one company, Gazprom, operates the gas transmission system. However, companies in both countries found that reducing methane emissions can be feasible and profitable. Examples of technologies in use include replacing wet seals with dry seals, implementing Directed Inspection and Maintenance (DI&M) programs, performing pipeline pump-down, applying composite wrap for non-leaking pipeline defects and installing low-bleed pneumatics. The research methodology for this paper involved a review of information on methane emissions trends and mitigation measures, analytical and statistical data collection; accumulation and analysis of operational data on compressor seals and other emission sources; and analysis of technologies used in both countries to mitigate methane emissions in the transmission sector. Operators of natural gas transmission systems have many options to reduce natural gas losses. Depending on the value of gas, simple, low-cost measures, such as adjusting leaking equipment components, or larger-scale measures, such as installing dry seals on compressors, can be applied.

  19. Underwater robotic work systems for Russian arctic offshore oil/gas industry: Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-15

    The study was performed in association with Rosshelf, a shelf developing company located in Moscow. This volume involves developing an underwater robotic work system for oil exploration in Russia`s Arctic waters, Sea of Okhotsk and the Caspian Sea. The contents include: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Study Background; (3) Study Outline and Results; (4) Conclusions; (5) Separately Published Elements; (6) List of Subcontractors.

  20. U.S.-Russia Twenty-Year Partnership Completes Final Milestone...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (LEU) derived from Russian weapons-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) under the ... With today's announcement, deliveries of LEU produced from Russian-origin HEU under the ...

  1. Studies on the impact, detection, and control of microbiology influenced corrosion related to pitting failures in the Russian oil and gas industry. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehst, D.

    2006-09-30

    The objectives of the Project are: (1) to design effective anti-corrosion preparations (biocides, inhibitors, penetrants and their combinations) for gas- and oil-exploration industries; (2) to study a possibility of development of environmentally beneficial ('green') biocides and inhibitors of the new generation; (3) to develop chemical and microbiological methods of monitoring of sites at risk of corrosion; and (4) to evaluate potentialities in terms of technology, raw materials and material and technical basis to set up a production of effective anti-corrosion preparations of new generation in Russia. During the four years of the project 228 compounds and formulations were synthesized and studied in respect to their corrosion inhibiting activity. A series of compounds which were according to the Bubble tests more efficient (by a factor of 10-100) than the reference inhibitor SXT-1102, some possessing the similar activity or slightly better activity than new inhibitor ??-1154? (company ONDEO/Nalco). Two synthetic routes for the synthesis of mercaptopyrimidines as perspective corrosion inhibitors were developed. Mercaptopyrimidine derivatives can be obtained in one or two steps from cheap and easily available precursors. The cost for their synthesis is not high and can be further reduced after the optimization of the production processes. A new approach for lignin utilization was proposed. Water-soluble derivative of lignin can by transformed to corrosion protective layer by its electropolymerization on a steel surface. Varying lignosulfonates from different sources, as well as conditions of electrooxidation we proved, that drop in current at high anodic potentials is due to electropolymerization of lignin derivative at steel electrode surface. The electropolymerization potential can be sufficiently decreased by an increase in ionic strength of the growing solution. The lignosulfonate electropolymerization led to the considerable corrosion protection effect of carbon steel. More than three times decrease of corrosion rate on steel surface was observed after lignosulfonate electropolymerization, exceeding protective effect of standard commercially available corrosion inhibitor. Solikamsky lignin could be a promising candidate as a base for the development of the future green corrosion inhibitor. A protective effect of isothiazolones in compositions with other biocides and inhibitors was investigated. Additionally to high biocidal properties, combination of kathon 893 and copper sulfate may also produce a strong anticorrosion effect depending on concentrations of the biocides. Based on its joint biocidal and anticorrosion properties, this combination can be recommended for protection of pipelines against carbon dioxide-induced corrosion. By means of linear polarization resistance test, corrosion properties of biocides of different classes were studied. Isothiazolones can be recommended for treating oil-processing waters in Tatarstan to curb carbon dioxide - induced corrosion. A laboratory research on evaluation of the efficiency of biocides, inhibitors and penetrants by biological and physical-and-chemical methods has been carried out. It was shown that action of corrosion inhibitors and biocides strongly depends on character of their interaction with mineral substances available in waters on oil-exploration sites. It was found that one of approaches to designing environmentally safe ('green') antimicrobial formulations may be the use of synergetic combinations, which allow one to significantly decrease concentrations of biocides. It was shown that the efficacy of biocides and inhibitors depends on physicochemical characteristics of the environment. Anticorrosion and antimicrobial effects of biocides and inhibitors depended in much on the type of medium and aeration regimen. Effects of different biocides, corrosion inhibitors. penetrants and their combinations on the biofilm were investigated. It has been shown that minimal inhibiting concentrations of the reagents for the biofilm are much higher than those for aquatic mic

  2. Implementation of Information Management System for Radiation Safety of Personnel at the Russian Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management 'SevRAO' - 13131

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chizhov, K.; Simakov, A.; Seregin, V.; Kudrin, I.; Shandala, N.; Tsovyanov, A.; Kryuchkov, V. [Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, RF Ministry of Health and Social Development. 46, Zhivopisnaya St., Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation)] [Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, RF Ministry of Health and Social Development. 46, Zhivopisnaya St., Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation); Krasnoschekov, A.; Kosnikov, A. [Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management 'SevRAO' - a branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'Enterprise for Radioactive Waste Management' 'RosRAO' 183017, Murmansk, Lobova st., 100 (Russian Federation)] [Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management 'SevRAO' - a branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'Enterprise for Radioactive Waste Management' 'RosRAO' 183017, Murmansk, Lobova st., 100 (Russian Federation); Kemsky, I. [Regional management - 120 of the Federal Medical-Biological Agency, 184682, Snezhnogorsk, Valentina Biryukova St., 5/1 (Russian Federation)] [Regional management - 120 of the Federal Medical-Biological Agency, 184682, Snezhnogorsk, Valentina Biryukova St., 5/1 (Russian Federation); Sneve, M. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Postboks 55, 1332 Oesteraas (Norway)] [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Postboks 55, 1332 Oesteraas (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    The report is an overview of the information-analytical system designed to assure radiation safety of workers. The system was implemented in the Northwest Radioactive Waste Management Center 'SevRAO' (which is a branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'Radioactive Waste Management Enterprise RosRAO'). The center is located in the Northwest Russia. In respect to 'SevRAO', the Federal Medical-Biological Agency is the regulatory body, which deals with issues of radiation control. The main document to regulate radiation control is 'Reference levels of radiation factors in radioactive wastes management center'. This document contains about 250 parameters. We have developed a software tool to simplify control of these parameters. The software includes: input interface, the database, dose calculating module and analytical block. Input interface is used to enter radiation environment data. Dose calculating module calculates the dose on the route. Analytical block optimizes and analyzes radiation situation maps. Much attention is paid to the GUI and graphical representation of results. The operator can enter the route at the industrial site or watch the fluctuations of the dose rate field on the map. Most of the results are presented in a visual form. Here we present some analytical tasks, such as comparison of the dose rate in some point with control levels at this point, to be solved for the purpose of radiation safety control. The program helps to identify points making the largest contribution to the collective dose of the personnel. The tool can automatically calculate the route with the lowest dose, compare and choose the best route. The program uses several options to visualize the radiation environment at the industrial site. This system will be useful for radiation monitoring services during the operation, planning of works and development of scenarios. The paper presents some applications of this system on real data over three years - from March 2009 to February 2012. (authors)

  3. Environmental Assessment for the Transportation of Highly Enriched Uranium from the Russian Federation for the Y-12 National Security Complex and Finding of No Significant Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to transport highly enriched uranium (HEU) from Russia to a secure storage facility in Oak Ridge, TN. This proposed action would allow the United States and Russia to accelerate the disposition of excess nuclear weapons materials in the interest of promoting nuclear disarmament, strengthening nonproliferation, and combating terrorism. The HEU would be used for a non-weapons purpose in the U.S. as fuel in research reactors performing solely peaceful missions.

  4. RussiaSNL2-web.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Russian experiments provide unique, complementary approaches to high-current z-pinch driver. Russian Electromagnetic Pulse Generator Modifi ed for the Web Modifi ed for the Web ...

  5. Secretary Bodman and Rosatom Director Kiriyenko Meet to Discuss U.S.-Russia Nuclear Security Progress

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman and Russian Federal Atomic Energy Agency (Rosatom) Director Sergey Kiriyenko today met to highlight U.S.-Russian efforts to keep nuclear...

  6. South Africa-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Senegal, Serbia, South Africa and Ukraine." References "UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services" Retrieved from "http:...

  7. Women @ Energy: Meredydd Evans | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Meredydd Evans Women @ Energy: Meredydd Evans April 3, 2013 - 11:58am Addthis Attending a conference in the Russian Arctic, Meredydd Evans of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory visited Russian gas production facilities in the Arctic in Western Siberia. Attending a conference in the Russian Arctic, Meredydd Evans of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory visited Russian gas production facilities in the Arctic in Western Siberia. Check out other profiles in the Women @ Energy series and share

  8. FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Tuesday, December 15, 2015 Former Russian Nuclear Energy Official Sentenced to Four Years in Prison for Money Laundering Conspiracy Involving Violations of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act U.S. Conspirators Paid Over $2 Million to Influence Russian Nuclear Energy Official and to Secure Business with State-Owned Russian Nuclear Energy Company Greenbelt, Maryland - U.S. District Judge Theodore D. Chuang sentenced Vadim Mikerin, age 56, a Russian official residing in Chevy Chase, Maryland, today

  9. U.S. Attorney's Office

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Maryland FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Monday, August 31, 2015 Russian Nuclear Energy Official Pleads Guilty to Money Laundering Conspiracy Involving Violations of the Federal Corrupt Practices Act U.S. Conspirators Paid Over $2 Million to Influence Russian Nuclear Energy Official and to Secure Business with State-Owned Russian Nuclear Energy Company Greenbelt, Maryland - Vadim Mikerin, age 56, a Russian official residing in Chevy Chase, Maryland, pleaded guilty today to conspiracy to commit money

  10. [Theoretical Division T-13, and CNLS, Los Alamos National Laboratory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nizhny Novgorod, 603600, Russia (Russian Federation) 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; QUANTUM MECHANICS; IONS; TRAPS; LASER RADIATION; RESONANCE;...

  11. Russias R&D for Low Energy Buildings: Insights for Cooperation with Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaaf, Rebecca E.; Evans, Meredydd

    2010-05-01

    Russian buildings, Russian buildings sector energy consumption. Russian government has made R&D investment a priority again. The government and private sector both invest in a range of building energy technologies. In particular, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, district heating, building envelope, and lighting have active technology research projects and programs in Russia.

  12. Energy Efficiency Investments in Public Facilities - Developing a Pilot Mechanism for Russia and Chelyabinsk Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Meredydd; Roshchanka, Volha; Parker, Steven A.; Baranovskiy, Aleksandr

    2012-01-01

    Russian public sector buildings tend to be very inefficient, which creates vast opportunities for savings. This paper reviews opportunities to implement energy efficiency projects in Russian public buildings, created by new Russian legislation and regulations. Given Russia's limited experience with energy performance contracts (EPCs), a pilot project can help test an implementation mechanism. The authors use Chelyabinsk Region as an example to discuss opportunities, challenges and solutions to financing and implementing an EPC in Russia, navigating through federal requirements and specific local conditions.

  13. Joint Statement on Future U.S.-Russia Nuclear Energy and Nonproliferation

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Collaboration Following Russian Delegation Visit to the United States | Department of Energy Joint Statement on Future U.S.-Russia Nuclear Energy and Nonproliferation Collaboration Following Russian Delegation Visit to the United States Joint Statement on Future U.S.-Russia Nuclear Energy and Nonproliferation Collaboration Following Russian Delegation Visit to the United States December 10, 2013 - 2:30pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 U.S. Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz and

  14. Secretary Chu Joins with World Leaders to Sign International...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    IPEEC signatories included members of the G8 - Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and key emerging economies ...

  15. Vortex Oscillation Technology Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oscillation Technology Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Vortex Oscillation Technology Ltd Address: Volochaevskaya Street 40 b Flat 38 Place: Moscow Zip: 111033 Region: Russian...

  16. Joint Report Issued by the U.S. Secretary of Energy and the Director...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Action Plans to improve the level of physical protection, control and accountability of nuclear weapons and materials stored at Russian Ministry of Defense and Rosatom facilities." ...

  17. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Republic of Korea Norway Russian Federation South Africa United Kingdom United States Australia Austria Brazil Canada China European Commission France Germany Iceland India Italy ...

  18. UNECE-Annual Bulletin of Transport Statistics for Europe and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data covers Europe, Canada and the United States. This is a trilingual publication in English, French and Russian." "This annual publication presents statistics and brief studies...

  19. Microsoft PowerPoint - 9_David Thomas_WR Transparency at NMMSS...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    HEU Downblending in Russia Under the 1993 U.S.-Russia HEU Purchase Agreement David Thomas NNSASAIC Russian HEU Down Blending Almost Complete The Agreement for the disposition...

  20. U.S and Russia Develop Action Plan to Enhance Global and Bilateral...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... from leading national laboratories, and the Russian Federation's Rosatom, Rostekhnadzor nuclear oversight service, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the Ministry of Defense. ...

  1. A novel zirconium K{alpha} imager for high energy density physics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Russian Federation) Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14623 ... (c) 2011 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic ...

  2. Solar Energy LLC Industrial Investors Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LLC Industrial Investors Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Energy LLC - Industrial Investors Group Place: Moscow, Russian Federation Zip: 119017 Sector: Solar Product:...

  3. Ecolive | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ecolive Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ecolive Place: Northumberland, United Kingdom Zip: NE46 4SH Product: Infrastructure holding company with interests in Russian chemical...

  4. Thermodynamic and transport properties of sodium liquid and vapor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    sodium liquid and vapor. Recently published Russian recommendations and results of equation of state calculations on thermophysical properties of sodium have been included in...

  5. Rus Energy Investment Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rus Energy Investment Group Place: Moscow, Russian Federation Product: Russia-based clean energy project developer registered in Hong Kong. Coordinates: 55.75695, 37.614975...

  6. anikine(2)-98.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow, Russia D. P. Anikine Bauman Moscow High Technical University Moscow, Russia Introduction Cloudiness is one of...

  7. DARPA and Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Would it help?) 6 * February 1997...U.S. Astronaut Jerry Linenger on Russian MIR Space Station * Two 3-person teams on board * Oxygen generator caught fire * worst...

  8. Recent Sandia International Used Nuclear Fuel Management Collaboration...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & ... the European Union, Germany, France, Lithuania, Spain, and the Russian Federation. ...

  9. The Secretary of Energy

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Government of the Russian Federation Concerning the Disposition of Highly- Enriched Uranium Extracted From Nuclear Weapons, signed in Washington, DC on February 18, 1993 (the...

  10. Kvark part of Gruppa Konti | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kvark (part of Gruppa Konti) Place: Krasnodar, Russian Federation Zip: 350 000 Sector: Solar Product: One of Russia's PV cells and panels manufacturing and research companies....

  11. Podolsky Chemical and Metallurgical Plant PCMP | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Podolsky Chemical and Metallurgical Plant PCMP Jump to: navigation, search Name: Podolsky Chemical and Metallurgical Plant (PCMP) Place: Moscow, Russian Federation Zip: 142103...

  12. Titan Omsk Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Titan Omsk Group Place: Omsk, Russian Federation Product: One of Russia's top chemical companies with a subsidiary, Silarus, which is planning on building a polysilicon...

  13. feigelson-98.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Other Measurements E. M. Feigelson and I. A. Gorchakova Oboukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow, Russia Introduction Cloudiness strongly...

  14. RUSNANO Solnechniy Potok JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Russian Federation Sector: Solar Product: Russia-based new generation solar PV systems joint venture. References: RUSNANO & Solnechniy Potok JV1 This article is a stub. You...

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    markets have been unsettled as the conditions in Iraq and the Russian government's involvement with Russia's largest oil producer continue to foster uncertainty in world oil...

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    markets have been unsettled as the conditions in Iraq and the Russian government's involvement with Russia's largest oil producer continue to foster uncertainty in world oil...

  17. Solnechniy Potok Solar Stream | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Russian Federation Sector: Solar Product: Russia-based solar project developer and module manufacturer. References: Solnechniy Potok (Solar Stream)1 This article is a stub....

  18. Secretary Chu to Travel to Russia Next Week

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Secretary of Energy to focus on U.S.-Russian cooperation on civil nuclear, non-proliferation, clean energy technology, and energy efficiency

  19. U.S.Statements on International Fusion Reactor (ITER) Siting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - Today in Moscow, Russia, the ministers representing the six ITER ... China, the European Union, Japan, the Russian Federation, and South Korea also are ...

  20. Focus on International Cooperation Continues, Secretary Chu Ends...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    visit to the All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF). ... power explosive magnetic generators, high energy density physics and controlled fusion. ...

  1. penionzhkevich_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Russian Federation Abstract: This talk is an attempt to present some problems on the evolution of the Universe: the nucleosynthesis and cosmochronology from the standpoint of...

  2. Siemens | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Russian energy market through two new partnerships in power grid modernization and natural gas. The partnership with the Federal Grid Company in Russia involves modernizing the...

  3. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    State University Nizhny Novgorod Russia Russian Federation CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS GENERAL PHYSICS QUANTUM MECHANICS IONS TRAPS LASER RADIATION RESONANCE HARMONIC...

  4. Bakhu Holdings Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Moscow, Russian Federation Zip: 105523 Sector: Services, Solar Product: Russia-based gold extraction services company. The firm also produces solar PV wafers and other solar...

  5. Senior International Energy Officials Issue Joint Statement in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Northern Territories Affairs, Science and Technology Policy, Innovation, Gender Equality, Social Affairs and Food Safety); Deputy Director Nikolay Spasskiy of the Russian ...

  6. Active Spectral Nephelometry in Studies of the Condensational...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Sciences Tomsk, Russia M. A. Sviridenkov A. M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow, Russia A. S. Kozlov Institute of Chemical...

  7. Remote Spectroscopic Sounding of Liquid Water Path in Thick Clouds...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, the original methodology of sounding of dense clouds has been under development 1-3. The methodology...

  8. SREL Reprint #3065

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory, University of Georgia, Aiken, SC 2Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obnisk, Russia 3International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria...

  9. Joint DOE-Rosatom Statement | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Low Enriched Uranium Delivered Under the Highly Enriched Uranium Agreement Between the USA and the Russian Federation has on the Domestic Uranium Mining, Conversion, and...

  10. EA-1172: Final Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Low Enriched Uranium Delivered Under the Highly Enriched Uranium Agreement Between the USA and the Russian Federation has on the Domestic Uranium Mining, Conversion, and...

  11. Microsoft PowerPoint - 6_Mitch Hembree_Monday 5-20 1115 NMMSS...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    9 ImportExport & Obligations Review Euratom Russian Federation Canada Japan Taiwan Total Nuclear Material Exported from US (Metric Tons) 10 ImportExport &...

  12. Microsoft PowerPoint - 2_hirsh Monday 5-20 Overview.ppt [Compatibility...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    9 ImportExport & Obligations Review Euratom Russian Federation Canada Japan Taiwan Total Nuclear Material Exported from US (Metric Tons) 10 ImportExport &...

  13. US Contribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The ITER Organization is responsible for the conductor design released for fabrication. Japan, the European Union, the Russian Federation, Korea, and China are also contributing TF...

  14. US Contribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    out of a total of approximately 45 individual diagnostic systems. The European Union, Japan, the Russian Federation, China, Korea, and India are also contributing to ITER...

  15. Microsoft PowerPoint - 2A_Wednesday 5-22 830 NMMSS_2013_Presentation...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Receiving U.S. Exports 2010-2012 Euratom Russian Federation Canada Japan Taiwan Imports & Exports 20 Exports to Euratom 2010-2012 Material Element Weight...

  16. NREL: Energy Analysis - Victor Diakov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    IN, 2002 Specialist in international finance, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, ... pilot plant tests at Clean Energy Development Facility, Alliance, OH University ...

  17. January2005 NNSANews

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    in Prague, in Joint Statements with our Russian partners, and elsewhere, that nuclear weapons remain a fundamental issue facing the international community in the D'Agostino ...

  18. Slide 1

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    the Russian Federation Concerning the Disposition of Highly Enriched Uranium From Nuclear Weapons 2 Overview * The 1993 Agreement * The highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low ...

  19. EA-0841: Final Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Import of Russian Plutonium-238 This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to purchase plutonium-238 from the Russian Federation (Russia) for use in the Nation's space program. PDF icon EA-0841-FEA-1993.pdf More Documents & Publications EA-0534: Final Environmental Assessment EIS-0229-SA-03: Supplement Analysis EIS-0310-SA-02: Supplement Analysis

  20. United States, Russia Sign Agreement to Further Research and Development Collaboration in Nuclear Energy and Security

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz and Director General of the Russian Federation State Corporation “Rosatom” Sergey Kirienko today signed the Agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Russian Federation on Cooperation in Nuclear- and Energy-Related Scientific Research and Development

  1. Coordination Between the HEU Transparency Program and the Material Protection, Control and Accountability Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glaser, J.; Hernandez, J.; Dougherty, D.; Bieniawski, A.; Cahalane, P.; Mastal, E.

    2000-06-30

    DOE sponsored programs such as Material Protection Control and Accountability (MPC&A) and implementation of the Highly-Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Program send US personnel into Russian nuclear facilities and receive Russian representatives from these programs. While there is overlap in the Russian nuclear facilities visited by these two programs, there had not been any formal mechanism to share information between them. Recently, an MPC&A/HEU Working Group was developed to facilitate the sharing of appropriate information and to address concerns expressed by Minatom and Russian facility personnel such as US visit scheduling conflicts. This paper discusses the goals of the Working Group and ways it has helped to allow the programs to work more efficiently with the Russian facilities.

  2. Status of Activities to Implement a Sustainable System of MC&A Equipment and Methodological Support at Rosatom Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.D. Sanders

    2010-07-01

    Under the U.S.-Russian Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program, the Material Control and Accounting Measurements (MCAM) Project has supported a joint U.S.-Russian effort to coordinate improvements of the Russian MC&A measurement system. These efforts have resulted in the development of a MC&A Equipment and Methodological Support (MEMS) Strategic Plan (SP), developed by the Russian MEM Working Group. The MEMS SP covers implementation of MC&A measurement equipment, as well as the development, attestation and implementation of measurement methodologies and reference materials at the facility and industry levels. This paper provides an overview of the activities conducted under the MEMS SP, as well as a status on current efforts to develop reference materials, implement destructive and nondestructive assay measurement methodologies, and implement sample exchange, scrap and holdup measurement programs across Russian nuclear facilities.

  3. Office Of International Affairs Expert Listing 2/25/14 Organization

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    International Affairs Expert Listing 2/25/14 Organization Organization Title Country/Subject Primary Expert Phone # (202- 586-xxxx) Email Alternate Expert Phone # (202- 586-xxxx) or (202-287-xxxx) IA-21 Russian & Eurasian Affairs Armenia Jess Bahnak 1770 jess.bahnak@hq.doe.gov Beth Urbanas 1770 IA-21 Russian & Eurasian Affairs Azerbaijan Jess Bahnak 1770 jess.bahnak@hq.doe.gov Beth Urbanas 7162 IA-21 Russian & Eurasian Affairs Belarus Paul Tumminia 8036 paul.tumminia@hq.doe.gov David

  4. Energy Efficiency Investments in Public Facilities - Developing a Pilot Mechanism for Energy Performance Contracts (EPCs) in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Meredydd; Roshchanka, Volha; Parker, Steven A.; Baranovskiy, Aleksandr

    2012-02-01

    : Russian public sector buildings tend to be very inefficient, which creates vast opportunities for savings. This report overviews the latest developments in the Russian legislation related to energy efficiency in the public sector, describes the major challenges the regulations pose, and proposes ways to overcome these challenges. Given Russias limited experience with energy performance contracts (EPCs), a pilot project can help test an implementation mechanism. This paper discusses how EPCs and other mechanisms can help harness energy savings opportunities in Russia in general, and thus, can be applicable to any Russian region.

  5. U.S.-Russia Twenty-Year Partnership Completes Final Milestone in Converting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    20,000 Russian Nuclear Warheads into Fuel for U.S. Electricity | Department of Energy -Russia Twenty-Year Partnership Completes Final Milestone in Converting 20,000 Russian Nuclear Warheads into Fuel for U.S. Electricity U.S.-Russia Twenty-Year Partnership Completes Final Milestone in Converting 20,000 Russian Nuclear Warheads into Fuel for U.S. Electricity November 14, 2013 - 11:26am Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Public Affairs: (202) 586-7371

  6. Under U.S.-Russia Partnership, Final Shipment of Fuel Converted From 20,000

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Russian Nuclear Warheads Arrives in United States and Will Be Used for U.S. Electricity | Department of Energy U.S.-Russia Partnership, Final Shipment of Fuel Converted From 20,000 Russian Nuclear Warheads Arrives in United States and Will Be Used for U.S. Electricity Under U.S.-Russia Partnership, Final Shipment of Fuel Converted From 20,000 Russian Nuclear Warheads Arrives in United States and Will Be Used for U.S. Electricity December 10, 2013 - 2:50pm Addthis News Media Contact (202)

  7. DOE Deputy Secretary and Rosatom Director Visit Y-12, Oak Ridge National

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Laboratory During First Meeting of U.S.-Russian Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Security Working Group | Department of Energy Deputy Secretary and Rosatom Director Visit Y-12, Oak Ridge National Laboratory During First Meeting of U.S.-Russian Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Security Working Group DOE Deputy Secretary and Rosatom Director Visit Y-12, Oak Ridge National Laboratory During First Meeting of U.S.-Russian Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Security Working Group September 29, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis

  8. Under U.S.-Russia Partnership, Final Shipment of Fuel Converted...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from more than 500 metric tons of weapons-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) downblended ... Russia and the United States are in the process of extending the Russian-origin Research ...

  9. Joint Statement on Future U.S.-Russia Nuclear Energy and Nonproliferat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    more than 500 metric tons of weapons-origin HEU was downblended from dismantled ... Rosatom and the Department of Energy are in the process of extending the Russian-origin ...

  10. Nonproliferation

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    en Under U.S.-Russia Partnership, Final Shipment of Fuel Converted From 20,000 Russian Nuclear Warheads Arrives in United States and Will Be Used for U.S. Electricity http:...

  11. Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Cold War. They have never pondered the fact that today hundreds of Russian thermonuclear-armed missiles could reach U.S. cities in less time than it takes to have a pizza...

  12. ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY Nonlinear...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    isotropic solid, Sov. Phys. Acoust. 32 296-299. zarembo L.K. and Krasil'nikov V.A., 1966, Introduction in nonlinear acoustics. - In Russian,Moscow,Science, 520. zarembo L.K. and...

  13. treaties | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    20,000 Russian Nuclear Warheads Arrives in United States and Will Be Used for U.S. Electricity WASHINGTON, D.C. - The United States and Russia are today commemorating the...

  14. megatons to megawatts | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    20,000 Russian Nuclear Warheads Arrives in United States and Will Be Used for U.S. Electricity WASHINGTON, D.C. - The United States and Russia are today commemorating the...

  15. Scientific Societies, E-print Network -- Energy, science, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Chinese Dutch English French German Italian Japanese Nordic Russian SpanishPortuguese Other View list of all societies. Choose desired language(s) andor discipline(s) and select ...

  16. Population exposure dose reconstruction for the Urals Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Degteva, M.O.; Kozheurov, V.P.; Vorobiova, M.I.; Burmistrov, D.S.; Khokhryakov, V.V.; Suslova, K.G.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Napier, B.A.; Bouville, A.

    1996-06-01

    This presentation describes the first preliminary results of an ongoing joint Russian-US pilot feasibility study. Many people participated in workshops to determine what Russian and United States scientists could do together in the area of dose reconstruction in the Urals population. Most of the results presented here came from a joint work shop in St. Petersburg, Russia (11-13 July 1995). The Russians at the workshop represented the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (URCRM), the Mayak Industrial Association, and Branch One of the Moscow Biophysics Institute. The US Collaborators were Dr. Anspaugh of LLNL, Dr. Nippier of PNL, and Dr. Bouville of the National Cancer Institute. The objective of the first year of collaboration was to look at the source term and levels of radiation contamination, the historical data available, and the results of previous work carried out by Russian scientists, and to determine a conceptual model for dose reconstruction.

  17. Nuclear Materials Research and Technology/Los Alamos National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the early 1990s, a Russian team at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Re- search at Dubna ... In this experimental setup, nuclear reaction products re- coil out of the thin 233 U ...

  18. RussiaSNL2-web.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... On-Line FTIR Condenser Reactor Schematic large sample thermal decomposition. Modifi ed for the Web The project has signifi cantly benefi ted USDP, ASC, and the Russian Federation, ...

  19. Microbes in thawing permafrost: the unknown variable in the climate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Biological Problems in Soil Science, Russian Academy of Sciences U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute Bob L ORNL Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine...

  20. U.S and Russia Develop Action Plan to Enhance Global and Bilateral Nuclear Energy Cooperation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman and Russian Federal Atomic Energy Agency (Rosatom) Director Sergey V. Kiriyenko last week submitted to U.S. President George W. Bush and...

  1. DOE Announces U.S.-Russia Fourth Report on Bratislava Agreement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Samuel Bodman announced today that he and Russian Federal Atomic Energy Agency Director Sergey Kiriyenko have submitted to Presidents Bush...

  2. Christina Martos Hilton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hilton already had performed in Russian, Latin, Czech and Hebrew, and she studied Italian for nearly two hours every morning, with quite a bit of French and German sprinkled...

  3. PR_NA-03-13_FromColdWartoWaronCancer-PETRussia_10-03_.doc

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Bryan Wilkes October 28, 2003 202-586-7371 From the Cold War to the War on Cancer NNSA-sponsored program to employ Russian scientists in cancer treatment facility WASHINGTON, D.C....

  4. Highly Enriched Uranium Transparency Program | National Nuclear...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program reduces nuclear risk by monitoring the conversion of 500 metric tons (MT) of Russian HEU, enough material for 20,000 nuclear weapons, into low enriched uranium (LEU). ...

  5. SAFEGUARD AND SECURE CONTROL VERIFY POLICY

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Spring 2014 National Nuclear Security Administration ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF NIS Observes Final Shipment of LEU from Russian Weapons HEU BY GREG DWYER A s NIS experts watched, ...

  6. X:\ARM_19~1\P377-392.WPD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 2 ÷2.5 km R LWP VarR LWP Session Papers 389 Albedo and Transmittance of Inhomogeneous Stratus Clouds V. E. Zuev, E. I. Kasyanov, and G. A. Titov Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Russian Academy of Sciences Tomsk, Russia S. M. Prigarin Computer Center, Russian Academy of Sciences Novosibirsk, Russia A highly important topic of recent concern has been the The statistical characteristics describing the fluctuations of study of the relationship between the statistical parameters of optical and

  7. Aerosol Radiative Forcing During Spring-Summer 2002 from Measurements at IAP Scientific Station Near Moscow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Forcing During Spring-Summer 2002 from Measurements at IAP Scientific Station Near Moscow G. S. Golitsyn, I. A. Gorchakova, and I. I. Mokhov A. M. Obukohov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Science Moscow, Russia A. N. Rublev Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute Moscow, Russia Introduction Aerosol Radiative Forcing (ARF) is estimated for spring-summer conditions from measurements during the Cloud-Aerosol-Radiation Experiment in 2002 (ZCAREX-2002) at the Zvenigorod

  8. Report on the Effect the Low Enriched Uranium Delivered Under the Highly

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enriched Uranium Agreement Between the USA and the Russian Federation has on the Domestic Uranium Mining, Conversion, and Enrichment Industries and the Ops of the Gaseous Diffusion | Department of Energy on the Effect the Low Enriched Uranium Delivered Under the Highly Enriched Uranium Agreement Between the USA and the Russian Federation has on the Domestic Uranium Mining, Conversion, and Enrichment Industries and the Ops of the Gaseous Diffusion Report on the Effect the Low Enriched Uranium

  9. Hierarchical Diagnosis V. E. Zuev, V. V. Zuev, and G. A. Titov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    V. E. Zuev, V. V. Zuev, and G. A. Titov Institute of Atmospheric Optics Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences T omsk, Russia developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Optics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. A number of the atmospheric parameters are measured by several methods by means of devices. This approach is important for intercalibration and increasing the reliability and the accuracy of the data obtained. Figure 1 illustrates the principal

  10. DOE - NNSA/NSO -- SiteLines - Issue 140

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    November/December 2009 - Issue 140 A publication for all members of the NNSA/NSO family U.S., Russian Teams Work Toward Global Threat Reduction Before President Obama proposed his plan to decrease the dangers of nuclear terrorism and globally secure at-risk nuclear materials, the Remote Sensing Laboratory personnel already had several decades of experience detecting and handling nuclear materials and sealed sources. They had also teamed with Russian scientists more than 10 years ago to help

  11. wci_f_epj.dvi

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Statistical description of nuclear break-up A.S. Botvina 1 and I.N. Mishustin 2 1 Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow, Russia, 2 Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, J.W. Goethe University, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany, and Kurchatov Institute, Russian Research Center, 123182 Moscow, Russia the date of receipt and acceptance should be inserted later Abstract. We present an overview of concepts and results obtained with statistical models in study

  12. NEWS MEDIA CONTACT FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CONTACT FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Craig Stevens, (202) 586-4940 Tuesday, December 19, 2006 U.S and Russia Develop Action Plan to Enhance Global and Bilateral Nuclear Energy Cooperation WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman and Russian Federal Atomic Energy Agency (Rosatom) Director Sergey V. Kiriyenko last week submitted to U.S. President George W. Bush and Russian President Vladimir Putin a joint work plan that will provide a framework for further bilateral cooperation in the

  13. EA-1471: Finding of No Significant Impact | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    71: Finding of No Significant Impact EA-1471: Finding of No Significant Impact Transportation of HEU from the Russian Federation to the Y-12 National Security Complex The Department of Energy proposes to transport highly enriched uranium from Russia to a secure storage facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. PDF icon Finding of No Significant Impact for the Transportation of Highly Enriched Uranium for the Russian Federation to the Y-12 National Security Complex, DOE/EA-1471 (January 2004) More

  14. Microsoft Word - makienko-ev.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Factors of Variability of the Atmospheric Transparency Under Conditions of Smokes of Peatbog and Forest Fires E. V. Makienko, R. F. Rakhimov, D. M. Kabanov, V. S. Kozlov, M. V. Panchenko, S. M. Sakerin, V. N. Uzhegov, Yu. A. Pkhalagov, and S. A. Terpugova Institute of Atmospheric Optics Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences Tomsk, Russia M. A. Sviridenkov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow, Russia Introduction Studying smoke aerosols generated

  15. FRESAR ReleaseFINAL.PDF

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NEWS MEDIA CONTACT: FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Anson Franklin, 202/586-7332 September 20, 2001 Joint Venture Established Between Russian Weapons Plant And the Largest Dialysis Provider in the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration Helping to Transform Former Weapons Manufacturing Complex to Civilian Work The first joint civilian company involving a former Russian weapons manufacturer was created when Russia's Avangard Electromechanical Plant and Fresenius Medical Care (FMC) --the largest

  16. SAFEGUARD AND SECURE CONTROL VERIFY POLICY

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Spring 2014 National Nuclear Security Administration ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF NIS Observes Final Shipment of LEU from Russian Weapons HEU BY GREG DWYER A s NIS experts watched, the final 40 cylinders of low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from Russian highly enriched uranium (HEU) crossed the rail of the Atlantic Navigator at the Port of Saint Petersburg, Russia on December 14, 2013. These cylinders were the last of nearly 10,000 LEU cylinders delivered over the past Elementary! A Nuclear

  17. The Secretary of Energy

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Secretary of Energy Washington, DC 20585 DETERMINATION OF COMPLETION OF THE RUSSIAN HEU AGREEMENT FOR PURPOSES OF THE USEC PRIVATIZATION ACT OF 1996, AS AMENDED Having considered the provisions of the USEC Privatization Act of 1996, as amended, (42 U.S.C.§ 2297h, et seq.), and the requirements for completion of the Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Russian Federation Concerning the Disposition of Highly- Enriched Uranium Extracted From

  18. To: President George W. Bush United States of America To: President V.V. Putin

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    President George W. Bush United States of America To: President V.V. Putin Russian Federation Transmittal of the Report of the United States and Russian Federation Joint Working Group on the Development of a Bilateral Action Plan To Enhance Global and Bilateral Nuclear Energy Cooperation December 15,2006 At the St. Petersburg, Russia, G8 Summit on July 15, 2006, you directed us to establish a joint working group to develop a bilateral action plan for implementing our respective initiatives to

  19. Joint DOE-Rosatom Statement

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Joint Statement on the U.S. - Russian Excess Weapon-grade Plutonium Disposition Program The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Federal Atomic Energy Agency, Russian Federation (Rosatom), as the Executive Agents for the implementation of the 2000 Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement, hereby reaffirm their commitment to implementing the 2000 Agreement and effective and transparent disposition of 34 metric tons each of weapon- grade plutonium designated as no longer required for

  20. DOE Deputy Secretary and Rosatom Director Visit Y-12, Oak Ridge National

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Laboratory During Frist Meeting of US-Russian Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Security Working Group | National Nuclear Security Administration Deputy Secretary and Rosatom Director Visit Y-12, Oak Ridge National Laboratory During Frist Meeting of US-Russian Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Security Working Group | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response

  1. Under U.S.-Russia Partnership, Final Shipment of Fuel Converted From 20,000

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Russian Nuclear Warheads Arrives in United States and Will Be Used for U.S. Electricity | National Nuclear Security Administration U.S.-Russia Partnership, Final Shipment of Fuel Converted From 20,000 Russian Nuclear Warheads Arrives in United States and Will Be Used for U.S. Electricity | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our

  2. Russia and Eurasian Partnerships and Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Russia and Eurasian Partnerships and Projects Russia and Eurasian Partnerships and Projects The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) engages in the region in deployment-focused collaborations with Russia. In addition, EERE Technology Offices engage in bilateral research partnerships with Armenia. Bilateral Partnerships Russian Federation Launched in 2009 to reinvigorate cooperation between the United States and the Russian Federation, the Presidential Bilateral Commission is

  3. The Blend Down Monitoring System Demonstration at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benton, J.; Close, D.; Johnson, W., Jr.; Kerr, P.; March-Leuba, J.; Mastal, E.; Moss, C.; Powell, D.; Sumner, J.; Uckan, T.; Vines, R.; Wright, P.D.

    1999-07-25

    Agreements between the governments of the US and the Russian Federation for the US purchase of low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons calls for the establishment of transparency measures to provide confidence that nuclear nonproliferation goals are being met. To meet these transparency goals, the agreements call for the installation of nonintrusive US instruments to monitor the down blending of HEU to LEU. The Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS) has been jointly developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to continuously monitor {sup 235}U enrichments and mass flow rates at Russian blending facilities. Prior to its installation in Russian facilities, the BDMS was installed and operated in a UF{sub 6} flow loop in the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant simulating flow and enrichment conditions expected in a typical down-blending facility. A Russian delegation to the US witnessed the equipment demonstration in June, 1998. To conduct the demonstration in the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), the BDMS was required to meet stringent Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing, safety and operational requirements. The Paducah demonstration was an important milestone in achieving the operational certification for the BDMS use in Russian facilities.

  4. Middle Urals` pollution prevention priorities assessment project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, M.; Ott, R.L.; Chukanov, V.

    1995-09-13

    The Middle Urals is an important Russian industrial region. The key industries are also the most environmentally damaging: mining, metallurgical and chemical industries. There are some 600 large-sized and medium-sized enterprises located within the Middle Urals` region. Their annual solid and gaseous chemical releases have led to exceeding some maximum permissible contaminant concentrations by factors of tens and hundreds. The environmental problems of the Middle Urals are of such magnitude, seriousness, and urgency that the limited available resources can be applied only to the problems of the highest priority in the most cost-effective way. By the combined efforts of scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA), Institute of Industrial Ecology (Ekaterinburg, Russia) and Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Snezhinsk, Russia) the project on Environmental Priorities Assessment was initiated in 1993. Because the project will cut across a spectrum of Russian environmental, social, and political issues, it has been established as a genuine Russian effort led by Russian principals. Russian participants are the prime movers and decision-makers, and LLNL participants are advisors. A preliminary project has been completed to gather relevant environmental data and to develop a formal proposal for the full priorities assessment project for submittal to the International Science and Technology Center. The proposed priorities assessment methodology will be described in this paper. The specific objectives of this project are to develop and to implement a methodology to establish Russian priorities for future pollution prevention efforts in a limited geographic region of the Middle Urals (a part of Chelyabinsk and Sverdlovsk Oblasts). This methodology will be developed on two geographic levels: local (town scale) and regional (region scale). Detailed environmental analysis will be performed on a local scale and extrapolated to the regional scale.

  5. Regulatory Approaches for Solid Radioactive Waste Storage in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, A.; Testov, S.; Diaschev, A.; Nazarian, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.

    2003-02-26

    The Russian Navy under the Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) Program has designated the Polyarninsky Shipyard as the regional recipient for solid radioactive waste (SRW) pretreatment and storage facilities. Waste storage technologies include containers and lightweight modular storage buildings. The prime focus of this paper is solid radioactive waste storage options based on the AMEC mission and Russian regulatory standards. The storage capability at the Polyarninsky Shipyard in support of Mobile Pretreatment Facility (MPF) operations under the AMEC Program will allow the Russian Navy to accumulate/stage the SRW after treatment at the MPF. It is anticipated that the MPF will operate for 20 years. This paper presents the results of a regulatory analysis performed to support an AMEC program decision on the type of facility to be used for storage of SRW. The objectives the study were to: analyze whether a modular storage building (MSB), referred in the standards as a lightweight building, would comply with the Russian SRW storage building standard, OST 95 10517-95; analyze the Russian SRW storage pad standard OST 95 10516-95; and compare the two standards, OST 95 10517-95 for storage buildings and OST 95 10516-95 for storage pads.

  6. Air Shipment of Highly Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel from Romania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. J. Allen; I. Bolshinsky; L. L. Biro; M. E. Budu; N. V. Zamfir; M. Dragusin

    2010-07-01

    Romania safely air shipped 23.7 kilograms of Russian origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel from the VVR S research reactor at Magurele, Romania, to the Russian Federation in June 2009. This was the worlds first air shipment of spent nuclear fuel transported in a Type B(U) cask under existing international laws without special exceptions for the air transport licenses. This shipment was coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), in cooperation with the Romania National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN), the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), and the Russian Federation State Corporation Rosatom. The shipment was transported by truck to and from the respective commercial airports in Romania and the Russian Federation and stored at a secure nuclear facility in Russia where it will be converted into low enriched uranium. With this shipment, Romania became the 3rd country under the RRRFR program and the 14th country under the GTRI program to remove all HEU. This paper describes the work, equipment, and approvals that were required to complete this spent fuel air shipment.

  7. Research Reactor Preparations for the Air Shipment of Highly Enriched Uranium from Romania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. J. Allen; I. Bolshinsky; L. L. Biro; M. E. Budu; N. V. Zamfir; M. Dragusin; C. Paunoiu; M. Ciocanescu

    2010-03-01

    In June 2009 two air shipments transported both unirradiated (fresh) and irradiated (spent) Russian-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) nuclear fuel from two research reactors in Romania to the Russian Federation for conversion to low enriched uranium. The Institute for Nuclear Research at Pitesti (SCN Pitesti) shipped 30.1 kg of HEU fresh fuel pellets to Dimitrovgrad, Russia and the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH) shipped 23.7 kilograms of HEU spent fuel assemblies from the VVR S research reactor at Magurele, Romania, to Chelyabinsk, Russia. Both HEU shipments were coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), were managed in Romania by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN), and were conducted in cooperation with the Russian Federation State Corporation Rosatom and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Both shipments were transported by truck to and from respective commercial airports in Romania and the Russian Federation and stored at secure nuclear facilities in Russia until the material is converted into low enriched uranium. These shipments resulted in Romania becoming the 3rd country under the RRRFR program and the 14th country under the GTRI program to remove all HEU. This paper describes the research reactor preparations and license approvals that were necessary to safely and securely complete these air shipments of nuclear fuel.

  8. Russia vows to end oil export tax

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-27

    This paper reports that Russia will eliminate its oil export tax by 1994 and until then will allow some exemptions, Russian officials have assured a group of US tax specialists. They stopped short of saying it would be repealed by the end of the year, the Ken Crawford, a member of a Tax Foundation delegation visiting Russia and managing partner of KPMG Peat Marwick's Moscow office. The export tax was one of several tax related Russian economic issues on which the US experts and Russian officials exchanged views early this month. The 15 member delegation was in Moscow on invitation from Russia's Ministry of Finance and State Committee on Taxation to help develop guidelines for laws governing Russia's taxation of foreign investment. The US group was sponsored by the Tax Foundation, Washington, DC, a nonprofit, nonpartisan tax and fiscal policy research and public education group.

  9. Low-temperature Mechanical Properties of Fe-0.06C-18Cr-10Ni-0.4Ti Austenitic Steel Determined Using Ring-Pull Tensile Tests and Microhardness Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neustroev, V. S.; Boev, E. V.; Garner, Francis A.

    2007-08-01

    Irradiated austenitic stainless steels removed from Russian water-cooled VVERs experience irradiation temperatures and He/dpa conditions that are very similar to steels to be used in ITER. Data are presented on the radiation hardening of the Russian analog of AISI 321 at 0.2 to 15 dpa in the range of 285 to 320??. The Russian variant of the ring-pull tensile test was used to obtain mechanical prop-erty data. Microhardness tests on the ring specimens provide useful information throughout the deformed regions, but at high hardening levels caution must be exercised before application of a widely accepted hardness-yield stress correla-tion to prediction of tensile properties. Low-nickel austenitic steels are very prone to form deformation martensite, a phase that increases strongly with the larger deformation levels characteristic of microhardness tests, especially when compared to the 0.2% deformation used to define yield stress.

  10. Low-Temperature Mechanical Properties Of Fe-0.06c-18cr-10ni-0.4ti Austenitic Steel Determined Using Ring-Pull Tensile Tests And Microhardness Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neustroev, V. S.; Boev, E. V.; Garner, Francis A.

    2007-03-01

    Irradiated austenitic stainless steels removed from Russian water-cooled VVERs experience irradia-tion temperatures and He/dpa conditions that are very similar to steels to be used in ITER. Data are presented on the radiation hardening of the Russian analog of AISI 321 at 0.2 to 15 dpa in the range of 285 to 320??. The Russian variant of the ring-pull tensile test was used to obtain mechanical prop-erty data. Microhardness tests on the ring specimens provide useful information throughout the de-formed regions, but at high hardening levels caution must be exercised before application of a widely accepted hardness-yield stress correlation to prediction of tensile properties. Low-nickel austenitic steels are very prone to form deformation martensite, a phase that increases strongly with the larger deformation levels characteristic of microhardness tests, especially when compared to the 0.2% de-formation used to define yield stress.

  11. An environmental assessment strategy for the identification of pollution prevention opportunities in the southern Urals Region of Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, M.A.; Ott, R.L.

    1993-08-23

    The serious environmental problems of the South Urals Region of Russia have been broadly described in a report coauthored by Russian weapons scientists. The importance of taking the first steps to prevent further environmental damage and adverse public health effects has been recognized by the international scientific community. Scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have initiated a project to assist the Russians in their pollution prevention efforts. The specific objectives of this project are to: (1) conduct a pragmatic survey of the industrial and governmental pollution sources in a limited geographic region of the South Urals and (2) identify the priorities for pollution prevention and for food and water supply improvements at distribution points. The emphasis is on preventing adverse impacts to human health and improving industrial productivity. This project focuses on immediate pollution problems resulting from current operations and their solutions, not on long-term research related to the large-scale cleanup of legacy wastes. The project emphasizes near-term cost effective solutions to prevent pollution while longer term research aimed at contamination from past practices is pursued by other scientists. The project is being conducted in collaboration with environmental and physical scientists from institutes associated with the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences; government officials at the national, regional, and local levels; and non-governmental Russian environmental groups. A broad cross section of Russian technical, political, and environmental abilities and interests is mandatory. This cross section will ensure the technical quality, the political acceptability, and the popular credibility of the project results to the affected Russians in the South Urals. Progress on this project is presented in this paper.

  12. 2003 - 10 | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    October 2003 Wed, 10/08/2003 - 12:00am Russian and 2 Americans Win Nobel Prize Physics Honors (The New York Times) Tue, 10/07/2003 - 12:00am Jefferson Lab announces Oct. 7 Fall Science Series event ((Release) Tue, 10/07/2003 - 12:00am Nobel Prize in physics awarded (CNews World) Tue, 10/07/2003 - 12:00am Two Americans, Russian Win Nobel Prize in Physics (Reuters) Sun, 10/05/2003 - 12:00am NOVA Creates String Theory Miniseries (Physics Today) Sun, 10/05/2003 - 12:00am Jefferson Lab Built on Nobel

  13. Oct 2009 Y-12 Timds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oak Ridge played a sig- nifi cant role during Sergei Kiriyenko's recent visit to the United States to par- ticipate in the fi rst meeting of the U.S.-Russian Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Security Working Group. The Russian director general of the State Atomic Energy Corporation "Rosatom" spent a day in Washington discussing, with U.S. Secretary of Energy Ste- ven Chu, ways the two na- tions will work together to secure vulnerable nuclear materials, increase cooperation on civil nuclear

  14. Romania: Brand-New Engineering Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Allen; Lucian Biro; Nicolae Zamfir; Madalina Budu

    2011-01-01

    The HEU spent nuclear fuel transport from Romania was a pilot project in the framework of the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), being the first fully certified spent nuclear fuel shipment by air. The successful implementation of the Romanian shipment also brought various new technology in the program, further used by other participating countries. Until 2009, the RRRFR program repatriated to the Russian Federation HEU spent nuclear fuel of Russian origin from many countries, like Uzbekistan, Czech Republic, Latvia, Hungary, Kazakhstan and Bulgaria. The means of transport used were various; from specialized TK-5 train for the carriage of Russian TUK-19 transport casks, to platform trains for 20 ft freight ISO containers carrying Czech Skoda VPVR/M casks; from river barge on the Danube, to vessel on the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. Initially, in 2005, the transport plan of the HEU spent nuclear fuel from the National Institute for R&D in Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Engineering 'Horia Hulubei' in Magurele, Romania considered a similar scheme, using the specialized TK-5 train transiting Ukraine to the destination point in the Russian Federation, or, as an alternative, using the means and route of the spent nuclear fuel periodically shipped from the Bulgarian nuclear power plant Kosloduy (by barge on the Danube, and by train through Ukraine to the Russian Federation). Due to impossibility to reach an agreement in due time with the transit country, in February 2007 the US, Russian and Romanian project partners decided to adopt the air shipment of the spent nuclear fuel as prime option, eliminating the need for agreements with any transit countries. By this time the spent nuclear fuel inspections were completed, proving the compliance of the burn-up parameters with the international requirements for air shipments of radioactive materials. The short air route avoiding overflying of any other countries except the country of origin and the country of destination also contributed to the decision making in this issue. The efficient project management and cooperation between the three countries (Russia, Romania and USA) made possible, after two and a half years of preparation work, for the first fully certified spent nuclear fuel air shipment to take place on 29th of June 2009, from Romanian airport 'Henri Coanda' to the Russian airport 'Koltsovo' near Yekaterinburg. One day before that, after a record period of 3 weeks of preparation, another HEU cargo was shipped by air from Romanian Institute for Nuclear Research in Pitesti to Russia, containing fresh pellets and therefore making Romania the third HEU-free country in the RRRFR program.

  15. Final project report for the Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FC02-99EE10673 [The successful story of regional implementation of energy performance standards in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, David B.; Chao, Mark; Matrosov, Yurij

    2001-12-01

    This report is the result of the collaborative effort between the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), Institute for Market Transformation (IMT), and the Center for Energy Efficiency (CENEf). The report describes our success in promoting the adoption of the energy efficiency buildings code in 25 regions of the Russian Federation and in developing an energy efficiency buildings design manual.

  16. Director`s series on proliferation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, K.C.; Price, M.E.

    1995-11-17

    This is an occasional publication of essays on the topics of nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile proliferation. The views represented are those of the author`s. Essay topics include: Nuclear Proliferation: Myth and Reality; Problems of Enforcing Compliance with Arms Control Agreements; The Unreliability of the Russian Officer Corps: Reluctant Domestic Warriors; and Russia`s Nuclear Legacy.

  17. 2006 - 10 | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    October 2006 Thu, 10/19/2006 - 12:00am Acing the SAT: The certifiably smart Warwick High student is a Russian immigrant (Daily Press) Sat, 10/14/2006 - 12:00am Jeff Lab worker in Google top 100 (Daily Press) Wed, 10/04/2006 - 12:00am Chemists say SOLs don't measure up (Daily Press

  18. Energy choices in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebel, R.E.

    1994-12-31

    Ebel concentrates primarily on oil, his specialty and the foundation stone of the Russian energy economy. He also covers natural gas, another important export fuel, as well as coal, economically unproductive and socially explosive, and nuclear energy, whose growth remains adversely affected by Chernobyl.

  19. Hel3_F8.mp4 | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information 10 Annual Conference Helsinki, Finland, June 11, 2010 Multilingual WorldWideScience.org Ceremony featuring Walter Warnick, Richard Boulderstone, Tony Hey, Wu Yishan, Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China - ISTIC, Yuri Arskiy, All-Russian Institute of Scientific and Technical Information - VINITI

  20. Comparison of filter with Prairie and European Network data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-10-01

    Earlier notes derived a model for the hydrodynamics, ablation, and radiation of meteor impacts at the level needed to infer meteor parameters from observations and extended it to objects that fragment during entry, using models based on related cometary studies. This note completes the comparison of the resulting filter model to European and Prairie Network (EN and PN) data and models of meteor impact. In cases of mutual applicability, US and European models give broadly consistent results. The quantitative analysis of the EN and PN data is best discussed in conjunction with the Russian program of its analysis, because the Russian program has bypassed the large reported photometrically based masses to derive more plausible estimates of sizes, masses, and radiation efficiencies, which are the primary quantities of concern here. This note completes the discussion of the PN and EN data begun earlier, uses the data to produce filter predictions, and compares it with observations and the predictions of the Russian analytic effort. The overall agreement is useful in that the Russian efforts have employed more complex models that use observational data directly, while the filter model is at a level of simplification much better suited to data inversion.

  1. Investigation of lasing characteristics of 1% Nd : YAG laser ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vatnik, S M; Osipov, V V; Vedin, I A; Kurbatov, P F

    2013-03-31

    The lasing characteristics of 1 % Nd : YAG laser ceramics synthesised at the Institute of Electrophysics, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences are studied. CW lasing is obtained in all the samples with the slope and total optical efficiencies of 25 % and 18 %, respectively. Intrinsic absorption and scattering losses in the ceramics are estimated. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  2. Cellulose Nanomaterials: The Sustainable Material of Choice for the 21st Century

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Theodore H. Wegner, Ph.D. Assistant Director USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory June 26, 2012 Cellulose Nanomaterials: The Sustainable Material of Choice for the 21 st Century Sustainable Nanomaterials Workshop * Wood: a Sustainable & Renewable Material * Cellulosic Nanomaterials From Wood Overview 3 Top 5 forested countries: Russian Federation........................809 million ha.......20.6% world's forests Brazil................................................520 million

  3. Kazakhstan's potential provides Western opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darnell, R. )

    1993-01-01

    While crude oil production continues to drop in the Russian Federation at a rate of 15% to 20% per year, Kazakhstan's output rose from 440,000 bopd in 1991 to 446,000 bopd, as of November 1992. Much of this increase was exported to the Russian Federation to supplement the latter's declining production. while Kazakhstan received needed Russian goods in exchange for this oil, it isn't getting the hard currency that will be required to upgrade its petroleum industry. This is a serious problem for Kazakh officials, since they are counting on revenues from petroleum exports to invigorate their overall plan for economic growth in this newly independent country. In order to convert Kazakhstan's hydrocarbon potential into economic reality, two critical issues must be addressed immediately. First, Kazakhstan must develop a tax and minerals law that gives multinational petroleum companies an incentive to invest in opening a dedicated crude oil export route through Russia, and at least one alternate export route to the Caspian Sea or Persian Gulf. At present, even the most successful petroleum venture inside Kazakhstan would have to weave its way through the Russian bureaucracy to utilize that existing and inadequate export pipeline system. This quandary, of course, has recently become the undoing of several Western petroleum operations that have managed to actually produce exportable oil inside the Russian Federation itself, but they can't get it out. In addition, three other variables should be considered by any party that is evaluating Kazakhstan as a future area (see map for current fields) of interest for petroleum operations. These are political stability, field operating conditions, and the country's natural gas crisis. Each of these factors, though not as critical as the legal regime and export access, can radically affect how an operator might approach negotiating the terms of its particular project.

  4. Air Shipment of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Romania to Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Lucian Biro; Alexander Buchelnikov

    2010-10-01

    Romania successfully completed the worlds first air shipment of spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without shipment license special exceptions when the last Romanian highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel was transported to the Russian Federation in June 2009. This air shipment required the design, fabrication, and licensing of special 20 foot freight containers and cask tiedown supports to transport the eighteen TUK 19 shipping casks on a Russian commercial cargo aircraft. The new equipment was certified for transport by road, rail, water, and air to provide multi modal transport capabilities for shipping research reactor spent fuel. The equipment design, safety analyses, and fabrication were performed in the Russian Federation and transport licenses were issued by both the Russian and Romanian regulatory authorities. The spent fuel was transported by truck from the VVR S research reactor to the Bucharest airport, flown by commercial cargo aircraft to the airport at Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to the final destination in a secure nuclear facility at Chelyabinsk, Russia. This shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU was coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), in close cooperation with the Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation and the International Atomic Energy Agency, and was managed in Romania by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN). This paper describes the planning, shipment preparations, equipment design, and license approvals that resulted in the safe and secure air shipment of this spent nuclear fuel.

  5. Changes in Russia's Military and Nuclear Doctrine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolkov, Benjamin M.; Balatsky, Galya I.

    2012-07-26

    In 1993, the Russian Federation set out a new military doctrine that would determine the direction of its armed forces until President Putin set out the next doctrine in 2000. The Russian Federation creating the doctrine was new; the USSR had recently collapsed, Gorbachev - the creator of the predecessor to this doctrine in 1987 - was out of office, and the new Russian military had only been formed in May, 1992.1 The analysis of the 1993 doctrine is as follows: a definition of how doctrine is defined; a short history of Russian military doctrine leading up to the 1993 doctrine (officially the Basic Provisions of the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation); and finally, what the doctrine established. An overview of the 1993 doctrine is: (1) Russia's 1993 doctrine was a return to older, more aggressive doctrine as a result of stability concerns surrounding the recent collapse of the USSR; (2) Russia turned from Gorbachev's 'defensive defense' in the 1987 doctrine to aggressive defense with the option of preempting or striking back against an aggressor; (3) Russia was deeply concerned about how nationalism would affect the former Soviet Republics, particularly in respect to the ethnic Russians still living abroad; and (4) Nuclear doctrine pledged to not be the first to use nuclear weapons but provided for the potential for escalation from a conventional to a nuclear war. The 2000 doctrine (officially the Russian Federation Military Doctrine) was created in a more stable world than the 1993 doctrine was. The Russian Federation had survived independence and the 'threat of direct military aggression against the Russian Federation and its allies' had diminished. It had secured all of the nuclear weapons from its neighbors Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, and had elected a new president, Vladimir Putin, to replace Boris Yeltsin. Yet, even as the doctrine took more defensive tones than the 1993 doctrine, it expanded its nuclear options. Below are a new definition of what doctrine meant in 2000 and an outline of the 2000 doctrine. An overview of the 2000 doctrine is: (1) The 2000 doctrine was a return to a more defensive posture; the threat of nuclear retaliation, rather than that of preemptive force, would be its deterrence; (2) In order to strengthen its nuclear deterrence, Russia extended and redefined the cases in which nuclear weapons could be used to include a wider range of conflict types and a larger spectrum of attackers; and (3) Russia's threats changed to reflect its latest fear of engaging in a limited conflict with no prospect of the use of nuclear deterrence. In 2006, the defense minister and deputy prime minister Sergei Ivanov announced that the government was starting on a draft of a future doctrine. Four years later, in 2010, the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation was put into effect with the intent of determining Russian doctrine until 2020. The 2010 doctrine, like all previous doctrines, was a product of the times in which it was written. Gone were many of the fears that had followed Russia for the past two decades. Below are an examination of the 2010 definition of doctrine as well as a brief analysis of the 2010 doctrine and its deviations from past doctrines. An overview of the 2010 doctrine is: (1) The new doctrine emphasizes the political centralization of command both in military policy and the use of nuclear weapons; (2) Nuclear doctrine remains the same in many aspects including the retention of first-use; (3) At the same time, doctrine was narrowed to using nuclear weapons only when the Russian state's existence is in danger; to continue strong deterrence, Russia also opted to follow the United States by introducing precision conventional weapons; (4) NATO is defined as Russia's primary external threat because of its increased global presence and its attempt to recruit states that are part of the Russian 'bloc'; and (5) The 2000 doctrine's defensive stance was left out of the doctrine; rumored options for use of nuclear weapons in local wars and in preemptive strikes were also left out.

  6. Integrated electric power and heat planning in Russia: The fossil-nuclear tradeoff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shavel, I.H.; Blaney, J.C.

    1996-08-01

    For the Joint Energy Alternatives Study (JEAS), ICF Kaiser International was tasked to use its Integrated Planning Model (IPM{copyright}) to estimate the investment requirements for the Russian power sector. The IPM is a least-cost planning model that uses a linear programming algorithm to select investment options and to dispatch generating and load management resources to meet overall electricity demand. For the purpose, ICF was provided with input data by the five Working Groups established under the JEAS. Methodological approaches for processing and adjusting this data were specified by Working Group 5. In addition to the two Reference Cases, ICF used IPM to analyze over forty different Change Cases. For each of these cases, ICF generated summary reports on capacity additions, electric generation, and investment and system costs. These results, along with the parallel work undertaken by the Russian Energy Research Institute formed the analytical basis for the Joint Energy Alternatives Study.

  7. Station for X-ray structural analysis of materials and single crystals (including nanocrystals) on a synchrotron radiation beam from the wiggler at the Siberia-2 storage ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheiker, D. M. Kovalchuk, M. V.; Korchuganov, V. N.; Shilin, Yu. N.; Shishkov, V. A.; Sulyanov, S. N.; Dorovatovskii, P. V.; Rubinsky, S. V.; Rusakov, A. A.

    2007-11-15

    The design of the station for structural analysis of polycrystalline materials and single crystals (including nanoobjects and macromolecular crystals) on a synchrotron radiation beam from the superconducting wiggler of the Siberia-2 storage ring is described. The wiggler is constructed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The X-ray optical scheme of the station involves a (1, -1) double-crystal monochromator with a fixed position of the monochromatic beam and a sagittal bending of the second crystal, segmented mirrors bent by piezoelectric motors, and a (2{theta}, {omega}, {phi}) three-circle goniometer with a fixed tilt angle. Almost all devices of the station are designed and fabricated at the Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The Bruker APEX11 two-dimensional CCD detector will serve as a detector in the station.

  8. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION ON RADIOLOGICAL THREAT REDUCTION PROGRAMS IN RUSSIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landers, Christopher C.; Tatyrek, Aaron P.

    2009-10-07

    Since its inception in 2004, the United States Department of Energy’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) has provided the Russian Federation with significant financial and technical assistance to secure its highly vulnerable and dangerous radiological material. The three program areas of this assistance are the removal of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG), the physical protection of vulnerable in-use radiological material of concern, and the recovery of disused or abandoned radiological material of concern. Despite the many successes of the GTRI program in Russia, however, there is still a need for increased international cooperation in these efforts. Furthermore, concerns exist over how the Russian government will ensure that the security of its radiological materials provided through GTRI will be sustained. This paper addresses these issues and highlights the successes of GTRI efforts and ongoing activities.

  9. Information systems to enhance technology exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, T.; Harrington, M.; Harlan, C.; Drozhko, E.

    1994-03-01

    A fundamental part of international technology exchange is the compilation and dissemination of information. Worldwide environmental problems and technology development activities form the basis for important opportunities across the world and especially for those in the former Soviet Union. Recently, important agreements have been reached among Russian institutes engaged in environmental work and the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its national laboratories. These agreements will allow a systematic compilation of information on environmental contamination problems in Russia that can be included in DOE`s environmental information systems. A computer hardware and software system has been loaned to Russian scientists by the DOE for the sharing of environmental software and data, while establishing standards for future information networks.

  10. Demonstration of a PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John C. Trocciola; Thomas N. Pompa; Linda S. Boyd

    2004-09-01

    This project involved the installation of a 200kW PC25C{trademark} phosphoric-acid fuel cell power plant at Orgenergogaz, a Gazprom industrial site in Russia. In April 1997, a PC25C{trademark} was sold by ONSI Corporation to Orgenergogaz, a subsidiary of the Russian company ''Gazprom''. Due to instabilities in the Russian financial markets, at that time, the unit was never installed and started by Orgenergogaz. In October of 2001 International Fuel Cells (IFC), now known as UTC Fuel Cells (UTCFC), received a financial assistance award from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entitled ''Demonstration of PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia''. Three major tasks were part of this award: the inspection of the proposed site and system, start-up assistance, and installation and operation of the powerplant.

  11. Radioactive Waste Management at the New Conversion Facility of 'TVEL'{sup R} Fuel Company - 13474

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Indyk, S.I.; Volodenko, A.V.; Tvilenev, K.A.; Tinin, V.V.; Fateeva, E.V.

    2013-07-01

    The project on the new conversion facility construction is being implemented by Joint Stock Company (JSC) 'Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises' (SGChE) within TVEL{sup R} Fuel Company. The objective is to construct the up-to-date facility ensuring the industrial and environmental safety with the reduced impact on the community and environment in compliance with the Russian new regulatory framework on radioactive waste (RW) management. The history of the SGChE development, as well as the concepts and approaches to RW management implemented by now are shown. The SGChE future image is outlined, together with its objectives and concept on RW management in compliance with the new act 'On radioactive waste management' adopted in Russia in 2011. Possible areas of cooperation with international companies are discussed in the field of RW management with the purpose of deploying the best Russian and world practices on RW management at the new conversion facility. (authors)

  12. Small space object imaging : LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackermann, Mark R.; Valley, Michael T.; Kearney, Sean Patrick

    2009-10-01

    We report the results of an LDRD effort to investigate new technologies for the identification of small-sized (mm to cm) debris in low-earth orbit. This small-yet-energetic debris presents a threat to the integrity of space-assets worldwide and represents significant security challenge to the international community. We present a nonexhaustive review of recent US and Russian efforts to meet the challenges of debris identification and removal and then provide a detailed description of joint US-Russian plans for sensitive, laser-based imaging of small debris at distances of hundreds of kilometers and relative velocities of several kilometers per second. Plans for the upcoming experimental testing of these imaging schemes are presented and a preliminary path toward system integration is identified.

  13. JCCRER Project 2.3 -- Deterministic effects of occupational exposure to radiation. Phase 1: Feasibility study; Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okladnikova, N.; Pesternikova, V.; Sumina, M.

    1998-12-01

    Phase 1 of Project 2.3, a short-term collaborative Feasibility Study, was funded for 12 months starting on 1 February 1996. The overall aim of the study was to determine the practical feasibility of using the dosimetric and clinical data on the MAYAK worker population to study the deterministic effects of exposure to external gamma radiation and to internal alpha radiation from inhaled plutonium. Phase 1 efforts were limited to the period of greatest worker exposure (1948--1954) and focused on collaboratively: assessing the comprehensiveness, availability, quality, and suitability of the Russian clinical and dosimetric data for the study of deterministic effects; creating an electronic data base containing complete clinical and dosimetric data on a small, representative sample of MAYAK workers; developing computer software for the testing of a currently used health risk model of hematopoietic effects; and familiarizing the US team with the Russian diagnostic criteria and techniques used in the identification of Chronic Radiation Sickness.

  14. Section 114

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Figure 1. The arrangement of scientific equipment on the deltaplane. Use of a Motor-Deltaplane as a Platform for Placing of Sensors Measuring Optical and Meteorological Atmospheric Characteristics M. V. Panchenko, V. V. Zuev, M. Y. Arshinov, B. D. Belan, V. K. Kovalevskii, A. P. Plotnikov, E. V. Pokrovskii, I. A. Razenkov, A. P. Rostov, V. S. Kozlov and G. N. Tolmachev Institute of Atmospheric Optics Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia Introduction Global climate change forecasted by a

  15. Section 40

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cl J cl J a Q 0 J a Session Papers 167 Figure 1. Hemispheric solar irradiance (1) and retrieved cloud optical depth (2). Zvenigorod, September 7, 1996. Cloud-Radiation-Aerosol Experiments at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russia G. S. Golitsyn, P. P. Anikin, E. M. Feigelson, A. A. Isakov and M. A. Sviridenkov Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Moscow, Russia Introduction The Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, has carried out several field Cloud-Radiation-

  16. Section 84

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research of the Optical, Radiative, and Meteorological Characteristics of the Boundary Layer Based on Remote Sensing Data Obtained During the 1996 Intensive Observing Period in Tomsk V. V. Zuev, Y. S. Balin, B. D. Belan and N. P. Krasnenko Institute of Atmospheric Optics Russian Academy of Sciences Tomsk, Russia Introduction The mean values of the radiation balance of the earth's surface, the atmosphere, and the earth-atmosphere system as a whole are well established. However, this does not

  17. A global perspective on energy markets and economic integration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Arnold Barry

    2006-04-01

    What will be the effect of Iraqi domestic instability on Iraqi oil production Negotiations for Iranian nuclear technology on Iranian oil supplies Saudi commitment to expanded oil production President Putin's policies on Russian oil and natural gas supplies President Chavez's policies on Venezuelan oil supplies Instability in Nigeria Higher oil prices on world economic growth Effect of economic growth on oil demand in China, India, U.S., etc. Higher oil prices on non-OPEC oil supplies

  18. Influence of Radiation-Induced Voids and Bubbles on Physical Properties of Austenitic Structural Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shcherbakov, E. N.; Kozlov, A. V.; Portnykh, I. A.; Balachov, Iouri I.; Garner, Francis A.

    2004-08-01

    Void swelling in austenitic stainless steels induces significant changes in their electrical resistivity and elastic moduli, as demonstrated in this study using a Russian stainless steel irradiated as fuel pin cladding in BN-600. Precipitation induced by irradiation also causes second-order changes in these properties. When cavities are full of helium as expected under some fusion irradiation conditions, additional second-order changes are expected but they will be small enough to exclude from the analysis.

  19. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Variations of Ozonosphere: Physical Model and Forecast into XXI Century V. V. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics Russian Academy of Sciences Tomsk, Russia Introduction Because of its ability to effectively absorb the shortwave portion of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, ozonosphere plays an important role in determining the radiation budget of the atmosphere. Therefore, general circulation model (GCM) predictions of climate change cannot be made correctly without adequate treatment of real

  20. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observations of Changing the Wintertime Mid-Latitude Ozonosphere Over Tomsk in 1995-2001 V. V. Zuev, S. V. Smirnov, S. L. Bondarenko, and S. I. Dolgii Institute of Atmospheric Optics Russian Academy of Sciences Tomsk, Russia Introduction The role of the stratospheric ozone layer as a spectral regulator of ultraviolet (UV) radiative flux entering the troposphere and reaching the underlying surface is now well recognized. Therefore, to simulate the climate and ecological processes adequately, it

  1. Posters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Posters Mean Fluxes of the Near-Infrared Radiation in Broken Clouds V. E. Zuev, G. A. Titov, T. B. Zhuravleva, and S. Y. Popov Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch Russian Academy of Sciences Tomsk, Russia Radiation codes of current general circulation models (GCMs) involve calculations of the spectrally integrated upward and downward fluxes of solar and thermal radiation at different atmospheric levels. For the visible, vertical profiles of the mean fluxes of upward and downward

  2. Posters Brightness Fields of Broken Clouds V. E. Zuev, G. A. Titov, E. I. Kasyanov, and D. A. Zimin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Posters Brightness Fields of Broken Clouds V. E. Zuev, G. A. Titov, E. I. Kasyanov, and D. A. Zimin Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch Russian Academy of Sciences Tomsk, Russia Introduction The radiation budget and brightness field of the system "atmosphere-underlying surface" are controlled, to a considerable degree, by the variety of forms and the strong space-time variability of cloud cover. The space and angle structure of the radiation fields of cloudy atmosphere

  3. Posters Mean Fluxes of Visible Solar Radiation in Broken Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Posters Mean Fluxes of Visible Solar Radiation in Broken Clouds V. E. Zuev, G. A. Titov, T. B. Zhuravleva, and S. Y. Popov Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch Russian Academy of Sciences Tomsk, Russia Introduction Generally, radiation codes for general circulation models (GCMs) include, together with other procedures, calculations of vertical profiles of upward and downward radiation fluxes which are needed to calculate radiant heat influxes. These last radiative characteristics

  4. 17th Annual ALS Users' Association Meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Art; Tamura, Lori

    2004-11-29

    It's not exactly Russian roulette, but scheduling October events outdoors is not risk-free, even in usually sunny California. An overflow crowd of more than 400 registered users, ALS staff, and vendors enjoyed a full indoor program featuring science highlights and workshops spread over two and a half days from October 18 to October 20. However, a major storm, heralding the onset of the San Francisco Bay Area rainy season, posed a few weather challenges for the events on the ALS patio.

  5. On the Results of Measurements of the Direct Sun Radiation Flux by Actinometer and of Maximal Polarization of Sky Brightness in the Solar Almucantar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    On the Results of Measurements of the Direct Sun Radiation Flux by Actinometer and of Maximal Polarization of Sky Brightness in the Solar Almucantar A. Kh. Shukurov, K. A. Shukurov, and G. S. Golitsyn A. M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow, Russia Introduction It is well known that analysis of variations of sky brightness, B, in the visible points to a close correlation between the degree of maximal polarization, P M , in the solar almucantar (with

  6. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cloud-Radiation-Aerosol Experiment (1996) at IAPh, Russia Golitsyn, G.S., Anikine, P.P., and Sviridenkov, M.A., Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences Eighth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting In 1996, local measurements of the optical properties of the near-surface aerosol were carried out parallel with aureole measurements of the aerosol in the atmospheric column. The spectral radiation was measured by a complex of spectrometers. Global

  7. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Influence of Age-Dependent Optical and Thermal Snow Properties on the Modeled Surface Temperature and Albedo in the Arctic Curry, J.A., and Schramm, J.L., University of Colorado Eighth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting A new multi-level snow model has been developed to simulate the time-varying snow thermal and optical characteristics in response to precipitation events and snow aging. The model is forced by observations from the Russian ice islands in the Arctic

  8. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Long-Period Variations of UV-B Radiation From Results of Ozone Reconstruction from Dendrochronologic Data Zuev, V.V. and Bondarenko, S.L., Institute of Atmospheric Optics Russian Academy of Sciences Tomsk, Russia Thirteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting The thickness of stratospheric ozone layer modulates the level of UV-B radiation reaching the surface without cloudiness. The high level of UV-B radiation causes a stress of vegetation including trees. The

  9. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Change of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Thermal Regime Induced by Aerosol as Measured by MTP-5 Koldaev, A.V.(a), Kadygrov, E.N.(a), Khaikine, M.N.(a), Kuznetsova, I.N.(b), and Golitsyn, G.S.(c), Central Aerological Observatory (a), Hydrometeorological Center (b), A.M.Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Science (c) Fourteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting Change in atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) radiation balance as caused by natural and

  10. National Security Science | Los National Alamos Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How People Become Terrorists Pit Perfect Nuclear Facilities Safety during the Las Conchas Wildfire Protecting the Laboratory's Waste Storage Site from the Las Conchas Wildfire Identifying Foreign Nuclear Explosives Russian Lab Directors Tour LANL SARA Cadets and Midshipmen Hit the Ground Running Issue 3 2011 About the Cover: September marked the 10th anniversary of the 9/11 terrorist attacks. LANL provides the science and technology needed to better understand, defend against, and defeat acts of

  11. Secretary Bodman, Director Rumyantsev Issue Joint Statement on Bratislava

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nuclear Security Initiatives | Department of Energy Bodman, Director Rumyantsev Issue Joint Statement on Bratislava Nuclear Security Initiatives Secretary Bodman, Director Rumyantsev Issue Joint Statement on Bratislava Nuclear Security Initiatives November 9, 2005 - 2:20pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman and Russian Federal Atomic Energy Agency Director, Aleksandr Rumyantsev today released a joint statement on the status of the Bratislava Nuclear Security

  12. Secretary Chu Testimony to Senate Armed Services Committee | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Testimony to Senate Armed Services Committee Secretary Chu Testimony to Senate Armed Services Committee June 17, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, DC -- Secretary Steven Chu testified today before the Senate Armed Services Committee on the New START Treaty. His prepared testimony is below: Chairman Levin, Ranking Member McCain, and Members of the Committee, thank you for the opportunity to testify on the Treaty between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on

  13. Hierarchical Diagnosis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Theoretical Studies of Radiative Properties of Broken Clouds G. A. Titov Institute of Atmospheric Optics Russian Academy of Science T omsk, Russia One of the three major goals of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to improve the quality of radiation models under clear sky, homogeneous cloud, and broken cloud conditions. This report is concerned with the development of the theory of radiation transfer in the broken clouds. Our approach is based on a stochastic description of

  14. Hierardlicsl Diagnosis V. V. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hierardlicsl Diagnosis V. V. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences Tomsk, Russia Systematic observations of the earth's ozone layer over the last ten years indicate a steady decrease of ozone content in the stratospheric maximum and, on the contrary, a increase of ozone concentrations in the troposphere. This trend is illustrated clearly by the results of 20 years' observations of high-altitude ozone concentration distribution in the troposphere

  15. Gorchakova-IA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atl anta, Georgia, March 19-23, 2001 1 Estimate of Horizontal Cloud Inhomogeneity Effect on Solar Radiative Fluxes for Conditions of Winter Zvenigorod Experiment I. A. Gorchakova, G. S. Golitsyn, and I. I. Mokhov Oboukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow, Russia T. B. Zhuravleva Institute of Atmospheric Optics Tomsk, Russia Introduction Study of physical phenomena determining large-scale dynamical and energetic processes in the atmosphere requires quite full

  16. OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Speeding access to science information from DOE and Beyond WorldWideScience.org Multilingual Search of Chemistry and Other Sciences ACS National Meeting Slide15 Slide15 Multilingual Translations Translating ten languages, with potential for more Arabic Chinese German Deutsch English Spanish Español French Français Japanese Korean Portuguese Português Russian Slide16 Slide16 Play Demonstration of WorldWideScience.org Translations (opens new window) Slide17 Slide17 Access to

  17. Scientific Societies, E-print Network -- Energy, science, and technology

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for the research community -- Hosted by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Department of Energy Scientific Societies The Scientific Societies Page provides access to websites of scientific societies and professional associations whose focus is in the natural sciences as well as other related disciplines of interest to the Department of Energy research and development programs, projects, and initiatives. Chinese Dutch English French German Italian Japanese Nordic Russian

  18. United States and International Partners Initial ITER Agreement |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy International Partners Initial ITER Agreement United States and International Partners Initial ITER Agreement May 24, 2006 - 10:48am Addthis Paves the Way for Large-Scale, Clean Fusion Energy Project BRUSSELS, BELGIUM - Representing the United States, Dr. Raymond L. Orbach, Director of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science, joined counterparts from China, the European Union, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and the Russian Federation today to

  19. Nuclear Proliferation Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Professor William Potter

    2005-11-28

    William C. Potter, Director of the Center for Non Proliferation Studies and the Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies, will present nuclear proliferation challenges following the 2005 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference. In addition to elucidating reasons for, and implications of, the conferences failure, Dr. Potter will discuss common ground between nuclear proliferation and terrorism issues and whether corrective action can be taken.

  20. ПрохождениеВенерыподискуСолнца 06.06.2012

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mikhail Lomonosov: Father of Russian Science Robert P. Crease Stony Brook University Vladimir Shiltsev Fermilab Portraits of Lomonosov (1711-1765): In his 30s (left) and 50s (right) Maps of Pomorie, (ca 19 cent.) and of Kholmogory region (1771) Caravan and Sleigh 8 Lomonosov Tercentennial Lomonosov Tercentennial 9 Lomonosov Tercentennial 10 Lomonosov Tercentennial 11 Lomonosov Tercentennial 12 Marburg Diploma Lomonosov Tercentennial 13 Lomonosov Tercentennial 14 School & Scientific Tradition

  1. Distribution of Radiation Density in a Homogeneous Cloudy Laye

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Radiation Density in a Homogeneous Cloudy Layer S. V. Dvoryashin, K. A. Shukorov, A. H. Shukurov, and G. S. Golitsyn A. M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow, Russia The program block (Monte-Carlo method) allowing calculating radiation density in homogeneous and non-uniform clouds is developed for a homogeneous layer with various factors and phase functions of scattering the field of radiation density are calculated. On the basis of the calculated data

  2. United States-Russia: Environmental management activities, Summer 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    A Joint Coordinating Committee for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (JCCEM) was formed between the US and Russia. This report describes the areas of research being studied under JCCEM, namely: Efficient separations; Contaminant transport and site characterization; Mixed wastes; High level waste tank remediation; Transuranic stabilization; Decontamination and decommissioning; and Emergency response. Other sections describe: Administrative framework for cooperation; Scientist exchange; Future actions; Non-JCCEM DOE-Russian activities; and JCCEM publications.

  3. Microsoft PowerPoint - Sayano Shushenskaya presentation (SWPA).ppt [Compatibility Mode]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SAYANO- SHUSHENSKAYA G. Charles Allen, P.E. Chief, Turbomachinery Section Hydroelectric Design Center Hydroelectric Design Center Southwestern Federal Hydropower C f Conference Branson, Missouri 10 June 2010 BUILDING STRONG ® PORTLAND DISTRICT 1 PORTLAND DISTRICT 1 Russian Hydropower Accident y p The slides that follow were taken from many different sources and represent the facts as we know them (Note: Information is sparse d k h ) Thi i i f and sketchy). This presentation is for internal use

  4. Luxoft Press Release.PDF

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Jonathan Kiell, 202/586-7371 Thursday, October 4, 2001 NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION TO HELP TRAIN FORMER SOVIET WMD SCIENTISTS IN COMMERCIAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FIELDS --REDUCES PROLIFERATION THREATS-- The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and a leading Russian Information Technology (IT) company are cooperating to help reduce the threat of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The NNSA's Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention

  5. IG-0522.PDF

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2 AUDIT REPORT THE PLUTONIUM IMMOBILIZATION PLANT AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL OFFICE OF AUDIT SERVICES SEPTEMBER 2001 U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Washington, DC 20585 September 11, 2001 MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY FROM: Gregory H. Friedman (Signed) Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Audit Report on "The Plutonium Immobilization Plant at the Savannah River Site" BACKGROUND In September 2000, the United States and the Russian

  6. Scientists Sentenced To Prison For Defrauding The Small Business Innovation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research Program | Department of Energy Scientists Sentenced To Prison For Defrauding The Small Business Innovation Research Program Scientists Sentenced To Prison For Defrauding The Small Business Innovation Research Program PDF icon Scientists Sentenced To Prison For Defrauding The Small Business Innovation Research Program More Documents & Publications Former Russian Nuclear Energy Official Sentenced to Four Years in Prison for Money Laundering Conspiracy Semiannual Report to

  7. INFCIRC/207 - Notification to the Agency of Exports and Imports of Nuclear Material

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    INF INFCIRC/207 26 July 1974 International Atomic Energy Agency INFORMATION CIRCULAR GENERAL Distr. Original: ENGLISH and RUSSIAN NOTIFICATION TO THE AGENCY OF EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF NUCLEAR MATERIAL On 11 July 1974 the Director General received letters dated 10 July from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America informing him that in the interest of assisting

  8. Media Releases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Media Releases Media Releases December 16, 2015 Two Men Charged With Wire Fraud December 15, 2015 Former Russian Nuclear Energy Official Sentenced to Four Years in Prison for Money Laundering Conspiracy October 21, 2015 OIG Receives Prestigious CIGIE Award September 24, 2015 Argonne National Laboratory Employee Arrested for Operating Illegal Steroid Lab September 11, 2015 Scientists Sentenced To Prison For Defrauding The Small Business Innovation Research Program September 10, 2015 Indictment

  9. Microsoft PowerPoint - 10_BILL_WANDERER_REVISED HEU Agreement NMMSS Briefing_30 April 2014.pptx

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    -Russia Highly Enriched Uranium(HEU) Purchase Agreement Update Bill Wanderer Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Nuclear Verification HEU Transparency Program The HEU Purchase Agreement 1993 HEU Purchase Agreement - United States purchased low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from 500 metric tons (MT) Russian weapons- origin HEU - Commercial implementation by two Executive Agents * U.S. Executive Agent was the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) *

  10. NMMSS_News_February_2014_FINAL__1_5_2014

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Registration for the 2014 Users Training Obligation Codes for Russian Federation NMMSS Fillable Forms are Available Topics for Industry Round-Table NRC's Proposed New Rules Upcoming DOE and NRC Training Courses NMMSS Points-of-Contact for Assistance Website Updates Transaction and Inventory Due Dates Unclassified Mail Addresses FY 2014 Observed Holidays The Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS) 2014 Annual Users Training Meeting will be held May 12 - 15, 2014, in Denver,

  11. In situ radiation measurements at the former Soviet Nuclear Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tipton, W.J.

    1996-06-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted a series of in situ radiological measurements at the former Soviet Nuclear Test Site near Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, during the period of July 21-30, 1994. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at selected areas on the site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. The survey was part of a cooperative effort between the United States team and teams of radiation scientists from the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia. In addition to in situ radiation measurements made by the United States and Russian teams, soil samples were collected and analyzed by the Russian and Kazakhstani teams. All teams conducted their measurements at ten locations within the test site. The United States team also made a number of additional measurements to locate and verify the positions of three potential fallout plumes containing plutonium contamination from nonnuclear tests. In addition, the United States team made several measurements in Kurchatov City, the housing area used by personnel and their families who work(ed) at the test sites. Comparisons between the United States and Russian in situ measurements and the soil sample results are presented as well as comparisons with a Soviet aerial survey conducted in 1990-1991. The agreement between the different types of measurements made by all three countries was quite good.

  12. Environmental management activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. The nature and magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. Within the United States, operational DOE facilities, as well as the decontamination and decommissioning of inactive facilities, have produced significant amounts of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. In order to ensure worker safety and the protection of the public, DOE must: (1) assess, remediate, and monitor sites and facilities; (2) store, treat, and dispose of wastes from past and current operations; and (3) develop and implement innovative technologies for environmental restoration and waste management. The EM directive necessitates looking beyond domestic capabilities to technological solutions found outside US borders. Following the collapse of the Soviet regime, formerly restricted elite Soviet scientific expertise became available to the West. EM has established a cooperative technology development program with Russian scientific institutes that meets domestic cleanup objectives by: (1) identifying and accessing Russian EM-related technologies, thereby leveraging investments and providing cost-savings; (2) improving access to technical information, scientific expertise, and technologies applicable to EM needs; and (3) increasing US private sector opportunities in Russian in EM-related areas.

  13. COMPLETION OF THE FIRST INTEGRATED SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL TRANSSHIPMENT/INTERIM STORAGE FACILITY IN NW RUSSIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dyer, R.S.; Barnes, E.; Snipes, R.L.; Hoeibraaten, S.; Gran, H.C.; Foshaug, E.; Godunov, V.

    2003-02-27

    Northwest and Far East Russia contain large quantities of unsecured spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from decommissioned submarines that potentially threaten the fragile environments of the surrounding Arctic and North Pacific regions. The majority of the SNF from the Russian Navy, including that from decommissioned nuclear submarines, is currently stored in on-shore and floating storage facilities. Some of the SNF is damaged and stored in an unstable condition. Existing Russian transport infrastructure and reprocessing facilities cannot meet the requirements for moving and reprocessing this amount of fuel. Additional interim storage capacity is required. Most of the existing storage facilities being used in Northwest Russia do not meet health and safety, and physical security requirements. The United States and Norway are currently providing assistance to the Russian Federation (RF) in developing systems for managing these wastes. If these wastes are not properly managed, they could release significant concentrations of radioactivity to these sensitive environments and could become serious global environmental and physical security issues. There are currently three closely-linked trilateral cooperative projects: development of a prototype dual-purpose transport and storage cask for SNF, a cask transshipment interim storage facility, and a fuel drying and cask de-watering system. The prototype cask has been fabricated, successfully tested, and certified. Serial production is now underway in Russia. In addition, the U.S. and Russia are working together to improve the management strategy for nuclear submarine reactor compartments after SNF removal.

  14. Long-term storage facility for reactor compartments in Sayda Bay - German support for utilization of nuclear submarines in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolff, Dietmar; Voelzke, Holger; Weber, Wolfgang; Noack, Volker; Baeuerle, Guenther

    2007-07-01

    The German-Russian project that is part of the G8 initiative on Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction focuses on the speedy construction of a land-based interim storage facility for nuclear submarine reactor compartments at Sayda Bay near Murmansk. This project includes the required infrastructure facilities for long-term storage of about 150 reactor compartments for a period of about 70 years. The interim storage facility is a precondition for effective activities of decommissioning and dismantlement of almost all nuclear-powered submarines of the Russian Northern Fleet. The project also includes the establishment of a computer-assisted waste monitoring system. In addition, the project involves clearing Sayda Bay of other shipwrecks of the Russian navy. On the German side the project is carried out by the Energiewerke Nord GmbH (EWN) on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour (BMWi). On the Russian side the Kurchatov Institute holds the project management of the long-term interim storage facility in Sayda Bay, whilst the Nerpa Shipyard, which is about 25 km away from the storage facility, is dismantling the submarines and preparing the reactor compartments for long-term interim storage. The technical monitoring of the German part of this project, being implemented by BMWi, is the responsibility of the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM). This paper gives an overview of the German-Russian project and a brief description of solutions for nuclear submarine disposal in other countries. At Nerpa shipyard, being refurbished with logistic and technical support from Germany, the reactor compartments are sealed by welding, provided with biological shielding, subjected to surface treatment and conservation measures. Using floating docks, a tugboat tows the reactor compartments from Nerpa shipyard to the interim storage facility at Sayda Bay where they will be left on the on-shore concrete storage space to allow the radioactivity to decay. For transport of reactor compartments at the shipyard, at the dock and at the storage facility, hydraulic keel blocks, developed and supplied by German subcontractors, are used. In July 2006 the first stage of the reactor compartment storage facility was commissioned and the first seven reactor compartments have been delivered from Nerpa shipyard. Following transports of reactor compartments to the storage facility are expected in 2007. (authors)

  15. Federal Automated Information System of Nuclear Material Control and Accounting: Uniform System of Reporting Documents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitel, M V; Kasumova, L; Babcock, R A; Heinberg, C

    2003-06-12

    One of the fundamental regulations of the Russian State System for Nuclear Material Accounting and Control (SSAC), ''Basic Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Rules,'' directed that a uniform report system be developed to support the operation of the SSAC. According to the ''Regulation on State Nuclear Material Control and Accounting,'' adopted by the Russian Federation Government, Minatom of Russia is response for the development and adoption of report forms, as well as the reporting procedure and schedule. The report forms are being developed in tandem with the creation of an automated national nuclear material control and accounting system, the Federal Information System (FIS). The forms are in different stages of development and implementation. The first report forms (the Summarized Inventory Listing (SIL), Summarized Inventory Change Report (SICR) and federal and agency registers of nuclear material) have already been created and implemented. The second set of reports (nuclear material movement reports and the special anomaly report) is currently in development. A third set of reports (reports on import/export operations, and foreign nuclear material temporarily located in the Russian Federation) is still in the conceptual stage. To facilitate the development of a unified document system, the FIS must establish a uniform philosophy for the reporting system and determine the requirements for each reporting level, adhering to the following principles: completeness--the unified report system provides the entire range of information that the FIS requires to perform SSAC tasks; requisite level of detail; hierarchical structure--each report is based on the information provided in a lower-level report and is the source of information for reports at the next highest level; consistency checking--reports can be checked against other reports. A similar philosophy should eliminate redundancy in the different reports, support a uniform approach to the contents of previously developed and new reports within the FIS, as well as identify the main priorities for the direction of the FIS.

  16. {open_quotes}Rosshelf{close_quotes} company and development of the Arctic Shelf of Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velikhov, E.P.

    1994-09-01

    The Russian {open_quotes}Rosshelf{close_quotes} company for developing the shelf is the nucleus of a new branch of industry for developing oil and gas fields on shelves of Russia, primarily in the Arctic. {open_quotes}Rosshelf{close_quotes}, created on the basis of leading naval defence enterprises, Russia`s largest geological and mining enterprises, and territorial organizations managing the northern regions of Russia, obtained a license in March 1993 for the right to use the natural resources of Europe`s largest Shtokman gas-condensate field and Prirazlomnoe oil field in the Barents Sea and thus has all the conditions and possibilities for the successful organization of oil and gas production on the continental shelf of Russia. The goals of {open_quotes}Rosshelf{close_quotes} are: the production of oil and gas equipment at converted defence enterprises, including under foreign license and for export; the development of oil and gas fields on the continental shelf of Russia; the creation of new prospective technologies for offshore oil and gas production under conditions of the Russian and mainly the arctic shelf. {open_quotes}Rosshelf{close_quotes} should develop the Pechora Sea fields, mainly the Prirazlomnoe oil field with its relatively small depth and distance from the shore. It is planned to develop Europe`s largest Shtokman field at a distance of 600 km from the shore in the course of 10-12 years with expenditures of about $6 billion. The use of defence technologies underlying the activities of {open_quotes}Rosshelf{close_quotes} gives the company a real change to reach the world level of offshore oil- and gas-production technology. Broad cooperation with foreign companies, mainly in the area of engineering, finances, ecology, and safety, planned also for this. Calculations show that already the priority projects of {open_quotes}Rosshelf{close_quotes} will provide 250,000-300,000 highly skilled jobs at Russian defence enterprises.

  17. Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) for Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) through a Common Global Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badwan, Faris M.; Demuth, Scott Francis; Miller, Michael Conrad; Pshakin, Gennady

    2015-02-23

    Small Modular Reactors (SMR) with power levels significantly less than the currently standard 1000 to 1600-MWe reactors have been proposed as a potential game changer for future nuclear power. SMRs may offer a simpler, more standardized, and safer modular design by using factory built and easily transportable components. Additionally, SMRs may be more easily built and operated in isolated locations, and may require smaller initial capital investment and shorter construction times. Because many SMRs designs are still conceptual and consequently not yet fixed, designers have a unique opportunity to incorporate updated design basis threats, emergency preparedness requirements, and then fully integrate safety, physical security, and safeguards/material control and accounting (MC&A) designs. Integrating safety, physical security, and safeguards is often referred to as integrating the 3Ss, and early consideration of safeguards and security in the design is often referred to as safeguards and security by design (SSBD). This paper describes U.S./Russian collaborative efforts toward developing an internationally accepted common approach for implementing SSBD/3Ss for SMRs based upon domestic requirements, and international guidance and requirements. These collaborative efforts originated with the Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Security working group established under the U.S.-Russia Bilateral Presidential Commission during the 2009 Presidential Summit. Initial efforts have focused on review of U.S. and Russian domestic requirements for Security and MC&A, IAEA guidance for security and MC&A, and IAEA requirements for international safeguards. Additionally, example SMR design features that can enhance proliferation resistance and physical security have been collected from past work and reported here. The development of a U.S./Russian common approach for SSBD/3Ss should aid the designer of SMRs located anywhere in the world. More specifically, the application of this approach may lead to more proliferation resistant and physically secure design features for SMRs.

  18. U.S. Department of Energy's initiatives for proliferation prevention program: solidification technologies for radioactive waste treatment in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokhitonov, Y.; Kelley, D.

    2008-07-01

    Large amounts of liquid radioactive waste have existed in the U.S. and Russia since the 1950's as a result of the Cold War. Comprehensive action to treat and dispose of waste products has been lacking due to insufficient funding, ineffective technologies or no proven technologies, low priority by governments among others. Today the U.S. and Russian governments seek new, more reliable methods to treat liquid waste, in particular the legacy waste streams. A primary objective of waste generators and regulators is to find economical and proven technologies that can provide long-term stability for repository storage. In 2001, the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (Khlopin), St. Petersburg, Russia, and Pacific Nuclear Solutions (PNS), Indianapolis, Indiana, began extensive research and test programs to determine the validity of polymer technology for the absorption and immobilization of standard and complex waste streams. Over 60 liquid compositions have been tested including extensive irradiation tests to verify polymer stability and possible degradation. With conclusive scientific evidence of the polymer's effectiveness in treating liquid waste, both parties have decided to enter the Russian market and offer the solidification technology to nuclear sites for waste treatment and disposal. In conjunction with these efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will join Khlopin and PNS to explore opportunities for direct application of the polymers at predetermined sites and to conduct research for new product development. Under DOE's 'Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention'(IPP) program, funding will be provided to the Russian participants over a three year period to implement the program plan. This paper will present details of U.S. DOE's IPP program, the project structure and its objectives both short and long-term, training programs for scientists, polymer tests and applications for LLW, ILW and HLW, and new product development initiatives. (authors)

  19. Why Russia is not a state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, J.E.

    1993-08-16

    This article makes two principal points. First the author argues that the Russian federation has never been a state and is not sustainable as a state. Four centrifugal indicators are presented to support this claim: ethnic divisiveness; uncertainty about the legitimacy of Russia`s current borders; competing claims for legitimacy on the part of federal and regional leaders; and army units` unpredictable allegiances. Second, she argues that Soviet policies intended to facilitate central control of the periphery had the perverse effect of creating ethnic identity and demands for national autonomy where, in many cases, they did not exist prior to the Communist regime. Following the introduction, part one briefly reviews the concepts of state, nation, and nationalism and the roles they play in Russia. Criteria for state-hood are discussed. Part two lists the main ethnic groups in Russia and considers the roots of ethnic nationalism in the Russian Federation. Part three discusses confusion over the legitimacy of the physical, economic, and political boundaries of the Russian Federation. Part four discusses political disarray in the center and the regions and the lack of unity among order-enforcing entities. The Volga-Ural region -- where there is a large concentration of nuclear weapons and facilities, and which is especially volatile politically -- is discussed in somewhat more detail. Part five argues that these factors taken together call into question Russia`s identity as a state. The author concludes that Russia remains a multi-ethnic empire in which the rule of law is still not supreme.

  20. SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES: PERFORMANCE OF A POLYMER SEALANT COATING IN AN ARCTIC MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COWGILL,M.G.; MOSKOWITZ,P.D.; CHERNAENKO,L.M.; NAZARIAN,A.; GRIFFITH,A.; DIASHEV,A.; ENGOY,T.

    2000-06-14

    This first project, under the auspices of the Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) forum, Project 1.4-1 Solid Radioactive Waste Storage Technologies, successfully demonstrated the feasibility of using a polymer-based coating to seal concrete and steel surfaces from permanent radioactive contamination in an Arctic marine environment. A mobile, self-sufficient spraying device, was developed to specifications provided by the Russian Ministry of Defence Northern Navy and was deployed at the RTP Atomflot site, Murmansk, Russia. Demonstration coatings of Polibrid 705 were applied to concrete surfaces exposed to conditions ranging from indoor pedestrian usage to heavy vehicle passage and container handling in a loading bay. A large steel container was also coated with the polymer, filled with solid radwaste, sealed, and left out of doors and exposed to the full 12 month Arctic weather cycle. The field tests were accompanied by a series of laboratory qualification tests carried out at the research laboratory of ICC Nuclide in St. Petersburg. During the 12-month field tests, the sealant coating showed little sign of degradation except for a few chips and gouge marks on the loading bay surface that were readily repaired. Contamination resulting from radwaste handling was easily removed and the surface was not degraded by contact with the decontamination agents. In the laboratory testing, Polibrid 705 met all the Russian qualification requirements with the exception of flammability. In this last instance, it was decided to restrict application of the coating to land-based facilities. The Russian technical experts from the Ministry of Defence quickly familiarized themselves with the equipment and were able to identify several areas of potential improvement as deployment of the equipment progressed. The prime among these was the desirability of extending the range of the equipment through enlarged gasoline tanks (to permit extended operational times) and longer material supply hoses (to increase flexibility of operation in confined spaces). Modifications designed to address these issues will be implemented as appropriate.

  1. Plutonium transmutation in thorium fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Necas, Vladimir; Breza, Juraj |; Darilek, Petr

    2007-07-01

    The HELIOS spectral code was used to study the application of the thorium fuel cycle with plutonium as a supporting fissile material in a once-through scenario of the light water reactors PWR and VVER-440 (Russian design). Our analysis was focused on the plutonium transmutation potential and the plutonium radiotoxicity course of hypothetical thorium-based cycles for current nuclear power reactors. The paper shows a possibility to transmute about 50% of plutonium in analysed reactors. Positive influence on radiotoxicity after 300 years and later was pointed out. (authors)

  2. Section 99

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Session Papers 445 Some Results of Spectral and Radiative Measurements During IOP - 1996 in Tomsk V. V. Zuev, B. D. Belan, V. P. Galileiskii, S. I. Dolgii, V. S. Kozlov, V. N. Marichev, A. M. Morozov and V. K. Oshlakov Institute of Atmospheric Optics Russian Academy of Sciences Tomsk, Russia Introduction At present the problems of the radiation transfer theory in the cloudy atmosphere have not been completely developed. However, a series of problems is available, which can be solved only as a

  3. Science & Technology Review December 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chinn, D J

    2007-10-24

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Homeland Security Begins Abroad--Commentary by John C. Doesburg; (2) Out of Harm's Way--New physical protection and accountability systems, together with a focus on security, safeguard nuclear materials in the Russian Federation; (3) A Calculated Journey to the Center of the Earth--Determining the permeability of partially melted metals in a mineral matrix unlocks secrets about the formation of Earth's core; (4) Wireless That Works--Communication technologies using ultrawideband radar are improving national security; and (5) Power to the People--Edward Teller envisioned safe and plentiful nuclear power for peaceful applications.

  4. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Statistical Estimation of the Atmospheric Aerosol Absorption Coefficient Based on the Data of Optical Measurements V.N. Uzhegov, V.S. Kozlov, M.V. Panchenko, Yu.A.Pkhalagov, V.V. Pol'kin, S.A. Terpugova, V.P. Shmargunov, and E.P. Yausheva Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia Introduction The problem with the aerosol optical constants and, in particular, the imaginary part of the refractive index of particles in the visible and

  5. P:\JODI\P393-396.WPD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R ¯ Q ¯ R ¯ Q 1, R i,j Q i,j Xl l nx 2 . Q i,j R i,j D D min D max nx 2 D min D max µm Header 393 Simulation of Solar Radiative Transfer in Cumulus Clouds V. E. Zuev and G. A. Titov Institute of Atmospheric Optics Russian Academy of Sciences Tomsk, Russia Current radiation codes of general circulation models The stochastic geometry of cumulus clouds is, to date, (GCMs) are still largely based on plane-parallel models, poorly understood. To avoid expensive computations, we which

  6. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optical and Microphysical Characteristics of the Smoke Aerosol in the Moscow Region During the Summer-Autumn of 2002 Gorchakov, G.I.(a), Golitsyn, G.S.(a), Anikin, P.P.(a), Emilenko, A.S.(a), Isakov, A.A. (a), Kopeikin, V.M.(a), Rublev, A.N.(b), Sviridenkov, M.A.(a), and Shukurov, K.A.(a), A.M.Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, RAS (a), Russian Research Center "Kurchatov Institute" (b) Thirteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting Observational results

  7. Environmental assessment of decommissioning radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) in northwest Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosseini, A.; Standring, W.J.F.; Brown, J.E.; Dowdall, M.; Amundsen, I.B.

    2007-07-01

    This article presents some results from assessment work conducted as part of a joint Norwegian-Russian project to decommission radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) in Northwest Russia. Potential worst case accident scenarios, based on the decommissioning procedures for RTGs, were assessed to study possible radiation effects to the environment. Close contact with exposed RTG sources will result in detrimental health effects. However, doses to marine biota from ingestion of radioactivity under the worst-case marine scenario studied were lower than threshold limits given in IAEA literature. (authors)

  8. Main Principles of the Perspective System of SNF Management in Russia - 13333

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baryshnikov, Mikhail

    2013-07-01

    For the last several years the System of the Spent Nuclear Fuel management in Russia was seriously changed. The paper describes the main principles of the changes and the bases of the Perspective System of SNF Management in Russia. Among such the bases there are the theses with the interesting names like 'total knowledge', 'pollutant pays' and 'pay and forget'. There is also a brief description of the modern Russian SNF Management Infrastructure. And an outline of the whole System. The System which is - in case of Russia - is quite necessary to adjust SNF accumulation and to utilize the nuclear heritage. (authors)

  9. US - Former Soviet Union environmental restoration and waste management activities, March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy Agreement was signed between DOE and the Ministry of Atomic Energy for the Russian Federation and provides a mechanism for cooperation in research, development, and safe utilization of nuclear energy. Under the umbrella of this agreement, DOE and the former Ministry of Atomic Power and Industry signed a Memorandum of Cooperation in the areas of environmental restoration and waste management in September 1990. This document discusses the environmental situation, science and technology process, technical projects (separations, contaminant transport, waste treatment, environmental restoration), scientist exchanges, enhanced data transfer, the US-Russia industry partnership (conference, centers), and future actions.

  10. Petroleum Resource Management and Assessment project for the Western Siberian Administration Russia. TDA feasibility study. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the study is: (1) To determine the nature and availability of the information necessary for Resource Assessment in oil fields to be open to foreign investment; (2) To determine what resources are required to implement the 'Alberta Model' of Resource Management in Siberia; (3) To establish a pilot Data Collection and Information System, including software, hardware and technology; (4) To indicate whether the studied database model and related software can meet Russia's long term requirements for information management in the petroleum sector; (5) The transfer of information techniques to the Russian implementation teams; and (6) To define the requirements for a resource/economic study.

  11. Russia to import more goods for upstream projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-12

    This paper reports that Russia is stepping up its imports of petroleum hardware. In the latest developments; Nippon Steel Corp. and C. Itoh and Co. Ltd., Tokyo, signed contracts to provide Russia $300 million worth of export credits for steel pipe and undisclosed drilling equipment; Nizhnevartovskneftegaz, a Russian oil and gas production association, asked the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development for a $60 million loan to buy western oil and gas equipment. The hardware, mostly pipe, tools, pumps, and workover rigs, will be used in part to return shut-in wells to production.

  12. Definition of Non-Conventional Sulfur Utilization in Western Kazakhstan for Sulfur Concrete (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalb, Paul

    2007-05-31

    Battelle received a contract from Agip-KCO, on behalf a consortium of international oil and gas companies with exploration rights in the North Caspian Sea, Kazakhstan. The objective of the work was to identify and help develop new techniques for sulfur concrete products from waste, by-product sulfur that will be generated in large quantitites as drilling operations begin in the near future. BNL has significant expertise in the development and use of sulfur concrete products and has direct experience collaborating with the Russian and Kazakh partners that participated. Feasibility testing was successfully conducted for a new process to produce cost-effective sulfur polymer cement that has broad commerical applications.

  13. Control And Data Acquisition System Of Tokamak KTM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baystrukov, K. I.; Pavlov, V. M.; Sharnin, A. V.; Obhodskij, A. V.; Merkulov, S. V.; Golobokov, Y. N.; Mezentsev, A. A.; Ovchinnikov, A. V.; Tazhibaeva, I. L.

    2008-04-07

    The preliminary results of control and data acquisition system (CODAS) development for Kazakhstan tokamak for material testing (KTM) [1] are presented. The KTM CODAS is completely new system optimized for KTM facility and its regimes of operation. Its development is carrying out in Tomsk Polytechnic University by Russian specialists. The first KTM launching under the control of CODAS is planed on 2008 year. The base functionality of CODAS is presented, including short description of its subsystems, such as control system of conditioning process, plasma control system, digital control system of power supplies, protection and timing system, data acquisition system.

  14. shukurov-99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    On Attenuation of Solar Radiation Within Atmospheric Microwindows of the N 2 O Band 1170 cm -1 from Winter Ground-Based Measurements A. Kh. Shukurov Oboukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow, Russia Introduction As is known, ground-based measurements of transmittance of solar radiation within the atmospheric window ν = 750 - 1250 cm -1 were carried out basically at spectral resolution δν ≈ 1 ÷ 10 cm -1 in warm seasons with significant thickness W z (cm)

  15. Attendee List

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Attendee List Attendee List June 12-13 NUG Meeting Registrants PPPL, On site 24 registered Name Affiliation Location Citizenship Days Monday Dinner? Matthew Andrews Berkeley Lab PPPL USA June 12-13 Yes Elena Belova PPPL PPPL Russian June 12-13 No Joshua Breslau PPPL PPPL U.S. June 12-13 Yes Jonathan Carter Berkeley Lab PPPL United Kingdom June 12-13 Yes Jin Chen PPPL PPPL Chinese June 12-13 No Jim Craw NERSC PPPL USA June 12 Yes Brent Draney NERSC PPPL USA June 12-13 Yes Stephane Ethier PPPL

  16. Measurements of NO2 and Analysis of Submicron Aerosol Composition in the ARM-Related Experiment at Zvenigorod in March-April 2002 and During Forest and Peatbog Fires in July-September 2002

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurements of NO 2 and Analysis of Submicron Aerosol Composition in the ARM-Related Experiment at Zvenigorod in March-April 2002 and During Forest and Peatbog Fires in July-September 2002 L. M. Shukurova, A. S. Elokhov, K. A. Shukurov, A. N. Gruzdev, and G. S. Golitsyn A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow, Russia Introduction One insufficiently explored problem is the effect of pollution of the lower troposphere by nitrogen oxides on the chemical

  17. A new method of passive counting of nuclear missile warheads -a white paper for the Defense Threat Reduction Agency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Christopher; Durham, J. Matthew; Guardincerri, Elena; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Wang, Zhehui; Fellows, Shelby; Poulson, Daniel Cris; Plaud-Ramos, Kenie Omar; Daughton, Tess Marie; Johnson, Olivia Ruth

    2015-07-31

    Cosmic ray muon imaging has been studied for the past several years as a possible technique for nuclear warhead inspection and verification as part of the New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty between the United States and the Russian Federation. The Los Alamos team has studied two different muon imaging methods for this application, using detectors on two sides and one side of the object of interest. In this report we present results obtained on single sided imaging of configurations aimed at demonstrating the potential of this technique for counting nuclear warheads in place with detectors above the closed hatch of a ballistic missile submarine.

  18. LMS-AMC-S01980-0-0.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Amchitka Island Site History This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy Amchitka, Alaska, LTS&M Plan Rev. 0 Doc. No. S0198000 Rev. Date: September 17, 2008 Page G-3 Table G-1. Amchitka History March 30, 1867 Negotiation between US and Russia for sale of Alaska. April 9, 1867 Senate ratified the treaty with Russia. July 14, 1868 House of Representatives ratifies treaty with Russia. 1868 America purchases Russian America (which included the Aleutian Islands). 1873 W. H. Dall

  19. RBMK coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics analyses by two independent code systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parisi, C.; D'Auria, F.; Malofeev, V.; Ivanov, B.; Ivanov, K.

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics activities carried out in the framework of the part B of the TACIS project R2.03/97, 'Software development for accident analysis of RBMK reactors in Russia'. Two independent code systems were assembled, one from the Russian side and the other from the Western side, for studying RBMK core transients. The Russian code system relies on the use of code UNK for neutron data libraries generation and the three-dimensional neutron kinetics thermal-hydraulics coupled codes BARS-KORSAR for plant transient analyses. The Western code system is instead based on the lattice physics code HELIOS and on the RELAP5-3D C code. Several activities were performed for testing code system's capabilities: the neutron data libraries were calculated and verified by precise Monte Carlo calculations, the coupled codes' steady state results were compared with plant detectors' data, and calculations of several transients were compared. Finally, both code systems proved to have all the capabilities for addressing reliable safety analyses of RBMK reactors. (authors)

  20. International Conference on Climate Change Adaptation Assessments: Conference summary and statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    The International Conference on Climate Change Adaptation Assessments was held in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, from May 22--25, 1995. Sponsored by the Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, the US Country Studies Program, and the directorate General for International Cooperation of the Netherlands Government, it was the first international conference focusing exclusively on adaptation to climate change. More than 100 people from 29 countries on five continents participated. The conference primarily addressed measures to anticipate the potential effects of climate change to minimize negative effects and take advantage of any positive effects. The focus was on what governments, institutions, and individuals can do to prepare for climate change. The conference dealt with two major topics: What adaptation options are most effective and efficient in anticipating climate change and what methods should be used to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of adaptation options. Brief summaries are given from the following sessions on agriculture; Water resources; coastal resources; ecosystems and forests; fisheries; human settlements; water and agriculture; and the panel session on international adaptation in national communications and other development plans and needs for technical assistance.

  1. Low-emission vortex combustion of biomass and fossil fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finker, F.Z.; Kubischkin, I.B.; Akhmedov, D.B.

    1995-11-01

    The article introduces the results of development and industrial experience of low-emission vortex combustion technology (LEVC) of biomass and fossil fuel in industrial and utility boilers in Russian timber and paper industries and Polish power plants. The LEVC technology is based on aerodynamics method of multiple circulation of gases and fuel in the furnaces. LEVC technology accumulates the advantages of conventional and fluidized bed combustion technology. Existing boilers could be easily retrofitted for the application of LEVC technology without requiring major investment. The repowering of boiler with LEVC was the result the reduction NOx emission to the level 170g/GJ without installation additional flue gas cleaning equipment and it gave the opportunity for an injection of sulfur sorbent in the furnace. The authors discussed Russian-Polish experiment on utility boiler retrofitted with the application of LEVC. As the result the efficiency of the boiler increased in 2%. The reduction of the emission is: NOx-40%, SO2-17%.

  2. LANL/Green Star Tests of the Green Star SBS-60 Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. E. Sampson; D. T. Vo; T. L. Cremers; P. A. Hypes; Y. P. Seldiakov; A. B. Dorin; M. V. Kondrashov; V. I. Timoshin

    2001-06-01

    We report on joint testing of the Russian-designed and manufactured single board spectrometer SBS-60 from Green Star Ltd. of Moscow. The SBS-60 will be used to make material control and accountability measurements on plutonium in the Russian plutonium disposition program. We compared three SBS-60 units of two different designs with three commonly used commercial US data acquisition systems by making measurements with three different HPGe detector systems. The measurements were performed to test if the gamma-ray spectral data of plutonium samples from the SBS-60 was suitable for analysis for the isotopic composition of plutonium using the Los Alamos FRAM isotopic analysis software. Each detector fed its signal to two data acquisition systems, one SBS-60 and one commercial US system. The data from the two systems were analyzed by FRAM and compared. In addition, we characterized the throughput, resolution, and stability of the SBS-60 data acquisition system in comparison with the commercial US systems. This report presents detailed results of all the tests performed.

  3. NMIS With Gamma Spectrometry for Attributes of Pu and HEU, Explosives and Chemical Agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihalczo, J. T.; Mattingly, J. K.; Mullens, J. A.; Neal, J. S.

    2002-05-10

    The concept for the system described herein is an active/passive Nuclear Materials Identification System{sup 2} (NMIS) that incorporates gamma ray spectrometry{sup 3}. This incorporation of gamma ray spectrometry would add existing capability into this system. This Multiple Attribute System can determine a wide variety of attributes for Pu and highly enriched uranium (HEU) of which a selected subset could be chosen. This system can be built using commercial off the shelf (COTS) components. NMIS systems are at All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) and Russian Federal Nuclear Center Institute of Technical Physics, (VNIITF) and measurements with Pu have been performed at VNIIEF and analyzed successfully for mass and thickness of Pu. NMIS systems are being used successfully for HEU at the Y-12 National Security Complex. The use of active gamma ray spectrometry for high explosive HE and chemical agent detection is a well known activation analysis technique, and it is incorporated here. This report describes the system, explains the attribute determination methods for fissile materials, discusses technical issues to be resolved, discusses additional development needs, presents a schedule for building from COTS components, and assembly with existing components, and discusses implementation issues such as lack of need for facility modification and low radiation exposure.

  4. Design issues concerning Iran`s Bushehr nuclear power plant VVER-1000 conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carson, C.F.

    1996-12-31

    On January 8, 1995, the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) signed a contract for $800 million with the Russian Federation Ministry for Atomic Energy (Minatom) to complete Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP) unit 1. The agreement called for a Russian VVER-1000/320 pressurized water reactor (PWR) to be successfully installed into the existing German-built BNPP facilities in 5 yr. System design differences, bomb damage, and environmental exposure are key issues with which Minatom must contend in order to fulfill the contract. The AEOI under the Shah of Iran envisioned Bushehr as the first of many nuclear power plants, with Iran achieving 24 GW(electric) by 1993 and 34 GW(electric) by 2000. Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) began construction of the two-unit plant near the Persian Gulf town of Halileh in 1975. Unit 1 was {approx}80% complete and unit 2 was {approx}50% complete when construction was interrupted by the 1979 Iranian Islamic revolution. Despite repeated AEOI attempts to lure KWU and other companies back to Iran to complete the plant, Western concerns about nuclear proliferation in Iran and repeated bombings of the plant during the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq war dissuaded Germany from resuming construction.

  5. Scientists in a Changed Institutional Environment: Subjective Adaptation and Social Responsibility Norms in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, T P; Ball, D Y

    2008-06-05

    How do scientists react when the institutional setting in which they conduct their work changes radically? How do long-standing norms regarding the social responsibility of scientists fare? What factors influence whether scientists embrace or reject the new institutions and norms? We examine these questions using data from a unique survey of 602 scientists in Russia, whose science system experienced a sustained crisis and sweeping changes in science institutions following the collapse of the Soviet Union. We develop measures of how respondents view financing based on grants and other institutional changes in the Russian science system, as well as measures of two norms regarding scientists social responsibility. We find that the majority of scientists have adapted, in the sense that they hold positive views of the new institutions, but a diversity of orientations remains. Social responsibility norms are common among Russian scientists, but far from universal. The main correlates of adaptation are age and current success at negotiating the new institutions, though prospective success, work context, and ethnicity have some of the hypothesized associations. As for social responsibility norms, the main source of variation is age: younger scientists are more likely to embrace individualistic rather than socially-oriented norms.

  6. Implementation of tank volume measurement equipment at the Mayak Production Association

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darenskikh, O.; Suda, S.C.; Valente, J.U.; Zuhoski, P.B.; Salwen, C.A.

    1997-12-31

    One goal of the United States Russia Cooperative program to improve nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) in Russian facilities is to computerize material accounting techniques for bulk materials. Such materials include liquid solutions at radiochemical plants: dissolver, intermediate product, and waste. Material accounting techniques for tank volume measurements (TVM) are needed to determine the nuclear material content of these solutions (chemical and isotopic analysis are also required). The content is required to close the material balance in a radiochemical plant. Computerization of these techniques can provide unattended measurements of material flows, improved precision and accuracy, reduced operator effort, and lower radiation exposure of operators--with equipment that is predominantly remote from high radiation areas. This paper describes the technical activities that contributed to the successful integration of the TVM system, developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), into the Mayak Production Association radiochemical plant conducted under the US/Russian cooperative MPC and A Program. US assistance with installation and adjustment of the instrumentation was completed in May 1997. After that, Mayak experts on measurement and metrology continued mastering and testing the equipment.

  7. The perils and pitfalls of business in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spears, R.B.

    1995-09-01

    It is not for the lack of trying that few Western oil companies have profitable operations in Russia. Quite the contrary. Every oil company with a thirst for opportunity has searched that once-forbidden region for deals. This gold rush was triggered by an apparent crying need or Western know-how and capital, but appearances in Russia often widely differ from reality. Hype of early oil ventures set a false tone of promise, but company and company came home poorer and wiser. The gold rush went bust. Now in the fourth year of the West`s involvement in Russia`s oilfields, operators are soberly evaluating their prospects. Even while signals are encouraging the West, like a reduction in export tariffs and some progress on contract law, a remarkable event is occuring that throws out many Western arguments for continuing involvement and investment: On their own, the Russians are arresting their production decline and have increased output. This will have immediate and long term effects on Westerners. First, it lends credibility to Russian voices demanding that Mother Russia not sign away its precious resources to foreigners. Second, it encourages trade barriers to protect domestic industry. Third, it weakens the bargaining position of Westerners. Fourth, it reduces the options available to Western operators. What remains will be E&P opportunities where Western technology and capital really can play a role-complex reservoirs, hostile environments-but poor contract terms.

  8. The Murmansk Initiative - RF: Acceptance Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czajkowski, C.; Wester, D. W.; Dyer, R. S.; Soerlie, A. A.; Moller, B.; Barnes, E.

    2002-02-26

    The Murmansk Initiative-RF (MI) was conceived to provide the Russian Federation (RF) with the capacity to manage low-level liquid radioactive waste (LLRW) and comply with the requirements of the London Convention that prohibit ocean dumping. The trilateral project among Norway, the RF, and the United States of America (U.S.) began in 1994 and was the first to utilize exclusively Russian subcontractors to upgrade and expand an existing LLRW treatment plant on the premises of RTP Atomflot in Murmansk, Russia. The project moved quickly through the design phase. Progress during the construction phase was somewhat slower because of difficulties with acquisition of hardware, inexperience with automated instrumentation and control equipment, and unexpected design changes in the cementation unit. The project advanced into the test-operation phase, which is currently underway, in June 2001. Initial runs with liquid waste have revealed that procedures for unloading spent ion-exchange sorbents could be improved and that sludges formed during removal of alkaline-earth metals should be compacted in order for the facility to operate at its full potential. Resolution of these issues is expected within the next few months.

  9. Russia`s nuke complex: A case for downsizing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bukharin, O.

    1995-07-01

    Nuclear weapons stored in former Soviet republics, uncontrolled export of bomb-grade nuclear materials, and recruitment of ex-Soviet nuclear physicists by Third-World nations remain today`s top proliferation risks, reports Oleg Bukharin, a visiting researcher at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environment Studies. To address these risks, Russia {open_quotes}must shift its weapons production and development to weapons dismantlement, management of weapons materials, and maintenance of a much smaller...arsenal,{close_quotes} Bukharin writes. The goal of such conversion, he says, {open_quotes}is a nuclear complex that is environmentally safe...and compatible with nonproliferation objectives.{close_quotes} Reconfiguration of Russia`s weapons complex also must provide for redeployment of the hundreds of thousands of scientists, engineers, and technicians who have supported the federation`s nuclear weapons program, Bukharin insists. {open_quotes}A truly durable strategy to prevent the dispersion of Russian weapons expertise must [involve] these weapons experts in non-weapons research,{close_quotes} says Bukharin. Furthermore, Bukharin writes, the Russian conversion program must prevent nuclear materials from falling into the wrong hands. {open_quotes}Widespread corruption, crime, and emerging black markets increase the risk of diversion of weapons-grade uranium or plutonium,{close_quotes} he says.

  10. Remote Monitoring Transparency Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sukhoruchkin, V.K.; Shmelev, V.M.; Roumiantsev, A.N.; Croessmann, C.D.; Horton, R.D.; Matter, J.C.; Czajkowski, A.F.; Sheely, K.B.; Bieniawski, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the Remote Monitoring Transparency Program is to evaluate and demonstrate the use of remote monitoring technologies to advance nonproliferation and transparency efforts that are currently being developed by Russia and the US without compromising the national security of the participating parties. Under a lab-to-lab transparency contract between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Kurchatov Institute (KI RRC), the Kurchatov Institute will analyze technical and procedural aspects of the application of remote monitoring as a transparency measure to monitor inventories of direct-use HEU and plutonium (e.g., material recovered from dismantled nuclear weapons). A goal of this program is to assist a broad range of political and technical experts in learning more about remote monitoring technologies that could be used to implement nonproliferation, arms control, and other security and confidence building measures. Specifically, this program will: (1) begin integrating Russian technologies into remote monitoring systems; (2) develop remote monitoring procedures that will assist in the application of remote monitoring techniques to monitor inventories of HEU and Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons; and (3) conduct a workshop to review remote monitoring fundamentals, demonstrate an integrated US/Russian remote monitoring will have on the national security of participating countries.

  11. BFS, a Legacy to the International Reactor Physics, Criticality Safety, and Nuclear Data Communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Blair Briggs; Anatoly Tsibulya; Yevgeniy Rozhikhin

    2012-03-01

    Interest in high-quality integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties accelerate to meet the demands of next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. Two Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) activities, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP), initiated in 1992, and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP), initiated in 2003, have been identifying existing integral experiment data, evaluating those data, and providing integral benchmark specifications for methods and data validation for nearly two decades. Thus far, 14 countries have contributed to the IRPhEP, and 20 have contributed to the ICSBEP. Data provided by these two projects will be of use to the international reactor physics, criticality safety, and nuclear data communities for future decades The Russian Federation has been a major contributor to both projects with the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) as the major contributor from the Russian Federation. Included in the benchmark specifications from the BFS facilities are 34 critical configurations from BFS-49, 61, 62, 73, 79, 81, 97, 99, and 101; spectral characteristics measurements from BFS-31, 42, 57, 59, 61, 62, 73, 97, 99, and 101; reactivity effects measurements from BFS-62-3A; reactivity coefficients and kinetics measurements from BFS-73; and reaction rate measurements from BFS-42, 61, 62, 73, 97, 99, and 101.

  12. EM-50 Tanks Focus Area retrieval process development and enhancements. FY97 technology development summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rinker, M.W.; Bamberger, J.A.; Alberts, D.G.

    1997-09-01

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements (RPD and E) activities are part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) EM-50 Tanks Focus Area, Retrieval and Closure program. The purpose of RPD and E is to understand retrieval processes, including emerging and existing technologies, and to gather data on these processes, so that end users have requisite technical bases to make retrieval decisions. Technologies addressed during FY97 include enhancements to sluicing, the use of pulsed air to assist mixing, mixer pumps, innovative mixing techniques, confined sluicing retrieval end effectors, borehole mining, light weight scarification, and testing of Russian-developed retrieval equipment. Furthermore, the Retrieval Analysis Tool was initiated to link retrieval processes with tank waste farms and tank geometric to assist end users by providing a consolidation of data and technical information that can be easily assessed. The main technical accomplishments are summarized under the following headings: Oak Ridge site-gunite and associated tanks treatability study; pulsed air mixing; Oak Ridge site-Old Hydrofracture Facility; hydraulic testbed relocation; cooling coil cleaning end effector; light weight scarifier; innovative tank mixing; advanced design mixer pump; enhanced sluicing; Russian retrieval equipment testing; retrieval data analysis and correlation; simulant development; and retrieval analysis tool (RAT).

  13. Modeling of the performance of weapons MOX fuel in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvis, J.; Bellanger, P.; Medvedev, P.G.; Peddicord, K.L.; Gellene, G.I.

    1999-05-01

    Both the Russian Federation and the US are pursing mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel in light water reactors (LWRs) for the disposition of excess plutonium from disassembled nuclear warheads. Fuel performance models are used which describe the behavior of MOX fuel during irradiation under typical power reactor conditions. The objective of this project is to perform the analysis of the thermal, mechanical, and chemical behavior of weapons MOX fuel pins under LWR conditions. If fuel performance analysis indicates potential questions, it then becomes imperative to assess the fuel pin design and the proposed operating strategies to reduce the probability of clad failure and the associated release of radioactive fission products into the primary coolant system. Applying the updated code to anticipated fuel and reactor designs, which would be used for weapons MOX fuel in the US, and analyzing the performance of the WWER-100 fuel for Russian weapons plutonium disposition are addressed in this report. The COMETHE code was found to do an excellent job in predicting fuel central temperatures. Also, despite minor predicted differences in thermo-mechanical behavior of MOX and UO{sub 2} fuels, the preliminary estimate indicated that, during normal reactor operations, these deviations remained within limits foreseen by fuel pin design.

  14. Capacity planning in a transitional economy: What issues? Which models?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mubayi, V.; Leigh, R.W.; Bright, R.N.

    1996-03-01

    This paper is devoted to an exploration of the important issues facing the Russian power generation system and its evolution in the foreseeable future and the kinds of modeling approaches that capture those issues. These issues include, for example, (1) trade-offs between investments in upgrading and refurbishment of existing thermal (fossil-fired) capacity and safety enhancements in existing nuclear capacity versus investment in new capacity, (2) trade-offs between investment in completing unfinished (under construction) projects based on their original design versus investment in new capacity with improved design, (3) incorporation of demand-side management options (investments in enhancing end-use efficiency, for example) within the planning framework, (4) consideration of the spatial dimensions of system planning including investments in upgrading electric transmission networks or fuel shipment networks and incorporating hydroelectric generation, (5) incorporation of environmental constraints and (6) assessment of uncertainty and evaluation of downside risk. Models for exploring these issues include low power shutdown (LPS) which are computationally very efficient, though approximate, and can be used to perform extensive sensitivity analyses to more complex models which can provide more detailed answers but are computationally cumbersome and can only deal with limited issues. The paper discusses which models can usefully treat a wide range of issues within the priorities facing decision makers in the Russian power sector and integrate the results with investment decisions in the wider economy.

  15. Dose reconstruction for the Urals population. Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research, Project 1.1 -- Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Degteva, M.O.; Drozhko, E.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Napier, B.A.; Bouville, A.C.; Miller, C.W.

    1996-02-01

    This work is being carried out as a feasibility study to determine if a long-term course of work can be implemented to assess the long-term risks of radiation exposure delivered at low to moderate dose rates to the populations living in the vicinity of the Mayak Industrial Association (MIA). This work was authorized and conducted under the auspices of the US-Russian Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER) and its Executive Committee (EC). The MIA was the first Russian site for the production and separation of plutonium. This plant began operation in 1948, and during its early days there were technological failures that resulted in the release of large amounts of waste into the rather small Techa River. There were also gaseous releases of radioiodines and other radionuclides during the early days of operation. In addition, there was an accidental explosion in a waste storage tank in 1957 that resulted in a significant release. The Techa River Cohort has been studied for several years by scientists from the Urals Research Centre for Radiation Medicine and an increase in both leukemia and solid tumors has been noted.

  16. THE MC AND A COUNCIL AT SSC RF - IPPE AS A COORDINATING BODY FOR SYSTEM SUSTAINABILITY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FISHBONE,L.VALENTE,J.HANLEY,T.HIRSCHI,E.J.RUSS,P.SCHERER-KATZ,C.

    2004-07-18

    The State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation--Institute of Physics and Power Engineering's (SSC RF-IPPE) practice of nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A) has undergone significant changes during the period of cooperation with U.S. national laboratories from 1995 to the present. These changes corresponded with general changes of the Russian system of state control and accounting of nuclear materials resulting from the new Concept of the System for State Regulating and Control of Nuclear Materials (1996) and further regulatory documents, which were developed and implemented to take into account international experience in the MC&A [1]. During the upgrades phase of Russian-U.S. cooperation, an MC&A laboratory was specially created within the SSC RF IPPE for the purpose of guiding the creation of the upgraded MC&A system, coordinating the activities of all units involved in the creation of this system, and implementing a unified technical policy during the transition period. After five years of operation of the MC&A laboratory and the implementation of new components for the upgraded MC&A system, it was decided that a greater degree of attention must be paid to the MC&A system's operation in addition to the coordination activities carried out by the MC&A laboratory. To meet this need, an organization for operation of the nuclear material (NM) control and accounting system was created as part of the Division of NM Transportation and Storage. It was also recognized that a new mechanism was required for effective coordination of MC&A activities in IPPE, including the implementation of a unified MC&A policy in methodological, technical and practical areas. This mechanism should allow the IPPE management to gain an objective evaluation of the MC&A system status and provide leading specialists with objective recommendations on maintenance of MC&A system and on basic directions for further improvements. Preliminary discussions indicated that such a mechanism could be created through the establishment of an MC&A Council at SSC RF-IPPE. The MC&A Council has been created in SSC RF-IPPE as an advisory body without administrative functions. However it is stated in the Council Regulations that if the IPPE Director General or his Deputy responsible for NM control and accounting approves Council recommendations, the recommendations become obligatory. In this paper, the experience of the Council and its initial activities are presented and discussed in, as are possible activities and roles the Council could play in the future.

  17. Hydrocarbon gases (free and sorbed) in waters and sediments of the mid-Atlantic ridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudarikov, S.M.; Levshunova, S.P.

    1996-10-01

    Waters and sediments were sampled during the 10-th cruise of the R/V {open_quotes}Geolog Fersman{close_quotes} at several sites of the Mid-Atlantic rift zone. Extensive geochemical analyses including degasing of waters and sediments, luminescence-bituminological analyses, organic-carbon (OC) and C{sub 1}-C{sub 9} fraction content determining have been carried out. According to the microbiological investigations the 65% of the methane are thermogenic and 35% - bacterial. Correlation between bitumen and metals observed in waters may be explained by the formation of metal-organic complexes. Sediments from the Snake Pit field show high contents of bitumen (0.005%) and of C{sub 1}-C{sub 9} hydrocarbons. The process of hydrocarbons generation in ocean rift zones is treated as a result of the interaction between the OC and inorganic fluids containing hydrogen. We thank the Russian Fundamental Science Foundation for financial support.

  18. Suitability of Silica Gel to Process INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste - Letter Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkham, Robert John; Herbst, Alan Keith

    2000-09-01

    The suitability of using the silica gel process for Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) sodium bearing waste was investigated during fiscal year 2000. The study was co-funded by the Tanks Focus Area as part of TTP No. ID-77WT-31 and the High Level Waste Program. The task also included the investigation of possible other absorbents. Scoping tests and examination of past work showed that the silica gel absorption/adsorption and drying method was the most promising; thus only silica gel was studied and not other absorbents. The documentation on the Russian silica gel process provided much of the needed information but did not provide some of the processing detail so these facts had to be inferred or gleaned from the literature.

  19. International shipment of light weight radioisotopic heater units (LWRHU) using the USA/9516/B(U)F Mound 1 kW shipping package in support of the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barklay, C.D.; Merten, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radioisotopes have provided heat that has been used to maintain specific operating environments within remote satellites and spacecraft. For the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fueled light weight radioisotopic heater unit (LWRHU) will be used within the spacecraft. Since the current plan for the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission incorporates the use of a Russian launch platform for the spacecraft, the LWRHUs must be transported in an internationally certified shipping container. An internationally certified shipping package that is versatile enough to be reconfigured to transport the LWRHUs that will be required to support the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission is the Mound USA/9516/B(U)F. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. The prospect of nuclear energy in Türkiye especially after Fukushima accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Şahin, Sümer

    2014-09-30

    Türkiye considers since mid-50's to use nuclear electricity, but Government and bureaucracy have continuously postponed reactor construction. However, since 2010 the case has gained a real shape. Official agreement has been signed for the construction of 4 units of Russian VVER type reactors with installed power of 4×1200 MW{sub el}. It is expected that they will begin to deliver electricity early 20's. Further negotiations are being conducted with Japanese Mitsubashi and French AREVA. The target is to have nuclear electricity by 2023 at the 100{sup th} anniversary of Turkish Republic. Turkish Nuclear Energy Strategy aims; • Decrease country's dependency on foreign suppliers of energy sources • Provide fuel supply mix diversification • Utilization of environmentally friendly energy production technologies Possess advanced and prestigious power generation technologies.

  1. A Digest of Nonproliferation Literature.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duggan, Ruth A.

    2006-04-01

    In preparation for the 2005 US/Russian Weapons Laboratories Directors Meeting, the six laboratories participating in the meeting endeavored to develop a strategy for nonproliferation technology research and development. A literature review was conducted to identify possible areas of technical collaboration and technology opportunities associated with improving nonproliferation associated with the civilian nuclear fuel cycle. The issue of multinationalization of the nuclear fuel cycle was also researched. This digest is the compilation of one-page summaries used by management of the three US nuclear weapons laboratories in preparation for strategy development. Where possible, the Web site address of the complete paper is referenced.3 AcknowledgementsThe author wishes to thank Jessica Ruyle, Nancy Orlando-Gay, and Barbara Dry for their research assistance and contributions.4

  2. Fbis report. Science and technology: Economic review, September 19, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-19

    ;Partial Contents: Germany: Braunschweig University Tests Organic Semiconductors; France: Ariane-5 Tests Suspended; First Tests in Euro-Russian RECORD Rocket Engine Program; France: Renault`s Multi-Model Assembly Line Presented; Germany: New High Speed Trains Under Development; France: Matra Test Drone, Missile Systems; France: Experimental Project for Automobile Recycling; Germany: Survey of Flexible Manufacturing Developments; Germany: Heinrich Hertz Institute Produces Polymer-Based Circuit; French Firms Introduce Computerized Control Room for Nuclear Plants; German Machine Tool Industry Calls for Information Technology Projects; Germany: R&D Achievements in Digital HDTV Reported; Hungary: Secondary Telecommunications Networks Described; EU: Mergers in Pharmaceutical Industry Reported; SGS-Thomson Business Performance Analyzed; Germany`s Siemens Invest Heavily in UK Semiconductor Plant.

  3. Geologic interpretation of gravity anomalies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreyev, B.A.; Klushin, I.G.

    1990-04-19

    This Russian textbook provides a sufficiently complete and systematic illumination of physico-geologic and mathematical aspect of complex problem of interpretation of gravity anomalies. The rational methods of localization of anomalies are examined in detail. All methods of interpreting gravity anomalies are described which have found successful application in practice. Also given are ideas of some new methods of the interpretation of gravity anomalies, the prospects for further development and industrial testing. Numerous practical examples to interpretation are given. Partial Contents: Bases of gravitational field theory; Physico-geologic bases of gravitational prospecting; Principles of geologic interpretation of gravity anomalies; Conversions and calculations of anomalies; Interpretation of gravity anomalies for bodies of correct geometric form and for bodies of arbitrary form; Geologic interpretation of the results of regional gravitational photographing; Searches and prospecting of oil- and gas-bearing structures and of deposits of ore and nonmetalliferous useful minerals.

  4. Study of constitution diagram aluminum-tantalum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glazov, V.M.; Mal'tsev, M.V.; Chistyakov, Y.D.

    1988-10-20

    Alloys of aluminum with tantalum were for the first time obtained by aluminothermic method in 1868 by Moriniak. Later these alloys were studied in the works of Schirmeister (1915) and Brouwer (1938), moreover Brouwer established that tantalum with aluminum forms the chemical compound TaA1, which has tetragonal crystal lattice with parameters a=5.422 angstroms and c=8.536 angstroms (1). However despite the fact that alloys of aluminum with tantalum long ago are obtained already, constitution diagram of this system is not studied until recently. In connection with the application of tantalum as the modifying additive in aluminum alloys an emergency in the construction of this diagram, without the knowledge by which it is not possible to give the correct explanation of the mechanism of the very process of the modification of primary grain. For this purpose was undertaken this work. Russian translations.

  5. Industry decries sharp decline in U. S. offshore activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-11

    Roadblocks to offshore activity in the U.S. drew much of the spotlight at the 24th Offshore Technology Conference last week in Houston. Among OTC highlights included in this paper are: Two panels reviewed how federal leasing moratoriums and regulatory restrictions are reining U.S. offshore development. Conoco Inc.'s manager of exploration and development in Russia detailed the allure of giant and supergiant fields in the Commonwealth of Independent States and reviewed the status of the company's efforts to negotiate E and D deals with Russian partners. Minerals Management Service officials reviewed environmental challenges facing operators on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf and new MMS inspection strategies in the Gulf of Mexico. The 1992 OTC Distinguished Achievement Award for companies went to Brazil's Petroleo Brasileiro SA for deepwater development records set with the 3 Marlim well in the Campos basin off Brazil.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Pelosinus sp. Strain UFO1 Assembled Using Single-Molecule Real-Time DNA Sequencing Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven D. Brown; Sagar M. Utturkar; Timothy S. Magnuson; Allison E. Ray; Farris L. Poole; W. Andrew Lancaster; Michael P. Thorgersen; Michael W. W. Adams; Dwayne A. Elias

    2014-09-01

    Pelosinus fermentans strain R7 was isolated from Russian kaolin clays as the type strain and it can reduce Fe(III) during fermentative growth (1). Draft genome sequences for P. fermentans R7 and four strains from Hanford, Washington, USA, have been published (24). The P. fermentans 16S rRNA sequence dominated the lactate-based enrichment cultures from three geochemically contrasting soils from the Melton Branch Watershed, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA (5) and also at another stimulated, uraniumcontaminated field site near Oak Ridge (6). For the current work, strain UFO1 was isolated from pristine sediments at a background field site in Oak Ridge and characterized as facilitating U(VI) reduction and precipitation with phosphate (7).

  7. Material protection control and accounting program activities at the electrochemical plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAllister, S.

    1997-11-14

    The Electrochemical Plant (ECP) is the one of the Russian Federation`s four uranium enrichment plants and one of three sites in Russia blending high enriched uranium (HEU) into commercial grade low enriched uranium. ECP is located approximately 200 km east of Krasnoyarsk in the closed city of Zelenogorsk (formerly Krasnoyarsk- 45). DOE`s MPC&A program first met with ECP in September of 1996. The six national laboratories participating in DOE`s Material Protection Control and Accounting program are cooperating with ECP to enhance the capabilities of the physical protection, access control, and nuclear material control and accounting systems. The MPC&A work at ECP is expected to be completed during fiscal year 2001.

  8. Cooperative Studies in the Utilization and Storage of Excess Weapons-Grade Plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolyatko, V. V.

    1998-01-29

    This technical report is a tangible and verifiable deliverable associated with the Nuclear Group subproject Cooperative Studies in the Utilization and Storage of Excess Weapons-grade Plutonium. This report is an assessment ofthe work performed by the Russian party from 1 October 1995 through 30 September 1996 regarding milestones defined in the contract between the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) and the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES). In these interactions, TEES serves as agent of the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium (ANRCP) in the capacity oflead institution for the Nuclear Group of the ANRCP. The official Statement ofWork dated 8 April 1996 enumerates specific milestones and deliverables. In its present form, this report is an edited version ofthe translation submitted to TEES by MEPhI on 7 October 1996. The principal investigators for this subproject are Dr. Paul Nelson of TEES and Dr. Victor Bolyatko of the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute.

  9. Cooperative efforts of the materials protection control and accounting program at the electrochemical plant (Krasnoyarsk-45) in Russia-011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, L.

    1998-07-22

    The USDOE Material Protection Control and Accountability Program (MPC&A) has established a Project Team with the goal of providing the Russian Electrochemical Plant (ECP) with equipment and training to enable ECP to evaluate, develop, and implement a comprehensive plan and systems for physical protection, material controls, and accountancy upgrades. The MPC&A project will provide for improvements such as risk assessments, access control upgrades, computerized MC&A, communications systems upgrades, building perimeter surveillance and intrusion detection upgrades, vault upgrades, metal and nuclear material detection upgrades, along with mass measurement and non- destructive analysis (NDA) instrumentation. This paper outlines the overall objectives of the MPC&A project at the Electrochemical Plant.

  10. Material protection control and accounting program activities at the Urals electrochemical integrated plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAllister, S.

    1997-11-14

    The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP) is the Russian Federation`s largest uranium enrichment plant and one of three sites in Russia blending high enriched uranium (HEU) into commercial grade low enriched uranium. UEIP is located approximately 70 km north of Yekaterinburg in the closed city of Novouralsk (formerly Sverdlovsk- 44). DOE`s MPC&A program first met with UEIP in June of 1996, however because of some contractual issues the work did not start until September of 1997. The six national laboratories participating in DOE`s Material Protection Control and Accounting program are cooperating with UEIP to enhance the capabilities of the physical protection, access control, and nuclear material control and accounting systems. The MPC&A work at UEIP is expected to be completed during fiscal year 2001.

  11. Comparison of Spectroscopic Data with Cluster Calculations of Plutonium, Plutonium Dioxide and Uranium Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, J G; Yu, S W; Chung, B W; Ryzhkov, M V; Mirmelstein, A

    2012-05-15

    Using spectroscopic data produced in the experimental investigations of bulk systems, including X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) and Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy (BIS), the theoretical results within for UO{sub 2}{sup 6}, PuO{sub 2}{sup 6} and Pu{sup 7} clusters have been evaluated. The calculations of the electronic structure of the clusters have been performed within the framework of the Relativistic Discrete-Variational Method (RDV). The comparisons between the LLNL experimental data and the Russian calculations are quite favorable. The cluster calculations may represent a new and useful avenue to address unresolved questions within the field of actinide electron structure, particularly that of Pu. Observation of the changes in the Pu electronic structure as a function of size suggests interesting implications for bulk Pu electronic structure.

  12. 2005 Annual Health Physics Report for HEU Transparency Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radev, R

    2006-04-21

    During the 2005 calendar year, LLNL provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium Transparency Program (HEU-TP) in external and internal radiation protection and technical expertise into matters related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2005, there were 161 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 161 person-trips, 149 person-trips were SMVs and 12 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. Additionally, there were 11 monitoring visits by TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIE and 3 to UEIE itself. There were two monitoring visits (source changes) that were back to back with 16 monitors. Each of these concurring visits were treated as single person-trips for dosimetry purposes. Counted individually, there were 191 individual person-visits in 2005. The LLNL Safety Laboratories Division provided the dosimetry services for the HEU-TP monitors.

  13. Material protection, control and accounting cooperation at the Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP), Novouralsk, Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAllister, S., LLNL

    1998-07-15

    The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant is one of the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy`s nuclear material production sites participating in the US Department of Energy`s Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program. The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant is Russia`s largest uranium enrichment facility and blends tons of high-enriched uranium into low enriched uranium each year as part of the US high-enriched uranium purchase. The Electrochemical Integrated Plant and six participating national laboratories are cooperating to implement a series of enhancements to the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability systems at the site This paper outlines the overall objectives of the MPC&A program at Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant and the work completed as of the date of the presentation.

  14. Soviet delays raise prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, I.

    1992-01-15

    The breakup of the Soviet Union is causing massive disruptions to methanol exports. The changeover to a Commonwealth of independent States has created logistical problems which have led some shipments of Russian methanol to be cancelled and delayed other deliveries by up to two weeks. In recent years the Soviet Union has exported 700,000 m.t./year-900,000 m.t./year of methanol, mainly to Western Europe. The product is made at 750,000-m.t./year plants at Tomsk and Gubakha in Russia and transported by rail for shipment from the ports of Ventspils, Latvia, on the Baltic Sea and Yuzhnyy in Ukraine, on the Black Sea. The exports were handled by state export agency Soyuzagrochim, mainly under contract to West European traders and consumers in areas like Scandinavia and France.

  15. Initiatives for proliferation prevention program : goals, projects, and opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemberger, P. H.

    2001-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP) Program is to identify and create commercial opportunities for former weapons scientists currently or formerly involved with weapons of mass destruction in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). IPP was first authorized in Fiscal Year 1994 under Section 575 of Public Law 103-87. IPP currently sponsors 164 projects in Russian at 64 institutes; 16 projects in the Ukraine at 14 institutes; 14 projects in Kazakhstan at 10 institutes; and one project in Belarus. To date, the IPP program has engaged over 10,000 experts in the areas of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and missile development at more than 170 institutes in Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, and Belarus.

  16. Analysis of gas chilling alternatives for Arctic pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dvoiris, A.; McMillan, D.K.; Taksa, B.

    1994-12-31

    The operation of buried natural gas pipelines in Arctic regions requires installation of gas chilling facilities at compressor stations. These facilities are required in order to cool compressed pipeline gases to temperatures below that of permanently frozen surrounding soil. If these pipeline gas temperatures are too high, the frozen ground around the pipelines will eventually thaw. This is undesirable for many reasons amongst which are ground settlement and possible catastrophic failure of the pipeline. This paper presents the results of a study which compared several alternative methods of gas chilling for possible application at one of the compressor stations on the proposed new Yamal-Center gas pipeline system in the Russian Arctic. This technical and economic study was performed by Gulf Interstate Engineering (GIE) for GAZPROM, the gas company in Russia that will own and operate this new pipeline system. Geotechnical, climatical and other information provided by GAZPROM, coupled with information developed by GIE, formed the basis for this study.

  17. SALINITY AND SODICITY INTERACTIONS OF WEATHERED MINESOILS IN NORTHWESTERN NEW MEXICO AND NORTH EASTERN ARIZONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brent Musslewhite; Song Jin

    2006-05-01

    Weathering characteristics of minesoils and rooting patterns of key shrub and grass species were evaluated at sites reclaimed for 6 to 14 years from three surface coal mine operations in northwestern New Mexico and northeastern Arizona. Non-weathered minesoils were grouped into 11 classifications based on electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). Comparisons of saturated paste extracts, from non-weathered and weathered minesoils show significant (p < 0.05) reductions in SAR levels and increased EC. Weathering increased the apparent stability of saline and sodic minesoils thereby reducing concerns of aggregate slaking and clay particle dispersion. Root density of four-wing saltbush (Atriplex canascens), alkali sacaton (Sporobolus airoides), and Russian wildrye (Psathyrostachys junceus) were nominally affected by increasing EC and SAR levels in minesoil. Results suggest that saline and sodic minesoils can be successfully reclaimed when covered with topsoil and seeded with salt tolerant plant species.

  18. Complete genome sequence of Pelosinus sp. strain UFO1 assembled using single-molecule real-time DNA sequencing technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Steven D.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Magnuson, Timothy S.; Ray, Allison E.; Poole, Farris L.; Lancaster, W. Andrew; Thorgersen, Michael P.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2014-09-04

    Pelosinus fermentans strain R7 was isolated from Russian kaolin clays as the type strain and it can reduce Fe(III) during fermentative growth (1). Draft genome sequences for P. fermentans R7 and four strains from Hanford, Washington, USA, have been published (24). The P. fermentans 16S rRNA sequence dominated the lactate-based enrichment cultures from three geochemically contrasting soils from the Melton Branch Watershed, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA (5) and also at another stimulated, uraniumcontaminated field site near Oak Ridge (6). For the current work, strain UFO1 was isolated from pristine sediments at a background field site in Oak Ridge and characterized as facilitating U(VI) reduction and precipitation with phosphate (7).

  19. Complete genome sequence of Pelosinus sp. strain UFO1 assembled using single-molecule real-time DNA sequencing technology

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brown, Steven D.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Magnuson, Timothy S.; Ray, Allison E.; Poole, Farris L.; Lancaster, W. Andrew; Thorgersen, Michael P.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2014-09-04

    Pelosinus fermentans strain R7 was isolated from Russian kaolin clays as the type strain and it can reduce Fe(III) during fermentative growth (1). Draft genome sequences for P. fermentans R7 and four strains from Hanford, Washington, USA, have been published (2–4). The P. fermentans 16S rRNA sequence dominated the lactate-based enrichment cultures from three geochemically contrasting soils from the Melton Branch Watershed, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA (5) and also at another stimulated, uraniumcontaminated field site near Oak Ridge (6). For the current work, strain UFO1 was isolated from pristine sediments at a background field site in Oak Ridge and characterizedmore » as facilitating U(VI) reduction and precipitation with phosphate (7).« less

  20. Plutonium Metallurgy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freibert, Franz J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-09

    Due to its nuclear properties, Pu will remain a material of global interest well into the future. Processing, Structure, Properties and Performance remains a good framework for discussion of Pu materials science Self-irradiation and aging effects continue to be central in discussions of Pu metallurgy Pu in its elemental form is extremely unstable, but alloying helps to stabilize Pu; but, questions remain as to how and why this stabilization occurs. Which is true Pu-Ga binary phase diagram: US or Russian? Metallurgical issues such as solute coring, phase instability, crystallographic texture, etc. result in challenges to casting, processing, and properties modeling and experiments. For Ga alloyed FCC stabilized Pu, temperature and pressure remain as variables impacting phase stability.

  1. Development of Laser Ultrasonic Device for Residual Stress Measurement in Welded Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subudhi, Manomohan

    2009-03-31

    A CRADA project was performed between BNL and SpectraQuest, Inc. of Richmond, Virginia under the auspices of IPP with the DOE support. The purpose was to jointly support Prokhorov General Physics Institute (GPI), Russian Academy of Sciences of Russia to develop a prototype Laser Ultrasonic Impact Testing (LUIT) device which could be commercialized and marketed. The device is based on laser-generated ultrasonic waves and can be used for measuring residual stresses in welded structures using a nondestructive technique. The work was performed from October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2009. The project resulted in development and validation of a prototype LUIT device. GPI - BNL SpectraQuest partnership developed the LUIT device to the point where it could be commercialized and marketed for the special applications in the manufacturing field.

  2. Study of Chelyabinsk LL5 meteorite fragment with a light lithology and its fusion crust using Mssbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maksimova, Alevtina A.; Petrova, Evgeniya V.; Grokhovsky, Victor I.; Oshtrakh, Michael I. Semionkin, Vladimir A.

    2014-10-27

    Study of Chelyabinsk LL5 ordinary chondrite fragment with a light lithology and its fusion crust, fallen on February 15, 2013, in Russian Federation, was carried out using Mssbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. The Mssbauer spectra of the internal matter and fusion crust were fitted and all components were related to iron-bearing phases such as olivine, pyroxene, troilite, Fe-Ni-Co alloy, and chromite in the internal matter and olivine, pyroxene, troilite, Fe-Ni-Co alloy, and magnesioferrite in the fusion crust. A comparison of the content of different phases in the internal matter and in the fusion crust of this fragment showed that ferric compounds resulted from olivine, pyroxene, and troilite combustion in the atmosphere.

  3. Tenth target fabrication specialists` meeting: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foreman, L.R.; Stark, J.C.

    1995-11-01

    This tenth meeting of specialists in target fabrication for inertial confinement is unique in that it is the first meeting that was completely unclassified. As a result of the new classification, we were able to invite more foreign participation. In addition to participants from the US, UK, and Canada, representatives from France, Japan, and two Russian laboratories attended, about 115 in all. This booklet presents full papers and poster sessions. Indirect and direct drive laser implosions are considered. Typical topics include: polymer or aluminium or resorcinol/formaldehyde shells, laser technology, photon tunneling microscopy as a characterization tool, foams, coatings, hohlraums, and beryllium capsules. Hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, and beryllium are all considered as fuels.

  4. Issues in the use of Weapons-Grade MOX Fuel in VVER-1000 Nuclear Reactors: Comparison of UO2 and MOX Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, J.J.

    2005-05-27

    The purpose of this report is to quantify the differences between mixed oxide (MOX) and low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuels and to assess in reasonable detail the potential impacts of MOX fuel use in VVER-1000 nuclear power plants in Russia. This report is a generic tool to assist in the identification of plant modifications that may be required to accommodate receiving, storing, handling, irradiating, and disposing of MOX fuel in VVER-1000 reactors. The report is based on information from work performed by Russian and U.S. institutions. The report quantifies each issue, and the differences between LEU and MOX fuels are described as accurately as possible, given the current sources of data.

  5. Principal physical problems in laser separation of weighable amounts of a rare ytterbium isotope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakovlenko, Sergei I

    1998-11-30

    A review is provided of the work on laser separation of Yb isotopes, carried out at the Institute of General Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences and at the 'Lad' Scientific - Production Enterprise during the last 4 - 5 years. The processes of Yb isotope separation by the AVLIS (atomic vapour laser isotope separation) method were investigated both theoretically (by computer simulation) and experimentally. The main topics considered in the review are the ionisation selectivity, the formation of laser beams and of vapour flow in the cavity, and the extraction of ions from a plasma. A facility for producing highly enriched {sup 168}Yb on an industrial scale is described. The rate of production of the enriched ytterbium is now 5 - 10 mg h{sup -1} (over 1 g per month). Commercially viable production of the enriched {sup 168}Yb isotope by the AVLIS method was achieved for the first time anywhere in the world. (review)

  6. RERTR Fuel Developmemt and Qualification Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Wachs

    2007-01-01

    In late 2003 it became evident that U-Mo aluminum fuels under development exhibited significant fuel performance problems under the irradiation conditions required for conversion of most high-powered research reactors. Solutions to the fuel performance issue have been proposed and show promise in early testing. Based on these results, a Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program strategy has been mapped to allow generic fuel qualification to occur prior to the end of FY10 and reactor conversion to occur prior to the end of FY14. This strategy utilizes a diversity of technologies, test conditions, and test types. Scoping studies using miniature fuel plates will be completed in the time frame of 2006-2008. Irradiation of larger specimens will occur in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in the United States, the Belgian Reactor-2 (BR2) reactor in Belgium, and in the OSIRIS reactor in France in 2006-2009. These scoping irradiation tests provide a large amount of data on the performance of advanced fuel types under irradiation and allow the down selection of technology for larger scale testing during the final stages of fuel qualification. In conjunction with irradiation testing, fabrication processes must be developed and made available to commercial fabricators. The commercial fabrication infrastructure must also be upgraded to ensure a reliable low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel supply. Final qualification of fuels will occur in two phases. Phase I will obtain generic approval for use of dispersion fuels with density less than 8.5 g-U/cm3. In order to obtain this approval, a larger scale demonstration of fuel performance and fabrication technology will be necessary. Several Materials Test Reactor (MTR) plate-type fuel assemblies will be irradiated in both the High Flux Reactor (HFR) and the ATR (other options include the BR2 and Russian Research Reactor, Dmitrovgrad, Russia [MIR] reactors) in 2008-2009. Following postirradiation examination, a report detailing very-high density fuel behavior will be submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Assuming acceptable fuel behavior, it is anticipated that NRC will issue a Safety Evaluation Report granting generic approval of the developed fuels based on the qualification report. It is anticipated that Phase I of fuel qualification will be completed prior to the end of FY10. Phase II of the fuel qualification requires development of fuels with density greater than 8.5 g-U/cm3. This fuel is required to convert the remaining few reactors that have been identified for conversion. The second phase of the fuel qualification effort includes both dispersion fuels with fuel particle volume loading on the order of 65 percent, and monolithic fuels. Phase II presents a larger set of technical unknowns and schedule uncertainties than phase I. The final step in the fuel qualification process involves insertion of lead test elements into the converting reactors. Each reactor that plans to convert using the developed high-density fuels will develop a reactor specific conversion plan based upon the reactor safety basis and operating requirements. For some reactors (FRM-II, High-Flux Isotope Reactor [HFIR], and RHF) conversion will be a one-step process. In addition to the U.S. fuel development effort, a Russian fuel development strategy has been developed. Contracts with Russian Federation institutes in support of fuel development for Russian are in place.

  7. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skiba, James M.; Scherer, Carolynn P.

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  8. THE DOE OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT INTERNATIONAL COOPERATIVE PROGRAM: OVERVIEW OF TECHNICAL TASKS AND RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, J.; Fox, K.; Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2009-12-08

    The DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Office of Engineering and Technology is responsible for implementing EM's International Cooperative Program. Over the past 15 years, collaborative work has been conducted through this program with researchers in Russia, Ukraine, France, United Kingdom and Republic of Korea. Currently, work is being conducted with researchers in Russia and Ukraine. Efforts aimed at evaluating and advancing technologies to support U.S. high-level waste (HLW) vitrification initiatives are being conducted in collaboration with Russian researchers. Work at Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) is targeted at improving the throughput of current vitrification processes by increasing melting rate. These efforts are specifically targeted at challenging waste types identified at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford Site. The objectives of current efforts at SIA Radon are to gain insight into vitrification process limits for the cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) technology. Previous demonstration testing has shown that the CCIM offers the potential for dramatic increases in waste loading and waste throughput. However, little information is known regarding operational limits that could affect long-term, efficient CCIM operations. Collaborative work with the Russian Electrotechnical University (ETU) 'LETI' is aimed at advancing CCIM process monitoring, process control and design. The goal is to further mature the CCIM technology and to establish it as a viable HLW vitrification technology. The greater than two year effort conducted with the International Radioecology Laboratory in the Ukraine recently completed. The objectives of this study were: to assess the long-term impacts to the environment from radiation exposure in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ); and to provide information on remediation guidelines and ecological risk assessment within radioactively contaminated territories around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) based on the results of long-term field monitoring, analytical measurements, and numerical modeling of soils and groundwater radioactive contamination.

  9. AIR SHIPMENT OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM ROMANIA AND LIBYA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher Landers; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Stanley Moses

    2010-07-01

    In June 2009 Romania successfully completed the worlds first air shipment of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without special exceptions for the air transport licenses. Special 20-foot ISO shipping containers and cask tiedown supports were designed to transport Russian TUK 19 shipping casks for the Romanian air shipment and the equipment was certified for all modes of transport, including road, rail, water, and air. In December 2009 Libya successfully used this same equipment for a second air shipment of HEU spent nuclear fuel. Both spent fuel shipments were transported by truck from the originating nuclear facilities to nearby commercial airports, were flown by commercial cargo aircraft to a commercial airport in Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to their final destinations at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. Both air shipments were performed under the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) as part of the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI). The Romania air shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU spent fuel from the VVR S research reactor was the last of three HEU fresh and spent fuel shipments under RRRFR that resulted in Romania becoming the 3rd RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. Libya had previously completed two RRRFR shipments of HEU fresh fuel so the 5.2 kg of HEU spent fuel air shipped from the IRT 1 research reactor in December made Libya the 4th RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. This paper describes the equipment, preparations, and license approvals required to safely and securely complete these two air shipments of spent nuclear fuel.

  10. FinalReport for completed IPP-0110 and 0110A Projects:"High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Ian

    2009-09-01

    The DOE-supported IPP (Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention) Project, IPP-0110, and its accompanying 'add-on project' IPP-0110A, entitled 'High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications' was a collaborative project involving the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) as the U.S. DOE lab; the US surface modification company, Phygen, Inc., as the US private company involved; and the High Current Electronics Institute (HCEI) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Siberia, Russia, as the NIS Institute involved. Regular scientific research progress meetings were held to which personnel came from all participating partners. The meetings were held mostly at the Phygen facilities in Minneapolis, Minnesota (with Phygen as host) with meetings also held at Tomsk, Russia (HCEI as host), and at Berkeley, California (LBNL as host) In this way, good exposure of all researchers to the various different laboratories involved was attained. This report contains the Final Reports (final deliverables) from the Russian Institute, HCEI. The first part is that for IPP-0110A (the 'main part' of the overall project) and the second part is that for the add-on project IPP-0110A. These reports are detailed, and contain all aspects of all the research carried out. The project was successful in that all deliverables as specified in the proposals were successfully developed, tested, and delivered to Phygen. All of the plasma hardware was designed, made and tested at HCEI, and the performance was excellent. Some of the machine and performance parameters were certainly of 'world class'. The goals and requirements of the IPP Project were well satisfied. I would like to express my gratitude to the DOE IPP program for support of this project throughout its entire duration, and for the unparalleled opportunity thereby provided for all of the diverse participants in the project to join in this collaborative research. The benefits are superb, as measured in quite a number of different ways.

  11. FURTHER STUDIES ON UNCERTAINTY, CONFOUNDING, AND VALIDATION OF THE DOSES IN THE TECHA RIVER DOSIMETRY SYSTEM: Concluding Progress Report on the Second Phase of Project 1.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2009-10-23

    This is the concluding Progress Report for Project 1.1 of the U.S./Russia Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER). An overwhelming majority of our work this period has been to complete our primary obligation of providing a new version of the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS), which we call TRDS-2009D; the D denotes deterministic. This system provides estimates of individual doses to members of the Extended Techa River Cohort (ETRC) and post-natal doses to members of the Techa River Offspring Cohort (TROC). The latter doses were calculated with use of the TRDS-2009D. The doses for the members of the ETRC have been made available to the American and Russian epidemiologists in September for their studies in deriving radiogenic risk factors. Doses for members of the TROC are being provided to European and Russian epidemiologists, as partial input for studies of risk in this population. Two of our original goals for the completion of this nine-year phase of Project 1.1 were not completed. These are completion of TRDS-2009MC, which was to be a Monte Carlo version of TRDS-2009 that could be used for more explicit analysis of the impact of uncertainty in doses on uncertainty in radiogenic risk factors. The second incomplete goal was to be the provision of household specific external doses (rather than village average). This task was far along, but had to be delayed due to the lead investigators work on consideration of a revised source term.

  12. Blend Down Monitoring System Fissile Mass Flow Monitor Implementation at the ElectroChemical Plant, Zelenogorsk, Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uckan, T.

    2005-11-11

    The implementation plans and preparations for installation of the Fissile Mass Flow Monitor (FMFM) equipment at the ElectroChemical Plant (ECP), Zelenogorsk, Russia, are presented in this report. The FMFM, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is part of the Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS), developed for the U.S. Department of Energy Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Implementation Program. The BDMS provides confidence to the United States that the Russian nuclear facilities supplying the lower-assay ({approx}4%) product low enriched uranium (P-LEU) to the United States from down-blended weapons-grade HEU are meeting the nonproliferation goals of the government-to-government HEU Purchase Agreement, signed between the Russian Federation and the United States in 1993. The first BDMS has been operational at Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant, Novouralsk, since February 1999 and is successfully providing HEU transparency data to the United States. The second BDMS was installed at ECP in February 2003. The FMFM makes use of a set of thermalized californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) spontaneous neutron sources for a modulated fission activation of the UF{sub 6} gas stream for measuring the {sup 235}U fissile mass flow rate. To do this, the FMFM measures the transport time of the fission fragments created from the fission activation process under the modulated source to the downstream detectors by detecting the delayed gamma rays from the fission fragments. The FMFM provides unattended, nonintrusive measurements of the {sup 235}U mass flow in the HEU, LEU blend stock, and P-LEU process legs. The FMFM also provides the traceability of the HEU flow to the product process leg. This report documents the technical installation requirements and the expected operational characteristics of the ECP FMFM.

  13. Russia`s atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reams, C.A.

    1996-12-01

    Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia`s nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia`s vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia`s nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia`s nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia`s decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia`s nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia.

  14. MC and A instrumentation catalog

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neymotin, L.; Sviridova, V.

    1998-06-01

    In 1981 and 1985, two editions of a catalog of non-destructive nuclear measurement instrumentation, and material control and surveillance equipment, were published by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The last edition of the catalog included one hundred and twenty-five entries covering a wide range of devices developed in the US and abroad. More than ten years have elapsed since the publication of the more recent Catalog. Devices described in it have undergone significant modifications, and new devices have been developed. Therefore, in order to assist specialists in the field of Material Control and Accounting (MC and A), a new catalog has been created. Work on this instrumentation catalog started in 1997 as a cooperative effort of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), operated by Brookhaven Science Associates under contract to the US Department of Energy, and the All-Russian Research Institute of Automatics (VNIIA), subordinate institute of the Atomic Energy Ministry of the Russian Federation, within the collaborative US-Russia Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) Program. Most of the equipment included in the Catalog are non-destructive assay (NDA) measurement devices employed for purposes of accounting, confirmation, and verification of nuclear materials. Other devices also included in the Catalog are employed in the detection and deterrence of unauthorized access to or removal of nuclear materials (material control: containment and surveillance). Equipment found in the Catalog comprises either: (1) complete devices or systems that can be used for MC and A applications; or (2) parts or components of complete systems, such as multi-channel analyzers, detectors, neutron generators, and software. All devices are categorized by their status of development--from prototype to serial production.

  15. The DOE Office of Environmental Management International Cooperative Program: Overview of Technical Tasks and Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, James C.; Fox, Kevin M.; Jannik, Gerald T.; Farfan, Eduardo B.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Roach, Jay; Aloy, A. S.; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Lopukh, D. B.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Han, Ana M.

    2010-01-22

    The DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Office of Engineering and Technology is responsible for implementing EMs International Cooperative Program. Over the past 15 years, collaborative work has been conducted through this program with researchers in Russia, Ukraine, France, United Kingdom and Republic of Korea. Currently, work is being conducted with researchers in Russia and Ukraine. Efforts aimed at evaluating and advancing technologies to support U.S. high-level waste (HLW) vitrification initiatives are being conducted in collaboration with Russian researchers. Work at Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) is targeted at improving the throughput of current vitrification processes by increasing melting rate. These efforts are specifically targeted at challenging waste types identified at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford Site. The objectives of current efforts at SIA Radon are to gain insight into vitrification process limits for the cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) technology. Previous demonstration testing has shown that the CCIM offers the potential for dramatic increases in waste loading and waste throughput. However, little information is known regarding operational limits that could affect long-term, efficient CCIM operations. Collaborative work with the Russian Electrotechnical University (ETU) LETI is aimed at advancing CCIM process monitoring, process control and design. The goal is to further mature the CCIM technology and to establish it as a viable HLW vitrification technology. The greater than two year effort conducted with the International Radioecology Laboratory in the Ukraine recently completed. The objectives of this study were: to assess the long-term impacts to the environment from radiation exposure in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ); and to provide information on remediation guidelines and ecological risk assessment within radioactively contaminated territories around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) based on the results of long-term field monitoring, analytical measurements, and numerical modeling of soils and groundwater radioactive contamination.

  16. Report of the terawatt laser pressure vessel committee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodle, M.H.; Beauman, R.; Czajkowski, C.; Dickinson, T.; Lynch, D.; Pogorelsky, I.; Skjaritka, J.

    2000-09-25

    In 1995 the ATF project sent out an RFP for a CO2 Laser System having a TeraWatt output. Eight foreign and US firms responded. The Proposal Evaluation Panel on the second round selected Optoel, a Russian firm based in St. Petersburg, on the basis of the technical criteria and cost. Prior to the award, BNL representatives including the principal scientist, cognizant engineer and a QA representative visited the Optoel facilities to assess the company's capability to do the job. The contract required Optoel to provide a x-ray preionized high pressure amplifier that included: a high pressure cell, x-ray tube, internal optics and a HV pulse forming network for the main discharge and preionizer. The high-pressure cell consists of a stainless steel pressure vessel with various ports and windows that is filled with a gas mixture operating at 10 atmospheres. In accordance with BNL Standard ESH 1.4.1 ''Pressurized Systems For Experimental Use'', the pressure vessel design criteria is required to comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code In 1996 a Preliminary Design Review was held at BNL. The vendor was requested to furnish drawings so that we could confirm that the design met the above criteria. The vendor furnished drawings did not have all dimensions necessary to completely analyze the cell. Never the less, we performed an analysis on as much of the vessel as we could with the available information. The calculations concluded that there were twelve areas of concern that had to be addressed to assure that the pressure vessel complied with the requirements of the ASME code. This information was forwarded to the vendor with the understanding that they would resolve these concerns as they continued with the vessel design and fabrication. The assembled amplifier pressure vessel was later hydro tested to 220 psi (15 Atm) as well as pneumatically to 181 psi (12.5 Atm) at the fabricator's Russian facility and was witnessed by a BNL engineer. The unit was shipped to the US and installed at the ATF. As part of the commissioning of the device the amplifier pressure vessel was disassembled several times at which time it became apparent that the vendor had not addressed 7 of the 12 issues previously identified. Closer examination of the vessel revealed some additional concerns including quality of workmanship. Although not required by the contract, the vendor furnished radiographs of a number of pressure vessel welds. A review of the Russian X-rays revealed radiographs of both poor and unreadable quality. However, a number of internal weld imperfections could be observed. All welds in question were excavated and then visually and dye penetrant inspected. These additional inspections confirmed that the weld techniques used to make some of these original welds were substandard. The applicable BNL standard, ESH 1.4.1, addresses the problem of pressure vessel non-compliance by having a committee appointed by the Department Chairman review the design and provide engineering solutions to assure equivalent safety. On January 24, 2000 Dr. M. Hart, the NSLS Chairman, appointed this committee with this charge. This report details the engineering investigations, deliberations, solutions and calculations which were developed by members of this committee to determine that with repairs, new components, appropriate NDE, and lowering the design pressure, the vessel can be considered safe to use.

  17. Bipolar plate materials in molten carbonate fuel cells. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krumpelt, M. Gorelov, A. M.

    2004-06-01

    Advantages of implementation of power plants based on electrochemical reactions are successfully demonstrated in the USA and Japan. One of the msot promising types of fuel cells (FC) is a type of high temperature fuel cells. At present, thanks to the efforts of the leading countries that develop fuel cell technologies power plants on the basis of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are really close to commercialization. One of the problems that are to be solved for practical implementation of MCFC and SOFC is a problem of corrosion of metal components of stacks that are assembled of a number of fuel cells. One of the major components of MCFC and SOFC stacks is a bipolar separator plate (BSP) that performs several functions - it is separation of reactant gas flows sealing of the joints between fuel cells, and current collection from the surface of electrodes. The goal of Task 1 of the project is to develop new cost-effective nickel coatings for the Russian 20X23H18 steel for an MCFC bipolar separator plate using technological processes usually implemented to apply corrosion stable coatings onto the metal parts for products in the defense. There was planned the research on production of nickel coatings using different methods, first of all the galvanic one and the explosion cladding one. As a result of the works, 0.4 x 712 x 1296 mm plates coated with nickel on one side were to be made and passed to ANL. A line of 4 galvanic baths 600 liters was to be built for the galvanic coating applications. The goal of Task 2 of the project is the development of a new material of an MCFC bipolar separator plate with an upgraded corrosion stability, and development of a technology to produce cold roll sheets of this material the sizes of which will be 0.8 x 712x 1296 mm. As a result of these works, a pilot batch of the rolled material in sheets 0.8 x 712 x 1296 mm in size is to be made (in accordance with the norms and standards of the Russian metallurgical industry) and supplied to the partner for tests in a stack of fuel cells. A feasibility study on the cost of the Russian material for a BSP is to be done on Tasks 1, 2 in case the annual order makes up 400,000 sheets. The goal of Task 3 of the project is to research on possible implementation of cermet compositions on the basis of LiAlO{sub 2}, TiN, B{sub 4}C, ceramics with Ni and Ni-Mo binders. BaCeO{sub 3} conductive ceramics with metal binders of Ni, Ni-Cr etc. were also planned to be studied. As a result of these works, a pilot batch of samples is to be made and passed to FCE for tests. The goal of Task 4 of the Project is development of a new alloy or alloys with a ceramic coating that will have upgraded corrosion stability in operation within a SOFC. A new alloy was to be worked out by the way of modification of compositions of industrial alloys. Ceramic coatings are to be applied onto ferrite steel produced serially by iron and steel industry of Russia as sheet iron.

  18. Technology on In-Situ Gas Generation to Recover Residual Oil Reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayavur Bakhtiyarov

    2008-02-29

    This final technical report covers the period October 1, 1995 to February 29, 2008. This chapter begins with an overview of the history of Enhanced Oil Recovery techniques and specifically, CO2 flood. Subsequent chapters conform to the manner consistent with the Activities, Tasks, and Sub-tasks of the project as originally provided in Exhibit C1 in the Project Management Plan dated September 20, 1995. These chapters summarize the objectives, status and conclusions of the major project activities performed during the project period. The report concludes by describing technology transfer activities stemming from the project and providing a reference list of all publications of original research work generated by the project team or by others regarding this project. The overall objective of this project was a final research and development in the United States a technology that was developed at the Institute for Geology and Development of Fossil Fuels in Moscow, Russia. Before the technology can be convincingly adopted by United States oil and gas producers, the laboratory research was conducted at Mew Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. The experimental studies were conducted to measure the volume and the pressure of the CO{sub 2} gas generated according to the new Russian technology. Two experimental devices were designed, built and used at New Mexico Tech facilities for these purposes. The designed setup allowed initiating and controlling the reaction between the 'gas-yielding' (GY) and 'gas-forming' (GF) agents proposed by Russian technology. The temperature was controlled, and the generated gas pressure and volume were recorded during the reaction process. Additionally, the effect of surfactant addition on the effectiveness of the process was studied. An alternative GY reactant was tested in order to increase the efficiency of the CO2 gas generation process. The slim tube and the core flood experimental studies were conducted to define the sweep efficiency of the in-situ generated CO{sub 2} gas. A set of core flood experiments were conducted to define effect of surfactant on recovery efficiency. The results demonstrated obvious advantages of the foamy system over the brine solution in order to achieve higher sweep efficiency and recovery coefficient. It is shown that a slug injection is not an efficient method for mixing GY and GF solutions and it can't generate considerable gas inside the slim-tube.

  19. Blend Down Monitoring System Fissile Mass Flow Monitor and its Implementation at the Siberian Chemical Enterprise, Seversk, Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uckan, T

    2005-07-28

    In this paper the implementation plans and preparations for installation of the Fissile Mass Flow Monitor (FMFM) equipment at the Siberian Chemical Enterprise (SChE), Seversk, Russia, are presented. The FMFM, developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is part of the Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS) for the U.S. Department of Energy Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Implementation Program. The BDMS provides confidence to the United States that the Russian nuclear facilities supplying the lower assay ({approx}4%) product low enriched uranium (PLEU) to the United States from down-blended weapon-grade HEU are meeting the nonproliferation goals of the government-to-government HEU purchase agreement signed between the Russian Federation and the United States in 1993. The first BDMS has been operational at Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant, Novouralsk, since February 1999. The second BDMS has been operational at Electro Chemical Plant, Zelenogorsk, since March 2003. These systems are successfully providing HEU transparency data to the United States. The third BDMS was successfully installed on the HEU down-blending tee in the SChE Enrichment Plant in October 2004. The FMFM makes use of a set of thermalized {sup 252}Cf spontaneous neutron sources for modulated fission activation of the UF{sub 6} gas stream for measuring the {sup 235}U fissile mass flow rate. To do this, the FMFM measures the transport time of the fission fragments created from the fission activation process under the modulated source to the downstream detectors by detecting the delayed gamma rays from the fission fragments retained in the flow. The FMFM provides unattended nonintrusive measurements of the {sup 235}U mass flow of the UF{sub 6} gas in the blending tee legs of HEU, the LEU blend stock, and the resulting P-LEU. The FMFM also confirms that highly enriched UF{sub 6} gas identified in the HEU leg flows through the blending tee into the P-LEU leg. This report contains details of the SChE FMFM equipment characteristics as well as the technical installation requirements and the latest measurement results.

  20. Nuclear Material Control and Accountability System Effectiveness Tool (MSET)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H; Roche, Charles T; Campbell, Billy J; Hammond, Glenn A; Meppen, Bruce W; Brown, Richard F

    2011-01-01

    A nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) has been developed in the United States for use in evaluating material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) systems in nuclear facilities. The project was commissioned by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of International Material Protection and Cooperation. MSET was developed by personnel with experience spanning more than six decades in both the U.S. and international nuclear programs and with experience in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in the nuclear power industry. MSET offers significant potential benefits for improving nuclear safeguards and security in any nation with a nuclear program. MSET provides a design basis for developing an MC&A system at a nuclear facility that functions to protect against insider theft or diversion of nuclear materials. MSET analyzes the system and identifies several risk importance factors that show where sustainability is essential for optimal performance and where performance degradation has the greatest impact on total system risk. MSET contains five major components: (1) A functional model that shows how to design, build, implement, and operate a robust nuclear MC&A system (2) A fault tree of the operating MC&A system that adapts PRA methodology to analyze system effectiveness and give a relative risk of failure assessment of the system (3) A questionnaire used to document the facility's current MPC&A system (provides data to evaluate the quality of the system and the level of performance of each basic task performed throughout the material balance area [MBA]) (4) A formal process of applying expert judgment to convert the facility questionnaire data into numeric values representing the performance level of each basic event for use in the fault tree risk assessment calculations (5) PRA software that performs the fault tree risk assessment calculations and produces risk importance factor reports on the facility's MC&A (software widely used in the aerospace, chemical, and nuclear power industries) MSET was peer reviewed in 2007 and validated in 2008 by benchmark testing at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States. The MSET documents were translated into Russian and provided to Rosatom in July of 2008, and MSET is currently being evaluated for potential application in Russian Nuclear Facilities.

  1. Radkowsky Thorium Fuel Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todosow, Michael

    2006-12-31

    In the early/mid 1990s Prof. Alvin Radkowsky, former chief scientist of the U.S. Naval Reactors program, proposed an alternate fuel concept employing thorium-based fuel for use in existing/next generation pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The concept was based on the use of a 'seed-blanket-unit' (SBU) that was a one-for-one replacement for a standard PWR assembly with a uranium-based central 'driver' zone, surrounded by a 'blanket' zone containing uranium and thorium. Therefore, the SBU could be retrofit without significant modifications into existing/next generation PWRs. The objective was to improve the proliferation and waste characteristics of the current once-through fuel cycle. The objective of a series of projects funded by the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE-IPP) - BNL-T2-0074,a,b-RU 'Radkowsky Thorium Fuel (RTF) Concept' - was to explore the characteristics and potential of this concept. The work was performed under several BNL CRADAs (BNL-C-96-02 and BNL-C-98-15) with the Radkowsky Thorium Power Corp./Thorium Power Inc. and utilized the technical and experimental capabilities in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) to explore the potential of this concept for implementation in Russian pressurized water reactors (VVERs), and where possible, also generate data that could be used for design and licensing of the concept for Western PWRs. The Project in Russia was managed by the Russian Research Center-'Kurchatov Institute'(RRC-KI), and included several institutes (e.g., PJSC 'Electrostal', NPO 'LUCH' (Podolsk), RIINM (Bochvar Institute), GAN RF (Gosatomnadzor), Kalininskaja NPP (VVER-1000)), and consisted of the following phases: Phase-1 ($550K/$275K to Russia): The objective was to perform an initial review of all aspects of the concept (design, performance, safety, implementation issues, cost, etc.) to confirm feasibility/viability and identify any show-stoppers; Phase-2 ($600K/$300K to Russia): Continued the activities initiated under Phase-1 with a focus on expanded design and safety analyses, and to address fuel fabrication and testing issues; and, Phase-3 ($300K/$290K to Russia): Focus on thermal-hydraulic testing at Kurchatov for both VVER and PWR lattices.

  2. Exploring the Possible Use of Information Barriers for future Biological Weapons Verification Regimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luke, S J

    2011-12-20

    This report describes a path forward for implementing information barriers in a future generic biological arms-control verification regime. Information barriers have become a staple of discussion in the area of arms control verification approaches for nuclear weapons and components. Information barriers when used with a measurement system allow for the determination that an item has sensitive characteristics without releasing any of the sensitive information. Over the last 15 years the United States (with the Russian Federation) has led on the development of information barriers in the area of the verification of nuclear weapons and nuclear components. The work of the US and the Russian Federation has prompted other states (e.g., UK and Norway) to consider the merits of information barriers for possible verification regimes. In the context of a biological weapons control verification regime, the dual-use nature of the biotechnology will require protection of sensitive information while allowing for the verification of treaty commitments. A major question that has arisen is whether - in a biological weapons verification regime - the presence or absence of a weapon pathogen can be determined without revealing any information about possible sensitive or proprietary information contained in the genetic materials being declared under a verification regime. This study indicates that a verification regime could be constructed using a small number of pathogens that spans the range of known biological weapons agents. Since the number of possible pathogens is small it is possible and prudent to treat these pathogens as analogies to attributes in a nuclear verification regime. This study has determined that there may be some information that needs to be protected in a biological weapons control verification regime. To protect this information, the study concludes that the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array may be a suitable technology for the detection of the genetic information associated with the various pathogens. In addition, it has been determined that a suitable information barrier could be applied to this technology when the verification regime has been defined. Finally, the report posits a path forward for additional development of information barriers in a biological weapons verification regime. This path forward has shown that a new analysis approach coined as Information Loss Analysis might need to be pursued so that a numerical understanding of how information can be lost in specific measurement systems can be achieved.

  3. Magnetic-compression/magnetized-target fusion (MAGO/MTF): A marriage of inertial and magnetic confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindemuth, I.R.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    Intermediate between magnetic confinement (MFE) and inertial confinement (ICF) in time and density scales is an area of research now known in the US as magnetized target fusion (MTF) and in Russian as MAGO (MAGnitnoye Obzhatiye--magnetic compression). MAGO/MTF uses a magnetic field and preheated, wall-confined plasma fusion fuel within an implodable fusion target. The magnetic field suppresses thermal conduction losses in the fuel during the target implosion and hydrodynamic compression heating process. In contrast to direct, hydrodynamic compression of initially ambient-temperature fuel (i.e., ICF), MAGO/MTF involves two steps: (a) formation of a warm (e.g., 100 eV or higher), magnetized (e.g., 100 kG) plasma within a fusion target prior to implosion; (b) subsequent quasi-adiabatic compression by an imploding pusher, of which a magnetically driven imploding liner is one example. In this paper, the authors present ongoing activities and potential future activities in this relatively unexplored area of controlled thermonuclear fusion.

  4. Physics Division progress report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollen, G.Y.; Schappert, G.T.

    1994-07-01

    This report discusses its following topics: Recent Weapons-Physics Experiments on the Pegasus II Pulsed Power Facility; Operation of a Large-Scale Plasma Source Ion Implantation Experiment; Production of Charm and Beauty Mesons at Fermilab Sudbury Neutrino Observatory; P-Division`s Essential Role in the Redirected Inertial Confinement Fusion Program; Trident Target Physics Program; Comparative Studies of Brain Activation with Magnetocephalography and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Cellular Communication, Interaction of G-Proteins, and Single-Photon Detection; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Oxygen-doped La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+{delta}} Thermoacoustic Engines; A Shipborne Raman Water-Vapor Lidar for the Central Pacific Experiment; Angara-5 Pinch Temperature Verification with Time-resolved Spectroscopy; Russian Collaborations on Megagauss Magnetic Fields and Pulsed-Power Applications; Studies of Energy Coupling from Underground Explosions; Trapping and Cooling Large Numbers of Antiprotons: A First Step Toward the Measurement of Gravity on Antimatter; and Nuclear-Energy Production Without a Long-Term High-Level Waste Stream.

  5. Plutonium Focus Area research and development plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) committed to a research and development program to support the technology needs for converting and stabilizing its nuclear materials for safe storage. The R and D Plan addresses five of the six material categories from the 94-1 Implementation Plan: plutonium (Pu) solutions, plutonium metals and oxides, plutonium residues, highly enriched uranium, and special isotopes. R and D efforts related to spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stabilization were specifically excluded from this plan. This updated plan has narrowed the focus to more effectively target specific problem areas by incorporating results form trade studies. Specifically, the trade studies involved salt; ash; sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C); combustibles; and scrub alloy. The plan anticipates possible disposition paths for nuclear materials and identifies resulting research requirements. These requirements may change as disposition paths become more certain. Thus, this plan represents a snapshot of the current progress and will continue to be updated on a regular basis. The paper discusses progress in safeguards and security, plutonium stabilization, special isotopes stabilization, highly-enriched uranium stabilization--MSRE remediation project, storage technologies, engineered systems, core technology, and proposed DOE/Russian technology exchange projects.

  6. Plutonium stabilization and disposition focus area, FY 1999 and FY 2000 multi-year program plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-03-01

    Consistent with the Environmental Management`s (EM`s) plan titled, ``Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure``, and ongoing efforts within the Executive Branch and Congress, this Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for the Plutonium Focus Area was written to ensure that technical gap projects are effectively managed and measured. The Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) defines and manages technology development programs that contribute to the effective stabilization of nuclear materials and their subsequent safe storage and final disposition. The scope of PFA activities includes the complete spectrum of plutonium materials, special isotopes, and other fissile materials. The PFA enables solutions to site-specific and complex-wide technology issues associated with plutonium remediation, stabilization, and preparation for disposition. The report describes the current technical activities, namely: Plutonium stabilization (9 studies); Highly enriched uranium stabilization (2 studies); Russian collaboration program (2 studies); Packaging and storage technologies (6 studies); and PFA management work package/product line (3 studies). Budget information for FY 1999 and FY 2000 is provided.

  7. Project of a Super Charm-Tau factory at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bondar, A. E.

    2013-09-15

    A project of a Super Charm-Tau factory is being developed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences) in Novosibirsk. The electron-positron collider to be employed will operate at c.m. energies in the range between 2 and 5 GeV at an unprecedentedly high luminosity of 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} with a longitudinal electron polarization at the beam-interaction point. The main objective of experiments at the Super Charm-Tau factory is to study processes involving the production and properties of charmed quarks and tau leptons. A high luminosity of this setup will make it possible to obtain a statistical data sample that will be three to four orders of magnitude vaster than that from any other experiment performed thus far. Experiments at this setup are assumed to be sensitive to effects of new physics beyond the Standard Model. Investigations to be carried out at the Super-Charm-Tau factory will supplement future experiments at Super-B factories under construction in Italy and in Japan.

  8. Industrial Technology of Decontamination of Liquid Radioactive Waste in SUE MosSIA 'Radon' - 12371

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamovich, Dmitry V.; Neveykin, Petr P.; Karlin, Yuri V.; Savkin, Alexander E. [SUE MosSIA 'Radon', 7th Rostovsky lane 2/14, Moscow 119121 (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    SUE MosSIA 'RADON' - this enterprise was created more than 50 years ago, which deals with the recycling of radioactive waste and conditioning of spent sources of radiation in stationary and mobile systems in the own factory and operating organizations. Here is represented the experience SUE MosSIA 'Radon' in the field of the management with liquid radioactive waste. It's shown, that the activity of SUE MosSIA 'RADON' is developing in three directions - improvement of technical facilities for treatment of radioactive waters into SUE MosSIA 'RADON' development of mobile equipment for the decontamination of radioactive waters in other organizations, development of new technologies for decontamination of liquid radioactive wastes as part of various domestic Russian and international projects including those related to the operation of nuclear power and nuclear submarines. SUE MosSIA 'RADON' has processed more than 270 thousand m{sup 3} of radioactive water, at that more than 7000 m{sup 3} in other organizations for more than 50 years. It is shown that a number of directions, particularly, the development of mobile modular units for decontamination of liquid radioactive waste, SUE MosSIA 'RADON' is a leader in the world. (authors)

  9. Soft x-ray diagnostics for pulsed power machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Idzorek, G.C.; Coulter, W.L.; Walsh, P.J.; Montoya, R.R.

    1995-08-01

    A variety of soft x-ray diagnostics are being fielded on the Los Alamos National Laboratory Pegasus and Procyon pulsed power systems and also being fielded on joint US/Russian magnetized target fusion experiments known as MAGO (Magnitoye Obzhatiye). The authors have designed a low-cost modular photoemissive detector designated the XRD-96 that uses commercial 1100 series aluminum for the photocathode. In addition to photocathode detectors a number of designs using solid state silicon photodiodes have been designed and fielded. They also present a soft x-ray time-integrated pinhole camera system that uses standard type TMAX-400 photographic film that obviates the need for expensive and no longer produced zero-overcoat soft x-ray emulsion film. In a typical experiment the desired spectral energy cuts, signal intensity levels, and desired field of view will determine diagnostic geometry and x-ray filters selected. The authors have developed several computer codes to assist in the diagnostic design process and data deconvolution. Examples of the diagnostic design process and data analysis for a typical pulsed power experiment are presented.

  10. Design Modifications for Increasing the BOM and EOM Power Output and Reducing the Size and Mass of RTG for the Pluto Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred; Or, Chuen T; Kumar, Vasanth

    1994-06-01

    A companion paper analyzed the effect on source modules for three specific fuel options, and compared the predicted power output with JPL's latest goals for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission. The results showed that a 5-module RTG cannot fully meet JPL's goals with any of the available fuels; and that a 6-module RTG more than meets those goals with Russian fuel, almost meets them with U.S. (Cassini-type) fuel, but still falls far short of meeting them with the depleted fuel from the aged (1982) Galileo spare RTG. The inadequacy of the aged fuel was disappointing,because heat source modules made from it already exist, and their use in PFF could result in substantial cost savings. The present paper describes additional analyses which showed that a six-module RTG with the aged fuel can meet JPL's stipulated power margin with a relatively simple design modification, that a second design modification makes it possible to recover all of the mass and size penalty for going from five to six heat source modules, and that a third modification could raise the EOM power margin to 16%. There are four copies in the file. Cross Reference ESD Files FSC-ESD-217-94-531 (CID #8572)

  11. Logistical concepts associated with international shipments using the USA/9904/B(U)F RTG Transportation System (RTGTS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barklay, C.D.; Miller, R.G.; Pugh, B.K.; Howell, E.I.

    1997-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, radioisotopes have provided heat from which electrical power is generated. For space missions, the isotope of choice has generally been {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}, its long half-life making it ideal for supplying power to remote satellites and spacecraft like the Voyager, Pioneer, and Viking missions, as well as the recently launched Galileo and Ulysses missions, and the presently planned Cassini mission. Electric power for future space missions will be provided by either radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTG), radioisotope thermophotovoltaic systems (RTPV), alkali metal thermal to electrical conversion (AMTEC) systems, radioisotope Stirling systems, or a combination of these. The type of electrical power system has yet to be specified for the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission. However, the current plan does incorporate the use of Russian launch platforms for the spacecraft. The implied tasks associated with this plan require obtaining international certification for the transport of the radioisotopic power system, and resolving any logistical issues associated with the actual shipment of the selected radioisotopic power system. This paper presents a conceptual summary of the logistical considerations associated with shipping the selected radioisotopic power system using the USA/9904/B(U)F-85, Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS). {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Logistical concepts associated with international shipments using the USA/9904/B(U)F RTG Transportation System (RTGTS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barklay, Chadwick D.; Miller, Roger G.; Pugh, Barry K.; Howell, Edwin I.

    1997-01-10

    Over the last 30 years, radioisotopes have provided heat from which electrical power is generated. For space missions, the isotope of choice has generally been {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}, its long half-life making it ideal for supplying power to remote satellites and spacecraft like the Voyager, Pioneer, and Viking missions, as well as the recently launched Galileo and Ulysses missions, and the presently planned Cassini mission. Electric power for future space missions will be provided by either radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTG), radioisotope thermophotovoltaic systems (RTPV), alkali metal thermal to electrical conversion (AMTEC) systems, radioisotope Stirling systems, or a combination of these. The type of electrical power system has yet to be specified for the 'Pluto Express' mission. However, the current plan does incorporate the use of Russian launch platforms for the spacecraft. The implied tasks associated with this plan require obtaining international certification for the transport of the radioisotopic power system, and resolving any logistical issues associated with the actual shipment of the selected radioisotopic power system. This paper presents a conceptual summary of the logistical considerations associated with shipping the selected radioisotopic power system using the USA/9904/B(U)F-85, Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS)

  13. Design Modifications for Increasing the BOm and EOM Power Output and Reducing the Size and Mass of RTG for the Pluto Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred; Or, Chuen T; Kumar, Vasanth

    1994-08-01

    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. A companion paper analyzed the effect on source modules for three specific fuel options, and compared the predicted power output with JPL's latest goals for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission. The results showed that a 5-module RTG cannot fully meet JPL's goals with any of the available fuels; and that a 6-module RTG more than meets those goals with Russian fuel, almost meets them with U.S. (Cassini-type) fuel, but still falls far short of meeting them with the depleted fuel from the aged (1982) Galileo spare RTG. The inadequacy of the aged fuel was disappointing,because heat source modules made from it already exist, and their use in PFF could result in substantial cost savings. The present paper describes additional analyses which showed that a six-module RTG with the aged fuel can meet JPL's stipulated power margin with a relatively simple design modification, that a second design modification makes it possible to recover all of the mass and size penalty for going from five to six heat source modules, and that a third modification could raise the EOM power margin to 16%.

  14. Design considerations for 100 MJ class flux compression pulse power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinovsky, R.E.; Lindemuth, I.R.

    1993-10-01

    With the cost of high performance, capacitor-discharge, pulse power systems continuing around $1--2 per joule and with energy requirements for experiments such as fast compression of magnetized plasmas ranging to 100 MJ and beyond, the need for economical, super-energy pulse power systems is being recognized. Explosively powered flux compressors, capable of delivering 100 MJ to a plasma physics experiment, can be designed, fabricated, and fielded at costs of less than $0.01J per shot. While less economical than laboratory pulsed power systems, if system life exceeds a few hundred full-energy shots, explosive pulse power techniques allow initial experiments to be performed quickly and economically at energies that are prohibitively costly, and hence unavailable, using conventional techniques. A variety of configurations for flux compressors suitable for 100-MJ operation can be considered. Among these, the disk configuration, pioneered by researchers at the All Russian Institute of Experimental Physics has demonstrated both high current and high energy capabilities.

  15. Six- and three-hourly meteorological observations from 223 USSR stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Razuvaev, V.N.; Apasova, E.B.; Martuganov, R.A.; Kaiser, D.P.

    1995-04-01

    This document describes a database containing 6- and 3-hourly meteorological observations from a 223-station network of the former Soviet Union. These data have been made available through cooperation between the two principal climate data centers of the United States and Russia: the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), in Asheville, North Carolina, and the All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information -- World Data Centre (RIHMI-WDC) in Obninsk. Station records consist of 6- and 3-hourly observations of some 24 meteorological variables including temperature, weather type, precipitation amount, cloud amount and type, sea level pressure, relative humidity, and wind direction and speed. The 6-hourly observations extend from 1936 to 1965; the 3-hourly observations extend from 1966 through the mid-1980s (1983, 1984, 1985, or 1986; depending on the station). These data have undergone extensive quality assurance checks by RIHMI-WDC, NCDC, and the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The database represents a wealth of meteorological information for a large and climatologically important portion of the earth`s land area, and should prove extremely useful for a wide variety of regional climate change studies. These data are available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of this document and 40 data files that are available via the Internet or on 8mm tape. The total size of the database is {approximately}2.6 gigabytes.

  16. Commissioning Measurements and Experience Obtained from the Installation of a Fissile Mass Flow monitor in the URAL Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP) in Novouralsk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    March-Leuba, J.; Mastal, E.; Powell, D.; Sumner, J.; Uckan, T.; Vines, V.

    1999-07-25

    The Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS) equipment sent earlier to the Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP) at Novouralsk, Russia, was installed and implemented successfully on February 2, 1999. The BDMS installation supports the highly enriched uranium (HEU) Transparency Implementation Program for material subject to monitoring under the HEU purchase agreement between the United States of America (USA) and the Russian Federation (RF). The BDMS consists of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fissile (uranium-235) Mass Flow Monitor (FMFM) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Enrichment Monitor (EM). Two BDMS?s for monitoring the Main and Reserve HEU blending process lines were installed at UEIP. Independent operation of the FMFM Main and FMFM Reserve was successfully demonstrated for monitoring the fissile mass flow as well as the traceability of HEU to the product low enriched uranium. The FMFM systems failed when both systems were activated during the calibration phase due to a synchronization problem between the systems. This operational failure was caused by the presence of strong electromagnetic interference (EMI) in the blend point. The source-modulator shutter motion of the two FMFM systems was not being properly synchronized because of EMI producing a spurious signal on the synchronization cable connecting the two FMFM cabinets. The signature of this failure was successfully reproduced at ORNL after the visit. This unexpected problem was eliminated by a hardware modification and software improvements during a recent visit (June 9-11, 1999) to UEIP, and both systems are now operating as expected.

  17. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1996-10-01

    An extensive review is given of the US and Russian efforts on peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (PNE). The Soviet PNE program was many times larger than the US Plowshare program in terms of both the number of applications explored with field experiments and the extent to which they were introduced into industrial use. Several PNE applications, such as deep seismic sounding and oil stimulation, have been explored in depth and appear to have had a positive cost benefit at minimal public risk. Closure of runaway gas wells is another possible application where all other techniques fail. However, the fundamental problem with PNEs is the fact that, if they are to be economically significant, there must be widespread use of the technology, involving large numbers of sites, each of which presents a potential source of radioactivity to the environment and nearby communities. Russia now has more than 100 sites where significant high-level radioactivity has been buried. Experience over the last 20 years in US and in today`s Russia shows that it is virtually impossible to gain public acceptance of such applications of nuclear energy. In addition, PNEs also pose a difficult problem in the arms control area. Under a comprehensive test ban, any country conducting PNEs would, in appearance if not in fact, receive information useful for designing new nuclear weapons or maintaining an existing nuclear stockpile, information denied to the other parties to the treaty. 6 tabs, 10 figs.

  18. The use of information technology security assessment criteria to protect specialized computer systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lykov, V.A.; Shein, A.V.; Piskarev, A.S.; Devaney, D.M.; Melton, R.B.; Hunteman, W.J.; Prommel, J.M.; Rothfuss, J.S.

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the information security assessment criteria used in Russia and compare it with that used in the United States. The computer system security assessment criteria utilized by the State Technical Commission of Russia and similar criteria utilized by the US Department of Defense (TCSEC) are intended for the development and implementation of proven methods for achieving a required level of information security. These criteria are utilized, first and foremost, when conducting certification assessments of general purpose systems. The Russian Federation is creating specialized systems for nuclear material control and accountancy (MC and A) within the framework of the international laboratory-to-laboratory collaboration. Depending on the conditions in which the MC and A system is intended to operate, some of the criteria and the attendant certification requirements may exceed those established or may overlap the requirements established for attestation of such systems. In this regard it is possible to modify the certification and attestation requirements depending on the conditions in which a system will operate in order to achieve the ultimate goal--implementation of the systems in the industry.

  19. The adequacy of current import and export controls on sealed radioactive sources.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longley, Susan W.; Cochran, John Russell; Price, Laura L.; Lipinski, Kendra J.

    2003-10-01

    Millions of sealed radioactive sources (SRSs) are being used for a wide variety of beneficial purposes throughout the world. Security experts are now concerned that these beneficial SRSs could be used in a radiological dispersion device to terrorize and disrupt society. The greatest safety and security threat is from those highly radioactive Category 1 and 2 SRSs. Without adequate controls, it may be relatively easy to legally purchase a Category 1 or 2 SRS on the international market under false pretenses. Additionally, during transfer, SRSs are particularly susceptible to theft since the sources are in a shielded and mobile configuration, transportation routes are predictable, and shipments may not be adequately guarded. To determine if government controls on SRS are adequate, this study was commissioned to review the current SRS import and export controls of six countries. Canada, the Russian Federation, and South Africa were selected as the exporting countries, and Egypt, the Philippines, and the United States were selected as importing countries. A detailed review of the controls in each country is presented. The authors found that Canada and Russia are major exporters, and are exporting highly radioactive SRSs without first determining if the recipient is authorized by the receiving country to own and use the SRSs. Available evidence was used to estimate that on average there are tens to possibly hundreds of intercountry transfers of highly radioactive SRSs each day. Based on these and other findings, this reports recommends stronger controls on the export and import of highly radioactive SRSs.

  20. Gazprom follows unique course to privatization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Surovtsev, D.

    1996-03-25

    Unlike the oil industry, Russian gas is dominated by an officially sanctioned monopoly--Joint Stock Society (RAO) Gazprom. The company produces, transports, and exports most of the gas in Russia, the world leader in gas reserves. Two major challenges confront Gazprom as it adapts to existence as a private concern. One is financing of a major pipeline to Europe for export of gas produced in fields under development in the Yamal Peninsula. The other is collection of debts owed it by customers, both in and outside of Russia, for past gas deliveries. While it grapples with those challenges and the strains of operating a huge gas production and transportation system, Gazprom also must deal with questions about whether it should continue as a monopoly--questions not likely to be answered until Russia`s political situation is more certain than it is now. This paper reviews Gazprom`s production, processing, gas transportation, and marketing businesses. It describes its financing strategies for construction of new pipelines.

  1. MC&A System Effectiveness Tool (MSET) (Presentation 2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    MSET is a self-assessment or inspection tool utilizing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology to calculate the system effectiveness of a nuclear facility's material control and accountability (MC&A) system. MSET analyzes the effectiveness of an MC&A system based on defined performance metrics for MC&A functions defined based on U.S. and international best practices and regulations. MSET analysis is based on performance of the entire MC&A system including defense-in-depth attributes and sensitivity analysis of changes in the system, both positive and negative. MSET analysis considers: accounting; containment; access control; surveillance capabilities of the system; and other interfaces with the physical protection systems that provide detection of an unauthorized action. MSET performs a system effectiveness calculation evaluation against a defined performance metric. MSET uses PRA techniques to analyze the MC&A system. MSET is a tool for evaluating the system effectiveness of MC&A systems during self-assessment or external inspection. MSET has been developed, tested, and benchmarked by the U.S. DOE. In collaboration with the U.S. DOE, Rosatom is developing a Russian version (MSET-R) planned for pilot implementation at select material balance areas in 2011. MSET has been shown to be an effective training and communication tool for MC&A.

  2. Quantitative assessment of proposals on assurance of nuclear fuel supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, T.; Kuno, Y.; Tanaka, S.

    2013-07-01

    The assurance of nuclear fuel supply has the potential to contribute to balancing peaceful use of nuclear power and nuclear nonproliferation. 5 proposals which provide the backup supply of the enrichment service in case of supply disruption, are investigated in this study. We investigated the 20 NPT countries which are non-nuclear-weapon states and possess operable commercial LWRs in October 2012 as potential participants for each proposal. As a result of literature researching, we have extracted factors that can be considered as important for a country to participate or not participate in the assurance of nuclear fuel supply. Then we have computed incentive and disincentive parameters for each country. The results show that the participation expectancy decreases in the order of IAEA Fuel Bank proposal, Russian LEU Reserve proposal, AFS proposal, WNA proposal and 6-Country proposal. The 'IAEA fuel bank proposal' would be triggered in case of the supply disruption which cannot be solved by the market mechanism and bilateral agreements.

  3. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway.

  4. Conditions for Debris-Background Ion Interactions and Collisionless Shock Wave Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winske, Dan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cowee, Misa [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-10

    We use hybrid simulations and simple theoretical arguments to determine when debris ions streaming relative to background ions in a collisionless, magnetized plasma couple strongly enough to generate a magnetosonic shock wave. We consider three types of configurations: one-dimensional, the two-dimensional extension of the 1-D case, and a more complex 2-D geometry that contains some effects that would be found in a laser-produced, laboratory plasma. We show that the simulation results as well as previous Russian and LLNL results reduce to a simple condition (R{sub m}/{rho}{sub d} = equal mass radius/debris ion gyroradius {ge} 0.7) for the generation of a shock wave. Strong debris interaction with the background is characterized by the formation of a magnetic pulse that steepens and speeds up as it encounters the debris ions deflected by the magnetic field. The pulse further evolves into a shock. As the earlier work has indicated, the process also involves the generation of a transverse electric field perpendicular to the flow and the magnetic field that accelerates the background ions radially outward, which in turn causes the speedup of the pulse. With electric and magnetic field probes, the UCLA laser experiments should be able to detect these signatures of coupling as well as the generation of the shock wave.

  5. Evolving perceptions of security - US National Security surveys 1993--1995. Progress report, September 30, 1995--November 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herron, K.G.; Jenkins-Smith, H.C.

    1996-06-01

    This study analyzes findings from a national survey of 2,490 randomly selected members of the US public conducted between September 30 and November 14, 1995. It provides an over time comparison of public perceptions about nuclear weapons risks and benefits and key nuclear policy issues between 1993 and 1995. Other areas of investigation include policy preferences regarding nuclear proliferation, terrorism, US/Russian nuclear cooperation, and personal security. Public perceptions of post-cold war security were found to be evolving in unexpected ways. The perceived threat of nuclear conflict involving the US had not declined, and the threat of nuclear conflict between other countries and fears of nuclear proliferation and terrorism had increased. Perceived risks associated with managing the US nuclear arsenal were also higher. Perceptions of external and domestic benefits from US nuclear weapons were not declining. Support was found for increasing funding for nuclear weapons safety, training, and maintenance, but most respondents favored decreasing funding for developing and testing new nuclear weapons. Strong support was evident for programs and funding to prevent nuclear proliferation and terrorism. Though skeptical that nuclear weapons can be eliminated, most respondents supported reducing the US nuclear arsenal, banning nuclear test explosions, and ending production of fissile materials to make nuclear weapons. Statistically significant relationships were found between perceptions of nuclear weapons risks and benefits and policy and spending preferences. Demographic variables and basic social and political beliefs were systematically related both to risk and benefit perceptions and policy and spending options.

  6. INTERCOMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR A PWR ROD EJECTION ACCIDENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DIAMOND,D.J.; ARONSON,A.; JO,J.; AVVAKUMOV,A.; MALOFEEV,V.; SIDOROV,V.; FERRARESI,P.; GOUIN,C.; ANIEL,S.; ROYER,M.E.

    1999-10-01

    This study is part of an overall program to understand the uncertainty in best-estimate calculations of the local fuel enthalpy during the rod ejection accident. Local fuel enthalpy is used as the acceptance criterion for this design-basis event and can also be used to estimate fuel damage for the purpose of determining radiological consequences. The study used results from neutron kinetics models in PARCS, BARS, and CRONOS2, codes developed in the US, the Russian Federation, and France, respectively. Since BARS uses a heterogeneous representation of the fuel assembly as opposed to the homogeneous representations in PARCS and CRONOS, the effect of the intercomparison was primarily to compare different intra-assembly models. Quantitative comparisons for core power, reactivity, assembly fuel enthalpy and pin power were carried out. In general the agreement between methods was very good providing additional confidence in the codes and providing a starting point for a quantitative assessment of the uncertainty in calculated fuel enthalpy using best-estimate methods.

  7. Diagnostic of fusion neutrons on JET tokamak using diamond detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nemtsev, G.; Amosov, V.; Marchenko, N.; Meshchaninov, S.; Rodionov, R.; Popovichev, S.; Collaboration: JET EFDA Conbributors

    2014-08-21

    In 2011-2012, an experimental campaign with a significant yield of fusion neutrons was carried out on the JET tokamak. During this campaign the facility was equipped with two diamond detectors based on natural and artificial CVD diamond. These detectors were designed and manufactured in State Research Center of Russian Federation TRINITI. The detectors measure the flux of fast neutrons with energies above 0.2 MeV. They have been installed in the torus hall and the distance from the center of plasma was about 3 m. For some of the JET pulses in this experiment, the neutron flux density corresponded to the operational conditions in collimator channels of ITER Vertical Neutron Camera. The main objective of diamond monitors was the measurement of total fast neutron flux at the detector location and the estimation of the JET total neutron yield. The detectors operate as threshold counters. Additionally a spectrometric measurement channel has been configured that allowed us to distinguish various energy components of the neutron spectrum. In this paper we describe the neutron signal measuring and calibration procedure of the diamond detector. Fluxes of DD and DT neutrons at the detector location were measured. It is shown that the signals of total neutron yield measured by the diamond detector correlate with signals measured by the main JET neutron diagnostic based on fission chambers with high accuracy. This experiment can be considered as a successful test of diamond detectors in ITER-like conditions.

  8. Analysis of temperatures and water levels in wells to estimatealluvial aquifer hydraulic conductivities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Grace W.; Jasperse, James; Seymour, Donald; Constantz, Jim

    2003-06-19

    Well water temperatures are often collected simultaneously with water levels; however, temperature data are generally considered only as a water quality parameter and are not utilized as an environmental tracer. In this paper, water levels and seasonal temperatures are used to estimate hydraulic conductivities in a stream-aquifer system. To demonstrate this method, temperatures and water levels are analyzed from six observation wells along an example study site, the Russian River in Sonoma County, California. The range in seasonal ground water temperatures in these wells varied from <0.28C in two wells to {approx}88C in the other four wells from June to October 2000. The temperature probes in the six wells are located at depths between 3.5 and 7.1 m relative to the river channel. Hydraulic conductivities are estimated by matching simulated ground water temperatures to the observed ground water temperatures. An anisotropy of 5 (horizontal to vertical hydraulic conductivity) generally gives the best fit to the observed temperatures. Estimated conductivities vary over an order of magnitude in the six locations analyzed. In some locations, a change in the observed temperature profile occurred during the study, most likely due to deposition of fine-grained sediment and organic matter plugging the streambed. A reasonable fit to this change in the temperature profile is obtained by decreasing the hydraulic conductivity in the simulations. This study demonstrates that seasonal ground water temperatures monitored in observation wells provide an effective means of estimating hydraulic conductivities in alluvial aquifers.

  9. Analysis of pumping-induced unsaturated regions beneath aperennial river

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, G.W.; Jasperse, J.; Seymour, D.; Constantz, J.; Zhou, Q.

    2007-05-15

    The presence of an unsaturated region beneath a streambedduring groundwater pumping near streams reduces the pumping capacity whenit reaches the well screens, changes flow paths, and alters the types ofbiological transformations in the streambed sediments. Athree-dimensional, multi-phase flow model of two horizontal collectorwells along the Russian River near Forestville, California was developedto investigate the impact of varying the ratio of the aquifer tostreambed permeability on (1) the formation of an unsaturated regionbeneath the stream, (2) the pumping capacity, (3) stream-water fluxesthrough the streambed, and (4) stream-water travel times to the collectorwells. The aquifer to streambed permeability ratio at which theunsaturated region was initially observed ranged from 10 to 100. The sizeof the unsaturated region beneath the streambed increased as the aquiferto streambed permeability ratio increased. The simulations also indicatedthat for a particular aquifer permeability, decreasing the streambedpermeability by only a factor of 2-3 from the permeability wheredesaturation initially occurred resulted in reducing the pumpingcapacity. In some cases, the stream-water fluxes increased as thestreambed permeability decreased. However, the stream water residencetimes increased and the fraction of stream water that reached that thewells decreased as the streambed permeability decreased, indicating thata higher streambed flux does not necessarily correlate to greaterrecharge of stream water around the wells.

  10. Role of Passive Safety Systems in Severe Accidents Prevention for Advanced WWER-1000 Reactor Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bukin, N.V.; Fil, N.S.; Shumsky, A.M. [EDO 'Gidropress', 21 Ordzhonikidze str., Podolsk, Moscow Region, RU-142103 (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Role of new safety systems applied in advanced WWER-1000 (passive residual heat removal system, SPOT and passive core flooding system, HA-2) in severe accident prevention is considered in the paper. The following typical beyond-design accidents (BDBAs) that essentially determine the design basis of the above passive systems are considered in the paper: - station blackout; - LB LOCA (double-ended cold leg break 850 mm diameter) with station blackout. The domestic DINAMIKA-97 and TETCH-M-97 codes developed by EDO 'Gidropress' were used for the analyses. Besides, some supporting calculations have been performed by new Russian KORSAR code and western RELAP5/MOD3.2 and ATHLET 1.2A codes. The analysis of station blackout accident without operation of new passive systems have shown the exceeding of the maximum design limit of fuel rod damage already in 2-2,5 h after initiating event. Operation of SPOT system prevents any core damage during the BDBA under consideration. The analysis have also demonstrated that operation of new passive safety systems (SPOT and HA-2) ensures the effective core cooling within required period of time. This ensures essentially decreased probability of severe core degradation. (authors)

  11. How can environmental regulations promote clean coal technology adoption in APEC developing economies?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-11-15

    The study examines both existing and emerging regulatory frameworks in order to determine which type of regulations that would be most effective at promoting clean coal technology adoption in development Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC) economies and would be practical to implement. regulations targeting air emissions; regulations targeting water use; and regulations concerning coal combustion by-products. When considering the potential effect of existing and new environmental regulations on the adoption of clean coal the analysis of technologies was organised into three categories: environmental control technologies; high efficiency coal combustion technologies; and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). To target the recommendations towards APEC economies that would benefit the most from this analysis, the study focused on developing and transition APEC economies that are expected to rely on coal for a large part of their future generating capacity. These economies include China, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Russian Federation, Thailand, and Vietnam. ACARP provided funding to this study, under Project C15078. 10 figs., 14 tabs., 10 apps.

  12. Response of a tundra ecosystem to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and CO{sub 2}-induced climate change. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oechel, W.C.

    1996-11-01

    The overall objective of this research was to document current patterns of CO{sub 2} flux in selected locations of the circumpolar arctic, and to develop the information necessary to predict how these fluxes may be affected by climate change. In fulfillment of these objectives, net CO{sub 2} flux was measured at several sites on the North Slope of Alaska during the 1990--94 growing season (June--August) to determine the local and regional patterns of seasonal CO{sub 2} exchange. In addition, net CO{sub 2} flux was measured in the Russian and Icelandic Arctic to determine if the patterns of CO{sub 2} exchange observed in Arctic Alaska were representative of the circumpolar Arctic, while cold-season CO{sub 2} flux measurements were carried out during the 1993--94 winter season to determine the magnitude of CO{sub 2} efflux not accounted for by the growing season measurements. Manipulations of soil water table depth and surface temperature, which were identified from the extensive measurements as being the most important variables in determining the magnitude and direction of net CO{sub 2} exchange, were carried out during the 1993--94 growing seasons in tussock and wet sedge tundra ecosystems. Finally, measurements of CH{sub 4} flux were also measured at several of the North Slope study sites during the 1990--91 growing seasons.

  13. Computerized accounting methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    This report summarizes the results of the research performed under the Task Order on computerized accounting methods in a period from 03 August to 31 December 1994. Computerized nuclear material accounting methods are analyzed and evaluated. Selected methods are implemented in a hardware-software complex developed as a prototype of the local network-based CONMIT system. This complex has been put into trial operation for test and evaluation of the selected methods at two selected ``Kurchatov Institute`` Russian Research Center (``KI`` RRC) nuclear facilities. Trial operation is carried out since the beginning of Initial Physical Inventory Taking in these facilities that was performed in November 1994. Operation of CONMIT prototype system was demonstrated in the middle of December 1994. Results of evaluation of CONMIT prototype system features and functioning under real operating conditions are considered. Conclusions are formulated on the ways of further development of computerized nuclear material accounting methods. The most important conclusion is a need to strengthen computer and information security features supported by the operating environment. Security provisions as well as other LANL Client/Server System approaches being developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory are recommended for selection of software and hardware components to be integrated into production version of CONMIT system for KI RRC.

  14. Steam generator tube failures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  15. Peak fitting applied to low-resolution enrichment measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracken, D.; McKown, T.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Gunnink, R.; Kartoshov, M.; Kuropatwinski, J.; Raphina, G.; Sokolov, G.

    1998-12-01

    Materials accounting at bulk processing facilities that handle low enriched uranium consists primarily of weight and uranium enrichment measurements. Most low enriched uranium processing facilities draw separate materials balances for each enrichment handled at the facility. The enrichment measurement determines the isotopic abundance of the {sup 235}U, thereby determining the proper strata for the item, while the weight measurement generates the primary accounting value for the item. Enrichment measurements using the passive gamma radiation from uranium were developed for use in US facilities a few decades ago. In the US, the use of low-resolution detectors was favored because they cost less, are lighter and more robust, and don`t require the use of liquid nitrogen. When these techniques were exported to Europe, however, difficulties were encountered. Two of the possible root causes were discovered to be inaccurate knowledge of the container wall thickness and higher levels of minor isotopes of uranium introduced by the use of reactor returns in the enrichment plants. the minor isotopes cause an increase in the Compton continuum under the 185.7 keV assay peak and the observance of interfering 238.6 keV gamma rays. The solution selected to address these problems was to rely on the slower, more costly, high-resolution gamma ray detectors when the low-resolution method failed. Recently, these gamma ray based enrichment measurement techniques have been applied to Russian origin material. The presence of interfering gamma radiation from minor isotopes was confirmed. However, with the advent of fast portable computers, it is now possible to apply more sophisticated analysis techniques to the low-resolution data in the field. Explicit corrections for Compton background, gamma rays from {sup 236}U daughters, and the attenuation caused by thick containers can be part of the least squares fitting routine. Preliminary results from field measurements in Kazakhstan will be discussed.

  16. Moving toward multilateral mechanisms for the fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panasyuk,A.; Rosenthal,M.; Efremov, G. V.

    2009-04-17

    Multilateral mechanisms for the fuel cycle are seen as a potentially important way to create an industrial infrastructure that will support a renaissance and at the same time not contribute to the risk of nuclear proliferation. In this way, international nuclear fuel cycle centers for enrichment can help to provide an assurance of supply of nuclear fuel that will reduce the likelihood that individual states will pursue this sensitive technology, which can be used to produce nuclear material directly usable nuclear weapons. Multinational participation in such mechanisms can also potentially promote transparency, build confidence, and make the implementation of IAEA safeguards more effective or more efficient. At the same time, it is important to ensure that there is no dissemination of sensitive technology. The Russian Federation has taken a lead role in this area by establishing an International Uranium Enrichment Center (IUEC) for the provision of enrichment services at its uranium enrichment plant located at the Angarsk Electrolysis Chemical Complex (AECC). This paper describes how the IUEe is organized, who its members are, and the steps that it has taken both to provide an assured supply of nuclear fuel and to ensure protection of sensitive technology. It also describes the relationship between the IUEC and the IAEA and steps that remain to be taken to enhance its assurance of supply. Using the IUEC as a starting point for discussion, the paper also explores more generally the ways in which features of such fuel cycle centers with multinational participation can have an impact on safeguards arrangements, transparency, and confidence-building. Issues include possible lAEA safeguards arrangements or other links to the IAEA that might be established at such fuel cycle centers, impact of location in a nuclear weapon state, and the transition by the IAEA to State Level safeguards approaches.

  17. Directory of financing sources for foreign energy projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    La Ferla, L.

    1995-09-01

    The Office of National Security Policy has produced this Directory of Financing Sources for Foreign Energy Projects. The Directory reviews programs that offer financing from US government agencies, multilateral organizations, public, private, and quasi-private investment funds, and local commercial and state development banks. The main US government agencies covered are the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the Export-Import Bank of the US (EXIM Bank), Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), US Department of Energy, US Department of Defense, and the US Trade and Development Agency (TDA). Other US Government Sources includes market funds that have been in part capitalized using US government agency funds. Multilateral organizations include the World Bank, International Finance Corporation (IFC), Asian Development Bank (ADB), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and various organizations of the United Nations. The Directory lists available public, private, and quasi-private sources of financing in key emerging markets in the Newly Independent States and other developing countries of strategic interest to the US Department of Energy. The sources of financing listed in this directory should be considered indicative rather than inclusive of all potential sources of financing. Initial focus is on the Russian Federation, Ukraine, india, China, and Pakistan. Separate self-contained sections have been developed for each of the countries to enable the user to readily access market-specific information and to support country-specific Departmental initiatives. For each country, the directory is organized to follow the project life cycle--from prefeasibility, feasibility, project finance, cofinancing, and trade finance, through to technical assistance and training. Programs on investment and export insurance are excluded.

  18. Plasma-chemical waste treatment of acid gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Daniels, E.J.

    1993-09-01

    The research to date has shown that a H{sub 2}S waste-treatment process based on plasma-chemical dissociation technology is compatible with refinery and high-carbon-oxide acid-gas streams. The minor amounts of impurities produced in the plasma-chemical reactor should be treatable by an internal catalytic reduction step. Furthermore, the plasma-chemical technology appears to be more efficient and more economical than the current technology. The principal key to achieving high conversions with relatively low energies of dissociation is the concept of the high-velocity, cyclonic-flow pattern in the plasma reaction zone coupled with the recycling of unconverted hydrogen sulfide. Future work will include testing the effects of components that might be carried over to the plasma reactor by ``upset`` conditions in the amine purification system of a plant and testing the plasma-chemical process on other industrial wastes streams that contain potentially valuable chemical reagents. The strategy for the commercialization of this technology is to form a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Institute of Hydrogen Energy and Plasma Technology of the Russian Scientific Center/Kurchatov Institute and with an American start-up company to develop an ``American`` version of the process and to build a commercial-scale demonstration unit in the United States. The timetable proposed would involve building a ``field test`` facility which would test the plasma-chemical reactor and sulfur recovery unit operations on an industrial hydrogen sulfide waste s at a scale large enough to obtain the energy and material balance data required for a final analysis of the commercial potential of this technology. The field test would then be followed by construction of a commercial demonstration unit in two to three years. The commercial demonstration unit would be a fully integrated plant consisting of one commercial-scale module.

  19. Debt swapping as a tool for economic and social stabilization in Russia's closed nuclear cities (briefing paper)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JL Fuller; KM Leek

    2000-03-08

    The next great issue on the Russian landscape will be management of its foreign debt. In the near future the United States will be called upon to lead an international program of debt restructuring to assist Russia in overcoming the burden of its debt trap. With debt service obligations equal to 50{percent} of 1999 revenues, Russia has virtually no chance of sustaining a program of economic recovery without debt relief (Hardt, 1999). With some form of debt restructuring a foregone conclusion, Russia, the United States, and world community have a vital stake in searching for creative ways to transform the inevitability of debt restructuring into something of value and constructive to Russia and the problems it faces. This was the rationale behind debt-for-nature swaps which emerged in the early 1980s in Latin American and Eastern Europe as a means of relieving developing nations of their crippling foreign debt. Debt-for-nature swaps served both domestic and international needs by converting a portion of foreign debt, often at steep discounts, into local currency that was then used to fund programs to preserve the environment. The debt swap mechanism provides the prospect of getting something of real value where nothing is expected. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has proposed to use the same model to synergistically capitalize defense threat reduction activities and environmental remediation within Russia's closed nuclear cities. Preventing the emigration of nuclear technology, expertise, and hardware from these cities to subnational groups and countries of proliferation concern is one of the world's foremost pressing problems. It is in the best national security interest of the United states to assist Russia in overcoming the legacy of the Cold War by helping to address the catastrophic environmental and public health effects of nuclear production that negatively impact economic stabilization.

  20. Some social and economic problems, tasks and purposes of nuclear power in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamov, E.O.; Bryunin, S.V.; Orlov, V.V.

    1996-08-01

    The complicated economic situation in Russia in power generation is manifested in a low efficiency of power utilization and in reduction of its generation and mining of energy resources. Primary energy production per capita in Russia is approximately 50% higher than on the average for Western Europe and approximately the same amount of electric power is generated. But per unit value of gross domestic product (GDP) its consumption is 3.0 and 2.7 times higher, respectively. Amount of diverse pollutants release to the atmosphere per GDP unit value is about 3.0 times higher. Restructuring of Russian economy and modernization of its power generation, which is also a matter of international community concern, will improve these indices, though it will require a lot of time and expenses. A number of aspects should be emphasized: (1) energy policy is to be considered in the context of general economic situation, as well as a key element for solving long-term social problems and base of Russia integration into the world economy; (2) comparatively large resources of fossil fuel are to be considered as national wealth and, strategically, reduction of their consumption for energy generation and export purposes should be envisaged; (3) reactor technologies, that do not rule out potentiality of recurrence of the gravest accidents (reactivity type accidents and the ones involving loss of coolant), can not be put at the foundation of large-scale NP; (4) conditions of nonproliferation that are in use now failed to prevent nuclear weapons propagation to new states and should be replaced by more effective ones; (5) for a country, where NP share in fuel and energy balance is slightly above 3%, not solely evolutionary course of development is feasible; (6) expanding scale of high-level wastes disposal is unacceptable in principle; (7) radical solution of growing ecological problems all over the world, including global warming of climate, is unthinkable without NP development.

  1. International Workshop on Characterization and PIE Needs for Fundamental Understanding of Fuels Performance and Safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Listed

    2011-12-01

    The International Workshop on Characterization and PIE Needs to Support Science-Based Development of Innovative Fuels was held June 16-17, 2011, in Paris, France. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Party on the Fuel Cycle (WPFC) sponsored the workshop to identify gaps in global capabilities that need to be filled to meet projected needs in the 21st century. First and foremost, the workshop brought nine countries and associated international organizations, together in support of common needs for nuclear fuels and materials testing, characterization, PIE, and modeling capabilities. Finland, France, Germany, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States of America, IAEA, and ITU (on behalf of European Union Joint Research Centers) discussed issues and opportunities for future technical advancements and collaborations. Second, the presentations provided a base level of understanding of current international capabilities. Three main categories were covered: (1) status of facilities and near term plans, (2) PIE needs from fuels engineering and material science perspectives, and (3) novel PIE techniques being developed to meet the needs. The International presentations provided valuable data consistent with the outcome of the National Workshop held in March 2011. Finally, the panel discussion on 21st century PIE capabilities, created a unified approach for future collaborations. In conclusion, (1) existing capabilities are not sufficient to meet the needs of a science-based approach, (2) safety issues and fuels behavior during abnormal conditions will receive more focus post-Fukushima; therefore we need to adopt our techniques to those issues, and (3) International collaboration is needed in the areas of codes and standards development for the new techniques.

  2. Non-US electrodynamic launchers research and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, J.V.; Batteh, J.H.; Greig, J.R.; Keefer, D.; McNab, I.R.; Zabar, Z.

    1994-11-01

    Electrodynamic launcher research and development work of scientists outside the United States is analyzed and assessed by six internationally recognized US experts in the field of electromagnetic and electrothermal launchers. The assessment covers five broad technology areas: (1) Experimental railguns; (2) Railgun theory and design; (3) Induction launchers; (4) Electrothermal guns; (5) Energy storage and power supplies. The overall conclusion is that non-US work on electrodynamic launchers is maturing rapidly after a relatively late start in many countries. No foreign program challenges the US efforts in scope, but it is evident that the United States may be surpassed in some technologies within the next few years. Until recently, published Russian work focused on hypervelocity for research purposes. Within the last two years, large facilities have been described where military-oriented development has been underway since the mid-1980s. Financial support for these large facilities appears to have collapsed, leaving no effective effort to develop practical launchers for military or civilian applications. Electrodynamic launcher research in Europe is making rapid progress by focusing on a single application, tactical launchers for the military. Four major laboratories, in Britain, France, Germany, and the Netherlands, are working on this problem. Though narrower in scope than the US effort, the European work enjoys a continuity of support that has accelerated its progress. The next decade will see the deployment of electrodynamic launcher technology, probably in the form of an electrothermal-chemical upgrade for an existing gun system. The time scale for deployment of electromagnetic launchers is entirely dependent on the level of research-and-development effort. If resources remain limited, the advantage will lie with cooperative efforts that have reasonably stable funding such as the present French-German program.

  3. Computational and experimental studies of hydrodynamic instabilities and turbulent mixing: Review of VNIIEF efforts. Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andronov, V.A.; Zhidov, I.G.; Meskov, E.E.; Nevmerzhitskii, N.V.; Nikiforov, V.V.; Razin, A.N.; Rogatchev, V.G.; Tolshmyakov, A.I.; Yanilkin, Y.V.

    1994-12-31

    The report presents the basic results of some calculations, theoretical and experimental efforts in the study of Rayleigh-Taylor, Kelvin-Helmholtz, Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities and the turbulent mixing which is caused by their evolution. Since the late forties the VNIIEF has been conducting these investigations. This report is based on the data which were published in different times in Russian and foreign journals. The first part of the report deals with calculations an theoretical techniques for the description of hydrodynamic instabilities applied currently, as well as with the results of several individual problems and their comparison with the experiment. These methods can be divided into two types: direct numerical simulation methods and phenomenological methods. The first type includes the regular 2D and 3D gasdynamical techniques as well as the techniques based on small perturbation approximation and on incompressible liquid approximation. The second type comprises the techniques based on various phenomenological turbulence models. The second part of the report describes the experimental methods and cites the experimental results of Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meskov instability studies as well as of turbulent mixing. The applied methods were based on thin-film gaseous models, on jelly models and liquid layer models. The research was done for plane and cylindrical geometries. As drivers, the shock tubes of different designs were used as well as gaseous explosive mixtures, compressed air and electric wire explosions. The experimental results were applied in calculational-theoretical technique calibrations. The authors did not aim at covering all VNIIEF research done in this field of science. To a great extent the choice of the material depended on the personal contribution of the author in these studies.

  4. On the Development of a Miniature Neutron Generator for the Brachytherapy Treatment of Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forman, L.

    2009-03-10

    Brachytherapy refers to application of an irradiation source within a tumor. {sup 252}Cf needles used in brachytherapy have been successfully applied to treatment of some of the most virulent cancers but it is doubtful that it will be widely used because of difficulty in dealing with unwanted dose (source cannot be turned off) and in adhering to stringent NRC regulations that have been exacerbated in our post 911 environment. We have been working on the development of a miniature neutron generator with the reaction target placed at the end of a needle (tube) for brachytherapy applications. Orifice geometries are most amenable, e.g. rectum and cervix, but interstitial use is possible with microsurgery. This paper dicusses the results of a 30 watt DD neutron generator SBU project that demonstrates that sufficient hydrogen isotope current can be delivered down a small diameter needle required for a DT neutron treatment device, and, will summarize the progress of building a commercial device pursued by the All Russian Institute for Automatics (VNIIA) supported by the DOE's Industrial Proliferation Prevention Program (IPP). It is known that most of the fast neutron (FN) beam cancer treatment facilities have been closed down. It appears that the major limitation in the use of FN beams has been damage to healthy tissue, which is relatively insensitive to photons, but this problem is alleviated by brachytherapy. Moreover, recent clinical results indicate that fast neutrons in the boost mode are most highly effective in treating large, hypoxic, and rapidly repopulating diseases. It appears that early boost application of FN may halt angiogenesis (development and repair of tumor vascular system) and shrink the tumor resulting in lower hypoxia. The boost brachytherapy application of a small, low cost neutron generator holds promise of significant contribution to the treatment of cancer.

  5. Developing standard performance testing procedures for material control and accounting components at a site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scherer, Carolynn P; Bushlya, Anatoly V; Efimenko, Vladimir F; Ilyanstev, Anatoly; Regoushevsky, Victor I

    2010-01-01

    The condition of a nuclear material control and accountability system (MC&A) and its individual components, as with any system combining technical elements and documentation, may be characterized through an aggregate of values for the various parameters that determine the system's ability to perform. The MC&A system's status may be functioning effectively, marginally or not functioning based on a summary of the values of the individual parameters. This work included a review of the following subsystems, MC&A and Detecting Material Losses, and their respective elements for the material control and accountability system: (a) Elements of the MC&A Subsystem - Information subsystem (Accountancy/Inventory), Measurement subsystem, Nuclear Material Access subsystem, including tamper-indicating device (TID) program, and Automated Information-gathering subsystem; (b) Elements for Detecting Nuclear Material Loses Subsystem - Inventory Differences, Shipper/receiver Differences, Confirmatory Measurements and differences with accounting data, and TID or Seal Violations. In order to detect the absence or loss of nuclear material there must be appropriate interactions among the elements and their respective subsystems from the list above. Additionally this work includes a review of regulatory requirements for the MC&A system component characteristics and criteria that support the evaluation of the performance of the listed components. The listed components had performance testing algorithms and procedures developed that took into consideration the regulatory criteria. The developed MC&A performance-testing procedures were the basis for a Guide for MC&A Performance Testing at the material balance areas (MBAs) of State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (SSC RF-IPPE).

  6. Annual report of the Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snover, K.; Fulton, B.

    1996-04-01

    The Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington has for over 40 years supported a broad program of experimental physics research. Some highlights of the research activities during the past year are given. Work continues at a rapid pace toward completion of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory in January 1997. Following four years of planning and development, installation of the acrylic vessel began last July and is now 50% complete, with final completion scheduled for September. The Russian-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE) has completed a successful {sup 51}Cr neutrino source experiment. The first data from {sup 8}B decay have been taken in the Mass-8 CVC/Second Class Current study. The analysis of the measured barrier distributions for Ca-induced fission of prolate {sup 192}Os and oblate {sup 194}Pt has been completed. In a collaboration with a group from the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre they have shown that fission anisotropies at energies well above the barrier are not influenced by the mass asymmetry of the entrance channel relative to the Businaro-Gallone critical asymmetry. They also have preliminary evidence at higher bombarding energy that noncompound nucleus fission scales with the mean square angular momentum, in contrast to previous suggestions. The authors have measured proton and alpha particle emission spectra from the decay of A {approximately} 200 compound nuclei at excitation energies of 50--100 MeV, and used these measurements to infer the nuclear temperature. The investigations of multiparticle Bose-Einstein interferometry have led to a new algorithm for putting Bose-Einstein and Coulomb correlations of up to 6th order into Monte Carlo simulations of ultra-relativistic collision events, and to a new fast algorithm for extracting event temperatures.

  7. Radio-Ecological Conditions of Groundwater in the Area of Uranium Mining and Milling Facility - 13525

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Titov, A.V.; Semenova, M.P.; Seregin, V.A.; Isaev, D.V.; Metlyaev, E.G. [FSBU SRC A.I.Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA of Russia, Zhivopisnaya Street, 46, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [FSBU SRC A.I.Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA of Russia, Zhivopisnaya Street, 46, Moscow (Russian Federation); Glagolev, A.V.; Klimova, T.I.; Sevtinova, E.B. [FSESP 'Hydrospecgeologiya' (Russian Federation)] [FSESP 'Hydrospecgeologiya' (Russian Federation); Zolotukhina, S.B.; Zhuravleva, L.A. [FSHE 'Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology no. 107' under FMBA of Russia (Russian Federation)] [FSHE 'Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology no. 107' under FMBA of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Manmade chemical and radioactive contamination of groundwater is one of damaging effects of the uranium mining and milling facilities. Groundwater contamination is of special importance for the area of Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association, JSC 'PPMCA', because groundwater is the only source of drinking water. The paper describes natural conditions of the site, provides information on changes of near-surface area since the beginning of the company, illustrates the main trends of contaminators migration and assesses manmade impact on the quality and mode of near-surface and ground waters. The paper also provides the results of chemical and radioactive measurements in groundwater at various distances from the sources of manmade contamination to the drinking water supply areas. We show that development of deposits, mine water discharge, leakages from tailing dams and cinder storage facility changed general hydro-chemical balance of the area, contributed to new (overlaid) aureoles and flows of scattering paragenetic uranium elements, which are much smaller in comparison with natural ones. However, increasing flow of groundwater stream at the mouth of Sukhoi Urulyungui due to technological water infiltration, mixing of natural water with filtration streams from industrial reservoirs and sites, containing elevated (relative to natural background) levels of sulfate-, hydro-carbonate and carbonate- ions, led to the development and moving of the uranium contamination aureole from the undeveloped field 'Polevoye' to the water inlet area. The aureole front crossed the southern border of water inlet of drinking purpose. The qualitative composition of groundwater, especially in the southern part of water inlet, steadily changes for the worse. The current Russian intervention levels of gross alpha activity and of some natural radionuclides including {sup 222}Rn are in excess in drinking water; regulations for fluorine and manganese concentrations are also in excess. Possible ways to improve the situation are considered. (authors)

  8. MATERIAL CONTROL ACCOUNTING INMM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasty, T.

    2009-06-14

    Since 1996, the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC - formerly known as K-26), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have been cooperating under the cooperative Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program between the Russian Federation and the U.S. Governments. Since MCC continues to operate a reactor for steam and electricity production for the site and city of Zheleznogorsk which results in production of the weapons grade plutonium, one of the goals of the MPC&A program is to support implementation of an expanded comprehensive nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A) program. To date MCC has completed upgrades identified in the initial gap analysis and documented in the site MC&A Plan and is implementing additional upgrades identified during an update to the gap analysis. The scope of these upgrades includes implementation of MCC organization structure relating to MC&A, establishing material balance area structure for special nuclear materials (SNM) storage and bulk processing areas, and material control functions including SNM portal monitors at target locations. Material accounting function upgrades include enhancements in the conduct of physical inventories, limit of error inventory difference procedure enhancements, implementation of basic computerized accounting system for four SNM storage areas, implementation of measurement equipment for improved accountability reporting, and both new and revised site-level MC&A procedures. This paper will discuss the implementation of MC&A upgrades at MCC based on the requirements established in the comprehensive MC&A plan developed by the Mining and Chemical Combine as part of the MPC&A Program.

  9. Who Did It? Using International Forensics to Detect and Deter Nuclear Terrorism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunlop, W H; Smith, H P

    2006-08-28

    On February 2, the ''New York Times'' reported that the Pentagon has formed a nuclear forensics team tasked with identifying the terrorist attackers should the United States be hit with a nuclear bomb. Adapting nuclear technology to the forensics of exploded nuclear weapons is an old but rapidly evolving field. It dates back to at least 1949, when analysis of airborne debris, retrieved at high altitude off the coast of China, convinced President Harry Truman that the Soviet Union had exploded a nuclear device on the steppes of central Asia. The technology is neither new nor has it been particularly secret, but the formation of a national nuclear forensics team was newsworthy and a useful development. An international team, however, would be even better. Although Washington has naturally focused on preventing a nuclear terrorism attack in the United States, a U.S. city is not necessarily the most likely target for nuclear terrorists. It is doubtful that a terrorist organization would be able to acquire a U.S. nuclear device and even more doubtful that it would acquire one on U.S. soil. Accordingly, if a terrorist organization does get its hands on a fission device, it is likely that it will do so on foreign territory. At that point, the terrorists will have an enormously valuable political weapon in their hands and will be loath to risk losing that asset. Given the risks associated with getting the device into the United States, the rational choice would be to deploy the device abroad against much softer targets. For Islamist terrorists, a major ''Christian'' capital such as London, Rome, or Moscow might offer a more suitable target. Among these, Moscow perhaps presents the most compelling case for international cooperation on post-detonation nuclear forensics. Russia has the largest stockpile of poorly secured nuclear devices in the world. It also has porous borders and poor internal security, and it continues to be a potential source of contraband nuclear material and weapons, despite the best efforts of the Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) program. If terrorists obtained the nuclear material in Russia and set Moscow as their target, they would not have to risk transporting the weapon, stolen or makeshift, across international borders. Attacks by Chechen terrorists in Beslan and the Dubrovka Theater in Moscow offer ample proof that a willingness to commit mass murder for fanatical reasons rests within Russian borders, and a foreign source of operatives, particularly from the neighboring Islamic states to the south, is by no means inconceivable. Moscow is also a predominantly Christian city where local authorities routinely discriminate against Muslim minorities. Furthermore, extremists might conclude that a nuclear blast in Moscow could inflict damage well beyond those directly stemming from the attack. The Soviet generation that came to power during the Cold War retained a memory of the United States as an ally in the Great Patriotic War. The present Russian generation has no such remembrance but seems to have retained the animosities and suspicions that were a part of the nuclear standoff. Hence, nuclear terrorists may well believe that they could cause another East-West cold war or even encourage Russia to retaliate against the United States. After all, the sinking of the Kursk was believed by some influential Russians to be the result of American action. How much more likely would be such a view if the Kremlin were destroyed? As long as the world is filled with suspicion and conflict, such reactions are to be expected and, more importantly, anticipated. One has only to remember the early reactions and suspicions in the United States following the 1996 TWA Flight 800 airline disaster. Because the United States is the technological leader in nuclear forensics, its capability will certainly be offered and probably demanded no matter what foreign city is subjected to the devastation of a nuclear explosion. The entire world, not just Americans, will live in fear of a second or third nuclear explosion, and forensics cou

  10. Evaluation of SNS Beamline Shielding Configurations using MCNPX Accelerated by ADVANTG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Risner, Joel M; Johnson, Seth R; Remec, Igor; Bekar, Kursat B

    2015-01-01

    Shielding analyses for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory pose significant computational challenges, including highly anisotropic high-energy sources, a combination of deep penetration shielding and an unshielded beamline, and a desire to obtain well-converged nearly global solutions for mapping of predicted radiation fields. The majority of these analyses have been performed using MCNPX with manually generated variance reduction parameters (source biasing and cell-based splitting and Russian roulette) that were largely based on the analyst s insight into the problem specifics. Development of the variance reduction parameters required extensive analyst time, and was often tailored to specific portions of the model phase space. We previously applied a developmental version of the ADVANTG code to an SNS beamline study to perform a hybrid deterministic/Monte Carlo analysis and showed that we could obtain nearly global Monte Carlo solutions with essentially uniform relative errors for mesh tallies that cover extensive portions of the model with typical voxel spacing of a few centimeters. The use of weight window maps and consistent biased sources produced using the FW-CADIS methodology in ADVANTG allowed us to obtain these solutions using substantially less computer time than the previous cell-based splitting approach. While those results were promising, the process of using the developmental version of ADVANTG was somewhat laborious, requiring user-developed Python scripts to drive much of the analysis sequence. In addition, limitations imposed by the size of weight-window files in MCNPX necessitated the use of relatively coarse spatial and energy discretization for the deterministic Denovo calculations that we used to generate the variance reduction parameters. We recently applied the production version of ADVANTG to this beamline analysis, which substantially streamlined the analysis process. We also tested importance function collapsing (in space and energy) capabilities in ADVANTG. These changes, along with the support for parallel Denovo calculations using the current version of ADVANTG, give us the capability to improve the fidelity of the deterministic portion of the hybrid analysis sequence, obtain improved weight-window maps, and reduce both the analyst and computational time required for the analysis process.

  11. Performance of Evapotranspirative Covers Under Enhanced Precipitation: Preliminary Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David C. Anderson, Lloyd T. Desotell, David B. Hudson, Gregory J. Shott, Vefa Yucel

    2007-02-01

    Since January 2001, drainage lysimeter studies have been conducted at Yucca Flat, on the Nevada Test Site, in support of an evapotranspirative cover design. Yucca Flat has an arid climate with average precipitation of 16.5 cm annually. The facility consists of six drainage lysimeters 3 m in diameter, 2.4 m deep, and backfilled with a single layer of native soil. The bottom of each lysimeter is sealed and equipped with a small drain that enables direct measurement of saturated drainage. Each lysimeter has eight time-domain reflectometer probes to measure moisture content-depth profiles paired with eight heat-dissipation probes to measure soil-water potential depth profiles. Sensors are connected to dataloggers which are remotely accessed via a phone line. The six lysimeters have three different surface treatments: two are bare-soil; two were revegetated with native species (primarily shadscale, winterfat, ephedra, and Indian rice grass); and two were allowed to revegetate naturally with such species as Russian thistle, halogeton, tumblemustard and cheatgrass. Beginning in October 2003, one half of the paired cover treatments (one bare soil, one invader species, and one native species) were irrigated with an amount of water equal to two times the natural precipitation to achieve a three times natural precipitation treatment. From October 2003 through December 2005, all lysimeters received 52.8 cm precipitation, and the four irrigated lysimeters received an extra 105.6 cm of irrigation. No drainage has occurred from any of the nonirrigated lysimeters, but moisture has accumulated at the bottom of the bare-soil lysimeter and the native-plant lysimeter. All irrigated lysimeters had some drainage. The irrigated baresoil lysimeter had 48.3 cm of drainage or 26.4 percent of the combined precipitation and applied irrigation for the entire monitoring record. The irrigated invader species lysimeter had 5.8 cm of drainage, about 3.2 percent of the combined precipitation and applied irrigation. An irrigation valve failure caused an additional 50.8 cm of irrigation to be applied to the irrigated native plant lysimeter. There has been 29.3 cm of drainage from this lysimeter, which is 11.5 percent of the total applied water. Approximately 40 percent of the drainage from the irrigated native plant lysimeter occurred within four weeks of the valve failure.

  12. Radiological Threat Reduction (RTR) program : implementing physical security to protect large radioactive sources worldwide.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, Daniel L.

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Radiological Threat Reduction (RTR) Program strives to reduce the threat of a Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD) incident that could affect U.S. interests worldwide. Sandia National Laboratories supports the RTR program on many different levels. Sandia works directly with DOE to develop strategies, including the selection of countries to receive support and the identification of radioactive materials to be protected. Sandia also works with DOE in the development of guidelines and in training DOE project managers in physical protection principles. Other support to DOE includes performing rapid assessments and providing guidance for establishing foreign regulatory and knowledge infrastructure. Sandia works directly with foreign governments to establish cooperative agreements necessary to implement the RTR Program efforts to protect radioactive sources. Once necessary agreements are in place, Sandia works with in-country organizations to implement various security related initiatives, such as installing security systems and searching for (and securing) orphaned radioactive sources. The radioactive materials of interest to the RTR program include Cobalt 60, Cesium 137, Strontium 90, Iridium 192, Radium 226, Plutonium 238, Americium 241, Californium 252, and Others. Security systems are implemented using a standardized approach that provides consistency through out the RTR program efforts at Sandia. The approach incorporates a series of major tasks that overlap in order to provide continuity. The major task sequence is to: Establish in-country contacts - integrators, Obtain material characterizations, Perform site assessments and vulnerability assessments, Develop upgrade plans, Procure and install equipment, Conduct acceptance testing and performance testing, Develop procedures, and Conduct training. Other tasks are incorporated as appropriate and commonly include such as support of reconfiguring infrastructure, and developing security plans, etc. This standardized approach is applied to specific country and regional needs. Recent examples (FY 2003-2004) include foreign missions to Lithuania, Russian Federation Navy, Russia - PNPI, Greece (joint mission with IAEA), Tanzania, Iraq, Chile, Ecuador, and Egypt. Some of the ambitions and results of the RTR program may be characterized by the successes in Lithuania, Greece, and Russia.

  13. Dismantling Structures and Equipment of the MR Reactor and its Loop Facilities at the National Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute' - 12051

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volkov, V.G.; Danilovich, A.S.; Zverkov, Yu. A.; Ivanov, O.P.; Kolyadin, V.I.; Lemus, A.V.; Muzrukova, V.D.; Pavlenko, V.I.; Semenov, S.G.; Fadin, S.Yu.; Shisha, A.D.; Chesnokov, A.V.

    2012-07-01

    In 2008 a design of decommissioning of research reactors MR and RFT has been developed in the National research Center 'Kurchatov institute'. The design has been approved by Russian State Authority in July 2009 year and has received the positive conclusion of ecological expertise. In 2009-2010 a preparation for decommissioning of reactors MR and RFT was spent. Within the frames of a preparation a characterization, sorting and removal of radioactive objects, including the irradiated fuel, from reactor storage facilities and pool have been executed. During carrying out of a preparation on removal of radioactive objects from reactor sluice pool water treating has been spent. For these purposes modular installation for clearing and processing of a liquid radioactive waste 'Aqua - Express' was used. As a result of works it was possible to lower volume activity of water on three orders in magnitude that has allowed improving essentially of radiating conditions in a reactor hall. Auxiliary systems of ventilation, energy and heat supplies, monitoring systems of radiating conditions of premises of the reactor and its loop-back installations are reconstructed. In 2011 the license for a decommissioning of the specified reactors has been received and there are begun dismantling works. Within the frames of works under the design the armature and pipelines are dismantled in a under floor space of a reactor hall where a moving and taking away pipelines of loop facilities and the first contour of the MR reactor were replaced. A dismantle of the main equipment of loop facility with the gas coolant has been spent. Technologies which were used on dismantle of the radioactive contaminated equipment are presented, the basic works on reconstruction of systems of maintenance of on the decommissioning works are described, the sequence of works on the decommissioning of reactors MR and RFT is shown. Dismantling works were carried out with application of means of a dust suppression that, in aggregate with standard means at such works of individual protection of the personnel and devices of radiating control, has allowed to lower risk of action of radiation on the personnel, the population and environment at the expense of reduction of volume activity of radioactive aerosols in air. (authors)

  14. Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard Bond

    2006-07-01

    Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications by Jeff Eerkens (University of Missouri), Jay Kunze (Idaho State University), and Leonard Bond (Idaho National Laboratory) The principal isotope enrichment business in the world is the enrichment of uranium for commercial power reactor fuels. However, there are a number of other needs for separated isotopes. Some examples are: 1) Pure isotopic targets for irradiation to produce medical radioisotopes. 2) Pure isotopes for semiconductors. 3) Low neutron capture isotopes for various uses in nuclear reactors. 4) Isotopes for industrial tracer/identification applications. Examples of interest to medicine are targets to produce radio-isotopes such as S-33, Mo-98, Mo-100, W-186, Sn-112; while for MRI diagnostics, the non-radioactive Xe-129 isotope is wanted. For super-semiconductor applications some desired industrial isotopes are Si-28, Ga-69, Ge-74, Se-80, Te-128, etc. An example of a low cross section isotope for use in reactors is Zn-68 as a corrosion inhibitor material in nuclear reactor primary systems. Neutron activation of Ar isotopes is of interest in industrial tracer and diagnostic applications (e.g. oil-logging). . In the past few years there has been a sufficient supply of isotopes in common demand, because of huge Russian stockpiles produced with old electromagnetic and centrifuge separators previously used for uranium enrichment. Production of specialized isotopes in the USA has been largely accomplished using old calutrons (electromagnetic separators) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These methods of separating isotopes are rather energy inefficient. Use of lasers for isotope separation has been considered for many decades. None of the proposed methods have attained sufficient proof of principal status to be economically attractive to pursue commercially. Some of the authors have succeeded in separating sulfur isotopes using a rather new and different method, known as condensation repression. In this scheme a gas, of the selected isotopes for enrichment, is irradiated with a laser at a particular wavelength that would excite only one of the isotopes. The entire gas is subject to low temperatures sufficient to cause condensation on a cold surface. Those molecules in the gas that the laser excited are not as likely to condense as are the unexcited molecules. Hence the gas drawn out of the system will be enriched in the isotope that was excited by the laser. We have evaluated the relative energy required in this process if applied on a commercial scale. We estimate the energy required for laser isotope enrichment is about 20% of that required in centrifuge separations, and 2% of that required by use of "calutrons".

  15. Asian Energy Security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Hayes, PhD

    2003-12-01

    OAK-B135 In the Asian Energy Security (AES) Project, Nautilus Institute works together with a network of collaborating groups from the countries of Northeast Asia to evaluate the energy security implications of different national and regional energy ''paths''. The goal of the Asia Energy Security project is to illuminate energy paths--and the energy policy choices that might help to bring them about--that result in a higher degree of energy security for the region and for the world as a whole, that is, to identify energy paths that are ''robust'' in meeting many different energy security and development objectives, while also offering flexibility in the face of uncertainty. In work to date, Nautilus has carefully assembled a network of colleagues from the countries of the region, trained them together as a group in the use of a common, flexible, and transparent energy and environmental analysis planning software tool (LEAP, the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning system), and worked with them to prepare base-year energy sector models for each country. To date, complete data sets and models for ''Business as Usual'' (BAU) energy paths have been compiled for China, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea. A partial data set and BAU path has been compiled for the Russian Far East, and a data set is being started in Mongolia, where a team of researchers has just joined the AES project. In several countries, ''Alternative'' energy paths have been developed as well, or partially elaborated. National energy sector developments, progress on national LEAP modeling, additional LEAP training, and planning for the next phase of the AES project were the topics of a recent (early November) workshop held in Vancouver, British Columbia. With funding from the Department of Energy, Nautilus is poised to build upon the successes of the project to date with a coordinated international effort to research the energy security ramifications of regional coordination on energy issues in Northeast Asia. The paragraphs below summarize Nautilus' plans for the AES project in the coming months.

  16. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-09

    This is the first of three papers (in addition to an introductory summary) aimed at providing a framework for evaluating future reductions or modifications of the U.S. nuclear force, first by considering previous instances in which nuclear-force capabilities were eliminated; second by looking forward into at least the foreseeable future at the features of global and regional deterrence (recognizing that new weapon systems currently projected will have expected lifetimes stretching beyond our ability to predict the future); and third by providing examples of past or possible undesirable outcomes in the shaping of the future nuclear force, as well as some closing thoughts for the future. This paper examines the circumstances and consequences of the elimination of ? The INF-range Pershing II ballistic missile and Gryphon Ground-Launched Cruise Missile (GLCM), deployed by NATO under a dual-track strategy to counter Soviet intermediate-range missiles while pursuing negotiations to limit or eliminate all of these missiles. ? The Short-Range Attack Missile (SRAM), which was actually a family of missiles including SRAM A, SRAM B (never deployed), and SRAM II and SRAM T, these last two cancelled during an over-budget/behind-schedule development phase as part of the Presidential Nuclear Initiatives of 1991 and 1992. ? The nuclear-armed version of the Tomahawk Land-Attack Cruise Missile (TLAM/N), first limited to shore-based storage by the PNIs, and finally eliminated in deliberations surrounding the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review Report. ? The Missile-X (MX), or Peacekeeper, a heavy MIRVed ICBM, deployed in fixed silos, rather than in an originally proposed mobile mode. Peacekeeper was likely intended as a bargaining chip to facilitate elimination of Russian heavy missiles. The plan failed when START II did not enter into force, and the missiles were eliminated at the end of their intended service life. ? The Small ICBM (SICBM), or Midgetman, a road-mobile, single-warhead missile for which per-unit costs were climbing when it was eliminated under the PNIs. Although there were liabilities associated with each of these systems, there were also unique capabilities; this paper lays out the pros and cons for each. Further, we articulate the capabilities that were eliminated with these systems.

  17. Developments in the Nuclear Safeguards and Security Engineering Degree Program at Tomsk Polytechnic University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boiko, Vladimir I.; Demyanyuk, Dmitry G.; Silaev, Maxim E.; Duncan, Cristen L.; Heinberg, Cynthia L.; Killinger, Mark H.; Goodey, Kent O.; Butler, Gilbert W.

    2009-10-06

    Over the last six years, Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU) has developed a 5 year engineering degree program in the field of Material Protection Control and Accounting (MPC&A). In 2009 the first students graduated with this new degree. There were 25 job offers from nuclear fuel cycle enterprises of Russia and Kazakhstan for 17 graduates of the program. Due to the rather wide selection of workplaces, all graduates have obtained positions at nuclear enterprises. The program was developed within the Applied Physics and Engineering Department (APED). The laboratory and methodological base has been created taking into consideration the experience of the similar program at the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI). However, the TPU program has some distinguishing features such as the inclusion of special courses pertaining to fuel enrichment and reprocessing. During the last two years, three MPC&A laboratories have been established at APED. This was made possible due to several factors such as establishment of the State innovative educational program at TPU, assistance of the U.S. Department of Energy through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the financial support of the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority and some Russian private companies. All three of the MPC&A laboratories are part of the Innovative Educational Center Nuclear Technologies and Non-Proliferation, which deals with many topics including research activities, development of new curricula for experts training and retraining, and training of masters students. In 2008, TPU developed a relationship with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which was familiarized with APEDs current resources and activities. The IAEA has shown interest in creation of a masters degree educational program in the field of nuclear security at TPU. A future objective is to acquaint nuclear fuel cycle enterprises with new APED capabilities and involve the enterprises in the scientific and educational projects implemented through the Nuclear Technologies and Non-Proliferation Center. This paper describes the development of the MPC&A engineering degree program and future goals of TPU in the field of nonproliferation education.

  18. Correcting Quadrupole Roll in Magnetic Lenses with Skew Quadrupoles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walstrom, Peter Lowell

    2014-11-10

    Quadrupole rolls (i.e. rotation around the magnet axis) are known to be a significant source of image blurring in magnetic quadrupole lenses. These rolls may be caused by errors in mechanical mounting of quadrupoles, by uneven radiation-induced demagnetization of permanent-magnet quadrupoles, etc. Here a four-quadrupole 10 lens with so-called Russian or A -B B-A symmetry is used as a model problem. Existing SLAC 1/2 in. bore high-gradient quadrupoles are used in the design. The dominant quadrupole roll effect is changes in the first-order part of the transfer map (the R matrix) from the object to the image plane (Note effects on the R matrix can be of first order in rotation angle for some R-matrix elements and second order in rotation angle for other elements, as shown below). It is possible to correct roll-induced image blur by mechanically adjusting the roll angle of one or more of the quadrupoles. Usually, rotation of one quadrupole is sufficient to correct most of the combined effect of rolls in all four quadrupoles. There are drawbacks to this approach, however, since mechanical roll correction requires multiple entries into experimental area to make the adjustments, which are made according to their effect on images. An alternative is to use a single electromagnetic skew quadrupole corrector placed either between two of the quadrupoles or after the fourth quadrupole (so-called non-local correction). The basic feasibility of skew quadrupole correction of quadrupole roll effects is demonstrated here. Rolls of the third lens quadrupole of up to about 1 milliradian can be corrected with a 15 cm long skew quadrupole with a gradient of up to 1 T/m. Since the effect of rolls of the remaining three lens quadrupoles are lower, a weaker skew quadrupole can be used to correct them. Non-local correction of quadrupole roll effects by skew quadrupoles is shown to be about one-half as effective as local correction (i.e. rotating individual quadrupoles to zero roll angle or placing skew quadrupole correctors in the bores of main quadrupoles).

  19. STELLAR CORONAE, SOLAR FLARES: A DETAILED COMPARISON OF {sigma} GEM, HR 1099, AND THE SUN IN HIGH-RESOLUTION X-RAYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huenemoerder, David P.; Phillips, Kenneth J. H.; Sylwester, Janusz; Sylwester, Barbara E-mail: kennethjhphillips@yahoo.com E-mail: bs@cbk.pan.wroc.pl

    2013-05-10

    The Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETG) spectra of the coronally active binary stars {sigma} Gem and HR 1099 are among the highest fluence observations for such systems taken at high spectral resolution in X-rays with this instrument. This allows us to compare their properties in detail to solar flare spectra obtained with the Russian CORONAS-F spacecraft's RESIK instrument at similar resolution in an overlapping bandpass. Here we emphasize the detailed comparisons of the 3.3-6.1 A region (including emission from highly ionized S, Si, Ar, and K) from solar flare spectra to the corresponding {sigma} Gem and HR 1099 spectra. We also model the larger wavelength range of the HETG, from 1.7 to 25 A - having emission lines from Fe, Ca, Ar, Si, Al, Mg, Ne, O, and N-to determine coronal temperatures and abundances. {sigma} Gem is a single-lined coronally active long-period binary which has a very hot corona. HR 1099 is a similar, but shorter period, double-lined system. With very deep HETG exposures we can even study emission from some of the weaker species, such as K, Na, and Al, which are important since they have the lowest first ionization potentials, a parameter well known to be correlated with elemental fractionation in the solar corona. The solar flare temperatures reach Almost-Equal-To 20 MK, comparable to the {sigma} Gem and HR 1099 coronae. During the Chandra exposures, {sigma} Gem was slowly decaying from a flare and its spectrum is well characterized by a collisional ionization equilibrium plasma with a broad temperature distribution ranging from 2 to 60 MK, peaking near 25 MK, but with substantial emission from 50 MK plasma. We have detected K XVIII and Na XI emission which allow us to set limits on their abundances. HR 1099 was also quite variable in X-rays, also in a flare state, but had no detectable K XVIII. These measurements provide new comparisons of solar and stellar coronal abundances, especially at the lowest first ionization potential (FIP) values. The low FIP elements do not show enhancement in the stellar coronae as they do in the Sun, except perhaps for K in {sigma} Gem. While {sigma} Gem and HR 1099 differ in their emission measure distributions, they have very similar elemental abundances.

  20. Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Arctic Ocean Hydrocarbon Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Philip E.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Sullivan, E. C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bradley, Donald J.

    2008-10-01

    Ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean is predicted to become thinner and to cover less area with time. The combination of more ice-free waters for exploration and navigation, along with increasing demand for hydrocarbons and improvements in technologies for the discovery and exploitation of new hydrocarbon resources have focused attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Basin and its margins. The purpose of this document is to 1) summarize results of a review of published hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic, including both conventional oil and gas and methane hydrates and 2) develop a set of digital maps of the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Ocean. These maps can be combined with predictions of ice-free areas to enable estimates of the likely regions and sequence of hydrocarbon production development in the Arctic. In this report, conventional oil and gas resources are explicitly linked with potential gas hydrate resources. This has not been attempted previously and is particularly powerful as the likelihood of gas production from marine gas hydrates increases. Available or planned infrastructure, such as pipelines, combined with the geospatial distribution of hydrocarbons is a very strong determinant of the temporal-spatial development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources. Significant unknowns decrease the certainty of predictions for development of hydrocarbon resources. These include: 1) Areas in the Russian Arctic that are poorly mapped, 2) Disputed ownership: primarily the Lomonosov Ridge, 3) Lack of detailed information on gas hydrate distribution, and 4) Technical risk associated with the ability to extract methane gas from gas hydrates. Logistics may control areas of exploration more than hydrocarbon potential. Accessibility, established ownership, and leasing of exploration blocks may trump quality of source rock, reservoir, and size of target. With this in mind, the main areas that are likely to be explored first are the Bering Strait and Chukchi Sea, in spite of the fact that these areas do not have highest potential for future hydrocarbon reserves. Opportunities for improving the mapping and assessment of Arctic hydrocarbon resources include: 1) Refining hydrocarbon potential on a basin-by-basin basis, 2) Developing more realistic and detailed distribution of gas hydrate, and 3) Assessing the likely future scenarios for development of infrastructure and their interaction with hydrocarbon potential. It would also be useful to develop a more sophisticated approach to merging conventional and gas hydrate resource potential that considers the technical uncertainty associated with exploitation of gas hydrate resources. Taken together, additional work in these areas could significantly improve our understanding of the exploitation of Arctic hydrocarbons as ice-free areas increase in the future.

  1. Response of a tundra ecosytem to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and CO{sub 2}-induced climate change. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oechel, W.C.

    1996-11-01

    The overall objective of this research was to document current patterns of CO{sub 2} flux in selected locations of the circumpolar arctic, and to develop the information necessary to predict how these fluxes may be affected by climate change. In fulfillment of these objectives, net CO{sub 2} flux was measured at several sites on the North Slope of Alaska during the 1990-94 growing season (June-August) to determine the local and regional patterns, of seasonal CO{sub 2} exchange. In addition, net CO{sub 2} flux was measured in the Russian and Icelandic Arctic to determine if the patterns of CO{sub 2} exchange observed in Arctic Alaska were representative of the circumpolar arctic, while cold-season CO{sub 2} flux measurements were carried out during the 1993-94 winter season to determine the magnitude of CO{sub 2} efflux not accounted for by the growing season measurements. Manipulations of soil water table depth and surface temperature, which were identified from the extensive measurements as being the most important variables in determining the magnitude and direction of net CO{sub 2} exchange, were carried out during the 1993-94 growing seasons in tussock and wet sedge tundra ecosystems. Finally, measurements of CH{sub 4} flux were also measured at several of the North Slope study sites during the 1990-91 growing seasons. Measurements were made on small (e.g. 0.5 m{sup 2}) plots using a portable gas-exchange system and cuvette. The sample design allowed frequent measurements of net CO{sub 2} exchange and respiration over diurnal and seasonal cycles, and a large spatial extent that incorporated both locally and regionally diverse tundra surface types. Measurements both within and between ecosystem types typically extended over soil water table depth and temperature gradients, allowing for the indirect analysis of the effects of anticipated climate change scenarios on net CO{sub 2} exchange. In situ experiments provided a direct means for testing hypotheses.

  2. Examination of the role of nuclear deterrence in the 21st century: a systems analysis approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martz, Joseph C; Stevens, Patrice A; Branstetter, Linda; Hoover, Edward; O' Brien, Kevin; Slavin, Adam; Caswell, David

    2010-01-01

    Until very recently, an evaluation of US policy regarding deterrence and the role of its nuclear weapons arsenal as a deterrent has been largely absent in the public debate. With President's Obama embrace of a goal of a future world without nuclear weapons, issues of nuclear policy and deterrence have just recently risen to the forefront of policy discussions. The traditional role of US nuclear weapons-to deter the use of nuclear weapons by other states-endures, but is no longer unique nor even predominant. In an increasingly multi-polar world, the US now faces growing risks of nuclear weapons proliferation; the spread of weapons of mass destruction generally to non-state, substate and transnational actors; cyber, space, economic, environmental and resource threats along with the application of numerous other forms of 'soft power' in ways that are inimical to national security and to global stability. What concept of deterrence should the US seek to maintain in the 21st Century? That question remains fluid and central to the current debate. Recently there has been a renewed focusing of attention on the role of US nuclear weapons and a national discussion about what the underlying policy should be. In this environment, both the United States and Russia have committed to drastic reductions in their nuclear arsenals, while still maintaining forces sufficient to ensure unacceptable consequence in response to acts of aggression. Further, the declared nuclear powers have maintained that a limited nuclear arsenal continues to provide insurance against uncertain developments in a changing world. In this environment of US and Russian stockpile reductions, all declared nuclear states have reiterated the central role which nuclear weapons continue to provide for their supreme national security interests. Given this new environment and the challenges of the next several decades, how might the United States structure its policy and forces with regard to nuclear weapons? Many competing objectives have been stated across the spectrum of political, social, and military thought. These objectives include goals of ratification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, recommitment to further downsizing of the nuclear arsenal, embracing a long-term goal of the elimination of nuclear weapons, limitations on both the production complex and upgrades to nuclear weapons and delivery systems, and controls and constraints to limit proliferation of nuclear materials and weapons, particularly to rogue states and terrorist groups.

  3. Final Report on "Development and Testing of Advanced Accelerator Structures and Technologies at 11.424 GHz"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gold, Steven H.

    2013-10-13

    This is the final report on the research program ?Development and Testing of Advanced Accelerator Structures and Technologies at 11.424 GHz,? which was carried out by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) under Interagency Agreement DE?AI02?01ER41170 with the Department of Energy. The period covered by this report is 15 July 2010 ? 14 July 2013. The program included two principal tasks. Task 1 involved a study of the key physics issues related to the use of high gradient dielectric-loaded accelerating (DLA) structures in rf linear accelerators and was carried out in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Euclid Techlabs LLC. Task 2 involved a study of high power active microwave pulse compressors and was carried out in collaboration with Omega-P, Inc. and the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Nizhny Novgorod. The studies under Task 1 were focused on rf-induced multipactor and breakdown in externally driven DLA structures at the 200-ns timescale. Suppression of multipactor and breakdown are essential to the practical application of dielectric structures in rf linear accelerators. The structures that were studied were developed by ANL and Euclid Techlabs and their performance was evaluated at high power in the X-band Magnicon Laboratory at NRL. Three structures were designed, fabricated, and tested, and the results analyzed in the first two years of the program: a clamped quartz traveling-wave (TW) structure, a externally copper-coated TW structure, and an externally copper-coated dielectric standing-wave (SW) structure. These structures showed that rf breakdown could be largely eliminated by eliminating dielectric joints in the structures, but that the multipactor loading was omnipresent. In the third year of the program, the focus of the program was on multipactor suppression using a strong applied axial magnetic field, as proposed by Chang et al. [C. Chang et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 063304 (2011).], and a successful experiment was carried out that demonstrated suppression of multipactor in the uniform-field region of a TW DLA structure. However, in accordance with theory, the multipactor was enhanced in regions of the structure with lower values of axial magnetic field. Under Task 2, there were two two-month experimental runs at NRL that were used to characterize the performance of high power two-channel dual-mode active microwave pulse compressor configurations that used electron-beam triggered switch cavities. The pulse compressors were designed and fabricated by Omega-P, Inc. and the Russian Institute of Applied Physics and tested in the Magnicon Laboratory at NRL. These pulse compressors made use of an electron beam discharge from a cylindrical knife-edged Mo cathode coated with a CVD diamond film that was driven by a ?100 kV, 100 ns high voltage pulse. The electron beam was used to change the resonant frequency of the switch cavities in order to create the output microwave pulse. The compressor channels included a TE01 input and output section and a TE02 energy storage cavity, followed by a switch assembly that controlled the coupling between the TE01 and TE02 modes. In the initial state, the switch cavity was in resonance, the reflection from the cavity was out of phase, and the mode conversion was only ~2-3%, allowing the energy storage cavity to fill. When the electron beam was discharged into the switch cavity, the cavity was shifted out of resonance, causing the phase of the reflection to change by ~?. As a result of the change in the reflection phase, the mode coupling in the conical taper was greatly increased, and could approach ~100%, permitting the energy storage cavity to empty in one cavity round trip time of the TE02 mode to produce a high power output pulse. The second experiment runs demonstrated a 190 MW, ~20 ns compressed pulse at 25.7 gain and ~50% efficiency, using a 7.4 MW, 1 ?s drive pulse from the magnicon. The success of this experiment suggests a path to future high gain active versions of the SLED 2 pulse compressor at SLAC.

  4. FEASIBILITY AND EXPEDIENCE TO VITRIFY NPP OPERATIONAL WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LIFANOV, F.A.; OJOVAN, M.I.; STEFANOVSKY, S.V.; BURCL, R.

    2003-02-27

    Operational radioactive waste is generated during routine operation of NPP. Process waste is mainly generated by treatment of water from reactor or ancillaries including spent fuel storage pools and some decontamination operations. Typical process wastes of pressurized water reactors (PWR or WWER) are borated water concentrates, whereas typical process wastes of boiling and RBMK type reactors are water concentrates with no boron content. NPP operational wastes are classified as low and intermediate level waste (LILW). NPP operational waste must be solidified in order to ensure safe conditions of storage and disposal. Currently the most promising solidification method for this waste is the vitrification technology. Vitrification of NPP operational waste is a relative new option being developed for last years. Nevertheless there is already accumulated operational experience on vitrifying low and intermediate level waste in Russian Federation at Moscow SIA ''Radon'' vitrification plant. This plant uses the most advanced type induction high frequency melters that facilitate the melting process and significantly reduce the generation of secondary waste and henceforth the overall cost. The plant was put into operation by the end of 1999. It has three operating cold crucible melters with the overall capacity up to 75 kg/h. The vitrification technology comprises a few stages, starting with evaporation of excess water from liquid radioactive waste, followed by batch preparation, glass melting, and ending with vitrified waste blocks and some relative small amounts of secondary waste. First of all since the original waste contain as main component water, this water is removed from waste through evaporation. Then the remaining salt concentrate is mixed with necessary technological additives, thus a glass-forming batch is formed. The batch is fed into melters where the glass melting occurs. From here there are two streams: one is the glass melt containing the most part of radioactivity and second is the off gas flow, which contains off gaseous and aerosol airborne. The melt glass is fed into containers, which are slowly cooled in an annealing tunnel furnace to avoid accumulation of mechanical stresses in the glass. Containers with glass are the final processing product containing the overwhelming part of waste contaminants. The second stream from melter is directed to gas purification system, which is a rather complex system taking into account the necessity to remove from off gas not only radionuclides but also the chemical contaminants. Operation of this purification system leads to generation of a small amount of secondary waste. This waste stream slightly contaminated with volatilized radionuclides is recycled in the same technological scheme. As a result only non-radioactive materials are produced. They are either discharged into environment or reused. Based on the experience gained during operation of vitrification plant one can conclude on high efficiency achieved through vitrification method. Another significant argument on vitrifying NPP operational waste is the minimal impact of vitrified radioactive waste onto environment. Solidified waste shall be disposed of into a near surface disposal facility. Waste forms disposed of in a near-surface wet repository eventually come into contact with groundwater. Engineered structures used or designed to prevent or postpone such contact and the subsequent radionuclide release are complex and often too expensive. Vitrification technologies provide waste forms with excellent resistance to corrosion and gave the basic possibility of maximal simplification of engineered barrier systems. The most simple disposal option is to locate the vitrified waste form packages directly into earthen trenches provided the host rock has the necessary sorption and confinement properties. Such an approach will significantly make simpler the disposal facilities thus contributing both to enhancing safety and economic al efficiency.

  5. Dismantling of Loop-Type Channel Equipment of MR Reactor in NRC 'Kurchatov Institute' - 13040

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volkov, Victor; Danilovich, Alexey; Zverkov, Yuri; Ivanov, Oleg; Kolyadin, Vyacheslav; Lemus, Alexey; Pavlenko, Vitaly; Semenov, Sergey; Fadin, Sergey; Shisha, Anatoly; Chesnokov, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    In 2009 the project of decommissioning of MR and RTF reactors was developed and approved by the Expert Authority of the Russian Federation (Gosexpertiza). The main objective of the decommissioning works identified in this project: - complete dismantling of reactor equipment and systems; - decontamination of reactor premises and site in accordance with the established sanitary and hygienic standards. At the preparatory stage (2008-2010) of the project the following works were executed: loop-type channels' dismantling in the storage pool; experimental fuel assemblies' removal from spent fuel repositories in the central hall; spent fuel assembly removal from the liquid-metal-cooled loop-type channel of the reactor core and its placement into the SNF repository; and reconstruction of engineering support systems to the extent necessary for reactor decommissioning. The project assumes three main phases of dismantling and decontamination: - dismantling of equipment/pipelines of cooling circuits and loop-type channels, and auxiliary reactor equipment (2011-2012); - dismantling of equipment in underground reactor premises and of both MR and RTF in-vessel devices (2013-2014); - decontamination of reactor premises; rehabilitation of the reactor site; final radiation survey of reactor premises, loop-type channels and site; and issuance of the regulatory authorities' de-registration statement (2015). In 2011 the decommissioning license for the two reactors was received and direct MR decommissioning activities started. MR primary pipelines and loop-type facilities situated in the underground reactor hall were dismantled. Works were also launched to dismantle the loop-type channels' equipment in underground reactor premises; reactor buildings were reconstructed to allow removal of dismantled equipment; and the MR/RTF decommissioning sequence was identified. In autumn 2011 - spring 2012 results of dismantling activities performed are: - equipment from underground rooms (No. 66, 66A, 66B, 72, 64, 63) - as well as from water and gas loop corridors - was dismantled, with the total radwaste weight of 53 tons and the total removed activity of 5,0 x 10{sup 10} Bq; - loop-type channel equipment from underground reactor hall premises was dismantled; - 93 loop-type channels were characterized, chopped and removed, with radwaste of 2.6 x 10{sup 13} Bq ({sup 60}Co) and 1.5 x 10{sup 13} Bq ({sup 137}Cs) total activity removed from the reactor pool, fragmented and packaged. Some of this waste was placed into the high-level waste (HLW) repository of the Center. Dismantling works were executed with application of remotely operated mechanisms, which promoted decrease of radiation impact on the personnel. The average individual dose for the personnel was 1.9 mSv/year in 2011, and the collective dose is estimated as 0.0605 man x Sv/year. (authors)

  6. Thermochemically Driven Gas-Dynamic Fracturing (TDGF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Goodwin

    2008-12-31

    This report concerns efforts to increase oil well productivity and efficiency via a method of heating the oil-bearing rock of the well, a technique known as Thermochemical Gas-Dynamic Fracturing (TGDF). The technique uses either a chemical reaction or a combustion event to raise the temperature of the rock of the well, thereby increasing oil velocity, and oil pumping rate. Such technology has shown promise for future application to both older wellheads and also new sites. The need for such technologies in the oil extraction field, along with the merits of the TGDF technology is examined in Chapter 1. The theoretical basis underpinning applications of TGDF is explained in Chapter 2. It is shown that productivity of depleted well can be increased by one order of magnitude after heating a reservoir region of radius 15-20 m around the well by 100 degrees 1-2 times per year. Two variants of thermal stimulation are considered: uniform heating and optimal temperature distribution in the formation region around the perforation zone. It is demonstrated that the well productivity attained by using equal amounts of thermal energy is higher by a factor of 3 to 4 in the case of optimal temperature distribution as compared to uniform distribution. Following this theoretical basis, two practical approaches to applying TDGF are considered. Chapter 3 looks at the use of chemical intiators to raise the rock temperature in the well via an exothermic chemical reaction. The requirements for such a delivery device are discussed, and several novel fuel-oxidizing mixtures (FOM) are investigated in conditions simulating those at oil-extracting depths. Such FOM mixtures, particularly ones containing nitric acid and a chemical initiator, are shown to dramatically increase the temperature of the oil-bearing rock, and thus the productivity of the well. Such tests are substantiated by preliminary fieldwork in Russian oil fields. A second, more cost effective approach to TGDF is considered in Chapter 4: use of diesel-fuel to raise the rock temperature by a combustion process in the well. The requirements for such a Gas-Vapor Generator are laid out, and the development of a prototype machine is explained. This is backed up with laboratory experiments showing that the fuel-water mixture used does significantly increase the viscosity of the oil samples. The prototype Gas-Vapor Generator is shown to be able to operate at temperatures of 240 C and pressures of 200 atm. Unfortunately, geopolitical and economic factors outside of our control led to the cancellation of the project before the field testing phase of the generator could be commenced. Nevertheless, it is to be hoped that this report demonstrates both the feasibility and desirability of the Gas-Vapor Generator approach to the application of TDGF technology in both existing and new wells, and provides a foundation for further research in the future.

  7. Electrochemical oxygen pumps. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, J. D. Noble, J.

    2009-10-01

    All tasks of the Work Plan of ISTC Project 2277p have been completed, thus: (1) techniques of chemical synthesis were developed for more than ten recipes of electrolyte based on cerium oxide doped with 20 mole% of gadolinium (CeGd)O{sub 2}, doped by more than 10 oxide systems including 6 recipes in addition to the Work Plan; (2) electric conductivity and mechanical strength of CeGd specimens with additions of oxide systems were performed, two candidate materials for the electrolyte of electrochemical oxygen pump (pure CeGd and CeGd doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal) were chosen; (3) extended studies of mechanical strength of candidate material specimens were performed at room temperature and at 400, 600, 800 C; (4) fixtures for determination of mechanical strength of tubes by external pressure above 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C were developed and fabricated; and (5) technology of slip casting of tubes from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} and of (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal, withstanding external pressure of minimum 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C was developed, a batch of tubes was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (6) technology of making nanopowder from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} was developed based on chemical synthesis and laser ablation techniques, a batch of nanopowder with the weight 1 kg was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (7) a business plan for establishing a company for making powders of materials for electrochemical oxygen pump was developed; and (8) major results obtained within the Project were reported at international conferences and published in the Russian journal Electrochemistry. In accordance with the Work Plan a business trip of the following project participants was scheduled for April 22-29, 2006, to Tonawanda, NY, USA: Manager Victor Borisov; Leader of technology development Gennady Studenikin; Leader of business planning Elena Zadorozhnaya; Leader of production Vasily Lepalovsky; and Translator Vladimir Litvinov. During this trip project participants were to discuss with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and representative of Praxair Inc. J. Chen the results of project activities (prospects of transition metal-doped material application in oxygen pumps), as well as the prospects of cooperation with Praxair at the meeting with the company management in the following fields: (1) Deposition of thin films of oxide materials of complex composition on support by magnetron and ion sputtering, research of coatings properties; (2) Development of block-type structure technology (made of porous and dense ceramics) for oxygen pump. The block-type structure is promising because when the size of electrolyte block is 2 x 2 inches and assembly height is 10 inches (5 blocks connected together) the area of active surface is ca. 290 square inches (in case of 8 slots), that roughly corresponds to one tube with diameter 1 inch and height 100 inches. So performance of the system made of such blocks may be by a factor of two or three higher than that of tube-based system. However one month before the visit, J. Chen notified us of internal changes at Praxair and the cancellation of the visit to Tonawanda, NY. During consultations with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and Senior Project Manager A. Taylor a decision was made to extend the project term by 2 quarters to prepare proposals for follow-on activities during this extension (development of block-type structures made of dense and porous oxide ceramics for electrochemical oxygen pumps) using the funds that were not used for the trip to the US.

  8. Nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament and extended deterrence in the new security environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilat, Joseph F

    2009-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War, in a dramatically changed security environment, the advances in nonnuclear strategic capabilities along with reduced numbers and roles for nuclear forces has altered the calculus of deterrence and defense, at least for the United States. For many, this opened up a realistic possibility of a nuclear-free world. It soon became clear that the initial post-Cold War hopes were exaggerated. The world did change fundamentally, but it did not become more secure and stable. In place of the old Soviet threat, there has been growing concern about proliferation and terrorism involving nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction (WMD), regional conflicts, global instability and increasingly serious new and emerging threats, including cyber attacks and attacks on satellites. For the United States at least, in this emerging environment, the political rationales for nuclear weapons, from deterrence to reassurance to alliance management, are changing and less central than during the Cold War to the security of the United States, its friends and allies. Nuclear weapons remain important for the US, but for a far more limited set of roles and missions. As the Perry-Schlesinger Commission report reveals, there is a domestic US consensus on nuclear policy and posture at the highest level and for the near term, including the continued role of nuclear arms in deterring WMD use and in reassuring allies. Although the value of nuclear weapons has declined for the United States, the value of these weapons for Russia, China and so-called 'rogue' states is seen to be rising. The nuclear logic of NATO during Cold War - the need for nuclear weapons to counter vastly superior conventional capabilities of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact - is today heard from Russians and even some proliferants. Moreover, these weapons present a way for rogues to achieve regional hegemony and possibly to deter interventions by the United States or others. While the vision of a nuclear-free world is powerful, both existing nuclear powers and proliferators are unlikely to forego nuclear weapons entirely in a world that is dangerous and uncertain. And the emerging world would not necessarily be more secure and stable without nuclear weapons. Even if nuclear weapons were given up by the United States and other nuclear-weapon states, there would continue to be concerns about the proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, which would not disappear and could worsen. WMD terrorism would remain a concern that was largely unaffected by US and other nuclear-weapon decisions. Conventional capabilities would not disappear and the prospects for warfare could rise. In addition, new problems could arise if rogue states or other non-status-quo powers attempted to take advantage of moves toward disarmament, while friends and allies who are not reassured as in the past could reconsider their options if deterrence declined. To address these challenges, non- and counter-proliferation and counterterrorismincluding defenses and consequence management-are priorities, especially in light of an anticipated 'renaissance' in civil nuclear power. The current agenda of the United States and others includes efforts to: (1) Strengthen International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and its safeguards system; (2) Strengthen export controls, especially for sensitive technologies, by limiting the development of reprocessing and enrichment technologies and by requiring the Additional Protocol as a condition of supply; (3) Establish a reliable supply regime, including the possibility of multilateral or multinational ownership of fuel cycle facilities, as a means to promote nuclear energy without increasing the risks of proliferation or terrorism; (4) Implement effectively UN Security Council Resolution 1540; and (5) Strengthen and institutionalize the Proliferation Security Initiative and the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism. These and other activities are important in themselves, and are essential to maintaining and strengthening the Nonproliferati

  9. Explosion Source Phenomena Using Soviet, Test-Era, Waveform Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, Paul G.; Rautian, Tatyana G.; Khalturin, Vitaly I.; Phillips, W. Scott

    2006-04-12

    During the nuclear testing era, the former Soviet Union carried out extensive observations of underground nuclear explosions, recording both their own shots and those of foreign nuclear states. Between 1961 and 1989, the Soviet Complex Seismological Expedition deployed seismometers at time-varying subsets of over 150 sites to record explosions at regional distances from the Semipalatinsk and Lop Nor test sites and from the shot points of peaceful nuclear explosions. This data set included recordings from broadband, multi-channel ChISS seismometers that produced a series of narrow band outputs, which could then be measured to perform spectral studies. [ChISS is the Russian abbreviation for multichannel spectral seismometer. In this instrument the signal from the seismometer is passed through a system of narrow bandpass filters and recorded on photo paper. ChISS instruments have from 8 to 16 channels in the frequency range from 100 sec to 40 Hz. We used data mostly from 7 channels, ranging from 0.08 to 5 Hz.] Quantitative, pre-digital era investigations of high-frequency source scaling relied on this type of data. To augment data sets of central Central Asia explosions, we have measured and compiled 537 ChISS coda envelopes for 124 events recorded at Talgar, Kazakhstan, at a distance of about 750 km from Semipalatinsk. Envelopes and calibration levels were measured manually from photo paper records for seven bands between 0.08 and 5 Hz. We obtained from 2 to 10 coda envelope measurements per event, depending on the event size and instrument magnification. Coda lengths varied from 250 to 1400 s. For small events, only bands between 0.6 and 2.5 Hz could be measured. Envelope levels were interpolated or extrapolated to 500 s and we have obtained the dependence of this quantity on magnitude. Coda Q was estimated and found to increase from 232 at 0.08 Hz to 1270 at 5 Hz. These relationships were used to construct an average scaling law of coda spectra for Semipalatinsk explosions. Significant differences from average scaling were observed and may result from variations in emplacement conditions. The ChISS envelope data have been integrated into coda processing at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) by applying ChISS filter bands to modern, digital data from central Central Asia, for purposes of magnitude and yield calibration. In addition, we have compiled regional, direct phase measurements for ChISS recordings at Talgar, Garm, Zerenda, and Novosibirsk. The ChISS envelope data have been integrated into coda processing at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) by applying ChISS filter bands to modern, digital data from central and east Asia, for purposes of yield calibration. The difference in manual versus digital measurement methods are captured in site terms that are higher by up to 0.5 log10 units for ChISS data, relative to modern Talgar data due to the measurement of peak, rather than mean envelopes. After correction for site and path effects, ChISS amplitudes compare well to measurements from the Borovoye archive for events in common. Direct wave measurements have been used to construct spectra for Semipalatinsk explosions, and can be used to explore the behavior of regional phase amplitudes with shot point and emplacement condition.

  10. OSI Passive Seismic Experiment at the Former Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeney, J J; Harben, P

    2010-11-11

    On-site inspection (OSI) is one of the four verification provisions of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Under the provisions of the CTBT, once the Treaty has entered into force, any signatory party can request an on-site inspection, which can then be carried out after approval (by majority voting) of the Executive Council. Once an OSI is approved, a team of 40 inspectors will be assembled to carry out an inspection to ''clarify whether a nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of Article I''. One challenging aspect of carrying out an on-site inspection (OSI) in the case of a purported underground nuclear explosion is to detect and locate the underground effects of an explosion, which may include an explosion cavity, a zone of damaged rock, and/or a rubble zone associated with an underground collapsed cavity. The CTBT (Protocol, Section II part D, paragraph 69) prescribes several types of geophysical investigations that can be carried out for this purpose. One of the methods allowed by the CTBT for geophysical investigation is referred to in the Treaty Protocol as ''resonance seismometry''. This method, which was proposed and strongly promoted by Russia during the Treaty negotiations, is not described in the Treaty. Some clarification about the nature of the resonance method can be gained from OSI workshop presentations by Russian experts in the late 1990s. Our understanding is that resonance seismometry is a passive method that relies on seismic reverberations set up in an underground cavity by the passage of waves from regional and teleseismic sources. Only a few examples of the use of this method for detection of underground cavities have been presented, and those were done in cases where the existence and precise location of an underground cavity was known. As is the case with many of the geophysical methods allowed during an OSI under the Treaty, how resonance seismology really works and its effectiveness for OSI purposes has yet to be determined. For this experiment, we took a broad approach to the definition of ''resonance seismometry''; stretching it to include any means that employs passive seismic methods to infer the character of underground materials. In recent years there have been a number of advances in the use of correlation and noise analysis methods in seismology to obtain information about the subsurface. Our objective in this experiment was to use noise analysis and correlation analysis to evaluate these techniques for detecting and characterizing the underground damage zone from a nuclear explosion. The site that was chosen for the experiment was the Mackerel test in Area 4 of the former Nevada Test Site (now named the Nevada National Security Site, or NNSS). Mackerel was an underground nuclear test of less than 20 kT conducted in February of 1964 (DOENV-209-REV 15). The reason we chose this site is because there was a known apical cavity occurring at about 50 m depth above a rubble zone, and that the site had been investigated by the US Geological Survey with active seismic methods in 1965 (Watkins et al., 1967). Note that the time delay between detonation of the explosion (1964) and the time of the present survey (2010) is nearly 46 years - this would not be typical of an expected OSI under the CTBT.

  11. BLV-2011 Workshop, September 22-24, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. A. Kamyshkov co-Chair of the Workshop Organizing Committee; P. Fileviez Perez co-Chair of the Workshop Organizing Committee; W. M. Snow , member of Workshop Organizing Committee; A.R. Young , member of Workshop Organizing Committee

    2011-09-24

    The 3-rd International 3-days Workshop "Baryon and Lepton Number Violations: BLV-2011" took place at Gatlinburg, TN for September 22-24, 2011. Workshop was organized by the International Organizing Committee and had received advice from the International Program Advisory Committee (see Appendix 1). Workshop was co-chaired by Pavel Fileviez Perez (University of Wisconsin) for theory and Yuri Kamyshkov (University of Tennessee) for experiment and local organization. Workshop was supported and sponsored by the University of Tennessee, Indiana University, North Carolina State University together with TUNL, and by the HEP office of the Department of Energy. DOE financial support in this sponsoring grant was $8,000; that was 23% of the overall budget of the Workshop. Remaining 77% were provided by the sponsoring Universities. Workshop sponsors including DOE are shown on the Workshop webpage. There were 90 workshop participants with 52 from US and remaining from Bosnia/Herzegovina (1), Brazil (1), China (1), Columbia (1), France (1), Germany (10), Italy (9), Japan (4), Russian Federation (3), Slovenia (2), Spain (4), and Switzerland (1). Among Workshop participants there were 17 postdocs and young researchers and 11 graduate students. Total 67 talks and 14 posters were presented at Workshop during 3 days of sessions. Appendix 2 shows the list of talks and posters. Main topic of the Workshop was Baryon and Lepton number violation that has become a vital part of the current discussions of the physics beyond the Standard Model (SM), specifically in connection with understanding the nature of neutrinos, origin of matter in universe, as well as possible Grand Unification of matter and forces. The goal of the Workshop was to have a focused comprehensive discussion of the Baryon (B) and Lepton (L) number violating processes, and possible new physics combining violation of both, including (B−L) violation, as a probe of unification, baryo- and lepto-genesis, Left-Right symmetry restoration, matter-antimatter asymmetry, sterile matter, mirror matter, dark matter, low-scale gravity, etc. Related experimental observations to these physics aspects included searches for Majorana neutrinos (2β0ν decays), proton decays, neutron-antineutron oscillations, μ-e transitions, mirror and sterile matter transformations, and possible other new phenomena that can be seen at LHC and future colliders. Combination of theoretical and experimental discussions at the Workshop was most stimulating for germinating of new theoretical ideas and promoting new experimental efforts in particle physics. As one of new developments stemmed from this Workshop was an idea of performing new neutron-antineutron transformation search at the Project X accelerator to be built at Fermilab. BLV2011 Workshop website: http://www.phys.utk.edu/BLV2011/ contains all the talks delivered at this Workshop. Agenda of the Workshop can be found in Appendix 2 to this report. During the Workshop all presentation talks were available at the web in parallel with the talks. This made the discussions of the new ideas and results at the meeting more prompt and efficient. Previous Workshops on Baryon and Lepton Number Violation search in 2007 at LBL and 2009 at the University of Wisconsin were organized essentially by the same initiative group of people as this Workshop. We are observing increased interest in the community to this physics topic. Next BLV-2013 Workshop now at bi-annual basis is being organized at the Max Plank Institute at Heidelberg by Pavel Fileviez Perez.

  12. Highly Stripped Ion Sources for MeV Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2009-06-30

    Original technical objectives of CRADA number PVI C-03-09 between BNL and Poole Ventura, Inc. (PVI) were to develop an intense, high charge state, ion source for MeV ion implanters. Present day high-energy ion implanters utilize low charge state (usually single charge) ion sources in combination with rf accelerators. Usually, a MV LINAC is used for acceleration of a few rnA. It is desirable to have instead an intense, high charge state ion source on a relatively low energy platform (de acceleration) to generate high-energy ion beams for implantation. This de acceleration of ions will be far more efficient (in energy utilization). The resultant implanter will be smaller in size. It will generate higher quality ion beams (with lower emittance) for fabrication of superior semiconductor products. In addition to energy and cost savings, the implanter will operate at a lower level of health risks associated with ion implantation. An additional aim of the project was to producing a product that can lead to long­ term job creation in Russia and/or in the US. R&D was conducted in two Russian Centers (one in Tomsk and Seversk, the other in Moscow) under the guidance ofPVI personnel and the BNL PI. Multiple approaches were pursued, developed, and tested at various locations with the best candidate for commercialization delivered and tested at on an implanter at the PVI client Axcelis. Technical developments were exciting: record output currents of high charge state phosphorus and antimony were achieved; a Calutron-Bemas ion source with a 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art). Record steady state output currents of higher charge state phosphorous and antimony and P ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb {sup 4 +}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. Ultimate commercialization goals did not succeed (even though a number of the products like high charge state phosphorus and antimony could have resulted in a lower power consumption of 30 kW/implanter) for the following reasons (which were discovered after R&D completion): record output of high charge state phosphorous would have thermally damage wafers; record high charge state of antimony requires tool (ion implanting machine in ion implantation jargon) modification, which did not make economic sense due to the small number of users. Nevertheless, BNL has benefited from advances in high-charge state ion generation, due to high charge state ions need for RHIC preinjection. High fraction boron ion was delivered to PVI client Axcelis for retrofit and implantation testing; the source could have reduced beam preinjector power consumption by a factor of 3.5. But, since the source generated some lithium (though in miniscule amounts); last minute decision was made not to employ the source in implanters. R&D of novel transport and gasless plasmaless deceleration, as well as decaborane molecular ion source to mitigate space charge problems in low energy shallow ion implantation was also conducted though results were not yet ready for commercialization. Future work should be focused on gasless plasmaless transport and deceleration as well as on molecular ions due to their significance to low energy, shallow implantation; which is the last frontier of ion implantation. To summarize the significant accomplishments: 1. Record steady state output currents of high charge state phosphorous, P, ions in particle milli-Ampere: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA). 2. Record steady state output currents of high charge state antimony, Sb, ions in particle milli-Ampere: Sb{sup 3+} (16.2 pmA), Sb{sup 4+} (7.6 pmA), Sb{sup 5+} (3.3 pmA), and Sb{sup 6+} (2.2 pmA). 3. 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art) from a Calutron-Bemas ion source. These accomplishments have the potential of benefiting the semiconductor manufacturing industry by lowering power consumption by as much as 30 kW per ion implanter. Major problem was meeting commercialization goals did not succeed for the following reasons (which were discovered after R&D completion): record output of high charge state phosphorous would have thermally damage wafers; record high charge state of antimony requires tool (ion implanting machine in ion implantation jargon) modification, which did not make economic sense due to the small number of users. High fraction boron ion was delivered to PVI client Axcelis for retrofit and implantation testing; the source could have reduced beam preinjector power consumption by a factor of 3.5. But, since the source generated some lithium (though in miniscule amounts); last minute decision was made not to employ the source in implanters. An additional noteworthy reason for failure to commercialize is the fact that the ion implantation manufacturing industry had been in a very deep bust cycle. BNL, however, has benefited from advances in high-charge state ion generation, due to the need high charge state ions in some RHIC preinjectors. Since the invention of the transistor, the trend has been to miniaturize semiconductor devices. As semiconductors become smaller (and get miniaturized), ion energy needed for implantation decreases, since shallow implantation is desired. But, due to space charge (intra-ion repulsion) effects, forming and transporting ion beams becomes a rather difficult task. A few small manufacturers of low quality semiconductors use plasma immersion to circumvent the problem. However, in plasma immersion undesired plasma impurity ions are also implanted; hence, the quality of those semiconductors is poor. For high quality miniature semiconductor manufacturing, pure, low energy ion beams are utilized. But, low energy ion implanters are characterized by low current (much lower than desirable) and, therefore, low production rates. Consequently, increasing the current of pure low energy ion beams is of paramount importance to the semiconductor industry. Basically, the semiconductor industry needs higher currents and purer ion low energy beams. Therefore R&D of novel transport and gasless plasmaless deceleration, as well as decaborane molecular ion source to mitigate space charge problems in low energy shallow ion implantation was also conducted though results were not yet ready for commercialization. Future work should be focused on gasless plasmaless transport and deceleration as well as cin molecular ions due to their significance to low energy, shallow implantation, which is the last frontier of ion implantation.

  13. 11,23,1,1,,19,10,"BANGOR HYDRO ELECTRIC CO","ELLSWORTH",0,,1179,"0A",1294,,,95,2941,0,0,3518,0,0,4870,0,0,1732,0,0,3252,0,0,2193,0,0,134,0,0,447,0,0,465,0,0,538,0,0,4295,0,0,3601,0,0,1469,6,50159,"WAT","HY"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NAD_UTIL","FILLER","EFFDATE","STATUS","MULTIST","YEAR","GEN01","CON01","STK01","GEN02","CON02","STK02","GEN03","CON03","STK03","GEN04","CON04","STK04","GEN05","CON05","STK05","GEN06","CON06","STK06","GEN07","CON07","STK07","GEN08","CON08","STK08","GEN09","CON09","STK09","GEN10","CON10","STK10","GEN11","CON11","STK11","GEN12","CON12","STK12","PCODE","NERC","UTILCODE","FUELDESC","PMDESC" 11,23,1,1,,19,10,"BANGOR HYDRO ELECTRIC CO","ELLSWORTH",0,,1179,"0A",1294,,,95,2941,0,0,3518,0,0,4870,0,0,1732,0,0,3252,0,0,2193,0,0,134,0,0,447,0,0,465,0,0,538,0,0,4295,0,0,3601,0,0,1469,6,50159,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,19,15,"BANGOR HYDRO ELECTRIC CO","HOWLAND",0,,1179,"0A",1294,,,95,772,0,0,858,0,0,1012,0,0,727,0,0,1061,0,0,917,0,0,385,0,0,118,0,0,0,0,0,657,0,0,905,0,0,820,0,0,1472,6,50159,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,19,30,"BANGOR HYDRO ELECTRIC CO","MEDWAY",0,,1179,"0A",1294,,,95,2116,0,0,1715,0,0,1459,0,0,1821,0,0,1946,0,0,2134,0,0,2157,0,0,1797,0,0,1745,0,0,1829,0,0,2224,0,0,2386,0,0,1474,6,50159,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,3,2,19,30,"BANGOR HYDRO ELECTRIC CO","MEDWAY",0,"LIGHT OIL",1179,"0A",1294,,,95,0,0,553,181,307,419,0,0,593,31,55,538,66,120,418,219,399,383,324,598,481,313,579,614,97,178,575,1,2,573,0,0,608,98,171,611,1474,6,50159,"FO2","IC" 11,23,1,1,,19,35,"BANGOR HYDRO ELECTRIC CO","MILFORD",0,,1179,"0A",1294,,,95,3843,0,0,3348,0,0,4177,0,0,3759,0,0,4855,0,0,4740,0,0,2971,0,0,2432,0,0,1786,0,0,1561,0,0,3510,0,0,4606,0,0,1475,6,50159,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,19,45,"BANGOR HYDRO ELECTRIC CO","ORONO",0,,1179,"0A",1294,,,95,895,0,0,836,0,0,966,0,0,576,0,0,624,0,0,736,0,0,684,0,0,464,0,0,408,0,0,616,0,0,849,0,0,896,0,0,1476,6,50159,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,19,55,"BANGOR HYDRO ELECTRIC CO","STILLWATER",0,,1179,"0A",1294,,,95,1191,0,0,844,0,0,939,0,0,1021,0,0,1114,0,0,1181,0,0,1170,0,0,878,0,0,818,0,0,880,0,0,923,0,0,950,0,0,1478,6,50159,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,19,60,"BANGOR HYDRO ELECTRIC CO","VEAZIE A",0,,1179,"0A",1294,,,95,4314,0,0,3855,0,0,5043,0,0,5153,0,0,6053,0,0,5342,0,0,3542,0,0,2651,0,0,2281,0,0,3932,0,0,5128,0,0,3842,0,0,1479,6,50159,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,19,62,"BANGOR HYDRO ELECTRIC CO","VEAZIE B",0,,1179,"0A",1294,,,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,7199,6,50159,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,3,2,19,68,"BANGOR HYDRO ELECTRIC CO","BAR HARBOR",0,"LIGHT OIL",1179,"0A",1294,,,95,42,73,538,379,659,574,0,0,574,73,128,446,69,125,512,225,420,440,312,579,556,449,813,455,32,60,586,49,89,497,6,10,487,152,264,571,1466,6,50159,"FO2","IC" 11,23,1,3,2,19,75,"BANGOR HYDRO ELECTRIC CO","EASTPORT",0,"LIGHT OIL",1179,"0A",1294,,,95,39,70,576,80,139,412,0,0,586,10,18,557,32,58,494,111,204,464,172,317,495,182,334,509,19,36,472,0,0,470,15,29,429,67,117,460,1468,6,50159,"FO2","IC" 11,23,1,1,,37,5,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","ANDROSCOG 3",0,,3266,"0M",1294,,,95,2536,0,0,2573,0,0,2732,0,0,2703,0,0,2639,0,0,2235,0,0,2379,0,0,2201,0,0,1657,0,0,2352,0,0,2282,0,0,2805,0,0,1480,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,37,10,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","BAR MILLS",0,,3266,"0M",1294,,,95,2420,0,0,1389,0,0,2414,0,0,2364,0,0,2584,0,0,1195,0,0,623,0,0,586,0,0,293,0,0,1310,0,0,2401,0,0,2056,0,0,1481,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,37,20,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","BONNY EAGLE",0,,3266,"0M",1294,,,95,6041,0,0,3654,0,0,5858,0,0,5255,0,0,4575,0,0,2217,0,0,1233,0,0,1084,0,0,592,0,0,3323,0,0,7098,0,0,4100,0,0,1482,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,37,40,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","CATARACT",0,,3266,"0M",1294,,,95,5330,0,0,4194,0,0,4953,0,0,4656,0,0,4888,0,0,5331,0,0,818,0,0,662,0,0,102,0,0,2232,0,0,5064,0,0,4090,0,0,1486,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,37,42,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","CONTINENTAL",0,,3266,"0M",1294,,,95,-14,0,0,-15,0,0,322,0,0,72,0,0,147,0,0,12,0,0,3,0,0,13,0,0,15,0,0,109,0,0,555,0,0,-18,0,0,1487,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,37,50,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","DEER RIP 1",0,,3266,"0M",1294,,,95,2694,0,0,2434,0,0,4080,0,0,3776,0,0,4034,0,0,2023,0,0,686,0,0,215,0,0,83,0,0,1916,0,0,3984,0,0,3453,0,0,1488,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,37,60,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","FT HALIFAX",0,,3266,"0M",1294,,,95,959,0,0,424,0,0,1026,0,0,961,0,0,925,0,0,526,0,0,51,0,0,5,0,0,155,0,0,380,0,0,977,0,0,659,0,0,1490,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,37,75,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","GULF ISLAND",0,,3266,"0M",1294,,,95,10764,0,0,9131,0,0,13512,0,0,13282,0,0,13485,0,0,8299,0,0,5537,0,0,4070,0,0,2892,0,0,9130,0,0,15549,0,0,11464,0,0,1491,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,37,80,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","HARRIS",0,,3266,"0M",1294,,,95,14325,0,0,24479,0,0,22937,0,0,6538,0,0,5448,0,0,21283,0,0,13285,0,0,11928,0,0,12813,0,0,10770,0,0,19708,0,0,26783,0,0,1492,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,37,85,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","HIRAM",0,,3266,"0M",1294,,,95,5791,0,0,3447,0,0,5873,0,0,6762,0,0,6516,0,0,2778,0,0,1397,0,0,1182,0,0,155,0,0,2992,0,0,7160,0,0,4285,0,0,1493,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,37,90,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","MESALONSK 2",0,,3266,"0M",1294,,,95,1280,0,0,585,0,0,1625,0,0,606,0,0,869,0,0,350,0,0,2,0,0,-1,0,0,9,0,0,710,0,0,1668,0,0,745,0,0,1497,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,37,95,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","MESALONSK 3",0,,3266,"0M",1294,,,95,753,0,0,330,0,0,977,0,0,349,0,0,507,0,0,180,0,0,0,0,0,-6,0,0,0,0,0,414,0,0,1038,0,0,416,0,0,1498,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,37,100,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","MESALONSK 4",0,,3266,"0M",1294,,,95,405,0,0,183,0,0,451,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1499,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,37,105,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","MESALONSK 5",0,,3266,"0M",1294,,,95,699,0,0,292,0,0,0,0,0,378,0,0,0,0,0,203,0,0,13,0,0,9,0,0,4,0,0,408,0,0,923,0,0,390,0,0,1500,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,37,110,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","NO GORHAM",0,,3266,"0M",1294,,,95,1215,0,0,963,0,0,842,0,0,520,0,0,455,0,0,503,0,0,595,0,0,604,0,0,413,0,0,340,0,0,740,0,0,1180,0,0,1501,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,37,125,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","SHAWMUT",0,,3266,"0M",1294,,,95,5226,0,0,5495,0,0,6547,0,0,5776,0,0,5295,0,0,4910,0,0,3475,0,0,2346,0,0,2571,0,0,3529,0,0,4803,0,0,6066,0,0,1504,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,37,130,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","SKELTON",0,,3266,"0M",1294,,,95,13276,0,0,8614,0,0,12134,0,0,11304,0,0,11550,0,0,5199,0,0,2833,0,0,2610,0,0,687,0,0,6731,0,0,13037,0,0,9456,0,0,1505,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,37,145,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","WEST BUXTON",0,,3266,"0M",1294,,,95,4424,0,0,2556,0,0,4381,0,0,3723,0,0,3292,0,0,1602,0,0,798,0,0,745,0,0,418,0,0,1944,0,0,4334,0,0,3045,0,0,1508,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,37,150,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","WESTON",0,,3266,"0M",1294,,,95,8095,0,0,8443,0,0,9513,0,0,8520,0,0,7843,0,0,7850,0,0,5819,0,0,4618,0,0,4257,0,0,5361,0,0,7925,0,0,9347,0,0,1509,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,37,155,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","WILLIAMS",0,,3266,"0M",1294,,,95,9171,0,0,9162,0,0,10255,0,0,6585,0,0,7543,0,0,8658,0,0,6098,0,0,5593,0,0,5308,0,0,5891,0,0,8857,0,0,10646,0,0,1510,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,37,160,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","WYMAN HYDRO",0,,3266,"0M",1294,,,95,30298,0,0,37016,0,0,38382,0,0,18735,0,0,24745,0,0,31774,0,0,20433,0,0,17564,0,0,16353,0,0,19735,0,0,40234,0,0,38504,0,0,1511,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,4,2,37,175,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","CAPE",0,"LIGHT OIL",3266,"0M",1294,,,95,40,282,7937,40,336,7601,-57,44,7557,-40,24,7533,5,162,7371,38,208,7316,611,1872,6581,497,1571,5887,-24,32,5855,-32,27,5828,-45,25,5803,-25,145,5552,1484,6,50491,"FO2","GT" 11,23,1,2,2,37,200,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","WYMAN STEAM",0,"LIGHT OIL",3266,"0M",1294,,,95,707,1587,1149,810,1542,1579,117,264,1534,980,1825,1680,366,883,1468,854,1640,1807,783,1460,2327,653,1307,1677,115,266,1410,20,76,1335,486,1282,2039,604,1177,2212,1507,6,50491,"FO2","ST" 11,23,1,2,3,37,200,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","WYMAN STEAM",0,"HEAVY OIL",3266,"0M",1294,,,95,47051,97029,319010,122493,214459,275338,22777,47240,228098,127804,222606,207728,22560,50003,278752,79660,140051,253816,153893,263859,173676,74046,134076,202289,16596,35140,288543,3258,10955,197963,18538,44437,353526,107031,192190,308382,1507,6,50491,"FO6","ST" 11,23,1,3,2,37,204,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","ISLESBORO",0,"LIGHT OIL",3266,"0M",1294,"S",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1494,6,50491,"FO2","IC" 11,23,1,3,2,37,206,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","PEAK IS",0,"LIGHT OIL",3266,"0M",1294,"S",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1502,6,50491,"FO2","IC" 11,23,1,1,,37,210,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","BRUNSWICK",0,,3266,"0M",1294,,,95,7964,0,0,6898,0,0,11266,0,0,10237,0,0,10095,0,0,6009,0,0,3698,0,0,2974,0,0,2429,0,0,6541,0,0,12216,0,0,8541,0,0,1483,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,37,215,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","W CHANNEL",0,,3266,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,0,-33,0,0,-20,0,0,-22,0,0,-1,0,0,-1,0,0,-1,0,0,-21,0,0,-1,0,0,19,0,0,-11,0,0,-22,0,0,695,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,37,220,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","BATES UPPER",0,,3266,"0M",1294,,,95,-41,0,0,-34,0,0,610,0,0,144,0,0,273,0,0,15,0,0,1,0,0,15,0,0,18,0,0,217,0,0,4223,0,0,-30,0,0,7044,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,37,225,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","BATES LOWER",0,,3266,"0M",1294,"S",,95,-17,0,0,-16,0,0,-8,0,0,-2,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,-1,0,0,-3,0,0,-17,0,0,7045,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,37,235,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","ANDRO LOWER",0,,3266,"0M",1294,,,95,23,0,0,-11,0,0,21,0,0,-2,0,0,12,0,0,0,0,0,-1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,5,0,0,38,0,0,-14,0,0,7047,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,37,240,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","HILL MILL",0,,3266,"0M",1294,,,95,-3,0,0,-2,0,0,183,0,0,-6,0,0,60,0,0,2,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,105,0,0,467,0,0,-6,0,0,7048,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,37,245,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","C E MONTY",0,,3266,"0M",1294,,,95,11840,0,0,10124,0,0,14280,0,0,13297,0,0,13808,0,0,8324,0,0,5496,0,0,4271,0,0,3199,0,0,9333,0,0,15686,0,0,12247,0,0,805,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,1,,37,250,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","SMELT HILL",0,,3266,"0M",294,"A",,95,0,0,0,400,0,0,352,0,0,239,0,0,180,0,0,162,0,0,191,0,0,178,0,0,-608,0,0,766,0,0,224,0,0,283,0,0,7514,6,50491,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,2,"B",37,255,"CENTRAL MAINE POWER CO","AROOSTOOK V",0,"WOOD",3266,"0M",294,"A",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,165,0,0,134,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,7513,6,50491,"WD","ST" 11,23,1,1,,94,5,"MAINE PUBLIC SERVICE CO","CARIBOU",0,,11522,"0M",1294,,,95,454,0,0,469,0,0,519,0,0,451,0,0,454,0,0,410,0,0,48,0,0,1,0,0,-2,0,0,178,0,0,536,0,0,504,0,0,1513,6,51747,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,2,3,94,5,"MAINE PUBLIC SERVICE CO","CARIBOU",0,"HEAVY OIL",11522,"0M",1294,,,95,343,903,9375,592,1410,7984,-32,0,8005,-29,0,7995,-26,6,8015,-27,4,8057,-26,0,8067,222,644,7448,-28,0,7396,-29,0,7390,857,1841,5557,2237,4973,2370,1513,6,51747,"FO6","ST" 11,23,1,3,2,94,5,"MAINE PUBLIC SERVICE CO","CARIBOU",0,"LIGHT OIL",11522,"0M",1294,,,95,50,251,1746,5,143,1693,-65,0,1583,78,225,1932,-18,17,1865,-9,6,1829,38,115,1683,233,500,1802,86,210,1776,-6,65,2071,-56,28,1948,244,599,2098,1513,6,51747,"FO2","IC" 11,23,1,1,,94,10,"MAINE PUBLIC SERVICE CO","SQUA PAN",0,,11522,"0M",1294,,,95,115,0,0,363,0,0,152,0,0,-10,0,0,-7,0,0,-3,0,0,-3,0,0,-4,0,0,-6,0,0,-7,0,0,3,0,0,223,0,0,1516,6,51747,"WAT","HY" 11,23,1,3,2,94,23,"MAINE PUBLIC SERVICE CO","FLOS INN",0,"LIGHT OIL",11522,"0M",1294,,,95,27,115,314,19,82,232,-29,0,232,19,79,373,-23,2,371,-16,0,371,13,80,290,124,284,232,74,135,323,-3,51,272,-25,8,264,217,451,388,1514,6,51747,"FO2","IC" 11,23,1,3,2,94,25,"MAINE PUBLIC SERVICE CO","HOULTON",0,"LIGHT OIL",11522,"0M",1294,,,95,6,28,13,-8,1,12,-8,2,10,-8,0,10,-6,0,10,-3,0,10,-2,0,10,-3,0,10,-3,0,10,-4,0,11,-4,2,8,14,34,6,1515,6,51747,"FO2","IC" 11,23,1,2,1,97,1,"MAINE YANKEE ATOMIC PWR C","MAIN YANKEE",0,"NUCLEAR",11525,"0M",1294,,,95,197577,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1517,6,51748,"UR","ST" 11,23,1,3,2,116,10,"PUB SERV CO OF NEW HAMP","SWANS FALLS",0,"LIGHT OIL",15472,"0M",1294,"R",180,95,-7,0,2,-7,0,2,-6,0,2,-3,0,2,-2,0,2,-1,0,2,-1,0,2,-1,0,2,-1,0,2,-1,0,2,-3,0,2,0,0,0,1518,6,52411,"FO2","IC" 11,23,5,1,,525,1,"LEWISTON (CITY OF)","ANDRO UPPER",0,,10963,"0A",1294,,,95,296,0,0,378,0,0,310,0,0,424,0,0,264,0,0,390,0,0,256,0,0,258,0,0,304,0,0,270,0,0,342,0,0,324,0,0,7046,6,54168,"WAT","HY" 11,23,5,1,,566,1,"MADISON (CITY OF)","NORRIDGEWCK",0,,11477,"0A",1294,,,95,306,0,0,241,0,0,261,0,0,291,0,0,379,0,0,277,0,0,75,0,0,0,0,0,26,0,0,121,0,0,197,0,0,224,0,0,6701,6,51737,"WAT","HY" 11,23,8,3,2,835,5,"EASTERN MAINE ELEC COOP","PORTABLE",0,"LIGHT OIL",5609,"0A",1294,"S",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,6366,6,50848,"FO2","IC" 11,23,8,3,2,940,1,"SWANS ISLAND ELEC COOP","MINTURN",0,"LIGHT OIL",18368,"0A",1294,"S",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1550,6,52863,"FO2","IC" 12,33,1,1,,106,5,"NEW ENGLAND POWER CO","COMERFORD",0,,13433,"0M",1294,,90,95,34273,0,0,19125,0,0,43429,0,0,11874,0,0,22700,0,0,13853,0,0,5565,0,0,11061,0,0,5412,0,0,30636,0,0,45527,0,0,18948,0,0,2349,6,52007,"WAT","HY" 12,33,1,1,,106,10,"NEW ENGLAND POWER CO","MCINDOES",0,,13433,"0M",1294,,90,95,4420,0,0,3434,0,0,6350,0,0,3330,0,0,4648,0,0,2664,0,0,1453,0,0,2497,0,0,1353,0,0,4755,0,0,7050,0,0,3740,0,0,6483,6,52007,"WAT","HY" 12,33,1,1,,106,13,"NEW ENGLAND POWER CO","S C MOORE",0,,13433,"0M",1294,,90,95,29434,0,0,15866,0,0,34014,0,0,9521,0,0,19359,0,0,12124,0,0,4787,0,0,9805,0,0,4357,0,0,27013,0,0,40020,0,0,16551,0,0,2351,6,52007,"WAT","HY" 12,33,1,1,,106,15,"NEW ENGLAND POWER CO","VERNON",0,,13433,"0M",1294,,90,95,7120,0,0,5523,0,0,9186,0,0,7993,0,0,7582,0,0,3197,0,0,1355,0,0,2525,0,0,19,0,0,5912,0,0,9702,0,0,7342,0,0,2352,6,52007,"WAT","HY" 12,33,1,1,,106,20,"NEW ENGLAND POWER CO","WILDER",0,,13433,"0M",1294,,90,95,1974,0,0,3326,0,0,18722,0,0,7773,0,0,8911,0,0,4713,0,0,4047,0,0,5176,0,0,2849,0,0,9330,0,0,12667,0,0,7471,0,0,2353,6,52007,"WAT","HY" 12,33,1,2,1,123,1,"PUB SERV CO OF NEW HAMP","SEABROOK",0,"NUCLEAR",15472,"0M",1294,,180,95,857441,0,0,778373,0,0,863021,0,0,832472,0,0,865152,0,0,495425,0,0,690261,0,0,805711,0,0,800410,0,0,828658,0,0,60958,0,0,501494,0,0,6115,6,52411,"UR","ST" 12,33,1,1,,123,4,"PUB SERV CO OF NEW HAMP","AMOSKEAG",0,,15472,"0M",1294,,180,95,10690,0,0,7028,0,0,11425,0,0,749,0,0,15769,0,0,4245,0,0,2251,0,0,3257,0,0,434,0,0,5760,0,0,11044,0,0,6264,0,0,2354,6,52411,"WAT","HY" 12,33,1,1,,123,6,"PUB SERV CO OF NEW HAMP","AYERS IS",0,,15472,"0M",1294,,180,95,3909,0,0,2249,0,0,4743,0,0,3555,0,0,4487,0,0,1520,0,0,1448,0,0,1727,0,0,380,0,0,3303,0,0,5711,0,0,2632,0,0,2355,6,52411,"WAT","HY" 12,33,1,1,,123,16,"PUB SERV CO OF NEW HAMP","EASTMAN FLS",0,,15472,"0M",1294,,180,95,2843,0,0,1293,0,0,2781,0,0,2587,0,0,2725,0,0,1214,0,0,1763,0,0,10079,0,0,-9794,0,0,1729,0,0,3266,0,0,1701,0,0,2356,6,52411,"WAT","HY" 12,33,1,1,,123,20,"PUB SERV CO OF NEW HAMP","GARVIN FLS",0,,15472,"0M",1294,,180,95,5209,0,0,3143,0,0,5693,0,0,4388,0,0,3956,0,0,2019,0,0,755,0,0,1667,0,0,350,0,0,3233,0,0,6336,0,0,3913,0,0,2357,6,52411,"WAT","HY" 12,33,1,1,,123,22,"PUB SERV CO OF NEW HAMP","GORHAM",0,,15472,"0M",1294,,180,95,989,0,0,1031,0,0,1249,0,0,885,0,0,1193,0,0,756,0,0,568,0,0,530,0,0,580,0,0,864,0,0,1116,0,0,1202,0,0,2358,6,52411,"WAT","HY" 12,33,1,1,,123,28,"PUB SERV CO OF NEW HAMP","HOOKSETT",0,,15472,"0M",1294,,180,95,787,0,0,865,0,0,912,0,0,1164,0,0,1141,0,0,791,0,0,156,0,0,317,0,0,43,0,0,751,0,0,952,0,0,776,0,0,2359,6,52411,"WAT","HY" 12,33,1,1,,123,30,"PUB SERV CO OF NEW HAMP","JACKMAN",0,,15472,"0M",1294,,180,95,1997,0,0,535,0,0,1239,0,0,236,0,0,557,0,0,305,0,0,191,0,0,722,0,0,-8,0,0,1339,0,0,2326,0,0,864,0,0,2360,6,52411,"WAT","HY" 12,33,1,1,,123,50,"PUB SERV CO OF NEW HAMP","SMITH STA",0,,15472,"0M",1294,,180,95,8143,0,0,9737,0,0,11648,0,0,6108,0,0,8349,0,0,6172,0,0,4454,0,0,4871,0,0,3742,0,0,6861,0,0,10860,0,0,10308,0,0,2368,6,52411,"WAT","HY" 12,33,1,4,2,123,57,"PUB SERV CO OF NEW HAMP","LOST NATION",0,"LIGHT OIL",15472,"0M",1294,,180,95,-15,0,2159,79,306,1853,-15,0,1853,-12,0,1853,42,125,1728,50,140,1587,209,595,1527,275,828,1235,-11,0,1235,-11,0,1235,-10,0,1235,111,338,1076,2362,6,52411,"FO2","GT" 12,33,1,2,2,123,59,"PUB SERV CO OF NEW HAMP","MERRIMACK",0,"LIGHT OIL",15472,"0M",1294,,180,95,27,45,275,16,29,156,22,38,180,23,38,218,0,0,0,29,52,151,6,14,205,30,55,180,52,96,222,62,108,185,57,96,176,20,35,176,2364,6,52411,"FO2","ST" 12,33,1,2,6,123,59,"PUB SERV CO OF NEW HAMP","MERRIMACK",0,"BIT COAL",15472,"0M",1294,,180,95,266403,101539,253077,274308,103830,266334,256612,98157,263978,216443,80934,278945,76504,17154,315133,246563,95683,297713,281671,111493,247571,263463,95839,235114,181335,71786,264069,207269,81066,275589,253852,96425,269715,287608,108204,247069,2364,6,52411,"BIT","ST" 12,33,1,4,2,123,59,"PUB SERV CO OF NEW HAMP","MERRIMACK",0,"LIGHT OIL",15472,"0M",1294,,180,95,-47,0,3032,411,1048,3032,-21,0,1984,-18,0,1984,112,282,1702,122,334,1367,613,1576,1494,582,1554,2033,-14,0,2033,-11,20,2013,-20,0,2013,242,603,1411,2364,6,52411,"FO2","GT" 12,33,1,2,3,123,63,"PUB SERV CO OF NEW HAMP","SCHILLER",0,"HEAVY OIL",15472,"0M",1294,,180,95,1350,2702,31413,820,1554,92325,2073,4352,187620,1454,2823,184796,1826,3479,189663,2478,4626,184835,4062,7903,176932,2011,4193,53637,1321,2911,170000,1885,4329,165671,5233,10859,154812,3538,6785,118334,2367,6,52411,"FO6","ST" 12,33,1,2,6,123,63,"PUB SERV CO OF NEW HAMP","SCHILLER",0,"BIT COAL",15472,"0M",1294,,180,95,53534,27148,87087,68779,32692,50318,47008,24972,52027,65230,33724,53967,55312,27020,32185,49976,24400,75043,55074,26887,62380,30313,18396,42154,18241,9931,51974,16092,9642,54786,30357,16856,90418,65541,32424,72200,2367,6,52411,"BIT","ST" 12,33,1,4,2,123,63,"PUB SERV CO OF NEW HAMP","SCHILLER",0,"LIGHT OIL",15472,"0M",1294,,180,95,-13,0,804,95,260,723,-12,0,723,-9,0,723,57,118,604,-7,0,604,90,262,723,242,963,714,-7,0,714,0,0,714,-9,0,714,120,301,794,2367,6,52411,"FO2","GT" 12,33,1,4,9,123,63,"PUB SERV CO OF NEW HAMP","SCHILLER",0,"NAT GAS",15472,"0M",1294,,180,95,19,240,0,12,140,0,24,310,0,25,300,0,22,264,0,17,210,0,219,2700,0,121,2803,0,14,190,0,15,220,0,24,320,0,22,260,0,2367,6,52411,"NG","GT" 12,33,1,4,2,123,70,"PUB SERV CO OF NEW HAMP","WHITE LAKE",0,"LIGHT OIL",15472,"0M",1294,,180,95,-17,0,2383,97,350,2033,-14,4,2029,-7,0,2029,48,94,1935,136,341,1595,147,405,1763,357,924,1410,-3,0,1410,-3,0,1410,-13,0,1410,-6,129,1281,2369,6,52411,"FO2","GT" 12,33,1,2,2,123,72,"PUB SERV CO OF NEW HAMP","NEWINGTON",0,"LIGHT OIL",15472,"0M",1294,,180,95,2141,4247,1577,1729,3274,1766,1111,2327,1824,1584,4149,1209,1580,3072,1209,1589,3168,1640,1162,2239,1856,1703,3313,1598,1134,2258,1388,173,817,1751,1894,3703,1630,507,3096,1651,8002,6,52411,"FO2","ST" 12,33,1,2,3,123,72,"PUB SERV CO OF NEW HAMP","NEWINGTON",0,"HEAVY OIL",15472,"0M",1294,,180,95,73391,138116,328850,119485,206586,321529,32827,62816,434361,89003,159420,245596,100291,177704,321055,73382,134661,317462,125529,216497,100965,57182,118647,2305699,45699,82009,405756,1560,6611,399144,100544,177099,222046,136392,231245,388270,8002,6,52411,"FO6","ST" 12,33,1,2,9,123,72,"PUB SERV CO OF NEW HAMP","NEWINGTON",0,"NAT GAS",15472,"0M",1294,,180,95,1463,17053,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,35353,394385,0,45744,527451,0,57696,624462,0,48968,544320,0,10747,122302,0,57,1545,0,742,8312,0,0,0,0,8002,6,52411,"NG","ST" 13,50,1,1,,22,2,"CENTRAL VT PUB SERV CORP","ARNOLD FLS",0,,3292,"0A",1294,,350,95,112,0,0,27,0,0,168,0,0,290,0,0,100,0,0,18,0,0,33,0,0,37,0,0,17,0,0,172,0,0,245,0,0,135,0,0,3707,6,50503,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,22,10,"CENTRAL VT PUB SERV CORP","CAVENDISH",0,,3292,"0A",1294,,350,95,534,0,0,309,0,0,847,0,0,607,0,0,267,0,0,83,0,0,0,0,0,134,0,0,-3,0,0,391,0,0,928,0,0,383,0,0,3710,6,50503,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,22,11,"CENTRAL VT PUB SERV CORP","CLARKS FLS",0,,3292,"0A",1294,,350,95,1404,0,0,1026,0,0,1689,0,0,1865,0,0,1729,0,0,855,0,0,596,0,0,1076,0,0,567,0,0,1648,0,0,1970,0,0,1412,0,0,3711,6,50503,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,22,15,"CENTRAL VT PUB SERV CORP","FAIRFAX",0,,3292,"0A",1294,,350,95,1873,0,0,1589,0,0,2321,0,0,2516,0,0,2499,0,0,1241,0,0,878,0,0,1432,0,0,744,0,0,2114,0,0,2573,0,0,2233,0,0,3712,6,50503,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,22,16,"CENTRAL VT PUB SERV CORP","GAGE",0,,3292,"0A",1294,,350,95,221,0,0,24,0,0,244,0,0,307,0,0,290,0,0,73,0,0,85,0,0,38,0,0,48,0,0,305,0,0,523,0,0,226,0,0,3713,6,50503,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,22,18,"CENTRAL VT PUB SERV CORP","GLEN",0,,3292,"0A",1294,,350,95,1041,0,0,605,0,0,731,0,0,367,0,0,238,0,0,98,0,0,83,0,0,323,0,0,183,0,0,629,0,0,1307,0,0,401,0,0,3714,6,50503,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,22,22,"CENTRAL VT PUB SERV CORP","LW MIDLEBRY",0,,3292,"0A",1294,,350,95,725,0,0,534,0,0,1054,0,0,920,0,0,550,0,0,286,0,0,79,0,0,150,0,0,104,0,0,524,0,0,1220,0,0,492,0,0,3716,6,50503,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,22,26,"CENTRAL VT PUB SERV CORP","MILTON",0,,3292,"0A",1294,,350,95,3538,0,0,2446,0,0,4215,0,0,4336,0,0,3864,0,0,1806,0,0,1204,0,0,2514,0,0,1210,0,0,4046,0,0,4879,0,0,3192,0,0,3717,6,50503,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,22,28,"CENTRAL VT PUB SERV CORP","PASSUMPSIC",0,,3292,"0A",1294,,350,95,315,0,0,97,0,0,378,0,0,435,0,0,415,0,0,90,0,0,51,0,0,150,0,0,94,0,0,370,0,0,434,0,0,44,0,0,3718,6,50503,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,22,30,"CENTRAL VT PUB SERV CORP","PATCH",0,,3292,"0A",1294,,350,95,107,0,0,58,0,0,59,0,0,21,0,0,7,0,0,5,0,0,5,0,0,28,0,0,7,0,0,42,0,0,158,0,0,30,0,0,3719,6,50503,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,22,34,"CENTRAL VT PUB SERV CORP","PIERCE MLS",0,,3292,"0A",1294,,350,95,113,0,0,81,0,0,121,0,0,180,0,0,161,0,0,59,0,0,47,0,0,47,0,0,17,0,0,102,0,0,181,0,0,116,0,0,3721,6,50503,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,22,36,"CENTRAL VT PUB SERV CORP","PITTSFORD",0,,3292,"0A",1294,,350,95,1275,0,0,941,0,0,158,0,0,47,0,0,-2,0,0,9,0,0,0,0,0,489,0,0,354,0,0,726,0,0,1999,0,0,679,0,0,3722,6,50503,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,22,38,"CENTRAL VT PUB SERV CORP","SALISBURY",0,,3292,"0A",1294,,350,95,325,0,0,210,0,0,191,0,0,62,0,0,141,0,0,65,0,0,25,0,0,72,0,0,111,0,0,88,0,0,-6,0,0,303,0,0,3724,6,50503,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,22,40,"CENTRAL VT PUB SERV CORP","SILVER LAKE",0,,3292,"0A",1294,,350,95,800,0,0,508,0,0,722,0,0,405,0,0,402,0,0,227,0,0,103,0,0,275,0,0,84,0,0,500,0,0,973,0,0,535,0,0,3725,6,50503,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,22,41,"CENTRAL VT PUB SERV CORP","TAFTSVILLE",0,,3292,"0A",1294,,350,95,150,0,0,135,0,0,208,0,0,200,0,0,119,0,0,12,0,0,0,0,0,17,0,0,-1,0,0,55,0,0,175,0,0,162,0,0,3727,6,50503,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,22,44,"CENTRAL VT PUB SERV CORP","WEYBRIDGE",0,,3292,"0A",1294,,350,95,1391,0,0,616,0,0,1819,0,0,1459,0,0,991,0,0,370,0,0,156,0,0,354,0,0,167,0,0,1042,0,0,2031,0,0,856,0,0,3728,6,50503,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,22,45,"CENTRAL VT PUB SERV CORP","PETERSON",0,,3292,"0A",1294,,350,95,2522,0,0,1281,0,0,3601,0,0,3092,0,0,2335,0,0,1090,0,0,702,0,0,1605,0,0,681,0,0,2814,0,0,4021,0,0,1742,0,0,3720,6,50503,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,4,2,22,48,"CENTRAL VT PUB SERV CORP","RUTLAND",0,"LIGHT OIL",3292,"0A",1294,,350,95,13,125,4525,45,327,4198,40,218,3979,19,143,3836,20,127,3709,101,381,3328,272,898,2430,277,932,1498,34,167,3475,-8,46,3429,32,195,3234,152,651,2583,3723,6,50503,"FO2","GT" 13,50,1,4,2,22,49,"CENTRAL VT PUB SERV CORP","ASCUTNEY",0,"LIGHT OIL",3292,"0A",1294,,350,95,27,136,2572,77,326,2246,69,300,1946,18,96,1851,8,65,1786,41,144,1641,268,895,2175,226,765,1409,-1,38,3277,-15,0,3277,-3,71,3206,88,353,2853,3708,6,50503,"FO2","GT" 13,50,1,3,2,22,60,"CENTRAL VT PUB SERV CORP","ST ALBANS",0,"LIGHT OIL",3292,"0A",1294,,350,95,-14,0,89,5,38,214,-11,4,210,-10,5,205,7,17,188,21,40,148,72,149,234,59,123,111,-1,2,110,-3,0,110,-6,0,108,9,42,236,3726,6,50503,"FO2","IC" 13,50,1,1,,22,65,"CENTRAL VT PUB SERV CORP","SMITH",0,,3292,"0A",1294,,350,95,361,0,0,154,0,0,495,0,0,658,0,0,519,0,0,163,0,0,121,0,0,123,0,0,72,0,0,258,0,0,692,0,0,170,0,0,3709,6,50503,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,22,70,"CENTRAL VT PUB SERV CORP","EAST BARNET",0,,3292,"0A",1294,,350,95,595,0,0,399,0,0,900,0,0,1046,0,0,922,0,0,325,0,0,322,0,0,358,0,0,203,0,0,790,0,0,1148,0,0,702,0,0,788,6,50503,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,24,5,"CITIZENS UTILITIES CO","CHARLESTON",0,,3611,"0A",1294,,,95,339,0,0,244,0,0,393,0,0,445,0,0,409,0,0,252,0,0,154,0,0,192,0,0,90,0,0,382,0,0,461,0,0,314,0,0,3729,6,50560,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,24,10,"CITIZENS UTILITIES CO","NEWPORT",0,,3611,"0A",1294,,,95,1625,0,0,946,0,0,1961,0,0,1655,0,0,1645,0,0,917,0,0,474,0,0,1107,0,0,331,0,0,1614,0,0,2652,0,0,1235,0,0,3731,6,50560,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,3,2,24,15,"CITIZENS UTILITIES CO","NEWPORT DSL",0,"LIGHT OIL",3611,"0A",1294,,,95,0,0,377,16,33,290,0,0,259,0,0,229,0,0,206,0,0,206,0,0,206,7,12,194,8,16,177,0,0,177,0,0,137,0,0,85,3730,6,50560,"FO2","IC" 13,50,1,1,,24,20,"CITIZENS UTILITIES CO","TROY",0,,3611,"0A",1294,,,95,150,0,0,72,0,0,150,0,0,267,0,0,209,0,0,71,0,0,28,0,0,30,0,0,3,0,0,74,0,0,244,0,0,128,0,0,3733,6,50560,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,47,10,"GREEN MOUNTAIN POWER CORP","ESSEX 19",0,,7601,"0M",1294,,,95,2888,0,0,2870,0,0,4338,0,0,3931,0,0,3261,0,0,980,0,0,333,0,0,1531,0,0,936,0,0,2161,0,0,3540,0,0,2964,0,0,3737,6,51169,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,3,2,47,10,"GREEN MOUNTAIN POWER CORP","ESSEX 19",0,"LIGHT OIL",7601,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,311,11,27,284,1,1,283,0,0,283,7,16,267,28,61,385,45,85,300,33,65,235,9,19,394,0,0,394,0,0,394,12,25,369,3737,6,51169,"FO2","IC" 13,50,1,1,,47,15,"GREEN MOUNTAIN POWER CORP","GORGE NO 18",0,,7601,"0M",1294,,,95,901,0,0,986,0,0,1573,0,0,1661,0,0,1125,0,0,122,0,0,113,0,0,692,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,6475,6,51169,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,47,20,"GREEN MOUNTAIN POWER CORP","MARSHFIELD6",0,,7601,"0M",1294,,,95,891,0,0,1188,0,0,245,0,0,107,0,0,0,0,0,3,0,0,2,0,0,54,0,0,53,0,0,604,0,0,1300,0,0,430,0,0,3739,6,51169,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,47,25,"GREEN MOUNTAIN POWER CORP","MIDDLESEX 2",0,,7601,"0M",1294,,,95,1134,0,0,848,0,0,1580,0,0,1697,0,0,1156,0,0,150,0,0,111,0,0,717,0,0,45,0,0,1158,0,0,2061,0,0,1133,0,0,3740,6,51169,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,47,40,"GREEN MOUNTAIN POWER CORP","VERGENNES 9",0,,7601,"0M",1294,,,95,972,0,0,799,0,0,1171,0,0,1224,0,0,968,0,0,441,0,0,247,0,0,499,0,0,318,0,0,590,0,0,1307,0,0,899,0,0,6519,6,51169,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,3,2,47,40,"GREEN MOUNTAIN POWER CORP","VERGENNES 9",0,"LIGHT OIL",7601,"0M",1294,,,95,15,27,282,68,118,164,15,24,319,5,8,311,4,25,465,108,264,200,174,319,417,163,302,294,20,35,437,3,2,436,2,4,432,35,62,370,6519,6,51169,"FO2","IC" 13,50,1,1,,47,53,"GREEN MOUNTAIN POWER CORP","WATRBRY 22",0,,7601,"0M",1294,,,95,2101,0,0,2029,0,0,1441,0,0,318,0,0,823,0,0,444,0,0,464,0,0,1190,0,0,485,0,0,2251,0,0,2609,0,0,1566,0,0,6520,6,51169,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,47,55,"GREEN MOUNTAIN POWER CORP","W DANVIL 15",0,,7601,"0M",1294,,,95,445,0,0,146,0,0,507,0,0,509,0,0,301,0,0,77,0,0,87,0,0,220,0,0,103,0,0,544,0,0,661,0,0,151,0,0,3743,6,51169,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,4,2,47,58,"GREEN MOUNTAIN POWER CORP","BERLIN NO 5",0,"LIGHT OIL",7601,"0M",1294,,,95,32,270,10962,606,1501,9460,21,72,9388,0,0,9338,254,677,8711,731,1834,7632,1214,3039,11011,1354,3377,12369,189,463,14376,681,1521,12855,79,209,12646,389,879,11767,3734,6,51169,"FO2","GT" 13,50,1,4,2,47,60,"GREEN MOUNTAIN POWER CORP","COLCHSTR 16",0,"LIGHT OIL",7601,"0M",1294,,,95,7,28,1071,86,296,775,5,25,750,0,0,750,9,33,717,6,26,1583,117,472,1112,76,320,791,0,0,1506,0,0,1506,0,0,1507,0,0,1506,3735,6,51169,"FO2","GT" 13,50,1,1,,47,65,"GREEN MOUNTAIN POWER CORP","BOLTON FALL",0,,7601,"0M",1294,,,95,3020,0,0,2253,0,0,3823,0,0,2884,0,0,2258,0,0,636,0,0,502,0,0,1603,0,0,428,0,0,2596,0,0,4478,0,0,2430,0,0,7056,6,51169,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,7,"D",47,70,"GREEN MOUNTAIN POWER CORP","CARTHUSIANS",0,"N/A",7601,"0M",1294,"S",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,7260,6,51169,"WI","WI" 13,50,1,1,,73,5,"NEW ENGLAND POWER CO","BELLOWS FLS",0,,13433,"0M",1294,,90,95,22299,0,0,16448,0,0,28735,0,0,22260,0,0,21635,0,0,10244,0,0,6175,0,0,10541,0,0,3991,0,0,19464,0,0,30239,0,0,18843,0,0,3745,6,52007,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,73,10,"NEW ENGLAND POWER CO","HARRIMAN",0,,13433,"0M",1294,,90,95,14391,0,0,13610,0,0,13092,0,0,2630,0,0,807,0,0,1394,0,0,2040,0,0,2968,0,0,2416,0,0,10136,0,0,16468,0,0,11713,0,0,3746,6,52007,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,73,15,"NEW ENGLAND POWER CO","SEARSBURG",0,,13433,"0M",1294,,90,95,3120,0,0,2878,0,0,3094,0,0,1942,0,0,1012,0,0,853,0,0,152,0,0,1319,0,0,954,0,0,2077,0,0,3042,0,0,2675,0,0,6529,6,52007,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,73,18,"NEW ENGLAND POWER CO","VERNON",0,,13433,"0M",1294,,90,95,4592,0,0,4182,0,0,5197,0,0,4922,0,0,4427,0,0,2397,0,0,1604,0,0,3525,0,0,1667,0,0,3876,0,0,4946,0,0,3693,0,0,8904,6,52007,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,73,20,"NEW ENGLAND POWER CO","WILDER",0,,13433,"0M",1294,,90,95,9053,0,0,5888,0,0,8525,0,0,1765,0,0,2559,0,0,1204,0,0,21,0,0,1756,0,0,407,0,0,4556,0,0,8802,0,0,2669,0,0,8905,6,52007,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,98,5,"PUB SERV CO OF NEW HAMP","CANAAN",0,,15472,"0M",1294,,180,95,729,0,0,718,0,0,805,0,0,483,0,0,569,0,0,345,0,0,252,0,0,190,0,0,195,0,0,728,0,0,765,0,0,738,0,0,3750,6,52411,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,2,1,135,1,"VT YANKEE NUCLEAR PR CORP","VT YANKEE",0,"NUCLEAR",19796,"0M",1294,,,95,384928,0,0,346136,0,0,192519,0,0,0,0,0,335965,0,0,365673,0,0,371198,0,0,375476,0,0,363210,0,0,389313,0,0,379730,0,0,354361,0,0,3751,6,53128,"UR","ST" 13,50,1,1,,304,1,"VERMONT MARBLE CO","PROCTOR",0,,19794,"0A",1294,,,95,3213,0,0,2009,0,0,3559,0,0,3058,0,0,2032,0,0,1143,0,0,395,0,0,893,0,0,294,0,0,1839,0,0,3796,0,0,1853,0,0,6450,6,53127,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,304,5,"VERMONT MARBLE CO","CTR RUTLAND",0,,19794,"0A",1294,,,95,161,0,0,164,0,0,188,0,0,211,0,0,211,0,0,121,0,0,26,0,0,62,0,0,19,0,0,85,0,0,190,0,0,184,0,0,6453,6,53127,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,1,,304,10,"VERMONT MARBLE CO","BELDENS",0,,19794,"0A",1294,,,95,2174,0,0,1009,0,0,2729,0,0,1624,0,0,972,0,0,405,0,0,95,0,0,369,0,0,149,0,0,1679,0,0,2997,0,0,1013,0,0,6451,6,53127,"WAT","HY" 13,50,1,4,2,304,15,"VERMONT MARBLE CO","FLORENCE",0,"LIGHT OIL",19794,"0A",1294,,,95,-2,95,12708,118,200,12076,184,475,11934,674,1762,7457,74,191,4607,157,358,9260,354,1040,6925,210,559,6363,167,435,4707,-11,3,10761,-13,60,8428,167,550,7887,7337,6,53127,"FO2","GT" 13,50,5,1,,520,1,"BARTON (VILLAGE OF)","W CHARLESTN",0,,1299,"0A",1294,,,95,477,0,0,231,0,0,556,0,0,533,0,0,570,0,0,256,0,0,132,0,0,351,0,0,83,0,0,382,0,0,680,0,0,196,0,0,3753,6,50178,"WAT","HY" 13,50,5,3,2,520,1,"BARTON (VILLAGE OF)","W CHARLESTN",0,"LIGHT OIL",1299,"0A",1294,,,95,0,0,206,14,34,172,0,0,172,0,0,172,1,3,169,19,51,118,39,103,190,42,112,78,7,19,59,0,0,59,0,0,118,10,86,32,3753,6,50178,"FO2","IC" 13,50,5,4,2,536,1,"BURLINGTON (CITY OF)","GAS TURB",0,"LIGHT OIL",2548,"0M",1294,,,95,0,1,1628,248,707,868,0,4,2022,0,0,2015,19,66,1949,459,1365,1742,608,1830,1698,485,1472,1476,56,189,1287,0,0,1285,84,242,1001,165,472,1772,3754,6,50375,"FO2","GT" 13,50,5,2,"B",536,10,"BURLINGTON (CITY OF)","J C MC NEIL",0,"WOD CHIPS",2548,"0M",1294,,,95,7742,0,0,12138,0,0,4790,0,0,12108,0,0,15618,0,0,11949,0,0,14425,0,0,8887,0,0,5359,0,0,3746,0,0,10817,0,0,19589,0,0,589,6,50375,"WOD","ST" 13,50,5,2,2,536,10,"BURLINGTON (CITY OF)","J C MC NEIL",0,"LIGHT OIL",2548,"0M",1294,,,95,136,326,2416,132,350,1989,41,99,1826,0,216,1559,0,39,1448,0,22,1351,4,23,1264,0,81,1183,0,52,1021,0,40,945,19,99,3170,24,98,2994,589,6,50375,"FO2","ST" 13,50,5,2,9,536,10,"BURLINGTON (CITY OF)","J C MC NEIL",0,"NAT GAS",2548,"0M",1294,,,95,1750,24386,0,816,12632,0,1337,18689,0,0,2252,0,0,3244,0,0,3721,0,177,4800,0,0,2471,0,0,2396,0,0,2708,0,449,13380,0,2064,47618,0,589,6,50375,"NG","ST" 13,50,5,1,,551,5,"ENOSBURG FALLS (VILLAGE)","KENDALL",0,,5915,"0A",1294,,,95,52,0,0,126,0,0,145,0,0,160,0,0,164,0,0,130,0,0,102,0,0,121,0,0,68,0,0,109,0,0,147,0,0,64,0,0,3757,6,50910,"WAT","HY" 13,50,5,3,2,551,10,"ENOSBURG FALLS (VILLAGE)","DIESEL PLT",0,"LIGHT OIL",5915,"0A",1294,,,95,1,5,320,14,24,296,0,1,296,1,3,293,4,13,280,16,34,246,20,37,351,23,44,307,2,6,301,0,0,301,0,0,0,12,21,279,4247,6,50910,"FO2","IC" 13,50,5,1,,551,15,"ENOSBURG FALLS (VILLAGE)","VILLAGE PLT",0,,5915,"0A",1294,,,95,370,0,0,204,0,0,298,0,0,433,0,0,408,0,0,218,0,0,87,0,0,140,0,0,45,0,0,324,0,0,364,0,0,395,0,0,4246,6,50910,"WAT","HY" 13,50,5,1,,567,1,"HARDWICK (VILLAGE OF)","WOLCOTT",0,,8104,"0A",1294,,,95,228,0,0,139,0,0,381,0,0,480,0,0,332,0,0,55,0,0,41,0,0,20,0,0,22,0,0,331,0,0,526,0,0,262,0,0,6477,6,51238,"WAT","HY" 13,50,5,3,2,567,5,"HARDWICK (VILLAGE OF)","HARDWICK",0,"LIGHT OIL",8104,"0A",1294,,,95,0,0,451,0,0,451,0,0,451,0,0,451,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,6476,6,51238,"FO2","IC" 13,50,5,1,,644,5,"LYNDONVILLE (CITY OF)","GREAT FALLS",0,,11359,"0A",1294,,,95,160,0,0,115,0,0,308,0,0,489,0,0,746,0,0,350,0,0,273,0,0,122,0,0,171,0,0,457,0,0,558,0,0,437,0,0,3762,6,51721,"WAT","HY" 13,50,5,1,,644,10,"LYNDONVILLE (CITY OF)","VAIL",0,,11359,"0A",1294,,,95,100,0,0,71,0,0,99,0,0,123,0,0,225,0,0,93,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,107,0,0,3763,6,51721,"WAT","HY" 13,50,5,1,,659,5,"MORRISVILLE (VILLAGE OF)","CADYS FALLS",0,,12989,"0A",1294,,,95,396,0,0,268,0,0,387,0,0,226,0,0,403,0,0,133,0,0,101,0,0,2,0,0,71,0,0,356,0,0,337,0,0,160,0,0,3765,6,51943,"WAT","HY" 13,50,5,1,,659,10,"MORRISVILLE (VILLAGE OF)","MORRISVILLE",0,,12989,"0A",1294,,,95,250,0,0,312,0,0,619,0,0,801,0,0,581,0,0,131,0,0,-1,0,0,-1,0,0,-1,0,0,-1,0,0,-2,0,0,227,0,0,3764,6,51943,"WAT","HY" 13,50,5,1,,659,15,"MORRISVILLE (VILLAGE OF)","W K SANDERS",0,,12989,"0A",1294,,,95,-5,0,0,114,0,0,24,0,0,13,0,0,33,0,0,10,0,0,-1,0,0,38,0,0,-2,0,0,83,0,0,177,0,0,7,0,0,678,6,51943,"WAT","HY" 13,50,5,1,,737,5,"SWANTON (VILLAGE OF)","HIGHGATE FL",0,,18371,"0A",1294,,,95,3846,0,0,2084,0,0,5329,0,0,5012,0,0,4484,0,0,2556,0,0,711,0,0,1431,0,0,444,0,0,4486,0,0,6056,0,0,2920,0,0,6618,6,52864,"WAT","HY" 13,50,8,1,,800,5,"VERMONT ELECTRIC COOP","N HARTLAND",0,,19791,"0A",1294,,,95,1260,0,0,415,0,0,212,0,0,990,0,0,623,0,0,190,0,0,90,0,0,4,0,0,8,0,0,484,0,0,1466,0,0,734,0,0,590,6,53125,"WAT","HY" 13,50,8,1,,810,5,"WASHINGTON ELECTRIC COOP","WRIGHTSVILE",0,,20151,"0A",1294,,,95,270,0,0,88,0,0,334,0,0,327,0,0,246,0,0,50,0,0,54,0,0,128,0,0,47,0,0,3224,0,0,418,0,0,153,0,0,7051,6,58100,"WAT","HY" 14,25,1,2,1,23,1,"BOSTON EDISON CO","PILGRIM",0,"NUCLEAR",1998,"0M",1294,,,95,494219,0,0,433548,0,0,370903,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,313826,0,0,476983,0,0,486906,0,0,466384,0,0,470820,0,0,479805,0,0,492451,0,0,1590,6,50300,"UR","ST" 14,25,1,4,2,23,15,"BOSTON EDISON CO","EDGAR",0,"LIGHT OIL",1998,"0M",1294,,,95,43,139,1048,160,393,893,25,79,1053,64,124,929,28,74,855,110,379,953,323,950,955,245,760,910,38,108,1040,37,107,933,56,139,1032,134,337,934,1585,6,50300,"FO2","GT" 14,25,1,4,2,23,17,"BOSTON EDISON CO","FRAMINGHAM",0,"LIGHT OIL",1998,"0M",1294,,,95,141,378,1770,276,681,1804,67,203,1601,44,165,1674,70,215,1698,449,1329,1559,788,2383,1819,766,2306,1658,95,258,1630,53,142,1734,74,277,1695,278,761,1649,1586,6,50300,"FO2","GT" 14,25,1,4,2,23,20,"BOSTON EDISON CO","L STREET",0,"LIGHT OIL",1998,"0M",1294,,,95,18,71,606,223,524,481,31,74,586,101,254,571,64,181,628,302,790,611,232,657,597,450,1241,537,70,195,581,33,121,579,41,95,603,202,478,601,1587,6,50300,"FO2","GT" 14,25,1,2,2,23,25,"BOSTON EDISON CO","MYSTIC",0,"LIGHT OIL",1998,"0M",1294,,,95,251,519,1723,2082,3518,560,0,0,2480,874,1565,1748,1508,2858,1987,1285,2470,2852,2284,4277,1789,1325,2537,1992,119,230,1762,111,219,2019,220,439,1580,238,420,1327,1588,6,50300,"FO2","ST" 14,25,1,2,3,23,25,"BOSTON EDISON CO","MYSTIC",0,"HEAVY OIL",1998,"0M",1294,,,95,112692,212897,634701,250006,389639,396000,28170,35809,578539,46219,75659,622498,47350,81843,540595,74633,131731,529651,114158,195470,453259,65504,114254,339850,9543,16899,623019,18574,33314,589243,137777,234264,549412,333744,539006,466193,1588,6,50300,"FO6","ST" 14,25,1,2,9,23,25,"BOSTON EDISON CO","MYSTIC",0,"NAT GAS",1998,"0M",1294,,,95,54301,611365,0,41760,387451,0,199825,2260608,0,223483,2242300,0,121095,1295784,0,76698,835115,0,229079,2424349,0,221936,2420968,0,166749,1844575,0,138588,1545200,0,1185,12271,0,4690,47014,0,1588,6,50300,"NG","ST" 14,25,1,4,2,23,25,"BOSTON EDISON CO","MYSTIC",0,"LIGHT OIL",1998,"0M",1294,,,95,27,56,491,103,175,435,20,57,497,61,110,506,37,71,435,192,369,532,279,524,365,264,506,455,27,53,523,26,52,471,36,92,498,52,92,444,1588,6,50300,"FO2","GT" 14,25,1,2,2,23,30,"BOSTON EDISON CO","NEW BOSTON",0,"LIGHT OIL",1998,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,60,0,0,60,0,0,60,0,0,60,0,0,60,0,0,60,0,0,60,0,0,60,0,0,60,0,0,60,0,0,60,0,0,60,1589,6,50300,"FO2","ST" 14,25,1,2,3,23,30,"BOSTON EDISON CO","NEW BOSTON",0,"HEAVY OIL",1998,"0M",1294,,,95,215120,320592,70394,155709,225131,71506,167349,258313,38374,0,0,38374,0,0,38374,0,0,38374,0,0,38403,0,0,38403,0,0,38403,0,0,38808,0,0,73197,633,1026,94600,1589,6,50300,"FO6","ST" 14,25,1,2,9,23,30,"BOSTON EDISON CO","NEW BOSTON",0,"NAT GAS",1998,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,0,151,1334,0,2301,23751,0,201560,2042478,0,231080,2303282,0,366745,3613841,0,376840,3697457,0,381210,3746576,0,337660,3311625,0,328300,3254233,0,343010,3322669,0,159417,1573389,0,1589,6,50300,"NG","ST" 14,25,1,4,2,23,40,"BOSTON EDISON CO","WEST MEDWAY",0,"LIGHT OIL",1998,"0M",1294,,,95,532,1305,6724,2615,5858,6588,305,882,6659,441,1064,6548,648,1783,6907,1922,5806,5619,2304,7193,6789,2376,1139,6841,43,153,6688,33,101,6587,199,636,6665,2492,6199,6929,1592,6,50300,"FO2","GT" 14,25,1,4,9,23,40,"BOSTON EDISON CO","WEST MEDWAY",0,"NAT GAS",1998,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,963,16262,0,363,42170,0,305,906,0,134,2149,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1592,6,50300,"NG","GT" 14,25,1,2,3,25,5,"COMMONWEALTH ENERGY SYS","BLACKSTONE",0,"HEAVY OIL",4120,"0M",1294,,80,95,12,9,1622,622,891,254,0,0,0,12,11,3277,4,9,3067,8,31,3303,19,66,3122,71,286,2313,8,25,2707,0,0,2900,388,267,2375,216,151,3016,1594,6,50412,"FO6","ST" 14,25,1,2,9,25,5,"COMMONWEALTH ENERGY SYS","BLACKSTONE",0,"NAT GAS",4120,"0M",1294,,80,95,643,3052,0,809,7234,0,0,0,0,329,1924,0,176,2782,0,306,7064,0,840,18553,0,641,16359,0,98,2009,0,0,0,0,26,113,0,3,12,0,1594,6,50412,"NG","ST" 14,25,1,2,3,25,10,"COMMONWEALTH ENERGY SYS","KENDALL SQ",0,"HEAVY OIL",4120,"0M",1294,,80,95,1966,3331,44639,4440,7426,46357,571,1025,43350,551,1184,40895,279,518,39729,76,146,39422,226,384,45928,178,367,45253,473,969,43288,91,206,42859,6937,10643,43043,10035,14044,33074,1595,6,50412,"FO6","ST" 14,25,1,2,9,25,10,"COMMONWEALTH ENERGY SYS","KENDALL SQ",0,"NAT GAS",4120,"0M",1294,,80,95,8305,87563,0,5498,57215,0,7487,85115,0,6963,94695,0,6096,81153,0,7445,90078,0,8638,93009,0,7941,103714,0,6154,79756,0,5898,84299,0,580,5629,0,447,3954,0,1595,6,50412,"NG","ST" 14,25,1,4,2,25,10,"COMMONWEALTH ENERGY SYS","KENDALL SQ",0,"LIGHT OIL",4120,"0M",1294,,80,95,0,0,1889,173,442,1930,0,0,1930,10,26,1904,381,951,1671,340,886,1969,587,1240,1863,822,2088,2078,160,754,1323,0,0,1561,0,0,1561,183,453,1925,1595,6,50412,"FO2","GT" 14,25,1,2,3,25,15,"COMMONWEALTH ENERGY SYS","CANAL",0,"HEAVY OIL",4120,"0M",1294,,80,95,162391,279085,64428,147412,254620,37606,178077,310890,35916,210807,342420,34150,172965,296386,68134,149960,274442,64297,204907,357210,66759,386648,623547,65078,202416,316252,66152,59087,109907,66707,307766,492512,64272,421791,645524,63446,1599,6,50412,"FO6","ST" 14,25,1,3,2,25,25,"COMMONWEALTH ENERGY SYS","OAK BLUFFS",0,"LIGHT OIL",4120,"0M",1294,,80,95,0,0,1131,70,125,1006,0,0,1006,3,6,1000,58,98,1011,55,97,1035,183,321,1005,196,350,1036,1,4,1032,0,0,1159,6,15,1144,63,118,1026,1597,6,50412,"FO2","IC" 14,25,1,3,2,25,30,"COMMONWEALTH ENERGY SYS","W TISBURY",0,"LIGHT OIL",4120,"0M",1294,,80,95,0,0,2023,42,87,1936,0,0,1936,2,4,1932,38,68,1918,40,70,1848,243,439,1711,204,373,1827,0,0,1827,0,0,2044,5,18,2026,47,98,1928,6049,6,50412,"FO2","IC" 14,25,1,3,2,25,35,"COMMONWEALTH ENERGY SYS","AIRPORT DIE",0,"LIGHT OIL",4120,"0M",1294,,80,95,2,4,65,20,32,57,6,9,48,14,26,23,3,17,6,0,6,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,7184,6,50412,"FO2","IC" 14,25,1,4,2,46,1,"FITCHBURG GAS & ELEC LGT","FITCHBURG",0,"LIGHT OIL",6374,"0M",1294,,,95,113,320,1233,544,1372,812,0,0,1289,68,210,1079,120,416,1139,539,1444,1109,663,1798,2154,708,1974,1126,70,191,2125,49,166,1960,0,0,1960,461,1173,2216,1601,6,50990,"FO2","GT" 14,25,1,1,,59,5,"HOLYOKE WTR PWR CO","BB HOLBROOK",0,,8779,"0M",1294,,554,95,215,0,0,12,0,0,439,0,0,48,0,0,0,0,0,-4,0,0,-2,0,0,111,0,0,7,0,0,88,0,0,177,0,0,95,0,0,1602,6,51327,"WAT","HY" 14,25,1,1,,59,7,"HOLYOKE WTR PWR CO","CHEMICAL",0,,8779,"0M",1294,,554,95,390,0,0,65,0,0,264,0,0,560,0,0,1378,0,0,-3,0,0,-2,0,0,33,0,0,-2,0,0,199,0,0,228,0,0,152,0,0,1604,6,51327,"WAT","HY" 14,25,1,1,,59,10,"HOLYOKE WTR PWR CO","HADLEY FLLS",0,,8779,"0M",1294,,554,95,19318,0,0,16252,0,0,20835,0,0,17997,0,0,1047,0,0,10005,0,0,4815,0,0,8945,0,0,1536,0,0,13795,0,0,19251,0,0,19209,0,0,1605,6,51327,"WAT","HY" 14,25,1,1,,59,15,"HOLYOKE WTR PWR CO","RIVERSIDE",0,,8779,"0M",1294,,554,95,2283,0,0,798,0,0,2407,0,0,2806,0,0,1058,0,0,-32,0,0,-28,0,0,236,0,0,-31,0,0,991,0,0,1475,0,0,1658,0,0,1607,6,51327,"WAT","HY" 14,25,1,1,,59,20,"HOLYOKE WTR PWR CO","BOATLOCK",0,,8779,"0M",1294,,554,95,1401,0,0,440,0,0,1465,0,0,1749,0,0,-1985,0,0,-45,0,0,34,0,0,364,0,0,188,0,0,1015,0,0,1030,0,0,1719,0,0,1603,6,51327,"WAT","HY" 14,25,1,1,,59,21,"HOLYOKE WTR PWR CO","SKINNER",0,,8779,"0M",1294,,554,95,1087,0,0,-990,0,0,135,0,0,122,0,0,0,0,0,-3,0,0,-3,0,0,10,0,0,-5,0,0,48,0,0,88,0,0,144,0,0,1608,6,51327,"WAT","HY" 14,25,1,2,2,59,23,"HOLYOKE WTR PWR CO","MT TOM",0,"LIGHT OIL",8779,"0M",1294,,554,95,253,312,334,85,74,223,86,144,363,96,161,0,210,338,471,128,216,400,63,106,0,319,575,0,148,244,0,283,596,339,311,528,442,268,461,289,1606,6,51327,"FO2","ST" 14,25,1,2,6,59,23,"HOLYOKE WTR PWR CO","MT TOM",0,"BIT COAL",8779,"0M",1294,,554,95,83436,31625,65901,94304,36568,48767,100316,38568,48417,92219,34981,57613,86828,32256,68520,89522,33641,55040,96838,37232,50903,67013,26869,64337,58083,21428,72102,20300,9635,85211,75120,28714,96373,83498,33548,87268,1606,6,51327,"BIT","ST" 14,25,1,2,3,85,1,"MONTAUP ELECTRIC COMPANY","SOMERSET",0,"HEAVY OIL",12833,"0M",1294,,,95,5362,8778,70647,3605,6271,64376,3682,6389,57987,572,894,57093,4068,7388,49705,3861,6474,101371,1808,3090,98281,1729,8455,89825,4071,6826,83000,7484,12748,70251,8762,14647,55605,1259,3587,97942,1613,6,56511,"FO6","ST" 14,25,1,2,6,85,1,"MONTAUP ELECTRIC COMPANY","SOMERSET",0,"BIT COAL",12833,"0M",1294,,,95,57318,21462,76767,61443,26125,64290,61730,25219,52529,14739,5125,47404,25607,10149,50811,58410,21998,42203,65563,26654,42553,52228,21241,48670,53057,20314,65856,44642,17190,76089,48433,18499,83931,70559,26084,98563,1613,6,56511,"BIT","ST" 14,25,1,4,2,85,1,"MONTAUP ELECTRIC COMPANY","SOMERSET",0,"LIGHT OIL",12833,"0M",1294,,,95,143,374,5116,433,1118,3998,115,229,3769,65,186,3583,285,740,4510,629,1593,4110,1349,3410,5229,1777,4429,5348,136,348,5000,0,0,4999,5,26,5687,653,1369,4318,1613,6,56511,"FO2","GT" 14,25,1,3,2,90,15,"NANTUCKET ELEC CO","NANTUCKET",0,"LIGHT OIL",13206,"0M",1294,,,95,7539,12658,2602,7625,13184,8503,7218,12056,5494,6969,12757,2261,7465,13354,7937,7820,14759,9687,10453,19444,7486,10644,19689,5848,7894,13523,10626,6823,12246,7898,7832,14492,3042,9557,16800,2912,1615,6,51977,"FO2","IC" 14,25,1,1,,96,5,"NEW ENGLAND POWER CO","DEERFIELD 2",0,,13433,"0M",1294,,90,95,3908,0,0,2952,0,0,3971,0,0,2045,0,0,1064,0,0,520,0,0,442,0,0,617,0,0,404,0,0,2016,0,0,3583,0,0,2747,0,0,6047,6,52007,"WAT","HY" 14,25,1,1,,96,10,"NEW ENGLAND POWER CO","DEERFIELD 3",0,,13433,"0M",1294,,90,95,4040,0,0,3243,0,0,4233,0,0,2293,0,0,1182,0,0,848,0,0,445,0,0,722,0,0,460,0,0,1885,0,0,3570,0,0,3116,0,0,6083,6,52007,"WAT","HY" 14,25,1,1,,96,15,"NEW ENGLAND POWER CO","DEERFIELD 4",0,,13433,"0M",1294,,90,95,3691,0,0,2835,0,0,3555,0,0,1674,0,0,865,0,0,673,0,0,414,0,0,621,0,0,420,0,0,1920,0,0,3135,0,0,2638,0,0,6119,6,52007,"WAT","HY" 14,25,1,1,,96,20,"NEW ENGLAND POWER CO","DEERFIELD 5",0,,13433,"0M",1294,,90,95,8684,0,0,6946,0,0,8699,0,0,2314,0,0,807,0,0,564,0,0,515,0,0,177,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,3382,0,0,5810,0,0,1620,6,52007,"WAT","HY" 14,25,1,1,,96,25,"NEW ENGLAND POWER CO","SHERMAN",0,,13433,"0M",1294,,90,95,4117,0,0,3467,0,0,4264,0,0,1151,0,0,407,0,0,439,0,0,377,0,0,602,0,0,527,0,0,2183,0,0,3889,0,0,2917,0,0,6012,6,52007,"WAT","HY" 14,25,1,2,3,96,27,"NEW ENGLAND POWER CO","BRAYTON PT",0,"HEAVY OIL",13433,"0M",1294,,90,95,40093,74054,435541,65951,116563,318656,49098,75749,438283,41100,69916,368366,2212,5326,519600,0,0,519442,0,0,519401,488,4266,515767,0,0,516617,0,0,516584,7553,10954,505630,71672,125949,379784,1619,6,52007,"FO6","ST" 14,25,1,2,6,96,27,"NEW ENGLAND POWER CO","BRAYTON PT",0,"BIT COAL",13433,"0M",1294,,90,95,657136,245754,255528,538158,200282,277893,335153,130042,379361,336389,128159,523785,552184,203304,520224,709319,259373,461575,714608,267126,390587,681408,256270,431828,600517,222478,518312,676108,250140,322224,643066,226804,159986,692743,256541,166201,1619,6,52007,"BIT","ST" 14,25,1,2,9,96,27,"NEW ENGLAND POWER CO","BRAYTON PT",0,"NAT GAS",13433,"0M",1294,,90,95,2475,65992,0,19895,234494,0,87264,1046891,0,115149,1305242,0,165738,1925331,0,192541,2159965,0,121121,1465806,0,138514,1578722,0,90677,1067560,0,7950,208839,0,642,50267,0,499,65467,0,1619,6,52007,"NG","ST" 14,25,1,3,2,96,27,"NEW ENGLAND POWER CO","BRAYTON PT",0,"LIGHT OIL",13433,"0M",1294,,90,95,48,91,0,168,321,0,49,91,0,66,120,0,149,212,0,229,427,0,434,803,0,429,813,0,49,97,0,17,33,0,0,0,0,122,221,0,1619,6,52007,"FO2","IC" 14,25,1,2,3,96,33,"NEW ENGLAND POWER CO","SALEM HABR",0,"HEAVY OIL",13433,"0M",1294,,90,95,4216,6811,427550,19621,51462,372000,43825,80929,296042,52176,100975,196885,88546,157427,294207,74155,134469,405510,143472,245061,157683,78033,135040,315193,15952,29894,481681,10242,22800,451257,31856,63264,446411,130138,177251,300301,1626,6,52007,"FO6","ST" 14,25,1,2,6,96,33,"NEW ENGLAND POWER CO","SALEM HABR",0,"BIT COAL",13433,"0M",1294,,90,95,170230,67910,116594,174526,68827,87604,182421,75469,107334,180983,73494,87888,123760,53441,145441,149482,64633,132065,157915,67184,148469,169338,69504,116124,140768,59871,93091,133365,56779,72780,147538,65216,99054,158287,70574,72828,1626,6,52007,"BIT","ST" 14,25,1,3,2,96,40,"NEW ENGLAND POWER CO","GLOUCESTER",0,"LIGHT OIL",13433,"0M",1294,,90,95,180,400,1027,365,1056,1255,495,500,1183,191,320,863,798,1430,1148,331,615,1333,398,757,1219,767,1957,1197,100,165,1033,0,0,1031,2,3,1465,491,918,1190,1624,6,52007,"FO2","IC" 14,25,1,3,2,96,50,"NEW ENGLAND POWER CO","NEWBURYPORT",0,"LIGHT OIL",13433,"0M",1294,,90,95,23,31,898,242,431,942,1,0,943,124,222,720,79,135,986,279,516,828,384,714,746,466,834,770,24,47,723,5,10,715,0,0,929,200,360,998,1625,6,52007,"FO2","IC" 14,25,1,1,,96,55,"NEW ENGLAND POWER CO","FIFE BROOK",0,,13433,"0M",1294,,90,95,4107,0,0,3775,0,0,4880,0,0,1321,0,0,312,0,0,338,0,0,198,0,0,494,0,0,291,0,0,2274,0,0,4150,0,0,3161,0,0,8004,6,52007,"WAT","HY" 14,25,1,1,,96,60,"NEW ENGLAND POWER CO","BEAR SWAMP",0,"P-PUMPSTG",13433,"0M",1294,,90,95,-17861,61325,0,-15324,57381,0,-16082,58258,0,-15241,53916,0,-14630,56226,0,-16812,61971,0,-18159,63682,0,-15902,62948,0,-16995,61404,0,-17477,62001,0,-15650,58713,0,-16215,58454,0,8005,6,52007,"WAT","HY" 14,25,1,1,,145,5,"W MASSACHUSETTS ELEC CO","CABOT",0,,20455,"0M",1294,,555,95,27350,0,0,20962,0,0,33562,0,0,28813,0,0,2450,0,0,11373,0,0,5730,0,0,10888,0,0,1060,0,0,21360,0,0,32264,0,0,23532,0,0,1629,6,53266,"WAT","HY" 14,25,1,1,,145,10,"W MASSACHUSETTS ELEC CO","COBBLE MT",0,,20455,"0M",1294,,555,95,2687,0,0,2401,0,0,3134,0,0,1490,0,0,613,0,0,1371,0,0,1579,0,0,2606,0,0,404,0,0,934,0,0,679,0,0,2257,0,0,1630,6,53266,"WAT","HY" 14,25,1,1,,145,12,"W MASSACHUSETTS ELEC CO","DWIGHT",0,,20455,"0M",1294,,555,95,541,0,0,520,0,0,744,0,0,709,0,0,972,0,0,422,0,0,241,0,0,219,0,0,137,0,0,316,0,0,187,0,0,450,0,0,6378,6,53266,"WAT","HY" 14,25,1,1,,145,20,"W MASSACHUSETTS ELEC CO","GARDER FLS",0,,20455,"0M",1294,,555,95,1535,0,0,1501,0,0,2140,0,0,1273,0,0,591,0,0,393,0,0,159,0,0,373,0,0,244,0,0,740,0,0,1394,0,0,1292,0,0,1634,6,53266,"WAT","HY" 14,25,1,1,,145,30,"W MASSACHUSETTS ELEC CO","IND ORCHARD",0,,20455,"0M",1294,,555,95,1913,0,0,854,0,0,1614,0,0,786,0,0,661,0,0,177,0,0,8,0,0,59,0,0,4,0,0,434,0,0,1375,0,0,741,0,0,6379,6,53266,"WAT","HY" 14,25,1,1,,145,32,"W MASSACHUSETTS ELEC CO","PUTTS BRDGE",0,,20455,"0M",1294,,555,95,224,0,0,252,0,0,1368,0,0,249,0,0,550,0,0,741,0,0,249,0,0,393,0,0,186,0,0,1233,0,0,1150,0,0,251,0,0,1637,6,53266,"WAT","HY" 14,25,1,1,,145,33,"W MASSACHUSETTS ELEC CO","RED BRIDGE",0,,20455,"0M",1294,,555,95,2265,0,0,1259,0,0,1699,0,0,1592,0,0,1025,0,0,689,0,0,212,0,0,256,0,0,150,0,0,1248,0,0,7724,0,0,1271,0,0,1638,6,53266,"WAT","HY" 14,25,1,1,,145,35,"W MASSACHUSETTS ELEC CO","TURNERS FL",0,,20455,"0M",1294,,555,95,1180,0,0,-9,0,0,2580,0,0,457,0,0,2357,0,0,3,0,0,320,0,0,753,0,0,1529,0,0,1437,0,0,3487,0,0,96,0,0,6388,6,53266,"WAT","HY" 14,25,1,1,,145,37,"W MASSACHUSETTS ELEC CO","NORTHFLD MT",0,"P-PUMPSTG",20455,"0M",1294,,555,95,-40582,142177,0,-33131,122422,0,-34507,127754,0,-38191,123876,0,-53574,130653,0,-54650,139615,0,-65287,149806,0,-58299,150495,0,-60095,144418,0,-65178,152081,0,-51403,135668,0,-54958,140849,0,547,6,53266,"WAT","HY" 14,25,1,4,2,145,38,"W MASSACHUSETTS ELEC CO","DOREEN",0,"LIGHT OIL",20455,"0M",1294,,555,95,50,156,956,319,789,738,14,84,997,11,135,1029,31,63,967,166,460,863,117,360,1099,422,1231,1099,69,204,1073,-10,0,1073,34,122,951,162,418,771,1631,6,53266,"FO2","GT" 14,25,1,2,2,145,55,"W MASSACHUSETTS ELEC CO","W SPRINGFLD",0,"LIGHT OIL",20455,"0M",1294,,555,95,0,0,533,101,224,458,0,0,458,19,36,411,0,0,411,0,0,411,0,0,411,0,0,411,0,0,411,0,0,411,0,0,411,0,0,379,1642,6,53266,"FO2","ST" 14,25,1,2,3,145,55,"W MASSACHUSETTS ELEC CO","W SPRINGFLD",0,"HEAVY OIL",20455,"0M",1294,,555,95,3033,6175,75421,4119,8425,75374,344,607,80604,1867,3252,77352,19,33,77318,750,1321,75997,1456,2596,73401,758,1343,72058,0,0,72058,0,0,72923,2320,5181,76520,13739,24402,55074,1642,6,53266,"FO6","ST" 14,25,1,2,9,145,55,"W MASSACHUSETTS ELEC CO","W SPRINGFLD",0,"NAT GAS",20455,"0M",1294,,555,95,2167,27681,0,81,1046,0,24872,278755,0,28674,316564,0,33801,372726,0,33691,376470,0,34950,395433,0,39329,440670,0,21443,242289,0,3420,45099,0,110,1547,0,158,1773,0,1642,6,53266,"NG","ST" 14,25,1,4,2,145,55,"W MASSACHUSETTS ELEC CO","W SPRINGFLD",0,"LIGHT OIL",20455,"0M",1294,,555,95,45,159,682,84,220,801,-17,0,801,-12,0,801,-3,12,789,108,297,6777,282,717,1096,319,633,977,0,0,977,0,0,977,0,0,977,0,0,977,1642,6,53266,"FO2","GT" 14,25,1,4,2,145,60,"W MASSACHUSETTS ELEC CO","WOODLAND RD",0,"LIGHT OIL",20455,"0M",1294,,555,95,38,127,1027,218,623,814,3,20,1144,11,96,1048,22,56,992,219,604,924,341,963,1130,373,1030,1017,32,105,1090,-7,0,1090,5,59,1032,156,398,534,1643,6,53266,"FO2","GT" 14,25,5,3,2,532,5,"BRAINTREE (CITY OF)","POTTER",0,"LIGHT OIL",2144,"0M",1294,,,95,1,3,0,40,86,0,2,4,0,8,15,0,18,33,0,0,0,0,66,37,0,90,173,0,8,15,0,16,29,0,0,0,0,47,86,0,1660,6,50315,"FO2","IC" 14,25,5,5,9,532,5,"BRAINTREE (CITY OF)","POTTER",0,"WASTE HT",2144,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1660,6,50315,"NG","CC" 14,25,5,6,2,532,5,"BRAINTREE (CITY OF)","POTTER",0,"LIGHT OIL",2144,"0M",1294,,,95,597,1163,3860,1950,3916,4922,529,946,3897,722,1243,2632,0,0,2595,0,0,2595,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,418,803,0,0,0,0,563,1271,0,1660,6,50315,"FO2","CT" 14,25,5,6,9,532,5,"BRAINTREE (CITY OF)","POTTER",0,"NAT GAS",2144,"0M",1294,,,95,6985,76876,0,16116,164048,0,4161,42418,0,25648,268544,0,6647,61554,0,0,0,0,6439,68107,0,22225,231091,0,11633,125960,0,2826,30097,0,605,6473,0,2795,30378,0,1660,6,50315,"NG","CT" 14,25,5,1,,597,5,"HOLYOKE (CITY OF)","HOLYOKE",0,,8776,"0M",1294,,,95,1039,0,0,94,0,0,1200,0,0,538,0,0,244,0,0,216,0,0,169,0,0,308,0,0,243,0,0,308,0,0,843,0,0,63,0,0,9864,6,51325,"WAT","HY" 14,25,5,2,3,597,5,"HOLYOKE (CITY OF)","HOLYOKE",0,"HEAVY OIL",8776,"0M",1294,,,95,-34,8,21223,-7,161,18597,-32,0,17335,-149,242,9944,-157,0,11105,-26,144,12014,197,918,10400,173,751,10383,0,0,21744,-26,2,23445,-45,21,21407,48,571,24539,9864,6,51325,"FO6","ST" 14,25,5,2,9,597,5,"HOLYOKE (CITY OF)","HOLYOKE",0,"NAT GAS",8776,"0M",1294,,,95,-406,548,0,-47,7095,0,-432,0,0,-151,1508,0,-180,0,0,-82,2775,0,358,10343,0,495,13260,0,-282,0,0,-300,136,0,-310,907,0,116,8617,0,9864,6,51325,"NG","ST" 14,25,5,3,2,602,1,"HUDSON (CITY OF)","CHERRY ST",0,"LIGHT OIL",8973,"0A",1294,,,95,126,216,6535,468,801,5733,24,47,5687,49,79,5608,60,99,5509,136,242,5267,334,576,4687,237,442,10028,21,36,9992,0,0,9992,0,0,9992,0,613,9379,9038,6,51362,"FO2","IC" 14,25,5,3,9,602,1,"HUDSON (CITY OF)","CHERRY ST",0,"NAT GAS",8973,"0A",1294,,,95,16,177,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,27,276,0,223,2327,0,514,5353,0,813,8555,0,1067,10973,0,248,2679,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,9038,6,51362,"NG","IC" 14,25,5,3,2,613,1,"IPSWICH (CITY OF)","IPSWICH",0,"LIGHT OIL",9442,"0A",1294,,,95,3,144,1524,185,504,1020,-44,84,928,26,97,839,45,81,751,112,229,1817,221,430,1388,171,335,1053,42,71,981,0,0,1991,0,13,1901,70,285,1616,1670,6,51411,"FO2","IC" 14,25,5,3,9,613,1,"IPSWICH (CITY OF)","IPSWICH",0,"NAT GAS",9442,"0A",1294,,,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,-7,91,0,26,564,0,193,2049,0,356,4180,0,540,6225,0,488,5467,0,218,2149,0,0,0,0,0,164,0,0,0,0,1670,6,51411,"NG","IC" 14,25,5,3,2,630,20,"MARBLEHEAD (CITY OF)","COMM ST 2",0,"LIGHT OIL",11624,"0A",1294,,,95,0,0,134,30,54,153,0,0,124,1,4,109,8,23,86,22,43,163,30,67,96,40,77,139,3,3,134,0,0,129,0,0,107,16,31,153,6585,6,51769,"FO2","IC" 14,25,5,3,2,630,25,"MARBLEHEAD (CITY OF)","WILKINS STA",0,"LIGHT OIL",11624,"0A",1294,,,95,24,42,422,242,404,495,3,4,490,17,25,466,41,67,398,140,249,387,184,331,532,214,384,390,17,34,833,0,0,831,0,0,833,105,187,646,6586,6,51769,"FO2","IC" 14,25,5,4,2,640,5,"MASS MUN WHOLESALE ELEC","STONY BROOK",0,"LIGHT OIL",11806,"0M",1294,,,95,868,1812,0,3250,6760,0,1070,2159,0,1016,2152,0,1531,3641,0,3583,7206,0,6923,15010,0,5440,12228,0,1296,2825,0,251,525,0,0,0,0,2081,4355,0,6081,6,56516,"FO2","GT" 14,25,5,5,2,640,5,"MASS MUN WHOLESALE ELEC","STONY BROOK",0,"LIGHT OIL",11806,"0M",1294,,,95,4867,0,0,4882,0,0,1895,0,0,0,0,0,1645,0,0,1298,0,0,2909,0,0,2231,0,0,542,0,0,137,0,0,778,0,0,7866,0,0,6081,6,56516,"FO2","CC" 14,25,5,5,9,640,5,"MASS MUN WHOLESALE ELEC","STONY BROOK",0,"WASTE HT",11806,"0M",1294,,,95,667,6409,0,33,225,0,713,7903,0,38860,226425,0,32080,282829,0,30410,271547,0,30355,268417,0,22281,199679,0,16911,152536,0,13731,126250,0,649,6336,0,0,0,0,6081,6,56516,"NG","CC" 14,25,5,6,2,640,5,"MASS MUN WHOLESALE ELEC","STONY BROOK",0,"LIGHT OIL",11806,"0M",1294,,,95,16765,34499,275954,17076,35625,171066,1732,3145,164811,15194,31318,130811,4458,10049,117055,3259,6474,203614,7129,14689,223923,5719,12097,199458,1427,2966,193410,406,852,191674,2974,6318,192851,24527,50346,140778,6081,6,56516,"FO2","CT" 14,25,5,6,9,640,5,"MASS MUN WHOLESALE ELEC","STONY BROOK",0,"NAT GAS",11806,"0M",1294,,,95,2298,22081,0,33,225,0,7123,78947,0,38860,226425,0,85133,750563,0,75927,677993,0,74156,655728,0,57044,511219,0,44278,399380,0,38588,354794,0,2475,24166,0,0,0,0,6081,6,56516,"NG","CT" 14,25,5,4,2,668,10,"PEABODY (CITY OF)","WATERS RIVR",0,"LIGHT OIL",14605,"0M",1294,,,95,4,11,7009,461,990,6019,3,13,6006,114,218,5789,218,411,5378,259,572,4806,1447,3081,5724,79,204,5787,0,0,5770,0,0,5770,0,0,5770,751,1304,4214,1678,6,52270,"FO2","GT" 14,25,5,4,9,668,10,"PEABODY (CITY OF)","WATERS RIVR",0,"NAT GAS",14605,"0M",1294,,,95,71,948,0,818,8676,0,0,0,0,298,3898,0,500,6079,0,1161,14052,0,735,10563,0,2810,34245,0,871,10971,0,16,244,0,0,0,0,136,1612,0,1678,6,52270,"NG","GT" 14,25,5,3,2,695,1,"SHREWSBURY (CITY OF)","SHREWSBURY",0,"LIGHT OIL",17127,"0A",1294,,,95,-48,53,1717,-20,96,1621,-72,0,1621,-59,0,1621,-27,43,1577,28,133,1444,206,450,994,393,793,1630,-12,58,1571,-52,4,1568,-66,0,1568,5,146,1421,6125,6,52653,"FO2","IC" 14,25,5,2,3,711,10,"TAUNTON (CITY OF)","CLRY FLOOD",0,"HEAVY OIL",18488,"0M",1294,,,95,707,1487,45484,117,274,41056,124,1171,40232,227,881,38944,154,338,18232,1782,3821,13122,1997,4404,13146,1671,3714,26632,1017,1981,30701,285,1042,41468,209,665,43572,1269,2308,3691,1682,6,52885,"FO6","ST" 14,25,5,5,3,711,10,"TAUNTON (CITY OF)","CLRY FLOOD",0,"HEAVY OIL",18488,"0M",1294,,,95,2588,4259,0,3074,4987,0,7,71,0,264,1016,0,10569,21610,0,5376,8750,0,7132,10296,0,7761,11325,0,6430,8473,0,269,1218,0,135,435,0,7563,7563,0,1682,6,52885,"FO6","CC" 14,25,5,5,9,711,10,"TAUNTON (CITY OF)","CLRY FLOOD",0,"NAT GAS",18488,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,0,88,2162,0,0,0,0,0,7,0,70,898,0,11828,118101,0,7953,72245,0,11517,102477,0,3409,38796,0,275,3743,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1682,6,52885,"NG","CC" 14,25,5,6,2,711,10,"TAUNTON (CITY OF)","CLRY FLOOD",0,"LIGHT OIL",18488,"0M",1294,,,95,600,1721,500,1175,3321,414,0,10,405,0,0,405,23,155,250,230,719,0,424,1426,393,75,247,983,20,69,920,0,0,922,172,601,798,1596,4611,881,1682,6,52885,"FO2","CT" 14,25,5,6,3,711,10,"TAUNTON (CITY OF)","CLRY FLOOD",0,"HEAVY OIL",18488,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1682,6,52885,"FO6","CT" 14,25,5,6,9,711,10,"TAUNTON (CITY OF)","CLRY FLOOD",0,"NAT GAS",18488,"0M",1294,,,95,215,3547,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,9,220,0,91,2523,0,3269,55134,0,3573,59309,0,4974,79500,0,4776,58796,0,188,2751,0,2,41,0,0,0,0,1682,6,52885,"NG","CT" 15,44,1,3,2,59,1,"BLOCK ISLAND POWER CO","BLOCK ISL",0,"LIGHT OIL",1857,"0A",1294,,,95,640,929,1894,560,757,1368,454,801,1953,666,926,2412,871,1183,2384,728,1492,1815,1748,2173,1258,1686,2317,1251,852,1532,1104,890,1214,1044,683,904,1044,537,1042,1378,6567,6,50270,"FO2","IC" 15,44,1,2,3,60,5,"NEW ENGLAND POWER CO","MANCHSTR ST",0,"HEAVY OIL",13433,"0M",1294,,90,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,6954,6984,12805,21121,8031,15471,21089,11950,17787,9381,10642,17134,20900,3236,6,52007,"FO6","ST" 15,44,1,2,6,60,5,"NEW ENGLAND POWER CO","MANCHSTR ST",0,"BIT COAL",13433,"0M",1294,,90,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,3236,6,52007,"BIT","ST" 15,44,1,2,9,60,5,"NEW ENGLAND POWER CO","MANCHSTR ST",0,"NAT GAS",13433,"0M",1294,,90,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,185,6790,0,5496,108488,0,22180,283931,0,57696,544903,0,43911,426261,0,200212,1571059,0,273062,2060878,0,3236,6,52007,"NG","ST" 15,44,1,3,2,71,5,"NEWPORT ELECTRIC CORP","ELDRED",0,"LIGHT OIL",13549,"0A",1294,,,95,0,0,912,146,241,919,0,0,916,14,24,893,280,476,872,38,285,806,254,445,603,431,759,765,53,97,884,0,0,884,30,55,818,186,311,942,3240,6,52046,"FO2","IC" 15,44,1,3,2,71,15,"NEWPORT ELECTRIC CORP","JEPSON",0,"LIGHT OIL",13549,"0A",1294,,,95,10,19,1047,104,179,864,0,0,1112,13,24,1094,58,103,998,35,303,926,228,421,966,339,620,1037,31,56,977,0,0,977,0,0,977,162,273,920,3241,6,52046,"FO2","IC" 15,44,5,1,,600,1,"PROVIDENCE (CITY OF)","PROVIDENCE",0,,15440,"0A",1294,"S",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,3245,6,52404,"WAT","HY" 16,9,1,1,,21,1,"GILMAN BROTHERS CO","GILMAN",0,,6885,"0A",1294,"R",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,536,6,50309,"WAT","HY" 16,9,1,1,,37,5,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","BULLS BRDGE",0,,4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,4542,0,0,3859,0,0,4535,0,0,4526,0,0,711,0,0,1545,0,0,596,0,0,576,0,0,83,0,0,3291,0,0,5258,0,0,4512,0,0,541,6,50651,"WAT","HY" 16,9,1,1,,37,15,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","ROBERTSVLE",0,,4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,228,0,0,144,0,0,74,0,0,117,0,0,0,0,0,23,0,0,4,0,0,14,0,0,1,0,0,58,0,0,0,0,0,7,0,0,549,6,50651,"WAT","HY" 16,9,1,1,,37,20,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","ROCKY RIVER",0,"C-PUMPSTG",4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,-532,573,0,-108,831,0,-5011,4942,0,-3890,3881,0,-2483,2464,0,-30,0,0,-50,160,0,-45,941,0,-34,0,0,-295,262,0,3242,0,0,3543,0,0,539,6,50651,"WAT","HY" 16,9,1,1,,37,25,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","SCOTLAND DM",0,,4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,1196,0,0,762,0,0,1285,0,0,753,0,0,65,0,0,169,0,0,32,0,0,83,0,0,9,0,0,401,0,0,43,0,0,524,0,0,551,6,50651,"WAT","HY" 16,9,1,1,,37,28,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","SHEPAUG",0,,4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,19987,0,0,8510,0,0,16746,0,0,8668,0,0,479,0,0,3113,0,0,1323,0,0,1665,0,0,561,0,0,4280,0,0,17593,0,0,9586,0,0,552,6,50651,"WAT","HY" 16,9,1,1,,37,30,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","STEVENSON",0,,4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,14594,0,0,6873,0,0,12878,0,0,7022,0,0,5946,0,0,2333,0,0,1155,0,0,1565,0,0,585,0,0,7574,0,0,15018,0,0,7269,0,0,553,6,50651,"WAT","HY" 16,9,1,1,,37,33,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","TAFTVILLE",0,,4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,1047,0,0,773,0,0,1181,0,0,662,0,0,0,0,0,286,0,0,106,0,0,168,0,0,58,0,0,376,0,0,802,0,0,539,0,0,554,6,50651,"WAT","HY" 16,9,1,1,,37,35,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","TUNNEL",0,,4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,1344,0,0,790,0,0,1127,0,0,808,0,0,808,0,0,130,0,0,51,0,0,62,0,0,13,0,0,528,0,0,1238,0,0,756,0,0,557,6,50651,"WAT","HY" 16,9,1,4,2,37,35,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","TUNNEL",0,"LIGHT OIL",4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,92,241,1121,148,413,1052,-10,0,1052,8,34,1017,-9,0,1017,174,492,1054,399,1075,1028,391,1123,1060,-10,0,1060,-9,0,1060,-8,0,1060,247,642,1013,557,6,50651,"FO2","GT" 16,9,1,4,2,37,37,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","COS COB",0,"LIGHT OIL",4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,338,879,6366,1004,2550,5530,-6,0,6730,61,328,6402,100,252,6836,1043,2766,6164,1606,4183,6744,1574,4512,6417,89,372,6045,10,115,5931,-7,47,5884,478,1250,6205,542,6,50651,"FO2","GT" 16,9,1,2,2,37,40,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","DEVON",0,"LIGHT OIL",4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,4,7,607,26,48,738,10,19,719,8,14,705,6,12,693,5,10,683,12,21,662,5,10,652,35,67,586,12,21,564,10,19,545,126,250,652,544,6,50651,"FO2","ST" 16,9,1,2,3,37,40,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","DEVON",0,"HEAVY OIL",4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,1691,2896,140820,5317,8938,131882,6310,10503,160145,2309,3909,156236,1040,1748,154488,1026,1746,152742,366,624,152118,0,0,152118,0,0,152118,1119,1895,186866,0,0,223227,52715,95704,164704,544,6,50651,"FO6","ST" 16,9,1,2,9,37,40,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","DEVON",0,"NAT GAS",4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,139882,1480772,0,125833,1333372,0,140034,1484076,0,74718,805341,0,129292,1364215,0,113222,1209824,0,134347,1440396,0,141005,1520883,0,84240,919763,0,92690,988325,0,85651,910220,0,1027,11734,0,544,6,50651,"NG","ST" 16,9,1,4,2,37,40,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","DEVON",0,"LIGHT OIL",4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,-8,0,826,52,143,1016,-6,0,1016,11,41,975,15,50,924,93,252,873,213,464,899,323,840,1155,12,42,1113,14,46,864,-8,0,864,126,312,755,544,6,50651,"FO2","GT" 16,9,1,2,2,37,45,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","MONTVILLE",0,"LIGHT OIL",4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,79,187,224,71,184,282,0,0,277,35,81,316,26,52,254,126,275,254,225,460,205,169,342,281,13,78,193,-9,27,344,11,35,57,248,530,404,546,6,50651,"FO2","ST" 16,9,1,2,3,37,45,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","MONTVILLE",0,"HEAVY OIL",4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,19404,42123,179930,11903,28403,229734,496,984,267130,8852,18669,287361,73,131,287230,16090,31789,255441,33046,60820,194621,29759,54794,250449,448,2452,286041,-459,1261,284780,4782,14127,272628,50192,96782,219079,546,6,50651,"FO6","ST" 16,9,1,2,9,37,45,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","MONTVILLE",0,"NAT GAS",4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,2644,35575,0,1337,19886,0,14239,177907,0,15760,209674,0,26332,300080,0,15321,191070,0,33080,384304,0,29657,341116,0,660,22744,0,-410,7132,0,948,17617,0,2622,31910,0,546,6,50651,"NG","ST" 16,9,1,3,2,37,45,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","MONTVILLE",0,"LIGHT OIL",4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,5,11,429,51,91,429,3,5,429,21,47,429,5,10,429,32,60,429,47,88,429,44,82,429,5,10,429,0,0,429,7,15,429,14,27,429,546,6,50651,"FO2","IC" 16,9,1,2,2,37,46,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","NORWALK HAR",0,"LIGHT OIL",4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,1942,3751,1166,1049,1831,1166,1411,2570,1166,801,1409,746,830,1566,1275,1306,2393,1275,1212,2164,1208,1005,1793,1129,448,996,1090,743,1549,1201,1863,3623,816,1573,2830,1073,548,6,50651,"FO2","ST" 16,9,1,2,3,37,46,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","NORWALK HAR",0,"HEAVY OIL",4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,61485,109340,281515,116317,186438,251428,53269,89422,277523,112195,177490,244461,49615,86635,387526,72024,117143,423659,87276,142042,395624,69104,110519,365065,12764,26032,444868,12966,24423,458286,56112,97835,437824,98414,160154,343905,548,6,50651,"FO6","ST" 16,9,1,4,2,37,46,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","NORWALK HAR",0,"LIGHT OIL",4176,"0M",1294,"R",550,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,-12,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,548,6,50651,"FO2","GT" 16,9,1,1,,37,60,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","BANTAM",0,,4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,166,0,0,122,0,0,177,0,0,99,0,0,0,0,0,24,0,0,2,0,0,9,0,0,0,0,0,66,0,0,182,0,0,126,0,0,6457,6,50651,"WAT","HY" 16,9,1,1,,37,65,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","FLS VILLAGE",0,,4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,6485,0,0,3067,0,0,6148,0,0,4269,0,0,57,0,0,1043,0,0,359,0,0,386,0,0,86,0,0,3283,0,0,6134,0,0,3241,0,0,560,6,50651,"WAT","HY" 16,9,1,4,2,37,70,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","FRANKLIN DR",0,"LIGHT OIL",4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,87,251,1073,112,303,770,-21,0,770,6,41,429,9,45,1229,156,508,1033,386,937,931,385,1480,880,-11,0,808,-12,0,808,-14,0,0,109,306,1000,561,6,50651,"FO2","GT" 16,9,1,2,2,37,75,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","MIDDLETOWN",0,"LIGHT OIL",4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,52,116,72,106,200,205,37,72,134,69,119,181,93,171,177,62,115,62,142,274,121,143,283,195,159,331,184,25,61,123,89,174,116,58,124,159,562,6,50651,"FO2","ST" 16,9,1,2,3,37,75,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","MIDDLETOWN",0,"HEAVY OIL",4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,28156,57773,619646,82338,144562,470965,28954,52136,494722,112799,180932,367774,91771,154447,321716,103385,178821,285273,180564,315539,192342,120265,219668,308678,14240,27382,395204,9172,20697,432521,29631,53865,465010,116423,197687,379501,562,6,50651,"FO6","ST" 16,9,1,4,2,37,75,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","MIDDLETOWN",0,"LIGHT OIL",4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,0,0,986,60,155,998,2,12,986,0,0,986,18,56,1096,133,235,803,220,518,962,326,864,969,6,21,948,0,0,946,0,0,936,0,0,936,562,6,50651,"FO2","GT" 16,9,1,2,"C",37,80,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","S MEADOW",0,"REFUSE",4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,36668,0,0,31584,0,0,30750,0,0,36558,0,0,4988,0,0,38064,0,0,35273,0,0,35840,0,0,37803,0,0,39379,0,0,36583,0,0,40236,0,0,563,6,50651,"GEO","ST" 16,9,1,4,2,37,80,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","S MEADOW",0,"LIGHT OIL",4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,547,1286,33605,2263,5797,27807,-4,195,27613,257,794,4952,465,1373,43574,2527,6621,35953,4081,8784,28189,3486,11650,34410,234,1143,29931,-49,0,29931,56,271,29660,2479,6072,23588,563,6,50651,"FO2","GT" 16,9,1,4,2,37,85,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","TORRINGTN T",0,"LIGHT OIL",4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,80,183,802,-19,0,802,9,49,753,4,24,729,-6,0,1062,163,373,867,4081,6864,28189,583,1059,947,4,16,931,-7,0,931,-8,0,931,173,446,1006,565,6,50651,"FO2","GT" 16,9,1,4,2,37,90,"CONNECTICUT LGT & PWR CO","BRANFORD",0,"LIGHT OIL",4176,"0M",1294,,550,95,-23,0,993,-11,0,993,-12,0,983,-9,0,993,-12,0,993,-15,0,963,303,888,1170,580,1248,981,112,115,1073,-7,12,1061,12,62,999,103,312,1042,540,6,50651,"FO2","GT" 16,9,1,2,1,45,1,"CONN YANKEE ATOMIC PWR CO","HADDAM NECK",0,"NUCLEAR",4187,"0M",1294,,551,95,349804,0,0,-2724,0,0,-2714,0,0,80321,0,0,411060,0,0,385019,0,0,346822,0,0,397229,0,0,404771,0,0,427136,0,0,421633,0,0,435253,0,0,558,6,50652,"UR","ST" 16,9,1,1,,70,1,"FARMINGTON RIVER POWER CO","RAINBOW",0,,6207,"0A",1294,,,95,4465,0,0,2602,0,0,3654,0,0,2574,0,0,1712,0,0,1108,0,0,787,0,0,842,0,0,700,0,0,2530,0,0,4222,0,0,2756,0,0,559,6,50970,"WAT","HY" 16,9,1,2,1,85,1,"NORTHEAST NUCL ENERGY CO","MILLSTONE",0,"NUCLEAR",21687,"0M",1294,,553,95,474794,0,0,424364,0,0,479164,0,0,452923,0,0,470915,0,0,397551,0,0,307242,0,0,369216,0,0,459416,0,0,478184,0,0,46176,0,0,-2630,0,0,566,6,50005,"UR","ST" 16,9,1,2,1,85,2,"NORTHEAST NUCL ENERGY CO","MILLSTONE",0,"NUCLEAR",21687,"0M",1294,,553,95,-2968,0,0,-3117,0,0,-2841,0,0,12840,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,-8427,0,0,340333,0,0,625348,0,0,645987,0,0,618792,0,0,511064,0,0,566,6,50005,"UR","ST" 16,9,1,2,1,85,3,"NORTHEAST NUCL ENERGY CO","MILLSTONE",0,"NUCLEAR",21687,"0M",1294,,553,95,853882,0,0,758672,0,0,851613,0,0,328284,0,0,0,0,0,594786,0,0,853005,0,0,844847,0,0,822134,0,0,852985,0,0,817800,0,0,422956,0,0,566,6,50005,"UR","ST" 16,9,1,2,2,159,3,"UNITED ILLUMINATING CO","BRDGEPT HBR",0,"LIGHT OIL",19497,"0M",1294,,,95,289,498,533,83,144,555,103,183,538,278,575,297,94,164,466,159,276,523,127,224,632,239,436,363,60,105,591,207,368,557,52,92,465,58,101,530,568,6,53003,"FO2","ST" 16,9,1,2,3,159,3,"UNITED ILLUMINATING CO","BRDGEPT HBR",0,"HEAVY OIL",19497,"0M",1294,,,95,12678,20036,157706,31465,49414,142873,1716,2749,140124,28015,51807,143380,11615,18496,124884,34707,55499,150609,43253,69685,122107,18699,30642,149294,6814,10677,163242,4908,7842,155400,4195,6665,148735,54634,86347,0,568,6,53003,"FO6","ST" 16,9,1,2,6,159,3,"UNITED ILLUMINATING CO","BRDGEPT HBR",0,"BIT COAL",19497,"0M",1294,,,95,193441,73716,182983,223214,85285,166858,221070,86802,148636,4755,2176,201542,224862,86475,170775,217578,84500,168741,225684,88542,121774,166492,67303,123827,199715,77070,157924,143992,56780,199095,198867,77375,176894,249682,95223,163986,568,6,53003,"BIT","ST" 16,9,1,4,2,159,3,"UNITED ILLUMINATING CO","BRDGEPT HBR",0,"LIGHT OIL",19497,"0M",1294,,,95,4,8,549,151,259,469,0,0,647,5,12,635,10,18,617,12,22,595,145,256,696,308,560,493,63,111,560,0,0,560,9,16,545,75,130,594,568,6,53003,"FO2","GT" 16,9,1,2,2,159,5,"UNITED ILLUMINATING CO","ENGLISH",0,"LIGHT OIL",19497,"0M",1294,"S",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,569,6,53003,"FO2","ST" 16,9,1,2,3,159,5,"UNITED ILLUMINATING CO","ENGLISH",0,"HEAVY OIL",19497,"0M",1294,"S",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,569,6,53003,"FO6","ST" 16,9,1,2,2,159,12,"UNITED ILLUMINATING CO","N HAVEN HBR",0,"LIGHT OIL",19497,"0M",1294,,,95,876,1540,484,437,731,468,424,737,445,327,564,583,511,892,406,254,441,667,361,632,570,401,702,762,359,651,646,23,502,680,959,1741,546,779,1314,482,6156,6,53003,"FO2","ST" 16,9,1,2,3,159,12,"UNITED ILLUMINATING CO","N HAVEN HBR",0,"HEAVY OIL",19497,"0M",1294,,,95,104071,166097,286634,171042,260046,151260,95848,151028,241794,147390,227183,379543,69013,110799,306351,74009,117219,286218,97251,153426,333078,88533,139665,374595,39346,64393,310202,163,3184,307018,72476,120773,186245,162959,252660,0,6156,6,53003,"FO6","ST" 16,9,1,2,9,159,12,"UNITED ILLUMINATING CO","N HAVEN HBR",0,"NAT GAS",19497,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,31250,307224,0,64504,630374,0,76077,749979,0,81590,800742,0,99404,985733,0,49501,489902,0,13044,134068,0,34,4180,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,6156,6,53003,"NG","ST" 16,9,5,1,,556,5,"NORWICH (CITY OF)","SECOND ST",0,,13831,"0A",1294,,,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,5,0,0,174,0,0,101,0,0,67,0,0,17,0,0,180,0,0,272,0,0,324,0,0,580,6,52123,"WAT","HY" 16,9,5,1,,556,10,"NORWICH (CITY OF)","OCCUM",0,,13831,"0A",1294,,,95,516,0,0,356,0,0,529,0,0,370,0,0,225,0,0,257,0,0,63,0,0,95,0,0,42,0,0,215,0,0,420,0,0,292,0,0,582,6,52123,"WAT","HY" 16,9,5,1,,556,13,"NORWICH (CITY OF)","TENTH ST",0,,13831,"0A",1294,,,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,83,0,0,0,0,0,113,0,0,54,0,0,255,0,0,534,0,0,636,0,0,583,6,52123,"WAT","HY" 16,9,5,4,2,556,20,"NORWICH (CITY OF)","N MAIN ST",0,"LIGHT OIL",13831,"0A",1294,,,95,0,0,1935,53,168,1767,0,0,1767,0,0,1767,23,56,1711,62,161,1550,402,1007,1693,531,1325,1518,0,0,1518,0,0,1518,0,0,1518,117,296,2388,581,6,52123,"FO2","GT" 16,9,5,3,2,560,1,"SOUTH NORWALK (CITY OF)","SO NORWALK",0,"LIGHT OIL",17569,"0A",1294,,,95,50,90,1114,84,147,1614,27,49,1523,27,45,1455,71,123,1331,70,125,1235,242,444,819,209,351,1604,20,34,1570,2,4,1736,9,13,1671,98,158,1418,6598,6,52704,"FO2","IC" 16,9,5,2,3,567,1,"WALLINGFORD (CITY OF)","PIERCE",0,"HEAVY OIL",20038,"0A",1294,,,95,0,15,1540,368,1067,2318,0,0,2318,0,0,2318,0,0,2318,0,0,2318,0,0,2318,0,0,2318,146,445,1873,0,0,1873,0,0,1873,0,0,1873,6635,6,53175,"FO6","ST" 21,36,1,1,,35,10,"CENTRAL HUDSON GAS & ELEC","DASHVILLE",0,,3249,"0M",1294,,,95,2381,0,0,502,0,0,1130,0,0,814,0,0,844,0,0,273,0,0,156,0,0,52,0,0,6,0,0,1173,0,0,1735,0,0,901,0,0,2481,6,50484,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,35,18,"CENTRAL HUDSON GAS & ELEC","NEVERSINK",0,,3249,"0M",1294,,,95,4408,0,0,4221,0,0,4645,0,0,2716,0,0,2618,0,0,2849,0,0,10968,0,0,9289,0,0,3298,0,0,2724,0,0,2482,0,0,4970,0,0,2483,6,50484,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,35,20,"CENTRAL HUDSON GAS & ELEC","STURGEON PL",0,,3249,"0M",1294,,,95,9300,0,0,4140,0,0,8251,0,0,4665,0,0,3127,0,0,1123,0,0,872,0,0,359,0,0,111,0,0,5834,0,0,7954,0,0,3663,0,0,2486,6,50484,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,2,3,35,25,"CENTRAL HUDSON GAS & ELEC","DANSKAMMER",0,"HEAVY OIL",3249,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,10567,2887,4585,13091,0,0,13091,0,0,13091,377,619,12472,1176,2123,10349,198,406,9943,0,0,9943,0,0,9943,0,0,9943,16,30,9913,0,0,9913,2480,6,50484,"FO6","ST" 21,36,1,2,6,35,25,"CENTRAL HUDSON GAS & ELEC","DANSKAMMER",0,"BIT COAL",3249,"0M",1294,,,95,180547,67912,176943,208851,77841,149786,144579,54893,173619,180437,67955,164986,58267,23110,161831,149627,57630,163884,131893,51114,152154,127793,49654,170960,144488,55872,134561,60315,24424,150152,137406,60589,138420,208309,77898,129136,2480,6,50484,"BIT","ST" 21,36,1,2,9,35,25,"CENTRAL HUDSON GAS & ELEC","DANSKAMMER",0,"NAT GAS",3249,"0M",1294,,,95,12788,136338,0,5348,58875,0,52133,554622,0,1003,12881,0,26410,269381,0,9355,110458,0,50047,563362,0,64005,727957,0,42268,475832,0,72329,806049,0,21208,238996,0,526,5007,0,2480,6,50484,"NG","ST" 21,36,1,3,2,35,25,"CENTRAL HUDSON GAS & ELEC","DANSKAMMER",0,"LIGHT OIL",3249,"0M",1294,,,95,38,70,119,10,15,278,29,38,240,10,9,231,5,9,222,30,55,167,29,60,281,48,81,200,48,99,274,48,83,191,38,76,289,9,16,273,2480,6,50484,"FO2","IC" 21,36,1,4,2,35,35,"CENTRAL HUDSON GAS & ELEC","SOUTH CAIRO",0,"LIGHT OIL",3249,"0M",1294,,,95,74,178,2486,0,0,2486,0,0,2486,0,0,2486,13,31,2455,198,577,1878,16,34,1844,70,197,1647,0,0,2719,0,0,2719,39,93,2626,18,49,2577,2485,6,50484,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,4,2,35,40,"CENTRAL HUDSON GAS & ELEC","W COXSACKIE",0,"LIGHT OIL",3249,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,2176,0,0,2176,0,0,2176,0,0,2176,0,0,2176,0,0,2176,0,0,2176,0,0,2176,0,0,2176,0,0,2176,0,0,2176,0,0,2176,2487,6,50484,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,4,9,35,40,"CENTRAL HUDSON GAS & ELEC","W COXSACKIE",0,"NAT GAS",3249,"0M",1294,,,95,90,1181,0,32,427,0,0,0,0,45,632,0,59,962,0,631,9351,0,109,1557,0,530,7243,0,0,0,0,52,789,0,180,2430,0,69,1043,0,2487,6,50484,"NG","GT" 21,36,1,2,2,35,45,"CENTRAL HUDSON GAS & ELEC","ROSETON JO",0,"LIGHT OIL",3249,"0M",1294,,,95,1744,3069,2289,782,1361,3014,1071,2036,2369,0,0,2542,0,0,2542,0,0,2542,0,0,2542,0,0,2542,0,0,2542,0,17,2525,654,2512,1229,581,1004,2137,8006,6,50484,"FO2","ST" 21,36,1,2,3,35,45,"CENTRAL HUDSON GAS & ELEC","ROSETON JO",0,"HEAVY OIL",3249,"0M",1294,,,95,49649,80148,781308,157108,249990,495225,13890,23984,478029,0,0,478029,0,0,478029,0,0,604069,0,0,604069,0,0,604069,0,0,604069,0,0,589640,1356,4755,599314,189513,299562,451927,8006,6,50484,"FO6","ST" 21,36,1,2,9,35,45,"CENTRAL HUDSON GAS & ELEC","ROSETON JO",0,"NAT GAS",3249,"0M",1294,,,95,33526,336575,0,69660,692555,0,24026,260204,0,0,0,0,177930,1880760,0,186946,1950511,0,310122,3310810,0,247281,2627847,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2849,61824,0,7068,69278,0,8006,6,50484,"NG","ST" 21,36,1,1,,35,50,"CENTRAL HUDSON GAS & ELEC","HIGH FALLS",0,,3249,"0M",1294,,,95,1184,0,0,92,0,0,1122,0,0,69,0,0,143,0,0,23,0,0,26,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,340,0,0,1057,0,0,170,0,0,579,6,50484,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,37,5,"CENTRAL VT PUB SERV CORP","CARVERS FLS",0,,3292,"0A",1294,,350,95,921,0,0,597,0,0,1182,0,0,1121,0,0,691,0,0,250,0,0,18,0,0,58,0,0,0,0,0,391,0,0,1196,0,0,502,0,0,6456,6,50503,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,2,3,40,1,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","ARTHUR KILL",0,"HEAVY OIL",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,5711,0,0,5711,0,0,5711,0,0,5711,0,0,5711,0,0,5711,0,0,5711,7328,11940,18519,0,0,18519,0,0,18519,0,0,18513,0,0,18513,2490,6,50653,"FO6","ST" 21,36,1,2,9,40,1,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","ARTHUR KILL",0,"NAT GAS",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,-1408,17220,0,-1393,16473,0,-1276,5546,0,42517,495291,0,55216,582417,0,194234,1938196,0,301093,2957985,0,278373,2754690,0,147636,1480827,0,-1783,3561,0,-1398,5,0,-1433,5,0,2490,6,50653,"NG","ST" 21,36,1,4,2,40,1,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","ARTHUR KILL",0,"LIGHT OIL",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,13,44,1913,67,194,1823,0,0,1823,36,79,1744,215,635,1882,298,918,2083,566,1739,2154,371,1201,1884,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2490,6,50653,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,2,1,40,2,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","INDIAN PT",0,"NUCLEAR",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,562851,0,0,52711,0,0,-6970,0,0,-3790,0,0,-13730,0,0,241777,0,0,674078,0,0,678357,0,0,681364,0,0,661697,0,0,694091,0,0,636105,0,0,2497,6,50653,"UR","ST" 21,36,1,2,3,40,3,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","ASTORIA",0,"HEAVY OIL",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,44284,69523,204071,87234,136417,162405,51168,80603,150832,37361,58624,135192,36339,59441,192317,36196,59149,130130,89762,143025,106180,87335,138221,98117,59995,93814,117887,54037,87216,125085,64568,101738,117638,289554,461968,161157,8906,6,50653,"FO6","ST" 21,36,1,2,9,40,3,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","ASTORIA",0,"NAT GAS",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,270672,2666431,0,244705,2376465,0,354262,3528212,0,241575,2383868,0,275033,2732177,0,466083,4630924,0,417404,4132582,0,422777,4216725,0,331846,3235732,0,333120,3377003,0,267480,2653281,0,78615,787377,0,8906,6,50653,"NG","ST" 21,36,1,4,2,40,3,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","ASTORIA",0,"LIGHT OIL",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,1484,3523,70541,935,2176,68112,695,1314,66869,1270,3125,63744,1033,2385,61076,1517,3666,57410,5121,12698,44790,1655,4191,48468,794,1989,67296,758,1842,65454,651,1541,63965,4785,11328,52945,8906,6,50653,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,4,9,40,3,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","ASTORIA",0,"NAT GAS",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,1238,16825,0,4723,63317,0,9436,102713,0,19761,279920,0,13199,175023,0,14602,203072,0,50641,721027,0,30754,443611,0,22755,324431,0,10683,150198,0,29807,410036,0,1300,17862,0,8906,6,50653,"NG","GT" 21,36,1,2,3,40,5,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","EAST RIVER",0,"HEAVY OIL",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,48411,100447,260377,52328,112594,251467,22577,46041,196293,14368,29471,111609,10915,20599,75923,9443,18148,129321,17347,33410,143239,17145,35799,154704,57,119,208820,391,883,155405,24581,53489,125358,26299,56899,135819,2493,6,50653,"FO6","ST" 21,36,1,2,9,40,5,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","EAST RIVER",0,"NAT GAS",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,22936,297706,0,16423,222129,0,33740,432005,0,32894,424765,0,83114,976015,0,52018,626673,0,74759,901280,0,43540,571392,0,62070,814818,0,38780,549257,0,26334,362630,0,4079,55677,0,2493,6,50653,"NG","ST" 21,36,1,2,3,40,8,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","59TH STREET",0,"HEAVY OIL",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,134,711,28019,-168,0,13932,-186,0,17029,-180,0,14663,-186,0,16921,-180,0,14962,-186,0,34238,-186,0,28013,0,0,18655,-186,0,24175,-180,0,21506,-186,0,15408,2503,6,50653,"FO6","ST" 21,36,1,2,9,40,8,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","59TH STREET",0,"NAT GAS",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,-180,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2503,6,50653,"NG","ST" 21,36,1,4,2,40,8,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","59TH STREET",0,"LIGHT OIL",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,2421,12,43,2379,0,0,2379,34,63,2315,382,920,2169,220,532,2101,517,1422,2132,154,399,2018,0,0,2018,0,0,2018,0,0,2019,0,0,2019,2503,6,50653,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,4,2,40,10,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","GOWANUS",0,"LIGHT OIL",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,3431,10187,54995,3032,8863,61517,3332,9885,51514,5596,16946,54888,9656,30399,58173,10867,35156,51183,35078,112111,54362,18095,69179,54055,9925,32320,51120,3062,9091,61678,11850,35551,63660,11082,31386,52408,2494,6,50653,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,4,2,40,17,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","INDIAN PT",0,"LIGHT OIL",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,10,470,1357,110,334,1476,0,0,1438,10,26,1387,190,648,1553,120,502,1367,618,1994,1429,339,1276,1561,10,65,1518,10,49,1466,70,568,1361,10,79,1524,2497,6,50653,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,2,3,40,18,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","HUDSON AVE",0,"HEAVY OIL",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,13942,16640,116475,22892,27677,121761,19571,25683,88715,5881,7513,112117,13579,17821,145862,8960,11221,121321,17004,23012,156902,16358,21789,184711,8488,11589,233738,9039,12876,207818,15377,22058,190563,21649,30797,210122,2496,6,50653,"FO6","ST" 21,36,1,4,2,40,18,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","HUDSON AVE",0,"LIGHT OIL",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,32,106,3790,262,520,3270,24,63,4088,0,0,4088,318,932,4131,366,1254,4363,1154,3982,3948,684,2253,4361,44,148,4212,7,28,4185,255,954,4157,0,0,4471,2496,6,50653,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,4,2,40,23,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","NARROWS BAY",0,"LIGHT OIL",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,1815,5002,70995,2374,6488,64363,3121,8503,70742,4829,13085,57595,4696,13259,61188,7112,20641,70359,14360,43802,86922,0,0,86754,113,310,61193,358,1046,60146,2527,7040,53007,5977,17365,64411,2499,6,50653,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,4,9,40,23,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","NARROWS BAY",0,"NAT GAS",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,160,2545,0,0,0,0,1437,23105,0,3151,50378,0,5478,91177,0,7841,132409,0,26727,472807,0,23321,410674,0,8725,137237,0,6684,112244,0,14121,266734,0,726,12168,0,2499,6,50653,"NG","GT" 21,36,1,2,3,40,25,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","RAVENSWOOD",0,"HEAVY OIL",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,56562,96769,43835,156038,248776,28947,15866,27428,34677,22910,42845,42500,30055,54093,37926,31922,55970,39660,31596,55334,44269,54612,90412,42941,11656,19796,32055,4144,7555,26939,45172,77641,44297,97823,181018,43354,2500,6,50653,"FO6","ST" 21,36,1,2,9,40,25,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","RAVENSWOOD",0,"NAT GAS",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,209768,2234824,0,193780,1928735,0,161992,1747544,0,161776,1895581,0,200509,2260799,0,241862,2659354,0,377330,4132582,0,492580,5112387,0,269868,2872681,0,121326,1378858,0,190022,2065045,0,34903,408143,0,2500,6,50653,"NG","ST" 21,36,1,4,2,40,25,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","RAVENSWOOD",0,"LIGHT OIL",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,317,1144,40469,1114,3166,37304,412,1109,36195,1364,3752,32443,0,0,32613,292,765,31848,1020,2785,39004,707,2001,37003,43,116,38759,232,819,37940,91,256,37684,3105,8078,40525,2500,6,50653,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,4,9,40,25,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","RAVENSWOOD",0,"NAT GAS",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,699,14506,0,461,7543,0,1614,25061,0,3849,61087,0,2639,36379,0,6191,93115,0,11215,178768,0,7292,120354,0,2766,43431,0,1873,38571,0,2782,45521,0,533,8123,0,2500,6,50653,"NG","GT" 21,36,1,2,3,40,30,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","74TH STREET",0,"HEAVY OIL",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,4001,11849,37330,7337,16422,1428,4042,7539,1190,6302,7774,1190,11192,14181,1190,8567,12004,1190,7521,9483,1190,3846,5472,1365,3937,4892,1428,-949,0,1429,3253,6242,1429,3602,5677,1429,2504,6,50653,"FO6","ST" 21,36,1,4,2,40,30,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","74TH STREET",0,"LIGHT OIL",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,-13,0,1690,-11,0,2143,-12,0,2083,-12,0,1952,-3,12,1881,-12,0,1762,-12,24,1738,-13,0,1747,-12,0,1548,-12,0,1524,-12,0,1595,-12,0,2202,2504,6,50653,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,2,3,40,40,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","WATERSIDE",0,"HEAVY OIL",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,3119,5797,0,25178,41438,0,1003,1798,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,146,266,0,2502,6,50653,"FO6","ST" 21,36,1,2,9,40,40,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","WATERSIDE",0,"NAT GAS",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,59934,697096,0,47441,490868,0,53623,603408,0,39082,449151,0,37250,448243,0,36423,288224,0,55999,633276,0,55829,627391,0,38346,480259,0,35286,396996,0,48220,540897,0,63071,723341,0,2502,6,50653,"NG","ST" 21,36,1,2,3,40,50,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","OIL STORAGE",0,"HEAVY OIL",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,2766499,0,0,2324286,0,0,2545579,0,0,2254272,0,0,1899927,0,0,1649376,0,0,1484314,0,0,1332860,0,0,1420463,0,0,1532278,0,0,1814997,0,0,1473629,8801,6,50653,"FO6","ST" 21,36,1,4,2,40,60,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","OIL STORAGE",0,"LIGHT OIL",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,204071,0,0,265070,0,0,259969,0,0,242953,0,0,247234,0,0,245330,0,0,259288,0,0,251578,0,0,241219,0,0,257945,0,0,250930,0,0,243796,8802,6,50653,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,4,2,40,65,"CONSOL EDISON CO N Y INC","BUCHANAN",0,"LIGHT OIL",4226,"0M",1294,,,95,55,213,3746,295,599,4326,12,22,4481,20,42,4440,199,586,4211,634,1857,4497,979,2573,4452,907,2783,4475,35,172,4303,63,247,4282,398,1093,4230,56,191,4039,4233,6,50653,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,1,,49,5,"HYDRO DEV GROUP INC","DEXTER",0,,9145,"0A",1294,,,95,2082,0,0,1260,0,0,2412,0,0,1860,0,0,1134,0,0,690,0,0,834,0,0,558,0,0,666,0,0,1998,0,0,2619,0,0,1908,0,0,2505,6,50785,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,49,10,"HYDRO DEV GROUP INC","PYRITES #1",0,,9145,"0A",1294,,,95,228,0,0,53,0,0,337,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2506,6,50785,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,49,12,"HYDRO DEV GROUP INC","PYRITES #2",0,,9145,"0A",1294,,,95,2658,0,0,1453,0,0,3335,0,0,2856,0,0,2370,0,0,1044,0,0,630,0,0,678,0,0,606,0,0,2458,0,0,3186,0,0,2166,0,0,7031,6,50785,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,49,15,"HYDRO DEV GROUP INC","HAILESBORO",0,,9145,"0A",1294,,,95,1037,0,0,706,0,0,1087,0,0,1097,0,0,854,0,0,509,0,0,415,0,0,624,0,0,389,0,0,982,0,0,1159,0,0,780,0,0,6573,6,50785,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,49,20,"HYDRO DEV GROUP INC","FOWLER",0,,9145,"0A",1294,,,95,426,0,0,394,0,0,515,0,0,491,0,0,515,0,0,316,0,0,245,0,0,349,0,0,250,0,0,398,0,0,507,0,0,434,0,0,6572,6,50785,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,49,25,"HYDRO DEV GROUP INC","#6 MILL",0,,9145,"0A",1294,,,95,471,0,0,407,0,0,463,0,0,491,0,0,394,0,0,231,0,0,201,0,0,313,0,0,208,0,0,384,0,0,494,0,0,499,0,0,453,6,50785,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,49,50,"HYDRO DEV GROUP INC","COPENHAGEN",0,,9145,"0A",1294,,,95,1176,0,0,560,0,0,1460,0,0,1532,0,0,460,0,0,108,0,0,360,0,0,112,0,0,312,0,0,1396,0,0,1884,0,0,924,0,0,742,6,50785,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,49,55,"HYDRO DEV GROUP INC","DIAMOND IS",0,,9145,"0A",1294,,,95,665,0,0,468,0,0,733,0,0,702,0,0,504,0,0,251,0,0,228,0,0,190,0,0,239,0,0,583,0,0,773,0,0,616,0,0,2553,6,50785,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,49,60,"HYDRO DEV GROUP INC","THERESA",0,,9145,"0A",1294,,,95,752,0,0,606,0,0,800,0,0,836,0,0,556,0,0,150,0,0,78,0,0,202,0,0,34,0,0,710,0,0,842,0,0,794,0,0,2618,6,50785,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,49,70,"HYDRO DEV GROUP INC","#3 MILL",0,,9145,"0A",1294,,,95,456,0,0,350,0,0,485,0,0,483,0,0,398,0,0,240,0,0,157,0,0,294,0,0,180,0,0,283,0,0,456,0,0,346,0,0,743,6,50785,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,49,75,"HYDRO DEV GROUP INC","GOODYEAR LK",0,,9145,"0A",1294,,,95,640,0,0,400,0,0,757,0,0,542,0,0,315,0,0,166,0,0,49,0,0,25,0,0,19,0,0,171,0,0,575,0,0,550,0,0,7358,6,50785,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,3,2,59,1,"FISHERS IS ELEC CORP (THE","FISHERS ISL",0,"LIGHT OIL",6369,"0A",1294,"S",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,6575,6,50989,"FO2","IC" 21,36,1,4,2,87,1,"LONG ISLAND LIGHTING CO","W BABYLON",0,"LIGHT OIL",11172,"0M",1294,,,95,-9,0,10978,184,398,10580,-10,0,10580,-8,0,10580,-10,0,10580,-10,0,10580,1589,3799,6781,1012,2525,9994,-8,0,9994,23,63,9931,12,52,9878,-6,0,9878,2521,6,51685,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,2,2,87,2,"LONG ISLAND LIGHTING CO","E F BARRETT",0,"LIGHT OIL",11172,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,382,0,0,382,0,0,382,0,0,382,0,0,382,0,0,382,0,0,382,0,0,382,189,351,31,0,0,31,0,0,0,0,0,0,2511,6,51685,"FO2","ST" 21,36,1,2,3,87,2,"LONG ISLAND LIGHTING CO","E F BARRETT",0,"HEAVY OIL",11172,"0M",1294,,,95,7679,13204,183912,19277,32691,151221,6888,12026,167809,7622,13054,154755,21364,35883,118872,5001,8521,110351,0,0,100351,0,0,150055,0,0,176621,0,0,176621,4499,7876,168745,30931,52133,130983,2511,6,51685,"FO6","ST" 21,36,1,2,9,87,2,"LONG ISLAND LIGHTING CO","E F BARRETT",0,"NAT GAS",11172,"0M",1294,,,95,88641,923891,0,72376,743992,0,119516,1265049,0,108791,1129535,0,161464,1644681,0,176300,1817157,0,201713,2124759,0,207176,2182914,0,194067,2023621,0,176719,1855067,0,152642,1622397,0,111293,1143313,0,2511,6,51685,"NG","ST" 21,36,1,4,2,87,2,"LONG ISLAND LIGHTING CO","E F BARRETT",0,"LIGHT OIL",11172,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,21322,0,0,21322,0,0,21322,0,0,21322,0,0,21322,0,0,21322,0,0,21322,0,0,21322,0,0,21322,0,0,21322,0,0,21322,89,272,21050,2511,6,51685,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,4,9,87,2,"LONG ISLAND LIGHTING CO","E F BARRETT",0,"NAT GAS",11172,"0M",1294,,,95,2584,48858,0,2455,39578,0,396,9580,0,7540,115964,0,15423,241318,0,13024,203027,0,13183,202506,0,13611,214090,0,2215,41056,0,3367,60239,0,3070,49795,0,1324,23100,0,2511,6,51685,"NG","GT" 21,36,1,2,3,87,5,"LONG ISLAND LIGHTING CO","FAR ROCKWAY",0,"HEAVY OIL",11172,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,630,0,0,630,0,0,630,0,0,630,0,0,630,0,0,630,0,0,630,0,0,630,0,0,630,0,0,630,0,0,630,0,0,630,2513,6,51685,"FO6","ST" 21,36,1,2,9,87,5,"LONG ISLAND LIGHTING CO","FAR ROCKWAY",0,"NAT GAS",11172,"0M",1294,,,95,35652,370173,0,-382,0,0,37901,413154,0,47344,499677,0,39814,418408,0,43785,454694,0,44918,522402,0,46370,490439,0,46043,485717,0,32114,356625,0,40424,437203,0,48243,507731,0,2513,6,51685,"NG","ST" 21,36,1,2,3,87,15,"LONG ISLAND LIGHTING CO","GLENWOOD",0,"HEAVY OIL",11172,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2514,6,51685,"FO6","ST" 21,36,1,2,9,87,15,"LONG ISLAND LIGHTING CO","GLENWOOD",0,"NAT GAS",11172,"0M",1294,,,95,57152,656357,0,88875,989013,0,43090,513102,0,64609,758501,0,65972,764067,0,85437,987225,0,91585,1053103,0,91614,1044546,0,87436,984844,0,70615,831640,0,65930,771090,0,72860,814525,0,2514,6,51685,"NG","ST" 21,36,1,4,2,87,15,"LONG ISLAND LIGHTING CO","GLENWOOD",0,"LIGHT OIL",11172,"0M",1294,,,95,-13,0,28987,348,833,28155,-2,113,28042,-10,0,28042,-15,0,28042,308,112,27929,1020,3353,24576,1330,3635,20941,-16,0,20941,52,122,20819,-18,0,20787,-15,0,20787,2514,6,51685,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,3,2,87,17,"LONG ISLAND LIGHTING CO","E HAMPTON",0,"LIGHT OIL",11172,"0M",1294,,,95,-6,0,971,33,69,902,-4,4,898,-6,0,898,-1,8,890,2,12,878,464,935,369,527,862,816,51,112,705,-6,0,705,-1,4,915,0,3,911,2512,6,51685,"FO2","IC" 21,36,1,4,2,87,17,"LONG ISLAND LIGHTING CO","E HAMPTON",0,"LIGHT OIL",11172,"0M",1294,,,95,-17,0,2876,-11,17,2859,-15,0,2859,-9,0,2859,-4,25,2834,34,116,2718,2330,5851,265,2246,5851,2259,76,212,2471,-10,0,2471,27,113,2789,-12,0,2789,2512,6,51685,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,4,2,87,18,"LONG ISLAND LIGHTING CO","SOUTHOLD",0,"LIGHT OIL",11172,"0M",1294,,,95,-8,0,2716,-15,0,2716,-15,0,2716,-11,0,2716,-9,0,2716,14,79,2637,79,316,2534,39,174,2784,-8,0,2784,-8,0,2784,33,160,2624,-15,0,2624,2520,6,51685,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,2,2,87,21,"LONG ISLAND LIGHTING CO","NORTHPORT",0,"LIGHT OIL",11172,"0M",1294,,,95,393,703,2446,1919,3360,10568,787,1448,10918,244,438,10694,0,0,10694,1255,2346,10708,543,987,10787,859,1604,10653,1224,1286,10857,0,0,11070,42,78,10992,866,1558,10948,2516,6,51685,"FO2","ST" 21,36,1,2,3,87,21,"LONG ISLAND LIGHTING CO","NORTHPORT",0,"HEAVY OIL",11172,"0M",1294,,,95,251839,410183,917940,419721,669714,545119,137170,230153,627264,93546,156459,751601,4614,7948,743653,138528,235371,730114,232571,387065,831393,198326,339587,780654,65679,111985,948390,0,0,1048629,13006,22156,1026473,263245,435054,787488,2516,6,51685,"FO6","ST" 21,36,1,2,9,87,21,"LONG ISLAND LIGHTING CO","NORTHPORT",0,"NAT GAS",11172,"0M",1294,,,95,161173,1656185,0,109357,1099738,0,179917,1902183,0,179876,1858552,0,249772,2620522,0,277680,2980882,0,392501,4094975,0,395601,4243388,0,332956,3533654,0,339896,3613412,0,310631,3313635,0,259449,2673147,0,2516,6,51685,"NG","ST" 21,36,1,4,2,87,21,"LONG ISLAND LIGHTING CO","NORTHPORT",0,"LIGHT OIL",11172,"0M",1294,,,95,-16,0,2030,-16,0,2030,11,87,1943,-13,0,1943,-12,0,1943,-8,15,1928,10,25,1904,24,175,1729,-2,17,1712,-7,0,0,-15,0,1290,-10,0,1506,2516,6,51685,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,3,2,87,23,"LONG ISLAND LIGHTING CO","SHOREHAM",0,"LIGHT OIL",11172,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2518,6,51685,"FO2","IC" 21,36,1,4,2,87,23,"LONG ISLAND LIGHTING CO","SHOREHAM",0,"LIGHT OIL",11172,"0M",1294,,,95,-4,0,10375,81,259,11414,11,38,11377,-7,0,11377,340,528,10848,91,128,10720,441,1417,9303,551,846,15679,5,41,15638,18,32,15605,-4,0,15605,-7,3,15602,2518,6,51685,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,2,2,87,24,"LONG ISLAND LIGHTING CO","P JEFFERSON",0,"LIGHT OIL",11172,"0M",1294,,,95,505,940,248,368,651,173,451,865,267,430,769,71,340,624,210,273,507,271,308,573,265,205,379,265,120,230,224,260,511,310,181,337,162,173,317,229,2517,6,51685,"FO2","ST" 21,36,1,2,3,87,24,"LONG ISLAND LIGHTING CO","P JEFFERSON",0,"HEAVY OIL",11172,"0M",1294,,,95,83231,142447,374658,116002,187180,292517,84682,149701,363973,88134,146337,217636,86246,147673,240914,86540,147162,367784,119762,202643,388397,116504,197519,283029,62653,110443,267311,37059,67418,404544,57551,98596,305948,73017,122780,291514,2517,6,51685,"FO6","ST" 21,36,1,4,2,87,24,"LONG ISLAND LIGHTING CO","P JEFFERSON",0,"LIGHT OIL",11172,"0M",1294,,,95,14,70,2055,36,150,1905,-16,0,1905,-11,0,1905,30,100,1805,15,79,1726,94,282,1444,49,175,2118,-8,0,2118,2,49,2069,-12,0,2069,-14,0,2069,2517,6,51685,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,4,2,87,26,"LONG ISLAND LIGHTING CO","SOUTHAMPTON",0,"LIGHT OIL",11172,"0M",1294,,,95,-16,0,2575,22,137,2438,-17,0,2438,-9,0,2438,-4,9,2430,36,153,2277,200,649,2266,170,698,2628,-11,0,2628,-8,0,2628,-2,0,2628,-18,0,2628,2519,6,51685,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,3,2,87,29,"LONG ISLAND LIGHTING CO","MONTAUK",0,"LIGHT OIL",11172,"0M",1294,,,95,-6,0,685,34,66,619,-6,0,619,-6,0,619,0,0,619,2,46,572,274,574,424,184,319,529,57,109,420,-6,0,420,0,23,611,-6,0,611,2515,6,51685,"FO2","IC" 21,36,1,4,2,87,30,"LONG ISLAND LIGHTING CO","HOLTSVILLE",0,"LIGHT OIL",11172,"0M",1294,,,95,3418,7966,65483,2730,6945,98989,1349,3183,95807,3573,8991,86815,1220,3009,83806,4957,12317,71489,13538,28073,71475,15481,41712,89159,785,2396,86763,-94,234,86529,427,1487,85042,2296,5778,79264,8007,6,51685,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,4,2,87,35,"LONG ISLAND LIGHTING CO","BROOKHAVEN",0,"LIGHT OIL",11172,"0M",1294,,,95,2290,4982,38416,2652,6010,38901,226,279,38622,3165,6704,37310,6210,13571,28376,6235,12488,40846,9816,21210,30472,9736,19194,39142,-52,0,39142,113,688,40071,528,1470,40751,2660,5996,37572,7146,6,51685,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,1,,100,1,"N Y STATE ELEC & GAS CORP","CADYVILLE",0,,13511,"0M",1294,,,95,2289,0,0,1760,0,0,2697,0,0,2249,0,0,2033,0,0,1277,0,0,1043,0,0,1271,0,0,873,0,0,1835,0,0,2411,0,0,1256,0,0,2522,6,52036,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,100,3,"N Y STATE ELEC & GAS CORP","MILL 'C'",0,,13511,"0M",1294,,,95,1082,0,0,1120,0,0,1325,0,0,1217,0,0,1424,0,0,918,2,0,782,0,0,1153,0,0,591,0,0,1982,0,0,2696,0,0,728,0,0,6486,6,52036,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,100,8,"N Y STATE ELEC & GAS CORP","HIGH FALLS",0,,13511,"0M",1294,,,95,8036,0,0,6467,0,0,9348,0,0,7548,0,0,6945,0,0,4111,0,0,3127,0,0,4402,0,0,2270,0,0,1885,0,0,8998,0,0,6023,0,0,2530,6,52036,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,100,9,"N Y STATE ELEC & GAS CORP","KENT FALLS",0,,13511,"0M",1294,,,95,4267,0,0,3614,0,0,5729,0,0,4500,0,0,4403,0,0,2459,0,0,1821,0,0,2011,0,0,1112,0,0,2429,0,0,0,0,0,2462,0,0,2532,6,52036,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,100,11,"N Y STATE ELEC & GAS CORP","KEUKA",0,,13511,"0M",1294,,,95,479,0,0,618,0,0,1104,0,0,424,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,246,0,0,368,0,0,87,0,0,2533,6,52036,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,100,18,"N Y STATE ELEC & GAS CORP","RAINBOW FLS",0,,13511,"0M",1294,,,95,844,0,0,484,0,0,1136,0,0,1424,0,0,2008,0,0,1044,0,0,972,0,0,828,0,0,572,0,0,920,0,0,1432,0,0,800,0,0,6526,6,52036,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,100,20,"N Y STATE ELEC & GAS CORP","SENECA FLS",0,,13511,"0M",1294,,,95,929,0,0,0,0,0,237,0,0,418,0,0,57,0,0,12,0,0,35,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,144,0,0,1097,0,0,1515,0,0,6525,6,52036,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,100,26,"N Y STATE ELEC & GAS CORP","WATERLOO",0,,13511,"0M",1294,,,95,218,0,0,0,0,0,91,0,0,167,0,0,47,0,0,38,0,0,63,0,0,15,0,0,0,0,0,28,0,0,273,0,0,435,0,0,2538,6,52036,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,2,2,100,28,"N Y STATE ELEC & GAS CORP","GOUDEY",0,"LIGHT OIL",13511,"0M",1294,,,95,4,6,902,7,12,922,38,860,816,166,1093,889,115,412,787,23,40,755,14,25,726,19,34,1012,88,159,674,17,29,652,15,27,781,57,99,755,2526,6,52036,"FO2","ST" 21,36,1,2,6,100,28,"N Y STATE ELEC & GAS CORP","GOUDEY",0,"BIT COAL",13511,"0M",1294,,,95,49140,18404,38386,47957,17309,33487,38535,14154,31196,29944,11570,19706,47570,19243,17396,46082,17833,16951,48114,18609,8401,48907,19270,14458,47509,18547,11816,46734,17563,21803,47743,17962,29205,49938,18814,16951,2526,6,52036,"BIT","ST" 21,36,1,2,2,100,30,"N Y STATE ELEC & GAS CORP","GREENIDGE",0,"LIGHT OIL",13511,"0M",1294,,,95,49,84,1482,143,249,1673,49,85,1663,69,118,1503,97,194,1276,101,268,963,140,255,1024,312,565,929,134,232,1184,28,65,1082,27,47,1003,135,254,963,2527,6,52036,"FO2","ST" 21,36,1,2,6,100,30,"N Y STATE ELEC & GAS CORP","GREENIDGE",0,"BIT COAL",13511,"0M",1294,,,95,59064,22369,46139,64896,24628,34337,56536,21560,33567,61588,23327,27754,60141,23147,16512,44718,17812,44179,56844,23346,35975,63282,25535,39483,33115,12718,51031,52461,19935,48906,51733,19814,48981,79778,32545,44179,2527,6,52036,"BIT","ST" 21,36,1,2,6,100,32,"N Y STATE ELEC & GAS CORP","HICKLING",0,"BIT COAL",13511,"0M",1294,,,95,29937,25353,59845,37278,28317,42388,31428,24287,26231,36848,29367,9739,25540,20965,7417,26619,21486,11619,19927,15033,13417,19292,17747,12211,16109,14260,19398,15799,13125,25995,15584,11444,38506,16518,14020,11619,2529,6,52036,"BIT","ST" 21,36,1,2,"B",100,34,"N Y STATE ELEC & GAS CORP","JENNISON",0,"WOOD CHIP",13511,"0M",1294,,,95,1937,0,0,2506,0,0,1706,0,0,446,0,0,510,0,0,631,0,0,0,0,0,966,0,0,1443,0,0,1357,0,0,215,0,0,517,0,0,2531,6,52036,"WOD","ST" 21,36,1,2,6,100,34,"N Y STATE ELEC & GAS CORP","JENNISON",0,"BIT COAL",13511,"0M",1294,,,95,18813,12027,31771,27918,18374,13300,18598,13682,9272,12405,9568,1166,10568,8258,1035,8066,6810,737,10639,7167,2889,9803,7780,5121,7664,6371,9926,7104,5362,9933,11173,7198,8195,18436,12369,737,2531,6,52036,"BIT","ST" 21,36,1,2,2,100,35,"N Y STATE ELEC & GAS CORP","MILLIKEN",0,"LIGHT OIL",13511,"0M",1294,,,95,206,337,1812,188,320,1856,273,465,1873,142,244,1879,53,94,1978,249,452,1841,116,209,1815,158,288,1863,211,385,1831,258,462,1670,59,105,1738,26,47,1841,2535,6,52036,"FO2","ST" 21,36,1,2,6,100,35,"N Y STATE ELEC & GAS CORP","MILLIKEN",0,"BIT COAL",13511,"0M",1294,,,95,192258,68792,79141,180255,67185,80127,183681,68408,89806,153861,58397,69230,98273,37927,98714,132074,52498,118633,185234,73165,90889,184163,73756,101056,131693,53020,97110,185372,73940,102961,167135,65625,99048,191784,76075,118633,2535,6,52036,"BIT","ST" 21,36,1,3,2,100,35,"N Y STATE ELEC & GAS CORP","MILLIKEN",0,"LIGHT OIL",13511,"0M",1294,,,95,0,1,0,20,38,0,3,84,0,104,107,0,54,144,0,1,38,0,-64,39,0,10,20,0,0,1,0,12,39,0,11,44,0,17,32,0,2535,6,52036,"FO2","IC" 21,36,1,3,2,100,40,"N Y STATE ELEC & GAS CORP","HARRIS LAKE",0,"LIGHT OIL",13511,"0M",1294,,,95,-11,0,405,0,0,349,0,0,0,-4,0,313,0,0,260,0,0,242,64,122,269,12,25,244,2,0,436,0,0,357,0,0,290,-13,0,242,2528,6,52036,"FO2","IC" 21,36,1,1,,100,43,"N Y STATE ELEC & GAS CORP","MECHANICVLE",0,,13511,"0M",1294,,,95,9072,0,0,6867,0,0,9702,0,0,6867,0,0,4347,0,0,2961,0,0,1134,0,0,2331,0,0,1953,0,0,5670,0,0,12663,0,0,8946,0,0,625,6,52036,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,2,2,100,50,"N Y STATE ELEC & GAS CORP","KINTIGH",0,"LIGHT OIL",13511,"0M",1294,,,95,219,378,4169,770,1322,2904,474,811,3335,953,1656,3113,165,283,2839,314,543,2288,879,1523,3426,394,685,2738,627,1087,4124,1183,2162,2118,626,1094,4657,509,873,2288,6082,6,52036,"FO2","ST" 21,36,1,2,6,100,50,"N Y STATE ELEC & GAS CORP","KINTIGH",0,"BIT COAL",13511,"0M",1294,,,95,429496,166336,132032,393694,148405,142690,419527,160683,178911,416807,160659,178855,418612,159916,174957,381565,146069,162034,348178,133246,124345,413546,158604,73112,376458,141570,75380,181079,73253,130474,363691,142233,133771,423315,159637,162034,6082,6,52036,"BIT","ST" 21,36,1,2,1,105,1,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","NINE MILE P",0,"NUCLEAR",13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,368414,0,0,58742,0,0,0,0,0,332154,0,0,459193,0,0,439571,0,0,434942,0,0,437261,0,0,420930,0,0,452099,0,0,441551,0,0,459844,0,0,2589,6,52053,"UR","ST" 21,36,1,2,1,105,2,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","NINE MILE P",0,"NUCLEAR",13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,694823,0,0,533574,0,0,742888,0,0,149501,0,0,0,0,0,575400,0,0,821880,0,0,766368,0,0,443850,0,0,845303,0,0,824493,0,0,841323,0,0,2589,6,52053,"UR","ST" 21,36,1,1,,105,5,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","ALLENS FLS",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,2087,0,0,1758,0,0,2479,0,0,2662,0,0,2344,0,0,1289,0,0,1268,0,0,1240,0,0,1099,0,0,2308,0,0,2305,0,0,2092,0,0,2540,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,10,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","BALDWINSVLE",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,205,0,0,112,0,0,221,0,0,171,0,0,60,0,0,7,0,0,-3,0,0,16,0,0,1,0,0,57,0,0,217,0,0,140,0,0,2542,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,15,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","BELFORT",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,861,0,0,751,0,0,805,0,0,464,0,0,550,0,0,561,0,0,714,0,0,764,0,0,730,0,0,557,0,0,1171,0,0,1354,0,0,2544,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,20,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","BENNETTS B",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,10231,0,0,5759,0,0,9838,0,0,5346,0,0,4404,0,0,1938,0,0,-33,0,0,313,0,0,5443,0,0,9001,0,0,13335,0,0,6313,0,0,2545,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,25,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","BLACK RIVER",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,3477,0,0,2422,0,0,3823,0,0,3907,0,0,2562,0,0,1270,0,0,1501,0,0,948,0,0,1559,0,0,3563,0,0,4456,0,0,3477,0,0,2546,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,30,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","BLAKE",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,6604,0,0,6486,0,0,5072,0,0,2962,0,0,3721,0,0,3715,0,0,672,0,0,2828,0,0,1682,0,0,3534,0,0,9144,0,0,6300,0,0,2547,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,35,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","BROWNS FLS",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,6785,0,0,3738,0,0,4510,0,0,1724,0,0,1746,0,0,1866,0,0,545,0,0,2901,0,0,1160,0,0,4896,0,0,7492,0,0,3767,0,0,2548,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,40,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","CHASM",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,1902,0,0,1138,0,0,1426,0,0,1777,0,0,1751,0,0,1323,0,0,994,0,0,1236,0,0,1014,0,0,1752,0,0,1795,0,0,1489,0,0,2550,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,45,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","COLTON",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,20600,0,0,18761,0,0,20043,0,0,13701,0,0,15937,0,0,15548,0,0,9456,0,0,14510,0,0,7469,0,0,15049,0,0,2073,0,0,19935,0,0,2551,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,50,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","DEFERIET",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,4478,0,0,3495,0,0,5869,0,0,5234,0,0,3642,0,0,1740,0,0,1638,0,0,1204,0,0,1248,0,0,5355,0,0,7027,0,0,4656,0,0,2552,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,65,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","EAGLE",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,2653,0,0,2021,0,0,2505,0,0,1200,0,0,1421,0,0,1737,0,0,2331,0,0,1979,0,0,2045,0,0,1398,0,0,3203,0,0,3777,0,0,2555,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,70,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","EEL WEIR",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,866,0,0,622,0,0,964,0,0,803,0,0,524,0,0,203,0,0,115,0,0,125,0,0,7,0,0,655,0,0,1332,0,0,994,0,0,2556,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,75,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","EFFLEY",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,1093,0,0,986,0,0,1153,0,0,580,0,0,694,0,0,845,0,0,905,0,0,982,0,0,900,0,0,740,0,0,1558,0,0,1767,0,0,2557,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,80,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","ELMER",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,812,0,0,575,0,0,796,0,0,380,0,0,439,0,0,552,0,0,441,0,0,640,0,0,593,0,0,496,0,0,1010,0,0,1135,0,0,2559,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,85,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","ET NORFOLK",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,2479,0,0,1995,0,0,2559,0,0,1703,0,0,1975,0,0,1859,0,0,1059,0,0,1731,0,0,851,0,0,1883,0,0,2471,0,0,2519,0,0,2561,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,90,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","FIVE FALLS",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,10795,0,0,10405,0,0,8347,0,0,4782,0,0,5926,0,0,5896,0,0,3396,0,0,5619,0,0,2631,0,0,5807,0,0,14654,0,0,10198,0,0,2562,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,95,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","FLAT ROCK",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,1503,0,0,871,0,0,1489,0,0,592,0,0,450,0,0,401,0,0,136,0,0,528,0,0,169,0,0,1414,0,0,1912,0,0,876,0,0,2563,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,98,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","FRANKLIN F",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,775,0,0,767,0,0,1052,0,0,613,0,0,385,0,0,496,0,0,336,0,0,352,0,0,-1,0,0,-1,0,0,-1,0,0,-1,0,0,2564,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,100,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","FULTON",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,464,0,0,333,0,0,608,0,0,437,0,0,459,0,0,300,0,0,406,0,0,363,0,0,304,0,0,474,0,0,653,0,0,625,0,0,2566,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,105,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","GRANBY",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,5845,0,0,3502,0,0,6558,0,0,1324,0,0,640,0,0,477,0,0,-38,0,0,491,0,0,-42,0,0,3025,0,0,5404,0,0,5157,0,0,2569,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,110,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","HANNAWA",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,5253,0,0,4772,0,0,5248,0,0,3332,0,0,4051,0,0,3941,0,0,2329,0,0,3797,0,0,1747,0,0,1086,0,0,2696,0,0,5321,0,0,2571,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,115,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","HERRINGS",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,1980,0,0,1586,0,0,2151,0,0,2116,0,0,1509,0,0,629,0,0,705,0,0,371,0,0,337,0,0,1747,0,0,2341,0,0,2187,0,0,2572,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,120,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","HEUVELTON",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,458,0,0,468,0,0,484,0,0,556,0,0,455,0,0,254,0,0,195,0,0,277,0,0,149,0,0,433,0,0,506,0,0,588,0,0,2573,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,125,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","HIGH DAM 6",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,1863,0,0,2023,0,0,1494,0,0,922,0,0,725,0,0,989,0,0,179,0,0,2024,0,0,2607,0,0,3766,0,0,2574,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,126,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","HIGH FALLS",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,2622,0,0,1900,0,0,2648,0,0,1268,0,0,1439,0,0,1814,0,0,2106,0,0,1998,0,0,1847,0,0,1571,0,0,3045,0,0,3527,0,0,2575,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,130,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","HIGLEY",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,3414,0,0,2999,0,0,3075,0,0,1774,0,0,2177,0,0,2037,0,0,1416,0,0,2086,0,0,1120,0,0,2315,0,0,3556,0,0,3242,0,0,2576,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,135,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","HOGANSBURG",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,98,0,0,143,0,0,192,0,0,192,0,0,148,0,0,129,0,0,87,0,0,146,0,0,79,0,0,113,0,0,186,0,0,218,0,0,2577,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,140,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","KAMARGO",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,2374,0,0,1857,0,0,2750,0,0,2638,0,0,1924,0,0,960,0,0,1034,0,0,398,0,0,612,0,0,2497,0,0,3433,0,0,1788,0,0,2581,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,145,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","LIGHTHOUSE",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,2431,0,0,1342,0,0,2514,0,0,1178,0,0,925,0,0,399,0,0,-14,0,0,-14,0,0,1080,0,0,1999,0,0,3282,0,0,1507,0,0,2582,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,155,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","MACOMB",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,434,0,0,398,0,0,641,0,0,569,0,0,481,0,0,319,0,0,-4,0,0,-4,0,0,132,0,0,534,0,0,627,0,0,520,0,0,2583,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,160,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","MINETTO",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,3847,0,0,2604,0,0,4467,0,0,2022,0,0,1607,0,0,940,0,0,602,0,0,800,0,0,427,0,0,1690,0,0,4151,0,0,4554,0,0,2586,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,165,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","MOSHIER",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,2698,0,0,2561,0,0,2447,0,0,1064,0,0,1751,0,0,2554,0,0,2993,0,0,2896,0,0,2791,0,0,736,0,0,3994,0,0,5506,0,0,2588,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,170,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","NORFOLK",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,2391,0,0,2156,0,0,2979,0,0,1872,0,0,2207,0,0,2139,0,0,1223,0,0,2018,0,0,958,0,0,2054,0,0,3088,0,0,2630,0,0,2590,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,175,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","NORWOOD",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,1536,0,0,1408,0,0,1536,0,0,938,0,0,1146,0,0,1136,0,0,605,0,0,1104,0,0,480,0,0,1072,0,0,1232,0,0,1488,0,0,2591,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,180,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","OSWEGATCHIE",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2593,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,182,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","OSWEGO FL E",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,2890,0,0,2449,0,0,2510,0,0,1688,0,0,1604,0,0,996,0,0,637,0,0,679,0,0,550,0,0,1991,0,0,2836,0,0,2816,0,0,2595,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,183,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","OSWEGO FL W",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,1223,0,0,423,0,0,1212,0,0,176,0,0,-1,0,0,28,0,0,-2,0,0,47,0,0,14,0,0,385,0,0,730,0,0,1172,0,0,2596,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,185,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","PARISHVILLE",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,0,0,0,690,0,0,1562,0,0,1603,0,0,1516,0,0,848,0,0,849,0,0,763,0,0,749,0,0,1395,0,0,1488,0,0,1298,0,0,2597,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,187,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","PIERCEFIELD",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,1488,0,0,1283,0,0,1529,0,0,1482,0,0,1341,0,0,627,0,0,429,0,0,881,0,0,370,0,0,1195,0,0,1783,0,0,1527,0,0,2598,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,192,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","PROSPECT",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,1704,0,0,0,0,0,4257,0,0,5788,0,0,3672,0,0,2881,0,0,2386,0,0,1689,0,0,184,0,0,6691,0,0,11309,0,0,6904,0,0,2599,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,195,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","RAINBOW",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,10771,0,0,10270,0,0,8298,0,0,4779,0,0,5959,0,0,5843,0,0,3452,0,0,5583,0,0,2641,0,0,5774,0,0,14120,0,0,9950,0,0,2600,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,200,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","RAYMONDVLE",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,932,0,0,816,0,0,1452,0,0,926,0,0,670,0,0,1102,0,0,674,0,0,1036,0,0,530,0,0,1056,0,0,1404,0,0,1120,0,0,2601,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,210,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","S EDWARDS",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,1404,0,0,1076,0,0,1387,0,0,973,0,0,1018,0,0,736,0,0,427,0,0,1020,0,0,558,0,0,1359,0,0,1919,0,0,1392,0,0,2604,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,215,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","SEWALLS",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,1372,0,0,889,0,0,1518,0,0,1486,0,0,1205,0,0,544,0,0,246,0,0,320,0,0,319,0,0,1211,0,0,1489,0,0,1514,0,0,2608,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,220,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","SOFT MAPLE",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,2633,0,0,1616,0,0,2359,0,0,882,0,0,1236,0,0,1714,0,0,2341,0,0,1918,0,0,1850,0,0,1760,0,0,3432,0,0,4125,0,0,2610,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,225,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","SOTH COLTON",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,8860,0,0,8292,0,0,6906,0,0,3510,0,0,4607,0,0,4842,0,0,2861,0,0,4595,0,0,2211,0,0,4731,0,0,12247,0,0,8305,0,0,2611,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,230,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","STARK",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,10035,0,0,10162,0,0,7531,0,0,4401,0,0,5629,0,0,5788,0,0,3281,0,0,5363,0,0,2475,0,0,5187,0,0,14852,0,0,9960,0,0,2613,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,235,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","SUGAR IS",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,2908,0,0,2519,0,0,2995,0,0,2818,0,0,2884,0,0,2757,0,0,1893,0,0,2754,0,0,1376,0,0,2667,0,0,2781,0,0,2983,0,0,2616,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,240,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","TAYLORVILLE",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,2219,0,0,1663,0,0,2176,0,0,1051,0,0,1247,0,0,1560,0,0,1566,0,0,1692,0,0,1630,0,0,1392,0,0,2700,0,0,3109,0,0,2617,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,250,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","TRENTON",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,12363,0,0,10763,0,0,12685,0,0,10309,0,0,6711,0,0,6004,0,0,5262,0,0,4565,0,0,3995,0,0,8295,0,0,14603,0,0,11617,0,0,2619,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,255,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","VARICK",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,3510,0,0,2348,0,0,3552,0,0,1467,0,0,836,0,0,546,0,0,363,0,0,629,0,0,211,0,0,2344,0,0,3490,0,0,3553,0,0,2621,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,265,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","YALEVILLE",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,293,0,0,255,0,0,406,0,0,320,0,0,373,0,0,341,0,0,243,0,0,407,0,0,242,0,0,346,0,0,275,0,0,248,0,0,2624,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,3,2,105,270,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","NINE MILE P",0,"LIGHT OIL",13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,6,136,4435,3,121,4470,11,87,4380,0,100,4256,13,323,4316,10,36,4349,6,164,4288,7,218,4320,6,11,535,6,12,573,6,13,557,6,12,543,2589,6,52053,"FO2","IC" 21,36,1,2,3,105,275,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","OSWEGO",0,"HEAVY OIL",13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,0,0,632933,120407,215553,417380,0,0,417380,26504,46741,370639,0,0,370639,1371,4130,366508,44092,30232,330715,13690,33269,298197,9883,21973,276183,0,0,276183,0,0,542213,0,0,542213,2594,6,52053,"FO6","ST" 21,36,1,2,9,105,275,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","OSWEGO",0,"NAT GAS",13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,999,22854,0,10635,117884,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,108,461,0,38513,570000,0,15497,213000,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2594,6,52053,"NG","ST" 21,36,1,3,2,105,275,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","OSWEGO",0,"LIGHT OIL",13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,0,0,2149,0,0,2149,0,0,2149,0,0,2149,0,0,2149,0,0,2149,0,0,2149,0,0,2149,4,11,2138,0,0,2138,0,0,2138,0,0,2138,2594,6,52053,"FO2","IC" 21,36,1,1,,105,285,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","BEARDSLEE F",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,5266,0,0,1946,0,0,6556,0,0,4417,0,0,2463,0,0,1946,0,0,895,0,0,759,0,0,741,0,0,5400,0,0,6369,0,0,2631,0,0,2543,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,290,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","BAKER FALLS",0,,13573,"0M",1294,"R",190,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2541,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,300,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","EL J WEST",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,5989,0,0,5250,0,0,1580,0,0,972,0,0,1241,0,0,3218,0,0,3059,0,0,2326,0,0,4257,0,0,1425,0,0,10684,0,0,8834,0,0,6527,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,305,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","EPHRATAH",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,2045,0,0,902,0,0,1493,0,0,780,0,0,337,0,0,463,0,0,97,0,0,147,0,0,127,0,0,1599,0,0,1298,0,0,1198,0,0,2560,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,315,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","GLEN FALLS",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2567,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,317,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","GREEN ISL",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,3672,0,0,3067,0,0,3470,0,0,3478,0,0,2678,0,0,2110,0,0,1303,0,0,1440,0,0,1476,0,0,2837,0,0,2513,0,0,3722,0,0,6528,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,320,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","INGHAMS",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,2951,0,0,1446,0,0,3570,0,0,3006,0,0,1806,0,0,1403,0,0,605,0,0,518,0,0,480,0,0,2716,0,0,3695,0,0,1829,0,0,2579,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,325,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","JOHNSONVLE",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,783,0,0,709,0,0,698,0,0,730,0,0,706,0,0,415,0,0,84,0,0,196,0,0,71,0,0,754,0,0,1347,0,0,777,0,0,2580,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,340,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","MOREAU",0,,13573,"0M",1294,"R",190,95,0,0,0,2501,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2587,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,350,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","SCH ST COHS",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,17365,0,0,13801,0,0,18549,0,0,16246,0,0,8330,0,0,6836,0,0,4087,0,0,3410,0,0,3303,0,0,14028,0,0,23804,0,0,15352,0,0,2605,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,355,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","SCHAGHTICKE",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,6959,0,0,4628,0,0,1779,0,0,7008,0,0,3998,0,0,2703,0,0,925,0,0,1694,0,0,513,0,0,4157,0,0,7065,0,0,4122,0,0,2606,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,360,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","SCHUYLERVLE",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,766,0,0,454,0,0,951,0,0,408,0,0,291,0,0,185,0,0,26,0,0,77,0,0,-5,0,0,527,0,0,1089,0,0,771,0,0,2607,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,365,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","SHERMAN",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,14937,0,0,11480,0,0,11483,0,0,9158,0,0,6495,0,0,5892,0,0,5453,0,0,6179,0,0,6999,0,0,9121,0,0,7996,0,0,9198,0,0,2609,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,370,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","SPIER FALLS",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,22054,0,0,16130,0,0,18521,0,0,13202,0,0,8844,0,0,7373,0,0,6467,0,0,7246,0,0,8844,0,0,15741,0,0,12177,0,0,20353,0,0,2612,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,380,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","STEWARTS BR",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,10770,0,0,11203,0,0,3959,0,0,1818,0,0,5172,0,0,2348,0,0,5366,0,0,4271,0,0,7737,0,0,2666,0,0,19084,0,0,17328,0,0,2614,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,385,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","STUYVESANT",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2615,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,2,2,105,395,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","ALBANY",0,"LIGHT OIL",13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,0,0,220,0,0,220,0,0,220,0,0,220,0,0,220,0,0,220,0,0,201,0,0,201,0,0,195,0,0,192,0,0,189,0,0,185,2539,6,52053,"FO2","ST" 21,36,1,2,3,105,395,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","ALBANY",0,"HEAVY OIL",13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,58267,97691,332532,62750,94595,237938,5641,8097,184840,0,0,184840,0,0,184840,1711,4230,180610,0,0,180610,0,0,180610,0,0,180610,0,0,180610,18591,30657,149952,25930,42050,107902,2539,6,52053,"FO6","ST" 21,36,1,2,9,105,395,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","ALBANY",0,"NAT GAS",13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,57789,665226,0,58253,669709,0,144263,1550322,0,53054,571524,0,31237,333909,0,47841,524896,0,130139,1434248,0,147338,1604315,0,50979,541649,0,49257,521886,0,6001,121469,0,5994,104410,0,2539,6,52053,"NG","ST" 21,36,1,3,2,105,395,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","ALBANY",0,"LIGHT OIL",13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2539,6,52053,"FO2","IC" 21,36,1,4,2,105,395,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","ALBANY",0,"LIGHT OIL",13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2539,6,52053,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,4,9,105,395,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","ALBANY",0,"NAT GAS",13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2539,6,52053,"NG","GT" 21,36,1,1,,105,420,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","GLENWOOD",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,584,0,0,584,0,0,712,0,0,35,0,0,602,0,0,501,0,0,510,0,0,499,0,0,459,0,0,493,0,0,412,0,0,213,0,0,2568,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,425,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","HYDRAULIC R",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,247,0,0,1980,0,0,1737,0,0,1757,0,0,1761,0,0,1655,0,0,1715,0,0,209,0,0,0,0,0,2578,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,440,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","WATERPORT",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,1372,0,0,1372,0,0,1447,0,0,69,0,0,924,0,0,779,0,0,723,0,0,727,0,0,684,0,0,922,0,0,936,0,0,428,0,0,2623,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,2,2,105,445,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","DUNKIRK",0,"LIGHT OIL",13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,1601,2790,0,653,1081,0,675,1178,0,599,1017,0,1403,2417,0,539,896,0,638,1090,0,1031,1725,0,723,1216,0,997,1731,0,914,1625,0,396,651,0,2554,6,52053,"FO2","ST" 21,36,1,2,6,105,445,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","DUNKIRK",0,"BIT COAL",13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,254022,99455,112963,311173,114689,97723,298538,114582,80138,317020,119632,52831,259603,99967,52456,255038,95545,74556,311521,120965,80149,307244,117398,77577,307482,116339,76599,257442,99939,138351,253614,100750,153571,354614,131876,151153,2554,6,52053,"BIT","ST" 21,36,1,3,2,105,445,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","DUNKIRK",0,"LIGHT OIL",13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,0,0,1079,0,0,1334,0,0,1300,0,0,1323,0,0,635,0,0,1174,0,0,1343,0,0,1234,0,0,1317,0,0,1090,0,0,1325,0,0,1484,2554,6,52053,"FO2","IC" 21,36,1,2,2,105,450,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","C R HUNTLEY",0,"LIGHT OIL",13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,681,1256,1160,349,688,1247,690,1294,1076,1705,3207,1221,704,1326,1175,1004,1818,1727,1072,1981,1452,554,1037,1301,324,570,1193,1215,2237,1180,832,1567,1213,253,461,1135,2549,6,52053,"FO2","ST" 21,36,1,2,6,105,450,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","C R HUNTLEY",0,"BIT COAL",13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,272246,110975,103175,276497,121255,106086,220640,91915,179212,270614,112094,162277,265384,109603,157439,267756,107734,190733,286378,118727,131748,337035,139658,120591,316597,122391,136393,245260,100618,129570,236599,99435,197282,339259,137453,168549,2549,6,52053,"BIT","ST" 21,36,1,3,2,105,450,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","C R HUNTLEY",0,"LIGHT OIL",13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2549,6,52053,"FO2","IC" 21,36,1,1,,105,460,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","OAK ORCHARD",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,178,0,0,186,0,0,185,0,0,187,0,0,174,0,0,176,0,0,46,0,0,0,0,0,2592,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,465,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","BEEBEE IS",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,3633,0,0,2768,0,0,5208,0,0,4383,0,0,3010,0,0,1959,0,0,2292,0,0,1754,0,0,2115,0,0,4754,0,0,5881,0,0,3959,0,0,6434,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,105,470,"NIAGARA MOHAWK POWER CORP","FEEDER DAM",0,,13573,"0M",1294,,190,95,3058,0,0,0,0,0,2491,0,0,1680,0,0,1085,0,0,869,0,0,595,0,0,648,0,0,1046,0,0,1795,0,0,3058,0,0,2885,0,0,2666,6,52053,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,115,3,"ORANGE & ROCKLAND UTL INC","GRAHAMSVILE",0,,14154,"0M",1294,,,95,7995,0,0,10213,0,0,10828,0,0,5471,0,0,3765,0,0,6843,0,0,11715,0,0,11385,0,0,6049,0,0,6915,0,0,5017,0,0,7158,0,0,2627,6,52181,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,115,5,"ORANGE & ROCKLAND UTL INC","MONGAUP FLS",0,,14154,"0M",1294,,,95,1849,0,0,830,0,0,1994,0,0,1152,0,0,218,0,0,502,0,0,749,0,0,605,0,0,91,0,0,475,0,0,1859,0,0,1637,0,0,2630,6,52181,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,115,10,"ORANGE & ROCKLAND UTL INC","RIO",0,,14154,"0M",1294,,,95,4380,0,0,1792,0,0,4911,0,0,2578,0,0,759,0,0,986,0,0,1125,0,0,978,0,0,116,0,0,1041,0,0,4467,0,0,3352,0,0,2631,6,52181,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,115,15,"ORANGE & ROCKLAND UTL INC","SWING BR 1",0,,14154,"0M",1294,,,95,1041,0,0,442,0,0,1445,0,0,608,0,0,266,0,0,374,0,0,391,0,0,409,0,0,76,0,0,299,0,0,1316,0,0,873,0,0,2633,6,52181,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,115,20,"ORANGE & ROCKLAND UTL INC","SWING BR 2",0,,14154,"0M",1294,,,95,687,0,0,340,0,0,661,0,0,428,0,0,16,0,0,-84,0,0,164,0,0,42,0,0,-68,0,0,68,0,0,889,0,0,593,0,0,2634,6,52181,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,2,3,115,25,"ORANGE & ROCKLAND UTL INC","BOWLINE PT",0,"HEAVY OIL",14154,"0M",1294,,,95,43906,73730,656595,138605,222519,509921,36874,60431,690856,47123,77864,612992,171664,281797,399693,132603,218077,395393,121658,204130,412273,93622,159538,457749,16475,28676,564249,22772,39554,562775,23802,41159,590697,87447,145316,516559,2625,6,52181,"FO6","ST" 21,36,1,2,9,115,25,"ORANGE & ROCKLAND UTL INC","BOWLINE PT",0,"NAT GAS",14154,"0M",1294,,,95,168974,1723560,0,82272,1239913,0,246716,2463200,0,218627,2199380,0,99656,966090,0,197607,1984380,0,277722,2939140,0,259468,2692570,0,188365,2000250,0,195838,2071510,0,142378,1499610,0,41983,424600,0,2625,6,52181,"NG","ST" 21,36,1,2,3,115,30,"ORANGE & ROCKLAND UTL INC","LOVETT",0,"HEAVY OIL",14154,"0M",1294,,,95,8,15,100319,1955,3363,96956,1,1,96927,0,0,96968,162,289,96714,7,13,96701,10,18,96682,5,10,96706,6,11,96717,0,0,96732,0,0,96732,5,10,96723,2629,6,52181,"FO6","ST" 21,36,1,2,6,115,30,"ORANGE & ROCKLAND UTL INC","LOVETT",0,"BIT COAL",14154,"0M",1294,,,95,111799,49067,63359,155251,65603,75519,116513,50062,70545,69873,29960,67950,67316,29174,75567,80224,36666,84715,138923,58882,82515,118307,52178,76055,140703,61690,59229,113469,49704,60388,125569,51656,62679,132749,58514,56774,2629,6,52181,"BIT","ST" 21,36,1,2,9,115,30,"ORANGE & ROCKLAND UTL INC","LOVETT",0,"NAT GAS",14154,"0M",1294,,,95,29773,323525,0,26698,280445,0,15824,169812,0,33214,357965,0,35392,384353,0,65900,754578,0,47901,513697,0,42001,470557,0,20369,222754,0,24743,268834,0,21096,220661,0,31665,346005,0,2629,6,52181,"NG","ST" 21,36,1,4,2,115,35,"ORANGE & ROCKLAND UTL INC","HILLBURN",0,"LIGHT OIL",14154,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,4238,0,0,4238,0,0,4238,0,0,4238,0,9,4229,0,0,4229,52,164,4065,108,334,3731,0,0,3731,0,0,3731,0,0,3731,0,0,3731,2628,6,52181,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,4,9,115,35,"ORANGE & ROCKLAND UTL INC","HILLBURN",0,"NATURAL G",14154,"0M",1294,,,95,44,1217,0,0,0,0,37,1143,0,565,8996,0,-13,1208,0,256,5250,0,276,4745,0,945,15862,0,444,6906,0,-18,82,0,-27,456,0,24,430,0,2628,6,52181,"NG","GT" 21,36,1,4,2,115,40,"ORANGE & ROCKLAND UTL INC","SHOEMAKER",0,"LIGHT OIL",14154,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,4599,73,30,4569,29,103,4466,-1,30,4485,1,2,4463,45,124,4068,0,0,4068,1,3,4065,0,0,4065,22,81,3984,84,247,3738,0,0,3738,2632,6,52181,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,4,9,115,40,"ORANGE & ROCKLAND UTL INC","SHOEMAKER",0,"NAT GAS",14154,"0M",1294,,,95,217,4023,0,342,7789,0,599,11559,0,-31,207,0,1856,30143,0,3256,49008,0,4402,75566,0,4597,74746,0,2492,42150,0,713,14586,0,45,456,0,53,1654,0,2632,6,52181,"NG","GT" 21,36,1,2,1,135,1,"ROCHESTER GAS & ELEC CORP","GINNA",0,"NUCLEAR",16183,"0M",1294,,,95,351805,0,0,321771,0,0,293087,0,0,-2750,0,0,299117,0,0,334397,0,0,342637,0,0,305248,0,0,336763,0,0,353447,0,0,342871,0,0,354889,0,0,6122,6,52501,"UR","ST" 21,36,1,1,,135,5,"ROCHESTER GAS & ELEC CORP","MILLS M 172",0,,16183,"0M",1294,,,95,68,0,0,0,0,0,79,0,0,31,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2636,6,52501,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,135,10,"ROCHESTER GAS & ELEC CORP","MT MORR 160",0,,16183,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,0,75,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,49,0,0,121,0,0,87,0,0,44,0,0,16,0,0,124,0,0,132,0,0,67,0,0,2637,6,52501,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,135,15,"ROCHESTER GAS & ELEC CORP","ROCHESTER 2",0,,16183,"0M",1294,,,95,3983,0,0,3890,0,0,4861,0,0,4119,0,0,4073,0,0,2681,0,0,1898,0,0,1483,0,0,708,0,0,3228,0,0,4230,0,0,3509,0,0,2639,6,52501,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,135,25,"ROCHESTER GAS & ELEC CORP","ROCHESTER 5",0,,16183,"0M",1294,,,95,18727,0,0,8869,0,0,21670,0,0,13445,0,0,7303,0,0,4173,0,0,5885,0,0,2422,0,0,1347,0,0,9730,0,0,15462,0,0,12738,0,0,2641,6,52501,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,135,28,"ROCHESTER GAS & ELEC CORP","RCHESTER 26",0,,16183,"0M",1294,,,95,596,0,0,1040,0,0,1215,0,0,1302,0,0,1083,0,0,420,0,0,405,0,0,282,0,0,135,0,0,726,0,0,1174,0,0,1054,0,0,2638,6,52501,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,1,,135,35,"ROCHESTER GAS & ELEC CORP","WISCOY 170",0,,16183,"0M",1294,,,95,517,0,0,408,0,0,590,0,0,391,0,0,204,0,0,97,0,0,121,0,0,83,0,0,55,0,0,240,0,0,470,0,0,462,0,0,2646,6,52501,"WAT","HY" 21,36,1,2,2,135,45,"ROCHESTER GAS & ELEC CORP","ROCHESTER 3",0,"LIGHT OIL",16183,"0M",394,,,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,102,143,2305,77,143,2008,122,214,1718,91,167,1882,68,119,1700,27,58,1645,2640,6,52501,"FO2","ST" 21,36,1,2,3,135,45,"ROCHESTER GAS & ELEC CORP","ROCHESTER 3",0,"HEAVY OIL",16183,"0M",1294,"R",,95,27,48,2860,14,24,2809,14,24,2745,14,24,2703,0,0,2703,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2640,6,52501,"FO6","ST" 21,36,1,2,6,135,45,"ROCHESTER GAS & ELEC CORP","ROCHESTER 3",0,"BIT COAL",16183,"0M",1294,,,95,36334,13900,770,42264,15300,1458,40715,15300,1556,45572,16900,817,17481,6500,1591,36715,14100,1438,41179,15700,936,37637,15017,1800,37010,13802,1800,27740,10832,1630,33466,12558,1431,34731,13210,1105,2640,6,52501,"BIT","ST" 21,36,1,4,2,135,45,"ROCHESTER GAS & ELEC CORP","ROCHESTER 3",0,"LIGHT OIL",16183,"0M",1294,,,95,26,81,0,4,27,0,13,41,0,3,18,0,0,0,0,6,34,0,4,6,0,46,154,0,25,76,0,8,26,0,13,63,0,1,7,0,2640,6,52501,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,2,2,135,50,"ROCHESTER GAS & ELEC CORP","ROCHESTER 7",0,"LIGHT OIL",16183,"0M",1294,,,95,299,571,1111,90,167,1127,375,690,1162,173,310,1211,249,452,1299,566,1071,1121,331,643,1190,434,833,1065,37,71,1065,373,738,1065,345,643,958,311,571,1102,2642,6,52501,"FO2","ST" 21,36,1,2,6,135,50,"ROCHESTER GAS & ELEC CORP","ROCHESTER 7",0,"BIT COAL",16183,"0M",1294,,,95,66357,27700,114902,86515,35300,90431,90609,36600,83204,137634,53400,75835,121093,47500,85250,104898,43000,113923,112687,47700,112973,116634,48507,127749,110993,45157,153399,77990,33362,173353,81051,33064,173047,90029,35948,150667,2642,6,52501,"BIT","ST" 21,36,1,4,2,135,60,"ROCHESTER GAS & ELEC CORP","ROCHESTER 9",0,"LIGHT OIL",16183,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2644,6,52501,"FO2","GT" 21,36,1,4,9,135,60,"ROCHESTER GAS & ELEC CORP","ROCHESTER 9",0,"NAT GAS",16183,"0M",1294,,,95,26,383,0,2,74,0,14,216,0,4,174,0,0,0,0,8,290,0,17,280,0,3,89,0,24,381,0,0,0,0,3,98,0,8,143,0,2644,6,52501,"NG","GT" 21,36,5,3,2,578,5,"FREEPORT (VILLAGE OF)","PLANT NO 2",0,"LIGHT OIL",6775,"0M",1294,,,95,1463,3067,3172,1434,3271,2622,413,1557,2551,-162,121,3525,-118,217,5782,984,2264,6164,3712,7100,3595,3729,7301,5720,584,1625,6684,895,1423,5789,787,2037,3752,1869,3903,3213,2679,6,51057,"FO2","IC" 21,36,5,4,2,578,5,"FREEPORT (VILLAGE OF)","PLANT NO 2",0,"LIGHT OIL",6775,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2,12,0,13,58,0,18,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2679,6,51057,"FO2","GT" 21,36,5,3,2,578,10,"FREEPORT (VILLAGE OF)","PLANT NO 1",0,"LIGHT OIL",6775,"0M",1294,,,95,182,658,1479,376,1032,1630,468,1254,1391,320,920,1697,251,803,1542,452,1093,1119,571,1281,1220,740,1757,1321,639,1551,1424,175,575,1295,402,1078,1704,465,1231,1436,2678,6,51057,"FO2","IC" 21,36,5,1,,586,1,"GOUVERNEUR (CITY OF)","GOUVERNEUR",0,,7422,"0A",1294,,,95,46,0,0,92,0,0,47,0,0,50,0,0,50,0,0,38,0,0,13,0,0,45,0,0,29,0,0,20,0,0,26,0,0,41,0,0,2680,6,51137,"WAT","HY" 21,36,5,3,2,599,1,"GREENPORT (CITY OF)","GREENPORT",0,"LIGHT OIL",7630,"0A",1294,,,95,-32,0,183,-32,0,183,-27,0,183,0,2,181,0,0,0,0,1,180,-20,0,180,-4,28,152,-10,14,182,-19,0,182,0,0,182,-1,26,181,2681,6,51177,"FO2","IC" 21,36,5,2,2,624,1,"JAMESTOWN (CITY OF)","S A CARLSON",0,"LIGHT OIL",9645,"0M",1294,,,95,105,273,377,41,102,275,21,59,394,24,59,335,20,54,281,26,64,394,57,144,250,59,144,281,26,66,215,26,69,323,44,114,209,51,136,250,2682,6,51437,"FO2","ST" 21,36,5,2,6,624,1,"JAMESTOWN (CITY OF)","S A CARLSON",0,"BIT COAL",9645,"0M",1294,,,95,17974,10638,3526,17648,10013,3826,11794,7305,3597,9844,5439,3428,9879,6006,2629,11487,6255,2811,13511,7717,2530,13208,7291,3578,9538,5398,3370,10505,6096,2827,12704,7245,3946,16956,10165,3924,2682,6,51437,"BIT","ST" 21,36,5,3,2,675,1,"ROCKVILLE CTR(VILLAGE OF)","ROCKVILLE C",0,"LIGHT OIL",16217,"0M",1294,,,95,105,294,2332,321,741,2091,43,283,1808,-60,82,1726,-18,114,2338,244,637,2368,957,2138,1919,2160,4073,1884,560,1129,2277,20,216,2061,38,213,2151,101,381,1770,2695,6,52509,"FO2","IC" 21,36,5,3,9,675,1,"ROCKVILLE CTR(VILLAGE OF)","ROCKVILLE C",0,"NAT GAS",16217,"0M",1294,,,95,642,7257,0,510,5912,0,15,471,0,0,325,0,-11,282,0,1931,20033,0,4455,46010,0,2523,26516,0,352,4031,0,47,1369,0,46,1025,0,450,5750,0,2695,6,52509,"NG","IC" 21,36,5,3,2,700,5,"SKANEATELES VILLAGE OF","SKANEATELES",0,"LIGHT OIL",17280,"0A",1294,"R",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2697,6,52670,"FO2","IC" 21,36,5,1,,712,1,"SPRINGVILLE (CITY OF)","SPRINGVILLE",0,,17846,"0A",1294,,,95,145,0,0,118,0,0,104,0,0,166,0,0,172,0,0,129,0,0,84,0,0,63,0,0,12,0,0,39,0,0,110,0,0,124,0,0,2698,6,52772,"WAT","HY" 21,36,5,1,,725,1,"WATERTOWN (CITY OF)","WATERTOWN",0,,20188,"0A",1294,,,95,2508,0,0,1826,0,0,2861,0,0,2520,0,0,2042,0,0,715,0,0,684,0,0,252,0,0,458,0,0,1925,0,0,2671,0,0,2141,0,0,2700,6,53199,"WAT","HY" 21,36,9,1,,668,1,"POWER AUTHY OF ST OF N Y","LEWISTON PG",0,"C-PUMPSTG",15296,"0M",1294,,,95,-23392,48481,0,-16321,48107,0,-18062,52914,0,-34170,75041,0,-32754,81523,0,-35246,84639,0,-35971,80543,0,-31970,78905,0,-33926,76500,0,-34404,82531,0,-25619,66689,0,-26848,63831,0,2692,6,52375,"WAT","HY" 21,36,9,2,1,668,1,"POWER AUTHY OF ST OF N Y","FITZPATRICK",0,"NUCLEAR",15296,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,34055,0,0,544665,0,0,562170,0,0,384520,0,0,579310,0,0,577530,0,0,402855,0,0,590100,0,0,572680,0,0,580835,0,0,6110,6,52375,"UR","ST" 21,36,9,1,,668,3,"POWER AUTHY OF ST OF N Y","MOSES NIAG",0,,15296,"0M",1294,,,95,1463973,0,0,1230590,0,0,1418230,0,0,1163933,0,0,1279083,0,0,1132981,0,0,1197133,0,0,1148436,0,0,1021706,0,0,1145560,0,0,1382957,0,0,1354956,0,0,2693,6,52375,"WAT","HY" 21,36,9,2,1,668,3,"POWER AUTHY OF ST OF N Y","INDIAN PT 3",0,"NUCLEAR",15296,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,17,0,0,434533,0,0,716433,0,0,320544,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,-2,0,0,8907,6,52375,"UR","ST" 21,36,9,1,,668,5,"POWER AUTHY OF ST OF N Y","MOSES PR DM",0,,15296,"0M",1294,,,95,524759,0,0,481624,0,0,585412,0,0,549618,0,0,532348,0,0,526743,0,0,545520,0,0,559232,0,0,538635,0,0,554432,0,0,576778,0,0,569302,0,0,2694,6,52375,"WAT","HY" 21,36,9,1,,668,8,"POWER AUTHY OF ST OF N Y","BLENHEIM G",0,"P-PUMPSTG",15296,"0M",1294,,,95,-80117,223900,0,-66116,187582,0,-64757,198518,0,-71547,180530,0,-58305,185571,0,-61293,196731,0,-78558,215353,0,-75753,237341,0,-63547,183628,0,-66325,194141,0,-57795,177791,0,-70135,192222,0,2691,6,52375,"WAT","HY" 21,36,9,2,3,668,15,"POWER AUTHY OF ST OF N Y","POLETTI",0,"HEAVY OIL",15296,"0M",1294,,,95,33400,61649,303226,126069,209523,203682,20403,35475,168236,17269,37577,130679,19806,35708,94972,47803,62254,32718,36004,60668,68293,14149,23707,150452,35247,61190,430389,17481,30727,459549,62862,110242,349307,252627,421942,245156,2491,6,52375,"FO6","ST" 21,36,9,2,9,668,15,"POWER AUTHY OF ST OF N Y","POLETTI",0,"NAT GAS",15296,"0M",1294,,,95,99454,1128061,0,99940,1020449,0,202945,2167293,0,211435,2738075,0,258894,2862705,0,324525,2604689,0,262599,2721610,0,310920,3222176,0,205757,2168448,0,224611,2374781,0,128580,1368464,0,2466,25078,0,2491,6,52375,"NG","ST" 21,36,9,1,,668,20,"POWER AUTHY OF ST OF N Y","ASHOKAN",0,,15296,"0M",1294,,,95,1615,0,0,587,0,0,1045,0,0,2214,0,0,2450,0,0,2277,0,0,2117,0,0,2126,0,0,1756,0,0,1286,0,0,1083,0,0,1303,0,0,88,6,52375,"WAT","HY" 21,36,9,1,,668,25,"POWER AUTHY OF ST OF N Y","KENSICO",0,,15296,"0M",1294,,,95,802,0,0,73,0,0,0,0,0,1521,0,0,150,0,0,271,0,0,1411,0,0,1244,0,0,1418,0,0,1191,0,0,880,0,0,0,0,0,650,6,52375,"WAT","HY" 21,36,9,1,,668,30,"POWER AUTHY OF ST OF N Y","JARVIS",0,,15296,"0M",1294,,,95,4048,0,0,2165,0,0,2416,0,0,2485,0,0,1720,0,0,1501,0,0,1162,0,0,1003,0,0,575,0,0,2833,0,0,5091,0,0,2476,0,0,808,6,52375,"WAT","HY" 21,36,9,1,,668,35,"POWER AUTHY OF ST OF N Y","CRESCENT",0,,15296,"0M",1294,,,95,6303,0,0,4034,0,0,7316,0,0,4624,0,0,3019,0,0,2031,0,0,104,0,0,713,0,0,703,0,0,3132,0,0,6120,0,0,4690,0,0,2685,6,52375,"WAT","HY" 21,36,9,1,,668,40,"POWER AUTHY OF ST OF N Y","VISCHER FER",0,,15296,"0M",1294,,,95,5945,0,0,3714,0,0,6024,0,0,4504,0,0,2789,0,0,1833,0,0,986,0,0,123,0,0,654,0,0,2259,0,0,5980,0,0,4591,0,0,2686,6,52375,"WAT","HY" 21,36,9,5,9,668,45,"POWER AUTHY OF ST OF N Y","FLYNN",0,"WASTE HT",15296,"0M",1294,,,95,24819,192100,0,17369,134483,0,27383,211172,0,18948,146928,0,26056,199854,0,24430,188777,0,23492,184084,0,25126,194127,0,24424,188668,0,23749,183457,0,20261,158951,0,19720,154115,0,7314,6,52375,"WH","CC" 21,36,9,6,2,668,45,"POWER AUTHY OF ST OF N Y","FLYNN",0,"LIGHT OIL",15296,"0M",1294,,,95,7722,10369,101959,21462,28859,72145,0,0,72242,14,20,72083,0,0,72104,0,0,72094,0,0,72044,0,0,72052,0,0,72062,157,211,71873,9447,12866,58992,27271,36998,78070,7314,6,52375,"FO2","CT" 21,36,9,6,9,668,45,"POWER AUTHY OF ST OF N Y","FLYNN",0,"NAT GAS",15296,"0M",1294,,,95,74458,576302,0,52111,403450,0,82153,633518,0,56849,440785,0,78170,599562,0,73293,566331,0,71470,552251,0,75381,582382,0,73276,566005,0,71251,550371,0,60784,476853,0,59162,462344,0,7314,6,52375,"NG","CT" 22,34,1,2,2,24,1,"ATLANTIC CITY ELEC CO","DEEPWATER",0,"LIGHT OIL",963,"0M",1294,,181,95,0,0,123,81,130,93,0,0,131,0,0,138,14,28,165,67,129,202,80,160,147,5,10,137,40,91,189,0,29,160,0,29,131,4,8,123,2384,3,56513,"FO2","ST" 22,34,1,2,3,24,1,"ATLANTIC CITY ELEC CO","DEEPWATER",0,"HEAVY OIL",963,"0M",1294,,181,95,1345,2425,95467,4563,6516,88951,0,0,88951,0,0,88261,0,0,88261,1177,2026,86235,3361,5958,80277,5273,9351,70926,5555,8624,62302,0,0,62302,0,0,62302,0,0,62302,2384,3,56513,"FO6","ST" 22,34,1,2,6,24,1,"ATLANTIC CITY ELEC CO","DEEPWATER",0,"BIT COAL",963,"0M",1294,,181,95,29945,12519,39313,35838,15203,23710,8276,3561,20149,0,0,34389,5810,3059,52665,34469,14723,52014,42129,18253,40567,44451,19515,27979,11926,4625,44084,33654,13941,51248,53859,21346,70836,57721,22974,63900,2384,3,56513,"BIT","ST" 22,34,1,2,9,24,1,"ATLANTIC CITY ELEC CO","DEEPWATER",0,"NAT GAS",963,"0M",1294,,181,95,1491,16310,0,0,0,0,944,9940,0,1878,22040,0,11307,122240,0,11062,117040,0,27862,302860,0,29442,321050,0,12534,120040,0,807,8090,0,1552,15370,0,0,0,0,2384,3,56513,"NG","ST" 22,34,1,4,2,24,1,"ATLANTIC CITY ELEC CO","DEEPWATER",0,"LIGHT OIL",963,"0M",1294,,181,95,-8,0,770,27,44,729,14,39,690,20,103,587,0,0,587,0,0,587,0,0,587,0,0,587,0,0,587,0,0,587,0,0,587,0,0,0,2384,3,56513,"FO2","GT" 22,34,1,4,9,24,1,"ATLANTIC CITY ELEC CO","DEEPWATER",0,"NAT GAS",963,"0M",1294,,181,95,-8,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,629,6657,0,3831,41649,0,3649,39793,0,1027,14649,0,628,9167,0,1061,10505,0,694,6875,0,2384,3,56513,"NG","GT" 22,34,1,4,2,24,2,"ATLANTIC CITY ELEC CO","MISSOURI AV",0,"LIGHT OIL",963,"0M",1294,,181,95,-4,100,9869,278,791,9635,3,53,9582,-21,5,9576,-17,8,9568,177,455,9113,2101,5546,7361,1882,5382,8451,605,2439,10201,-18,16,10185,-16,19,10167,2,70,10097,2383,3,56513,"FO2","GT" 22,34,1,2,2,24,5,"ATLANTIC CITY ELEC CO","B L ENGLAND",0,"LIGHT OIL",963,"0M",1294,,181,95,510,999,1734,317,596,1818,213,395,1756,107,200,1734,125,224,1843,424,778,1734,424,814,1508,552,1027,1647,500,1086,1588,450,958,1654,643,1122,1377,242,442,1435,2378,3,56513,"FO2","ST" 22,34,1,2,3,24,5,"ATLANTIC CITY ELEC CO","B L ENGLAND",0,"HEAVY OIL",963,"0M",1294,,181,95,4583,8307,99579,7833,13643,103560,0,0,103560,0,0,103560,0,0,103560,8731,14731,88829,37756,66914,51324,29729,50813,69931,850,2842,113855,18800,33751,80103,0,0,80103,15770,26499,87607,2378,3,56513,"FO6","ST" 22,34,1,2,6,24,5,"ATLANTIC CITY ELEC CO","B L ENGLAND",0,"BIT COAL",963,"0M",1294,,181,95,68381,30282,165387,127521,54088,125492,123787,53379,95025,85963,36061,88754,176115,72435,61413,155554,64926,62658,185411,80134,49009,173888,73305,41509,130330,53650,71904,83030,32962,118367,145947,62033,109160,196038,81549,81843,2378,3,56513,"BIT","ST" 22,34,1,3,2,24,5,"ATLANTIC CITY ELEC CO","B L ENGLAND",0,"LIGHT OIL",963,"0M",1294,,181,95,0,0,0,5,11,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,12,23,0,133,257,0,321,597,0,5,10,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2378,3,56513,"FO2","IC" 22,34,1,4,2,24,20,"ATLANTIC CITY ELEC CO","MIDDLE STA",0,"LIGHT OIL",963,"0M",1294,,181,95,-834,144,15410,-227,1590,15128,-1342,459,14669,-815,159,14510,-333,16,14494,-558,315,9113,2009,5421,12193,2243,7786,14637,-670,677,15327,-729,232,15284,-745,423,15069,-730,254,14814,2382,3,56513,"FO2","GT" 22,34,1,4,2,24,25,"ATLANTIC CITY ELEC CO","CEDAR STA",0,"LIGHT OIL",963,"0M",1294,,181,95,-474,179,21675,-321,918,21875,-42,70,21804,-546,56,21748,-110,38,21710,62,61,21650,3843,9672,14702,3756,10444,18151,-253,1075,20407,-631,431,21246,-535,219,21027,-679,322,20705,2380,3,56513,"FO2","GT" 22,34,1,4,2,24,30,"ATLANTIC CITY ELEC CO","CARLL CORNR",0,"LIGHT OIL",963,"0M",1294,,181,95,-28,8,13554,78,379,13175,-43,0,13175,-20,0,13175,-965,8,13167,-121,166,13002,1394,2899,10102,1615,4499,9171,-32,0,13713,-16,0,14849,-44,0,14849,49,332,14517,2379,3,56513,"FO2","GT" 22,34,1,4,9,24,30,"ATLANTIC CITY ELEC CO","CARLL CORNR",0,"NAT GAS",963,"0M",1294,,181,95,35,1120,0,452,8170,0,-76,50,0,-19,1010,0,73,2450,0,835,15970,0,6072,93380,0,5324,82370,0,-117,28460,0,861,14250,0,-44,7170,0,172,150,0,2379,3,56513,"NG","GT" 22,34,1,4,2,24,32,"ATLANTIC CITY ELEC CO","MICKETON ST",0,"LIGHT OIL",963,"0M",1294,,181,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,8008,3,56513,"FO2","GT" 22,34,1,4,9,24,32,"ATLANTIC CITY ELEC CO","MICKETON ST",0,"NAT GAS",963,"0M",1294,,181,95,665,11020,0,1084,16250,0,714,11030,0,1017,15170,0,334,6070,0,2355,35610,0,9801,143090,0,8665,129480,0,2856,42750,0,30,1480,0,2277,33340,0,276,5380,0,8008,3,56513,"NG","GT" 22,34,1,4,2,24,33,"ATLANTIC CITY ELEC CO","CUMBERLAND",0,"LIGHT OIL",963,"0M",1294,,181,95,-76,0,18141,-10,0,18141,-38,0,18141,-31,0,18141,-30,0,18141,0,0,18141,5894,12888,17367,7323,16647,12470,3,249,14661,0,0,17077,-158,198,17249,60,412,16838,5083,3,56513,"FO2","GT" 22,34,1,4,9,24,33,"ATLANTIC CITY ELEC CO","CUMBERLAND",0,"NAT GAS",963,"0M",1294,,181,95,-76,0,0,-10,0,0,-38,0,0,-31,0,0,0,0,0,-27,130,0,342,4020,0,16,200,0,1,380,0,-93,0,0,0,0,0,101,3810,0,5083,3,56513,"NG","GT" 22,34,1,4,2,24,35,"ATLANTIC CITY ELEC CO","MANTU DEPOT",0,"LIGHT OIL",963,"0M",1294,,181,95,0,0,53843,0,0,50861,0,0,80853,0,0,80853,0,0,80853,0,0,80853,0,0,58245,0,0,12871,0,0,12871,0,0,52645,0,0,52645,0,0,82122,8803,3,56513,"FO2","GT" 22,34,1,4,3,24,40,"ATLANTIC CITY ELEC CO","MANTU DEPOT",0,"HEAVY OIL",963,"0M",1294,,181,95,0,0,128847,0,0,111223,0,0,111223,0,0,111223,0,0,111223,0,0,111223,0,0,81814,0,0,111865,0,0,111865,0,0,115694,0,0,115694,0,0,131074,8804,3,56513,"FO6","GT" 22,34,1,4,2,24,45,"ATLANTIC CITY ELEC CO","SHERMAN AVE",0,"LIGHT OIL",963,"0M",1294,,181,95,70,186,14708,-45,0,14708,-30,0,14708,0,0,14708,-11,0,14708,0,0,14708,0,0,14708,-190,0,14708,0,0,14708,0,0,14708,76,193,14515,232,590,14513,7288,3,56513,"FO2","GT" 22,34,1,4,9,24,45,"ATLANTIC CITY ELEC CO","SHERMAN AVE",0,"NAT GAS",963,"0M",1294,,181,95,1386,19950,0,-45,0,0,-30,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,-190,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1704,23780,0,2984,41500,0,7288,3,56513,"NG","GT" 22,34,1,2,1,50,1,"GPU NUCLEAR CORP","OYSTER CRK",0,"NUCLEAR",7423,"0M",1294,,,95,471880,0,0,400185,0,0,466040,0,0,457427,0,0,440064,0,0,447364,0,0,438119,0,0,420825,0,0,447572,0,0,468215,0,0,428423,0,0,307964,0,0,2388,3,58850,"UR","ST" 22,34,1,1,,78,5,"JERSEY CENTRAL PWR & LGT","YARDS CR JO",0,"P-PUMPSTG",9726,"0M",1294,,,95,-9476,31075,0,-6121,19602,0,-8606,30644,0,-9596,30043,0,-9800,36086,0,-15417,52655,0,-13938,46076,0,-11848,42668,0,-7525,27636,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,-2205,5358,0,6522,3,56512,"WAT","HY" 22,34,1,4,2,78,7,"JERSEY CENTRAL PWR & LGT","GLEN GARDNR",0,"LIGHT OIL",9726,"0M",1294,,,95,357,1074,17830,457,1242,16588,29,247,16340,30,141,16199,0,0,16199,360,1062,15138,0,0,15138,0,0,15138,149,445,14693,21,60,14633,69,223,14409,10,63,16838,8227,3,56512,"FO2","GT" 22,34,1,4,9,78,7,"JERSEY CENTRAL PWR & LGT","GLEN GARDNR",0,"NAT GAS",9726,"0M",1294,,,95,1,10,0,31,485,0,2,90,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,698,11690,0,15562,248730,0,18982,309960,0,4246,71580,0,3046,50662,0,1111,20594,0,10,377,0,8227,3,56512,"NG","GT" 22,34,1,2,3,78,9,"JERSEY CENTRAL PWR & LGT","GILBERT",0,"HEAVY OIL",9726,"0M",1294,,,95,268,611,153901,2150,4403,149484,0,0,149488,0,0,149544,0,0,149379,0,0,150080,0,0,150051,0,0,149974,0,0,150075,0,0,149949,0,0,149926,8990,12417,137518,2393,3,56512,"FO6","ST" 22,34,1,2,9,78,9,"JERSEY CENTRAL PWR & LGT","GILBERT",0,"NAT GAS",9726,"0M",1294,,,95,1658,32084,0,198,3865,0,-452,0,0,-364,0,0,-363,0,0,6011,80854,0,28213,364986,0,24888,306021,0,915,14545,0,340,8670,0,825,13717,0,331,2840,0,2393,3,56512,"NG","ST" 22,34,1,4,2,78,9,"JERSEY CENTRAL PWR & LGT","GILBERT",0,"LIGHT OIL",9726,"0M",1294,,,95,150,431,0,803,2747,0,39,127,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,8,0,1,3,0,791,2604,0,31,88,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2393,3,56512,"FO2","GT" 22,34,1,4,9,78,9,"JERSEY CENTRAL PWR & LGT","GILBERT",0,"NAT GAS",9726,"0M",1294,,,95,1,16,0,0,0,0,1,15,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,3,79,0,2862,50800,0,6493,121452,0,911,15880,0,4,174,0,979,364,0,29,249,0,2393,3,56512,"NG","GT" 22,34,1,5,2,78,9,"JERSEY CENTRAL PWR & LGT","GILBERT",0,"LIGHT OIL",9726,"0M",1294,,,95,728,0,0,3136,0,0,1259,0,0,1612,0,0,-587,0,0,5741,0,0,26058,0,0,28272,0,0,20554,0,0,8047,0,0,19296,0,0,18926,0,0,2393,3,56512,"FO2","CC" 22,34,1,5,9,78,9,"JERSEY CENTRAL PWR & LGT","GILBERT",0,"WASTE HT",9726,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2393,3,56512,"NG","CC" 22,34,1,6,2,78,9,"JERSEY CENTRAL PWR & LGT","GILBERT",0,"LIGHT OIL",9726,"0M",1294,,,95,1147,2566,252704,5572,11989,236313,1136,2545,232067,367,826,230086,0,0,229824,2660,6112,221348,82,189,219853,2038,4709,211204,942,1977,207539,163,373,205587,83,183,203671,5739,8660,193069,2393,3,56512,"FO2","CT" 22,34,1,6,9,78,9,"JERSEY CENTRAL PWR & LGT","GILBERT",0,"NAT GAS",9726,"0M",1294,,,95,5385,68331,0,8729,106467,0,6306,80671,0,7352,94029,0,-100,0,0,15594,203104,0,61026,877903,0,70864,931070,0,54572,701754,0,24094,329931,0,60664,796524,0,81101,693848,0,2393,3,56512,"NG","CT" 22,34,1,2,3,78,10,"JERSEY CENTRAL PWR & LGT","SAYREVILLE",0,"HEAVY OIL",9726,"0M",1294,,,95,4224,7914,90214,19448,37587,72103,7,16,72200,0,0,72163,792,1710,90373,6448,15362,75189,42812,86857,27305,24793,50118,55888,1650,3646,52242,0,0,71301,7,18,90540,10844,23847,66865,2390,3,56512,"FO6","ST" 22,34,1,2,9,78,10,"JERSEY CENTRAL PWR & LGT","SAYREVILLE",0,"NAT GAS",9726,"0M",1294,,,95,20137,245800,0,2651,32100,0,6917,89800,0,-727,100,0,-407,2800,0,141,2100,0,224,4900,0,16338,199000,0,1429,25400,0,-704,0,0,2904,47900,0,306,4100,0,2390,3,56512,"NG","ST" 22,34,1,4,2,78,10,"JERSEY CENTRAL PWR & LGT","SAYREVILLE",0,"LIGHT OIL",9726,"0M",1294,,,95,93,224,31996,752,2238,29758,0,0,29758,0,0,29758,139,640,29118,0,0,29118,0,0,29118,0,0,29118,0,0,29118,0,0,29118,0,0,29118,0,0,29118,2390,3,56512,"FO2","GT" 22,34,1,4,9,78,10,"JERSEY CENTRAL PWR & LGT","SAYREVILLE",0,"NAT GAS",9726,"0M",1294,,,95,1500,19800,0,1294,21300,0,831,12100,0,898,13300,0,187,4800,0,2507,37100,0,16534,266200,0,24165,379300,0,3245,51100,0,2451,37300,0,265,3800,0,22,300,0,2390,3,56512,"NG","GT" 22,34,1,2,3,78,15,"JERSEY CENTRAL PWR & LGT","WERNER",0,"HEAVY OIL",9726,"0M",1294,,,95,259,628,28845,5405,11437,18060,1926,4703,13792,-265,311,13764,-275,69,13780,1352,3366,28845,10346,20351,28459,7922,15595,12784,55,70,13159,-271,197,32022,-298,546,32144,3509,7954,24818,2385,3,56512,"FO6","ST" 22,34,1,4,2,78,15,"JERSEY CENTRAL PWR & LGT","WERNER",0,"LIGHT OIL",9726,"0M",1294,,,95,44,115,40240,398,1664,37864,88,236,37615,0,0,37379,13,702,36473,348,618,35855,2640,8238,27453,4764,13326,33888,215,290,33598,10,269,33202,0,25,42792,3,278,41910,2385,3,56512,"FO2","GT" 22,34,1,4,2,78,20,"JERSEY CENTRAL PWR & LGT","FORKED RVR",0,"LIGHT OIL",9726,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,16388,1066,2219,17602,713,1618,15984,0,0,15971,0,0,15989,0,0,15969,0,0,15974,0,0,15980,0,0,15980,5,12,15970,0,0,15994,221,489,15505,7138,3,56512,"FO2","GT" 22,34,1,4,9,78,20,"JERSEY CENTRAL PWR & LGT","FORKED RVR",0,"NAT GAS",9726,"0M",1294,,,95,364,4569,0,160,1908,0,1306,15609,0,1647,20147,0,1120,14174,0,2225,28309,0,12875,162923,0,11844,149957,0,4227,53220,0,1880,23454,0,1759,25611,0,749,9475,0,7138,3,56512,"NG","GT" 22,34,1,2,1,131,1,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","SALEM",0,"NUCLEAR",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,818199,0,0,47631,0,0,687443,0,0,753981,0,0,247176,0,0,-8310,0,0,-7985,0,0,-5500,0,0,-3133,0,0,-2112,0,0,-2002,0,0,-2639,0,0,2410,3,52414,"UR","ST" 22,34,1,2,1,131,1,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","HOPE CREEK",0,"NUCLEAR",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,778188,0,0,711976,0,0,566874,0,0,750262,0,0,767051,0,0,742345,0,0,309223,0,0,760021,0,0,742281,0,0,733449,0,0,210606,0,0,-8357,0,0,6118,3,52414,"UR","ST" 22,34,1,2,1,131,2,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","SALEM",0,"NUCLEAR",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,-17867,0,0,12090,0,0,369001,0,0,767911,0,0,765246,0,0,157494,0,0,-5523,0,0,-7400,0,0,-4042,0,0,-4499,0,0,-4002,0,0,-3638,0,0,2410,3,52414,"UR","ST" 22,34,1,4,2,131,2,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","BAYONNE 1",0,"LIGHT OIL",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,-19,40,3837,74,282,453,-9,0,453,-44,0,1097,-18,0,3930,-2,0,3930,252,805,3125,134,585,2744,-24,0,3373,-42,0,3744,0,26,3744,-33,25,3898,2397,3,52414,"FO2","GT" 22,34,1,2,9,131,3,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","BERGEN",0,"NAT GAS",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,-2112,0,0,-2514,3702,0,8759,159907,0,3706,93882,0,82739,754972,0,167861,1271630,0,281448,2131152,0,334990,2488678,0,184434,1379778,0,154884,1248547,0,151551,1232638,0,151368,1176288,0,2398,3,52414,"NG","ST" 22,34,1,4,2,131,3,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","BERGEN",0,"LIGHT OIL",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,0,0,0,21622,0,0,21622,0,0,38592,0,0,38592,0,0,61623,2310,3197,102565,0,0,118429,0,0,118396,3765,5367,113029,4832,7091,116664,465,652,117805,2398,3,52414,"FO2","GT" 22,34,1,4,9,131,3,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","BERGEN",0,"NAT GAS",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,-13,0,0,0,0,0,-6,664,0,-6,644,0,-9,0,0,0,0,0,347,35845,0,505,5090,0,0,0,0,-7,0,0,-7,0,0,-8,0,0,2398,3,52414,"NG","GT" 22,34,1,2,2,131,5,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","BURLINGTON",0,"LIGHT OIL",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,922,1740,0,1014,1683,0,707,1131,0,668,1366,0,0,0,0,911,1528,0,1631,2761,0,200,501,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2399,3,52414,"FO2","ST" 22,34,1,2,3,131,5,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","BURLINGTON",0,"HEAVY OIL",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,9046,15688,55522,11250,17153,88452,0,0,88452,0,0,88452,-534,0,88437,2949,4515,83916,25958,40320,43596,1803,5025,88868,-545,0,88868,-541,0,88868,-541,0,88868,-573,0,88868,2399,3,52414,"FO6","ST" 22,34,1,4,2,131,5,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","BURLINGTON",0,"LIGHT OIL",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,1176,2221,83444,10436,17314,64340,158,253,93381,55,114,91811,-75,14,91811,57,96,90581,102,173,81026,4040,11276,88868,-82,16,87601,-75,58,86367,29,348,84382,4578,8912,83631,2399,3,52414,"FO2","GT" 22,34,1,4,9,131,5,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","BURLINGTON",0,"NAT GAS",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,60222,642634,0,62039,580691,0,60695,548854,0,9404,108237,0,42361,363894,0,31693,299006,0,63357,605299,0,60174,537745,0,21155,187254,0,17575,158420,0,24156,217635,0,18363,172905,0,2399,3,52414,"NG","GT" 22,34,1,6,2,131,5,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","BURLINGTON",0,"LIGHT OIL",15477,"0M",894,,,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,144,235,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2399,3,52414,"FO2","CT" 22,34,1,4,2,131,7,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","EDISON",0,"LIGHT OIL",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,152,366,106308,281,513,105795,252,403,105392,7,135,105257,0,0,105257,88,644,104610,675,1783,102827,687,1976,100851,0,0,110803,0,0,110803,126,444,110359,742,2206,108153,2400,3,52414,"FO2","GT" 22,34,1,4,9,131,7,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","EDISON",0,"NAT GAS",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,-33,582,0,70,992,0,-80,345,0,0,0,0,-162,750,0,0,0,0,3046,44211,0,2441,36716,0,-100,537,0,120,3310,0,89,2079,0,28,428,0,2400,3,52414,"NG","GT" 22,34,1,4,2,131,8,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","ESSEX",0,"LIGHT OIL",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,112211,4598,10660,104446,0,0,104446,0,0,103802,0,0,96326,4,10,91990,0,0,91990,0,0,91990,0,0,112914,2,185,112914,234,400,112327,894,2118,110210,2401,3,52414,"FO2","GT" 22,34,1,4,9,131,8,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","ESSEX",0,"NAT GAS",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,20171,250330,0,38746,466002,0,28312,330527,0,6195,75506,0,7086,87770,0,17745,236062,0,65291,864255,0,62756,803138,0,18682,243317,0,3599,40505,0,3163,40505,0,1420,2118,0,2401,3,52414,"NG","GT" 22,34,1,2,2,131,13,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","HUDSON",0,"LIGHT OIL",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,119,251,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,3,6,0,4,9,0,4,9,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2403,3,52414,"FO2","ST" 22,34,1,2,3,131,13,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","HUDSON",0,"HEAVY OIL",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,11188,21576,147242,40039,87268,59974,0,0,59974,158,379,13064,0,0,13064,0,0,13064,0,0,13064,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,-2401,3164,109182,2403,3,52414,"FO6","ST" 22,34,1,2,6,131,13,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","HUDSON",0,"BIT COAL",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,239403,0,0,239403,46093,19713,219690,82549,35226,208484,158939,68702,225010,141427,62425,162585,235608,99546,193639,263396,110928,173063,10310,4383,258904,0,0,349753,57703,21908,369380,339660,132744,293504,2403,3,52414,"BIT","ST" 22,34,1,2,9,131,13,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","HUDSON",0,"NAT GAS",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,30599,362930,0,7194,97478,0,122788,1378604,0,43966,500739,0,16188,203737,0,20750,232325,0,137870,1458255,0,96187,1102638,0,1254,45160,0,-3375,2793,0,356,3383,0,1493,16683,0,2403,3,52414,"NG","ST" 22,34,1,4,2,131,13,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","HUDSON",0,"LIGHT OIL",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,119,251,352215,256,609,34606,-63,0,34606,-54,0,34597,-48,0,34597,0,0,34597,1239,2320,32262,396,2283,29962,-50,0,29962,-46,0,29962,-55,0,29962,-71,0,29959,2403,3,52414,"FO2","GT" 22,34,1,4,9,131,13,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","HUDSON",0,"NAT GAS",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,0,7,103,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,3,38,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2403,3,52414,"NG","GT" 22,34,1,2,2,131,16,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","KEARNY",0,"LIGHT OIL",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,0,47,160,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2404,3,52414,"FO2","ST" 22,34,1,2,3,131,16,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","KEARNY",0,"HEAVY OIL",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,-1419,0,47358,3162,9747,46218,-1264,0,46218,-811,0,43218,-763,0,46218,2322,7151,47602,25660,53229,45133,22324,46979,41775,-837,0,41775,-758,0,41755,-1135,0,41775,-1308,0,46698,2404,3,52414,"FO6","ST" 22,34,1,4,2,131,16,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","KEARNY",0,"LIGHT OIL",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,375,941,65441,656,2205,61502,0,175,60444,-48,459,59831,-54,459,66419,-11,40,64109,2241,5425,58552,1592,6227,53502,-37,0,73227,-117,0,73054,-84,226,71810,-19,331,69761,2404,3,52414,"FO2","GT" 22,34,1,4,9,131,16,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","KEARNY",0,"NAT GAS",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,778,10891,0,531,10070,0,-183,586,0,-132,928,0,-131,324,0,1324,24641,0,4064,67350,0,6293,99804,0,-119,0,0,-6,0,0,-8,139,0,-23,0,0,2404,3,52414,"NG","GT" 22,34,1,2,3,131,18,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","LINDEN",0,"HEAVY OIL",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,-2975,0,169370,18699,47791,121579,1724,8149,41900,-1941,0,88431,-2550,0,88431,1771,15138,11078,59268,130643,95281,51534,115049,125814,-2711,0,128815,-1641,0,126134,-2551,10434,115700,-1747,0,115700,2406,3,52414,"FO6","ST" 22,34,1,4,2,131,18,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","LINDEN",0,"LIGHT OIL",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,26,253,53370,313,1361,52009,448,1157,50882,3498,6627,44255,6478,14170,30085,0,0,30085,0,0,30085,564,1160,28925,0,0,49924,-37,195,49604,202,372,49037,451,1756,51571,2406,3,52414,"FO2","GT" 22,34,1,4,9,131,18,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","LINDEN",0,"NAT GAS",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,-96,0,0,43,2616,0,3961,49847,0,1854,18696,0,15141,180135,0,13553,160573,0,33255,393680,0,32192,409006,0,8666,121819,0,8374,103539,0,3980,41596,0,1468,15561,0,2406,3,52414,"NG","GT" 22,34,1,2,6,131,22,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","MERCER",0,"BIT COAL",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,260338,90961,263541,283481,98338,252219,105820,38401,312566,69927,25278,364038,58034,23857,399943,121372,47152,419711,144178,55677,392291,111773,44297,360087,169493,64917,301841,40666,17201,334307,135703,47712,346850,209008,71876,359245,2408,3,52414,"BIT","ST" 22,34,1,2,9,131,22,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","MERCER",0,"NAT GAS",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,15072,160572,0,10698,100608,0,12860,134613,0,17393,171693,0,23606,242604,0,33578,373796,0,130882,1357300,0,110572,1186167,0,12727,142016,0,7184,77196,0,1387,12188,0,362,30224,0,2408,3,52414,"NG","ST" 22,34,1,4,2,131,22,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","MERCER",0,"LIGHT OIL",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,58,452,0,99,166,0,-80,45,0,-80,22,0,-90,0,0,-84,0,0,174,1003,0,1250,2375,0,-74,0,0,-89,0,0,-86,0,0,65,504,0,2408,3,52414,"FO2","GT" 22,34,1,4,9,131,22,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","MERCER",0,"NAT GAS",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,0,11,107,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,23,252,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2408,3,52414,"NG","GT" 22,34,1,4,2,131,24,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","NATIONAL PK",0,"LIGHT OIL",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,-7,0,2850,-5,0,2850,-6,0,168,-6,0,167,-7,0,1390,-6,0,3548,-6,0,3548,33,67,3481,-6,0,3481,3,25,3456,2,22,3434,-6,0,3434,2409,3,52414,"FO2","GT" 22,34,1,2,3,131,25,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","SEWAREN",0,"HEAVY OIL",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,915,2021,98313,16425,33366,104241,341,778,103613,0,0,103613,1016,2372,101241,0,0,101241,128,279,100962,2211,4787,96175,4969,9343,86832,2764,7861,78971,2025,6536,72435,11423,30324,105394,2411,3,52414,"FO6","ST" 22,34,1,2,9,131,25,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","SEWAREN",0,"NAT GAS",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,30968,435199,0,63113,771440,0,13222,183529,0,3478,58360,0,10032,124996,0,30077,426413,0,86401,1129748,0,69754,958979,0,7865,101861,0,-868,15021,0,1354,26896,0,943,15389,0,2411,3,52414,"NG","ST" 22,34,1,4,2,131,25,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","SEWAREN",0,"LIGHT OIL",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,51,704,34543,121,263,34280,-71,0,34280,-133,0,34280,-130,0,34280,-22,30,38575,438,1523,37052,831,2943,34109,-123,0,34109,-124,0,34109,23,82,34027,80,208,33819,2411,3,52414,"FO2","GT" 22,34,1,4,9,131,25,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","SEWAREN",0,"NAT GAS",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,0,2,31,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,16,0,0,0,0,2411,3,52414,"NG","GT" 22,34,1,4,2,131,27,"PUBLIC SERV ELEC & GAS CO","SALEM JO",0,"LIGHT OIL",15477,"0M",1294,,,95,-18,3,16640,85,264,16528,-5,49,16528,-14,28,17721,-15,0,17581,0,0,17581,398,125,32262,152,455,31807,-6,0,16295,2764,7861,78971,-14,0,14970,54,170,12261,2410,3,52414,"FO2","GT" 22,34,5,2,3,645,1,"VINELAND (CITY OF)","HOWARD DOWN",0,"HEAVY OIL",19856,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,24261,803,2139,23900,486,1664,22238,294,1029,21209,2656,6649,16338,890,2102,21318,4629,11673,9645,3246,7549,10200,0,0,10347,0,0,10397,0,0,10320,2429,6628,6595,2434,3,53140,"FO6","ST" 22,34,5,2,6,645,1,"VINELAND (CITY OF)","HOWARD DOWN",0,"BIT COAL",19856,"0M",1294,,,95,7844,4284,7953,7472,4143,6788,3415,1988,9938,0,0,9849,2186,1111,8737,7260,3928,6843,6950,3861,9709,3584,3042,7673,388,209,9251,1581,798,8709,5259,2954,5755,3724,2035,5931,2434,3,53140,"BIT","ST" 22,34,5,4,2,645,10,"VINELAND (CITY OF)","WEST",0,"LIGHT OIL",19856,"0M",1294,,,95,74,199,9430,353,887,8543,45,128,8417,0,0,8417,0,0,8417,315,901,7389,2079,6227,5808,2543,5808,3568,151,900,3206,36,73,3061,6,80,2981,129,339,2818,6776,3,53140,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,2,1,52,1,"DUQUESNE LGT CO","B VALLEY",0,"NUCLEAR",5487,"0M",1294,,,95,17240,0,0,-6300,0,0,367420,0,0,596300,0,0,615700,0,0,589500,0,0,604900,0,0,561482,0,0,591490,0,0,614130,0,0,582150,0,0,452460,0,0,6040,1,50827,"UR","ST" 23,42,1,2,1,52,2,"DUQUESNE LGT CO","B VALLEY",0,"NUCLEAR",5487,"0M",1294,,,95,610052,0,0,558397,0,0,377306,0,0,-2502,0,0,358108,0,0,592883,0,0,609130,0,0,296500,0,0,598381,0,0,622939,0,0,557126,0,0,601216,0,0,6040,1,50827,"UR","ST" 23,42,1,2,6,52,5,"DUQUESNE LGT CO","CHESWICK",0,"BIT COAL",5487,"0M",1294,,,95,355392,137291,317861,331090,126419,307477,249582,96410,291500,17430,8507,318494,299247,119774,288017,339756,132948,261655,256633,102182,276100,296500,118467,263069,297357,118900,201464,311698,126308,186349,351416,139379,173501,306740,121467,188856,8226,1,50827,"BIT","ST" 23,42,1,2,9,52,5,"DUQUESNE LGT CO","CHESWICK",0,"NAT GAS",5487,"0M",1294,,,95,1427,13928,0,331,3531,0,1002,9220,0,1172,14418,0,1806,18532,0,1364,13508,0,1549,14158,0,2639,26716,0,2701,26104,0,1881,19412,0,1411,14459,0,1232,12044,0,8226,1,50827,"NG","ST" 23,42,1,2,2,52,13,"DUQUESNE LGT CO","ELRAMA",0,"LIGHT OIL",5487,"0M",1294,,,95,1941,3768,1508,1330,2779,1204,1589,3262,979,1253,2681,1633,1006,2112,1445,803,1634,1382,1389,3062,1487,1368,2719,1591,1136,2443,1644,986,1991,1570,898,1981,1539,1195,2526,782,3098,1,50827,"FO2","ST" 23,42,1,2,6,52,13,"DUQUESNE LGT CO","ELRAMA",0,"BIT COAL",5487,"0M",1294,,,95,240736,111790,172599,220356,101044,171860,197080,90684,191628,207597,94541,190808,200161,89633,171686,159939,73949,169611,197010,95313,150545,226664,107371,139013,188236,90982,151708,97661,45101,189092,223530,101521,181601,237771,106889,154459,3098,1,50827,"BIT","ST" 23,42,1,2,2,52,15,"DUQUESNE LGT CO","F PHILLIPS",0,"LIGHT OIL",5487,"0M",1294,"S",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,3099,1,50827,"FO2","ST" 23,42,1,2,6,52,15,"DUQUESNE LGT CO","F PHILLIPS",0,"BIT COAL",5487,"0M",1294,"S",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,3099,1,50827,"BIT","ST" 23,42,1,4,2,52,27,"DUQUESNE LGT CO","BRUNOT ILND",0,"LIGHT OIL",5487,"0M",1294,,,95,-733,567,24237,-801,692,23545,-848,9,23536,-662,220,23316,-662,0,23316,-579,460,22856,1005,4706,18150,5198,15710,17539,-587,0,19993,-604,0,19993,-808,0,19993,-777,582,20583,3096,1,50827,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,5,2,52,27,"DUQUESNE LGT CO","BRUNOT ILND",0,"LIGHT OIL",5487,"0M",1294,"S",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,3096,1,50827,"FO2","CC" 23,42,1,6,2,52,27,"DUQUESNE LGT CO","BRUNOT ILND",0,"LIGHT OIL",5487,"0M",1294,"S",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,3096,1,50827,"FO2","CT" 23,42,1,2,1,100,1,"GPU NUCLEAR CORP","3 MI ISLAND",0,"NUCLEAR",7423,"0M",1294,,,95,611412,0,0,552321,0,0,609022,0,0,586279,0,0,599986,0,0,573186,0,0,584601,0,0,586748,0,0,144888,0,0,338797,0,0,590553,0,0,610193,0,0,8011,3,58850,"UR","ST" 23,42,1,1,,114,15,"METROPOLITAN EDISON CO","YORK HAVEN",0,,12390,"0M",1294,,,95,8890,0,0,9724,0,0,12867,0,0,10005,0,0,12383,0,0,12781,0,0,10950,0,0,1654,0,0,3141,0,0,8336,0,0,12409,0,0,9435,0,0,3117,3,54020,"WAT","HY" 23,42,1,4,2,114,24,"METROPOLITAN EDISON CO","HAMILTON",0,"LIGHT OIL",12390,"0M",1294,,,95,0,44,4643,342,858,4499,38,102,4397,28,68,4330,-2,0,4330,0,0,4330,432,1398,2932,1179,2884,2369,143,356,3085,0,0,3085,47,129,3491,190,511,4606,3109,3,54020,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,4,2,114,25,"METROPOLITAN EDISON CO","HUNTERSTOWN",0,"LIGHT OIL",12390,"0M",1294,,,95,44,117,8244,904,2365,9808,139,361,9448,53,150,8583,0,1,8583,0,0,8582,1,3,8579,16,42,8895,2,7,9067,19,50,9017,7,22,8995,281,706,8304,3110,3,54020,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,4,9,114,25,"METROPOLITAN EDISON CO","HUNTERSTOWN",0,"NAT GAS",12390,"0M",1294,,,95,1133,17680,0,1048,17830,0,7,180,0,729,13320,0,504,8500,0,1339,19320,0,3546,41940,0,6556,84500,0,3434,53290,0,1503,23470,0,1262,20430,0,1780,27282,0,3110,3,54020,"NG","GT" 23,42,1,4,2,114,27,"METROPOLITAN EDISON CO","MOUNTAIN",0,"LIGHT OIL",12390,"0M",1294,,,95,71,188,6429,964,2523,5157,48,126,5031,4,12,5912,0,0,5912,0,1,5911,0,2,5910,0,0,5910,36,175,5913,0,0,6270,0,2,6804,367,1234,6575,3111,3,54020,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,4,9,114,27,"METROPOLITAN EDISON CO","MOUNTAIN",0,"NATURAL G",12390,"0M",1294,,,95,297,5940,0,476,8360,0,443,6390,0,469,7770,0,208,3710,0,328,5630,0,1743,26610,0,3541,53620,0,894,14500,0,170,2840,0,572,8810,0,1301,18260,0,3111,3,54020,"NG","GT" 23,42,1,4,2,114,31,"METROPOLITAN EDISON CO","ORRTANNA",0,"LIGHT OIL",12390,"0M",1294,,,95,48,116,4401,346,875,4418,88,218,4200,26,66,4135,0,0,4135,0,0,4135,593,1575,2917,1316,3402,1824,159,409,2667,26,65,3674,0,7,5453,229,581,4898,3112,3,54020,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,2,2,114,32,"METROPOLITAN EDISON CO","PORTLAND",0,"LIGHT OIL",12390,"0M",1294,,,95,1210,2219,56721,612,1085,51313,671,1307,49944,1587,3013,45429,432,812,42830,190,349,41500,955,1701,39591,434,783,37499,499,951,35882,161,335,60358,2066,4127,57233,222,397,56872,3113,3,54020,"FO2","ST" 23,42,1,2,6,114,32,"METROPOLITAN EDISON CO","PORTLAND",0,"BIT COAL",12390,"0M",1294,,,95,132808,53399,109521,182821,71489,66961,66747,28478,108572,54477,22914,130642,57698,23989,150827,144768,58703,134821,179344,71804,85267,178789,70856,51093,83228,35019,46481,11852,5425,93489,58689,25583,120272,183470,71507,85462,3113,3,54020,"BIT","ST" 23,42,1,4,2,114,32,"METROPOLITAN EDISON CO","PORTLAND",0,"LIGHT OIL",12390,"0M",1294,,,95,77,142,2671,1704,3020,3973,50,98,3938,790,1501,3938,951,1787,3938,662,1215,3705,281,501,3412,727,1310,3410,2125,4049,3409,1,3,3407,122,245,3406,1839,3288,3291,3113,3,54020,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,4,9,114,32,"METROPOLITAN EDISON CO","PORTLAND",0,"NAT GAS",12390,"0M",1294,,,95,7,72,0,1596,15661,0,2973,32178,0,2051,22130,0,3978,42351,0,12035,125176,0,33248,336088,0,28922,295790,0,5224,56353,0,750,8818,0,2029,22553,0,597,5955,0,3113,3,54020,"NG","GT" 23,42,1,4,2,114,34,"METROPOLITAN EDISON CO","SHAWNEE",0,"LIGHT OIL",12390,"0M",1294,,,95,73,171,6099,265,687,6483,16,27,6472,20,60,6412,44,112,6301,35,90,6211,135,371,5839,869,2245,3594,68,177,3417,0,0,4845,68,117,5622,0,0,5679,3114,3,54020,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,2,2,114,35,"METROPOLITAN EDISON CO","TITUS",0,"LIGHT OIL",12390,"0M",1294,,,95,102,198,885,73,138,926,387,772,869,487,933,1186,472,874,1205,168,334,1228,294,559,1026,220,409,617,291,530,803,369,699,998,321,614,560,227,431,880,3115,3,54020,"FO2","ST" 23,42,1,2,6,114,35,"METROPOLITAN EDISON CO","TITUS",0,"BIT COAL",12390,"0M",1294,,,95,73788,31030,99475,51570,21149,100003,47245,20126,101173,38103,15904,107895,66063,26455,103387,95872,40846,84743,118659,48529,57453,118052,46687,37871,105060,41177,26170,83805,34936,50826,103029,42373,57757,128752,52966,41217,3115,3,54020,"BIT","ST" 23,42,1,4,2,114,35,"METROPOLITAN EDISON CO","TITUS",0,"LIGHT OIL",12390,"0M",1294,,,95,58,114,4000,793,1492,4117,0,0,4117,1,2,4115,0,0,4115,4,8,4106,65,124,3983,133,248,3983,0,0,3983,131,248,3734,20,39,3695,0,0,3755,3115,3,54020,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,4,9,114,35,"METROPOLITAN EDISON CO","TITUS",0,"NAT GAS",12390,"0M",1294,,,95,53,575,0,23,240,0,80,890,0,60,640,0,52,541,0,22,250,0,1587,16770,0,2936,30250,0,319,3230,0,110,1190,0,149,1590,0,5,60,0,3115,3,54020,"NG","GT" 23,42,1,4,2,114,38,"METROPOLITAN EDISON CO","TOLNA",0,"LIGHT OIL",12390,"0M",1294,,,95,68,175,6400,563,1516,6278,90,224,6054,0,1,6053,0,0,6053,0,0,6053,759,2033,4020,2323,6134,2677,164,447,5438,64,349,6339,62,101,6238,114,281,6229,3116,3,54020,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,2,2,133,1,"PENNSYLVANIA ELEC CO","CONMAUGH JO",0,"LIGHT OIL",14711,"0M",1294,,250,95,514,827,5361,559,930,4122,454,736,6813,810,1319,5181,459,747,4344,78,121,4153,878,1456,2385,538,892,3017,74,121,5479,0,0,5356,3148,5217,7748,383,627,6559,3118,3,54025,"FO2","ST" 23,42,1,2,6,133,1,"PENNSYLVANIA ELEC CO","CONMAUGH JO",0,"BIT COAL",14711,"0M",1294,,250,95,1122156,419851,722958,925303,359096,640938,1076935,406220,574117,992331,375372,600365,1073542,404411,660222,1082614,409954,586984,1087889,419782,543363,1144736,439047,524854,727433,274855,587632,579871,221827,735222,799742,308937,733868,1107177,421853,608881,3118,3,54025,"BIT","ST" 23,42,1,2,9,133,1,"PENNSYLVANIA ELEC CO","CONMAUGH JO",0,"NAT GAS",14711,"0M",1294,,250,95,1516,13798,0,1026,9654,0,566,5184,0,1707,15719,0,1710,15719,0,264,2319,0,2347,22035,0,3446,32313,0,452,4120,0,258,2408,0,2434,22766,0,571,5283,0,3118,3,54025,"NG","ST" 23,42,1,3,2,133,1,"PENNSYLVANIA ELEC CO","CONMAUGH JO",0,"LIGHT OIL",14711,"0M",1294,,250,95,59,96,0,34,57,0,59,97,0,181,295,0,54,89,0,45,71,0,187,311,0,146,243,0,46,75,0,31,52,0,78,130,0,46,76,0,3118,3,54025,"FO2","IC" 23,42,1,1,,133,5,"PENNSYLVANIA ELEC CO","PINEY",0,,14711,"0M",1294,,250,95,7087,0,0,2980,0,0,8315,0,0,7025,0,0,7405,0,0,7866,0,0,1807,0,0,900,0,0,618,0,0,1506,0,0,5259,0,0,4760,0,0,3124,3,54025,"WAT","HY" 23,42,1,1,,133,13,"PENNSYLVANIA ELEC CO","SENECA JO",0,"C-PUMPSTG",14711,"0M",1294,,250,95,-18038,60718,0,-12762,44459,0,-13759,53339,0,-14476,46086,0,-10189,43886,0,-20535,71955,0,-32632,124316,0,-31819,130160,0,-23462,98242,0,-26851,110227,0,-17180,96885,0,-19235,101307,0,8225,3,54025,"WAT","HY" 23,42,1,4,9,133,17,"PENNSYLVANIA ELEC CO","BLOSSBURG",0,"NAT GAS",14711,"0M",1294,,250,95,-5,0,0,248,3769,0,-4,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,502,7485,0,846,9556,0,243,7354,0,-5,0,0,-4,0,0,-4,0,0,3120,3,54025,"NG","GT" 23,42,1,2,2,133,25,"PENNSYLVANIA ELEC CO","HOMER CTYJO",0,"LIGHT OIL",14711,"0M",1294,,250,95,724,1106,10724,239,368,10825,1397,2089,8613,678,1026,8717,2469,3709,5517,3227,5084,7324,1158,1765,5736,474,737,6933,1569,3909,7274,769,1187,8528,7523,12170,9104,4070,6343,6965,3122,3,54025,"FO2","ST" 23,42,1,2,6,133,25,"PENNSYLVANIA ELEC CO","HOMER CTYJO",0,"BIT COAL",14711,"0M",1294,,250,95,1185616,454082,568142,1188794,455176,479305,1210546,457862,391125,1087359,409749,340123,685495,258590,520058,1050104,414471,562956,1147586,445483,356766,1213094,474606,228657,448257,271599,331273,758425,290978,460056,823682,334855,431770,991225,388795,409243,3122,3,54025,"BIT","ST" 23,42,1,2,2,133,45,"PENNSYLVANIA ELEC CO","SEWARD",0,"LIGHT OIL",14711,"0M",1294,,250,95,662,1281,675,306,595,618,281,535,616,145,261,535,122,305,409,432,940,535,285,552,414,274,531,585,416,789,657,463,878,671,432,834,724,340,657,600,3130,3,54025,"FO2","ST" 23,42,1,2,6,133,45,"PENNSYLVANIA ELEC CO","SEWARD",0,"BIT COAL",14711,"0M",1294,,250,95,101596,46820,104963,110101,50567,86392,110470,50520,76721,54307,23628,78208,29270,17347,91227,52721,27510,83682,115539,53769,77789,119322,55517,67991,102723,46904,73094,107866,49063,74467,105367,48397,85472,116951,53923,61526,3130,3,54025,"BIT","ST" 23,42,1,2,2,133,48,"PENNSYLVANIA ELEC CO","SHAWVILLE",0,"LIGHT OIL",14711,"0M",1294,,250,95,1123,1920,8833,2602,4605,6882,3250,5700,8490,1312,2317,8459,872,1542,9545,917,1633,7965,912,1584,7411,1122,2141,8065,1665,3195,7890,1607,2973,8086,2444,4275,8035,3504,6399,6379,3131,3,54025,"FO2","ST" 23,42,1,2,6,133,48,"PENNSYLVANIA ELEC CO","SHAWVILLE",0,"BIT COAL",14711,"0M",1294,,250,95,269348,109338,102763,256827,107901,105884,326710,136132,96046,350160,145852,80632,328883,137262,84982,336010,141689,79617,350851,144610,79435,304942,138068,76369,248206,112475,83476,317261,138069,65107,346273,142913,61290,323453,141293,48123,3131,3,54025,"BIT","ST" 23,42,1,3,2,133,48,"PENNSYLVANIA ELEC CO","SHAWVILLE",0,"LIGHT OIL",14711,"0M",1294,,250,95,31,54,764,42,75,689,26,47,797,22,39,757,20,37,721,29,52,669,42,74,740,203,388,705,22,43,662,24,46,763,18,32,731,24,44,819,3131,3,54025,"FO2","IC" 23,42,1,2,2,133,60,"PENNSYLVANIA ELEC CO","WARREN",0,"LIGHT OIL",14711,"0M",1294,,250,95,101,246,375,38,94,281,58,147,313,65,158,336,29,123,391,38,93,297,45,104,725,30,76,657,8,20,637,47,126,511,41,109,402,38,97,482,3132,3,54025,"FO2","ST" 23,42,1,2,6,133,60,"PENNSYLVANIA ELEC CO","WARREN",0,"BIT COAL",14711,"0M",1294,,250,95,23223,13460,34201,30943,18008,26672,17000,10379,34033,20947,11998,35372,16865,16419,30837,28698,16502,23133,35556,19496,14235,32084,18799,17943,18322,10742,21117,17556,10786,25392,16779,10295,31120,32207,19202,23049,3132,3,54025,"BIT","ST" 23,42,1,4,2,133,60,"PENNSYLVANIA ELEC CO","WARREN",0,"LIGHT OIL",14711,"0M",1294,,250,95,2,7,9205,924,2260,9835,124,314,9521,0,1,9519,94,389,9130,154,374,8757,2078,4788,7154,3447,8693,6033,514,1272,7934,0,0,7934,105,276,7658,393,986,9466,3132,3,54025,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,4,9,133,60,"PENNSYLVANIA ELEC CO","WARREN",0,"NAT GAS",14711,"0M",1294,,250,95,0,10,0,0,10,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,3132,3,54025,"NG","GT" 23,42,1,3,2,133,75,"PENNSYLVANIA ELEC CO","BENTON",0,"LIGHT OIL",14711,"0M",1294,"R",250,95,-3,0,0,-2,0,0,-3,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,3119,3,54025,"FO2","IC" 23,42,1,4,2,133,87,"PENNSYLVANIA ELEC CO","WAYNE",0,"LIGHT OIL",14711,"0M",1294,,250,95,-99,18,20263,508,1505,18758,-92,0,18758,-86,0,18758,-70,1,18757,-54,0,18757,1349,3469,15288,3798,9355,11397,490,1027,13199,-52,0,13199,141,1098,14037,154,691,18031,3134,3,54025,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,2,2,133,90,"PENNSYLVANIA ELEC CO","KEYSTONE JO",0,"LIGHT OIL",14711,"0M",1294,,250,95,2244,3690,6503,1272,2084,8137,0,0,8969,4533,7554,9207,714,1204,9434,965,1623,9346,2145,3684,9013,3083,5243,9005,923,1553,9324,753,1254,8496,1264,2066,8810,0,0,8724,3136,3,54025,"FO2","ST" 23,42,1,2,6,133,90,"PENNSYLVANIA ELEC CO","KEYSTONE JO",0,"BIT COAL",14711,"0M",1294,,250,95,1102214,423987,311858,582793,225211,453587,563417,222247,605342,809149,315890,648804,1078337,426399,648546,1084349,429852,601163,1034268,420581,454702,938657,378854,582342,1033031,410618,649687,1088547,426659,795799,1058746,408591,711979,1180880,456067,560683,3136,3,54025,"BIT","ST" 23,42,1,3,2,133,90,"PENNSYLVANIA ELEC CO","KEYSTONE JO",0,"LIGHT OIL",14711,"0M",1294,,250,95,349,575,0,349,573,0,34,59,0,204,341,0,100,170,0,35,60,0,207,356,0,870,1480,0,155,262,0,66,110,0,178,291,0,46,86,0,3136,3,54025,"FO2","IC" 23,42,1,2,2,135,1,"PENNSYLVANIA POWER CO","NEW CASTLE",0,"LIGHT OIL",14716,"0M",1294,,,95,157,295,104,61,118,158,276,532,107,184,352,158,327,657,138,250,493,138,176,344,140,152,297,106,171,327,131,192,372,116,117,218,145,156,288,161,3138,1,52289,"FO2","ST" 23,42,1,2,6,135,1,"PENNSYLVANIA POWER CO","NEW CASTLE",0,"BIT COAL",14716,"0M",1294,,,95,167856,72057,99647,154279,67443,98213,130534,58811,77871,125682,55847,86191,67772,31976,90113,98557,45757,95531,118202,53998,90022,140629,64008,74786,116270,52148,73949,88872,40250,91385,140709,61724,82726,150687,61716,63171,3138,1,52289,"BIT","ST" 23,42,1,3,2,135,1,"PENNSYLVANIA POWER CO","NEW CASTLE",0,"LIGHT OIL",14716,"0M",1294,,,95,22,56,1012,6,7,1012,7,22,863,1,3,991,4,9,875,1,7,1095,68,120,980,348,650,769,21,48,895,12,25,914,9,4,978,1,5,846,3138,1,52289,"FO2","IC" 23,42,1,2,2,135,12,"PENNSYLVANIA POWER CO","MANSFLD JO",0,"LIGHT OIL",14716,"0M",1294,,,95,1007,1692,29171,723,1155,27861,1506,2563,20232,2103,3540,37005,3377,5991,30895,1363,2382,49447,1396,2364,47084,1578,2757,44327,1128,2011,40209,852,1442,3868,625,1076,37528,5978,10675,26852,6094,1,52289,"FO2","ST" 23,42,1,2,6,135,12,"PENNSYLVANIA POWER CO","MANSFLD JO",0,"BIT COAL",14716,"0M",1294,,,95,1000025,404047,691181,900788,348267,715644,764097,314521,842427,1018498,413184,894368,1102944,466816,876286,1268001,530524,794307,1358940,556273,756092,1346419,567300,719388,816664,349651,802659,889136,365870,922037,897824,373667,888666,766127,330985,1035343,6094,1,52289,"BIT","ST" 23,42,1,2,1,137,1,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","SUSQUEHANNA",0,"NUCLEAR",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,784581,0,0,707744,0,0,597267,0,0,-6623,0,0,455272,0,0,764570,0,0,800626,0,0,807866,0,0,781516,0,0,816456,0,0,256044,0,0,663200,0,0,6103,3,52288,"UR","ST" 23,42,1,2,1,137,2,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","SUSQUEHANNA",0,"NUCLEAR",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,819260,0,0,744537,0,0,809836,0,0,572523,0,0,800757,0,0,763767,0,0,784244,0,0,790491,0,0,327567,0,0,158303,0,0,801099,0,0,820399,0,0,6103,3,52288,"UR","ST" 23,42,1,1,,137,8,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","HOLTWOOD",0,,14715,"0M",1294,,,95,63368,0,0,44815,0,0,66767,0,0,61784,0,0,47914,0,0,44060,0,0,38745,0,0,15029,0,0,8892,0,0,3395,0,0,54454,0,0,52183,0,0,3145,3,52288,"WAT","HY" 23,42,1,2,2,137,8,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","HOLTWOOD",0,"LIGHT OIL",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,2,293,307,92,564,453,76,299,502,6,12,486,9,103,375,64,316,412,48,185,402,32,69,513,156,340,542,105,324,374,44,96,457,71,158,639,3145,3,52288,"FO2","ST" 23,42,1,2,4,137,8,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","HOLTWOOD",0,"ANTH COAL",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,16657,10967,92177,28295,20094,81874,38352,28374,83310,37995,26901,93553,28887,20504,97262,21957,15483,110941,27038,19535,107719,38254,26848,105902,36692,25935,106839,27783,20333,110563,38411,27438,93901,40473,29360,79473,3145,3,52288,"ANT","ST" 23,42,1,2,5,137,8,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","HOLTWOOD",0,"COKE",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,5600,3687,7954,10386,7347,6463,12376,9136,6569,13390,9479,6750,10455,7419,8863,7778,5469,5689,9256,6676,3115,13170,9235,2168,11989,8438,3400,7495,5464,2289,8623,7102,1550,11704,5956,0,3145,3,52288,"PC","ST" 23,42,1,1,,137,14,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","WALLENPAUPK",0,,14715,"0M",1294,,,95,12278,0,0,38773,0,0,4171,0,0,-24207,0,0,735,0,0,560,0,0,5204,0,0,2717,0,0,244,0,0,24,0,0,11908,0,0,11545,0,0,3153,3,52288,"WAT","HY" 23,42,1,4,2,137,15,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","ALLENTOWN",0,"LIGHT OIL",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,64,195,4597,200,523,4444,0,0,4446,40,90,4355,0,0,4356,122,333,4024,199,561,4006,2797,7611,4017,44,168,4389,12,34,4355,0,0,4351,134,369,4531,3139,3,52288,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,2,2,137,20,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","BRUNNER ISL",0,"LIGHT OIL",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,5215,9667,5220,2811,6985,2945,2623,7457,4341,1006,3274,4688,1673,5855,4747,623,3511,4635,1145,3027,3800,192,491,4638,1850,4455,1752,956,1998,4421,1497,3195,3955,6348,15226,4765,3140,3,52288,"FO2","ST" 23,42,1,2,6,137,20,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","BRUNNER ISL",0,"BIT COAL",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,726861,278333,624176,797416,299207,615563,638681,243796,659948,618218,235042,726562,483331,182515,843219,636052,246917,774595,729927,280541,565746,770922,293672,454478,661164,258193,418744,632910,240757,448356,500569,201629,451028,542332,211139,476821,3140,3,52288,"BIT","ST" 23,42,1,3,2,137,20,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","BRUNNER ISL",0,"LIGHT OIL",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,43,75,0,27,35,0,29,50,0,11,33,0,29,50,0,27,47,0,38,66,0,41,123,0,30,52,0,27,47,0,21,37,0,28,47,0,3140,3,52288,"FO2","IC" 23,42,1,4,2,137,26,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","FISHBACH",0,"LIGHT OIL",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,2203,37,115,2088,0,0,2076,11,33,2043,0,0,2039,16,52,1987,102,265,2080,1274,3289,1978,63,218,2105,0,0,2095,0,0,2105,13,33,2071,3142,3,52288,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,4,2,137,28,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","HARWOOD",0,"LIGHT OIL",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,2216,83,240,2157,0,0,2152,44,152,2171,0,0,2171,13,61,2272,289,883,2098,1064,3093,1958,134,415,2230,60,205,2217,0,0,2217,0,0,2208,3144,3,52288,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,4,2,137,29,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","HARRISBURG",0,"LIGHT OIL",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,4184,328,916,4530,0,0,4528,34,103,4425,7,31,4394,111,326,4426,221,659,4486,3286,9229,3610,329,960,4424,0,0,4424,8,0,4410,101,283,4486,3143,3,52288,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,2,2,137,32,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","MARTINS CRK",0,"LIGHT OIL",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,1397,3966,1367,1654,3961,905,487,1818,1153,845,3118,1197,886,4111,1282,1222,4052,1400,1679,4825,803,2026,5349,775,303,753,1408,633,2680,1365,1511,3919,1485,2510,5735,1078,3148,3,52288,"FO2","ST" 23,42,1,2,3,137,32,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","MARTINS CRK",0,"HEAVY OIL",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,3313,20105,1792976,137098,246817,1537637,4594,16136,1518993,7837,26024,1486208,0,0,1482804,46574,94076,1387076,225007,410380,970823,241933,469387,1094662,32635,57250,1132457,11373,23775,1505839,59422,125764,1590347,265457,506756,1125474,3148,3,52288,"FO6","ST" 23,42,1,2,6,137,32,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","MARTINS CRK",0,"BIT COAL",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,77736,33553,94127,107453,45145,78631,33245,15373,94972,56476,25532,79013,56350,25210,63411,56558,24356,57931,77903,34985,45157,72539,34251,53601,19134,10553,62015,28384,12765,56271,68305,31511,46146,107135,53235,34362,3148,3,52288,"BIT","ST" 23,42,1,3,2,137,32,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","MARTINS CRK",0,"LIGHT OIL",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,19,33,0,53,92,0,70,124,0,63,90,0,15,57,0,18,30,0,7,12,0,39,74,0,10,20,0,7,13,0,4,7,0,20,9,0,3148,3,52288,"FO2","IC" 23,42,1,4,2,137,32,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","MARTINS CRK",0,"LIGHT OIL",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,5154,253,713,4491,0,0,4487,23,66,4408,0,0,4408,97,271,4056,301,924,3141,2928,8451,3433,332,1023,4044,0,0,4797,34,92,6619,47,134,6156,3148,3,52288,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,4,2,137,34,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","JENKINS",0,"LIGHT OIL",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,2287,49,143,2325,0,0,2326,12,59,2267,0,0,2265,0,0,2261,285,831,1773,1377,3617,2093,62,169,2280,17,50,2230,0,0,2177,0,0,2170,3146,3,52288,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,4,2,137,36,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","LOCK HAVEN",0,"LIGHT OIL",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,2,17,2072,0,0,2072,0,0,2071,0,0,2072,0,0,2231,19,50,2181,47,187,2160,309,776,1940,29,62,2234,0,0,2233,0,0,2229,0,0,2223,3147,3,52288,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,2,2,137,38,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","MONTOUR",0,"LIGHT OIL",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,5284,3061,15269,1120,9829,7128,603,1538,7267,606,3951,8198,13,2000,6913,5227,30521,8337,1368,7253,4923,878,2071,5843,1573,7626,7055,7633,17598,7723,1969,8730,7062,7059,10859,7500,3149,3,52288,"FO2","ST" 23,42,1,2,6,137,38,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","MONTOUR",0,"BIT COAL",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,847074,335924,519372,875346,340631,445625,780698,304571,380887,372505,141113,452083,435583,162563,503087,625764,248102,531404,836431,328954,481373,911902,352540,306054,690630,264412,407406,817637,314073,299288,838531,328858,291789,880367,352324,220532,3149,3,52288,"BIT","ST" 23,42,1,2,2,137,40,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","SUNBURY",0,"LIGHT OIL",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,120,1018,953,89,415,868,270,1417,1025,212,1169,913,362,1349,784,121,240,1084,94,305,938,95,427,967,167,1398,1038,316,896,961,315,1038,893,516,1056,864,3152,3,52288,"FO2","ST" 23,42,1,2,4,137,40,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","SUNBURY",0,"ANTH COAL",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,59791,48178,418732,52800,43904,407593,42379,34783,387855,56229,44534,380823,54876,44151,401119,43071,35250,457310,34960,27900,513983,38518,30044,586494,54062,41683,635399,58158,44699,652259,58144,45249,613424,56311,42856,591156,3152,3,52288,"ANT","ST" 23,42,1,2,5,137,40,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","SUNBURY",0,"COKE",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,32080,14266,18014,37875,17579,8930,34489,14591,2989,39190,17032,15602,35966,15206,24516,28052,11818,24368,21736,9175,21882,27009,11174,25559,37827,15339,20820,35544,14870,22116,40820,17176,11347,43815,18422,22426,3152,3,52288,"PC","ST" 23,42,1,2,6,137,40,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","SUNBURY",0,"BIT COAL",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,38602,20937,145827,50229,27422,136935,127350,62833,126363,110076,53702,131074,110470,54187,128876,117078,56381,126273,137002,67568,99984,129986,64144,93470,121920,58717,95585,117436,55949,93435,118781,56941,78649,145641,68789,57848,3152,3,52288,"BIT","ST" 23,42,1,3,2,137,40,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","SUNBURY",0,"LIGHT OIL",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,29,54,0,17,32,0,22,41,0,12,22,0,18,33,0,15,28,0,10,19,0,41,76,0,14,26,0,21,39,0,16,30,0,15,28,0,3152,3,52288,"FO2","IC" 23,42,1,4,2,137,40,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","SUNBURY",0,"LIGHT OIL",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,4196,0,0,4357,0,0,4367,0,0,4367,0,0,4367,12,34,4284,56,161,4122,1269,3772,3896,136,375,4425,0,0,4425,0,0,4304,59,188,4116,3152,3,52288,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,4,2,137,41,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","WEST SHORE",0,"LIGHT OIL",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,1981,146,397,2124,0,0,2125,23,63,2063,0,0,2063,27,85,2157,93,275,2060,1581,3944,1664,97,247,1948,0,0,1948,0,0,1943,0,0,1936,3154,3,52288,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,4,2,137,42,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","WILLIAMPORT",0,"LIGHT OIL",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,11,25,2095,108,303,2299,33,89,2120,24,80,2130,0,0,1062,31,83,2085,166,469,2282,1685,4637,1796,229,615,2348,0,1,2347,0,0,2347,47,129,2218,3155,3,52288,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,2,4,137,44,"PENNSYLVANIA PWR & LGT CO","COAL STORAG",0,"ANTH COAL",14715,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,4326102,0,0,4287048,0,0,4250306,0,0,4192077,0,0,4116068,0,0,4024607,0,0,3949307,0,0,3858966,0,0,3770991,0,0,3712178,0,0,3655315,0,0,3627389,8805,3,52288,"ANT","ST" 23,42,1,2,1,144,1,"PECO ENERGY CO","LIMERICK",0,"NUCLEAR",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,758738,0,0,649503,0,0,788638,0,0,741991,0,0,644273,0,0,749037,0,0,735331,0,0,472319,0,0,293869,0,0,781359,0,0,758883,0,0,774008,0,0,6105,3,52304,"UR","ST" 23,42,1,2,1,144,2,"PECO ENERGY CO","LIMERICK",0,"NUCLEAR",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,305997,0,0,145495,0,0,841460,0,0,792169,0,0,828631,0,0,759339,0,0,812705,0,0,648469,0,0,793584,0,0,839715,0,0,794719,0,0,838665,0,0,6105,3,52304,"UR","ST" 23,42,1,2,1,144,2,"PECO ENERGY CO","PEACHBOTTOM",0,"NUCLEAR",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,835865,0,0,758077,0,0,833805,0,0,783656,0,0,813085,0,0,767048,0,0,814131,0,0,781700,0,0,787889,0,0,812587,0,0,755502,0,0,620649,0,0,3166,3,52304,"UR","ST" 23,42,1,1,,144,3,"PECO ENERGY CO","MUDDY RUN",0,"P-PUMPSTG",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,-58588,197635,0,-48050,161907,0,-57936,201052,0,-62063,184331,0,-54454,193555,0,-64502,219733,0,-77254,238571,0,-71435,248510,0,-71632,228867,0,-151911,225998,0,-140643,200522,0,-140747,207063,0,3164,3,52304,"WAT","HY" 23,42,1,2,1,144,3,"PECO ENERGY CO","PEACHBOTTOM",0,"NUCLEAR",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,777483,0,0,711496,0,0,640321,0,0,740258,0,0,699846,0,0,588449,0,0,497410,0,0,423621,0,0,284823,0,0,314451,0,0,800042,0,0,695148,0,0,3166,3,52304,"UR","ST" 23,42,1,4,2,144,10,"PECO ENERGY CO","CHESTER",0,"LIGHT OIL",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,40,143,6303,283,871,5973,4,13,5960,0,0,5960,0,0,5960,134,251,5709,1965,3097,5088,2547,9094,4622,135,622,5417,6,46,5371,9,117,5615,0,0,5615,3157,3,52304,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,2,2,144,18,"PECO ENERGY CO","CROMBY",0,"LIGHT OIL",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,552,1065,739,136,247,742,559,972,675,596,1108,639,800,1555,694,542,1023,717,107,204,786,442,846,656,532,1027,700,390,751,648,1349,2625,514,669,1263,679,3159,3,52304,"FO2","ST" 23,42,1,2,3,144,18,"PECO ENERGY CO","CROMBY",0,"HEAVY OIL",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,2359,4204,37192,40300,66566,38230,6132,9753,28477,2439,4170,38531,1755,3147,35384,2326,3992,31392,2427,4219,27173,2684,4698,32767,5362,9562,23250,2962,5168,40075,2887,5164,35070,3164,5422,36172,3159,3,52304,"FO6","ST" 23,42,1,2,6,144,18,"PECO ENERGY CO","CROMBY",0,"BIT COAL",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,74489,31603,37801,84553,33984,30569,59404,28393,32942,68130,28446,39783,56042,24391,55616,62095,25757,51736,68743,28828,37015,81385,34554,29542,73288,31653,35675,82081,34906,31898,75734,32689,34891,88164,36436,31030,3159,3,52304,"BIT","ST" 23,42,1,2,9,144,18,"PECO ENERGY CO","CROMBY",0,"NAT GAS",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,71643,785884,0,61834,634083,0,79727,785913,0,51172,541950,0,54177,597370,0,81502,865110,0,111181,1192120,0,110008,1192120,0,68568,752990,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,69,740,0,3159,3,52304,"NG","ST" 23,42,1,3,2,144,18,"PECO ENERGY CO","CROMBY",0,"LIGHT OIL",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,0,0,425,2,5,382,1,2,380,1,3,377,0,0,377,0,1,376,6,13,363,0,0,363,2,5,358,0,0,358,3,6,352,0,0,352,3159,3,52304,"FO2","IC" 23,42,1,2,2,144,20,"PECO ENERGY CO","DELAWARE",0,"LIGHT OIL",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,83,167,285,230,443,159,379,1037,262,0,1258,270,63,112,285,407,948,313,503,939,296,248,512,251,125,311,303,0,535,306,0,1886,292,1548,3097,274,3160,3,52304,"FO2","ST" 23,42,1,2,3,144,20,"PECO ENERGY CO","DELAWARE",0,"HEAVY OIL",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,7566,13842,54536,40968,72617,57755,6149,15501,61363,-988,853,60510,1023,1674,58836,10372,22370,60784,73226,125872,59240,61586,116298,48551,3817,8670,64382,-880,0,64382,-848,109,64273,42071,77005,46160,3160,3,52304,"FO6","ST" 23,42,1,3,2,144,20,"PECO ENERGY CO","DELAWARE",0,"LIGHT OIL",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,4,8,0,6,12,0,0,0,0,8,4,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,5,12,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,3,6,0,0,0,0,3160,3,52304,"FO2","IC" 23,42,1,4,2,144,20,"PECO ENERGY CO","DELAWARE",0,"LIGHT OIL",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,14,29,4606,471,908,4510,16,46,5120,42,103,4834,0,0,5221,137,321,4998,1693,3157,5919,4022,8277,4823,175,434,5097,11,64,4495,0,0,4139,3,6,3960,3160,3,52304,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,2,2,144,23,"PECO ENERGY CO","EDDYSTONE",0,"LIGHT OIL",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,2860,5785,8309,7265,14150,6730,691,1392,5338,656,1353,6842,1090,2439,5446,1497,2992,3502,265,545,7647,1122,2234,5367,200,403,4943,1397,2645,5855,940,1740,11279,4634,8834,12016,3161,3,52304,"FO2","ST" 23,42,1,2,3,144,23,"PECO ENERGY CO","EDDYSTONE",0,"HEAVY OIL",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,28189,52308,219884,149450,269038,232369,3289,6168,226201,212,405,225796,779,1602,224194,12605,22920,225716,34139,63954,190796,58828,107390,228949,6004,24353,228406,13370,23208,205198,25814,43623,161575,159697,281810,186014,3161,3,52304,"FO6","ST" 23,42,1,2,6,144,23,"PECO ENERGY CO","EDDYSTONE",0,"BIT COAL",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,230611,102377,114701,145600,63304,115351,142036,63132,95986,141196,64796,114142,75987,37394,136129,72749,31969,156190,38241,17251,161746,115645,50809,196139,101095,70609,237844,255413,106924,214128,279475,114586,204428,343647,144382,154263,3161,3,52304,"BIT","ST" 23,42,1,2,9,144,23,"PECO ENERGY CO","EDDYSTONE",0,"NAT GAS",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,44577,509816,0,75572,836629,0,64058,732536,0,42770,502085,0,37425,473140,0,199205,2238826,0,248894,2876189,0,290649,3273871,0,116178,2028607,0,136486,1466691,0,26917,282787,0,17773,193338,0,3161,3,52304,"NG","ST" 23,42,1,4,2,144,23,"PECO ENERGY CO","EDDYSTONE",0,"LIGHT OIL",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,88,179,7824,301,588,7236,23,47,7189,0,0,7189,59,133,7056,38,77,6979,2082,4276,7703,5802,11553,9393,213,2838,8159,40,77,8082,74,138,7944,162,310,8951,3161,3,52304,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,2,3,144,25,"PECO ENERGY CO","OIL STORAGE",0,"HEAVY OIL",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,8806,3,52304,"FO6","ST" 23,42,1,4,2,144,26,"PECO ENERGY CO","FALLS",0,"LIGHT OIL",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,6,16,10772,174,460,10312,0,0,10312,0,0,10312,0,0,10312,323,626,9686,1716,2316,9307,2167,6952,8374,53,261,8289,8,112,8177,0,0,8503,0,0,8503,3162,3,52304,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,4,2,144,27,"PECO ENERGY CO","MOSER",0,"LIGHT OIL",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,62,154,10920,416,1304,10329,2,7,10322,0,0,10322,0,0,10322,174,159,10163,2401,3681,8582,3033,9617,8076,165,385,7691,0,0,7691,49,1948,8854,0,0,8854,3163,3,52304,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,4,2,144,30,"PECO ENERGY CO","RICHMOND",0,"LIGHT OIL",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,73,705,25225,1538,2518,24154,176,209,23945,0,0,23945,0,0,23945,546,1092,22853,7883,15050,19654,8358,22812,19604,1489,4282,16208,573,1391,19605,1780,4530,22192,2646,5558,20232,3168,3,52304,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,2,2,144,35,"PECO ENERGY CO","SCHUYLKILL",0,"LIGHT OIL",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,10,31,177,29,55,282,0,13,330,0,0,58,5,32,173,21,41,260,32,63,204,31,64,224,0,0,285,0,0,204,0,13,117,174,366,292,3169,3,52304,"FO2","ST" 23,42,1,2,3,144,35,"PECO ENERGY CO","SCHUYLKILL",0,"HEAVY OIL",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,2569,7049,0,27433,47982,0,-514,221,0,-442,0,0,787,4441,0,7540,12988,0,45149,79435,0,40737,74952,0,2171,4408,0,-450,0,0,-487,0,0,33696,64594,0,3169,3,52304,"FO6","ST" 23,42,1,3,2,144,35,"PECO ENERGY CO","SCHUYLKILL",0,"LIGHT OIL",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,0,0,0,11,21,0,1,6,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,4,9,0,2,8,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,3169,3,52304,"FO2","IC" 23,42,1,4,2,144,35,"PECO ENERGY CO","SCHUYLKILL",0,"LIGHT OIL",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,0,0,4077,183,347,4272,0,0,4454,0,0,4454,16,102,4352,25,48,4304,1060,2033,4025,3086,6214,3655,57,113,3542,0,0,3542,0,0,4435,0,0,4435,3169,3,52304,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,4,2,144,39,"PECO ENERGY CO","SOUTHWARK",0,"LIGHT OIL",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,7,10,6164,245,786,6101,28,123,5978,0,0,5978,0,0,5978,21,33,5945,2299,3702,5765,2572,9427,4876,120,646,4593,9,18,4592,0,0,5461,12,32,5429,3170,3,52304,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,4,2,144,62,"PECO ENERGY CO","CROYDON",0,"LIGHT OIL",14940,"0M",1294,,260,95,908,1378,96105,5368,13129,82976,1206,2774,80202,185,1674,78528,-30,449,78079,2904,7166,70913,28748,58359,102954,34047,90855,75978,5816,17011,58967,4006,14190,124677,9344,33758,90919,20108,59103,81811,8012,3,52304,"FO2","GT" 23,42,1,1,,166,1,"SAFE HARBOR WATERPOWER CO","SAFE HARBOR",0,,16537,"0M",1294,,,95,143384,0,0,59393,0,0,126476,0,0,89759,0,0,63828,0,0,55553,0,0,43077,0,0,14256,0,0,7655,0,0,60191,0,0,112079,0,0,82918,0,0,3175,3,52553,"WAT","HY" 23,42,1,2,2,182,5,"UNITED GAS IMP CO (THE)","HUNLOCK CRK",0,"LIGHT OIL",19390,"0M",1294,,,95,513,820,149,94,161,167,202,328,185,435,618,244,11,18,226,1,2,224,140,230,170,0,0,170,514,892,135,73,127,175,21,35,140,24,41,99,3176,3,52988,"FO2","ST" 23,42,1,2,4,182,5,"UNITED GAS IMP CO (THE)","HUNLOCK CRK",0,"ANTH COAL",19390,"0M",1294,,,95,22922,15408,12384,27213,18489,14764,29884,19399,26578,8930,5383,44202,31976,21379,41110,31087,20919,40663,28632,19193,37106,32217,21657,39145,28079,19274,38194,32138,21308,38517,32139,20464,33331,30924,20327,26649,3176,3,52988,"ANT","ST" 23,42,1,2,2,187,1,"WEST PENN POWER CO","ARMSTRONG",0,"LIGHT OIL",20387,"0M",1294,,71,95,1137,2044,435,250,438,461,208,349,465,208,340,516,357,602,494,249,434,577,87,154,405,77,134,448,175,297,469,719,1212,478,755,1324,33,100,171,531,3178,1,54030,"FO2","ST" 23,42,1,2,6,187,1,"WEST PENN POWER CO","ARMSTRONG",0,"BIT COAL",20387,"0M",1294,,71,95,116602,48997,133134,169087,69152,118235,94695,37329,143043,106738,41224,154005,90547,35992,160453,93589,37605,145126,109058,44341,133889,108429,43934,141795,50453,20094,155423,132983,52637,143306,163282,66595,118118,227115,90923,97838,3178,1,54030,"BIT","ST" 23,42,1,2,2,187,5,"WEST PENN POWER CO","HATFIELD",0,"LIGHT OIL",20387,"0M",1294,,71,95,431,715,4466,429,677,4860,16,26,4860,109,176,5175,295,498,4642,232,393,4202,112,193,4003,116,200,3858,440,729,3846,625,1001,3653,200,324,4266,345,551,4530,3179,1,54030,"FO2","ST" 23,42,1,2,6,187,5,"WEST PENN POWER CO","HATFIELD",0,"BIT COAL",20387,"0M",1294,,71,95,924993,349235,573422,796344,286253,580468,654622,239981,562743,652050,240234,569141,751057,287421,561772,807472,310567,503117,873489,338429,425399,814220,315517,429242,611272,228129,438816,665375,244419,472140,717809,264457,471668,976850,352523,470255,3179,1,54030,"BIT","ST" 23,42,1,2,2,187,15,"WEST PENN POWER CO","MITCHELL",0,"LIGHT OIL",20387,"0M",1294,,71,95,1099,1660,62781,14264,26130,36652,9573,16358,20294,0,0,95,0,0,20294,0,0,20294,2975,5533,14761,9534,17307,37248,0,0,37248,370,623,36693,0,0,102,0,0,36712,3181,1,54030,"FO2","ST" 23,42,1,2,6,187,15,"WEST PENN POWER CO","MITCHELL",0,"BIT COAL",20387,"0M",1294,,71,95,133543,54702,81824,96423,41467,82859,153555,62524,77796,125039,49503,90740,49588,20363,93045,53622,23986,82955,92131,39751,72392,131370,55646,87997,44218,20045,99480,112797,45127,97501,86006,35430,95483,91125,37261,96203,3181,1,54030,"BIT","ST" 23,42,1,2,9,187,15,"WEST PENN POWER CO","MITCHELL",0,"NAT GAS",20387,"0M",1294,,71,95,997,8782,0,512,5468,0,649,6574,0,362,3518,0,98,1012,0,493,5639,0,384,4175,0,352,3732,0,608,6884,0,229,2287,0,632,6538,0,411,4215,0,3181,1,54030,"NG","ST" 23,42,1,2,3,187,25,"WEST PENN POWER CO","SPRINGDALE",0,"HEAVY OIL",20387,"0M",1294,"S",71,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,3182,1,54030,"FO6","ST" 23,42,8,1,,800,5,"ALLEGHENY ELECTRIC COOP","RAYSTOWN",0,,332,"0A",1294,,,95,10581,0,0,4872,0,0,10420,0,0,7145,0,0,9214,0,0,7292,0,0,7823,0,0,1871,0,0,1862,0,0,6232,0,0,13092,0,0,11263,0,0,7128,1,58500,"WAT","HY" 31,39,1,2,2,30,5,"CARDINAL OPERATING CO","CARDINAL",0,"LIGHT OIL",3006,"0M",1294,,365,95,1506,2512,16004,1987,3269,21891,793,1326,20561,810,1358,18998,750,1207,17783,5623,9537,7493,587,994,18460,1462,2531,15746,996,1682,14054,1293,2176,11850,586,984,10858,3751,6207,17605,2828,1,50359,"FO2","ST" 31,39,1,2,6,30,5,"CARDINAL OPERATING CO","CARDINAL",0,"BIT COAL",3006,"0M",1294,,365,95,964403,385031,651565,952635,371878,631820,970861,386058,589923,907026,357640,591393,523077,201759,670651,745173,300966,631446,1013299,410501,467099,1010121,415926,370224,984185,397240,345127,996339,400914,397108,987234,392815,487317,940659,377797,434608,2828,1,50359,"BIT","ST" 31,39,1,4,2,43,1,"CINCINNATI GAS ELEC CO","DICKS CREEK",0,"LIGHT OIL",3542,"0M",1294,,210,95,20,1175,6144,23,332,5811,9,35,5776,18,399,5377,0,0,5377,10,47,5330,233,987,4343,377,1342,3001,3,41,5373,8,49,5325,18,65,5260,1,7,5253,2831,1,50556,"FO2","GT" 31,39,1,4,9,43,1,"CINCINNATI GAS ELEC CO","DICKS CREEK",0,"NAT GAS",3542,"0M",1294,,210,95,74,4943,0,-217,0,0,17,13,0,-138,563,0,-109,0,0,227,871,0,3843,78877,0,4803,89226,0,-34,0,0,-101,1423,0,240,6693,0,672,17724,0,2831,1,50556,"NG","GT" 31,39,1,2,2,43,2,"CINCINNATI GAS ELEC CO","WC BECKJORD",0,"LIGHT OIL",3542,"0M",1294,,210,95,1063,1868,0,520,909,0,1246,2193,0,616,1040,0,909,1575,0,1694,2920,0,83,148,0,648,1175,0,673,1200,0,1185,2032,0,1335,2313,0,1124,2076,0,2830,1,50556,"FO2","ST" 31,39,1,2,6,43,2,"CINCINNATI GAS ELEC CO","WC BECKJORD",0,"BIT COAL",3542,"0M",1294,,210,95,376000,158991,137317,393834,167236,139827,297378,127194,171002,437582,181317,177440,274678,116442,192793,481664,200911,197721,528583,228082,195580,602321,260506,195850,213081,91113,206835,487454,202145,200676,427365,176777,196004,493746,218176,193234,2830,1,50556,"BIT","ST" 31,39,1,4,2,43,2,"CINCINNATI GAS ELEC CO","WC BECKJORD",0,"LIGHT OIL",3542,"0M",1294,,210,95,904,1589,30711,253,443,29179,30,54,26769,24,41,25499,30,53,23746,206,356,41971,10845,19305,22349,18056,32731,31385,523,933,29084,23,40,26796,38,67,23956,1551,2863,41821,2830,1,50556,"FO2","GT" 31,39,1,2,2,43,5,"CINCINNATI GAS ELEC CO","MIAMI FORT",0,"LIGHT OIL",3542,"0M",1294,,210,95,1008,1795,0,465,820,0,830,1457,0,436,757,0,862,1538,0,1665,3001,0,1804,3164,0,3368,6051,0,1292,2324,0,260,450,0,548,956,0,3202,5528,0,2832,1,50556,"FO2","ST" 31,39,1,2,6,43,5,"CINCINNATI GAS ELEC CO","MIAMI FORT",0,"BIT COAL",3542,"0M",1294,,210,95,637745,262491,294369,502865,207419,302760,559242,231277,318869,305741,124954,357678,414341,174583,369622,502174,211728,359534,599203,248510,325680,672906,285623,264937,557339,235511,249465,607306,250021,246891,553335,226505,248836,594845,241403,260437,2832,1,50556,"BIT","ST" 31,39,1,4,2,43,5,"CINCINNATI GAS ELEC CO","MIAMI FORT",0,"LIGHT OIL",3542,"0M",1294,,210,95,184,328,29994,104,184,28839,51,90,27190,104,182,26060,90,161,23971,260,470,20424,2604,4567,34307,5930,10654,29284,0,0,26912,56,98,26221,132,231,25022,4,7,19483,2832,1,50556,"FO2","GT" 31,39,1,2,2,43,10,"CINCINNATI GAS ELEC CO","W H ZIMMER",0,"LIGHT OIL",3542,"0M",1294,,210,95,387,627,43117,405,662,42455,266,437,42018,446,721,41297,544,908,40390,5437,9067,40610,3869,6259,34351,2406,3947,30404,654,1074,29331,0,0,28641,10375,17945,31644,228,326,31318,6019,1,50556,"FO2","ST" 31,39,1,2,6,43,10,"CINCINNATI GAS ELEC CO","W H ZIMMER",0,"BIT COAL",3542,"0M",1294,,210,95,945287,364436,470303,860575,334587,468422,931671,360276,429932,905494,345488,449089,895923,353208,433131,685071,269191,462164,813824,313887,471999,817013,315668,465279,858265,326707,439814,-6015,0,440306,643755,258809,446427,954218,369625,445092,6019,1,50556,"BIT","ST" 31,39,1,4,2,43,15,"CINCINNATI GAS ELEC CO","WOODSDALE",0,"PROPANE",3542,"0M",1294,,210,95,3264,17257,47281,251,6836,40445,206,1875,39359,655,3378,35981,0,2040,33941,765,1976,31965,599,1450,30515,128,307,30208,2,8,30200,22,122,30078,2291,8079,47000,9027,29590,47410,7158,1,50556,"FO2","GT" 31,39,1,4,9,43,15,"CINCINNATI GAS ELEC CO","WOODSDALE",0,"NAT GAS",3542,"0M",1294,,210,95,150,4500,0,6,900,0,329,16900,0,549,16100,0,-24,5400,0,8444,123700,0,78223,1073891,0,127374,1732000,0,11241,209600,0,798,24900,0,8079,161217,0,5288,98400,0,7158,1,50556,"NG","GT" 31,39,1,2,1,47,1,"CLEVELAND ELEC ILLUM CO","PERRY",0,"NUCLEAR",3755,"0M",1294,,,95,876776,0,0,768903,0,0,819283,0,0,488364,0,0,856246,0,0,825532,0,0,844484,0,0,836109,0,0,563058,0,0,867378,0,0,562127,0,0,802040,0,0,6020,1,50587,"UR","ST" 31,39,1,2,2,47,5,"CLEVELAND ELEC ILLUM CO","ASHTABULA",0,"LIGHT OIL",3755,"0M",1294,,,95,42,104,847,0,0,847,118,290,165,18,45,836,36,88,1105,993,2435,781,1126,2764,920,735,1805,1069,508,1246,1250,554,1359,961,372,912,1126,318,78,1063,2835,1,50587,"FO2","ST" 31,39,1,2,6,47,5,"CLEVELAND ELEC ILLUM CO","ASHTABULA",0,"BIT COAL",3755,"0M",1294,,,95,52796,31491,71024,49964,29829,71024,55761,34212,70589,75864,42918,70589,57256,34078,70589,75393,41494,70589,152351,73482,69602,185535,87655,62911,92554,48842,63273,134786,62671,50375,152108,70363,39853,183631,84228,39391,2835,1,50587,"BIT","ST" 31,39,1,2,2,47,10,"CLEVELAND ELEC ILLUM CO","AVON",0,"LIGHT OIL",3755,"0M",1294,,,95,545,1336,12357,217,533,11823,334,820,11003,71,175,13126,623,1529,11274,103,252,10337,204,501,9328,209,514,12564,219,537,11551,455,1117,10529,439,1076,9330,211,518,8657,2836,1,50587,"FO2","ST" 31,39,1,2,6,47,10,"CLEVELAND ELEC ILLUM CO","AVON",0,"BIT COAL",3755,"0M",1294,,,95,418792,166008,147432,412531,162705,122460,424163,169344,131476,363532,138488,180398,251231,98651,203325,203947,82859,218224,353614,137703,162497,424161,173437,95914,388690,173071,75855,373672,144052,89758,227150,92153,101135,197850,84233,81208,2836,1,50587,"BIT","ST" 31,39,1,4,2,47,10,"CLEVELAND ELEC ILLUM CO","AVON",0,"LIGHT OIL",3755,"0M",1294,,,95,-48,0,1833,46,308,1525,-44,0,1525,16,93,1432,-27,0,1432,51,171,1260,97,283,1453,726,2175,826,-20,0,1302,-23,0,1326,-40,0,1326,-55,0,1861,2836,1,50587,"FO2","GT" 31,39,1,2,2,47,15,"CLEVELAND ELEC ILLUM CO","EASTLAKE",0,"LIGHT OIL",3755,"0M",1294,,,95,1497,3674,9572,911,2234,8964,764,1874,9624,751,1842,8674,1166,2861,7850,1418,3479,8310,853,2092,5787,966,2369,13472,911,2234,13178,758,1860,11437,682,1673,13358,1121,2750,10965,2837,1,50587,"FO2","ST" 31,39,1,2,6,47,15,"CLEVELAND ELEC ILLUM CO","EASTLAKE",0,"BIT COAL",3755,"0M",1294,,,95,563066,214828,125324,531721,201833,127529,552063,214200,127558,603752,229103,113946,476696,183152,148312,528305,201681,134280,545020,211638,133115,580108,227637,126504,418750,164875,155538,237147,95621,161064,619540,234785,116588,554005,216330,121544,2837,1,50587,"BIT","ST" 31,39,1,4,2,47,15,"CLEVELAND ELEC ILLUM CO","EASTLAKE",0,"LIGHT OIL",3755,"0M",1294,,,95,-26,411,1392,-34,64,1328,-7,96,1232,-39,0,1232,-17,48,1184,80,272,913,110,487,2330,416,1227,1642,-21,0,1642,-29,0,1642,-48,0,1642,-62,0,1642,2837,1,50587,"FO2","GT" 31,39,1,2,2,47,20,"CLEVELAND ELEC ILLUM CO","LAKE SHORE",0,"LIGHT OIL",3755,"0M",1294,,,95,1807,4433,0,1095,2687,0,655,1878,10867,822,2016,9030,822,2016,9030,822,2016,9030,822,2016,9030,0,0,9030,0,0,9030,0,0,9030,0,0,9030,0,0,9030,2838,1,50587,"FO2","ST" 31,39,1,2,3,47,20,"CLEVELAND ELEC ILLUM CO","LAKE SHORE",0,"HEAVY OIL",3755,"0M",1294,,,95,-1345,0,0,-1121,0,0,-1101,0,0,-967,0,0,-1013,0,0,-1144,0,0,-1177,0,0,-1109,0,0,-1101,0,0,-886,0,0,-1113,0,0,-1190,0,0,2838,1,50587,"FO6","ST" 31,39,1,2,6,47,20,"CLEVELAND ELEC ILLUM CO","LAKE SHORE",0,"BIT COAL",3755,"0M",1294,,,95,-2869,0,0,-2051,0,0,-8655,0,0,-1765,0,0,-1630,0,0,-1592,0,0,-1511,0,0,-680,0,0,-664,0,0,-785,0,0,-839,0,0,-939,0,0,2838,1,50587,"BIT","ST" 31,39,1,3,2,47,20,"CLEVELAND ELEC ILLUM CO","LAKE SHORE",0,"LIGHT OIL",3755,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2838,1,50587,"FO2","IC" 31,39,1,2,2,50,5,"COLUMBUS SOUTHERN PWR CO","CONESVILLE",0,"LIGHT OIL",4062,"0M",1294,,369,95,781,1346,11167,848,1487,10088,1527,2569,9973,647,1108,10480,1150,1863,10818,808,1412,11137,1992,3195,10638,911,1520,12206,2980,5206,7444,848,1360,7419,1411,2362,6092,1247,2194,6515,2840,1,50633,"FO2","ST" 31,39,1,2,6,50,5,"COLUMBUS SOUTHERN PWR CO","CONESVILLE",0,"BIT COAL",4062,"0M",1294,,369,95,839897,361439,480236,776708,341510,409270,577474,241703,450938,516809,220156,545479,471259,188870,589930,540735,233443,590510,666114,292069,537443,960463,414977,380548,748475,319718,311923,775359,307972,333993,824448,339869,356943,594247,257598,411899,2840,1,50633,"BIT","ST" 31,39,1,2,2,50,15,"COLUMBUS SOUTHERN PWR CO","PICWAY",0,"LIGHT OIL",4062,"0M",1294,,369,95,77,157,318,80,151,162,0,0,158,0,0,163,0,0,150,271,581,410,67,164,258,153,329,279,86,168,293,52,109,355,102,206,330,71,149,354,2843,1,50633,"FO2","ST" 31,39,1,2,6,50,15,"COLUMBUS SOUTHERN PWR CO","PICWAY",0,"BIT COAL",4062,"0M",1294,,369,95,24098,12576,18902,17338,8355,10547,0,0,10547,0,0,10547,0,0,10547,12062,7059,8508,8499,5099,16411,33626,17892,7051,12493,6357,14305,11264,6148,20174,12256,6425,23762,14575,8110,25135,2843,1,50633,"BIT","ST" 31,39,1,3,2,56,15,"DAYTON PWR & LGT CO (THE)","FRANK TAIT",0,"LIGHT OIL",4922,"0M",1294,,,95,10,18,2118,30,55,1880,24,44,4879,67,123,5809,5,9,5601,0,0,8437,59,128,8308,638,1170,6968,8,15,6953,0,0,6953,4,31,12908,0,0,12704,2847,1,50752,"FO2","IC" 31,39,1,4,2,56,15,"DAYTON PWR & LGT CO (THE)","FRANK TAIT",0,"LIGHT OIL",4922,"0M",494,,,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,8,31,0,2615,5585,0,2094,4660,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,87,204,0,2847,1,50752,"FO2","GT" 31,39,1,4,9,56,15,"DAYTON PWR & LGT CO (THE)","FRANK TAIT",0,"NAT GAS",4922,"0M",494,,,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,206,4610,0,2453,30366,0,2250,29020,0,2757,33743,0,5899,80360,0,392,7740,0,65,1370,0,35,1210,0,1279,17010,0,2847,1,50752,"NG","GT" 31,39,1,2,6,56,20,"DAYTON PWR & LGT CO (THE)","HUTCHINGS",0,"BIT COAL",4922,"0M",1294,,,95,1189,1204,103680,11354,5882,97799,-864,0,97799,0,0,97799,-467,0,97799,38657,18515,85185,73119,34885,59277,140943,65371,20520,7427,3975,45638,4351,2521,84275,3553,2065,93826,62576,27616,66210,2848,1,50752,"BIT","ST" 31,39,1,2,9,56,20,"DAYTON PWR & LGT CO (THE)","HUTCHINGS",0,"NAT GAS",4922,"0M",1294,,,95,408,9899,0,595,6448,0,0,0,0,-804,48,0,4,164,0,1487,14801,0,2254,22264,0,5404,59821,0,688,9010,0,440,6133,0,353,5099,0,1464,15898,0,2848,1,50752,"NG","ST" 31,39,1,4,2,56,20,"DAYTON PWR & LGT CO (THE)","HUTCHINGS",0,"LIGHT OIL",4922,"0M",1294,,,95,71,303,1433,82,157,1275,0,1,1275,0,0,1275,0,0,1274,0,0,1274,0,0,1274,0,1,1274,0,0,1274,0,0,1274,58,147,1127,49,94,1395,2848,1,50752,"FO2","GT" 31,39,1,4,9,56,20,"DAYTON PWR & LGT CO (THE)","HUTCHINGS",0,"NAT GAS",4922,"0M",1294,,,95,0,10,0,0,0,0,5,1130,0,16,400,0,8,327,0,0,0,0,140,1384,0,423,4690,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,41,453,0,2848,1,50752,"NG","GT" 31,39,1,2,2,56,23,"DAYTON PWR & LGT CO (THE)","J M STUART",0,"LIGHT OIL",4922,"0M",1294,,,95,1332,2321,1749,646,1073,2134,623,1061,2140,1223,2081,1858,1631,2823,2062,975,1647,2197,223,358,2194,623,1047,2043,1054,1794,2183,2669,4498,2177,1035,1708,1924,2772,4191,2252,2850,1,50752,"FO2","ST" 31,39,1,2,6,56,23,"DAYTON PWR & LGT CO (THE)","J M STUART",0,"BIT COAL",4922,"0M",1294,,,95,1324209,556655,951299,1313535,540148,931841,981133,406226,1101726,963505,397393,1210633,1235488,518718,880851,1223521,506083,868835,1340550,537277,869585,1339861,554937,815555,984147,409972,981044,990034,409244,867049,1361690,549068,888832,1361213,508529,976472,2850,1,50752,"BIT","ST" 31,39,1,3,2,56,23,"DAYTON PWR & LGT CO (THE)","J M STUART",0,"LIGHT OIL",4922,"0M",1294,"S",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2850,1,50752,"FO2","IC" 31,39,1,4,2,56,28,"DAYTON PWR & LGT CO (THE)","YANKEE ST",0,"LIGHT OIL",4922,"0M",1294,,,95,392,1042,6368,143,449,7390,1,3,5791,0,0,5791,0,1,5790,0,2,5788,0,0,5788,0,2,6395,2,7,6388,0,1,6388,60,192,6195,298,738,6316,2854,1,50752,"FO2","GT" 31,39,1,4,9,56,28,"DAYTON PWR & LGT CO (THE)","YANKEE ST",0,"NAT GAS",4922,"0M",1294,,,95,10,160,0,62,1100,0,162,1963,0,84,1410,0,82,1499,0,110,1913,0,390,6135,0,2583,45005,0,16,299,0,118,2067,0,15,279,0,1,15,0,2854,1,50752,"NG","GT" 31,39,1,3,2,56,34,"DAYTON PWR & LGT CO (THE)","MONUMENT",0,"LIGHT OIL",4922,"0M",1294,,,95,48,88,666,38,70,596,24,44,749,8,15,735,20,37,698,0,0,698,0,0,698,868,1591,510,12,22,679,8,15,664,3,6,658,23,73,586,2851,1,50752,"FO2","IC" 31,39,1,3,2,56,38,"DAYTON PWR & LGT CO (THE)","SIDNEY",0,"LIGHT OIL",4922,"0M",1294,,,95,36,66,654,39,72,582,19,35,547,12,22,525,27,50,476,38,70,594,200,367,418,928,1701,298,12,22,467,14,26,441,11,20,599,27,50,550,2852,1,50752,"FO2","IC" 31,39,1,2,2,56,40,"DAYTON PWR & LGT CO (THE)","KILLEN",0,"LIGHT OIL",4922,"0M",1294,,,95,1515,2654,38401,2032,3512,34941,568,957,33906,811,1364,32383,2303,3935,28369,2103,3623,24697,1150,1949,22638,3905,6750,39224,3140,5527,33621,140,241,33352,1226,2214,31022,7796,9042,43816,6031,1,50752,"FO2","ST" 31,39,1,2,6,56,40,"DAYTON PWR & LGT CO (THE)","KILLEN",0,"BIT COAL",4922,"0M",1294,,,95,396655,162048,146219,299969,123570,141430,380134,154283,172985,326056,132202,166969,335211,138111,191956,337194,139038,170239,357281,145509,178055,407089,168349,129255,293108,123208,110897,435673,179182,98466,52201,22774,186101,115941,32572,227624,6031,1,50752,"BIT","ST" 31,39,1,2,2,133,10,"OHIO EDISON CO","EDGEWATER",0,"LIGHT OIL",13998,"0M",1294,"A",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,255,723,33,159,366,33,0,0,0,308,793,33,68,152,33,5,124,33,27,86,33,7,17,33,1286,2860,33,3,6,33,2857,1,52154,"FO2","ST" 31,39,1,2,9,133,10,"OHIO EDISON CO","EDGEWATER",0,"NAT GAS",13998,"0M",394,,,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,7097,98907,0,15050,194824,0,0,0,0,5911,86537,0,13656,173637,0,24053,289252,0,13182,151945,0,7495,97750,0,13698,169535,0,9290,104799,0,2857,1,52154,"NG","ST" 31,39,1,4,2,133,10,"OHIO EDISON CO","EDGEWATER",0,"LIGHT OIL",13998,"0M",1294,,,95,39,51,10875,58,329,9555,-8,73,8938,-14,44,9839,0,0,9464,200,693,10736,984,3224,10487,1718,5378,9687,120,437,8935,-17,0,8918,15,18,8748,20,140,9834,2857,1,52154,"FO2","GT" 31,39,1,2,2,133,15,"OHIO EDISON CO","GORGE STEAM",0,"LIGHT OIL",13998,"0M",1294,"S",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2858,1,52154,"FO2","ST" 31,39,1,2,6,133,15,"OHIO EDISON CO","GORGE STEAM",0,"BIT COAL",13998,"0M",1294,"S",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2858,1,52154,"BIT","ST" 31,39,1,4,2,133,30,"OHIO EDISON CO","MAD RIVER",0,"LIGHT OIL",13998,"0M",1294,,,95,-78,0,15547,-26,273,15273,-54,0,15273,-54,0,15273,363,2822,15479,99,426,15053,1080,3857,14177,3295,9983,13051,179,602,14577,62,386,15260,60,421,14839,73,357,15562,2860,1,52154,"FO2","GT" 31,39,1,2,2,133,43,"OHIO EDISON CO","NILES",0,"LIGHT OIL",13998,"0M",1294,,,95,5,9,253,86,166,190,142,266,280,33,64,216,17,38,406,275,522,253,67,130,224,50,97,303,45,88,221,63,123,320,28,54,266,27,53,213,2861,1,52154,"FO2","ST" 31,39,1,2,6,133,43,"OHIO EDISON CO","NILES",0,"BIT COAL",13998,"0M",1294,,,95,123871,55965,73387,98573,45856,68795,100911,45527,84171,102317,46469,88241,6938,3797,109930,76341,34497,104722,105408,49207,76769,73326,33732,70283,103996,47562,47231,111221,52359,33613,108872,49872,33134,113766,51273,29923,2861,1,52154,"BIT","ST" 31,39,1,4,2,133,43,"OHIO EDISON CO","NILES",0,"LIGHT OIL",13998,"0M",1294,,,95,55,295,7474,75,333,7682,-36,56,7626,-41,0,7626,-25,30,7596,100,416,7180,647,2274,6851,1403,4579,5630,65,256,6970,-7,118,6852,3,124,6728,61,335,7293,2861,1,52154,"FO2","GT" 31,39,1,2,2,133,45,"OHIO EDISON CO","R E BURGER",0,"LIGHT OIL",13998,"0M",1294,,,95,101,204,570,57,119,629,70,132,675,95,173,502,63,117,562,95,188,374,81,156,558,51,100,633,44,83,549,46,91,458,2,3,632,119,296,336,2864,1,52154,"FO2","ST" 31,39,1,2,6,133,45,"OHIO EDISON CO","R E BURGER",0,"BIT COAL",13998,"0M",1294,,,95,220103,104240,157034,164294,78521,184267,126512,54034,193327,150997,63973,186573,81596,35961,201217,96775,43949,193287,127163,56391,181386,166656,74197,142563,130934,57102,99030,67387,30839,87088,93946,40429,64542,82572,48775,54306,2864,1,52154,"BIT","ST" 31,39,1,3,2,133,45,"OHIO EDISON CO","R E BURGER",0,"LIGHT OIL",13998,"0M",1294,,,95,7,10,1284,23,46,1417,9,11,1407,0,0,1407,0,0,1407,34,84,1323,236,429,1243,566,1044,904,17,35,1224,23,43,1181,0,0,1181,30,77,1647,2864,1,52154,"FO2","IC" 31,39,1,2,2,133,57,"OHIO EDISON CO","W H SAMMIS",0,"LIGHT OIL",13998,"0M",1294,,,95,1482,2546,867,528,903,1046,558,954,844,550,932,638,695,1199,912,544,955,1493,706,1274,1304,451,1354,1217,1142,2017,1181,1316,2293,1036,94,160,983,2104,3601,973,2866,1,52154,"FO2","ST" 31,39,1,2,6,133,57,"OHIO EDISON CO","W H SAMMIS",0,"BIT COAL",13998,"0M",1294,,,95,1276095,514756,525945,1279324,511426,457910,1239563,502275,472374,1278563,515393,459047,1160892,479648,563045,1211972,504994,605054,1203599,510803,549162,1367687,590999,470321,991825,414819,354704,1017793,422778,445492,1052538,422578,399901,1094820,447068,288610,2866,1,52154,"BIT","ST" 31,39,1,3,2,133,57,"OHIO EDISON CO","W H SAMMIS",0,"LIGHT OIL",13998,"0M",1294,,,95,21,47,2208,62,132,2422,24,52,2506,21,51,2619,18,49,2690,84,169,2569,424,916,2504,994,1895,1445,56,115,2687,17,62,1885,61,120,2363,49,78,2264,2866,1,52154,"FO2","IC" 31,39,1,5,2,133,80,"OHIO EDISON CO","W LORAIN JO",0,"LIGHT OIL",13998,"0M",1294,"S",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2869,1,52154,"FO2","CC" 31,39,1,6,2,133,80,"OHIO EDISON CO","W LORAIN JO",0,"LIGHT OIL",13998,"0M",1294,"A",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,18,114,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2869,1,52154,"FO2","CT" 31,39,1,2,2,141,28,"OHIO POWER CO","MUSKINGUM R",0,"LIGHT OIL",14006,"0M",1294,,364,95,3882,6525,18086,2171,3713,17991,1663,2732,19038,2100,3500,20732,2616,4271,21458,2357,4274,22882,1323,2298,23072,3025,5284,24028,1082,2039,25141,1349,2367,24554,1527,2671,21638,6433,9974,10617,2872,1,54028,"FO2","ST" 31,39,1,2,6,141,28,"OHIO POWER CO","MUSKINGUM R",0,"BIT COAL",14006,"0M",1294,,364,95,535201,215186,421884,537048,220375,419768,597967,235236,427281,521184,207858,375208,449068,175136,430680,464394,194776,458208,580017,239178,402984,570215,237224,362814,265479,117802,367772,240284,100504,368567,286463,120853,342833,504050,190482,323803,2872,1,54028,"BIT","ST" 31,39,1,2,2,141,30,"OHIO POWER CO","GAVIN",0,"LIGHT OIL",14006,"0M",1294,,364,95,3763,6775,47403,769,1320,46083,4239,7491,38592,399,722,37870,719,1203,36667,2089,3543,33123,1042,1767,31357,1100,2128,29229,787,1372,39659,1447,2509,37150,1827,3076,34074,190,326,33748,8102,1,54028,"FO2","ST" 31,39,1,2,6,141,30,"OHIO POWER CO","GAVIN",0,"BIT COAL",14006,"0M",1294,,364,95,64858,30038,1931820,651490,284413,2186971,988276,436625,1888556,1196488,552083,1872871,1419448,615414,1838157,1182854,513910,1760692,1417031,613808,1615051,1643009,713610,1363516,1514789,657244,1159863,1269184,559173,1152059,1395530,601427,1176037,1375641,605361,1157372,8102,1,54028,"BIT","ST" 31,39,1,1,,141,35,"OHIO POWER CO","RACINE",0,,14006,"0M",1294,,364,95,18331,0,0,19396,0,0,21002,0,0,26318,0,0,19638,0,0,23776,0,0,16330,0,0,12023,0,0,7551,0,0,14526,0,0,23751,0,0,24817,0,0,6006,1,54028,"WAT","HY" 31,39,1,2,6,141,40,"OHIO POWER CO","TIDD",0,"BIT COAL",14006,"0M",1294,"S",364,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2874,1,54028,"BIT","ST" 31,39,1,2,2,147,1,"OHIO VALLEY ELEC CORP","KYGER CREEK",0,"LIGHT OIL",14015,"0M",1294,,506,95,214,364,1335,346,582,1079,478,772,930,80,131,1631,298,520,1248,203,342,1489,97,168,1464,0,0,1642,55,92,1550,582,973,577,236,390,1258,83,146,1373,2876,1,52156,"FO2","ST" 31,39,1,2,6,147,1,"OHIO VALLEY ELEC CORP","KYGER CREEK",0,"BIT COAL",14015,"0M",1294,,506,95,702913,271965,605907,555922,215202,643003,623778,230327,685798,645615,237897,675827,712862,278407,639864,676683,252935,580389,702720,270228,524058,722985,274975,470824,637930,231881,406765,609383,225508,431319,645928,235364,421426,715380,277692,649924,2876,1,52156,"BIT","ST" 31,39,1,2,1,168,1,"TOLEDO EDISON CO (THE)","DAVIS-BESSE",0,"NUCLEAR",18997,"0M",1294,,,95,658580,0,0,596841,0,0,657111,0,0,620608,0,0,643953,0,0,629968,0,0,645923,0,0,643124,0,0,630210,0,0,652469,0,0,633467,0,0,645496,0,0,6149,1,52927,"UR","ST" 31,39,1,2,2,168,9,"TOLEDO EDISON CO (THE)","ACME",0,"PROPANE",18997,"0M",1294,"S",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2877,1,52927,"FO2","ST" 31,39,1,2,6,168,9,"TOLEDO EDISON CO (THE)","ACME",0,"BIT COAL",18997,"0M",1294,"S",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2877,1,52927,"BIT","ST" 31,39,1,2,9,168,9,"TOLEDO EDISON CO (THE)","ACME",0,"NAT GAS",18997,"0M",1294,"S",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2877,1,52927,"NG","ST" 31,39,1,2,2,168,11,"TOLEDO EDISON CO (THE)","BAY SHORE",0,"LIGHT OIL",18997,"0M",1294,,,95,136,448,525,273,439,445,156,255,550,380,622,464,160,607,393,170,407,521,159,530,700,226,457,598,155,367,588,238,402,364,76,315,588,112,197,572,2878,1,52927,"FO2","ST" 31,39,1,2,6,168,11,"TOLEDO EDISON CO (THE)","BAY SHORE",0,"BIT COAL",18997,"0M",1294,,,95,271495,103216,169716,328463,121979,150035,259418,97335,167411,220548,81660,204738,228937,86543,252579,283830,108691,226673,265296,101256,155041,323077,180415,73781,309205,109740,75119,176674,67648,106761,254611,97258,111939,278242,107020,82847,2878,1,52927,"BIT","ST" 31,39,1,4,2,168,11,"TOLEDO EDISON CO (THE)","BAY SHORE",0,"LIGHT OIL",18997,"0M",1294,,,95,14,64,566,36,59,688,0,0,782,14,24,758,0,0,758,17,30,1086,46,267,997,175,646,886,8,62,825,2,5,820,0,19,979,1,53,926,2878,1,52927,"FO2","GT" 31,39,1,4,2,168,18,"TOLEDO EDISON CO (THE)","RICHLAND",0,"LIGHT OIL",18997,"0M",1294,,,95,0,40,2793,0,0,2793,0,0,2793,0,25,2768,0,3,2764,27,124,2641,49,260,2380,192,729,1652,0,0,1652,0,44,1607,0,0,2325,0,0,2325,2880,1,52927,"FO2","GT" 31,39,1,4,9,168,18,"TOLEDO EDISON CO (THE)","RICHLAND",0,"NAT GAS",18997,"0M",1294,,,95,0,276,0,0,594,0,0,324,0,0,621,0,0,756,0,25,675,0,71,2079,0,345,7385,0,0,215,0,0,3046,0,0,92,0,2,392,0,2880,1,52927,"NG","GT" 31,39,1,4,2,168,19,"TOLEDO EDISON CO (THE)","STRYKER",0,"LIGHT OIL",18997,"0M",1294,,,95,10,159,1191,0,0,1191,0,0,1191,0,0,1191,0,0,1191,0,0,1191,0,0,1191,0,8,1183,0,0,1183,16,41,1142,0,0,92,0,29,1113,2881,1,52927,"FO2","GT" 31,39,5,3,2,522,1,"ARCANUM (CITY OF)","ARCANUM",0,"LIGHT OIL",768,"0A",1294,,,95,27,51,203,49,90,186,15,31,155,4,8,148,3,5,143,17,33,110,14,27,82,52,101,101,4,8,93,3,6,87,4,13,74,8,21,171,2902,1,50096,"FO2","IC" 31,39,5,3,2,552,1,"BRYAN (CITY OF)","BRYAN",0,"LIGHT OIL",2439,"0M",1294,,,95,14,23,355,14,25,329,0,0,329,178,304,378,39,68,310,12,21,289,145,250,215,87,158,235,29,50,179,16,27,153,37,63,268,9,32,237,2903,1,50356,"FO2","IC" 31,39,5,4,2,552,1,"BRYAN (CITY OF)","BRYAN",0,"LIGHT OIL",2439,"0M",1294,,,95,22,50,6950,0,0,6950,2,156,6795,0,0,6790,0,0,6790,0,0,6790,0,0,6790,0,0,6790,0,0,6760,0,0,6720,6,12,6690,1,5,6682,2903,1,50356,"FO2","GT" 31,39,5,4,9,552,1,"BRYAN (CITY OF)","BRYAN",0,"NAT GAS",2439,"0M",1294,,,95,22,566,0,82,2330,0,0,0,0,254,4926,0,3992,62915,0,6018,86797,0,4936,89292,0,8968,190437,0,6094,104355,0,104,2299,0,132,2762,0,420,8161,0,2903,1,50356,"NG","GT" 31,39,5,4,2,561,2,"CLEVELAND (CITY OF)","COLLINWOOD",0,"LIGHT OIL",3762,"0M",1294,,,95,0,1,1070,0,4,1066,83,263,803,0,0,803,4,238,565,0,0,922,0,0,922,50,256,1022,0,0,1022,0,0,1022,0,0,1022,0,0,1022,2906,1,50589,"FO2","GT" 31,39,5,4,9,561,2,"CLEVELAND (CITY OF)","COLLINWOOD",0,"NAT GAS",3762,"0M",1294,,,95,27,729,0,0,0,0,1,32,0,0,33,0,0,0,0,674,8563,0,274,8962,0,32,941,0,17,380,0,0,3,0,0,7,0,0,4,0,2906,1,50589,"NG","GT" 31,39,5,2,2,561,10,"CLEVELAND (CITY OF)","LAKE ROAD",0,"LIGHT OIL",3762,"0M",1294,"S",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2908,1,50589,"FO2","ST" 31,39,5,2,6,561,10,"CLEVELAND (CITY OF)","LAKE ROAD",0,"BIT COAL",3762,"0M",1294,"S",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2908,1,50589,"BIT","ST" 31,39,5,4,2,561,20,"CLEVELAND (CITY OF)","W 41ST ST",0,"LIGHT OIL",3762,"0M",1294,,,95,0,1,1995,0,0,1994,0,0,1994,0,0,1993,0,0,1993,0,0,1992,0,1,1992,0,1,1991,0,0,1990,0,0,1990,0,1,1989,0,0,1989,2909,1,50589,"FO2","GT" 31,39,5,4,9,561,20,"CLEVELAND (CITY OF)","W 41ST ST",0,"NAT GAS",3762,"0M",1294,,,95,477,14950,0,526,10745,0,431,12673,0,247,6523,0,221,6443,0,340,8176,0,1197,15109,0,4074,94135,0,593,26459,0,537,13366,0,668,16240,0,628,17345,0,2909,1,50589,"NG","GT" 31,39,5,2,6,579,1,"DOVER (CITY OF)","DOVER",0,"BIT COAL",5336,"0M",1294,,,95,7510,5164,474,5838,3935,612,7700,4900,592,6987,4742,130,0,7,150,0,0,623,5223,3579,213,7330,5046,506,6122,4199,218,2658,1764,200,6852,5320,346,7262,4963,413,2914,1,50806,"BIT","ST" 31,39,5,2,9,579,1,"DOVER (CITY OF)","DOVER",0,"NAT GAS",5336,"0M",794,,,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,27,403,0,884,12716,0,410,6737,0,110,1163,0,663,9798,0,637,9130,0,2914,1,50806,"NG","ST" 31,39,5,3,2,579,1,"DOVER (CITY OF)","DOVER",0,"LIGHT OIL",5336,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,66,0,0,66,4,9,61,0,0,66,0,0,57,18,228,79,36,74,109,29,75,101,0,0,101,0,0,101,0,0,101,0,0,101,2914,1,50806,"FO2","IC" 31,39,5,4,9,579,5,"DOVER (CITY OF)","DOVER",0,"NAT GAS",5336,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,65,1022,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,48,698,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2914,1,50806,"NG","GT" 31,39,5,2,2,605,1,"HAMILTON (CITY OF)","HAM MUN EL",0,"LIGHT OIL",7977,"0M",1294,,,95,5,11,1751,1,3,1749,1,4,1747,1,5,1744,1,4,1743,4,10,1737,3,7,1734,4,9,1730,4,11,1724,1,4,1722,1,6,1719,7,16,1711,2917,1,51225,"FO2","ST" 31,39,5,2,6,605,1,"HAMILTON (CITY OF)","HAM MUN EL",0,"BIT COAL",7977,"0M",1294,,,95,22703,11176,13737,252,146,15989,5474,3315,16142,8640,5428,12982,9803,5101,7881,11553,6584,1297,16363,9478,2000,22973,9375,5688,24478,13592,4621,4956,3752,6715,4870,4046,7024,23079,11772,7422,2917,1,51225,"BIT","ST" 31,39,5,2,9,605,1,"HAMILTON (CITY OF)","HAM MUN EL",0,"NAT GAS",7977,"0M",1294,,,95,157,1874,0,13990,195116,0,5260,76784,0,483,7231,0,4563,57272,0,9310,123945,0,17338,207709,0,14384,141922,0,1816,24404,0,676,12116,0,270,5334,0,784,9339,0,2917,1,51225,"NG","ST" 31,39,5,4,2,605,1,"HAMILTON (CITY OF)","HAM MUN EL",0,"LIGHT OIL",7977,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,1751,0,0,1749,0,0,1748,0,0,1745,0,0,1742,0,0,1738,0,0,1735,0,0,1730,0,0,1725,0,0,1723,0,0,1719,0,0,1711,2917,1,51225,"FO2","GT" 31,39,5,4,9,605,1,"HAMILTON (CITY OF)","HAM MUN EL",0,"NAT GAS",7977,"0M",1294,,,95,11,142,0,174,2439,0,83,1220,0,26,393,0,18,234,0,55,745,0,1064,12754,0,1170,28673,0,18,250,0,134,2411,0,10,207,0,18,217,0,2917,1,51225,"NG","GT" 31,39,5,1,,605,5,"HAMILTON (CITY OF)","HMLTN HYDRO",0,,7977,"0M",1294,"R",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,7807,1,51225,"WAT","HY" 31,39,5,3,2,629,1,"LEBANON (CITY OF)","LEBANON",0,"LIGHT OIL",10830,"0M",1294,,,95,3,23,1067,0,0,1067,90,268,799,0,0,799,0,0,799,0,0,799,29,63,734,52,106,805,0,0,805,0,0,805,0,0,805,0,0,805,2921,1,51615,"FO2","IC" 31,39,5,4,2,629,1,"LEBANON (CITY OF)","LEBANON",0,"LIGHT OIL",10830,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2921,1,51615,"FO2","GT" 31,39,5,3,2,684,1,"OBERLIN (CITY OF)","OBERLIN",0,"LIGHT OIL",13949,"0A",1294,,,95,5,65,637,21,41,596,0,37,558,8,17,528,0,0,509,33,80,429,17,210,218,239,528,405,11,41,364,8,17,348,194,525,358,145,391,324,2933,1,52140,"FO2","IC" 31,39,5,3,9,684,1,"OBERLIN (CITY OF)","OBERLIN",0,"NAT GAS",13949,"0A",1294,,,95,275,2724,0,260,2802,0,5,1676,0,75,826,0,13,132,0,200,1734,0,339,3535,0,552,5958,0,39,487,0,82,884,0,969,9721,0,63,1533,0,2933,1,52140,"NG","IC" 31,39,5,2,6,689,1,"ORRVILLE (CITY OF)","ORRVILLE",0,"BIT COAL",14194,"0M",1294,,,95,30925,20332,2401,27128,23359,528,19190,7163,1721,22147,13962,524,29670,13038,1437,23583,15893,1741,24259,14697,2641,28372,19561,2485,22121,14691,1281,18235,13105,1557,28993,15643,959,24197,16177,783,2935,1,52192,"BIT","ST" 31,39,5,2,9,689,1,"ORRVILLE (CITY OF)","ORRVILLE",0,"NAT GAS",14194,"0M",1294,,,95,45,744,0,42,811,0,122,1020,0,127,1797,0,112,1116,0,51,780,0,63,856,0,72,1126,0,22,331,0,46,762,0,78,961,0,76,1181,0,2935,1,52192,"NG","ST" 31,39,5,2,2,691,1,"PAINESVILLE (CITY OF)","PAINESVILLE",0,"LIGHT OIL",14381,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,1518,0,0,1518,0,0,1518,36,100,1776,5,13,1762,0,0,1048,0,0,1762,25,73,1689,25,73,1616,4,14,1602,17,53,1548,10,20,1528,2936,1,52227,"FO2","ST" 31,39,5,2,6,691,1,"PAINESVILLE (CITY OF)","PAINESVILLE",0,"BIT COAL",14381,"0M",1294,,,95,17099,10622,1607,15231,10037,2990,13188,8922,6467,12361,8060,7830,13138,7996,7962,15287,8544,8154,15901,9966,8093,12362,8310,8580,11176,7757,8780,11298,8213,9293,8336,6116,9293,7235,5099,7825,2936,1,52227,"BIT","ST" 31,39,5,2,9,691,1,"PAINESVILLE (CITY OF)","PAINESVILLE",0,"NAT GAS",14381,"0M",1294,,,95,16,258,0,29,464,0,152,2440,0,67,1072,0,27,394,0,18,254,0,42,658,0,113,1904,0,81,1386,0,46,839,0,100,1812,0,97,1715,0,2936,1,52227,"NG","ST" 31,39,5,2,2,700,10,"PIQUA (CITY OF)","PIQUA",0,"LIGHT OIL",15095,"0M",1294,,,95,0,1,33,1,9,24,0,0,35,1,7,27,0,0,32,0,1,31,0,1,30,0,0,30,0,0,30,0,4,26,0,3,23,1,6,36,2937,1,52334,"FO2","ST" 31,39,5,2,6,700,10,"PIQUA (CITY OF)","PIQUA",0,"BIT COAL",15095,"0M",1294,,,95,2963,3832,1560,2779,3526,1061,2427,2994,1038,1970,2648,582,2418,2789,195,1914,2556,734,1374,2211,15,1611,2421,41,1481,2312,382,2468,3140,627,2650,3515,1751,2688,3569,2090,2937,1,52334,"BIT","ST" 31,39,5,4,2,700,10,"PIQUA (CITY OF)","PIQUA",0,"LIGHT OIL",15095,"0M",1294,,,95,24,119,2949,51,239,3071,-37,127,2947,119,588,2896,109,897,3032,277,1359,2730,469,2758,2645,595,2956,2720,-11,101,2619,37,176,2979,59,288,3048,121,591,2992,2937,1,52334,"FO2","GT" 31,39,5,2,6,722,1,"SAINT MARYS (CITY OF)","ST MARYS",0,"BIT COAL",17891,"0M",1294,,,95,1250,698,645,3927,2565,332,4111,3269,140,0,0,150,0,0,150,1641,1050,490,5298,3368,489,222,149,638,1630,1068,419,4646,3274,449,4461,2807,449,4928,3119,495,2942,1,52789,"BIT","ST" 31,39,5,4,2,722,1,"SAINT MARYS (CITY OF)","ST MARYS",0,"LIGHT OIL",17891,"0M",1294,,,95,1,12,318,0,0,307,28,146,352,0,0,352,0,0,352,1,4,348,59,83,428,3,8,420,1,24,396,0,0,520,1,3,518,2,6,512,2942,1,52789,"FO2","GT" 31,39,5,2,6,726,1,"SHELBY (CITY OF)","SHELBY",0,"BIT COAL",17043,"0M",1294,,,95,8039,5710,300,7249,5098,300,7132,4852,300,6141,3985,300,6694,4389,300,8103,4859,300,6796,4831,300,7378,5266,0,6897,3944,300,6844,4580,300,7615,5188,300,8726,5206,300,2943,1,52637,"BIT","ST" 31,39,5,2,9,726,1,"SHELBY (CITY OF)","SHELBY",0,"NAT GAS",17043,"0M",1294,,,95,134,1996,0,47,686,0,36,517,0,9,134,0,0,0,0,30,381,0,96,1415,0,11,164,0,19,230,0,41,576,0,48,685,0,44,555,0,2943,1,52637,"NG","ST" 31,39,5,3,2,726,1,"SHELBY (CITY OF)","SHELBY",0,"LIGHT OIL",17043,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,73,0,0,73,0,0,73,0,0,103,0,0,103,0,0,103,1,5,93,1,4,83,2,5,78,0,1,77,0,1,76,0,1,45,2943,1,52637,"FO2","IC" 31,39,5,3,9,726,1,"SHELBY (CITY OF)","SHELBY",0,"NAT GAS",17043,"0M",1294,,,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2943,1,52637,"NG","IC" 31,39,5,3,2,774,1,"WOODSFIELD (CITY OF)","WOODSFIELD",0,"LIGHT OIL",20977,"0A",1294,"S",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2945,1,53350,"FO2","IC" 31,39,5,3,9,774,1,"WOODSFIELD (CITY OF)","WOODSFIELD",0,"NAT GAS",20977,"0A",1294,"S",,95,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2945,1,53350,"NG","IC" 31,39,8,2,6,800,1,"AMER MUN POWER-OHIO INC","R GORSUCH",0,"BIT COAL",40577,"0M",1294,,,95,99037,64265,81413,104738,67228,84252,126378,79745,86718,63579,42733,100556,123281,76701,94920,115392,69307,101317,117333,72018,101225,121473,79176,86641,108722,66669,90892,126955,78956,87022,103717,67360,86260,126485,80616,78276,7286,1,58910,"BIT","ST" 31,39,8,2,9,800,1,"AMER MUN POWER-OHIO INC","R GORSUCH",0,"NAT GAS",40577,"0M",1294,,,95,1576,22702,0,1469,21157,0,638,9083,0,541,8226,0,767,10634,0,1094,14686,0,877,12191,0,505,7352,0,810,11188,0,528,7439,0,733,10544,0,821,11624,0,7286,1,58910,"NG","ST" 32,18,1,2,6,25,1,"COMMONWEALTH ED CO IND","STATE LINE",0,"BIT COAL",4111,"0M",1294,,101,95,111368,64033,111935,149730,82697,41943,169301,90886,94463,49952,30907,197006,107334,61118,203229,185763,102059,199201,147171,80912,167481,211732,117972,103696,93902,54629,131796,97942,56647,95060,141995,78255,74660,93050,52182,100094,981,4,54003,"BIT","ST" 32,18,1,2,9,25,1,"COMMONWEALTH ED CO IND","STATE LINE",0,"NAT GAS",4111,"0M",1294,,101,95,6077,64670,0,5326,53012,0,4895,48146,0,1349,14775,0,4538,48258,0,4988,51500,0,4470,45645,0,4498,45907,0,2972,32243,0,3706,39699,0,5098,51893,0,3793,39849,0,981,4,54003,"NG","ST" 32,18,1,2,2,45,1,"INDIANA-KENTUCKY EL CORP","CLIFTY CRK",0,"LIGHT OIL",9269,"0M",1294,,505,95,186,351,3905,152,276,3630,241,444,3700,377,692,3522,263,551,3142,200,360,3468,175,320,4005,93,171,4177,112,189,3988,183,330,3658,234,419,3925,187,321,3947,983,1,54010,"FO2","ST" 32,18,1,2,6,45,1,"INDIANA-KENTUCKY EL CORP","CLIFTY CRK",0,"BIT COAL",9269,"0M",1294,,505,95,680000,340288,711560,681685,332462,794224,771872,377298,719124,715568,349771,7