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Sample records for royal crest mobile

  1. CREST HPX

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HPX » CREST HPX CREST HPX CREST HPX or HPX-5 is the High Performance ParalleX runtime library from the Center for Research in Extreme Scale Technology (CREST) at Indiana University for petascale/exascale computing. Building on CREST's commitment to developing new approaches for achieving the highest levels of performance on current and next-generation supercomputing platforms, CREST HPX is provided to support the international high-performance computing community in addressing significant

  2. Royal Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Royal Wind Place: Denver, Colorado Sector: Wind energy Product: Vertical Wind Turbines Year Founded: 2008 Website: www.RoyalWindTurbines.com Coordinates: 39.7391536,...

  3. CREST Geothermal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CREST Geothermal Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: CREST Geothermal AgencyCompany Organization: Sustainable Energy Advantage Partner: NREL Sector: Energy...

  4. CrestEnergy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CrestEnergy Jump to: navigation, search Name: CrestEnergy Region: New Zealand Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Website: www.crest-energy.com This company is listed in the Marine and...

  5. Royal Centurion: Order (2012-CE-3608)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Royal Centurion, Inc., to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Royal Centurion had failed to certify that certain models of dehumidifiers comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  6. EA-342 Royal Bank of Canada | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon EA-342 Royal Bank of Canada More Documents & Publications EA-342-A Royal Bank of Canada EA-330 The Royal Bank of Scotland plc EA-330-A The Royal Bank of Scotland plc

  7. Royal Centurion: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-3608)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Royal Centurion, Inc., failed to certify two dehumidifiers as compliant with the energy conservation standards.

  8. Royal Energy Limited REL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (REL) Place: Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Zip: 400 016 Product: Mumbai-based ethanol and biodiesel producer. References: Royal Energy Limited (REL)1 This article is a stub. You...

  9. Royal Pacific: Order (2013-SE-33004)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Royal Pacific, Ltd. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Royal Pacific had failed to certify that various basic models of medium base compact fluorescent lamps, ceiling fans, ceiling fan light kits, and illuminated exit signs comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  10. Royal Pacific: Proposed Penalty (2013-SE-33004)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Royal Pacific, Ltd. failed to certify ceiling fans, ceiling fan light kits, medium base compact fluorescent lamps, and illuminated exit signs as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  11. Taylor Elected to Royal Society of London

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SLAC, 28 May 1997 Taylor Elected to Royal Society of London Richard Taylor, physics professor at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and 1990 Nobel Prize winner, was recently elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London, an independent scientific academy founded in 1660 by Christopher Wren, Robert Boyle and Robert Moray. Each year forty new Fellows are elected by merit, not field, and membership is limited to those who are citizens of the Great Britain or the British Commonwealth. Up to

  12. Crest Global Green Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Green Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Crest Global Green Energy Place: County Durham, England, United Kingdom Zip: SR7 7EU Product: UK-based biofuel company with...

  13. EA-330 The Royal Bank of Scotland plc | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Royal Bank of Scotland plc EA-330 The Royal Bank of Scotland plc Order authorizing The Royal Bank of Scotland plc to export electric energy to Canada PDF icon EA-330 The Royal ...

  14. EA-342-A Royal Bank of Canada | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -A Royal Bank of Canada EA-342-A Royal Bank of Canada Order authorizing Royal Bank of Canada to export electric energy to Canada. PDF icon EA-342-A RBC (CN).pdf More Documents & Publications EA-328-A RBC Energy Services LP Application to Export Electric Energy OE Docket No. EA-328-A RBC Energy Services LP EA-97-D Portland General Electric Company

  15. Royal Agricultural and Horticultural Society of South Australia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agricultural and Horticultural Society of South Australia Jump to: navigation, search Name: Royal Agricultural and Horticultural Society of South Australia Place: South Australia,...

  16. Town of Front Royal, Virginia (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Royal Place: Virginia Phone Number: 540-635-3027 Website: www.frontroyalva.comtown-serv Twitter: @townfrontroyal Facebook: https:www.facebook.comfrontroyalva Outage...

  17. Cedar Crest, New Mexico: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Crest, New Mexico: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 35.1075459, -106.3728019 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingser...

  18. Green Harbor-Cedar Crest, Massachusetts: Energy Resources | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Harbor-Cedar Crest, Massachusetts: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 42.0765351, -70.6603435 Show Map Loading map......

  19. EA-330-A The Royal Bank of Scotland plc | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -A The Royal Bank of Scotland plc EA-330-A The Royal Bank of Scotland plc Order authorizing The Royal Bank of Scotland plc to export electric energy to Canada PDF icon EA-330-A The ...

  20. EA-331-A The Royal Bank of Scotland plc | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EA-331-A The Royal Bank of Scotland plc Order authorizing The Royal Bank of Scotland plc to export eelctric energy to Mexico PDF icon EA-331-A The Royal Bank of Scotland plc More ...

  1. EA-331 The Royal Bank of Scotland plc | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EA-331 The Royal Bank of Scotland plc Order authorizing The Royal Bank of Scotland plc to export electric energy to Mexico PDF icon EA-331 The Royal Bank of Scotland plc More ...

  2. Himalayan Crest Power Pvt Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pvt. Ltd. Place: Delhi (NCT), India Zip: 110020 Sector: Hydro Product: Okhla-based small hydro project developer. References: Himalayan Crest Power Pvt. Ltd.1 This article is a...

  3. MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 3 |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy hughes3.pdf More Documents & Publications MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 4 MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 2

  4. MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 4 |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy hughes4.pdf More Documents & Publications MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 2 MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 3

  5. MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 2 |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy PDF icon 2002_deer_hughes2.pdf More Documents & Publications MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 1 MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 4

  6. Diesel Engine CO2 and SOx Emission Compliance Strategy for the Royal Navy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (RN) and Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) Flotillas | Department of Energy Poster presentation from the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_olivier.pdf More Documents & Publications MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 1 Cleaning Up Diesel Engines Vessel

  7. Mobile Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2009-2010 Shouxian, China, 2008 Black Forest, Germany, 2007 Niamey, Niger, 2006 Point Reyes, California, 2005 Mobile Facilities Pictured here in Gan, the second mobile facility...

  8. MOBILITY AGREEMENT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MOBILITY AGREEMENT I hereby acknowledge that, as a condition of my employment as a Criminal Investigator with the Department of Energy, Office of Inspector General, I may be required to relocate to an OIG office in another geographic location based on the needs of the organization. I understand that my failure to accept such a directed reassignment could be a basis for my separation from the service. _______________________________ Signature Date

  9. Study for the replacement of Kodak Royal-X Pan film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunker, F.J.

    1989-08-01

    Kodak Royal-X Pan (RXP) film has been the prime film for oscilloscope camera recording at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) since 1962. Kodak discontinued making this film in 1987, however, so it became necessary to find a substitute that had as many of the photographic characteristics of RXP as possible --- spectral sensitivity, image quality, recording speed, base plus fog background density, and processing parameters. (RXP and Kodak 857 developer will continue being used at NTS until the film supply is exhausted.) RXP 2{1/4} {times} 3{1/4}-inch film has been the film of choice for oscillography at NTS because of its sensitivity to the blue radiation from P-11 phosphor, which constitutes the coating of oscilloscope tubes, and its ability to record fast transient occurrences, such as oscilloscope traces, in or near nanosecond exposure times. 1 ref., 40 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Benefits of Using Mobile Transformers and Mobile Substations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Mobile Transformers and Mobile Substations for Rapidly Restoring Electrical Service: ... Benefits of Using Mobile Transformers and Mobile Substations for Rapidly Restoring ...

  11. Cooperating mobile robots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  12. MobileMatch App

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MobileMatch VolunteerMatch Mobile App MobileMatch is a mobile extension (app) to LANL's VolunteerMatch site that allows volunteers to search, sign up and track hours. Contact Giving Campaigns & Volunteering Debbi Wersonick Community Relations & Partnerships (505) 667-7870 Email Engage anytime, anywhere with this easy and intuitive tool! Using MobileMatch app is easy mobilematch-app Now LANL volunteers can search, sign up and track hours right on their mobile device. Get on the Volunteer

  13. Ion mobility sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Jun; Watson, David B.; Whitten, William B.

    2013-01-22

    An ion mobility sensor system including an ion mobility spectrometer and a differential mobility spectrometer coupled to the ion mobility spectrometer. The ion mobility spectrometer has a first chamber having first end and a second end extending along a first direction, and a first electrode system that generates a constant electric field parallel to the first direction. The differential mobility spectrometer includes a second chamber having a third end and a fourth end configured such that a fluid may flow in a second direction from the third end to the fourth end, and a second electrode system that generates an asymmetric electric field within an interior of the second chamber. Additionally, the ion mobility spectrometer and the differential mobility spectrometer form an interface region. Also, the first end and the third end are positioned facing one another so that the constant electric field enters the third end and overlaps the fluid flowing in the second direction.

  14. Tandem mobile robot system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.

    2003-01-01

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  15. Sex ratios, bill deformities, and PCBs in nestling double-crested cormorants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stromborg, K.L. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Green Bay, WI (United States); Sileo, L. [National Biological Service, Madison, WI (United States); Tuinen, P. van [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Deformed double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) nestlings examined from 1988--1992 had a sex ratio highly skewed toward females (66 of 81) compared to normal nestlings (43 of 80) (P < 0.005). The collection site, Green Bay, WI, is heavily contaminated with PCBs and the possibility of gender alteration was investigated in a designed study by comparing the sex of nestling birds determined using three techniques. These nestlings were collected at five sites, both contaminated and uncontaminated. Genetic sex was determined by cytogenetic techniques and phenotypic sex was determined by macroscopic and histologic examination of gonads. Differences between techniques resulted in a few instances of classifying genetic males as females by one or the other gonadal examinations. Sex ratios of the nestlings from the five sites were compared to binomial distributions assuming equal probabilities of males and females. Sex ratios of normal nestlings were not different from expected regardless of sex determination technique (P > 0.10). Deformed nestlings sexed cytogenetically or histologically did not differ from expected (P > 0.40), but deformed nestlings tended to be classified , macroscopically as females at a higher rate than expected (P = 0.092). The observed sex ratios obtained by macroscopic techniques did not differ between the 1968--1992 observational study and the designed study (P > 0.50). Histologic examination suggested two explanations for the skewed sex ratio: nestlings with undeterminable macroscopic sex usually had testes and, some gonads which grossly resembled ovaries were, in fact, testes. If phenotypic gender alteration is present in these birds, it is more evident at the gross structural level than at the histologic level.

  16. Mobile Technology Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2014-05-15

    The order establishes requirements, assigns responsibilities, and provides guidance for federal mobile technology management and employee use of both government furnished and personally-owned mobile devices within DOE and NNSA. Establishes requirements for use of User Agreements to govern mobile devices used for official duties. Does not cancel other directives.

  17. Ion mobility sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koo, Jackson C.; Yu, Conrad M.

    2005-08-23

    An ion mobility sensor which can detect both ion and molecules simultaneously. Thus, one can measure the relative arrival times between various ions and molecules. Different ions have different mobility in air, and the ion sensor enables measurement of ion mobility, from which one can identify the various ions and molecules. The ion mobility sensor which utilizes a pair of glow discharge devices may be designed for coupling with an existing gas chromatograph, where various gas molecules are already separated, but numbers of each kind of molecules are relatively small, and in such cases a conventional ion mobility sensor cannot be utilized.

  18. Energize Mobile | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Web Application Link: www.tendrilinc.comenergy-providersapplicationenergize Cost: Free Energize Mobile Screenshot References: Tendril1 Logo: Energize Mobile This...

  19. Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Join the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a challenging and rewarding career, while working, living, and playing in the Pacific Northwest. The Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic (HMEM)...

  20. ARM Mobile Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orr, Brad; Coulter, Rich

    2010-12-13

    This video provides an overview of the ARM Mobile Facilities, two portable climate laboratories that can deploy anywhere in the world for campaigns of at least six months.

  1. ARM Mobile Facilities

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Orr, Brad; Coulter, Rich

    2014-09-15

    This video provides an overview of the ARM Mobile Facilities, two portable climate laboratories that can deploy anywhere in the world for campaigns of at least six months.

  2. Mobile Technology Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2013-11-21

    The directive will ensure that federal organizations and employees within the Department can use mobile technology to support mission requirements in a safe and secure manner.

  3. AMF ARM Mobile FAcility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM Mobile FAcility Details on the AMF proposal process can be found at http://www.arm.gov/acrf/submit_proposals.stm. For more information, contact: Mark Miller Mary Jane Bartholomew AMF Site Scientist Assoc. Site Scientist (631) 344-2958 (631) 344-2444 miller@bnl.gov bartholomew@bnl.gov baseline capabilities Measurement capabilities include the standard meteor- ological instrumentation, broadband and spectral radi- ometer suite, and remote sensing instruments. The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) can

  4. Correlation ion mobility spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Rohde, Steven B.

    2008-08-26

    Correlation ion mobility spectrometry (CIMS) uses gating modulation and correlation signal processing to improve IMS instrument performance. Closely spaced ion peaks can be resolved by adding discriminating codes to the gate and matched filtering for the received ion current signal, thereby improving sensitivity and resolution of an ion mobility spectrometer. CIMS can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio even for transient chemical samples. CIMS is especially advantageous for small geometry IMS drift tubes that can otherwise have poor resolution due to their small size.

  5. Mobile lighting apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

    2013-05-14

    A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

  6. Mobility Agreement for Criminal Investigators | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mobility Agreement for Criminal Investigators Mobility Agreement for Criminal Investigators PDF icon Mobility Agreement More Documents & Publications Semiannual Report to Congress: ...

  7. Mobility platform coupling device and method for coupling mobility platforms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.; Buttz, James H.

    2002-01-01

    A coupling device for connecting a first mobility platform to a second mobility platform in tandem. An example mobility platform is a robot. The coupling device has a loose link mode for normal steering conditions and a locking position, tight link mode for navigation across difficult terrain and across obstacles, for traversing chasms, and for navigating with a reduced footprint in tight steering conditions.

  8. Long range hopping mobility platform.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spletzer, Barry Louis; Fischer, Gary John

    2003-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a mesoscale hopping mobility platform (Hopper) to overcome the longstanding problems of mobility and power in small scale unmanned vehicles. The system provides mobility in situations such as negotiating tall obstacles and rough terrain that are prohibitive for other small ground base vehicles. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Administration (DARPA) provided the funding for the hopper project.

  9. Mobile Biomass Pelletizing System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Mason

    2009-04-16

    This grant project examines multiple aspects of the pelletizing process to determine the feasibility of pelletizing biomass using a mobile form factor system. These aspects are: the automatic adjustment of the die height in a rotary-style pellet mill, the construction of the die head to allow the use of ceramic materials for extreme wear, integrating a heat exchanger network into the entire process from drying to cooling, the use of superheated steam for adjusting the moisture content to optimum, the economics of using diesel power to operate the system; a break-even analysis of estimated fixed operating costs vs. tons per hour capacity. Initial development work has created a viable mechanical model. The overall analysis of this model suggests that pelletizing can be economically done using a mobile platform.

  10. Environmental Technology Verification of Mobile Sources Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Environmental Technology Verification of Mobile Sources Control Technologies Environmental Technology Verification of Mobile Sources Control Technologies 2005 Diesel Engine...

  11. Michigan, Missouri: Innovative Mobile Exhibits Bring Electric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Michigan, Missouri: Innovative Mobile Exhibits Bring Electric Vehicles to Students and Public Michigan, Missouri: Innovative Mobile Exhibits Bring Electric Vehicles to Students and...

  12. Improving Data Mobility & Management for International Cosmology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Improving Data Mobility & Management for International Cosmology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improving Data Mobility & Management for International Cosmology You are ...

  13. Improving Data Mobility & Management for International Cosmology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Improving Data Mobility & Management for International Cosmology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improving Data Mobility & Management for International Cosmology In February ...

  14. In vitro cementoblast-like differentiation of postmigratory neural crest-derived p75{sup +} stem cells with dental follicle cell conditioned medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Xiujie; Liu, Luchuan; Deng, Manjing; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Li; Nie, Xin

    2015-09-10

    Cranial neural crest-derived cells (CNCCs) play important role in epithelial–mesenchymal interactions during tooth morphogenesis. However, the heterogeneity of CNCCs and their tendency to spontaneously differentiate along smooth muscle or osteoblast lineages in vitro limit further understanding of their biological properties. We studied the differentiation properties of isolated rat embryonic postmigratory CNCCs, expressing p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). These p75NTR positive (p75{sup +}) CNCCs, isolated using fluorescence activated cell sorter, exhibited fibroblast-like morphology and characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells. Incubation of p75{sup +} CNCCs in dental follicle cell conditioned medium (DFCCM) combined with dentin non-collagenous proteins (dNCPs), altered their morphological features to cementoblast-like appearance. These cells also showed low proliferative activity, high ALP activity and significantly increased calcified nodule formation. Markers related to mineralization or specific to cementoblast lineage were highly expressed in dNCPs/DFCCM-treated p75{sup +} cells, suggesting their differentiation along cementoblast-like lineage. p75{sup +} stem cells selected from postmigratory CNCCs represent a pure stem cell population and could be used as a stem cell model for in vitro studies due to their intrinsic ability to differentiate to neuronal cells and transform from neuroectoderm to ectomesenchyme. They can provide a potential stem cell resource for tooth engineering studies and help to further investigate mechanisms of epithelial–mesenchymal interactions in tooth morphogenesis. - Highlights: • Cranial neural crest-derived cells (CNCCs) take part in tooth morphogenesis. • positive (p75{sup +}) CNCCs are fibroblast-like and resemble mesenchymal stem cells. • p75{sup +} CNCCs in dental follicle cell medium (DFCCM/dNCP) appear like cementoblasts. • DFCCM/dNCP-treated p75{sup +} cells express cementoblast specific mineralization markers. • p75{sup +} cells are pure stem cells and able to differentiate to neuronal cells.

  15. Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

  16. NERSC Releases Mobile Apps to Users

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases Mobile Apps to Users NERSC Releases Mobile Apps to Users Job Status, MOTD and Pilot of VASP Submission Available with More to Come April 23, 2012 In an effort to make...

  17. Mobile phone and my health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Surducan, Aneta; Dabala, Dana; Neamtu, Camelia Surducan, Vasile Surducan, Emanoil

    2013-11-13

    The interaction of the microwave radiation emitted by mobile phones with the user's body is analyzed from the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) recommendations perspective as a correlation between the specific absorption ratio (SAR) of the mobile phone and the call duration. The relative position of the cell phone to the user's body, the dielectric properties of the exposed body parts, the SAR value and the call duration are considered in the local body temperature rise due to the microwave heating effect. The recommended local temperature rise limit in the human body is evaluated according to standards. The aim of this study is to disseminate information to young people, especially high school students, about the microwave thermal effects on the human body, to make them aware of the environmental electromagnetic pollution and to offer them a simple method of biological self protection.

  18. Guarded Motion for Mobile Robots

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-03-30

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has created codes that ensure that a robot will come to a stop at a precise, specified distance from any obstacle regardless of the robot's initial speed, its physical characteristics, and the responsiveness of the low-level motor control schema. This Guarded Motion for Mobile Robots system iteratively adjusts the robot's action in response to information about the robot's environment.

  19. ARM - ARM Mobile Facility 1 Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CenterARM Mobile Facility 1ARM Mobile Facility 1 Article Media Contact Hanna Goss hanna-dot-goss-at-pnnl-dot-gov @armnewsteam Field Notes Blog Topics Field Notes110 AGU 3 AMIE 10 ARM Aerial Facility 2 ARM Mobile Facility 1 6 ARM Mobile Facility 2 47 ARM Mobile Facility 3 1 BAECC 1 BBOP 4 ENA 1 GOAMAZON 7 HI-SCALE 3 MAGIC 15 MC3E 17 PECAN 3 SGP 7 STORMVEX 29 TCAP 3 Search News Search Blog News Center All Categories What's this? Social Media Guidance News Center All Categories Features and

  20. Charged particle mobility refrigerant analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allman, S.L.; Chunghsuan Chen; Chen, F.C.

    1993-02-02

    A method for analyzing a gaseous electronegative species comprises the steps of providing an analysis chamber; providing an electric field of known potential within the analysis chamber; admitting into the analysis chamber a gaseous sample containing the gaseous electronegative species; providing a pulse of free electrons within the electric field so that the pulse of free electrons interacts with the gaseous electronegative species so that a swarm of electrically charged particles is produced within the electric field; and, measuring the mobility of the electrically charged particles within the electric field.

  1. Mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, M.J.; Herndon, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems available, and an argument for force reflecting manipulation. The theme presented is that the accomplishment of humanlike endeavors in hostile environments will be most successful when man model capabilities are utilized. The application of recent electronic technology to manipulator development has made new tools available to be applied to emergency response activities. The development activities described are products of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  2. NREL: Transportation Research - Sustainable Mobility Initiative

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mobility Initiative Graphic of four concentric circles starting with the traveler and branching out to encompass the vehicle, transport system, and built environment. NREL's Sustainable Mobility Initiative approaches sustainable transportation as a network of travelers, services, and environments-rather than just vehicles and roads-using connectivity and automation to optimize mobility and significantly reduce related energy consumption. This concept of an intelligent, integrated, and dynamic

  3. Computationally Enhanced Mobility | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computationally Enhanced Mobility Argonne's new integrated transportation modeling ecosystem provides the unprecedented ability to explore the widespread real-world impact of intelligent transportation systems on mobility, energy and the environment. Argonne's new integrated transportation modeling ecosystem provides the unprecedented ability to explore the widespread real-world impact of intelligent transportation systems on mobility, energy and the environment. The U.S. Department of Energy's

  4. Clean Mobile AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AG Place: Munich, Bavaria, Germany Sector: Vehicles Product: Manufacturer of fuel cell-powered drives for small vehicles. References: Clean Mobile AG1 This article is a...

  5. Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic (1 Mechanic Shop)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A successful candidate will perform preventative, predictive, and corrective maintenance on Bonneville Power Administration (BPA's) light and heavy mobile equipment in maintenance and filed...

  6. Running Greener: E-Mobility at SAP

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CO 2 neutral Reduce consumption of fossil fuels and noise Environmental Mobility Unique battery subsidy as benefit Enjoy free charging exclusively at SAP's charging spots...

  7. Mobile Power Solutions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    laboratory focused on United NationsDepartment of Transportation compliance and battery performance testing. References: Mobile Power Solutions1 This article is a stub....

  8. Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic (One Mechanic Shop)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Join the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a challenging and rewarding career, while working, living, and playing in the Pacific Northwest. The Heavy Mobile Equipment Mechanic (One Mechanic...

  9. Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer Instrument Handbook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Charged particles are classified according to their electrical mobility, using a ... studies, smog chamber evaluations, engine exhaust and combustion studies, materials ...

  10. Mobile Business Innovation Center | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Innovation Center Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mobile Business Innovation Center Place: United States Product: Government & NGO ( Government Public sector ) References:...

  11. Mobile Energy Products Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Mobile Energy Products Inc Place: Colorado Springs, Colorado Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Manufacturing subsidiary, which produces nickel sintered plaque for...

  12. Public Transport: Moving towards Sustainable Mobility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Public Transport: Moving towards Sustainable Mobility AgencyCompany Organization: United Nations Environment Programme...

  13. CREST Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool: A Model for Developing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States; User Manual Version 4, August 2009 - March 2011 (Updated July 2013)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gifford, J. S.; Grace, R. C.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this document is to help model users understand how to use the CREST model to support renewable energy incentives, FITs, and other renewable energy rate-setting processes. This user manual will walk the reader through the spreadsheet tool, including its layout and conventions, offering context on how and why it was created. This user manual will also provide instructions on how to populate the model with inputs that are appropriate for a specific jurisdiction's policymaking objectives and context. Finally, the user manual will describe the results and outline how these results may inform decisions about long-term renewable energy support programs.

  14. Ion mobility analysis of lipoproteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W. Henry; Krauss, Ronald M.; Blanche, Patricia J.

    2007-08-21

    A medical diagnostic method and instrumentation system for analyzing noncovalently bonded agglomerated biological particles is described. The method and system comprises: a method of preparation for the biological particles; an electrospray generator; an alpha particle radiation source; a differential mobility analyzer; a particle counter; and data acquisition and analysis means. The medical device is useful for the assessment of human diseases, such as cardiac disease risk and hyperlipidemia, by rapid quantitative analysis of lipoprotein fraction densities. Initially, purification procedures are described to reduce an initial blood sample to an analytical input to the instrument. The measured sizes from the analytical sample are correlated with densities, resulting in a spectrum of lipoprotein densities. The lipoprotein density distribution can then be used to characterize cardiac and other lipid-related health risks.

  15. Sour gas dehydration in Mobile Bay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betts, F.C. Jr.; Lay, A.G.

    1996-12-31

    An evaluation of Mobil`s different methods of sour gas development utilized offshore and processes selected are presented with the maintenance history. The conclusions are based on field data showing past performance with a correlation made for future development and the selection criteria for dehydration.

  16. Interdigitated Electrical Contacts for Low Electronic Mobility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Semiconductor Photovoltaic Devices - Energy Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Interdigitated Electrical Contacts for Low Electronic Mobility Semiconductor Photovoltaic Devices Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Structures useful for forming contacts to materials having low charge carrier mobility are described. Methods for their formation and use are also described. These

  17. CREST Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and cherry-picked the best features. For those who find NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM) too complex for their analysis needs but still want an analytically robust levelized...

  18. CREST Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and cherry-picked the best features. For those who find NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM) too complex for their analysis needs but still want an analytically robust levelized...

  19. Dynamic Analysis of Mobile Device Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corey Thuen

    2013-01-01

    The On-Device Dynamic Analysis of Mobile Applications (ODAMA) project was started in an effort to protect mobile devices used in Industrial Control Systems (ICS) from cyber attack. Because mobile devices hide as much of the computer as possible, the users ability to assess the software running on their system is limited. The research team chose Googles Android platform for this initial research because it is open source and it would give us freedom in our approach, including the ability to modify the mobile devices operating system itself. The research team concluded that a Privileged Application was the right approach, and the result was ODAMA. This project is an important piece of the work to secure the expanding use of mobile devices with our nations critical infrastructure.

  20. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Mobil Oil Corp - VA 01

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Mobil Oil Corp - VA 01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Mobil Oil Corp. (VA.01 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: ...

  1. Mobile interfaces: Liquids as a perfect structural material for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mobile interfaces: Liquids as a perfect structural material for multifunctional, antifouling surfaces Title: Mobile interfaces: Liquids as a perfect structural material for ...

  2. Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Using...

  3. How Would You Use Your Mobile Device to Save Energy?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    More and more, people are using their phones and mobile devices to find information -- tell us how you would use your mobile device to save energy.

  4. Persu Mobility was Venture Vehicles Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Persu Mobility was Venture Vehicles Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Persu Mobility (was Venture Vehicles Inc) Place: Los Angeles, California Zip: 90067 Product: Los Angeles...

  5. New Feedstocks and Replacement Fuels - Future Energy for Mobility...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuels - Future Energy for Mobility New Feedstocks and Replacement Fuels - Future Energy for Mobility Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. ...

  6. Case Study: Mobile Photovoltaic System at Bechler Meadows Ranger...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mobile Photovoltaic System at Bechler Meadows Ranger Station, Yellowstone National Park Case Study: Mobile Photovoltaic System at Bechler Meadows Ranger Station, Yellowstone ...

  7. ARM Operations and Engineering Procedure Mobile Facility Site...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ARM Operations and Engineering Procedure Mobile Facility Site Startup Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM Operations and Engineering Procedure Mobile Facility Site Startup ...

  8. Fuel Economy.gov - Mobile | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Economy.gov - Mobile Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Fuel Economy.gov - Mobile AgencyCompany Organization: United States Department of Energy Sector:...

  9. Public Finance Mechanisms to Mobilize Investment in Climate Change...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mobilize Investment in Climate Change Mitigation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Public Finance Mechanisms to Mobilize Investment in Climate Change...

  10. A mobile-agent based wireless sensing network for structural...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A mobile-agent based wireless sensing network for structural monitoring applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A mobile-agent based wireless sensing network for ...

  11. MHK Technologies/Mobil Stabilized Energy Conversion Platform...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mobil Stabilized Energy Conversion Platform < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Mobil Stabilized Energy Conversion Platform.jpg...

  12. The Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project - A DOE Market Transformation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Download the presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Program webinar, "Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting," held on November 13, 2012. PDF icon Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting Webinar ...

  13. NERSC Releases Mobile Apps to Users

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases Mobile Apps to Users NERSC Releases Mobile Apps to Users Job Status, MOTD and Pilot of VASP Submission Available with More to Come April 23, 2012 In an effort to make NERSC resources more accessible to its users, the facility is rolling out a number of applications that allow researchers to access scientific data on their web browsers, tablets and smart phones. This month, NERSC announced two new applications now available to its users: The NERSC mobile user portal (http://m.nersc.gov)

  14. Method for enhancing the resolving power of ion mobility separations over a limited mobility range

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D

    2014-09-23

    A method for raising the resolving power, specificity, and peak capacity of conventional ion mobility spectrometry is disclosed. Ions are separated in a dynamic electric field comprising an oscillatory field wave and opposing static field, or at least two counter propagating waves with different parameters (amplitude, profile, frequency, or speed). As the functional dependencies of mean drift velocity on the ion mobility in a wave and static field or in unequal waves differ, only single species is equilibrated while others drift in either direction and are mobility-separated. An ion mobility spectrum over a limited range is then acquired by measuring ion drift times through a fixed distance inside the gas-filled enclosure. The resolving power in the vicinity of equilibrium mobility substantially exceeds that for known traveling-wave or drift-tube IMS separations, with spectra over wider ranges obtainable by stitching multiple segments. The approach also enables low-cutoff, high-cutoff, and bandpass ion mobility filters.

  15. Effective Protocols for Mobile Communications and Networking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Espinoza, J.; Sholander, P.; Van Leeuwen, B,

    1998-12-01

    This report examines methods of mobile communications with an emphasis on mobile computing and wireless communications. Many of the advances in communications involve the use of Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), and ad hoc network protocols. However, many of the advances in these protocols have been focused on wired communications. Recently much focus has been directed at advancing communication technology in the area of mobile wireless networks. This report discusses various protocols used in mobile communications and proposes a number of extensions to existing protocols. A detailed discussion is also included on desirable protocol characteristics and evaluation criteria. In addition, the report includes a discussion on several network simulation tools that maybe used to evaluate network protocols.

  16. New app takes Lab's volunteer efforts mobile

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New app takes Lab's volunteer efforts mobile Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue:May 2016 all issues All Issues » submit New app takes Lab's volunteer efforts mobile Lab volunteers now can enter hours on the go April 1, 2014 Chemistry Day volunteer shrinks a balloon using liquid nitrogen. Chemistry Day volunteer shrinks a balloon using liquid nitrogen. Contact Community Programs Office Director Kurt Steinhaus Email Editor

  17. Robotic vehicle with multiple tracked mobility platforms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salton, Jonathan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Buttz, James H. (Albuquerque, NM); Garretson, Justin (Albuquerque, NM); Hayward, David R. (Wetmore, CO); Hobart, Clinton G. (Albuquerque, NM); Deuel, Jr., Jamieson K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-07-24

    A robotic vehicle having two or more tracked mobility platforms that are mechanically linked together with a two-dimensional coupling, thereby forming a composite vehicle of increased mobility. The robotic vehicle is operative in hazardous environments and can be capable of semi-submersible operation. The robotic vehicle is capable of remote controlled operation via radio frequency and/or fiber optic communication link to a remote operator control unit. The tracks have a plurality of track-edge scallop cut-outs that allow the tracks to easily grab onto and roll across railroad tracks, especially when crossing the railroad tracks at an oblique angle.

  18. Wide size range fast integrated mobility spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jian

    2013-10-29

    A mobility spectrometer to measure a nanometer particle size distribution is disclosed. The mobility spectrometer includes a conduit and a detector. The conduit is configured to receive and provide fluid communication of a fluid stream having a charged nanometer particle mixture. The conduit includes a separator section configured to generate an electrical field of two dimensions transverse to a dimension associated with the flow of the charged nanometer particle mixture through the separator section to spatially separate charged nanometer particles of the charged nanometer particle mixture in said two dimensions. The detector is disposed downstream of the conduit to detect concentration and position of the spatially-separated nanometer particles.

  19. Oak Ridge Mobile Agent Community (ORMAC)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-06-30

    The Oak Ridge Mobile Agent Community (ORMAC) framework software facilitates the execution of a collection of mobile software agents across a heterogeneous collection of computer systems. ORMAC provides the software agents with the ability to communicate with each other in a synchronous and asynchronous manner. Also, ORMAC allows the software agents to move to any computer system in the community and continue execution there. ORMAC is intended to aid programmers in solving a very generalmore » set of distributed software problems.« less

  20. The effects of mobile ATM switches on PNNI peer group operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, L.; Sholander, P.; Tolendino, L.

    1997-04-01

    This contribution discusses why, and how, mobile networks and mobile switches might be discussed during Phase 1 of the WATM standards process. Next, it reviews mobile routers within Mobile IP. That IP mobility architecture may not apply to the proposed mobile ATM switches. Finally, it discusses problems with PNNI peer group formation and operation when mobile ATM switches are present.

  1. Portable control device for networked mobile robots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feddema, John T.; Byrne, Raymond H.; Bryan, Jon R.; Harrington, John J.; Gladwell, T. Scott

    2002-01-01

    A handheld control device provides a way for controlling one or multiple mobile robotic vehicles by incorporating a handheld computer with a radio board. The device and software use a personal data organizer as the handheld computer with an additional microprocessor and communication device on a radio board for use in controlling one robot or multiple networked robots.

  2. Mobile workstation for decontamination and decommissioning operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittaker, W.L.; Osborn, J.F.; Thompson, B.R.

    1993-10-01

    This project is an interdisciplinary effort to develop effective mobile worksystems for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities within the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. These mobile worksystems will be configured to operate within the environmental and logistical constraints of such facilities and to perform a number of work tasks. Our program is designed to produce a mobile worksystem with capabilities and features that are matched to the particular needs of D&D work by evolving the design through a series of technological developments, performance tests and evaluations. The project has three phases. In this the first phase, an existing teleoperated worksystem, the Remote Work Vehicle (developed for use in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building basement), was enhanced for telerobotic performance of several D&D operations. Its ability to perform these operations was then assessed through a series of tests in a mockup facility that contained generic structures and equipment similar to those that D&D work machines will encounter in DOE facilities. Building upon the knowledge gained through those tests and evaluations, a next generation mobile worksystem, the RWV II, and a more advanced controller will be designed, integrated and tested in the second phase, which is scheduled for completion in January 1995. The third phase of the project will involve testing of the RWV II in the real DOE facility.

  3. Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecke, Holger Svensson, Malin

    2008-07-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 2{sup 6-1} experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO{sub 2} until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon.

  4. Environmental Technology Verification of Mobile Sources Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Technologies | Department of Energy elion.pdf More Documents & Publications EPA Mobile Source Rule Update Efficient Use of Natural Gas Based Fuels in Heavy-Duty Engines The California Demonstration Program for Control of PM from Diesel Backup Generators (BUGs)

  5. Texas Tech University mobile doppler radars provide unique wind...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Texas Tech University mobile doppler radars provide unique wind measurements to multi-instrument DOE Field Campaign HomeWind Energy, Wind NewsTexas Tech University mobile doppler ...

  6. Comments on: Texas Tech University mobile doppler radars provide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    texas-tech-university-mobile-doppler-radars-provide-unique-wind-measurements-to-multi-instrument-doe-field-campaign...

  7. WPN 93-5: Recommended Installation Standards for Mobile Homes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To provide technical assistance to the states on recommended installation techniques for weatherization materials installed on mobile homes.

  8. Webinar: Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mobile Lighting Webinar: Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting Above is the video recording for the webinar, "Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting," originally held on November 13, 2012. In addition to this recording, you can access the presentation slides. A text version of this recording will be available soon

  9. GATE: Energy Efficient Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy ti022_rizzoni_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications GATE: Energy Efficient Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: GATE: Energy Efficient Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: GATE: Energy Efficient Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility

  10. Reply Comments of T-Mobile USA, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    T-Mobile USA, Inc. Reply Comments of T-Mobile USA, Inc. T-Mobile USA, Inc. ("T-Mobile") hereby submits these reply comments in response to the above-captioned Request for ...

  11. Stackable differential mobility analyzer for aerosol measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn; Chen, Da-Ren

    2007-05-08

    A multi-stage differential mobility analyzer (MDMA) for aerosol measurements includes a first electrode or grid including at least one inlet or injection slit for receiving an aerosol including charged particles for analysis. A second electrode or grid is spaced apart from the first electrode. The second electrode has at least one sampling outlet disposed at a plurality different distances along its length. A volume between the first and the second electrode or grid between the inlet or injection slit and a distal one of the plurality of sampling outlets forms a classifying region, the first and second electrodes for charging to suitable potentials to create an electric field within the classifying region. At least one inlet or injection slit in the second electrode receives a sheath gas flow into an upstream end of the classifying region, wherein each sampling outlet functions as an independent DMA stage and classifies different size ranges of charged particles based on electric mobility simultaneously.

  12. Bioenergy 2016: Mobilizing the Bioeconomy through Innovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On July 12–14, 2016, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE’s) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) will host its ninth annual conference—Bioenergy 2016: Mobilizing the Bioeconomy through Innovation. Partnering with the Clean Energy Research and Education Foundation (CEREF), this year's conference will focus on opportunities to grow future feedstock supplies and break through technology barriers to achieve a stronger bioeconomy.

  13. EPA Mobile Source Enforcement Memo 1A

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY WASHINGTON, D.C. 20460 OFFICE OF ENFORCEMENT AND COMPLIANCE ASSURANCE September 4, 1997 Addendum to Mobile Source Enforcement Memorandum 1A SUBJECT: Tampering Enforcement Policy for Alternative Fuel Aftermarket Conversions A. Purpose The purpose of this document is to clarify and revise the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) "tampering" enforcement policy for motor vehicles and motor vehicle engines originally designed to

  14. Bioenergy 2016: Mobilizing the Bioeconomy through Innovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Save the date: July 12–14 for Bioenergy 2016: Mobilizing the Bioeconomy through Innovation! This year, the conference is in July—same place, different month! Hear directly from leading bioenergy experts from the public and private sectors. You will hear from government agency officials, academic researchers, and members of Congress, industry, and the national laboratories. Click below to add it to your Outlook Calendar!

  15. WIPP Receives Waste Characterized With Mobile System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For Immediate Release WIPP Receives Waste Characterized With Mobile System CARLSBAD, N.M., April 12, 2002 - The first shipment of transuranic waste characterized by the Central Characterization Project arrived Saturday (April 6) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The shipment came to WIPP from DOE's Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The shipment was the eighth to WIPP from the Savannah River Site, but the first under the newly approved Central

  16. Mobile Robotics Activities in DOE Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ron Lujan; Jerry Harbour; John T. Feddema; Sharon Bailey; Jacob Barhen; David Reister

    2005-03-01

    This paper will briefly outline major activities in Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratories focused on mobile platforms, both Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV’s) as well as Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV’s). The activities will be discussed in the context of the science and technology construct used by the DOE Technology Roadmap for Robotics and Intelligent Machines (RIM)1 published in 1998; namely, Perception, Reasoning, Action, and Integration. The activities to be discussed span from research and development to deployment in field operations. The activities support customers in other agencies. The discussion of "perception" will include hyperspectral sensors, complex patterns discrimination, multisensor fusion and advances in LADAR technologies, including real-world perception. "Reasoning" activities to be covered include cooperative controls, distributed systems, ad-hoc networks, platform-centric intelligence, and adaptable communications. The paper will discuss "action" activities such as advanced mobility and various air and ground platforms. In the RIM construct, "integration" includes the Human-Machine Integration. Accordingly the paper will discuss adjustable autonomy and the collaboration of operator(s) with distributed UGV’s and UAV’s. Integration also refers to the applications of these technologies into systems to perform operations such as perimeter surveillance, large-area monitoring and reconnaissance. Unique facilities and test beds for advanced mobile systems will be described. Given that this paper is an overview, rather than delve into specific detail in these activities, other more exhaustive references and sources will be cited extensively.

  17. Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) and Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.

    2010-04-20

    In a media of finite viscosity, the Coulomb force of external electric field moves ions with some terminal speed. This dynamics is controlled by “mobility” - a property of the interaction potential between ions and media molecules. This fact has been used to separate and characterize gas-phase ions in various modes of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) developed since 1970. Commercial IMS devices were introduced in 1980-s for field detection of volatile traces such as explosives and chemical warfare agents. Coupling to soft-ionization sources, mass spectrometry (MS), and chromatographic methods in 1990-s had allowed IMS to handle complex samples, enabling new applications in biological and environmental analyses, nanoscience, and other areas. Since 2003, the introduction of commercial systems by major instrument vendors started bringing the IMS/MS capability to broad user community. The other major development of last decade has been the differential IMS or “field asymmetric waveform IMS” (FAIMS) that employs asymmetric time-dependent electric field to sort ions not by mobility itself, but by the difference between its values in strong and weak electric fields. Coupling of FAIMS to conventional IMS and stacking of conventional IMS stages have enabled two-dimensional separations that dramatically expand the power of ion mobility methods.

  18. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-07-07

    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  19. Anisotropic charged impurity-limited carrier mobility in monolayer phosphorene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, Zhun-Yong; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong Wei

    2014-12-07

    The room temperature carrier mobility in atomically thin 2D materials is usually far below the intrinsic limit imposed by phonon scattering as a result of scattering by remote charged impurities in its environment. We simulate the charged impurity-limited carrier mobility ? in bare and encapsulated monolayer phosphorene. We find a significant temperature dependence in the carrier mobilities (? ? T{sup ??}) that results from the temperature variability of the charge screening and varies with the crystal orientation. The anisotropy in the effective mass leads to an anisotropic carrier mobility, with the mobility in the armchair direction about one order of magnitude larger than in the zigzag direction. In particular, this mobility anisotropy is enhanced at low temperatures and high carrier densities. Under encapsulation with a high-? overlayer, the mobility increases by up to an order of magnitude although its temperature dependence and its anisotropy are reduced.

  20. Efficient Mobility Summit: Transportation and the Future of Dynamic Mobility Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-12-01

    On October 27, 2015, The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) brought together local and national thought leaders to discuss the convergence of connectivity, vehicle automation, and transportation infrastructure investments at the Future Energy Efficient Mobility Workshop. The half-day workshop was held in conjunction with the Colorado Department of Transportation's (CDOT) Transportation Matters Summit and featured four panel sessions that showcased perspectives on efficient mobility from federal and state agencies, automakers and their suppliers, transportation data providers, and freight companies. This summary provides highlights from the meeting's exchanges of ideas and existing applications. Transportation's (CDOT) Transportation Matters Summit and featured four panel sessions that showcased perspectives on efficient mobility from federal and state agencies, automakers and their suppliers, transportation data providers, and freight companies. This summary provides highlights from the meeting's exchanges of ideas and existing applications.

  1. Analytical laboratory and mobile sampling platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stetzenbach, K.; Smiecinski, A.

    1996-04-30

    This is the final report for the Analytical Laboratory and Mobile Sampling Platform project. This report contains only major findings and conclusions resulting from this project. Detailed reports of all activities performed for this project were provided to the Project Office every quarter since the beginning of the project. This report contains water chemistry data for samples collected in the Nevada section of Death Valley National Park (Triangle Area Springs), Nevada Test Site springs, Pahranagat Valley springs, Nevada Test Site wells, Spring Mountain springs and Crater Flat and Amargosa Valley wells.

  2. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

    1999-08-17

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine. 3 figs.

  3. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schiffbauer, William H.; Ganoe, Carl W.

    1999-01-01

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

  4. Ion mobility spectrometer with virtual aperture grid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B. (Los Lunas, NM); Rumpf, Arthur N. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-11-23

    An ion mobility spectrometer does not require a physical aperture grid to prevent premature ion detector response. The last electrodes adjacent to the ion collector (typically the last four or five) have an electrode pitch that is less than the width of the ion swarm and each of the adjacent electrodes is connected to a source of free charge, thereby providing a virtual aperture grid at the end of the drift region that shields the ion collector from the mirror current of the approaching ion swarm. The virtual aperture grid is less complex in assembly and function and is less sensitive to vibrations than the physical aperture grid.

  5. Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, March 12, 2015. PDF icon Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Network View | October 2014 Incorporating Behavior Change Efforts Into Energy Efficiency Programs Outreach to Multifamily

  6. TSI Model 3936 Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer Instrument Handbook

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect TSI Model 3936 Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer Instrument Handbook Citation Details In-Document Search Title: TSI Model 3936 Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer Instrument Handbook The Model 3936 Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS) measures the size distribution of aerosols ranging from 10 nm up to 1000 nm. The SMPS uses a bipolar aerosol charger to keep particles within a known charge distribution. Charged particles are classified

  7. ARM Operations and Engineering Procedure Mobile Facility Site Startup

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Program Document) | SciTech Connect ARM Operations and Engineering Procedure Mobile Facility Site Startup Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM Operations and Engineering Procedure Mobile Facility Site Startup This procedure exists to define the key milestones, necessary steps, and process rules required to commission and operate an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF), with a specific focus toward on-time product delivery to the ARM Data Archive. The

  8. Mobile Truck Stop Electrification Locator Now Available - News Releases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Mobile Truck Stop Electrification Locator Now Available Truck drivers can find idle reduction facilities using cell phones and PDAs September 15, 2009 The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) expanded its suite of Web-based, fuel-efficiency tools by launching the Mobile Truck Stop Electrification Locator. This comprehensive mobile application helps truck drivers find public truck stops with idle reduction facilities using a cell phone,

  9. ARM: AOS Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (Dataset) | Data

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Explorer Data Explorer Search Results ARM: AOS Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer Title: ARM: AOS Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer AOS Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer Authors: Scott Smith ; Cynthia Salwen ; Janek Uin ; Alice Cialella ; Gunnar Senum ; Stephen Springston Publication Date: 2012-11-16 OSTI Identifier: 1095581 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric Data Research Org: Atmospheric Radiation

  10. An Overview of the SGP Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Overview of the SGP Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer Collins, Don Texas A&M University Spencer, Chance Texas A&M University Category: Instruments A differential mobility analyzer / tandem differential mobility analyzer (DMA / TDMA) system was integrated into the Aerosol Observing System (AOS) trailer at the SGP site in September, 2005. This instrument is used to continuously characterize the size-resolved concentration, hygroscopicity, and volatility of submicron particles. These

  11. Sandia Energy - Patent Awarded for the Fuel Cell Mobile Light

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Patent Awarded for the Fuel Cell Mobile Light Home Energy CRF Facilities Partnership News Energy Efficiency News & Events Systems Engineering Center for Infrastructure Research and...

  12. Guidance for Deployment of Mobile Technologies for Nuclear Power...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Guidance for Deployment of Mobile Technologies for Nuclear Power Plant Field Workers Guidance ... Additional benefits in safety, efficiency, and productivity are highly probable given ...

  13. Local Imaging of High Mobility Two-Dimensional Electron Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tunneling Microscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Local Imaging of High Mobility Two-Dimensional Electron Systems with Virtual Scanning Tunneling Microscopy You ...

  14. EPA Climate Leaders Mobile Source Guidance | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EPA Climate Leaders Mobile Source Guidance AgencyCompany Organization: United States Environmental Protection Agency Sector: Energy Focus Area: Transportation Phase: Determine...

  15. Mobility of Supercooled liquid Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Benzene...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Benzene near their Glass Transition Temperatures Investigated using Inert Gas Permeation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mobility of Supercooled liquid...

  16. Automotive Fuels - The Challenge for Sustainable Mobility | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Challenge for Sustainable Mobility Overview of challenges and future fuel options PDF icon deer12warnecke.pdf More Documents & Publications The Drive for Energy Independence and ...

  17. A Low-Cost Continuous Emissions Monitoring System for Mobile...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Low-Cost Continuous Emissions Monitoring System for Mobile and Stationary Engine SCRDPF ApplicationsData-Logger for Vehicle Data Acquisition This project describes a novel ...

  18. ARM: AOS: Scanning-Mobility Particle Sizer; temperature and RH...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AOS: Scanning-Mobility Particle Sizer; temperature and RH output Authors: Derek Hageman ; Bill Behrens ; Janek Uin ; Robert Bullard ; Cynthia Salwen ; Cynthia Salwen ; Annette ...

  19. Saudi Aramco Mobile Refinery Company (SAMREF) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Company (SAMREF) Name: Saudi Aramco Mobile Refinery Company (SAMREF) Address: P.O. Box 30078 Place: Yanbu, Saudi Arabia Sector: Oil and Gas Product: Crude Oil Refining Phone...

  20. MHK Technologies/New Knowledge Wind and Wave Renewable Mobile...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    New Knowledge Wind and Wave Renewable Mobile Wind and Wave Power Plant Platform < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage New Knowledge...

  1. TSI Model 3936 Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer Instrument...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Handbook Citation Details In-Document Search Title: TSI Model 3936 Scanning Mobility ... studies, smog chamber evaluations, engine exhaust and combustion studies, materials ...

  2. V-235: Cisco Mobility Services Engine Configuration Error Lets...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    V-235: Cisco Mobility Services Engine Configuration Error Lets Remote Users Login ... and Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges V-076: Cisco Wireless LAN Controller Bugs Let ...

  3. Influence of alkaline co-contaminants on technetium mobility...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Influence of alkaline co-contaminants on technetium mobility in vadose zone sediments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Influence of alkaline co-contaminants on technetium ...

  4. Active microrheology in active matter systems: Mobility, intermittency...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on March 24, 2016 Title: Active microrheology in active matter systems: Mobility, intermittency, and...

  5. LONG-TERM COLLOID MOBILIZATION AND COLLOID-FACILITATED TRANSPORT...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We further demonstrated that it is particularly the advancing air-water interface which is mainly responsible for colloid mobilization. Forces acting on the colloids calculated ...

  6. Google Archives by Fiscal Year — Mobile Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    From the EERE Web Statistics Archive: Corporate sites, retired Google Analytics profile for the Mobile site for fiscal year 2012-13.

  7. The Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project - A DOE Market Transformation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project -- A DOE Market Transformation Activity-- Lennie Klebanoff ... Systems Torsten Erbel Multiquip Inc. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Webinar November 13, ...

  8. ECIS, Boeing, Caltrans, and Others: Fuel-Cell-Powered Mobile...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Boeing, Caltrans, and Others: Fuel-Cell-Powered Mobile Lighting Applications - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate ...

  9. Checking out HUD`s proposed mobile home performance standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judkoff, R.

    1993-11-01

    This article evaluates both the performance of two mobile homes built to meet recently proposed federal energy performance standards and the standards themselves. Topics include test methods, results, thermal exposure infrared scan results; regulators, thermal characteristics of test homes, real life conditions, factory observations, the future of mobile home energy efficiency.

  10. SLS complementary logic devices with increase carrier mobility

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaffin, Roger J.; Osbourn, Gordon C.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    In an electronic device comprising a semiconductor material and having at least one performance characteristic which is limited by the mobility of holes in the semiconductor material, said mobility being limited because of a valence band degeneracy among high-mobility and low-mobility energy levels accessible to said holes at the energy-momentum space maximum, an improvement is provided wherein the semiconductor material is a strained layer superlattice (SLS) whose layer compositions and layer thicknesses are selected so that the strain on the layers predominantly containing said at least one carrier type splits said degeneracy and modifies said energy levels around said energy-momentum space maximum in a manner whereby said limitation on the mobility of said holes is alleviated.

  11. SLS complementary logic devices with increase carrier mobility

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaffin, R.J.; Osbourn, G.C.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1991-07-09

    In an electronic device comprising a semiconductor material and having at least one performance characteristic which is limited by the mobility of holes in the semiconductor material, said mobility being limited because of a valence band degeneracy among high-mobility and low-mobility energy levels accessible to said holes at the energy-momentum space maximum, an improvement is provided wherein the semiconductor material is a strained layer superlattice (SLS) whose layer compositions and layer thicknesses are selected so that the strain on the layers predominantly containing said at least one carrier type splits said degeneracy and modifies said energy levels around said energy-momentum space maximum in a manner whereby said limitation on the mobility of said holes is alleviated. 5 figures.

  12. The relationship between polymer mobility and potential energy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, John Dwane; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Budzien, Joanne L.

    2005-01-01

    The WLF equation is typically used to describe the dependence of polymer mobility on temperature at atmospheric pressure. Tests at different pressures would at least require different WLF parameterization. Completely different tests, for example, probing the temperature dependence of mobility at constant density, would require even greater modifications. By performing molecular dynamics simulations on simple chain molecules equilibrated at different thermodynamic states, we have shown that the mobility depends in a more general sense on the potential energy density of the system. That is, mobilities for any equilibrated state collapse onto one master curve when plotted against the potential energy density. Moreover, this relationship can be fit by either a 'generalized' WLF equation or by a power-law relationship observed in critical phenomena. When this mobility relationship is used within a rheologically simple, thermodynamically consistent, viscoelastic framework, quantitative agreement is seen between experimental data and theoretical predictions on a range of tests covering enthalpy relaxation to mechanical yield to physical aging.

  13. Pacific Crest Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Caithness Developer NextEra Energy Resources Energy Purchaser Southern California Edison Co Location Tehachapi CA Coordinates 35.07665, -118.25529 Show Map Loading map......

  14. Pathogenicity island mobility and gene content.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Kelly Porter

    2013-10-01

    Key goals towards national biosecurity include methods for analyzing pathogens, predicting their emergence, and developing countermeasures. These goals are served by studying bacterial genes that promote pathogenicity and the pathogenicity islands that mobilize them. Cyberinfrastructure promoting an island database advances this field and enables deeper bioinformatic analysis that may identify novel pathogenicity genes. New automated methods and rich visualizations were developed for identifying pathogenicity islands, based on the principle that islands occur sporadically among closely related strains. The chromosomally-ordered pan-genome organizes all genes from a clade of strains; gaps in this visualization indicate islands, and decorations of the gene matrix facilitate exploration of island gene functions. A %E2%80%9Clearned phyloblocks%E2%80%9D method was developed for automated island identification, that trains on the phylogenetic patterns of islands identified by other methods. Learned phyloblocks better defined termini of previously identified islands in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, and found its only antibiotic resistance island.

  15. Mobile autonomous robotic apparatus for radiologic characterization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dudar, A.M.; Ward, C.R.; Jones, J.D.; Mallet, W.R.; Harpring, L.J.; Collins, M.X.; Anderson, E.K.

    1999-08-10

    A mobile robotic system is described that conducts radiological surveys to map alpha, beta, and gamma radiation on surfaces in relatively level open areas or areas containing obstacles such as stored containers or hallways, equipment, walls and support columns. The invention incorporates improved radiation monitoring methods using multiple scintillation detectors, the use of laser scanners for maneuvering in open areas, ultrasound pulse generators and receptors for collision avoidance in limited space areas or hallways, methods to trigger visible alarms when radiation is detected, and methods to transmit location data for real-time reporting and mapping of radiation locations on computer monitors at a host station. A multitude of high performance scintillation detectors detect radiation while the on-board system controls the direction and speed of the robot due to pre-programmed paths. The operators may revise the preselected movements of the robotic system by ethernet communications to remonitor areas of radiation or to avoid walls, columns, equipment, or containers. The robotic system is capable of floor survey speeds of from 1/2-inch per second up to about 30 inches per second, while the on-board processor collects, stores, and transmits information for real-time mapping of radiation intensity and the locations of the radiation for real-time display on computer monitors at a central command console. 4 figs.

  16. Mobile autonomous robotic apparatus for radiologic characterization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dudar, Aed M.; Ward, Clyde R.; Jones, Joel D.; Mallet, William R.; Harpring, Larry J.; Collins, Montenius X.; Anderson, Erin K.

    1999-01-01

    A mobile robotic system that conducts radiological surveys to map alpha, beta, and gamma radiation on surfaces in relatively level open areas or areas containing obstacles such as stored containers or hallways, equipment, walls and support columns. The invention incorporates improved radiation monitoring methods using multiple scintillation detectors, the use of laser scanners for maneuvering in open areas, ultrasound pulse generators and receptors for collision avoidance in limited space areas or hallways, methods to trigger visible alarms when radiation is detected, and methods to transmit location data for real-time reporting and mapping of radiation locations on computer monitors at a host station. A multitude of high performance scintillation detectors detect radiation while the on-board system controls the direction and speed of the robot due to pre-programmed paths. The operators may revise the preselected movements of the robotic system by ethernet communications to remonitor areas of radiation or to avoid walls, columns, equipment, or containers. The robotic system is capable of floor survey speeds of from 1/2-inch per second up to about 30 inches per second, while the on-board processor collects, stores, and transmits information for real-time mapping of radiation intensity and the locations of the radiation for real-time display on computer monitors at a central command console.

  17. Alternative non-CFC mobile air conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Kyle, D.M.

    1992-09-01

    Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in the search for alternative, non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential, which could result in their eventual phaseout. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This report, therefore, is aimed mainly at the study of alternative automotive cooling methodologies, although it briefly discusses the current status of alternative refrigerants. The alternative MACs can be divided into work-actuated and heat-actuated systems. Work-actuated systems include conventional MAC, reversed Brayton air cycle, rotary vane compressor air cycle, Stirling cycle, thermoelectric (TE) cooling, etc. Heat-actuated MACs include metal hydride cooling, adsorption cooling, ejector cooling, absorption cycle, etc. While we are better experienced with some work-actuated cycle systems, heat-actuated cycle systems have a high potential for energy savings with possible waste heat applications. In this study, each altemative cooling method is discussed for its advantages and its limits.

  18. Advanced mobile networking, sensing, and controls.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feddema, John Todd; Kilman, Dominique Marie; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Young, Joseph G.; Lewis, Christopher L.; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.; Robinett, Rush D. III; Harrington, John J.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes an integrated approach for designing communication, sensing, and control systems for mobile distributed systems. Graph theoretic methods are used to analyze the input/output reachability and structural controllability and observability of a decentralized system. Embedded in each network node, this analysis will automatically reconfigure an ad hoc communication network for the sensing and control task at hand. The graph analysis can also be used to create the optimal communication flow control based upon the spatial distribution of the network nodes. Edge coloring algorithms tell us that the minimum number of time slots in a planar network is equal to either the maximum number of adjacent nodes (or degree) of the undirected graph plus some small number. Therefore, the more spread out that the nodes are, the fewer number of time slots are needed for communication, and the smaller the latency between nodes. In a coupled system, this results in a more responsive sensor network and control system. Network protocols are developed to propagate this information, and distributed algorithms are developed to automatically adjust the number of time slots available for communication. These protocols and algorithms must be extremely efficient and only updated as network nodes move. In addition, queuing theory is used to analyze the delay characteristics of Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) networks. This report documents the analysis, simulation, and implementation of these algorithms performed under this Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort.

  19. FUPWG Meeting Agenda - Mobile, Alabama | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mobile, Alabama FUPWG Meeting Agenda - Mobile, Alabama October 16-17, 2012 Hosted by Alabama Power Tuesday, October 16, 2012 8:30 am Welcome Greg Reardon, Alabama Power Bob Chappelle, Mobile Area Chamber of Commerce 8:45 am Chairman's Corner David McAndrew, FEMP 9:00 am Washington Update Tim Unruh, FEMP 9:30 am Air Force Real Property Agency Enhanced Use Lease Program Brian Brown, Air Force Real Property Agency Strategic Asset Utilization Dave Swanson, Air Force Real Property Agency Strategic

  20. Feedback Wanted: Help the Energy Department Go Mobile, Open Data! |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Feedback Wanted: Help the Energy Department Go Mobile, Open Data! Feedback Wanted: Help the Energy Department Go Mobile, Open Data! August 13, 2012 - 4:35pm Addthis The Energy Department’s main site, Energy.gov and its contents, are now available on the go. This allows users to access the Energy Departments’ resources over a variety of mobile devices such as smart phones and tablets. The Energy Department's main site, Energy.gov and its contents, are now

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - Application of the ARM Mobile Facility...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to Study the Aerosol Indirect Effects in China Campaign Links China Website ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you ...

  2. 3D Printed Microscope for Mobile Devices that Cost Pennies

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Erikson, Rebecca; Baird, Cheryl; Hutchinson, Janine

    2015-06-23

    Scientists at PNNL have designed a 3D-printable microscope for mobile devices using pennies worth of plastic and glass materials. The microscope has a wide range of uses, from education to in-the-field science.

  3. MOBILE6 Vehicle Emission Modeling Software | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    tools User Interface: Desktop Application Website: www.epa.govomsm6.htm Cost: Free References: http:www.epa.govomsm6.htm MOBILE6 is an emission factor model for...

  4. Mobility of charge carriers in porous silicon layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsh, P. A. Martyshov, M. N.; Latysheva, A. P.; Vorontsov, A. S.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.; Kashkarov, P. K.

    2008-12-15

    The (conduction) mobility of majority charge carriers in porous silicon layers of the n and p types is estimated by joint measurements of electrical conductivity and free charge carrier concentration, which is determined from IR absorption spectra. Adsorption of donor and acceptor molecules leading to a change in local electric fields in the structure is used to identify the processes controlling the mobility in porous silicon. It is found that adsorption of acceptor and donor molecules at porous silicon of the p and n types, respectively, leads to a strong increase in electrical conductivity, which is associated with an increase in the concentration of free carrier as well as in their mobility. The increase in the mobility of charge carriers as a result of adsorption indicates the key role of potential barriers at the boundaries of silicon nanocrystals and may be due to a decrease in the barrier height as a result of adsorption.

  5. 3D Printed Microscope for Mobile Devices that Cost Pennies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erikson, Rebecca; Baird, Cheryl; Hutchinson, Janine

    2014-09-15

    Scientists at PNNL have designed a 3D-printable microscope for mobile devices using pennies worth of plastic and glass materials. The microscope has a wide range of uses, from education to in-the-field science.

  6. Raymond Burns > Product Research Technologist - Exxon Mobile > Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alumni > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Raymond Burns Product Research Technologist - Exxon Mobile raymond.burns@gmail.com Formerly a member of the DiSalvo Group, Ray earned his PhD in August 2013

  7. Mobile Torrefaction Machine" James, Joseph J. [President, ATP...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    State University (NCSU), which ATP has licensed, could be feasibly deployed in a mobile unit. The study adds to the area investigated, by having ATP's STTR Phase I team give...

  8. Sandia Energy - Fuel-Cell-Powered Mobile Lights Tested, Proven...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and in other applications. (Photo by Dino Vournas) Mobile lighting systems powered by hydrogen (H2) fuel cells are cleaner, quieter, and now have a proven track record in...

  9. Efficiency Nova Scotia Releases Energy Efficiency Mobile App

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Residential Network member Efficiency Nova Scotia recently released Spot it!—an energy efficiency game app for mobile devices. The app features 13 levels where players are...

  10. Case Study: Mobile Photovoltaic System at Bechler Meadows Ranger...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Mobile solar systems consist of photovoltaic (PV) solar-energy panels, batteries, and ... A battery the size of two car batteries is required per each 1 kWh of energy stored, so, ...

  11. LONG-TERM COLLOID MOBILIZATION AND COLLOID-FACILITATED TRANSPORT...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    LONG-TERM COLLOID MOBILIZATION AND COLLOID-FACILITATED TRANSPORT OF RADIONUCLIDES IN A SEMI-ARID VADOSE ZONE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: LONG-TERM COLLOID ...

  12. GE MEMS for LTE Advanced Mobile Devices | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MEMS Switch Technology Demonstrates Performance Which Could Meet Demands for Next-Generation "True 4G" Mobile Devices Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on...

  13. Atmospheric process evaluation of mobile source emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    During the past two decades there has been a considerable effort in the US to develop and introduce an alternative to the use of gasoline and conventional diesel fuel for transportation. The primary motives for this effort have been twofold: energy security and improvement in air quality, most notably ozone, or smog. The anticipated improvement in air quality is associated with a decrease in the atmospheric reactivity, and sometimes a decrease in the mass emission rate, of the organic gas and NO{sub x} emissions from alternative fuels when compared to conventional transportation fuels. Quantification of these air quality impacts is a prerequisite to decisions on adopting alternative fuels. The purpose of this report is to present a critical review of the procedures and data base used to assess the impact on ambient air quality of mobile source emissions from alternative and conventional transportation fuels and to make recommendations as to how this process can be improved. Alternative transportation fuels are defined as methanol, ethanol, CNG, LPG, and reformulated gasoline. Most of the discussion centers on light-duty AFVs operating on these fuels. Other advanced transportation technologies and fuels such as hydrogen, electric vehicles, and fuel cells, will not be discussed. However, the issues raised herein can also be applied to these technologies and other classes of vehicles, such as heavy-duty diesels (HDDs). An evaluation of the overall impact of AFVs on society requires consideration of a number of complex issues. It involves the development of new vehicle technology associated with engines, fuel systems, and emission control technology; the implementation of the necessary fuel infrastructure; and an appropriate understanding of the economic, health, safety, and environmental impacts associated with the use of these fuels. This report addresses the steps necessary to properly evaluate the impact of AFVs on ozone air quality.

  14. Aspects of Exxon Mobil Corporation's Acquisition of XTO Energy Inc

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    A summary presentation to inform discussion of the recently announced acquisition of XTO Energy Inc. by Exxon Mobil Corporation, a transaction which is reportedly $41 billion in value. "Aspects of Exxon Mobil Corporation's Acquisition of XTO Energy Inc" presents non-proprietary company-level oil and gas production and reserve data and the relevant U.S. aggregate data published by the Energy Information Administration.

  15. LASIC Layered Atlantic Smoke Interaction with Clouds ARM Mobile Facility

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (AMF) Overview (Conference) | SciTech Connect LASIC Layered Atlantic Smoke Interaction with Clouds ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) Overview Citation Details In-Document Search Title: LASIC Layered Atlantic Smoke Interaction with Clouds ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) Overview Authors: Nitschke, Kim Leonard [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2015-01-16 OSTI Identifier: 1167489 Report Number(s): LA-UR-15-20285 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type:

  16. Mobile Climate Monitoring Facility to Sample Skies in Africa | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Mobile Climate Monitoring Facility to Sample Skies in Africa Mobile Climate Monitoring Facility to Sample Skies in Africa January 18, 2006 - 10:47am Addthis WASHINGTON, D.C. -- The U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is placing a new, portable atmospheric laboratory with sophisticated instruments and data systems in Niger, Africa, to gain a better understanding of the potential impacts of Saharan dust on global climate. Dust from Africa's

  17. NREL: Technology Deployment - Mobile App Puts Alternative Fueling Station

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Locations in the Palm of Your Hand Mobile App Puts Alternative Fueling Station Locations in the Palm of Your Hand News NREL Developed Mobile App for Alternative Fueling Station Locations Released Energy Department Launches Alternative Fueling Station Locator App Using the Enhanced Alternative Fueling Station Locator Alternative Fueling Stations Database Sponsors U.S. Department of Energy Related Stories Remote Shading Tool Has Potential to Reduce Solar Soft Costs by 17 Cents/Watt Contact

  18. Deployment of ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Field Campaign Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Deployment of ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Deployment of ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer Field Campaign Report Atmospheric aerosols influence global climate by scattering and absorbing sunlight (direct effects) and by changing the microphysical structure, lifetime, and coverage of clouds (indirect effects). While

  19. International Energy Agency Bioenergy Webinar: Mobilizing Sustainable Bioenergy Supply Chains

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy program will be hosting a webinar on Feb. 25, 2016 to present the findings of their “Mobilize Sustainable Bioenergy Supply Chains” project. Over the last three years, researchers have collaborated to examine the prospects for large-scale mobilization of bioenergy resources across the globe. Members of Bioenergy Technologies Office staff support the research and activities and IEA Bioenergy. Email to register to attend the webinar.

  20. WIPP Mobile Loading Unit Contract - 8-27-12

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE Awards Contract for WIPP Mobile Loading Unit Services Cincinnati, Ohio, August 27, 2012 - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today awarded a competitive small business contract to Celeritex, LLC, (a Joint Venture between Project Services Group, LLC and DeNuke Contracting Services Inc.) of Suwanee, Georgia. The contract is to provide Mobile Loading Unit services in support of the National TRU Program and the DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New

  1. ARM Mobile Facility - Design and Schedule for Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mobile Facility - Design and Schedule for Integration K. B. Widener Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Abstract The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has a need for an ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that can be deployed anywhere in the world for up to 12 months at a time. This system shall be modular so that it can meet the needs of ARM science objectives of each individual deployment. The design phase for developing the AMF has begun. A design review was held

  2. Mobile Munitions Assessment System Field Capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; K. D. Watts

    1999-05-27

    The US has developed, stored, tested, and conducted disposal operations on various forms of chemical munitions for several decades. The remnants of these activities have resulted in the presence of suspect CWM at more than 200 sites in the US, the District of Columbia, and the US Virgin Islands. An advanced Mobile Munitions Assessment System (Phase II MMAS) has been designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory under contract to the US Army's Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel for use in the assessment and characterization of ''non-stockpile'' chemical warfare materiel (CWM). The Phase II MMAS meets the immediate need to augment response equipment currently used by the US Army with a system that includes state-of-the-art assessment equipment and advanced sensors. The Phase II MMAS will be used for response to known storage and remediation sites. This system is designed to identify the munition type; evaluate the condition of the CWM; evaluate the environmental conditions in the vicinity of the CWM; determine if fuzes, bursters, or safety and arming devices are in place; identify the chemical fill; provide other data (e.g., meteorological data) necessary for assessing the risk associated with handling, transporting, and disposing of CWM; and record the data on a dedicated computer system. The Phase II MMAS is capable of over-the-road travel and air transport to any site for conducting rigorous assessments of suspect CWM. The Phase II MMAS utilizes a specially-designed commercial motor home to provide a means to transport an interactive network of non-intrusive characterization and assessment equipment. The assessment equipment includes radiography systems, a gamma densitometer system, a Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy (PINS) system, a Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) system, air monitoring equipment (i.e., M-90s and a field ion spectroscopy system), and a phase determination equipment Command and control equipment includes a data acquisition and handling system, two meteorological stations, video equipment, and multiple communication systems. The Phase II MMAS motor home also serves an as environmentally controlled on-site command post for the MMAS operators when deployed. The data developed by the MMAS will be used to help determine the appropriate methods and safeguards necessary to transport, store, and dispose of agent-filled munitions in a safe and environmentally acceptable manner.

  3. Dual mode ion mobility spectrometer and method for ion mobility spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Miller, Carla J [Idaho Falls, ID; Tremblay, Paul L [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2007-08-21

    Ion mobility spectrometer apparatus may include an ion interface that is operable to hold positive and negative ions and to simultaneously release positive and negative ions through respective positive and negative ion ports. A first drift chamber is operatively associated with the positive ion port of the ion interface and encloses an electric field therein. A first ion detector operatively associated with the first drift chamber detects positive ions from the first drift chamber. A second drift chamber is operatively associated with the negative ion port of the ion interface and encloses an electric field therein. A second ion detector operatively associated with the second drift chamber detects negative ions from said second drift chamber.

  4. V-235: Cisco Mobility Services Engine Configuration Error Lets Remote Users

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Login Anonymously | Department of Energy 5: Cisco Mobility Services Engine Configuration Error Lets Remote Users Login Anonymously V-235: Cisco Mobility Services Engine Configuration Error Lets Remote Users Login Anonymously September 5, 2013 - 12:33am Addthis PROBLEM: A vulnerability was reported in Cisco Mobility Services Engine. A remote user can login anonymously. PLATFORM: Cisco Mobility Services Engine ABSTRACT: A vulnerability in Cisco Mobility Services Engine could allow an

  5. Method of multiplexed analysis using ion mobility spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belov, Mikhail E. (Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA)

    2009-06-02

    A method for analyzing analytes from a sample introduced into a Spectrometer by generating a pseudo random sequence of a modulation bins, organizing each modulation bin as a series of submodulation bins, thereby forming an extended pseudo random sequence of submodulation bins, releasing the analytes in a series of analyte packets into a Spectrometer, thereby generating an unknown original ion signal vector, detecting the analytes at a detector, and characterizing the sample using the plurality of analyte signal subvectors. The method is advantageously applied to an Ion Mobility Spectrometer, and an Ion Mobility Spectrometer interfaced with a Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer.

  6. Mobile Source Air Toxics Rule (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    On February 9, 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its MSAT2 rule, which will establish controls on gasoline, passenger vehicles, and portable fuel containers. The controls are designed to reduce emissions of benzene and other hazardous air pollutants. Benzene is a known carcinogen, and the EPA estimates that mobile sources produced more than 70% of all benzene emissions in 1999. Other mobile source air toxics, including 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and naphthalene, also are thought to increase cancer rates or contribute to other serious health problems.

  7. Theoretical investigation of thermodynamic stability and mobility of the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    oxygen vacancy in ThO2 -UO2 solid solutions (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Theoretical investigation of thermodynamic stability and mobility of the oxygen vacancy in ThO2 -UO2 solid solutions « Prev Next » Title: Theoretical investigation of thermodynamic stability and mobility of the oxygen vacancy in ThO2 -UO2 solid solutions The thermodynamic stability and the migration energy barriers of oxygen vacancies in ThO2 -UO2 solid solutions are investigated by density functional theory

  8. Method for mobilization of hazardous metal ions in soils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dugan, Patrick R.; Pfister, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    A microbial process for removing heavy metals such as bismuth, cadmium, lead, thorium, uranium and other transuranics from soils and sediments, utilizing indigenous, or isolates of indigenous, microorganisms and reducing agents, such as cysteine or sodium thioglycollate, or complexing agents such as the amino acid glycine, to effect the mobilization or release of the metals from the soil particles.

  9. New Approaches to Differential Mobility Analysis for Airborne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    F e eE F drag 6R p V C slip ( R p ) CPC Q a Q s Steady or Scanned Voltage Migration Velocity * Mobility * Peclet number for migration v E Z p E Z p n p e k B T D Pe...

  10. Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    02 DEER Conference Presentation: Emission Credit Brokers PDF icon 2002_deer_sloan.pdf More Documents & Publications Progress Update: Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits An Experimental Study of PM Emission Characteristics of Commercial Diesel Engine with Urea-SCR System Evaluation of NH3-SCR Catalyst Technology on a 250-kW Stationary Diesel Genset

  11. Control Scheme Modifications Increase Efficiency of Steam Generation System at Exxon Mobil Gas Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-01-01

    This case study highlights control scheme modifications made to the steam system at ExxonMobil's Mary Ann Gas Plant in Mobile, Alabama, which improved steam flow efficiency and reduced energy costs.

  12. H:\\DOD\\OUTREACH\\PUBS\\DRAFTS\\Mobile 6 users guide\\420r03010.wpd

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Many areas of the country have implemented inspection and maintenance (IM) programs to further reduce mobile source air pollution. (Note: MOBILE6 does not model the impact of IM ...

  13. Measuring "Real World" Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions with a Mobile...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    "Real World" Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions with a Mobile Lab Measuring "Real World" Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions with a Mobile Lab 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: University of ...

  14. Exxon Mobil QuestAir Plug Power Ben Gurion University Hydrogen...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exxon Mobil QuestAir Plug Power Ben Gurion University Hydrogen JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: Exxon Mobil, QuestAir, Plug Power , & Ben Gurion University Hydrogen JV Place:...

  15. V-134: Cisco AnyConnect Secure Mobility Client Heap Overflow Lets Local

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Users Gain Elevated Privileges | Department of Energy 4: Cisco AnyConnect Secure Mobility Client Heap Overflow Lets Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges V-134: Cisco AnyConnect Secure Mobility Client Heap Overflow Lets Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges April 15, 2013 - 1:30am Addthis PROBLEM: Cisco AnyConnect Secure Mobility Client Heap Overflow Lets Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges PLATFORM: Cisco AnyConnect Secure Mobility Client Cisco Secure Desktop ABSTRACT: Some vulnerabilities

  16. The Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project - A DOE Market Transformation Activity |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy The Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project - A DOE Market Transformation Activity The Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project - A DOE Market Transformation Activity Download the presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Program webinar, "Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting," held on November 13, 2012. PDF icon Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting Webinar Slides More Documents & Publications DOE/Boeing Sponsored Projects in Aviation Fuel Cell Technology at Sandia Fuel Cell Product

  17. Tandem robot control system and method for controlling mobile robots in tandem

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayward, David R.; Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.

    2002-01-01

    A control system for controlling mobile robots provides a way to control mobile robots, connected in tandem with coupling devices, to navigate across difficult terrain or in closed spaces. The mobile robots can be controlled cooperatively as a coupled system in linked mode or controlled individually as separate robots.

  18. Ion mobility spectrometer using frequency-domain separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Stephen J.; Butler, Michael A.; Frye, Gregory C.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method is provided for separating and analyzing chemical species in an ion mobility spectrometer using a frequency-domain technique wherein the ions generated from the chemical species are selectively transported through an ion flow channel having a moving electrical potential therein. The moving electrical potential allows the ions to be selected according to ion mobility, with certain of the ions being transported to an ion detector and other of the ions being effectively discriminated against. The apparatus and method have applications for sensitive chemical detection and analysis for monitoring of exhaust gases, hazardous waste sites, industrial processes, aerospace systems, non-proliferation, and treaty verification. The apparatus can be formed as a microelectromechanical device (i.e. a micromachine).

  19. Ion mobility spectrometer using frequency-domain separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, S.J.; Butler, M.A.; Frye, G.C.; Schubert, W.K.

    1998-08-04

    An apparatus and method are provided for separating and analyzing chemical species in an ion mobility spectrometer using a frequency-domain technique wherein the ions generated from the chemical species are selectively transported through an ion flow channel having a moving electrical potential therein. The moving electrical potential allows the ions to be selected according to ion mobility, with certain of the ions being transported to an ion detector and other of the ions being effectively discriminated against. The apparatus and method have applications for sensitive chemical detection and analysis for monitoring of exhaust gases, hazardous waste sites, industrial processes, aerospace systems, non-proliferation, and treaty verification. The apparatus can be formed as a microelectromechanical device (i.e. a micromachine). 6 figs.

  20. Ion dynamics and mixed mobile ion effect in fluoride glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, S.; Ghosh, A.

    2005-06-15

    We report the ionic relaxation and mixed mobile ion effect in 50ZrF{sub 4}-10BaF{sub 2}-10YF{sub 3}-(30-x)LiF-xNaF fluoride glass series, where fluorine anions participate in the diffusion process in addition to alkali cations, unlike mixed alkali oxide glasses and crystals. By analyzing the ion dynamics in the framework of a power-law model as well as modulus formalism we have observed mixed mobile ion effect in the dc conductivity and its activation energy, the crossover frequency and its activation energy, the conductivity relaxation frequency and its activation energy, and also in the decoupling index. We have correlated these phenomena with the fractal dimension of the conduction pathways in the mixed alkali fluoride glasses compared to the single alkali glasses. We have shown that the relaxation dynamics in mixed alkali fluoride glasses is independent of temperature but dependent on glass composition.

  1. High mobility ZnO nanowires for terahertz detection applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Huiqiang; Peng, Rufang E-mail: chusheng@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Chu, Shijin; Chu, Sheng E-mail: chusheng@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2014-07-28

    An oxide nanowire material was utilized for terahertz detection purpose. High quality ZnO nanowires were synthesized and field-effect transistors were fabricated. Electrical transport measurements demonstrated the nanowire with good transfer characteristics and fairly high electron mobility. It is shown that ZnO nanowires can be used as building blocks for the realization of terahertz detectors based on a one-dimensional plasmon detection configuration. Clear terahertz wave (∼0.3 THz) induced photovoltages were obtained at room temperature with varying incidence intensities. Further analysis showed that the terahertz photoresponse is closely related to the high electron mobility of the ZnO nanowire sample, which suggests that oxide nanoelectronics may find useful terahertz applications.

  2. Mobile Data Collection Applications: A Proof of Concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, J

    2006-09-20

    This project's goal is to provide a proof of concept for mobile data collection applications, and identify the best ways such applications could be implemented and used. Such an application should decrease the time and resources users now need to devote to redundant data processes, and provide an easy of locating and retrieving data at a later time. The two types of available mobile devices, Personal Digital Assistants and Tablet Personal Computers, each have their particular strengths that suggest themselves for certain types of applications. As such, parallel data collection applications have been developed, with a common web application for uploading information to the database. While these aspects have been developed and proven, it still remains to refine these applications, develop the tables to hold their data, and field-test with users for their feedback.

  3. Mobile Monolith Polymer Elements For Flow Control In Microfluidic Systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselbrink, Jr., Ernest F.; Rehm, Jason E.; Shepodd, Timothy J.; Kirby, Brian J.

    2006-01-24

    A cast-in-place and lithographically shaped mobile, monolithic polymer element for fluid flow control in microfluidic devices and method of manufacture. Microfluid flow control devices, or microvalves that provide for control of fluid or ionic current flow can be made incorporating a cast-in-place, mobile monolithic polymer element, disposed within a microchannel, and driven by fluid pressure (either liquid or gas) against a retaining or sealing surface. The polymer elements are made by the application of lithographic methods to monomer mixtures formulated in such a way that the polymer will not bond to microchannel walls. The polymer elements can seal against pressures greater than 5000 psi, and have a response time on the order of milliseconds. By the use of energetic radiation it is possible to depolymerize selected regions of the polymer element to form shapes that cannot be produced by conventional lithographic patterning and would be impossible to machine.

  4. Mobile monolithic polymer elements for flow control in microfluidic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselbrink, Jr., Ernest F.; Rehm, Jason E.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2004-08-31

    A cast-in-place and lithographically shaped mobile, monolithic polymer element for fluid flow control in microfluidic devices and method of manufacture. Microfluid flow control devices, or microvalves that provide for control of fluid or ionic current flow can be made incorporating a cast-in-place, mobile monolithic polymer element, disposed within a microchannel, and driven by either fluid or gas pressure against a retaining or sealing surface. The polymer elements are made by the application of lithographic methods to monomer mixtures formulated in such a way that the polymer will not bond to microchannel walls. The polymer elements can seal against pressures greater than 5000 psi, and have a response time on the order of milliseconds. By the use of energetic radiation it is possible to depolymerize selected regions of the polymer element to form shapes that cannot be produced by conventional lithographic patterning and would be impossible to machine.

  5. Mobile monolithic polymer elements for flow control in microfluidic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselbrink, Jr., Ernest F.; Rehm, Jason E.; Shepodd, Timothy J.; Kirby, Brian J.

    2005-11-11

    A cast-in-place and lithographically shaped mobile, monolithic polymer element for fluid flow control in microfluidic devices and method of manufacture. Microfluid flow control devices, or microvalves that provide for control of fluid or ionic current flow can be made incorporating a cast-in-place, mobile monolithic polymer element, disposed within a microchannel, and driven by fluid pressure (either liquid or gas) against a retaining or sealing surface. The polymer elements are made by the application of lithographic methods to monomer mixtures formulated in such a way that the polymer will not bond to microchannel walls. The polymer elements can seal against pressures greater than 5000 psi, and have a response time on the order of milliseconds. By the use of energetic radiation it is possible to depolymerize selected regions of the polymer element to form shapes that cannot be produced by conventional lithographic patterning and would be impossible to machine.

  6. An iterative learning controller for nonholonomic mobile robots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oriolo, G.; Panzieri, S.; Ulivi, G.

    1998-09-01

    The authors present an iterative learning controller that applies to nonholonomic mobile robots, as well as other systems that can be put in chained form. The learning algorithm exploits the fact that chained-form. The learning algorithm exploits the fact that chained-form systems are linear under piecewise-constant inputs. The proposed control scheme requires the execution of a small number of experiments to drive the system to the desired state in finite time, with nice convergence and robustness properties with respect to modeling inaccuracies as well as disturbances. To avoid the necessity of exactly reinitializing the system at each iteration, the basic method is modified so as to obtain a cyclic controller, by which the system is cyclically steered through an arbitrary sequence of states. As a case study, a carlike mobile robot is considered. Both simulation and experimental results are reported to show the performance of the method.

  7. Investigation of coal tar mobility at a former MGP site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moo-Young, H.K.; Mo, X.H.; Waterman, R.; Coleman, A.; Saroff, S.

    2009-11-15

    The presence of coal tar in the subsurface of former manufactured gas plant sites poses an environmental hazard and a potential threat to public health. Coal tar can release various chemical compounds that are transported into the groundwater. Before any efforts can be made to remove coal tar from contaminated subsurface soils, it is recommended to characterize coal tar properties and composition and to delineate the residual saturation point between mobile and immobile coal tar. This paper presents a new innovative field device, the Res-SAT field tool, and laboratory procedures that can be used to determine the saturation-capillary pressure relationship for a soil-water coal-tar system and the critical pressure for coal tar mobility.

  8. NNSA, Los Angeles Partner on Mobile Aerial Response Training | National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Security Administration NNSA, Los Angeles Partner on Mobile Aerial Response Training September 13, 2010 WASHINGTON, D.C. - The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) recently completed training with several Los Angeles-area law enforcement agencies to help officials there learn how to better analyze and transmit aerial data collected in response to a radiological incident. The training, which is jointly administered by NNSA's Office of Emergency Operations and the Department

  9. Method for measuring the drift mobility in doped semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crandall, Richard S.

    1982-01-01

    A method for measuring the drift mobility of majority carriers in semiconductors consists of measuring the current transient in a Schottky-barrier device following the termination of a forward bias pulse. An example is given using an amorphous silicon hydrogenated material doped with 0.2% phosphorous. The method is particularly useful with material in which the dielectric relaxation time is shorter than the carrier transit time. It is particularly useful in material useful in solar cells.

  10. Method for measuring the drift mobility in doped semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crandall, R.S.

    1982-03-09

    A method for measuring the drift mobility of majority carriers in semiconductors consists of measuring the current transient in a Schottky-barrier device following the termination of a forward bias pulse. An example is given using an amorphous silicon hydrogenated material doped with 0.2% phosphorus. The method is particularly useful with material in which the dielectric relaxation time is shorter than the carrier transit time. It is particularly useful in material useful in solar cells. 10 figs.

  11. Deployment of AAF Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer Field Campaign Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Deployment of ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer Field Campaign Report J Wang March 2016 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that

  12. ARM Operations and Engineering Procedure Mobile Facility Site Startup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voyles, Jimmy W

    2015-05-01

    This procedure exists to define the key milestones, necessary steps, and process rules required to commission and operate an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF), with a specific focus toward on-time product delivery to the ARM Data Archive. The overall objective is to have the physical infrastructure, networking and communications, and instrument calibration, grooming, and alignment (CG&A) completed with data products available from the ARM Data Archive by the Operational Start Date milestone.

  13. Method for mobilization of hazardous metal ions in soils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dugan, P.R.; Pfister, R.M.

    1995-06-27

    A microbial process is revealed for removing heavy metals such as bismuth, cadmium, lead, thorium, uranium and other transuranics from soils and sediments. The method utilizes indigenous, or isolates of indigenous, microorganisms and reducing agents, such as cysteine or sodium thioglycollate, or complexing agents such as the amino acid glycine, to effect the mobilization or release of the metals from the soil particles. 5 figs.

  14. NREL Developed Mobile App for Alternative Fueling Station Locations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Released - News Releases | NREL NREL Developed Mobile App for Alternative Fueling Station Locations Released New application for iPhone helps users find stations offering electricity, biodiesel, natural gas, and other alternative fuels. November 7, 2013 iPhone users now have access to a free application that locates fueling stations offering alternative fuels, including electricity, natural gas, biodiesel, e85 Ethanol, propane and hydrogen. The Energy Department's (DOE) National Renewable

  15. Geochemical Triggers of Arsenic Mobilization during Managed Aquifer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Recharge | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Geochemical Triggers of Arsenic Mobilization during Managed Aquifer Recharge Monday, February 29, 2016 Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is an increasingly used water enhancement strategy, which involves subsurface storage of water supplies in groundwater aquifers. While MAR projects have the potential to alleviate water deficits, they can also adversely impact groundwater quality by altering the native geochemistry of the aquifer and

  16. Mobile worksystems for decontamination and decommissioning operations. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    This project is an interdisciplinary effort to develop effective mobile worksystems for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities within the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. These mobile worksystems will be configured to operate within the environmental and logistical constraints of such facilities and to perform a number of work tasks. Our program is designed to produce a mobile worksystem with capabilities and features that are matched to the particular needs of D&D work by evolving the design through a series of technological developments, performance tests and evaluations. The Phase I effort was based on a robot called the Remote Work Vehicle (RWV) that was previously developed by CMU for use in D&D operations at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building basement. During Phase I of this program, the RWV was rehabilitated and upgraded with contemporary control and user interface technologies and used as a testbed for remote D&D operations. We established a close working relationship with the DOE Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP). In the second phase, we designed and developed a next generation mobile worksystem, called Rosie, and a semi-automatic task space scene analysis system, called Artisan, using guidance from RTDP. Both systems are designed to work with and complement other RTDP D&D technologies to execute selective equipment removal scenarios in which some part of an apparatus is extricated while minimally disturbing the surrounding objects. RTDP has identified selective equipment removal as a timely D&D mission, one that is particularly relevant during the de-activation and de-inventory stages of facility transitioning as a means to reduce the costs and risks associated with subsequent surveillance and monitoring. In the third phase, we tested and demonstrated core capabilities of Rosie and Artisan; we also implemented modifications and enhancements that improve their relevance to DOE`s facility transitioning mission.

  17. Theoretical interpretation of the electron mobility behavior in InAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marin, E. G. Ruiz, F. G. Godoy, A.; Tienda-Luna, I. M.; Martnez-Blanque, C.; Gmiz, F.

    2014-11-07

    This work studies the electron mobility in InAs nanowires (NWs), by solving the Boltzmann Transport Equation under the Momentum Relaxation Time approximation. The numerical solver takes into account the contribution of the main scattering mechanisms present in III-V compound semiconductors. It is validated against experimental field effect-mobility results, showing a very good agreement. The mobility dependence on the nanowire diameter and carrier density is analyzed. It is found that surface roughness and polar optical phonons are the scattering mechanisms that mainly limit the mobility behavior. Finally, we explain the origin of the oscillations observed in the mobility of small NWs at high electric fields.

  18. Nightmares with Mobile Devices Are Just Around the Corner!

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurt Derr

    2007-03-01

    Mobile Devices (MDs) such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), smart phones, handheld personal computers, and Tablet PCs, are proliferating in the marketplace. Cheap and ubiquitous mobile computing devices represent computing’s fifth wave [1], bringing about new opportunities in the marketplace. As MDs become more powerful and commonplace with ubiquitous connectivity, the line that currently divides these handheld devices from typical network computers will become very unclear. Mobile devices have become integrated into the business processes of both government and commercial institutions. MDs are small, portable, and able to store large amounts of information. The breadth of communication options (infrared, wireless, docking station) for MDs introduces many security risks. Some of the problems associated with MDs are: easy to loose, misplace, or have stolen, potential loss/comprise of company data (user ids, passwords, contacts, sensitive documentation, credit card numbers), increases the opportunity for a backdoor into an enterprise’s network, lack of authentication and limited logging capability. The use of these devices poses a risk to the security of an organization.

  19. Estimation of retired mobile phones generation in China: A comparative study on methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bo; Yang, Jianxin; Lu, Bin; Song, Xiaolong

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The sales data of mobile phones in China was revised by considering the amount of smuggled and counterfeit mobile phones. • The estimation of retired mobile phones in China was made by comparing some relevant methods. • The advanced result of estimation can help improve the policy-making. • The method suggested in this paper can be also used in other countries. • Some discussions on methodology are also conducted in order for the improvement. - Abstract: Due to the rapid development of economy and technology, China has the biggest production and possession of mobile phones around the world. In general, mobile phones have relatively short life time because the majority of users replace their mobile phones frequently. Retired mobile phones represent the most valuable electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) in the main waste stream because of such characteristics as large quantity, high reuse/recovery value and fast replacement frequency. Consequently, the huge amount of retired mobile phones in China calls for a sustainable management system. The generation estimation can provide fundamental information to construct the sustainable management system of retired mobile phones and other waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). However, the reliable estimation result is difficult to get and verify. The priority aim of this paper is to provide proper estimation approach for the generation of retired mobile phones in China, by comparing some relevant methods. The results show that the sales and new method is in the highest priority in estimation of the retired mobile phones. The result of sales and new method shows that there are 47.92 million mobile phones retired in 2002, and it reached to 739.98 million in China in 2012. It presents an increasing tendency with some fluctuations clearly. Furthermore, some discussions on methodology, such as the selection of improper approach and error in the input data, are also conducted in order to improve generation estimation of retired mobile phones and other WEEE.

  20. Mobilization of cohesive sludge in storage tanks using jet mixers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M.R.

    2000-02-04

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Savannah River Site and ITT Flygt Corporation conducted a joint mixer testing program sponsored by the DOE to evaluate the applicability of Flygt mixers to nuclear tank waste retrieval. Testing was carried out in three different tank sizes so that a scaling method could be evaluated and validated and the results could be used to make a full-scale mixer performance prediction. This presentation focuses on testing the mobilization of the sludge simulant composed of fine-grained particles cohesively bonded together by both colloidal and mechanical forces.

  1. Micro faraday-element array detector for ion mobility spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gresham, Christopher A.; Rodacy, Phillip J.; Denton, M. Bonner; Sperline, Roger

    2004-10-26

    An ion mobility spectrometer includes a drift tube having a collecting surface covering a collecting area at one end of the tube. The surface comprises a plurality of closely spaced conductive elements on a non-conductive substrate, each conductive element being electrically insulated from each other element. A plurality of capacitive transimpedance amplifiers (CTIA) adjacent the collecting surface are electrically connected to the plurality of elements, so charge from an ion striking an element is transferred to the capacitor of the connected CTIA. A controller counts the charge on the capacitors over a period of time.

  2. Evaluation of electron mobility in InSb quantum wells by means of percentage-impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishima, T. D.; Edirisooriya, M.; Santos, M. B.

    2014-05-15

    In order to quantitatively analyze the contribution of each scattering factor toward the total carrier mobility, we use a new convenient figure-of-merit, named a percentage impact. The mobility limit due to a scattering factor, which is widely used to summarize a scattering analysis, has its own advantage. However, a mobility limit is not quite appropriate for the above purpose. A comprehensive understanding of the difference in contribution among many scattering factors toward the total carrier mobility can be obtained by evaluating percentage impacts of scattering factors, which can be straightforwardly calculated from their mobility limits and the total mobility. Our percentage impact analysis shows that threading dislocation is one of the dominant scattering factors for the electron transport in InSb quantum wells at room temperature.

  3. Mobile Gallery | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Information Mobile Gallery OSTI.gov Mobile Get full-text documents, citations, patents, green energy research results, and more. Narrow results by document type, download and email results. Get the OSTIblog, twitter, Facebook, videos, and news. Find science information and research results from 15 U.S. federal agencies. http://m.osti.gov WorldWideScience Mobile Search approximately 80 scientific databases and portals from leading libraries and information centers around the world.

  4. DOE Science Showcase - Research on the "Go" with OSTI mobile | OSTI, US

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information Research on the "Go" with OSTI mobile Now you can find full-text technical reports from the Department of Energy from your mobile device. The new mobile OSTI website http://m.osti.gov/ is ready to travel and provides the latest research, OSTI news, award-winning OSTIblog, as well as OSTI YouTube, Facebook & Twitter interface whenever & wherever you need it.

  5. LONG-TERM COLLOID MOBILIZATION AND COLLOID-FACILITATED TRANSPORT OF

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    RADIONUCLIDES IN A SEMI-ARID VADOSE ZONE (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect LONG-TERM COLLOID MOBILIZATION AND COLLOID-FACILITATED TRANSPORT OF RADIONUCLIDES IN A SEMI-ARID VADOSE ZONE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: LONG-TERM COLLOID MOBILIZATION AND COLLOID-FACILITATED TRANSPORT OF RADIONUCLIDES IN A SEMI-ARID VADOSE ZONE The main purpose of this project was to improve the fundamental mechanistic understanding and quantification of long-term colloid mobilization and

  6. A mobile-agent based wireless sensing network for structural monitoring

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    applications (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: A mobile-agent based wireless sensing network for structural monitoring applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A mobile-agent based wireless sensing network for structural monitoring applications A new wireless sensing network paradigm is presented for structural monitoring applications. In this approach, both power and data interrogation commands are conveyed via a mobile agent that is sent to sensor nodes to

  7. And the Oscar for Sustainable Mobile Lighting Goes to.... Lighting Up

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Operations with Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology | Department of Energy And the Oscar for Sustainable Mobile Lighting Goes to.... Lighting Up Operations with Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology And the Oscar for Sustainable Mobile Lighting Goes to.... Lighting Up Operations with Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology September 30, 2014 - 1:12pm Addthis Developed by Sandia National Laboratories and several industry partners, the fuel cell mobile light (H2LT) offers a cleaner, quieter alternative to

  8. Hooked differential mobility spectrometry apparatus and method therefore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A [Richland, WA; Tang, Keqi [Richland, WA; Ibrahim, Yehia M [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2009-02-17

    Disclosed are a device and method for improved interfacing of differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) or field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) analyzers of substantially planar geometry to subsequent or preceding instrument stages. Interfacing is achieved using curved DMS elements, where a thick ion beam emitted by planar DMS analyzers or injected into them for ion filtering is compressed to the gap median by DMS ion focusing effect in a spatially inhomogeneous electric field. Resulting thinner beams are more effectively transmitted through necessarily constrained conductance limit apertures to subsequent instrument stages operated at a pressure lower than DMS, and/or more effectively injected into planar DMS analyzers. The technology is synergetic with slit apertures, slit aperture/ion funnels, and high-pressure ion funnel interfaces known in the art which allow for increasing cross-sectional area of MS inlets. The invention may be used in integrated analytical platforms, including, e.g., DMS/MS, LC/DMS/MS, and DMS/IMS/MS that could replace and/or enhance current LC/MS methods, e.g., for proteomics research.

  9. Software with Mobile Agents for Peer-to-Peer Information Sharing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of failure. To avoid potential sudden system collapse, researchers at ORNL developed a Java-based mobile agent information software called Knowledge Acquisition Ubiquitous Agent...

  10. Guidance for Deployment of Mobile Technologies for Nuclear Power Plant Field Workers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report is a guidance document prepared for the benefit of commercial nuclear power plants’ (NPPs) supporting organizations and personnel who are considering or undertaking deployment of mobile...

  11. Title Plutonium Mobility in Soil and Uptake in Plants: A Review...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... 98.2% of the adsorbed plutonium on soil samples from equilibrated solutions of plutonium ... possible plutonium mobility in the soil beneath one of the subsurface storage cribs. ...

  12. Enhancing the Electron Mobility via Delta-Doping in SrTiO3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozuka, Y.

    2011-08-11

    We fabricated high-mobility {delta}-doped structures in SrTiO{sub 3} thin films in order to investigate the low temperature electronic transport properties of confined carriers in this system. An enhancement of the electron mobility above the bulk value was observed as the doped layer thickness decreased. High-field Hall measurements revealed that this mobility enhancement originates from higher-mobility electrons in the undoped clean regions, which have quantum-mechanically broadened from the doped layer. Because of the absence of apparent lattice misfit between the layers, this structure is highly suitable for investigating two-dimensional electron gases in SrTiO{sub 3}

  13. Compact and mobile high resolution PET brain imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James

    2011-02-08

    A brain imager includes a compact ring-like static PET imager mounted in a helmet-like structure. When attached to a patient's head, the helmet-like brain imager maintains the relative head-to-imager geometry fixed through the whole imaging procedure. The brain imaging helmet contains radiation sensors and minimal front-end electronics. A flexible mechanical suspension/harness system supports the weight of the helmet thereby allowing for patient to have limited movements of the head during imaging scans. The compact ring-like PET imager enables very high resolution imaging of neurological brain functions, cancer, and effects of trauma using a rather simple mobile scanner with limited space needs for use and storage.

  14. In-situ groundwater remediation by selective colloid mobilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seaman, John C. (New Ellenton, SC); Bertch, Paul M. (Aiken, SC)

    1998-01-01

    An in-situ groundwater remediation pump and treat technique effective for reclamation of aquifers that have been contaminated with a mixed, metal-containing waste, which promotes selective mobilization of metal oxide colloids with a cationic surfactant, preferably a quaternary alkylammonium surfactant, without significantly reducing formation permeability that often accompanies large-scale colloid dispersion, thus increasing the efficiency of the remediation effort by enhancing the capture of strongly sorbing contaminants associated with the oxide phases. The resulting suspension can be separated from the bulk solution with controlled pH adjustments to destabilize the oxide colloids, and a clear supernatant which results that can be recycled through the injection well without further waste treatment.

  15. A mobile computed tomographic unit for inspecting reinforced concrete columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumitra, T.; Srisatit, S.; Pattarasumunt, A.

    1994-12-31

    A mobile computed tomographic unit applicable in the inspection of reinforced concrete columns was designed, constructed and tested. A CT image reconstruction programme written in Quick Basic was first developed to be used on an IBM PC/AT microcomputer. It provided user friendly menus for data processing and displaying CT image. The prototype of a gamma-ray scanning system using a 1.11 GBq Cs-137 source and a NaI(T1) scintillation detector was also designed and constructed. The system was a microcomputer controlled, single-beam rotate-translate scanner used for collecting transmitted gamma-ray data in different angles. The CT unit was finally tested with a standard column and a column of an existing building. The cross sectional images of the columns could be clearly seen. The positions and sizes of the reinforced bars could be estimated.

  16. Dynamic multiplexed analysis method using ion mobility spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belov, Mikhail E [Richland, WA

    2010-05-18

    A method for multiplexed analysis using ion mobility spectrometer in which the effectiveness and efficiency of the multiplexed method is optimized by automatically adjusting rates of passage of analyte materials through an IMS drift tube during operation of the system. This automatic adjustment is performed by the IMS instrument itself after determining the appropriate levels of adjustment according to the method of the present invention. In one example, the adjustment of the rates of passage for these materials is determined by quantifying the total number of analyte molecules delivered to the ion trap in a preselected period of time, comparing this number to the charge capacity of the ion trap, selecting a gate opening sequence; and implementing the selected gate opening sequence to obtain a preselected rate of analytes within said IMS drift tube.

  17. Mobility of indium on the ZnO(0001) surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinhold, R.; Reeves, R. J.; Allen, M. W.; Williams, G. T.; Evans, D. A.

    2015-02-02

    The mobility of indium on the Zn-polar (0001) surface of single crystal ZnO wafers was investigated using real-time x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A sudden transition in the wettability of the ZnO(0001) surface was observed at ∼520 °C, with indium migrating from the (0001{sup ¯}) underside of the wafer, around the non-polar (11{sup ¯}00) and (112{sup ¯}0) sidewalls, to form a uniform self-organized (∼20 Å) adlayer. The In adlayer was oxidized, in agreement with the first principles calculations of Northrup and Neugebauer that In{sub 2}O{sub 3} precipitation can only be avoided under a combination of In-rich and Zn-rich conditions. These findings suggest that unintentional In adlayers may form during the epitaxial growth of ZnO on indium-bonded substrates.

  18. In-situ groundwater remediation by selective colloid mobilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seaman, J.C.; Bertch, P.M.

    1998-12-08

    An in-situ groundwater remediation pump and treat technique is described which is effective for reclamation of aquifers that have been contaminated with a mixed, metal-containing waste, and which promotes selective mobilization of metal oxide colloids with a cationic surfactant, preferably a quaternary alkylammonium surfactant, without significantly reducing formation permeability that often accompanies large-scale colloid dispersion, thus increasing the efficiency of the remediation effort by enhancing the capture of strongly sorbing contaminants associated with the oxide phases. The resulting suspension can be separated from the bulk solution with controlled pH adjustments to destabilize the oxide colloids, and a clear supernatant which results that can be recycled through the injection well without further waste treatment. 3 figs.

  19. LESSONS LEARNED Biosurveillance Mobile App Development Intern Competition (Summer 2013)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noonan, Christine F.; Henry, Michael J.; Corley, Courtney D.

    2014-01-14

    The purpose of the lessons learned document for the BEOWulf Biosurveillance Mobile App Development Intern Competition is to capture the project’s lessons learned in a formal document for use by other project managers on similar future projects. This document may be used as part of new project planning for similar projects in order to determine what problems occurred and how those problems were handled and may be avoided in the future. Additionally, this document details what went well with the project and why, so that other project managers may capitalize on these actions. Project managers may also use this document to determine who the project team members were in order to solicit feedback for planning their projects in the future. This document will be formally communicated with the organization and will become a part of the organizational assets and archives.

  20. Steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Feddema, John T.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots that less complex and requires less power than two degree of freedom tilt mechanisms. The present invention comprises an end effector that, when mounted with a hopping actuator, translates along axis (typically vertical) actuation into combined vertical and horizontal motion. The end effector, or foot, mounts with an end of the actuator that moves toward the support surface (typically a floor or the earth). The foot is shaped so that the first contact with the support surface is off the axis of the actuator. Off-axis contact with the support surface generates an on-axis force (typically resulting in vertical motion) and a moment orthogonal to the axis. The moment initiates a horizontal tumbling motion, and tilts the actuator so that its axis is oriented with a horizontal component and continued actuation generates both vertical and horizontal force.

  1. Nanolaminate microfluidic device for mobility selection of particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Surh, Michael P. (Livermore, CA); Wilson, William D. (Pleasanton, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lane, Stephen M. (Oakland, CA)

    2006-10-10

    A microfluidic device made from nanolaminate materials that are capable of electrophoretic selection of particles on the basis of their mobility. Nanolaminate materials are generally alternating layers of two materials (one conducting, one insulating) that are made by sputter coating a flat substrate with a large number of layers. Specific subsets of the conducting layers are coupled together to form a single, extended electrode, interleaved with other similar electrodes. Thereby, the subsets of conducting layers may be dynamically charged to create time-dependent potential fields that can trap or transport charge colloidal particles. The addition of time-dependence is applicable to all geometries of nanolaminate electrophoretic and electrochemical designs from sinusoidal to nearly step-like.

  2. An ion mobility mass spectrometer for investigating photoisomerization and photodissociation of molecular ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, B. D.; Coughlan, N. J. A.; Markworth, P. B.; Bieske, E. J.; Continetti, R. E.

    2014-12-15

    An ion mobility mass spectrometry apparatus for investigating the photoisomerization and photodissociation of electrosprayed molecular ions in the gas phase is described. The device consists of a drift tube mobility spectrometer, with access for a laser beam that intercepts the drifting ion packet either coaxially or transversely, followed by a quadrupole mass filter. An ion gate halfway along the drift region allows the instrument to be used as a tandem ion mobility spectrometer, enabling mobility selection of ions prior to irradiation, with the photoisomer ions being separated over the second half of the drift tube. The utility of the device is illustrated with photoisomerization and photodissociation action spectra of carbocyanine molecular cations. The mobility resolution of the device for singly charged ions is typically 80 and it has a mass range of 100-440 Da, with the lower limit determined by the drive frequency for the ion funnels, and the upper limit by the quadrupole mass filter.

  3. Benefits of Using Mobile Transformers and Mobile Substations for Rapidly Restoring Electrical Service: a Report to the United States Congress Pursuant to Section 1816 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (August 2006)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Section 1816 of EPACT calls for a report on the benefits of using mobile transformers and mobile substations (MTS) to rapidly restore electrical service to areas subjected to blackouts as a result...

  4. EA-330_Royal_Bank_of_Scotland_CN.pdf

    Energy Savers [EERE]

  5. EA-331_Royal_Bank_of_Scotland_MX.pdf

    Energy Savers [EERE]

  6. Stockholm Royal seaport prestudy phase (Smart Grid Project) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in Europe Smart Grid Projects - Smart Meter and AMI Smart Grid Projects - Grid Automation Distribution Smart Grid Projects - Integrated System Smart Grid Projects - Home...

  7. Pilot Project Technology Business Case: Mobile Work Packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Ken; Lawrie, Sean; Niedermuller, Josef

    2015-05-01

    Performance advantages of the new pilot project technologies are widely acknowledged, but it has proven difficult for utilities to derive business cases for justifying investment in these new capabilities. Lack of a business case is often cited by utilities as a barrier to pursuing wide-scale application of digital technologies to nuclear plant work activities. The decision to move forward with funding usually hinges on demonstrating actual cost reductions that can be credited to budgets and thereby truly reduce O&M or capital costs. Technology enhancements, while enhancing work methods and making work more efficient, often fail to eliminate workload such that it changes overall staffing and material cost requirements. It is critical to demonstrate cost reductions or impacts on non-cost performance objectives in order for the business case to justify investment by nuclear operators. The Business Case Methodology (BCM) was developed in September of 2015 to frame the benefit side of II&C technologies to address the “benefit” side of the analysis—as opposed to the cost side—and how the organization evaluates discretionary projects (net present value (NPV), accounting effects of taxes, discount rates, etc.). The cost and analysis side is not particularly difficult for the organization and can usually be determined with a fair amount of precision (not withstanding implementation project cost overruns). It is in determining the “benefits” side of the analysis that utilities have more difficulty in technology projects and that is the focus of this methodology. The methodology is presented in the context of the entire process, but the tool provided is limited to determining the organizational benefits only. This report describes a the use of the BCM in building a business case for mobile work packages, which includes computer-based procedures and other automated elements of a work package. Key to those impacts will be identifying where the savings are “harvestable,” meaning they result in an actual reduction in headcount and/or cost. The report describes the specific activities conducted with a partner utility to examine the various work activities associated with mobile work packages to determine what time savings and error rate reductions are available. The report summarizes these findings in the form of a business case for the technology.

  8. Electrorecycling of Critical and Value Metals from Mobile Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lister, Tedd E.; Wang, Peming; Anderko, Andre

    2014-09-01

    Mobile electronic devices such as smart phones and tablets are a significant source of valuable metals that should be recycled. Each year over a billion devices are sold world-wide and the average life is only a couple years. Value metals in phones are gold, palladium, silver, copper, cobalt and nickel. Devices now contain increasing amounts of rare earth elements (REE). In recent years the supply chain for REE has moved almost exclusively to China. They are contained in displays, speakers and vibrators within the devices. By US Department of Energy (DOE) classification, specific REEs (Nd, Dy, Eu, Tb and Y) are considered critical while others (Ce, La and Pr) are deemed near critical. Effective recycling schemes should include the recovery of these critical materials. By including more value materials in a recovery scheme, more value can be obtained by product diversification and less waste metals remains to be disposed of. REEs are mined as a group such that when specific elements become critical significantly more ore must be processed to capture the dilute but valuable critical elements. Targeted recycling of items containing the more of the less available critical materials could address their future criticality. This presentation will describe work in developing aqueous electrochemistry-based schemes for recycling metals from scrap mobile electronics. The electrorecycling process generates oxidizing agents at an anode while reducing dissolved metals at the cathode. E vs pH diagrams and metals dissolution experiments are used to assess effectiveness of various solution chemistries. Although several schemes were envisioned, a two stages process has been the focus of work: 1) initial dissolution of Cu, Sn, Ag and magnet materials using Fe+3 generated in acidic sulfate and 2) final dissolution of Pd and Au using Cl2 generated in an HCl solution. Experiments were performed using simulated metal mixtures. Both Cu and Ag were recovered at ~ 97% using Fe+3 while leaving Au and Ag intact. REE were extracted from the dissolved mixture using conventional methods. A discussion of future research directions will be discussed.

  9. Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller

    2006-09-09

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. A mixture of two surfactants was found to be particularly effective for application in carbonate formations at low temperature. The mixture is single phase for higher salinity or calcium concentrations than that for either surfactant used alone. This makes it possible to inject the surfactant slug with polymer close to optimal conditions and yet be single phase. A formulation has been designed for a particular field application. It uses partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide for mobility control. The addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of naphthenic soap and significant reduction of synthetic surfactant adsorption. The design of the process to maximize the region of ultra-low IFT takes advantage of the observation that the ratio of soap to synthetic surfactant is a parameter in the conditions for optimal salinity. Even for a fixed ratio of soap to surfactant, the range of salinity for low IFT was wider than that reported for surfactant systems in the literature. Low temperature, forced displacement experiments in dolomite and silica sandpacks demonstrate that greater than 95% recovery of the waterflood remaining oil is possible with 0.2% surfactant concentration, 0.5 PV surfactant slug, with no alcohol. Compositional simulation of the displacement process demonstrates the role of soap/surfactant ratio on passage of the profile through the ultralow IFT region, the importance of a wide salinity range of low IFT, and the importance of the viscosity of the surfactant slug. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluated to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs as well as a drive fluid for ASP flooding. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. It has been modified to represent the effects of a change in wettability produced by surfactant injection.

  10. Gating of high-mobility InAs metamorphic heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shabani, J.; McFadden, A. P.; Shojaei, B.; Palmstrøm, C. J.

    2014-12-29

    We investigate the performance of gate-defined devices fabricated on high mobility InAs metamorphic heterostructures. We find that heterostructures capped with In{sub 0.75}Ga{sub 0.25}As often show signs of parallel conduction due to proximity of their surface Fermi level to the conduction band minimum. Here, we introduce a technique that can be used to estimate the density of this surface charge that involves cool-downs from room temperature under gate bias. We have been able to remove the parallel conduction under high positive bias, but achieving full depletion has proven difficult. We find that by using In{sub 0.75}Al{sub 0.25}As as the barrier without an In{sub 0.75}Ga{sub 0.25}As capping, a drastic reduction in parallel conduction can be achieved. Our studies show that this does not change the transport properties of the quantum well significantly. We achieved full depletion in InAlAs capped heterostructures with non-hysteretic gating response suitable for fabrication of gate-defined mesoscopic devices.

  11. Deep porosity preservation in the Norphlet Formation, Mobil Bay, Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajdukiewicz, J.M.; Paxton, S.T.; Szabvo, J.O. )

    1991-03-01

    Compaction and pressure solution have commonly been assumed to destroy primary intergranular porosity in deeply buried sandstones. However, primary porosities of up to 20% are preserved at depths greater than 20,000 feet in the Norphlet Formation of Mobile Bay. Previous workers have called upon a number of mechanisms to preserve these high porosities in the Norphlet, specifically chlorite rim cements, gas emplacement, overpressuring, and decementation. In contrast, our study of data from 23 Norphlet wells, including 450 thin sections, indicates that these suggested mechanisms are not the primary cause of porosity preservation in the Norphlet. The authors propose an alternative interpretation: that in the Norphlet, as in other well-sorted, ductile-grain-poor sandstones, porosity loss from compaction did not go to completion under reservoir (premetamorphic) conditions, but stabilized at depths of about 5,000-8,000 feet and porosity values of about 26%. Porosity loss below these values is due to cementation. For cementation to occur, both an adequate source of cement and geochemical conditions favoring cement precipitation must be present. Computer simulations of Norphlet burial history, including post-depositional fluid-flow patterns, suggest that conditions favorable to quartz cementation never occurred in the bulk of the Norphlet because of the formation's stratigraphic position and isolation from a basinward source of silica-saturated fluids.

  12. Differential Microscopic Mobility of Components within a Deep Eutectic Solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagle, Durgesh V.; Baker, Gary A.; Mamontov, Eugene

    2015-07-13

    From macroscopic measurements of deep eutectic solvents such as glyceline (1:2 molar ratio of choline chloride to glycerol), the long-range translational diffusion of the larger cation (choline) is known to be slower compared to that of the smaller hydrogen bond donor (glycerol). However, when the diffusion dynamics are analyzed on the subnanometer length scale, we discover that the displacements associated with the localized diffusive motions are actually larger for choline. This counterintuitive diffusive behavior can be understood as follows. The localized diffusive motions confined in the transient cage of neighbor particles, which precede the cage-breaking long-range diffusion jumps, are more spatially constrained for glycerol than for choline because of the stronger hydrogen bonds the former makes with chloride anions. The implications of differential localized mobility of the constituents should be especially important for applications where deep eutectic solvents are confined on the nanometer length scale and their long-range translational diffusion is strongly inhibited (e.g., within microporous media).

  13. Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, James H.; Cox, Philip; Harrington, William J; Campbell, Joseph L

    2013-09-03

    ABSTRACT Project Title: Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing PROJECT OBJECTIVE The objective of the project was to advance portable fuel cell system technology towards the commercial targets of power density, energy density and lifetime. These targets were laid out in the DOE’s R&D roadmap to develop an advanced direct methanol fuel cell power supply that meets commercial entry requirements. Such a power supply will enable mobile computers to operate non-stop, unplugged from the wall power outlet, by using the high energy density of methanol fuel contained in a replaceable fuel cartridge. Specifically this project focused on balance-of-plant component integration and miniaturization, as well as extensive component, subassembly and integrated system durability and validation testing. This design has resulted in a pre-production power supply design and a prototype that meet the rigorous demands of consumer electronic applications. PROJECT TASKS The proposed work plan was designed to meet the project objectives, which corresponded directly with the objectives outlined in the Funding Opportunity Announcement: To engineer the fuel cell balance-of-plant and packaging to meet the needs of consumer electronic systems, specifically at power levels required for mobile computing. UNF used existing balance-of-plant component technologies developed under its current US Army CERDEC project, as well as a previous DOE project completed by PolyFuel, to further refine them to both miniaturize and integrate their functionality to increase the system power density and energy density. Benefits of UNF’s novel passive water recycling MEA (membrane electrode assembly) and the simplified system architecture it enabled formed the foundation of the design approach. The package design was hardened to address orientation independence, shock, vibration, and environmental requirements. Fuel cartridge and fuel subsystems were improved to ensure effective fuel containment. PROJECT OVERVIEW The University of North Florida (UNF), with project partner the University of Florida, recently completed the Department of Energy (DOE) project entitled “Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing”. The primary objective of the project was to advance portable fuel cell system technology towards the commercial targets as laid out in the DOE R&D roadmap by developing a 20-watt, direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), portable power supply based on the UNF innovative “passive water recovery” MEA. Extensive component, sub-system, and system development and testing was undertaken to meet the rigorous demands of the consumer electronic application. Numerous brassboard (nonpackaged) systems were developed to optimize the integration process and facilitating control algorithm development. The culmination of the development effort was a fully-integrated, DMFC, power supply (referred to as DP4). The project goals were 40 W/kg for specific power, 55 W/l for power density, and 575 Whr/l for energy density. It should be noted that the specific power and power density were for the power section only, and did not include the hybrid battery. The energy density is based on three, 200 ml, fuel cartridges, and also did not include the hybrid battery. The results show that the DP4 system configured without the methanol concentration sensor exceeded all performance goals, achieving 41.5 W/kg for specific power, 55.3 W/l for power density, and 623 Whr/l for energy density. During the project, the DOE revised its technical targets, and the definition of many of these targets, for the portable power application. With this revision, specific power, power density, specific energy (Whr/kg), and energy density are based on the total system, including fuel tank, fuel, and hybridization battery. Fuel capacity is not defined, but the same value is required for all calculations. Test data showed that the DP4 exceeded all 2011 Technical Status values; for example, the DP4 energy density was 373 Whr/l versus the DOE 2011 status of 200 Whr/l. For the DOE 2013 Technical Goals, the operation time was increased from 10 hours to 14.3 hours. Under these conditions, the DP4 closely approached or surpassed the technical targets; for example, the DP4 achieved 468 Whr/l versus the goal of 500 Whr/l. Thus, UNF has successfully met the project goals. A fully-operational, 20-watt DMFC power supply was developed based on the UNF passive water recovery MEA. The power supply meets the project performance goals and advances portable power technology towards the commercialization targets set by the DOE.

  14. Mobile Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Measurements of Standard Waste Boxes (SWB)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Berg, Randal K.; Haggard, Daniel L.; Hilliard, James R.; Mapili, Gabriel M.

    2006-11-01

    A mobile NDA system was composed and qualified for Safeguards measurements of multiple standard waste boxes (SWB) generated as a result of clean-out activities at Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The system included a neutron slab counter and high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. PC/FRAM software was used to determine the isotopic composition of plutonium residue contained in the waste in order to interpret two independent measurement results provided by total neutron counting and gamma energy analysis (GEA). The measurement procedure developed to estimate transuranic (TRU) content of boxes was based on assumptions about characteristics of the matrix and material distribution. The neutron slab counter was calibrated with various plutonium working standards that were placed in a surrogate SWB specifically made to simulate miscellaneous waste debris. Transmission measurements with a californium source were used to correct for the matrix effects. An In-Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) was used to acquire spectra from SWBs and ISOCS software was applied to generate the efficiency curve of the HPGe detector. Infinite energy extrapolation was introduced to correct GEA results for self-attenuation. The gamma and neutron results obtained on multiple SWBs are compared and discussed in the paper. Revised measurement positions for the detector and the transmission source are also suggested based on experience gained during the measurements.

  15. Lightweight Integrated Optical Sensor for Atmospheric Measurements on Mobile Platforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parameswaran, Krishnan R.

    2013-12-02

    The goal of the Phase I program was to develop a novel open path sensor platform technology based on integration of semiconductor waveguides with efficient optoelectronic components on a monolithic platform. The successful Phase I effort resulted in demonstration of a novel optical resonator structure based on semiconductor high contrast gratings (HCGs) that will enable implementation of an ultra-compact, low-power gas sensor suitable for use on mobile platforms. Extensive numerical modeling was performed to design a device optimized for measuring CO2 at a wavelength for which a laser was available for proof of concept. Devices were fabricated and tested to match the target wavelength, angle, and operating temperature. This demonstration is the first implementation of HCGs at the wavelengths of interest and shows the flexibility of the proposed architecture for gas sensing applications. The measured cavity Q was lower than anticipated due to fabrication process challenges. The PSI and UC Berkeley team has identified solutions to these challenges and will produce optimized devices in a Phase II program where a prototype sensor will be fabricated and tested.

  16. Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer/Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, D

    2010-06-18

    The tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) is a single instrument that cycles through a series of complementary measurements of the physical properties of size-resolved submicron particles. In 2008, the TDMA was augmented through the addition of an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS), which extends the upper limit of the measured size distribution into the supermicron range. These two instruments are operated in parallel, but because they are controlled by a common computer and because the size distributions measured by the two are integrated in the produced datastreams, they are described together here. Throughout the day, the TDMA sequentially measures submicron aerosol size distributions and size-resolved hygroscopic growth distributions. More specifically, the instrument is operated as a scanning DMA to measure size distributions and as a TDMA to measure size-resolved hygroscopicity. A typical measurement sequence requires roughly 45 minutes. Each morning additional measurements are made of the relative humidity (RH) dependent hygroscopicity and temperature-dependent volatility of size-resolved particles. When the outside temperature and RH are within acceptable ranges, the hydration state of size-resolved particles is also characterized. The measured aerosol distributions complement the array of aerosol instruments in the Aerosol Observing System (AOS) and provide additional details of the light-scattering and cloud-nucleating characteristics of the aerosol.

  17. SURFACTANT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY AND FOAM MOBILITY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope; Richard E. Jackson

    2004-07-01

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactants makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. Also, the addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluted to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. A dual-porosity version is demonstrated as a potential scale-up tool for fractured reservoirs.

  18. Differential Microscopic Mobility of Components within a Deep Eutectic Solvent

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wagle, Durgesh V.; Baker, Gary A.; Mamontov, Eugene

    2015-07-13

    From macroscopic measurements of deep eutectic solvents such as glyceline (1:2 molar ratio of choline chloride to glycerol), the long-range translational diffusion of the larger cation (choline) is known to be slower compared to that of the smaller hydrogen bond donor (glycerol). However, when the diffusion dynamics are analyzed on the subnanometer length scale, we discover that the displacements associated with the localized diffusive motions are actually larger for choline. This counterintuitive diffusive behavior can be understood as follows. The localized diffusive motions confined in the transient cage of neighbor particles, which precede the cage-breaking long-range diffusion jumps, are moremore » spatially constrained for glycerol than for choline because of the stronger hydrogen bonds the former makes with chloride anions. The implications of differential localized mobility of the constituents should be especially important for applications where deep eutectic solvents are confined on the nanometer length scale and their long-range translational diffusion is strongly inhibited (e.g., within microporous media).« less

  19. Temperature dependence of diffusion length, lifetime and minority electron mobility in GaInP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultes, F. J.; Haegel, N. M.; Christian, T.; Alberi, K.; Fluegel, B.; Jones-Albertus, R.; Pickett, E.; Liu, T.; Misra, P.; Sukiasyan, A.; Yuen, H.

    2013-12-09

    The mobility of electrons in double heterostructures of p-type Ga{sub 0.50}In{sub 0.50}P has been determined by measuring minority carrier diffusion length and lifetime. The minority electron mobility increases monotonically from 300?K to 5?K, limited primarily by optical phonon and alloy scattering. Comparison to majority electron mobility over the same temperature range in comparably doped samples shows a significant reduction in ionized impurity scattering at lower temperatures, due to differences in interaction of repulsive versus attractive carriers with ionized dopant sites. These results should be useful in modeling and optimization for multi-junction solar cells and other optoelectronic devices.

  20. T-635: Cisco AnyConnect Secure Mobility Client Lets Remote Users Execute

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Arbitrary Code and Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges | Department of Energy 5: Cisco AnyConnect Secure Mobility Client Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code and Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges T-635: Cisco AnyConnect Secure Mobility Client Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code and Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges June 2, 2011 - 4:38pm Addthis PROBLEM: The Cisco AnyConnect Secure Mobility Client is the Cisco next-generation VPN client, which provides remote users with secure

  1. Advantage of suppressed non-Langevin recombination in low mobility organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolterfoht, Martin; Armin, Ardalan; Pandey, Ajay K.; Burn, Paul L.; Meredith, Paul; Pivrikas, Almantas; Philippa, Bronson; White, Ronald D.

    2014-07-07

    Photovoltaic performance in relation to charge transport is studied in efficient (7.6%) organic solar cells (PTB7:PC{sub 71}BM). Both electron and hole mobilities are experimentally measured in efficient solar cells using the resistance dependent photovoltage technique, while the inapplicability of classical techniques, such as space charge limited current and photogenerated charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage is discussed. Limits in the short-circuit current originate from optical losses, while charge transport is shown not to be a limiting process. Efficient charge extraction without recombination can be achieved with a mobility of charge carriers much lower than previously expected. The presence of dispersive transport with strongly distributed mobilities in high efficiency solar cells is demonstrated. Reduced non-Langevin recombination is shown to be beneficial for solar cells with imbalanced, low, and dispersive electron and hole mobilities.

  2. Thermal decomposition of electronic wastes: Mobile phone case and other parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molto, Julia; Egea, Silvia; Conesa, Juan Antonio; Font, Rafael

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > Pyrolysis and combustion of different parts of mobile phones produce important quantities of CO and CO{sub 2}. > Naphthalene is the most abundant PAH obtained in the thermal treatment of mobile phones. > Higher combustion temperature increases the chlorinated species evolved. - Abstract: Pyrolysis and combustion runs at 850 {sup o}C in a horizontal laboratory furnace were carried out on different parts of a mobile phone (printed circuit board, mobile case and a mixture of both materials). The analyses of the carbon oxides, light hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and dioxin-like PCBs are shown. Regarding semivolatile compounds, phenol, styrene, and its derivatives had the highest yields. In nearly all the runs the same PAHs were identified, naphthalene being the most common component obtained. Combustion of the printed circuit board produced the highest emission factor of PCDD/Fs, possibly due to the high copper content.

  3. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.; Anderson, S.

    2007-05-01

    This paper quantifies the mobile air-conditioning fuel consumption of the typical Indian vehicle, exploring potential fuel savings and emissions reductions these systems for the next generation of vehicles.

  4. T-635: Cisco AnyConnect Secure Mobility Client Lets Remote Users...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    T-635: Cisco AnyConnect Secure Mobility Client Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code ... Lets Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges T-536: Cisco ASA Multiple Flaws Let Remote ...

  5. Discursive Deployments: Mobilizing Support for Municipal and Community Wireless Networks in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, Rosio; Rodriguez, Juana Maria

    2008-08-16

    This paper examines Municipal Wireless (MW) deployments in the United States. In particular, the interest is in understanding how discourse has worked to mobilize widespread support for MW networks. We explore how local governments discursively deploy the language of social movements to create a shared understanding of the networking needs of communities. Through the process of"framing" local governments assign meaning to the MW networks in ways intended to mobilize support anddemobilize opposition. The mobilizing potential of a frame varies and is dependent on its centrality and cultural resonance. We examine the framing efforts of MW networks by using a sample of Request for Proposals for community wireless networks, semi-structured interviews and local media sources. Prominent values that are central to a majority of the projects and others that are culturally specific are identified and analyzed for their mobilizing potency.

  6. V-134: Cisco AnyConnect Secure Mobility Client Heap Overflow...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    V-134: Cisco AnyConnect Secure Mobility Client Heap Overflow Lets Local Users Gain ... AnyConnect VPN Client Two Vulnerabilities V-066: Adobe AcrobatReader Multiple Flaws ...

  7. MODELING OF LONG-TERM FATE OF MOBILIZED FINES DUE TO DAM-EMBANKMENT...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: MODELING OF LONG-TERM FATE OF MOBILIZED FINES DUE TO DAM-EMBANKMENT INTERFACIAL DISLOCATIONS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MODELING OF LONG-TERM FATE OF ...

  8. Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope

    2005-07-01

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. A combination of two surfactants was found to be particularly effective for application in carbonate formations at low temperature. A formulation has been designed for a particular field application. The addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. The design of the process to maximize the region of ultra-low IFT is more challenging since the ratio of soap to synthetic surfactant is a parameter in the conditions for optimal salinity. Compositional simulation of the displacement process demonstrates the interdependence of the various components for oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluated to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. It has been modified to represent the effects of a change in wettability. Simulated case studies demonstrate the effects of wettability.

  9. Eliminating Medical Waste Liabilities Through Mobile Maceration and Disinfection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Rankin; N. R. Soelberg; K. M. Klingler; C. W. Lagle; L. L. Byers

    2006-02-01

    Commercial medical waste treatment technologies include incineration, melting, autoclaving, and chemical disinfection. Incineration disinfects, destroys the original nature of medical waste, and reduces the waste volume by converting organic waste content to carbon dioxide and water, leaving only residual inorganic ash. However, medical waste incinerator numbers have plummeted from almost 2,400 in 1995 to 115 in 2003 and to about 62 in 2005, due to negative public perception and escalating compliance costs associated with increasingly strict regulations. High-temperature electric melters have been designed and marketed as incinerator alternatives, but they are also costly and generally must comply with the same incinerator emissions regulations and permitting requirements. Autoclave processes disinfect medical waste at much lower operating temperatures than incinerators operate at, but are sometimes subject to limitations such as waste segregration requirements to be effective. Med-Shred, Inc. has developed a patented mobile shredding and chemical disinfecting process for on-site medical waste treatment. Medical waste is treated on-site at customer facilities by shredding and disinfecting the waste. The treated waste can then be transported in compliance with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) requirements to a landfill for disposal as solid municipal waste. A team of Idaho National Laboratory engineers evaluated the treatment process design. The process effectiveness has been demonstrated in mycobacterium tests performed by Analytical Services Incorporated. A process description and the technical and performance evaluation results are presented in the paper. A treatment demonstration and microbiological disinfecting tests show that the processor functions as it was intended.

  10. Results of mobile gamma scanning activities in St. Louis, Missouri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, R E; Witt, D A; Cottrell, W D; Carrier, R F

    1991-06-01

    From 1942 through approximately 1966, the Mallinckrodt Chemical Works operated four plants in St. Louis, Missouri, for the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission. A variety of production processes using uranium- and radium-bearing ore materials were performed at the plants. It is the policy of the DOE to verify that radiological conditions at such sites or facilities comply with current DOE guidelines. Guidelines for release and use of such sites have become more stringent as research has provided more information since previous cleanups. The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was established as part of that effort to confirm the closeout status of facilities under contract to agencies preceding DOE during early nuclear energy development. Under the FUSRAP program, the Mallinckrodt properties have been previously investigated to determine the extent of on-site radiological contamination. At the request of DOE, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducted a survey in May 1990, of public roadways and suspected haul routes between the Mallinckrodt plant and storage sites in St. Louis to ensure that no residual radioactive materials were conveyed off-site. A mobile gamma scanning van with an on-board computer system was used to identify possible anomalies. Suspect areas are those displaying measurements deviating from gamma exposure rates identified as typical for radiologically unenhanced areas in the vicinity of the areas of interest. The instrumentation highlighted three anomaly locations each of which measured less than 1m{sup 2} in size. None of the slightly elevated radiation levels originated from material associated with former AEC-related processing operations in the area. The anomalies resulted from elevated concentrations of radionuclides present in phosphate fertilizers, increased thorium in road-base gravel, and emanations from the radioactive storage site near the Latty Avenue airport. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Hot spot-ridge crest convergence in the northeast Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karsten, J.L.; Delaney, J.R. )

    1989-01-10

    Evolution of the Juan de Fuca Ridge during the past 7 m.y. has been reconstructed taking into account both the propagating rift history and migration of the spreading center in the 'absolute' (fixed hot spot) reference frame. Northwestward migration of the spreading center (at a rate of 30 km/m.y.) has resulted in progressive encroachment of the ridge axis on the Cobb Hot Spot and westward jumping of the central third of the ridge axis more recently than 0.5 Ma. Seamounts in the Cobb-Eickelberg chain are predicted to display systematic variations in morphology and petrology, and a reduction in the age contrast between the edifice and underlying crust, as a result of the ridge axis approach. Relative seamount volumes also indicate that magmatic output of the hot spot varied during this interval, with a reduction in activity between 2.5 and 4.5 Ma, compared with relatively more robust activity before and after this period. Spatial relationships determined in this reconstruction allow hypotheses relating hot spot activity and rift propagation to be evaluated. In most cases, rift propagation has been directed away from the hot spot during the time period considered. Individual propagators show some reduction in propagation rate as separation between the propagating rift tip and hot spot increases, but cross comparison of multiple propagators does not uniformly display the same relationship. No obvious correlation exists between propagation rate and increasing proximity of the hot spot to the ridge axis or increasing hot spot output. Taken together, these observations do not offer compelling support for the concept of hot spot driven rift propagation. However, short-term reversals in propagation direction at the Cobb Offset coincide with activity of the Heckle melting anomaly, suggesting that local propagation effects may be related to excess magma supply at the ridge axis.

  12. Study plan for critical renewable energy storage technology (CREST)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Now is the time to plan to integrate significant quantities of distributed renewable energy into the electricity grid. Concerns about climate change, the adoption of state-level renewable portfolio standards and incentives, and accelerated cost reductions are driving steep growth in U.S. renewable energy technologies. The number of distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) installations and wind farms are growing rapidly. The potential for concentrated solar power (CSP) also continues to grow. As renewable energy technologies mature, they can provide a significant share of our nations electricity requirements.

  13. Crest Hill, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hill, Illinois: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 41.554753, -88.0986709 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice"...

  14. Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentcost-renewable-energy-spreadsheet-too Language: English Policies: Regulations Regulations: Feed-in Tariffs Assess projects, design cost-based...

  15. Local Imaging of High Mobility Two-Dimensional Electron Systems with

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Virtual Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Local Imaging of High Mobility Two-Dimensional Electron Systems with Virtual Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Local Imaging of High Mobility Two-Dimensional Electron Systems with Virtual Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Authors: Pelliccione, M. ; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /SLAC /UC, Santa Barbara ; Bartel, J. ; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. ; Sciambi, A. ; /Stanford U.,

  16. Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr Predicting the potential migration of metals and radionuclides from waste pits and trenches will

  17. Signal-to-noise and resolution enhancement in ion mobility spectrometry

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    using correlation gating techniques : barker codes. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Signal-to-noise and resolution enhancement in ion mobility spectrometry using correlation gating techniques : barker codes. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Signal-to-noise and resolution enhancement in ion mobility spectrometry using correlation gating techniques : barker codes. No abstract prepared. Authors: Rohde, Steven Barney ; Pfeifer, Kent Bryant Publication Date:

  18. A mobile-agent based wireless sensing network for structural monitoring

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    applications (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: A mobile-agent based wireless sensing network for structural monitoring applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A mobile-agent based wireless sensing network for structural monitoring applications × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit

  19. Cooperative system and method using mobile robots for testing a cooperative search controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byrne, Raymond H.; Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.

    2002-01-01

    A test system for testing a controller provides a way to use large numbers of miniature mobile robots to test a cooperative search controller in a test area, where each mobile robot has a sensor, a communication device, a processor, and a memory. A method of using a test system provides a way for testing a cooperative search controller using multiple robots sharing information and communicating over a communication network.

  20. ORISE: CDC Travelers' Health Mobile App, Designed by ORISE, Gains Attention

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on Multiple Websites Can I Eat This? Mobile App Helps International Travelers Make Safe Dining Choices CDC Travelers' Health app, designed by ORISE, gains attention on multiple websites How ORISE is Making a Difference The Can I Eat This? mobile app, which ORISE staff helped develop for the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, has been receiving positive feedback from food and travel experts. The app, recently released by the CDC's Travelers' Health Branch, earned a positive

  1. Mobilizing $4 Billion in Private-Sector Support for Clean Energy Innovation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Mobilizing $4 Billion in Private-Sector Support for Clean Energy Innovation Mobilizing $4 Billion in Private-Sector Support for Clean Energy Innovation June 16, 2015 - 9:00am Addthis Innovations in clean energy like wind power are a crucial part of fighting climate change. | Photo courtesy of the Department of Energy Loan Programs Office. Innovations in clean energy like wind power are a crucial part of fighting climate change. | Photo courtesy of the Department of

  2. AlSb/InAs HIGH ELECTRON MOBILITY TRANSISTORS - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search AlSb/InAs HIGH ELECTRON MOBILITY TRANSISTORS Naval Research Laboratory Contact NRL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has developed materials growth and fabrication technology for the manufacture of high-speed, low power AlSb/InAs high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) that exhibit state-of-the-art low-power

  3. Mobile source emission control cost-effectiveness: Issues, uncertainties, and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.Q.

    1994-12-01

    Emissions from mobile sources undoubtedly contribute to US urban air pollution problems. Consequently, mobile source control measures, ranging from vehicle emission standards to reducing vehicle travel, have been adopted or proposed to help attain air quality standards. To rank various mobile source control measures, various government agencies and private organizations calculate cost-effectiveness in dollars per ton of emissions reduced. Arguments for or against certain control measures are often made on the basis of the calculated cost-effectiveness. Yet, different studies may yield significantly different cost-effectiveness results, because of the various methodologies used and assumptions regarding the values of costs and emission reductions. Because of the methodological differences, the cost-effectiveness results may not be comparable between studies. Use of incomparable cost-effectiveness results may result in adoption of ineffective control measures. This paper first discusses some important methodological issues involved in cost-effectiveness calculation for mobile sources and proposes appropriate, systematic methods for dealing with these issues. Various studies have been completed recently to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of mobile source emission control measures. These studies resulted in wide variations in the cost-effectiveness for same control measures. Methodological assumptions used in each study are presented and, based on the proposed methods for cost-effectiveness calculation, adjustments are applied to the original estimates in each study to correct inappropriate methodological assumptions and to make the studies comparable. Finally, mobile source control measures are ranked on the basis of the adjusted cost-effectiveness estimates.

  4. MOBILE4. 1: Highway-vehicle mobile-source emission-factor model (Apple MacIntosh version) (for microcomputers). Model-Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    MOBILE4.1 is the latest revision to EPA's highway vehicle mobile source emission factor model. Relative to MOBILE4, it contains numerous revisions and provides the user with additional options for modeling highway vehicle emission factors. it will calculate emission factors for hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide, (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from highway motor vehicles. It calculates emission factors for eight individual vehicle types, in two regions of the country (low and high altitude). The emission factors depend on various conditions such as ambient temperature, fuel volatility, speed, and mileage accrual rates. It will estimate emission factors for any calendar year between 1960 and 2020 inclusive. The 25 most recent model years are considered in operation in each calendar year. EPA is requiring that states and others preparing emission inventories for nonattainment areas for CO and ozone to use MOBILE4.1 in the development of the base year 1990 emission inventories required under the Clean Air Act of 1990.

  5. MOBILIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COLLOIDS GENERATED FROM CEMENT LEACHATES MOVING THROUGH A SRS SANDY SEDIMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, D.; Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.; Seaman, J.

    2011-09-20

    Naturally occurring mobile colloids are ubiquitous and are involved in many important processes in the subsurface zone. For example, colloid generation and subsequent mobilization represent a possible mechanism for the transport of contaminants including radionuclides in the subsurface environments. For colloid-facilitated transport to be significant, three criteria must be met: (1) colloids must be generated; (2) contaminants must associate with the colloids preferentially to the immobile solid phase (aquifer); and (3) colloids must be transported through the groundwater or in subsurface environments - once these colloids start moving they become 'mobile colloids'. Although some experimental investigations of particle release in natural porous media have been conducted, the detailed mechanisms of release and re-deposition of colloidal particles within natural porous media are poorly understood. Even though this vector of transport is known, the extent of its importance is not known yet. Colloid-facilitated transport of trace radionuclides has been observed in the field, thus demonstrating a possible radiological risk associated with the colloids. The objective of this study was to determine if cementitious leachate would promote the in situ mobilization of natural colloidal particles from a SRS sandy sediment. The intent was to determine whether cementitious surface or subsurface structure would create plumes that could produce conditions conducive to sediment dispersion and mobile colloid generation. Column studies were conducted and the cation chemistries of influents and effluents were analyzed by ICP-OES, while the mobilized colloids were characterized using XRD, SEM, EDX, PSD and Zeta potential. The mobilization mechanisms of colloids in a SRS sandy sediment by cement leachates were studied.

  6. Sulfide-Driven Arsenic Mobilization from Arsenopyrite and Black Shale Pyrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, W.; Young, L; Yee, N; Serfes, M; Rhine, E; Reinfelder, J

    2008-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that sulfide drives arsenic mobilization from pyritic black shale by a sulfide-arsenide exchange and oxidation reaction in which sulfide replaces arsenic in arsenopyrite forming pyrite, and arsenide (As-1) is concurrently oxidized to soluble arsenite (As+3). This hypothesis was tested in a series of sulfide-arsenide exchange experiments with arsenopyrite (FeAsS), homogenized black shale from the Newark Basin (Lockatong formation), and pyrite isolated from Newark Basin black shale incubated under oxic (21% O2), hypoxic (2% O2, 98% N2), and anoxic (5% H2, 95% N2) conditions. The oxidation state of arsenic in Newark Basin black shale pyrite was determined using X-ray absorption-near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES). Incubation results show that sulfide (1 mM initial concentration) increases arsenic mobilization to the dissolved phase from all three solids under oxic and hypoxic, but not anoxic conditions. Indeed under oxic and hypoxic conditions, the presence of sulfide resulted in the mobilization in 48 h of 13-16 times more arsenic from arsenopyrite and 6-11 times more arsenic from isolated black shale pyrite than in sulfide-free controls. XANES results show that arsenic in Newark Basin black shale pyrite has the same oxidation state as that in FeAsS (-1) and thus extend the sulfide-arsenide exchange mechanism of arsenic mobilization to sedimentary rock, black shale pyrite. Biologically active incubations of whole black shale and its resident microorganisms under sulfate reducing conditions resulted in sevenfold higher mobilization of soluble arsenic than sterile controls. Taken together, our results indicate that sulfide-driven arsenic mobilization would be most important under conditions of redox disequilibrium, such as when sulfate-reducing bacteria release sulfide into oxic groundwater, and that microbial sulfide production is expected to enhance arsenic mobilization in sedimentary rock aquifers with major pyrite-bearing, black shale formations.

  7. The relationship between grain boundary structure, defect mobility, and grain boundary sink efficiency

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Vernon, Louis J.; Martinez, Enrique; Voter, Arthur F.

    2015-03-13

    Nanocrystalline materials have received great attention due to their potential for improved functionality and have been proposed for extreme environments where the interfaces are expected to promote radiation tolerance. However, the precise role of the interfaces in modifying defect behavior is unclear. Using long-time simulations methods, we determine the mobility of defects and defect clusters at grain boundaries in Cu. We find that mobilities vary significantly with boundary structure and cluster size, with larger clusters exhibiting reduced mobility, and that interface sink efficiency depends on the kinetics of defects within the interface via the in-boundary annihilation rate of defects. Thus,more » sink efficiency is a strong function of defect mobility, which depends on boundary structure, a property that evolves with time. Further, defect mobility at boundaries can be slower than in the bulk, which has general implications for the properties of polycrystalline materials. Finally, we correlate defect energetics with the volumes of atomic sites at the boundary.« less

  8. Transportation Electrification Education Partnership for Green Jobs and Sustainable Mobility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Huei; Mi, Chris; Gover, James

    2013-04-30

    This collaborative educational project between the University of MichiganAnn Arbor, University of MichiganDearborn and the Kettering University successfully executed almost all the elements we proposed to do. In the original proposal, we proposed to develop four graduate courses, six undergraduate courses, four professional short courses, a K?12 electric vehicle education kit, a Saturday morning seminar series, and a set of consumer education material to support the advancement of transportation electrification. The first four deliverables were all successfully developed and offered. When we held the kick?off meeting in NETL in Morgantown back in early 2010 with all the ten ARRA education teams, however, it quickly became clear that among the ten ARRA education grantee teams, our proposed consume education activities are not better or with the potential to create bigger impact than some of activities proposed in other teams. For example, the Odyssey 2010 event held by the West Virginia University team had planned and successfully reached to more than 230,000 attendees, which is way more than what our proposed 100k event could ever reach. It was under the suggestion of Joseph Quaranta, the ARRA education Program Director at that time, that we should coordinate and eliminate redundancy. The resources should then be focused on activities that have less overlap. Therefore, the originally proposed activities: Saturday morning seminar series, and a set of consumer education material were dropped from our scope. We expanded the scope of our education kit activity to include some educational materials, mainly in the form of videos. The target audience also changed from general public to K?12 students. The majority of the project cost (~70%) goes toward the establishment of three undergraduate laboratories, which provides critically needed hands?on learning experience for next?generation green mobility engineers. We are very proud that the ARRA money, which was distributed as part of the economy stimulus package back in 2009, was used to invest in laboratories which are already impacting the learning experience of our undergraduate and graduate students, and will continue to do so in the coming decades. The offering and enrollments of the ten undergraduate and graduate courses developed under the support of this educational grant is summarized in the table below. The grant was finalized in September 2009, and four new courses were developed and offered soon after in Winter 2010. The other six courses were developed thereafter. The total number of students who took these new courses over the duration of this grant is just over 1,000. In the first 2 years, under the DOE funding, the courses are offered more regularly. After that, the courses were considered together with other existing courses in the planning of teaching schedule and may not be offered each year. Almost all of the 10 courses have healthy enrollments and we do expect them to be offered continuously in the future. The graduate courses perhaps will be offered every 2?3 years, and the undergraduate courses most likely on a yearly basis.

  9. T-670: Skype Input Validation Flaw in 'mobile phone' Profile Entry Permits Cross-Site Scripting Attacks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The software does not properly filter HTML code from user-supplied input in the The "mobile phone" profile entry before displaying the input.

  10. Influence of interface mobility on the evolution of Austenite-Martensite grain assemblies during annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, Amy J; Santofimia, Maria J; Speer, John G; Zhao, L; Sietsma, Jilt

    2009-01-01

    The quenching and partitioning (Q&P) process is a new heat treatment for the creation of advanced high-strength steels. This treatment consists of an initial partial or full austenitization, followed by a quench to form a controlled amount of martensite and an annealing step to partition carbon atoms from the martensite to the austenite. In this work, the microstructural evolution during annealing of martensite-austenite grain assemblies has been analyzed by means of a modeling approach that considers the influence of martensite-austenite interface migration on the kinetics of carbon partitioning. Carbide precipitation is precluded in the model, and three different assumptions about interface mobility are considered, ranging from a completely immobile interface to the relatively high mobility of an incoherent ferrite-austenite interface. Simulations indicate that different interface mobilities lead to profound differences in the evolution of microstructure that is predicted during annealing.

  11. Feasibility Study of Implementing a Mobile Collaborative Information Platform for International Safeguards Inspections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gastelum, Zoe N.; Gitau, Ernest TN; Doehle, Joel R.; Toomey, Christopher M.

    2014-09-30

    In response to the growing pervasiveness of mobile technologies such as tablets and smartphones, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratories have been exploring the potential use of these platforms for international safeguards activities. Specifically of interest are information systems (software, and accompanying servers and architecture) deployed on mobile devices to increase the situational awareness and productivity of an IAEA safeguards inspector in the field, while simultaneously reducing paperwork and pack weight of safeguards equipment. Exploratory development in this area has been met with skepticism regarding the ability to overcome technology deployment challenges for IAEA safeguards equipment. This report documents research conducted to identify potential challenges for the deployment of a mobile collaborative information system to the IAEA, and proposes strategies to mitigate those challenges.

  12. Method for tracking the location of mobile agents using stand-off detection technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, Randal L.; Bender, Susan Fae Ann; Rodacy, Philip J.; Hargis, Jr., Philip J.; Johnson, Mark S.

    2006-12-26

    A method for tracking the movement and position of mobile agents using light detection and ranging (LIDAR) as a stand-off optical detection technique. The positions of the agents are tracked by analyzing the time-history of a series of optical measurements made over the field of view of the optical system. This provides a (time+3-D) or (time+2-D) mapping of the location of the mobile agents. Repeated pulses of a laser beam impinge on a mobile agent, such as a bee, and are backscattered from the agent into a LIDAR detection system. Alternatively, the incident laser pulses excite fluorescence or phosphorescence from the agent, which is detected using a LIDAR system. Analysis of the spatial location of signals from the agents produced by repeated pulses generates a multidimensional map of agent location.

  13. PNNI routing support for ad hoc mobile networking: A flat architecture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, L.; Sholander, P.; Tolendino, L.

    1997-12-01

    This contribution extends the Outside Nodal Hierarchy List (ONHL) procedures described in ATM Form Contribution 97-0766. These extensions allow multiple mobile networks to form either an ad hoc network or an extension of a fixed PNNI infrastructure. This contribution covers the simplest case where the top-most Logical Group Nodes (LGNs), in those mobile networks, all reside at the same level in a PNNI hierarchy. Future contributions will cover the general case where those top-most LGNs reside at different hierarchy levels. This contribution considers a flat ad hoc network architecture--in the sense that each mobile network always participates in the PNNI hierarchy at the preconfigured level of its top-most LGN.

  14. Enhancing Biological Analyses with Three Dimensional Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility, Low Field Drift Time Ion Mobility and Mass Spectrometry (FAIMS/IMS-MS) Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xing; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Smith, Richard D.; Baker, Erin Shammel

    2015-06-30

    We report the first evaluation of a platform coupling a high speed field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry microchip (FAIMS) with drift tube ion mobility and mass spectrometry (IMS-MS). The FAIMS/IMS-MS platform was used to analyze biological samples and simultaneously acquire multidimensional information of detected features from the measured FAIMS compensation fields and IMS drift times, while also obtaining accurate ion masses. These separations thereby increase the overall separation power, resulting increased information content, and provide more complete characterization of more complex samples. The separation conditions were optimized for sensitivity and resolving power by the selection of gas compositions and pressures in the FAIMS and IMS separation stages. The resulting performance provided three dimensional separations, benefitting both broad complex mixture studies and targeted analyses by e.g. improving isomeric separations and allowing detection of species obscured by chemical noise and other interfering peaks.

  15. Mobilization and Transport of Organic Compounds from Reservoir Rock and Caprock in Geological Carbon Sequestration Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Lirong; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Shewell, Jesse L.

    2014-05-06

    Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is an excellent solvent for organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX), phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Monitoring results from geological carbon sequestration (GCS) field tests has shown that organic compounds are mobilized following CO2 injection. Such results have raised concerns regarding the potential for groundwater contamination by toxic organic compounds mobilized during GCS. Knowledge of the mobilization mechanism of organic compounds and their transport and fate in the subsurface is essential for assessing risks associated with GCS. Extraction tests using scCO2 and methylene chloride (CH2Cl2) were conducted to study the mobilization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, including BTEX), the PAH naphthalene, and n-alkanes (n-C20 – n-C30) by scCO2 from representative reservoir rock and caprock obtained from depleted oil reservoirs and coal from an enhanced coal-bed methane recovery site. More VOCs and naphthalene were extractable by scCO2 compared to the CH2Cl2 extractions, while scCO2 extractable alkane concentrations were much lower than concentrations extractable by CH2Cl2. In addition, dry scCO2 was found to extract more VOCs than water saturated scCO2, but water saturated scCO2 mobilized more naphthalene than dry scCO2. In sand column experiments, moisture content was found to have an important influence on the transport of the organic compounds. In dry sand columns the majority of the compounds were retained in the column except benzene and toluene. In wet sand columns the mobility of the BTEX was much higher than that of naphthalene. Based upon results determined for the reservoir rock, caprock, and coal samples studied here, the risk to aquifers from contamination by organic compounds appears to be relatively low; however, further work is necessary to fully evaluate risks from depleted oil reservoirs.

  16. MODELING OF LONG-TERM FATE OF MOBILIZED FINES DUE TO DAM-EMBANKMENT

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    INTERFACIAL DISLOCATIONS (Conference) | SciTech Connect MODELING OF LONG-TERM FATE OF MOBILIZED FINES DUE TO DAM-EMBANKMENT INTERFACIAL DISLOCATIONS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MODELING OF LONG-TERM FATE OF MOBILIZED FINES DUE TO DAM-EMBANKMENT INTERFACIAL DISLOCATIONS Authors: Ezzedine, S ; Kanarska, Y ; Lomov, I ; Antoun, T ; Glascoe, L Publication Date: 2011-07-29 OSTI Identifier: 1093897 Report Number(s): LLNL-PROC-491853 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type:

  17. Measurements of the ion fraction and mobility of α - and β -decay

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    products in liquid xenon using the EXO-200 detector (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Measurements of the ion fraction and mobility of α - and β -decay products in liquid xenon using the EXO-200 detector Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on October 27, 2016 Title: Measurements of the ion fraction and mobility of α - and β -decay products in liquid xenon using the EXO-200 detector Authors: Albert, J. B. ; Auty, D. J. ; Barbeau, P. S. ; Beck,

  18. Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr Various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) low and medium-level radioactive waste sites

  19. Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr. Final Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr. Final Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr. Final Report Various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) low and

  20. Mobile computing device configured to compute irradiance, glint, and glare of the sun

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gupta, Vipin P; Ho, Clifford K; Khalsa, Siri Sahib

    2014-03-11

    Described herein are technologies pertaining to computing the solar irradiance distribution on a surface of a receiver in a concentrating solar power system or glint/glare emitted from a reflective entity. A mobile computing device includes at least one camera that captures images of the Sun and the entity of interest, wherein the images have pluralities of pixels having respective pluralities of intensity values. Based upon the intensity values of the pixels in the respective images, the solar irradiance distribution on the surface of the entity or glint/glare corresponding to the entity is computed by the mobile computing device.

  1. Observation of the Integer Quantum Hall Effect in Record High-Mobility

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Uniform Wafer-Scale Epitaxial Graphene Films Grown on the Si-Face of 6H-SiC(0001). (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Observation of the Integer Quantum Hall Effect in Record High-Mobility Uniform Wafer-Scale Epitaxial Graphene Films Grown on the Si-Face of 6H-SiC(0001). Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Observation of the Integer Quantum Hall Effect in Record High-Mobility Uniform Wafer-Scale Epitaxial Graphene Films Grown on the Si-Face of 6H-SiC(0001). Abstract not provided.

  2. Measuring charge carrier mobility in photovoltaic devices with micron-scale resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashraf, A.; Dissanayake, D. M. N. M.; Eisaman, M. D.

    2015-03-16

    We present a charge-extraction technique, micron-scale charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage, which enables simultaneous spatially resolved measurements of charge carrier mobility and photocurrent in thin-film photovoltaic devices with micron-scale resolution. An intensity-modulated laser with beam diameter near the optical diffraction limit is scanned over the device, while a linear voltage ramp in reverse bias is applied at each position of illumination. We calculate the majority carrier mobility, photocurrent, and number of photogenerated charge carriers from the resulting current transient. We demonstrate this technique on an organic photovoltaic device, but it is applicable to a wide range of photovoltaic materials.

  3. INFLUENCE OF NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC LIGANDS ON THE STABILITY AND MOBILITY OF REDUCED TC(IV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathalie A. Wall; Baohua Gu

    2012-12-20

    The primary objectives were (1) to quantify the interactions of organic ligands with Tc(IV) through the generation of thermodynamic (complexation) and kinetic parameters needed to assess and predict the mobility of reduced Tc(IV) at DOE contaminated sites; and (2) to determine the impact of organic ligands on the mobility and fate of reduced Tc(IV) under field geochemical conditions.

  4. Case Study: Mobile Photovoltaic System at Bechler Meadows Ranger Station, Yellowstone National Park

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Case study describes the performance of a mobile photovoltaic system installed in 2011 to provide power to Bechler Ranger Station in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. This small, remote outpost is not served by the electric utility grid and previously relied on a propane generator as the only source of power.

  5. WPN 94-8: 40 Percent Waiver Provisions for Mobile Home Units

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This program notice provides clarifying guidance previously issued under Weatherization Program Notice 93-14 on mobile home units weatherized by states which adopt the approved 4.0 version of NEAT or other similar approved energy audits and receive a waiver of the 40 percent requirement from DOE.

  6. WPN 93-14: 40 Percent Waiver Provisions for Multifamily and Mobile Home Units

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This program notice provides guidance on multifamily and mobile home units weatherized by states, which adopt the approved 4.0 version of NEAT or other similar approved energy audits and receive a waiver of the 40 percent requirement from DOE.

  7. DOE and Partners Demonstrate Mobile Geothermal Power System at 2009 Geothermal Energy Expo

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO), along with Pratt & Whitney Power Systems, and Chena Power LLC demonstrated the PureCycle® mobile geothermal power generation unit at the 2009 Geothermal Energy Expo in Reno, Nevada.

  8. Mobilization of dust and exfoliation of erosion product films in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martynenko, Yu. V.; Nagel, M. Yu.

    2012-04-15

    The mobilization of dust (i.e., detachment and removal of dust grains from a substrate) and the exfoliation of a film of erosion products in tokamaks have been studied theoretically. The following mechanisms of dust mobilization have been taken into account: (i) sharp heating (thermal shock) as a result of, e.g., plasma disruption and edge instabilities; (ii) substrate vibrations; and (iii) gas and plasma flow (wind) action. The most effective mobilization takes place under the action of sharp heating. Power fluxes that are characteristic of edge instabilities can mobilize dust grains with dimensions within or even greater than 0.1-1 {mu}m. The velocities of detached grains reach {nu} {approx} 100 m/s for heavy grains and up to {nu} {approx} 300 m/s for the light ones. Conditions favoring the exfoliation of a film of erosion products are determined. It is shown that exfoliation under the action of edge instabilities can take place at a film thickness of h > 1 {mu}m. Under the action of thermal-shock-induced stresses, the exfoliated film flakes with a size ranging from fractions of a millimeter to several centimeters break into pieces.

  9. Low-temperature high-mobility amorphous IZO for silicon heterojunction solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Morales-Masis, Monica; Martin De Nicolas, Silvia; Holovsky, Jakub; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2015-07-13

    Parasitic absorption in the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) front electrode is one of the limitations of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells efficiency. To avoid such absorption while retaining high conductivity, TCOs with high electron mobility are preferred over those with high carrier density. Here, we demonstrate improved SHJ solar cell efficiencies by applying high-mobility amorphous indium zinc oxide (a-IZO) as the front TCO. We sputtered a-IZO at low substrate temperature and low power density and investigated the optical and electrical properties, as well as subband tail formation-quantified by the Urbach energy (EU)-as a function of the sputtering oxygen partial pressure.more » We obtain an EU as low as 128 meV for films with the highest Hall mobility of 60 cm2/Vs. When comparing the performance of a-IZO films with indium tin oxide (ITO) and hydrogenated indium oxide (IO:H), we find that IO:H (115 cm2/Vs) exhibits a similar EU of 130 meV, while ITO (25 cm2/Vs) presents a much larger EU of up to 270 meV. The high film quality, indicated by the low EU, the high mobility, and low free carrier absorption of the developed a-IZO electrodes, result in a significant current improvement, achieving conversion efficiencies over 21.5%, outperforming those with standard ITO.« less

  10. Organic thin film devices with stabilized threshold voltage and mobility, and method for preparing the devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nastasi, Michael Anthony; Wang, Yongqiang; Fraboni, Beatrice; Cosseddu, Piero; Bonfiglio, Annalisa

    2013-06-11

    Organic thin film devices that included an organic thin film subjected to a selected dose of a selected energy of ions exhibited a stabilized mobility (.mu.) and threshold voltage (VT), a decrease in contact resistance R.sub.C, and an extended operational lifetime that did not degrade after 2000 hours of operation in the air.

  11. Reconciling macro- with nano- carrier mobility measurements in organic photovoltaic blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omar, Yamila M.; Maragliano, Carlo; Chiesa, Matteo; Al Ghaferi, Amal; Stefancich, Marco

    2014-04-28

    Conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) is a valuable tool for electrical characterization of organic photovoltaics. However, the quantitative interpretation of the data is complicated by an apparent disagreement between the carrier mobilities calculated by CAFM and those determined by macroscopic measurements, with no apparent physical explanation for the discrepancy. In the present work, the space charge limited current model (specifically Mott-Gurney law) and its assumptions are assessed, and a physical model reconciling this discrepancy is proposed. Its applicability on the tip-sample system used in CAFM measurements is discussed, by accounting for the high electric fields arising around the tip of the CAFM probe and affecting carrier mobility. Charge carrier mobility is calculated from current-voltage curves obtained from conductive atomic force microscopy spectroscopy scans done on Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl): 95% PC{sub 70}BM ([6,6]-Phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester)/5% PC{sub 60}BM ([6,6]-Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) samples for different concentration ratios of donor and acceptor. We show that charge carrier mobilities obtained with this model are in satisfactory agreement with macroscopic measurements available in literature.

  12. Uranium vacancy mobility at the sigma 5 symmetric tilt grain boundary in UO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uberuaga, Blas P.

    2012-05-02

    An important consequence of the fissioning process occurring during burnup is the formation of fission products. These fission products alter the thermo-mechanical properties of the fuel. They also lead to macroscopic changes in the fuel structure, including the formation of bubbles that are connected to swelling of the fuel. Subsequent release of fission gases increase the pressure in the plenum and can cause changes in the properties of the fuel pin itself. It is thus imperative to understand how fission products, and fission gases in particular, behave within the fuel in order to predict the performance of the fuel under operating conditions. Fission gas redistribution within the fuel is governed by mass transport and the presence of sinks such as impurities, dislocations, and grain boundaries. Thus, to understand how the distribution of fission gases evolves in the fuel, we must understand the underlying transport mechanisms, tied to the concentrations and mobilities of defects within the material, and how these gases interact with microstructural features that might act as sinks. Both of these issues have been addressed in previous work under NEAMS. However, once a fission product has reached a sink, such as a grain boundary, its mobility may be different there than in the grain interior and predicting how, for example, bubbles nucleate within grain boundaries necessitates an understanding of how fission gases diffuse within boundaries. That is the goal of the present work. In this report, we describe atomic level simulations of uranium vacancy diffusion in the pressence of a {Sigma}5 symmetric tilt boundary in urania (UO{sub 2}). This boundary was chosen as it is the simplest of the boundaries we considered in previous work on segregation and serves as a starting point for understanding defect mobility at boundaries. We use a combination of molecular statics calculations and kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) to determine how the mobility of uranium vacancies is altered at this particular grain boundary. Given that the diffusion of fission gases such as Xe are tied to the mobility of uranium vacancies, these results given insight into how fission gas mobility differs at grain boundaries compared to bulk urania.

  13. Microbial transformations of uranium in wastes and implication on its mobility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki,Y.; Nankawa, T.; Ozaki, T.; Ohnuki, T.; Francis, A.J.; Enokida, Y.; Yamamoto, I.

    2008-09-14

    Uranium exists in several chemical forms in mining and mill tailings and in nuclear and weapons production wastes. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of U in wastes by altering the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of U in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of U is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect nonenzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of U have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the mechanisms of microbial transformations of various chemical forms of U in the presence of electron donors and acceptors.

  14. Record surface state mobility and quantum Hall effect in topological insulator thin films via interface engineering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Koirala, Nikesh; Han, Myung -Geun; Brahlek, Matthew; Salehi, Maryam; Wu, Liang; Dai, Jixia; Waugh, Justin; Nummy, Thomas; Moon, Jisoo; Zhu, Yimei; et al

    2015-11-19

    Material defects remain as the main bottleneck to the progress of topological insulators (TIs). In particular, efforts to achieve thin TI samples with dominant surface transport have always led to increased defects and degraded mobilities, thus making it difficult to probe the quantum regime of the topological surface states. Here, by utilizing a novel buffer layer scheme composed of an In2Se3/(Bi0.5In0.5)2Se3 heterostructure, we introduce a quantum generation of Bi2Se3 films with an order of magnitude enhanced mobilities than before. Furthermore, this scheme has led to the first observation of the quantum Hall effect in Bi2Se3.

  15. Mobile treatment modules for the Rhode Island environmental training center. Project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herriot, D.

    1994-12-01

    Groundwater pollution can result from many activities, including leaching from landfills and abandoned dump sites, accidental spills of chemicals or waste materials, improper underground injection of liquids, and leakage from faulty septic systems or underground storage tanks. Discoveries of aquifer pollution from man`s waste disposal practices are increasing. A recent trend, is to fast track the remediation process by employing mobile units which can be quickly set up and put into operation to address the contamination problem with the speed and urgency it deserves. The traditional study, design, and construction of a site-specific treatment process simply takes too long. Mobile units can serve as an interim treatment system to expeditiously control migration, and address public health and safety concerns while time and technology work together for a permanent, cost-effective remediation plan.

  16. Charge transfer and mobility enhancement at CdO/SnTe heterointerfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishitani, Junichi; Yu, Kin Man; Walukiewicz, Wladek

    2014-09-29

    We report a study of the effects of charge transfer on electrical properties of CdO/SnTe heterostructures. A series of structures with variable SnTe thicknesses were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. Because of an extreme type III band offset with the valence band edge of SnTe located at 1.5?eV above the conduction band edge of CdO, a large charge transfer is expected at the interface of the CdO/SnTe heterostructure. The electrical properties of the heterostructures are analyzed using a multilayer charge transport model. The analysis indicates a large 4-fold enhancement of the CdO electron mobility at the interface with SnTe. The mobility enhancement is attributed to reduction of the charge center scattering through neutralization of the donor-like defects responsible for the Fermi level pinning at the CdO/SnTe interface.

  17. Linear magnetoresistance caused by mobility fluctuations in n-doped Cd3As2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Narayanan, A.; Watson, M. D.; Blake, S. F.; Bruyant, N.; Drigo, L.; Chen, Y. L.; Prabhakaran, D.; Yan, B.; Felser, C.; Kong, T.; et al

    2015-03-19

    Cd3As2 is a candidate three-dimensional Dirac semimetal which has exceedingly high mobility and nonsaturating linear magnetoresistance that may be relevant for future practical applications. We report magnetotransport and tunnel diode oscillation measurements on Cd3As2, in magnetic fields up to 65 T and temperatures between 1.5 and 300 K. We find that the nonsaturating linear magnetoresistance persists up to 65 T and it is likely caused by disorder effects, as it scales with the high mobility rather than directly linked to Fermi surface changes even when approaching the quantum limit. As a result of the observed quantum oscillations, we determine themore » bulk three-dimensional Fermi surface having signatures of Dirac behavior with a nontrivial Berry phase shift, very light effective quasiparticle masses, and clear deviations from the band-structure predictions. In very high fields we also detect signatures of large Zeeman spin splitting (g~16).« less

  18. Mobile robots IV; Proceedings of the Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, Nov. 6, 7, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, W.J.; Chun, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    The present conference on mobile robot systems discusses high-speed machine perception based on passive sensing, wide-angle optical ranging, three-dimensional path planning for flying/crawling robots, navigation of autonomous mobile intelligence in an unstructured natural environment, mechanical models for the locomotion of a four-articulated-track robot, a rule-based command language for a semiautonomous Mars rover, and a computer model of the structured light vision system for a Mars rover. Also discussed are optical flow and three-dimensional information for navigation, feature-based reasoning trail detection, a symbolic neural-net production system for obstacle avoidance and navigation, intelligent path planning for robot navigation in an unknown environment, behaviors from a hierarchical control system, stereoscopic TV systems, the REACT language for autonomous robots, and a man-amplifying exoskeleton.

  19. Estimate of Fuel Consumption and GHG Emission Impact on an Automated Mobility District: Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Estimate of Fuel Consumption and GHG Emission Impact on an Automated Mobility District Preprint Yuche Chen, Stanley Young, and Jeff Gonder National Renewable Energy Laboratory Xuewei Qi University of California Riverside Presented at the 4th International Conference on Connected Vehicles & Expo (ICCVE 2015) Shenzhen, China October 19-23, 2015 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5400-65257 December 2015 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable

  20. Houdini{trademark}: Reconfigurable in-tank mobile robot. Final report, June 1995--January 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, B.; Slifko, A.

    1998-12-31

    This report details the development of a reconfigurable in-tank robotic cleanup system called Houdini{trademark}. Driven by the general need to develop equipment for the removal of radioactive waste from hundreds of DOE waste storage tanks and the specific needs of DOE sites such as Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Fernald, Houdini{trademark} represents one of the possible tools that can be used to mobilize and retrieve this waste material for complete remediation. Houdini{trademark} is a hydraulically powered, track driven, mobile work vehicle with a collapsible frame designed to enter underground or above ground waste tanks through existing 24 inch riser openings. After the vehicle has entered the waste tank, it unfolds and lands on the waste surface or tank floor to become a remotely operated mini-bulldozer. Houdini{trademark} utilizes a vehicle mounted plow blade and 6-DOF manipulator to mobilize waste and carry other tooling such as sluicing pumps, excavation buckets, and hydraulic shears. The complete Houdini{trademark} system consists of the tracked vehicle and other support equipment (e.g., control console, deployment system, hydraulic power supply, and controller) necessary to deploy and remotely operate this system at any DOE site. Inside the storage tanks, the system is capable of performing heel removal, waste mobilization, waste size reduction, and other tank waste retrieval and decommissioning tasks. The first Houdini{trademark} system was delivered on September 24, 1996 to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The system acceptance test was successfully performed at a cold test facility at ORNL. After completion of the cold test program and the training of site personnel, ORNL will deploy the system for clean-up and remediation of the Gunite storage tanks.

  1. Self-Assembly, Molecular Ordering, and Charge Mobility in Solution-Processed Ultrathin Oligothiophene Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy,A.; Chang, P.; VanDyke, P.; Liu, J.; Frechet, J.; Subramanian, V.; Delongchamp, D.; Sambasivan, S.; Fischer, D.; Lin, E.

    2005-01-01

    Symmetrical {alpha}, {omega}-substituted quarter-(T4), penta-(T5), sexi-(T6), and heptathiophene (T7) oligomers containing thermally removable aliphatic ester solubilizing groups were synthesized, and their UV-vis and thermal characteristics were compared. Spun-cast thin films of each oligomer were examined with atomic force microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to evaluate the ability of the material to self-assemble from a solution-based process while maintaining complete surface coverage. Films of the T5-T7 oligomers self-assemble into crystalline terraces after thermal annealing with higher temperatures required to affect this transformation as the size of the oligomers increases. A symmetrical {alpha}, {omega}-substituted sexithiophene (T6-acid) that reveals carboxylic acids after thermolysis was also prepared to evaluate the effect of the presence of hydrogen-bonding moieties. The charge transport properties for these materials evaluated in top-contact thin film transistor devices were found to correlate with the observed morphology of the films. Therefore, the T4 and the T6-acid performed poorly because of incomplete surface coverage after thermolysis, while T5-T7 exhibited much higher performance as a result of molecular ordering. Increases in charge mobility correlated to increasing conjugation length with measured mobilities ranging from 0.02 to 0.06 cm2/(V{center_dot}s). The highest mobilities were measured when films of each oligomer had an average thickness between one and two monolayers, indicating that the molecules become exceptionally well-ordered during the thermolysis process. This unprecedented ordering of the solution-cast molecules results in efficient charge mobility rarely seen in such ultrathin films.

  2. ECIS, Boeing, Caltrans, and Others: Fuel-Cell-Powered Mobile Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applications Boeing, Caltrans, and Others: Fuel-Cell-Powered Mobile Lighting Applications - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery

  3. ORNIJRASA-85/7 Health and Safety Research Division RESULTS OF TBE MOBILE GAMMA SCANNING ACTIVITIES

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ORNIJRASA-85/7 Health and Safety Research Division RESULTS OF TBE MOBILE GAMMA SCANNING ACTIVITIES IN BERKELEY, BRIDGETON, AND HAZELWOOD, MISSOURI Jane 1985 Work performed as part of the RADIOLOGICAL SURVEYACXVITIES PROGRAM OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 operated by MARTIN MARIETTA ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC. for the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY under Contract No. DE-AC05840R21400 -.... ORNL/RASA-85/7 Health and Safety Research Division RESULTS OF IBE MOBILEGAMMA SCANNING

  4. Low-temperature high-mobility amorphous IZO for silicon heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morales-Masis, Monica; Martin De Nicolas, Silvia; Holovsky, Jakub; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2015-07-13

    Parasitic absorption in the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) front electrode is one of the limitations of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells efficiency. To avoid such absorption while retaining high conductivity, TCOs with high electron mobility are preferred over those with high carrier density. Here, we demonstrate improved SHJ solar cell efficiencies by applying high-mobility amorphous indium zinc oxide (a-IZO) as the front TCO. We sputtered a-IZO at low substrate temperature and low power density and investigated the optical and electrical properties, as well as subband tail formation-quantified by the Urbach energy (EU)-as a function of the sputtering oxygen partial pressure. We obtain an EU as low as 128 meV for films with the highest Hall mobility of 60 cm2/Vs. When comparing the performance of a-IZO films with indium tin oxide (ITO) and hydrogenated indium oxide (IO:H), we find that IO:H (115 cm2/Vs) exhibits a similar EU of 130 meV, while ITO (25 cm2/Vs) presents a much larger EU of up to 270 meV. The high film quality, indicated by the low EU, the high mobility, and low free carrier absorption of the developed a-IZO electrodes, result in a significant current improvement, achieving conversion efficiencies over 21.5%, outperforming those with standard ITO.

  5. Microsoft Word - NRAP_TRS_III_Mobilization_and_Transport_of_Organic_Compound_final.20150515.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mobilization and Transport of Organic Compounds from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Reservoirs 21 May 2015 Office of Fossil Energy NRAP-TRS-III-002-2015 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any

  6. Ultra-high Charge Carrier Mobility in an Organic Semiconductor by Vertical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chain Alignment | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Ultra-high Charge Carrier Mobility in an Organic Semiconductor by Vertical Chain Alignment Thursday, March 31, 2016 The control of the electronic and optical properties of conjugated polymer thin films is of great interest for building more efficient solution processed organic electronic devices, e.g. photovoltaic (OPV) and light emitting (OLED) devices. The crystallinity and the chain orientation in the polymer film has been shown

  7. Trapping of oil drops in a noncircular pore throat and mobilization upon contact with a surfactant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arriola, A.; Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1983-02-01

    An experimental apparatus was developed to study trapping and mobilization of oil drops in a capillary of square cross section (100 microns X 100 microns (100 ..mu..m X 100 ..mu..m)) having a constriction also approximately square in shape. Experiments to investigate trapping consisted of injecting a drop of nonwetting phase liquid (''oil'') into a flowing water stream (wetting phase). Pre-equilibrated alcohol/water systems were used to study effects of interfacial tension (IFT). A drop was displaced toward the constriction by the flowing water. The behavior of the drop as it approached and was trapped by the constriction or as it moved through the constriction was observed as a function of flow rate, drop length, and IFT between the water and nonwetting liquid. Mobilization by surfactants was investigated by conducting a series of displacement experiments in the capillary cell. Data from the mobilization experiments allowed two mechanisms to be identified. In Mechanism 1, minute quantities of the surfactant and/or cosurfactant were carried ahead of the main surfactant slug by brine that bypassed the slug. This reduced the IFT between the oil and brine. The oil drop moved further into the constriction and a snap-off process ensued. Mechanism 2 occurred when a sharp interface of the surfactant slug contacted the trailing edge of a nonane drop that was either trapped or in a snap-off process. A series of events that mobilized the drop occurred over a very short time period (< 4.0 seconds). The events included rupture of the drop interface, rolling motions inside the drop with resulting emulsification, and passage of the emulsified drop through the pore constriction without snap-off.

  8. Effects on carbon monoxide levels in mobile homes using unvented kerosene heaters for residential heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, R.; Walsh, D.; White, J.; Jackson, M.; Mumford, J.

    1992-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels were continuously monitored in 8 mobile trailer homes less than 10 years old. These homes were monitored in an US EPA study on indoor air quality as affected by unvented portable kerosene heaters. Respondents were asked to operate their heaters in a normal fashion. CO, air exchange and temperature values were measured during the study in each home. Results indicate that consumers using unvented kerosene heaters may be unknowingly exposed to high CO levels without taking proper precautions.

  9. DOE/SC-ARM-14-016 ARM Operations and Engineering Procedure Mobile Facility Site Startup

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 ARM Operations and Engineering Procedure Mobile Facility Site Startup JW Voyles May 2014 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not

  10. Mechanical flip-chip for ultra-high electron mobility devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bennaceur, Keyan; Schmidt, Benjamin A.; Gaucher, Samuel; Laroche, Dominique; Sandia National Lab.; Lilly, Michael P.; Reno, John L.; West, Ken W.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; Gervais, Guillaume

    2015-09-22

    In this study, electrostatic gates are of paramount importance for the physics of devices based on high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) since they allow depletion of electrons in selected areas. This field-effect gating enables the fabrication of a wide range of devices such as, for example, quantum point contacts (QPC), electron interferometers and quantum dots. To fabricate these gates, processing is usually performed on the 2DEG material, which is in many cases detrimental to its electron mobility. Here we propose an alternative process which does not require any processing of the 2DEG material other than for the ohmic contacts. Thismore » approach relies on processing a separate wafer that is then mechanically mounted on the 2DEG material in a flip-chip fashion. This technique proved successful to fabricate quantum point contacts on both GaAs/AlGaAs materials with both moderate and ultra-high electron mobility.« less

  11. Ion mobility spectrometer, spectrometer analyte detection and identification verification system, and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atkinson, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for ion mobility spectrometry and analyte detection and identification verification system are disclosed. The apparatus is configured to be used in an ion mobility spectrometer and includes a plurality of reactant reservoirs configured to contain a plurality of reactants which can be reacted with the sample to form adducts having varying ion mobilities. A carrier fluid, such as air or nitrogen, is used to carry the sample into the spectrometer. The plurality of reactants are configured to be selectively added to the carrier stream by use inlet and outlet manifolds in communication with the reagent reservoirs, the reservoirs being selectively isolatable by valves. The invention further includes a spectrometer having the reagent system described. In the method, a first reactant is used with the sample. Following a positive result, a second reactant is used to determine whether a predicted response occurs. The occurrence of the second predicted response tends to verify the existence of a component of interest within the sample. A third reactant can also be used to provide further verification of the existence of a component of interest. A library can be established of known responses of compounds of interest with various reactants and the results of a specific multi-reactant survey of a sample can be compared against the library to determine whether a component detected in the sample is likely to be a specific component of interest.

  12. Mobility of singly-charged lanthanide cations in rare gases: Theoretical assessment of the state specificity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchachenko, Alexei A.; Viehland, Larry A.

    2014-03-21

    High quality, ab initio calculations are reported for the potential energy curves governing the interactions of four singly-charged lanthanide ions (Yb{sup +}, Eu{sup +}, Lu{sup +}, and Gd{sup +}) with the rare gases (RG = HeXe). Scalar-relativistic coupled cluster calculations are used for the first three S-state ions, but for Gd{sup +}({sup 10}D) it is necessary to take the interaction anisotropy into account with the help of the multi-reference technique. The potential energy curves are used to determine the ion mobility and other transport properties describing the motion of the ions through the dilute RG, both as functions of the temperature, T, in the low-field limit, and at fixed T as functions of the ratio of the electrostatic field strength to the gas number density, E/N. The calculated mobilities are in good agreement with the very limited experimental data that have become available recently. The calculations show a pronounced dependence of the transport properties on the electronic configuration of the ion, as well as a significant effect of the spin-orbit coupling on the transport properties of the Gd{sup +} ion, and predict that state-specific mobilities could be detectable in Gd{sup +}RG experiments.

  13. Characterization of Traveling Wave Ion Mobility Separations in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid, Ahmed M.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Garimella, Venkata BS; Webb, Ian K.; Deng, Liulin; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Anderson, Gordon A.; Prost, Spencer A.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-10-28

    We report on the development and characterization of a new traveling wave-based Structure for Lossless Ion Manipulations (TW-SLIM) for ion mobility separations (IMS). The TW-SLIM module uses a parallel array of RF electrodes for ion confinement, spaced by an array of short DC electrodes to which a TW can be applied to drive ion motion. The ability of the TW-SLIM for efficient ion confinement, lossless ion transport, and ion mobility separations at different RF and TW parameters is reported. The TW-SLIM module is shown to allow transfers a wide mass range of ions (200-2500 Da) utilizing a confining RF waveform (1 MHz and 300 Vp-p), and low TW amplitudes (<20 V). Also, the short module achieved an ion mobility peak capacity of 24 and a peak generation rate of 1014 s-1 for TW speeds of <210 m/s. TW-SLIM performance was characterized over a wide range of RF and DC voltage parameters, and demonstrated robust performance. The combined attributes of flexible design and low voltage requirements for traveling wave IMS, provide a basis for SLIM devices incorporating extended series of ion manipulations.

  14. Optimal Ge/SiGe nanofin geometries for hole mobility enhancement: Technology limit from atomic simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vedula, Ravi Pramod; Mehrotra, Saumitra; Kubis, Tillmann; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-05-07

    We use first principles simulations to engineer Ge nanofins for maximum hole mobility by controlling strain tri-axially through nano-patterning. Large-scale molecular dynamics predict fully relaxed, atomic structures for experimentally achievable nanofins, and orthogonal tight binding is used to obtain the corresponding electronic structure. Hole transport properties are then obtained via a linearized Boltzmann formalism. This approach explicitly accounts for free surfaces and associated strain relaxation as well as strain gradients which are critical for quantitative predictions in nanoscale structures. We show that the transverse strain relaxation resulting from the reduction in the aspect ratio of the fins leads to a significant enhancement in phonon limited hole mobility (7× over unstrained, bulk Ge, and 3.5× over biaxially strained Ge). Maximum enhancement is achieved by reducing the width to be approximately 1.5 times the height and further reduction in width does not result in additional gains. These results indicate significant room for improvement over current-generation Ge nanofins, provide geometrical guidelines to design optimized geometries and insight into the physics behind the significant mobility enhancement.

  15. High-mobility capacitively-induced two-dimensional electrons in a lateral superlattice potential

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lu, Tzu -Ming; Laroche, Dominique; Huang, S. -H.; Chuang, Y.; Li, J. -Y.; Liu, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of a lateral periodic potential modulation, two-dimensional electrons may exhibit interesting phenomena, such as a graphene-like energy-momentum dispersion, Bloch oscillations, or the Hofstadter butterfly band structure. To create a sufficiently strong potential modulation using conventional semiconductor heterostructures, aggressive device processing is often required, unfortunately resulting in strong disorder that masks the sought-after effects. Here, we report a novel fabrication process flow for imposing a strong lateral potential modulation onto a capacitively induced two-dimensional electron system, while preserving the host material quality. Using this process flow, the electron density in a patterned Si/SiGe heterostructure can be tuned overmore » a wide range, from 4.4 × 1010 cm–2 to 1.8 × 1011 cm–2, with a peak mobility of 6.4 × 105 cm2/V·s. The wide density tunability and high electron mobility allow us to observe sequential emergence of commensurability oscillations as the density, the mobility, and in turn the mean free path, increase. Magnetic-field-periodic quantum oscillations associated with various closed orbits also emerge sequentially with increasing density. We show that, from the density dependence of the quantum oscillations, one can directly extract the steepness of the imposed superlattice potential. Lastly, this result is then compared to a conventional lateral superlattice model potential.« less

  16. Transport of Organic Contaminants Mobilized from Coal through Sandstone Overlying a Geological Carbon Sequestration Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Lirong; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Bacon, Diana H.; Shewell, Jesse L.

    2014-02-01

    Column experiments were conducted using a wetted sandstone rock installed in a tri-axial core holder to study the flow and transport of organic compounds mobilized by scCO2 under simulated geologic carbon storage (GCS) conditions. The sandstone rock was collected from a formation overlying a deep saline reservoir at a GCS demonstration site. Rock core effluent pressures were set at 0, 500, or 1000 psig and the core temperature was set at 20 or 50C to simulate the transport to different subsurface depths. The concentrations of the organic compounds in the column effluent and their distribution within the sandstone core were monitored. Results indicate that the mobility though the core sample was much higher for BTEX compounds than for naphthalene. Retention of organic compounds from the vapor phase to the core appeared to be primarily controlled by partitioning from the vapor phase to the aqueous phase. Adsorption to the surfaces of the wetted sandstone was also significant for naphthalene. Reduced temperature and elevated pressure resulted in greater partitioning of the mobilized organic contaminants into the water phase.

  17. An economic analysis of mobile pyrolysis for northern New Mexico forests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Patrick D.; Brown, Alexander L.; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

    2011-12-01

    In the interest of providing an economically sensible use for the copious small-diameter wood in Northern New Mexico, an economic study is performed focused on mobile pyrolysis. Mobile pyrolysis was selected for the study because transportation costs limit the viability of a dedicated pyrolysis plant, and the relative simplicity of pyrolysis compared to other technology solutions lends itself to mobile reactor design. A bench-scale pyrolysis system was used to study the wood pyrolysis process and to obtain performance data that was otherwise unavailable under conditions theorized to be optimal given the regional problem. Pyrolysis can convert wood to three main products: fixed gases, liquid pyrolysis oil and char. The fixed gases are useful as low-quality fuel, and may have sufficient chemical energy to power a mobile system, eliminating the need for an external power source. The majority of the energy content of the pyrolysis gas is associated with carbon monoxide, followed by light hydrocarbons. The liquids are well characterized in the historical literature, and have slightly lower heating values comparable to the feedstock. They consist of water and a mix of hundreds of hydrocarbons, and are acidic. They are also unstable, increasing in viscosity with time stored. Up to 60% of the biomass in bench-scale testing was converted to liquids. Lower ({approx}550 C) furnace temperatures are preferred because of the decreased propensity for deposits and the high liquid yields. A mobile pyrolysis system would be designed with low maintenance requirements, should be able to access wilderness areas, and should not require more than one or two people to operate the system. The techno-economic analysis assesses fixed and variable costs. It suggests that the economy of scale is an important factor, as higher throughput directly leads to improved system economic viability. Labor and capital equipment are the driving factors in the viability of the system. The break-even selling price for the baseline assumption is about $11/GJ, however it may be possible to reduce this value by 20-30% depending on other factors evaluated in the non-baseline scenarios. Assuming a value for the char co-product improves the analysis. Significantly lower break-even costs are possible in an international setting, as labor is the dominant production cost.

  18. Effects of twin boundary mobility on domain microstructure evolution in magnetic shape memory alloys: Phase field simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Yongmei M.

    2009-02-09

    Effects of twin boundary mobility on domain microstructure evolution during magnetic field-induced deformation in magnetic shape memory alloys are studied by phase field micromagnetic microelastic modeling. The simulations show that different twin boundary mobilities lead to drastically different domain microstructures and evolution pathways, yielding very different magnetization and strain responses, even with opposite signs. The study also reveals complex domain phenomena in magnetic shape memory alloys.

  19. The Citizen Cyberscience Lectures - 1) Mobile phones and Africa: a success story 2) Citizen Problem Solving

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-28

    Mobile phones and Africa: a success story Dr. Mo Ibrahim, Mo Ibrahim Foundation Citizen Problem Solving Dr. Alpheus Bingham, InnoCentive The Citizen Cyberscience Lectures are hosted by the partners of the Citizen Cyberscience Centre, CERN, The UN Institute of Training and Research and the University of Geneva. The goal of the Lectures is to provide an inspirational forum for participants from the various international organizations and academic institutions in Geneva to explore how information technology is enabling greater citizen participation in tackling global development challenges as well as global scientific research. The first Citizen Cyberscience Lectures will welcome two speakers who have both made major innovative contributions in this area. Dr. Mo Ibrahim, founder of Celtel International, one of Africas most successful mobile network operators, will talk about Mobile phones and Africa: a success story. Dr. Alpheus Bingham, founder of InnoCentive, a Web-based community that solves industrial R&D; challenges, will discuss Citizen Problem Solving. The Citizen Cyberscience Lectures are open and free of charge. Participants from outside CERN must register by sending an email to Yasemin.Hauser@cern.ch BEFORE the 23rd october to be able to access CERN. THE LECTURES Mobile phones and Africa: a success story Dr. Mo Ibrahim, Mo Ibrahim Foundation Abstract The introduction of mobile phones into Africa changed the continent, enabling business and the commercial sector, creating directly and indirectly, millions of jobs. It enriched the social lives of many people. Surprisingly, it supported the emerging civil society and advanced the course of democracy Bio Dr Mo Ibrahim is a global expert in mobile communications with a distinguished academic and business career. In 1998, Dr Ibrahim founded Celtel International to build and operate mobile networks in Africa. Celtel became one of Africas most successful companies with operations in 15 countries, covering more than a third of the continents population and investing more than US$750 million in Africa. The company was sold to MTC Kuwait in 2005 for $3.4billion. In 2006 Dr Ibrahim established the Mo Ibrahim Foundation to support great African leadership. The Foundation focuses on two major initiatives to stimulate debate around, and improve the quality of, governance in Africa. The Ibrahim Prize for Achievement in African Leadership recognises and celebrates excellence; and the Ibrahim Index of African Governance provides civil society with a comprehensive and quantifiable tool to promote government accountability. Dr Ibrahim is also Founding Chairman of Satya Capital Ltd, an investment company focused on opportunities in Africa. Dr Ibrahim has been awarded an Honorary Doctorate by the University of Londons School of Oriental and African Studies, the University of Birmingham and De Montfort University, Leicester as well as an Honorary Fellowship Award from the London Business School. He has also received the Chairmans Award for Lifetime Achievement from the GSM Association in 2007 and the Economists Innovation Award 2007 for Social & Economic Innovation. In 2008 Dr Ibrahim was presented with the BNP Paribas Prize for Philanthropy, and also listed by TIME magazine as one of the 100 most influential people in the world. Citizen Problem Solving Dr. Alpheus Bingham, InnoCentive Abstract American playwright Damien Runyon (Guys and Dolls) once remarked, "the race is not always to the swift, nor the victory to the strong -- but that IS how you bet." Not only does a system of race handicapping follow from this logic, but the whole notion of expertise and technical qualifications. Such 'credentials' allow one to 'bet' on who might most likely solve a difficult challenge, whether as consultant, contractor or employee. Of course, the approach would differ if one were allowed to bet AFTER the race. When such systems came into broad use, i.e., chat rooms, usenets, innocentive, etc., and were subsequently studied, it was often found that the greate

  20. Mobile Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Alternative Fueling Station Locator Fuel Type Biodiesel (B20 and above) Compressed Natural Gas Electric Ethanol (E85) Hydrogen Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Propane) Location Enter a city, postal code, or address Include private stations Not all stations are open to the public. Choose this option to also search private fueling stations. Search Caution: The AFDC recommends that users verify that stations are open, available to the

  1. Mobile Apps

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and other benefits enrollment requirements. Great overview before onsite orientation History About LANL Learn about the once-secret history of Los Alamos, its future, its...

  2. Mobile 911

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Hagerman, Dean

    2014-06-09

    It's everyone's first reaction when an emergency strikes: Dial 911. But what if no one picks up? That scenario isn't as unlikely as it sounds. During Hurricane Katrina, dozens of 911 call centers in the area were out of service due to flooding, evacuation and loss of power. Most landlines weren't working, and 70 percent of the cell phone towers in New Orleans had failed. "The communications infrastructure completely collapsed," says Curtis Papke, an engineer at Idaho National Laboratory. "Even if you had cell coverage, there was no one at the 911 centers to answer the call." Papke's group has partnered with the Idaho National Guard and the company Qualcomm Inc. to find a possible solution.

  3. Mobile Video

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos Discovers Super Efficient Solar Using Perovskite Crystals 3:3 Los Alamos Discovers Super Efficient Solar Using Perovskite Crystals Installation of the Cielo...

  4. Mobile 911

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagerman, Dean

    2013-11-25

    It's everyone's first reaction when an emergency strikes: Dial 911. But what if no one picks up? That scenario isn't as unlikely as it sounds. During Hurricane Katrina, dozens of 911 call centers in the area were out of service due to flooding, evacuation and loss of power. Most landlines weren't working, and 70 percent of the cell phone towers in New Orleans had failed. "The communications infrastructure completely collapsed," says Curtis Papke, an engineer at Idaho National Laboratory. "Even if you had cell coverage, there was no one at the 911 centers to answer the call." Papke's group has partnered with the Idaho National Guard and the company Qualcomm Inc. to find a possible solution.

  5. Low-frequency elastic waves alter pore-scale colloid mobilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckham, Richard Edward; Abdel-fattah, Amr I; Roberts, Peter M; Ibrahim, Reem; Tarimala, Sownitri

    2009-01-01

    Naturally occurring seismic events and artificially generated low-frequency elastic waves have been observed to alter the production rates of oil and water wells, sometimes increasing and sometimes decreasing production, and to influence the turbidity of water wells. TEe decreases in production are of particular concern - especially when artificially generated elastic waves are applied as a method for enhanced oil recovery. The exact conditions that result in a decrease in production remain unknown. While the underlying environment is certainly complex, the observed increase in water well turbidity after seismic events suggests the existence of a mechanism that can affect both the subsurface flow paths and mobilization of in-situ colloidal particles. This paper explores the macroscopic and microscopic effects of elastic wave stimulations on the release of colloidal particles and investigates the microscopic mechanism of particle release during stimulation. Experiments on a column packed with 1-mm borosilicate beads loaded with polystyrene microspheres demonstrate that low-frequency elastic wave stimulations enhance the mobilization of captured microspheres. Increasing the intensity of the stimulations increases the number of microspheres released and can also result in cyclical variations in effluent microsphere concentration during and after stimulations. Under a prolonged period of stimulation, the cyclical effluent variations coincided with fluctuations in the column pressure data. This behavior can be attributed to flow pathways fouling and/or rearrangements of the beads in the column. Optical microscopy observations of the beads during low frequency oscillations reveal that the individual beads rotate, thereby rubbing against each other and scraping off portions of the adsorbed microspheres. These results support the theory that mechanical interactions between soil grains are important mechanisms in flow path alteration and the mobilization of naturally occurring colloidal particles during elastic wave stimulation. These results also point to both continuous and discrete, en masse releases of colloidal particles.

  6. Speakers: Paul D. Holtberg, EIA John Conti, EIA Tom R. Eizember, Exxon Mobil Corporation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3: "EIA's 2010 Annual Energy Outlook Highlights" Speakers: Paul D. Holtberg, EIA John Conti, EIA Tom R. Eizember, Exxon Mobil Corporation Mary Novak, HIS Global Insight [Note: Recorders did not pick up introduction of panel (see biographies for details on the panelists) or introduction of session.] Paul: All right, now we're running a little bit late here after all, lunch, so let's get started if we could. Either way, my speakers will be cut down to only 10 minutes each and we'll just

  7. Guidance for Deployment of Mobile Technologies for Nuclear Power Plant Field Workers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heather D. Medema; Ronald K. Farris

    2012-09-01

    This report is a guidance document prepared for the benefit of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) supporting organizations and personnel who are considering or undertaking deployment of mobile technology for the purpose of improving human performance and plant status control (PSC) for field workers in an NPP setting. This document especially is directed at NPP business managers, Electric Power Research Institute, Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, and other non-Information Technology personnel. This information is not intended to replace basic project management practices or reiterate these processes, but is to support decision-making, planning, and preparation of a business case.

  8. Doping suppression and mobility enhancement of graphene transistors fabricated using an adhesion promoting dry transfer process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheol Shin, Woo; Hun Mun, Jeong; Yong Kim, Taek; Choi, Sung-Yool; Jin Cho, Byung E-mail: tskim1@kaist.ac.kr; Yoon, Taeshik; Kim, Taek-Soo E-mail: tskim1@kaist.ac.kr

    2013-12-09

    We present the facile dry transfer of graphene synthesized via chemical vapor deposition on copper film to a functional device substrate. High quality uniform dry transfer of graphene to oxidized silicon substrate was achieved by exploiting the beneficial features of a poly(4-vinylphenol) adhesive layer involving a strong adhesion energy to graphene and negligible influence on the electronic and structural properties of graphene. The graphene field effect transistors (FETs) fabricated using the dry transfer process exhibit excellent electrical performance in terms of high FET mobility and low intrinsic doping level, which proves the feasibility of our approach in graphene-based nanoelectronics.

  9. Geometrical and band-structure effects on phonon-limited hole mobility in rectangular cross-sectional germanium nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, H. Mori, S.; Morioka, N.; Suda, J.; Kimoto, T.

    2014-12-21

    We calculated the phonon-limited hole mobility in rectangular cross-sectional [001], [110], [111], and [112]-oriented germanium nanowires, and the hole transport characteristics were investigated. A tight-binding approximation was used for holes, and phonons were described by a valence force field model. Then, scattering probability of holes by phonons was calculated taking account of hole-phonon interaction atomistically, and the linearized Boltzmann's transport equation was solved to calculate the hole mobility at low longitudinal field. The dependence of the hole mobility on nanowire geometry was analyzed in terms of the valence band structure of germanium nanowires, and it was found that the dependence was qualitatively reproduced by considering an average effective mass and the density of states of holes. The calculation revealed that [110] germanium nanowires with large height along the [001] direction show high hole mobility. Germanium nanowires with this geometry are also expected to exhibit high electron mobility in our previous work, and thus they are promising for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) applications.

  10. Estimate of Fuel Consumption and GHG Emission Impact from an Automated Mobility District

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yuche; Young, Stanley; Qi, Xuewei; Gonder, Jeffrey

    2015-10-19

    This study estimates the range of fuel and emissions impact of an automated-vehicle (AV) based transit system that services campus-based developments, termed an automated mobility district (AMD). The study develops a framework to quantify the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of a transit system comprised of AVs, taking into consideration average vehicle fleet composition, fuel consumption/GHG emission of vehicles within specific speed bins, and the average occupancy of passenger vehicles and transit vehicles. The framework is exercised using a previous mobility analysis of a personal rapid transit (PRT) system, a system which shares many attributes with envisioned AV-based transit systems. Total fuel consumption and GHG emissions with and without an AMD are estimated, providing a range of potential system impacts on sustainability. The results of a previous case study based of a proposed implementation of PRT on the Kansas State University (KSU) campus in Manhattan, Kansas, serves as the basis to estimate personal miles traveled supplanted by an AMD at varying levels of service. The results show that an AMD has the potential to reduce total system fuel consumption and GHG emissions, but the amount is largely dependent on operating and ridership assumptions. The study points to the need to better understand ride-sharing scenarios and calls for future research on sustainability benefits of an AMD system at both vehicle and system levels.

  11. Estimate of Fuel Consumption and GHG Emission Impact on an Automated Mobility District: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yuche; Young, Stanley; Gonder, Jeff; Qi, Xuewei

    2015-12-11

    This study estimates the range of fuel and emissions impact of an automated-vehicle (AV) based transit system that services campus-based developments, termed an automated mobility district (AMD). The study develops a framework to quantify the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of a transit system comprised of AVs, taking into consideration average vehicle fleet composition, fuel consumption/GHG emission of vehicles within specific speed bins, and the average occupancy of passenger vehicles and transit vehicles. The framework is exercised using a previous mobility analysis of a personal rapid transit (PRT) system, a system which shares many attributes with envisioned AV-based transit systems. Total fuel consumption and GHG emissions with and without an AMD are estimated, providing a range of potential system impacts on sustainability. The results of a previous case study based of a proposed implementation of PRT on the Kansas State University (KSU) campus in Manhattan, Kansas, serves as the basis to estimate personal miles traveled supplanted by an AMD at varying levels of service. The results show that an AMD has the potential to reduce total system fuel consumption and GHG emissions, but the amount is largely dependent on operating and ridership assumptions. The study points to the need to better understand ride-sharing scenarios and calls for future research on sustainability benefits of an AMD system at both vehicle and system levels.

  12. Experimental and Modeling Characterization of PETN Mobilization Mechanisms During Recrystallization at Ambient Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnham, A K; Gee, R; Maiti, A; Qiu, R; Rajasekar, P; Weeks, B; Zepeda-Ruiz, L

    2005-11-03

    Experimental measurements suggest that pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN) undergoes changes at the molecular level that cause macroscopic changes in the overall PETN powder characteristics over time. These changes have been attributed to the high molecular mobility of PETN, but the underlying mechanism(s) responsible for this redistribution are still uncertain. Two basic approaches have been implemented in the past year to provide insight into the nature of these underlying mechanisms. The first approach is of an experimental nature, utilizing both AFM and evaporation measurements, which address both surface mobility and evaporation. These data include AFM measurements performed at LLNL and evaporation rate measurements performed at Texas Tech. These results are compared to earlier vapor pressure measurements performed at SNL, and estimates of recrystallization time frames are given. The second approach utilizes first-principle calculations and simulations that will be used to compare directly to those experimental quantities measured. We are developing an accurate intermolecular potential for PETN, which via kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations would mimic real crystallite shapes. Once the basic theory is in place for the growth of single crystallites, we will be in a position to investigate realistic grain coarsening phenomena in multi-crystallite simulations. This will also enable us to study how to control the morphological evolution, e.g., through thermal cycling, or through the action of custom additives and impurities.

  13. Calculation of room temperature conductivity and mobility in tin-based topological insulator nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandenberghe, William G. Fischetti, Massimo V.

    2014-11-07

    Monolayers of tin (stannanane) functionalized with halogens have been shown to be topological insulators. Using density functional theory (DFT), we study the electronic properties and room-temperature transport of nanoribbons of iodine-functionalized stannanane showing that the overlap integral between the wavefunctions associated to edge-states at opposite ends of the ribbons decreases with increasing width of the ribbons. Obtaining the phonon spectra and the deformation potentials also from DFT, we calculate the conductivity of the ribbons using the Kubo-Greenwood formalism and show that their mobility is limited by inter-edge phonon backscattering. We show that wide stannanane ribbons have a mobility exceeding 10{sup 6} cm{sup 2}/Vs. Contrary to ordinary semiconductors, two-dimensional topological insulators exhibit a high conductivity at low charge density, decreasing with increasing carrier density. Furthermore, the conductivity of iodine-functionalized stannanane ribbons can be modulated over a range of three orders of magnitude, thus rendering this material extremely interesting for classical computing applications.

  14. Novel Iron-based ternary amorphous oxide semiconductor with very high transparency, electronic conductivity, and mobility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Malasi, A.; Taz, H.; Farah, A.; Patel, M.; Lawrie, Benjamin; Pooser, R.; Baddorf, A.; Duscher, G.; Kalyanaraman, R.

    2015-12-16

    We report that ternary metal oxides of type (Me)2O3 with the primary metal (Me) constituent being Fe (66 atomic (at.) %) along with the two Lanthanide elements Tb (10 at.%) and Dy (24 at.%) can show excellent semiconducting transport properties. Thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition at room temperature followed by ambient oxidation showed very high electronic conductivity (>5 × 104 S/m) and Hall mobility (>30 cm2/V-s). These films had an amorphous microstructure which was stable to at least 500 °C and large optical transparency with a direct band gap of 2.85 ± 0.14 eV. This material shows emergentmore » semiconducting behavior with significantly higher conductivity and mobility than the constituent insulating oxides. In conclusion, since these results demonstrate a new way to modify the behaviors of transition metal oxides made from unfilled d- and/or f-subshells, a new class of functional transparent conducting oxide materials could be envisioned.« less

  15. P-doping-free III-nitride high electron mobility light-emitting diodes and transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Baikui; Tang, Xi; Chen, Kevin J.; Wang, Jiannong

    2014-07-21

    We report that a simple metal-AlGaN/GaN Schottky diode is capable of producing GaN band-edge ultraviolet emission at 3.4?eV at a small forward bias larger than ?2?V at room temperature. Based on the surface states distribution of AlGaN, a mature impact-ionization-induced Fermi-level de-pinning model is proposed to explain the underlying mechanism of the electroluminescence (EL) process. By experimenting with different Schottky metals, Ni/Au and Pt/Au, we demonstrated that this EL phenomenon is a universal property of metal-AlGaN/GaN Schottky diodes. Since this light-emitting Schottky diode shares the same active structure and fabrication processes as the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors, straight-forward and seamless integration of photonic and electronic functional devices has been demonstrated on doping-free III-nitride heterostructures. Using a semitransparent Schottky drain electrode, an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility light-emitting transistor is demonstrated.

  16. Mobile Pit verification system design based on passive special nuclear material verification in weapons storage facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, J. N.; Chin, M. R.; Sjoden, G. E.

    2013-07-01

    A mobile 'drive by' passive radiation detection system to be applied in special nuclear materials (SNM) storage facilities for validation and compliance purposes has been designed through the use of computational modeling and new radiation detection methods. This project was the result of work over a 1 year period to create optimal design specifications to include creation of 3D models using both Monte Carlo and deterministic codes to characterize the gamma and neutron leakage out each surface of SNM-bearing canisters. Results were compared and agreement was demonstrated between both models. Container leakages were then used to determine the expected reaction rates using transport theory in the detectors when placed at varying distances from the can. A 'typical' background signature was incorporated to determine the minimum signatures versus the probability of detection to evaluate moving source protocols with collimation. This established the criteria for verification of source presence and time gating at a given vehicle speed. New methods for the passive detection of SNM were employed and shown to give reliable identification of age and material for highly enriched uranium (HEU) and weapons grade plutonium (WGPu). The finalized 'Mobile Pit Verification System' (MPVS) design demonstrated that a 'drive-by' detection system, collimated and operating at nominally 2 mph, is capable of rapidly verifying each and every weapon pit stored in regularly spaced, shelved storage containers, using completely passive gamma and neutron signatures for HEU and WGPu. This system is ready for real evaluation to demonstrate passive total material accountability in storage facilities. (authors)

  17. Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Mobile Real Time Radiography System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.; Mendez, J.; Rael, C.; Martinez, F.

    1997-01-01

    A 450-KeV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph greater than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes. It has three independent X-Ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12 in. image intensifier, the second is a 36 in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53 ft long X 8 ft. wide X 14 ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only a easily obtainable overweight permit because it weighs approximately 38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility.

  18. The effect of molecular mobility on electronic transport in carbon nanotube-polymer composites and networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenogin, Sergei; Lee, Jonghoon; Voevodin, Andrey A.; Roy, Ajit K.

    2014-12-21

    A multiscale modeling approach to the prediction of electrical conductivity in carbon nanotube (CNT)–polymer composite materials is developed, which takes into account thermally activated molecular mobility of the matrix and the CNTs. On molecular level, a tight-binding density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function method are used to calculate the static electron transmission function in the contact between two metallic carbon nanotubes that corresponds to electron transport at 0 K. For higher temperatures, the statistical distribution of effective contact resistances is considered that originates from thermal fluctuations of intermolecular distances caused by molecular mobility of carbon nanotube and the polymer matrix. Based on this distribution and using effective medium theory, the temperature dependence of macroscopic electrical resistivity for CNT-polymer composites and CNT mats is calculated. The predicted data indicate that the electrical conductivity of the CNT-polymer composites increases linearly with temperature above 50 K, which is in a quantitative agreement with the experiments. Our model predicts a slight nonlinearity in temperature dependence of electric conductivity at low temperatures for percolated composites with small CNT loading. The model also explains the effect of glass transition and other molecular relaxation processes in the polymer matrix on the composite electrical conductivity. The developed multiscale approach integrates the atomistic charge transport mechanisms in percolated CNT-polymer composites with the macroscopic response and thus enables direct comparison of the prediction with the measurements of macroscopic material properties.

  19. Novel Iron-based ternary amorphous oxide semiconductor with very high transparency, electronic conductivity, and mobility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malasi, A.; Taz, H.; Farah, A.; Patel, M.; Lawrie, Benjamin; Pooser, R.; Baddorf, A.; Duscher, G.; Kalyanaraman, R.

    2015-12-16

    We report that ternary metal oxides of type (Me)2O3 with the primary metal (Me) constituent being Fe (66 atomic (at.) %) along with the two Lanthanide elements Tb (10 at.%) and Dy (24 at.%) can show excellent semiconducting transport properties. Thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition at room temperature followed by ambient oxidation showed very high electronic conductivity (>5 × 104 S/m) and Hall mobility (>30 cm2/V-s). These films had an amorphous microstructure which was stable to at least 500 °C and large optical transparency with a direct band gap of 2.85 ± 0.14 eV. This material shows emergent semiconducting behavior with significantly higher conductivity and mobility than the constituent insulating oxides. In conclusion, since these results demonstrate a new way to modify the behaviors of transition metal oxides made from unfilled d- and/or f-subshells, a new class of functional transparent conducting oxide materials could be envisioned.

  20. High mobility organic field-effect transistor based on water-soluble deoxyribonucleic acid via spray coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Wei; Han, Shijiao; Huang, Wei; Yu, Junsheng

    2015-01-26

    High mobility organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) by inserting water-soluble deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) buffer layer between electrodes and pentacene film through spray coating process were fabricated. Compared with the OFETs incorporated with DNA in the conventional organic solvents of ethanol and methanol: water mixture, the water-soluble DNA based OFET exhibited an over four folds enhancement of field-effect mobility from 0.035 to 0.153 cm{sup 2}/Vs. By characterizing the surface morphology and the crystalline structure of pentacene active layer through atomic force microscope and X-ray diffraction, it was found that the adoption of water solvent in DNA solution, which played a key role in enhancing the field-effect mobility, was ascribed to both the elimination of the irreversible organic solvent-induced bulk-like phase transition of pentacene film and the diminution of a majority of charge trapping at interfaces in OFETs.

  1. Intrinsic carrier mobility of a single-layer graphene covalently bonded with single-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Dian; Shao, Zhi-Gang; Hao, Qing; Zhao, Hongbo

    2014-06-21

    We report intrinsic carrier mobility calculations of a two-dimensional nanostructure that consists of porous single layer graphene covalently bonded with single-walled carbon nanotubes on both sides. We used first-principles calculation and found that the deformation potential of such system is about 25% of that of graphene, and the carrier mobility is about 5??10{sup 4} cm{sup 2} V{sup ?1} s{sup ?1} for both electrons and holes, about one order of magnitude lower than that of graphene. This nanostructure and its three-dimensional stacking could serve as novel organic electronic materials.

  2. Doping dependence and anisotropy of minority electron mobility in molecular beam epitaxy-grown p type GaInP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haegel, N. M.; Christian, T.; Norman, A. G.; Mascarenhas, A.; Scandrett, C.; Misra, Pranob; Liu, Ting; Sukiasyan, Arsen; Pickett, Evan; Yuen, Homan

    2014-11-17

    Direct imaging of minority electron transport via the spatially resolved recombination luminescence signature has been used to determine carrier diffusion lengths in GaInP as a function of doping. Minority electron mobility values are determined by performing time resolved photoluminescence measurements of carrier lifetime on the same samples. Values at 300?K vary from ?2000 to 400?cm{sup 2}/V?s and decrease with increasing doping. Anisotropic diffusion lengths and strongly polarized photoluminescence are observed, resulting from lateral composition modulation along the [110] direction. We report anisotropic mobility values associated with carrier transport parallel and perpendicular to the modulation direction.

  3. Mobilization of colloidal particles by low-frequency dynamic stress stimulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckham, Richard Edward; Amr, Abdel - Fattah I; Peter, Roberts M; Reem, Ibrahim; Tarimala, Sowmitri

    2009-01-01

    Naturally occurring seismic events and artificially generated low-frequency (1 to 500 Hertz) elastic waves have been observed to alter the production rates of oil and water wells, sometimes increasing and sometimes decreasing production, and to influence the turbidity of surface and well water. The decreases in production are of particular concern - especially when artificially generated elastic waves are applied as a method for enhanced oil recovery. The exact conditions that result in a decrease in production remain unknown. While the underlying environment is certainly complex, the observed increase in water well turbidity after natural seismic events suggests the existence of a mechanism that can affect both the subsurface flow paths and mobilization of in-situ colloidal particles. This paper explores the macroscopic and microscopic effects of low-frequency dynamic stress stimulations on the release of colloidal particles from an analog core representing an infinitesimal section along the propagation paths of an elastic wave. Experiments on a column packed with 1-mm borosilicate beads and loaded with polystyrene microspheres demonstrate that axial mechanical stress oscillations enhance the mobilization of captured microspheres. Increasing the amplitude of the oscillations increases the number of microspheres released and can also result in cyclical spikes in effluent microsphere concentration during stimulation. Under a prolonged period of stimulation, the cyclical effluent spikes coincided with fluctuations in the column pressure data, and continue at a diminished level after stimulation. This behavior can be attributed to rearrangements of the beads in the column, resulting in possible changes to the void space and/or tortuosity of the packing. Optical microscopy observations of the beads during low frequency oscillations reveal that individual beads rotate, thereby rubbing against each other and scraping away portions of the adsorbed microspheres. These results support the theory that mechanical interactions between porous matrix grains are important mechanisms in flow path alteration and the mobilization of naturally occurring colloidal particles during elastic wave stimulation. These results also point to both continuous and discrete, en masse releases of colloidal particles, perhaps due to circulation cells within the packing material.

  4. Studies of the mobility of uranium and thorium in Nevada Test Site tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Flexser, S.; Smith, A.R.

    1991-06-01

    Hydro-geochemical processes must be understood if the movement of radionuclides away from a breached radioactive waste canister is to be modeled and predicted. In this respect, occurrences of uranium and thorium in hydrothermal systems are under investigation in tuff and in rhyolitic tuff that was heated to simulate the effects of introduction of radioactive waste. In these studies, high-resolution gamma spectrometry and fission-track radiography are coupled with observations of alteration mineralogy and thermal history to deduce the evidence of, or potential for movement of, U and Th in response to the thermal environment. Observations to date suggest that U was mobile in the vicinity of the heater but that localized reducing environments provided by Fe-Ti-Mn-oxide minerals concentrated U and thus attenuated its migration.

  5. Harnessing Vehicle Automation for Public Mobility -- An Overview of Ongoing Efforts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Stanley E.

    2015-11-05

    This presentation takes a look at the efforts to harness automated vehicle technology for public transport. The European CityMobil2 is the leading demonstration project in which automated shuttles were, or are planned to be, demonstrated in several cities and regions. The presentation provides a brief overview of the demonstrations at Oristano, Italy (July 2014), LaRochelle, France (Dec 2014), Lausanne, Switzerland (Apr 2015), Vantaa, Finland (July 2015), and Trikala, Greece (Sept 2015). In addition to technology exposition, the objectives included generating a legal framework for operation in each location and gaging the reaction of the public to unmanned shuttles, both of which were successfully achieved. Several such demonstrations are planned throughout the world, including efforts in North America in conjunction with the GoMentum Station in California. These early demonstration with low-speed automated shuttles provide a glimpse of the possible with a fully automated fleet of driverless vehicle providing a public transit service.

  6. (Relative mobilities and transport mechanisms of trace elements during contact metamorphism of carbonate rocks). Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the relative mobilities and transport mechanisms of major, minor, and trace elements during the contact metamorphism of carbonate rocks. The large contrasts in chemical potentials of SiO/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and CaO across a granitic pluton-limestone contact may induce metasomatism. In addition, rare earth and transition metal elements may act as tracers, and their redistribution during metamorphism may record convective cooling processes. The results of this study may have an application toward the problem of radioactive waste disposal and the degree to which radioactive nuclides may be expected to migrate during geologically significant periods of time.

  7. Detecting and Removing Data Artifacts in Hadamard Transform Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prost, Spencer A.; Crowell, Kevin L.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Clowers, Brian H.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Payne, Samuel H.

    2014-12-01

    Applying Hadamard transform multiplexing to ion mobility separations (IMS) can significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio and throughput for IMS coupled mass spectrometry (MS) measurements by increasing the ion utilization efficiency. However, it has been determined that both fluctuations in ion intensity as well as spatial shifts in the multiplexed data lower the signal-to-noise ratios and appear as noise in downstream processing of the data. To address this problem, we have developed a novel algorithm that discovers and eliminates data artifacts. The algorithm uses knowledge of the true signal peaks derived from the encoded data and allows for both artifacts and noise to be removed with high confidence, decreasing the likelihood of false identifications in subsequent data processing. The result is that IMS-MS can be applied to increase measurement sensitivity while avoiding artifacts that have previously limited its utility.

  8. Method for determining hydrogen mobility as a function of temperature in superconducting niobium cavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    May, Robert

    2008-03-11

    A method for determining the mobility of hydrogen as a function of temperature in superconducting niobium cavities comprising: 1) heating a cavity under test to remove free hydrogen; 2) introducing hydrogen-3 gas into the cavity; 3) cooling the cavity to allow absorption of hydrogen-3; and 4) measuring the amount of hydrogen-3 by: a) cooling the cavity to about 4.degree. K while flowing a known and regulated amount of inert carrier gas such as argon or helium into the cavity; b) allowing the cavity to warm at a stable rate from 4.degree. K to room temperature as it leaves the chamber; and c) directing the exit gas to an ion chamber radiation detector.

  9. Case Study: Mobile Photovoltaic System at Bechler Meadows Ranger Station, Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andy Walker

    2014-03-05

    The mobile PV/generator hybrid system deployed at Bechler Meadows provides a number of advantages. It reduces on-site air emissions from the generator. Batteries allow the generator to operate only at its rated power, reducing run-time and fuel consumption. Energy provided by the solar array reduces fuel consumption and run-time of the generator. The generator is off for most hours providing peace and quiet at the site. Maintenance trips from Mammoth Hot Springs to the remote site are reduced. The frequency of intrusive fuel deliveries to the pristine site is reduced. And the system gives rangers a chance to interpret Green Park values to the visiting public. As an added bonus, the system provides all these benefits at a lower cost than the basecase of using only a propane-fueled generator, reducing life cycle cost by about 26%.

  10. Case Study: Mobile Photovoltaic System at Bechler Meadows Ranger Station, Yellowstone National Park (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-03-01

    The mobile PV/generator hybrid system deployed at Bechler Meadows provides a number of advantages. It reduces on-site air emissions from the generator. Batteries allow the generator to operate only at its rated power, reducing run-time and fuel consumption. Energy provided by the solar array reduces fuel consumption and run-time of the generator. The generator is off for most hours providing peace and quiet at the site. Maintenance trips from Mammoth Hot Springs to the remote site are reduced. The frequency of intrusive fuel deliveries to the pristine site is reduced. And the system gives rangers a chance to interpret Green Park values to the visiting public. As an added bonus, the system provides all these benefits at a lower cost than the basecase of using only a propane-fueled generator, reducing life cycle cost by about 26%.

  11. Enhancing Bottom-up and Top-down Proteomic Measurements with Ion Mobility Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Erin Shammel; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Orton, Daniel J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Moore, Ronald J.; Zhang, Xing; Theberge, Roger; Costello, Catherine E; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-07-03

    Proteomic measurements with greater throughput, sensitivity and additional structural information enhance the in-depth characterization of complex mixtures and targeted studies with additional information and higher confidence. While liquid chromatography separation coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurements have provided information on thousands of proteins in different sample types, the additional of another rapid separation stage providing structural information has many benefits for analyses. Technical advances in ion funnels and multiplexing have enabled ion mobility separations to be easily and effectively coupled with LC-MS proteomics to enhance the information content of measurements. Herein, we report on applications illustrating increased sensitivity, throughput, and structural information by utilizing IMS-MS and LC-IMS-MS measurements for both bottom-up and top-down proteomics measurements.

  12. High-Definition Differential Ion Mobility Spectrometry with Resolving Power up to 500

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.; Seim, Thomas A.; Danielson, William F.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Moore, Ronald J.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2013-01-20

    As the resolution of analytical methods improve, further progress tends to be increasingly limited by instrumental parameter instabilities that could be ignored before. This is now the case with differential ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS), where fluctuations of the voltages and gas pressure have become critical. A new high-definition generator for FAIMS compensation voltage reported here provides a stable and accurate output than can be scanned with negligible steps. This reduces the spectral drift and peak width, thus improving the resolving power (R) and resolution. The gain for multiply-charged peptides that have narrowest peaks is up to ~40%, and R ~ 400 - 500 is achievable using He/N2 or H2/N2 gas mixtures.

  13. Residential Mobility and Lung Cancer Risk: Data-Driven Exploration Using Internet Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Tourassi, Georgia; Xu, Songhua

    2015-01-01

    Frequent relocation has been linked to health decline, particularly with respect to emotional and psychological wellbeing. In this paper we investigate whether there is an association between frequent relocation and lung cancer risk. For the initial investigation we leverage two online data sources to collect cancer and control subjects using web crawling and tailored text mining. The two data sources share different strengths and weaknesses in terms of the amount of detail, population representation, and sample size. One data source includes online obituaries. The second data source includes augmented LinkedIn profiles. For each data source, the subjects spatiotemporal history is reconstructed from the available information provided in the obituaries and from the education and work experience provided in the LinkedIn profiles. The study shows that lung cancer subjects have higher mobility frequency than the control group. This trend is consistent for both data sources.

  14. Improved carrier mobility of chemical vapor deposition-graphene by counter-doping with hydrazine hydrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zhiying; Zhang, Yanhui; Zhang, Haoran; Sui, Yanping; Zhang, Yaqian; Ge, Xiaoming; Yu, Guanghui Xie, Xiaoming; Li, Xiaoliang; Jin, Zhi; Liu, Xinyu

    2015-03-02

    We developed a counter-doping method to tune the electronic properties of chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene by varying the concentration and time of graphene exposure to hydrazine hydrate (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O). The shift of G and 2D peaks of Raman spectroscopy is analyzed as a function of N{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O concentration. The result revealed that N{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O realized n-type doping on CVD grown graphene. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement proved the existence of nitrogen, which indicated the adsorption of N{sub 2}H{sub 4} on the surface of graphene. After counter-doping, carrier mobility, which was measured by Hall measurements, increased three fold.

  15. Method of assessing a lipid-related health risk based on ion mobility analysis of lipoproteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W. Henry; Krauss, Ronald M.; Blanche, Patricia J.

    2010-12-14

    A medical diagnostic method and instrumentation system for analyzing noncovalently bonded agglomerated biological particles is described. The method and system comprises: a method of preparation for the biological particles; an electrospray generator; an alpha particle radiation source; a differential mobility analyzer; a particle counter; and data acquisition and analysis means. The medical device is useful for the assessment of human diseases, such as cardiac disease risk and hyperlipidemia, by rapid quantitative analysis of lipoprotein fraction densities. Initially, purification procedures are described to reduce an initial blood sample to an analytical input to the instrument. The measured sizes from the analytical sample are correlated with densities, resulting in a spectrum of lipoprotein densities. The lipoprotein density distribution can then be used to characterize cardiac and other lipid-related health risks.

  16. Determining the risk of cardiovascular disease using ion mobility of lipoproteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W. Henry; Krauss, Ronald M.; Blanche, Patricia J.

    2010-05-11

    A medical diagnostic method and instrumentation system for analyzing noncovalently bonded agglomerated biological particles is described. The method and system comprises: a method of preparation for the biological particles; an electrospray generator; an alpha particle radiation source; a differential mobility analyzer; a particle counter; and data acquisition and analysis means. The medical device is useful for the assessment of human diseases, such as cardiac disease risk and hyperlipidemia, by rapid quantitative analysis of lipoprotein fraction densities. Initially, purification procedures are described to reduce an initial blood sample to an analytical input to the instrument. The measured sizes from the analytical sample are correlated with densities, resulting in a spectrum of lipoprotein densities. The lipoprotein density distribution can then be used to characterize cardiac and other lipid-related health risks.

  17. Dedicated mobile high resolution prostate PET imager with an insertable transrectal probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James

    2010-12-28

    A dedicated mobile PET imaging system to image the prostate and surrounding organs. The imaging system includes an outside high resolution PET imager placed close to the patient's torso and an insertable and compact transrectal probe that is placed in close proximity to the prostate and operates in conjunction with the outside imager. The two detector systems are spatially co-registered to each other. The outside imager is mounted on an open rotating gantry to provide torso-wide 3D images of the prostate and surrounding tissue and organs. The insertable probe provides closer imaging, high sensitivity, and very high resolution predominately 2D view of the prostate and immediate surroundings. The probe is operated in conjunction with the outside imager and a fast data acquisition system to provide very high resolution reconstruction of the prostate and surrounding tissue and organs.

  18. DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF THE MOBILE ARM RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (MARS) - 12187

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BURKE CA; LANDON MR; HANSON CE

    2012-01-30

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing and deploying Mobile Arm Retrieval System (MARS) technologies solutions to support retrieval of radioactive and chemical waste from underground single shell storage tanks (SST) located at the Hanford Site, which is near Richland, Washington. WRPS has developed the MARS using a standardized platform that is capable of deploying multiple retrieval technologies. To date, WRPS, working with their mentor-protege company, Columbia Energy and Environmental Services (CEES), has developed two retrieval mechanisms, MARS-Sluicing (MARS-S) and MARS-Vacuum (MARS-V). MARS-S uses pressurized fluids routed through spray nozzles to mobilize waste materials to a centrally located slurry pump (deployed in 2011). MARS-V uses pressurized fluids routed through an eductor nozzle. The eductor nozzle allows a vacuum to be drawn on the waste materials. The vacuum allows the waste materials to be moved to an in-tank vessel, then extracted from the SST and subsequently pumped to newer and safer double shell tanks (DST) for storage until the waste is treated for disposal. The MARS-S system is targeted for sound SSTs (i.e., non leaking tanks). The MARS-V is targeted for assumed leaking tanks or those tanks that are of questionable integrity. Both versions of MARS are being/have been developed in compliance with WRPS's TFC-PLN-90, Technology Development Management Plan. TFC-PLN-90 includes a phased approach to design, testing, and ultimate deployment of new technologies. The MARS-V is scheduled to be deployed in tank 241-C-105 in late 2012.

  19. DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF THE MOBILE ARM RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (MARS) - 12187

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BURKE CA; LANDON MR; HANSON CE

    2011-11-08

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing and deploying Mobile Arm Retrieval System (MARS) technologies solutions to support retrieval of radioactive and chemical waste from underground single shell storage tanks (SST) located at the Hanford Site, which is near Richland, Washington. WRPS has developed the MARS using a standardized platform that is capable of deploying multiple retrieval technologies. To date, WRPS, working with their mentor-protege company, Columbia Energy and Environmental Services (CEES), has developed two retrieval mechanisms, MARS-Sluicing (MARS-S) and MARS-Vacuum (MARS-V). MARS-S uses pressurized fluids routed through spray nozzles to mobilize waste materials to a centrally located slurry pump (deployed in 2011). MARS-V uses pressurized fluids routed through an eductor nozzle. The eductor nozzle allows a vacuum to be drawn on the waste materials. The vacuum allows the waste materials to be moved to an in-tank vessel, then extracted from the SST and subsequently pumped to newer and safer double shell tanks (DST) for storage until the waste is treated for disposal. The MARS-S system is targeted for sound SSTs (i.e., non leaking tanks). The MARS-V is targeted for assumed leaking tanks or those tanks that are of questionable integrity. Both versions of MARS are beinglhave been developed in compliance with WRPS's TFC-PLN-90, Technology Development Management Plan [1]. TFC-PLN-90 includes a phased approach to design, testing, and ultimate deployment of new technologies. The MARS-V is scheduled to be deployed in tank 241-C-105 in late 2012.

  20. Development and Deployment of the Mobile Arm Retrieval System (MARS) - 12187

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, Christopher A.; Landon, Matthew R.; Hanson, Carl E.

    2012-07-01

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing and deploying Mobile Arm Retrieval System (MARS) technologies solutions to support retrieval of radioactive and chemical waste from underground single shell storage tanks (SST) located at the Hanford Site, which is near Richland, Washington. WRPS has developed the MARS using a standardized platform that is capable of deploying multiple retrieval technologies. To date, WRPS, working with their mentor-protege company, Columbia Energy and Environmental Services (CEES), has developed two retrieval mechanisms, MARS-Sluicing (MARS-S) and MARS-Vacuum (MARS-V). MARS-S uses pressurized fluids routed through spray nozzles to mobilize waste materials to a centrally located slurry pump (deployed in 2011). MARS-V uses pressurized fluids routed through an eductor nozzle. The eductor nozzle allows a vacuum to be drawn on the waste materials. The vacuum allows the waste materials to be moved to an in-tank vessel, then extracted from the SST and subsequently pumped to newer and safer double shell tanks (DST) for storage until the waste is treated for disposal. The MARS-S system is targeted for sound SSTs (i.e., non leaking tanks). The MARS-V is targeted for assumed leaking tanks or those tanks that are of questionable integrity. Both versions of MARS are being/have been developed in compliance with WRPS's TFC-PLN-90, Technology Development Management Plan [1]. TFC-PLN-90 includes a phased approach to design, testing, and ultimate deployment of new technologies. The MARS-V is scheduled to be deployed in tank 241-C-105 in late 2012. (authors)

  1. Uranium Mobility During In Situ Redox Manipulation of the 100 Areas of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szecsody, James E.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Williams, Mark D.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Resch, Charles T.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    1998-12-03

    A series of laboratory experiments and computer simulations was conducted to assess the extent of uranium remobilization that is likely to occur at the end of the life cycle of an in situ sediment reduction process. The process is being tested for subsurface remediation of chromate and chlorinated solvent-contaminated sediments at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Uranium species that occur naturally in the +6 valence state [U(VI)] at 10 ppb in groundwater at Hanford will accumulate as U(IV) through the reduction and subsequent precipitation conditions of the permeable barrier created by in situ redox manipulation. The precipitated uranium will be remobilized when the reductive capacity of the barrier is exhausted and the sediment is oxidized by the groundwater containing dissolved oxygen and other oxidants such as chromate. Although U(IV) accumulates from years or decades of reduction/precipitation within the reduced zone, U(VI) concentrations in solution are only somewhat elevated during aquifer oxidation because oxidation and dissolution reactions that release U(IV) precipitate to solution are slow. The release rate of uranium into solution was found to be controlled mainly by the oxidation/dissolution rate of the U(IV) precipitate (half-life 200 hours) and partially by the fast oxidation of adsorbed Fe(II) (halflife 5 hours) and the slow oxidation of Fe(II)CO3 (half-life 120 hours) in the reduced sediment. Simulations of uranium transport that incorporated these and other reactions under site-relevant conditions indicated that 35 ppb U(VI) is the maximum concentration likely to result from mobilization of the precipitated U(IV) species. Experiments also indicated that increasing the contact time between the U(IV) precipitates and the reduced sediment, which is likely to occur in the field, results in a slower U(IV) oxidation rate, which, in turn, would lower the maximum concentration of mobilized U(VI)...

  2. High-Performance Ion Mobility Spectrometry Using Hourglass Electrodynamic Funnel And Internal Ion Funnel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Richard D.; Tang, Keqi; Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.

    2004-11-16

    A method and apparatus enabling increased sensitivity in ion mobility spectrometry/mass spectrometry instruments which substantially reduces or eliminates the loss of ions in ion mobility spectrometer drift tubes utilizing an hourglass electrodynamic ion funnel at the entrance to the drift tube and/or an internal ion funnel at the exit of the drift tube. An hourglass electrodynamic funnel is formed of at least an entry element, a center element, and an exit element, wherein the aperture of the center element is smaller than the aperture of the entry element and the aperture of the exit elements. Ions generated in a relatively high pressure region by an ion source at the exterior of the hourglass electrodynamic funnel are transmitted to a relatively low pressure region at the entrance of the hourglass funnel through a conductance limiting orifice. Alternating and direct electrical potentials are applied to the elements of the hourglass electrodynamic funnel thereby drawing ions into and through the hourglass electrodynamic funnel thereby introducing relatively large quantities of ions into the drift tube while maintaining the gas pressure and composition at the interior of the drift tube as distinct from those at the entrance of the electrodynamic funnel and allowing a positive gas pressure to be maintained within the drift tube, if desired. An internal ion funnel is provided within the drift tube and is positioned at the exit of said drift tube. The advantage of the internal ion funnel is that ions that are dispersed away from the exit aperture within the drift tube, such as those that are typically lost in conventional drift tubes to any subsequent analysis or measurement, are instead directed through the exit of the drift tube, vastly increasing the amount of ions exiting the drift tube.

  3. High Performance Ion Mobility Spectrometry Using Hourglass Electrodynamic Funnel And Internal Ion Funnel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Richard D.; Tang, Keqi; Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.

    2005-11-22

    A method and apparatus enabling increased sensitivity in ion mobility spectrometry/mass spectrometry instruments which substantially reduces or eliminates the loss of ions in ion mobility spectrometer drift tubes utilizing a device for transmitting ions from an ion source which allows the transmission of ions without significant delay to an hourglass electrodynamic ion funnel at the entrance to the drift tube and/or an internal ion funnel at the exit of the drift tube. An hourglass electrodynamic funnel is formed of at least an entry element, a center element, and an exit element, wherein the aperture of the center element is smaller than the aperture of the entry element and the aperture of the exit elements. Ions generated in a relatively high pressure region by an ion source at the exterior of the hourglass electrodynamic funnel are transmitted to a relatively low pressure region at the entrance of the hourglass funnel through a conductance limiting orifice. Alternating and direct electrical potentials are applied to the elements of the hourglass electrodynamic funnel thereby drawing ions into and through the hourglass electrodynamic funnel thereby introducing relatively large quantities of ions into the drift tube while maintaining the gas pressure and composition at the interior of the drift tube as distinct from those at the entrance of the electrodynamic funnel and allowing a positive gas pressure to be maintained within the drift tube, if desired. An internal ion funnel is provided within the drift tube and is positioned at the exit of said drift tube. The advantage of the internal ion funnel is that ions that are dispersed away from the exit aperture within the drift tube, such as those that are typically lost in conventional drift tubes to any subsequent analysis or measurement, are instead directed through the exit of the drift tube, vastly increasing the amount of ions exiting the drift tube.

  4. Technology study of Gunite tank sludge mobilization at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVore, J.R.; Herrick, T.J.; Lott, K.E.

    1994-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Gunite Tank Sludge Mobilization Technology Study was initiated to support the Gunite Tank Treatability Study effort. The technology study surveyed the methods and technologies available for tank cleaning and sludge mobilization in a radioactive environment. Technologies were identified and considered for applicability to the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) problems. These were then either accepted for further study or rejected as not applicable. Technologies deemed applicable to the GAAT sludge removal project were grouped for evaluation according to (1) deployment method, (2) types of remotely operated end effector equipment applicable to removal of sludge, (3) methods for removing wastes from the tanks, and (4) methods for concrete removal. There were three major groups of deployment technologies: ``past practice`` technologies, mechanical arm-based technologies, and vehicle-based technologies. The different technologies were then combined into logical sequences of deployment platform, problem, end effector, conveyance, post-removal treatment required (if any), and disposition of the waste. Many waste removal options are available, but the best technology in one set of circumstances at one site might not be the best type to use at a different site. No single technology is capable of treating the entire spectrum of wastes that will be encountered in GAAT. None of the systems used in other industries appears to be suitable, primarily because of the nature of the sludges in the GAAT Operable Unit (OU), their radiation levels, and tank geometries. Other commercial technologies were investigated but rejected because the authors did not believe them to be applicable.

  5. Colloidal Cutin-like Siderophoric Molecules Mobilize Plutonium from Contaminated Soils of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, C.; Santschi, P; Roberts, K; Zhong, J; Hatcher, P; Hung, C; Francis, A; Dodge, C; Honeyman, B

    2008-01-01

    Relatively recently, inorganic colloids have been invoked to reconcile the apparent contradictions between expectations based on classical dissolved-phase Pu transport and field observations of 'enhanced' Pu mobility (Kersting et al. Nature 1999, 397, 56-59). A new paradigm for Pu transport is mobilization and transport via biologically produced ligands. This study for the first time reports a new finding of Pu being transported, at sub-pM concentrations, by a cutin-like natural substance containing siderophore-like moieties and virtually all mobile Pu. Most likely, Pu is complexed by chelating groups derived from siderophores that are covalently bound to a backbone of cutin-derived soil degradation products, thus revealing the history of initial exposure to Pu. Features such as amphiphilicity and small size make this macromolecule an ideal collector for actinides and other metals and a vector for their dispersal. Cross-linking to the hydrophobic domains (e.g., by polysaccharides) gives this macromolecule high mobility and a means of enhancing Pu transport. This finding provides a new mechanism for Pu transport through environmental systems that would not have been predicted by Pu transport models.

  6. Boost the electron mobility of solution-grown organic single crystals via reducing the amount of polar solvent residues

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xue, Guobiao; Xin, Huolin L.; Wu, Jiake; Fan, Congcheng; Liu, Shuang; Huang, Zhuoting; Liu, Yujing; Shan, Bowen; Miao, Qian; Chen, Hongzheng; et al

    2015-10-29

    Enhancing electron transport to match with the development in hole transport is critical for organic electronics in the future. As electron motion is susceptible to extrinsic factors, seeking these factors and avoiding their negative effects have become the central challenge. Here, the existence of polar solvent residues in solution-grown single-crystals of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)-5,7,12,14-tetraazapentacene is identified as a factor detrimental to electron motion. Field-effect transistors of the crystals exhibit electron mobility boosted by about 60% after the residues are removed. The average electron mobility reaches up to 8.0 ± 2.2 cm2 V–1 s–1 with a highest value of 13.3 cm2 V–1 s–1;more » these results are significantly higher than those obtained previously for the same molecule (1.0–5.0 cm2 V–1 s–1). Furthermore, the achieved mobility is also higher than the maximum reported electron mobility for organic materials (11 cm2 V–1 s–1). As a result, this work should greatly accelerate the advancement of organic electron-transporting materials.« less

  7. The Citizen Cyberscience Lectures - 1) Mobile phones and Africa: a success story 2) Citizen Problem Solving

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Mobile phones and Africa: a success story Dr. Mo Ibrahim, Mo Ibrahim Foundation Citizen Problem Solving Dr. Alpheus Bingham, InnoCentive The Citizen Cyberscience Lectures are hosted by the partners of the Citizen Cyberscience Centre, CERN, The UN Institute of Training and Research and the University of Geneva. The goal of the Lectures is to provide an inspirational forum for participants from the various international organizations and academic institutions in Geneva to explore how information technology is enabling greater citizen participation in tackling global development challenges as well as global scientific research. The first Citizen Cyberscience Lectures will welcome two speakers who have both made major innovative contributions in this area. Dr. Mo Ibrahim, founder of Celtel International, one of Africa?s most successful mobile network operators, will talk about ?Mobile phones and Africa: a success story?. Dr. Alpheus Bingham, founder of InnoCentive, a Web-based community that solves industrial R&D; challenges, will discuss ?Citizen Problem Solving?. The Citizen Cyberscience Lectures are open and free of charge. Participants from outside CERN must register by sending an email to Yasemin.Hauser@cern.ch BEFORE the 23rd october to be able to access CERN. THE LECTURES Mobile phones and Africa: a success story Dr. Mo Ibrahim, Mo Ibrahim Foundation Abstract The introduction of mobile phones into Africa changed the continent, enabling business and the commercial sector, creating directly and indirectly, millions of jobs. It enriched the social lives of many people. Surprisingly, it supported the emerging civil society and advanced the course of democracy Bio Dr Mo Ibrahim is a global expert in mobile communications with a distinguished academic and business career. In 1998, Dr Ibrahim founded Celtel International to build and operate mobile networks in Africa. Celtel became one of Africa?s most successful companies with operations in 15 countries, covering more than a third of the continent?s population and investing more than US$750 million in Africa. The company was sold to MTC Kuwait in 2005 for $3.4billion. In 2006 Dr Ibrahim established the Mo Ibrahim Foundation to support great African leadership. The Foundation focuses on two major initiatives to stimulate debate around, and improve the quality of, governance in Africa. The Ibrahim Prize for Achievement in African Leadership recognises and celebrates excellence; and the Ibrahim Index of African Governance provides civil society with a comprehensive and quantifiable tool to promote government accountability. Dr Ibrahim is also Founding Chairman of Satya Capital Ltd, an investment company focused on opportunities in Africa. Dr Ibrahim has been awarded an Honorary Doctorate by the University of London?s School of Oriental and African Studies, the University of Birmingham and De Montfort University, Leicester as well as an Honorary Fellowship Award from the London Business School. He has also received the Chairman?s Award for Lifetime Achievement from the GSM Association in 2007 and the Economists Innovation Award 2007 for Social & Economic Innovation. In 2008 Dr Ibrahim was presented with the BNP Paribas Prize for Philanthropy, and also listed by TIME magazine as one of the 100 most influential people in the world. Citizen Problem Solving Dr. Alpheus Bingham, InnoCentive Abstract American playwright Damien Runyon (Guys and Dolls) once remarked, "the race is not always to the swift, nor the victory to the strong -- but that IS how you bet." Not only does a system of race handicapping follow from this logic, but the whole notion of expertise and technical qualifications. Such 'credentials' allow one to 'bet' on who might most likely solve a difficult challenge, whether as consultant, contractor or employee. Of course, the approach would differ if one were allowed to bet AFTER the race. When such systems came into broad use, i.e., chat rooms, usenets, innocentive, etc., and were subsequently studied, it was often found that the greatest probability of solution lies in the "long tail" of the function rather than in the head representing formally vetted 'experts.' Insight into a problem is often the intersection of training, experience, metaphor and provocation (think Archimedes). Examples of "citizens" outside a targeted field of expertise providing uniques solutions will illustrate the principles involved. Bio Dr. Alph Bingham is a pioneer in the field of open innovation and an advocate of collaborative approaches to research and development. He is co-founder, and former president and chief executive officer of InnoCentive Inc., a Web-based community that matches companies facing R&D; challenges with scientists who propose solutions. Through InnoCentive, a platform that leverages the ability to connect to a whole planet of people through the Internet, organizations can access individuals ? problem solvers ? who might never have been found. Alph spent more than 25 years with Eli Lilly and Company, and offers deep experience in pharmaceutical research and development, research acquisitions and collaborations, and R&D; strategic planning. During his career he was instrumental in creating and developing Eli Lilly's portfolio management process as well as establishing the divisions of Research Acquisitions, the Office of Alliance Management and e.Lilly, a business innovation unit, from which various other ventures were spun out that create the advantages of open and networked organizational structures, including: InnoCentive, YourEncore, Inc., Coalesix, Inc., Maaguzi, Inc., Indigo Biosystems, Seriosity, Chorus and Collaborative Drug Discovery, Inc. He currently serves on the Board of Directors of InnoCentive, Inc., and Collaborative Drug Discovery, Inc.; the advisory boards of the Center for Collective Intelligence (MIT), and the Business Innovation Factory, as well as a member of the board of trustees of the Bankinter Foundation for Innovation in Madrid. He has lectured extensively at both national and international events and serves as a Visiting Scholar at the National Center for Supercomputing Application at the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana. He is also the former chairman of the Board of Editors of the Research Technology Management Journal. Dr. Bingham was the recipient of the Economist's Fourth Annual Innovation Summit "Business Process Award" for InnoCentive. He was also named as one of Project Management Institute's "Power 50" leaders in October 2005. Dr. Bingham received a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from Stanford University.

  8. Assessment of Historic Trend in Mobility and Energy Use in India Transportation Sector Using Bottom-up Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; McNeil, Michael A.

    2009-05-01

    Transportation mobility in India has increased significantly in the past decades. From 1970 to 2000, motorized mobility (passenger-km) has risen by 888%, compared with an 88% population growth (Singh,2006). This contributed to many energy and environmental issues, and an energy strategy incorporates efficiency improvement and other measures needs to be designed. Unfortunately, existing energy data do not provide information on driving forces behind energy use and sometime show large inconsistencies. Many previous studies address only a single transportation mode such as passenger road travel; did not include comprehensive data collection or analysis has yet been done, or lack detail on energy demand by each mode and fuel mix. The current study will fill a considerable gap in current efforts, develop a data base on all transport modes including passenger air and water, and freight in order to facilitate the development of energy scenarios and assess significance of technology potential in a global climate change model. An extensive literature review and data collection has been done to establish the database with breakdown of mobility, intensity, distance, and fuel mix of all transportation modes. Energy consumption was estimated and compared with aggregated transport consumption reported in IEA India transportation energy data. Different scenarios were estimated based on different assumptions on freight road mobility. Based on the bottom-up analysis, we estimated that the energy consumption from 1990 to 2000 increased at an annual growth rate of 7% for the mid-range road freight growth case and 12% for the high road freight growth case corresponding to the scenarios in mobility, while the IEA data only shows a 1.7% growth rate in those years.

  9. Uranium Mobility During In Situ Redox Manipulation of the 100 Areas of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CT Resch; JE Szecsody; JS Fruchter; KJ Cantrell; KM Krupka; MD Williams

    1998-12-03

    A series of laboratory experiments and computer simulations was conducted to assess the extent of uranium remobilization that is likely to occur at the end of the life cycle of an in situ sediment reduction process. The process is being tested for subsurface remediation of chromate- and chlorinated solvent-contaminated sediments at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Uranium species that occur naturally in the +6 valence state {approximately}(VI) at 10 ppb in groundwater at Hanford will accumulate as U(N) through the reduction and subsequent precipitation conditions of the permeable barrier created by in situ redox manipulation. The precipitated uranium will W remobilized when the reductive capacity of the barrier is exhausted and the sediment is oxidized by the groundwater containing dissolved oxygen and other oxidants such as chromate. Although U(N) accumulates from years or decades of reduction/precipitation within the reduced zone, U(W) concentrations in solution are only somewhat elevated during aquifer oxidation because oxidation and dissolution reactions that release U(N) precipitate to solution are slow. The release rate of uranium into solution was found to be controlled mainly by the oxidation/dissolution rate of the U(IV) precipitate (half-life 200 hours) and partially by the fast oxidation of adsorbed Fe(II) (half- life 5 hours) and the slow oxidation of Fe(II)CO{sub 3} (half-life 120 hours) in the reduced sediment. Simulations of uranium transport that incorporated these and other reactions under site-relevant conditions indicated that 35 ppb U(VI) is the maximum concentration likely to result from mobilization of the precipitated U(IV) species. Experiments also indicated that increasing the contact time between the U(IV) precipitates and the reduced sediment, which is likely to occur in the field, results in a slower U(IV) oxidation rate, which, in turn, would lower the maximum concentration of mobilized U(W). A six-month-long column experiment confirmed that uranium accumulated in reduced sediment was released slowly into solution with U(W) concentrations at only slightly greater than influent U(W) concentrations. This experiment also demonstrated that dissolved chromate, another oxidant likely to be present in some field systems, did not increase the release rate of uranium into solution.

  10. Recovery of lithium and cobalt from waste lithium ion batteries of mobile phone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, Manis Kumar, E-mail: mkjha@nmlindia.org; Kumari, Anjan; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumar, Vinay; Hait, Jhumki; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2013-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Recovery of valuable metals from scrap batteries of mobile phone. - Highlights: Recovery of Co and Li from spent LIBs was performed by hydrometallurgical route. Under the optimum condition, 99.1% of lithium and 70.0% of cobalt were leached. The mechanism of the dissolution of lithium and cobalt was studied. Activation energy for lithium and cobalt were found to be 32.4 kJ/mol and 59.81 kJ/mol, respectively. After metal recovery, residue was washed before disposal to the environment. - Abstract: In view of the stringent environmental regulations, availability of limited natural resources and ever increasing need of alternative energy critical elements, an environmental eco-friendly leaching process is reported for the recovery of lithium and cobalt from the cathode active materials of spent lithium-ion batteries of mobile phones. The experiments were carried out to optimize the process parameters for the recovery of lithium and cobalt by varying the concentration of leachant, pulp density, reductant volume and temperature. Leaching with 2 M sulfuric acid with the addition of 5% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (v/v) at a pulp density of 100 g/L and 75 C resulted in the recovery of 99.1% lithium and 70.0% cobalt in 60 min. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in sulfuric acid solution acts as an effective reducing agent, which enhance the percentage leaching of metals. Leaching kinetics of lithium in sulfuric acid fitted well to the chemical controlled reaction model i.e. 1 ? (1 ? X){sup 1/3} = k{sub c}t. Leaching kinetics of cobalt fitted well to the model ash diffusion control dense constant sizes spherical particles i.e. 1 ? 3(1 ? X){sup 2/3} + 2(1 ? X) = k{sub c}t. Metals could subsequently be separated selectively from the leach liquor by solvent extraction process to produce their salts by crystallization process from the purified solution.

  11. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion moored pipe/mobile platform design study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullock, H.O.; McNatt, T.R.; Ross, J.M.; Stambaugh, K.A.; Watts, J.L.

    1982-07-30

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Moored Pipe/Mobile Platform (MP-Squared) Design Study was carried out to investigate an innovative approach to the moored floating OTEC plant. In the past, a number of concepts have been examined by NOAA for floating OTEC plants. These concepts have considered various configurations for platforms, cold water pipes and mooring systems. In most cases the cold water pipe (CWP) was permanently attached to the platform and the platform was permanently moored on station. Even though CWP concepts incorporating articulated joints or flexible pipes were used, the CWP stresses induced by platform motion were frequently excessive and beyond the design limits of the CWP. This was especially true in the survival (100-year storm) case. It may be feasible that the concept of a permanently moored CWP attached through a flexible transition CWP to the platform could reduce the degree of technical risk by de-coupling the CWP from the motions of the platform. In addition, if the platform is capable of disconnecting from the CWP during survival conditions, even less technical risk may be inherent in the OTEC system. The MP-Squared Design Study was an engineering evaluation of the concepts described above. The effort has been carried through to the conceptual design level, and culminated in model tests in an experimental wave basin.

  12. Wireless Roadside Inspection Phase II Tennessee Commercial Mobile Radio Services Pilot Test Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franzese, Oscar; Lascurain, Mary Beth; Capps, Gary J; Siekmann, Adam

    2011-05-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Wireless Roadside Inspection (WRI) Program is researching the feasibility and value of electronically assessing truck and bus driver and vehicle safety at least 25 times more often than is possible using only roadside physical inspections. The WRI program is evaluating the potential benefits to both the motor carrier industry and to government. These potential benefits include reduction in accidents, fatalities and injuries on our highways and keeping safe and legal drivers and vehicles moving on the highways. WRI Pilot tests were conducted to prototype, test and demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of electronically collecting safety data message sets from in-service commercial vehicles and performing wireless roadside inspections using three different communication methods. This report summarizes the design, conduct and results of the Tennessee CMRS WRI Pilot Test. The purpose of this Pilot test was to demonstrate the implementation of commercial mobile radio services to electronically request and collect safety data message sets from a limited number of commercial vehicles operating in Tennessee. The results of this test have been used in conjunction with the results of the complimentary pilot tests to support an overall assessment of the feasibility and benefits of WRI in enhancing motor carrier safety (reduction in accidents) due to increased compliance (change in motor carrier and driver behavior) caused by conducting frequent safety inspections electronically, at highway speeds, without delay or need to divert into a weigh station

  13. Systematic measurement of fast neutron background fluctuations in an urban area using a mobile detection system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Iyengar, Anagha; Beach, Matthew; Newby, Robert J.; Fabris, Lorenzo; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Hayward, Jason P.

    2015-11-12

    Neutron background measurements using a mobile trailer-based system were conducted in Knoxville, Tennessee. The 0.5 m2 system consisting of 8 EJ-301 liquid scintillation detectors was used to collect neutron background measurements in order to better understand the systematic background variations that depend solely on the street-level measurement position in a local, downtown area. Data was collected along 5 different streets in the downtown Knoxville area, and the measurements were found to be repeatable. Using 10-min measurements, fractional uncertainty in each measured data point was <2%. Compared with fast neutron background count rates measured away from downtown Knoxville, a reduction inmore » background count rates ranging from 10-50% was observed in the downtown area, sometimes varying substantially over distances of tens of meters. These reductions are attributed to the shielding of adjacent buildings, quantified in part here by the metric angle-of-open-sky. The adjacent buildings may serve to shield cosmic ray neutron flux.« less

  14. Indoor Localization Algorithms for an Ambulatory Human Operated 3D Mobile Mapping System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corso, N; Zakhor, A

    2013-12-03

    Indoor localization and mapping is an important problem with many applications such as emergency response, architectural modeling, and historical preservation. In this paper, we develop an automatic, off-line pipeline for metrically accurate, GPS-denied, indoor 3D mobile mapping using a human-mounted backpack system consisting of a variety of sensors. There are three novel contributions in our proposed mapping approach. First, we present an algorithm which automatically detects loop closure constraints from an occupancy grid map. In doing so, we ensure that constraints are detected only in locations that are well conditioned for scan matching. Secondly, we address the problem of scan matching with poor initial condition by presenting an outlier-resistant, genetic scan matching algorithm that accurately matches scans despite a poor initial condition. Third, we present two metrics based on the amount and complexity of overlapping geometry in order to vet the estimated loop closure constraints. By doing so, we automatically prevent erroneous loop closures from degrading the accuracy of the reconstructed trajectory. The proposed algorithms are experimentally verified using both controlled and real-world data. The end-to-end system performance is evaluated using 100 surveyed control points in an office environment and obtains a mean accuracy of 10 cm. Experimental results are also shown on three additional datasets from real world environments including a 1500 meter trajectory in a warehouse sized retail shopping center.

  15. Evaluation of Flygt Propeller Xixers for Double Shell Tank (DST) High Level Waste Auxiliary Solids Mobilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PACQUET, E.A.

    2000-07-20

    The River Protection Project (RPP) is planning to retrieve radioactive waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) and double-shell tanks (DST) underground at the Hanford Site. This waste will then be transferred to a waste treatment plant to be immobilized (vitrified) in a stable glass form. Over the years, the waste solids in many of the tanks have settled to form a layer of sludge at the bottom. The thickness of the sludge layer varies from tank to tank, from no sludge or a few inches of sludge to about 15 ft of sludge. The purpose of this technology and engineering case study is to evaluate the Flygt{trademark} submersible propeller mixer as a potential technology for auxiliary mobilization of DST HLW solids. Considering the usage and development to date by other sites in the development of this technology, this study also has the objective of expanding the knowledge base of the Flygt{trademark} mixer concept with the broader perspective of Hanford Site tank waste retrieval. More specifically, the objectives of this study delineated from the work plan are described.

  16. Development of a New Ion Mobility Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Danielson, William F.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Prior, David C.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Belov, Mikhail E.; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-02-01

    A new ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) platform was developed to improve upon the sensitivity and reproducibility of our previous platforms, and further enhance IMS-MS utility for broad pan-omics measurements. The new platform incorporated an improved electrospray ionization source and interface for enhanced sensitivity, and providing the basis for further benefits based upon implementation of multiplexed IMS. The ion optics included electrodynamic ion funnels at both the entrance and exit of the IMS, an ion funnel trap for ion injection, and a design in which nearly all ion optics (e.g. drift rings, ion funnels) were fabricated using printed circuit board technology. The IMS resolving power achieved was ~73 for singly-charged ions, very close to the predicted diffusion-limited resolving power (~75). The platforms performance evaluation (e.g. for proteomics measurements) include LC-IMS-TOF MS datasets for 30 technical replicates for a trypsin digested human serum, and included platform performance in each dimension (LC, IMS and MS) separately.

  17. Systematic measurement of fast neutron background fluctuations in an urban area using a mobile detection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iyengar, Anagha; Beach, Matthew; Newby, Robert J.; Fabris, Lorenzo; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Hayward, Jason P.

    2015-11-12

    Neutron background measurements using a mobile trailer-based system were conducted in Knoxville, Tennessee. The 0.5 m2 system consisting of 8 EJ-301 liquid scintillation detectors was used to collect neutron background measurements in order to better understand the systematic background variations that depend solely on the street-level measurement position in a local, downtown area. Data was collected along 5 different streets in the downtown Knoxville area, and the measurements were found to be repeatable. Using 10-min measurements, fractional uncertainty in each measured data point was <2%. Compared with fast neutron background count rates measured away from downtown Knoxville, a reduction in background count rates ranging from 10-50% was observed in the downtown area, sometimes varying substantially over distances of tens of meters. These reductions are attributed to the shielding of adjacent buildings, quantified in part here by the metric angle-of-open-sky. The adjacent buildings may serve to shield cosmic ray neutron flux.

  18. Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System report: Navy fuel production in the year 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; Davis, R.M.

    1991-09-01

    The Refinery Yield Model of the Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System has been used to study the feasibility and quality of Navy JP-5 jet fuel and F-76 marine diesel fuel for two scenarios in the year 2000. Both scenarios account for environmental regulations for fuels produced in the US and assume that Eastern Europe, the USSR, and the People`s Republic of China have free market economies. One scenario is based on business-as-usual market conditions for the year 2000. The second scenario is similar to first except that USSR crude oil production is 24 percent lower. During lower oil production in the USSR., there are no adverse effects on Navy fuel availability, but JP-5 is generally a poorer quality fuel relative to business-as-usual in the year 2000. In comparison with 1990, there are two potential problems areas for future Navy fuel quality. The first problem is increased aromaticity of domestically produced Navy fuels. Higher percentages of aromatics could have adverse effects on storage, handling, and combustion characteristics of both JP-5 and F-76. The second, and related, problem is that highly aromatic light cycle oils are blended into F-76 at percentages which promote fuel instability. It is recommended that the Navy continue to monitor the projected trend toward increased aromaticity in JP-5 and F-76 and high percentages of light cycle oils in F-76. These potential problems should be important considerations in research and development for future Navy engines.

  19. Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System report: Navy fuel production in the year 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; Davis, R.M.

    1991-09-01

    The Refinery Yield Model of the Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System has been used to study the feasibility and quality of Navy JP-5 jet fuel and F-76 marine diesel fuel for two scenarios in the year 2000. Both scenarios account for environmental regulations for fuels produced in the US and assume that Eastern Europe, the USSR, and the People's Republic of China have free market economies. One scenario is based on business-as-usual market conditions for the year 2000. The second scenario is similar to first except that USSR crude oil production is 24 percent lower. During lower oil production in the USSR., there are no adverse effects on Navy fuel availability, but JP-5 is generally a poorer quality fuel relative to business-as-usual in the year 2000. In comparison with 1990, there are two potential problems areas for future Navy fuel quality. The first problem is increased aromaticity of domestically produced Navy fuels. Higher percentages of aromatics could have adverse effects on storage, handling, and combustion characteristics of both JP-5 and F-76. The second, and related, problem is that highly aromatic light cycle oils are blended into F-76 at percentages which promote fuel instability. It is recommended that the Navy continue to monitor the projected trend toward increased aromaticity in JP-5 and F-76 and high percentages of light cycle oils in F-76. These potential problems should be important considerations in research and development for future Navy engines.

  20. Validating the role of AFVs in voluntary mobile source emission reduction programs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D. J.; Saricks, C. L.

    1999-03-17

    Late in 1997, EPA announced new allowances for voluntary emission control programs. As a result, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Cities and other metro areas that have made an ongoing commitment to increasing participation by alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in local fleets have the opportunity to estimate the magnitude and obtain emission reduction credit for following through on that commitment. Unexpectedly large reductions in key ozone precursor emissions in key locations and times of the day can be achieved per vehicle-mile by selecting specific light duty AFV offerings from original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in lieu of their gasoline-fueled counterparts. Additional benefit accrues from the fact that evaporative emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons (generated in the case of CNG, LNG, and LPG by closed fuel-system AFV technology) can be essentially negligible. Upstream emissions from fuel storage and distribution with the airshed of interest are also reduced. This paper provides a justification and outlines a method for including AFVs in the mix of strategies to achieve local and regional improvements in ozone air quality, and for quantifying emission reduction credits. At the time of submission of this paper, the method was still under review by the US EPA Office of Mobile Sources, pending mutually satisfactory resolution of several of its key points. Some of these issues are discussed in the paper.

  1. An investigation of radon release and mobility in the subsurface environment. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, D.

    1997-06-01

    Processes affecting transport of volatile species in the shallow soil column have recently been recognized as having a substantial impact on a broad array of real world problems. Investigations of volatile transport have ranged from studies of probable health impacts of radon infiltration into homes to pesticide and volatile organic contaminant mobility in the soil column. The objectives of many of these studies has been the development of numerical models of vapor phase (and solute) transport in shallow soils. An early model, LEACHM, developed by Hutson and Wagenent was recently modified enabling it to describe both solute and vapor phase transport of volatile chemicals in the soil. Subsequent tests of the latter model, named LEACHV, showed that use outside of a very restricted range of soil conditions resulted in large mass balance errors and unreasonable values for soil gas concentrations and vapor flux. The present research was undertaken in an effort to identify and correct the subroutines responsible for the problems and to allow the model to describe vapor phase transport in a much broader range of soil conditions.

  2. Systematic Fast Neutron Background Measurement Fluctuations in an Urban Area Using a Mobile Detection System

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Iyengar, Anagha S; Beach, Matthew R; Newby, Jason; Fabris, Lorenzo; Heilbronn, Lawrence; Hayward, J P

    2014-01-01

    Neutron background measurements using a mobile trailer-based system were conducted in Knoxville, Tennessee. The 0.5 m2 system consisting of 8 EJ-301 liquid scintillation detectors was used to collect neutron background measurements in order to better understand the systematic background variations that depend solely on the street-level measurement position in a local, downtown area. Data was collected along 5 different streets in the downtown Knoxville area, and the measurements were found to be repeatable. Using 10 min measurements, fractional uncertainty in each measured data point was <2%. Compared with fast neutron background count rates measured away from downtown Knoxville, a reductionmore » in background count rates ranging from 10-50% was observed in the downtown area, sometimes varying substantially over distances of tens of meters. These reductions are attributed to the shielding of adjacent buildings, quantified in part here by the metric angle-of-open-sky. The adjacent buildings may serve to shield cosmic ray neutron flux.« less

  3. High electron mobility ZnO film for high-performance inverted polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lv, Peiwen; Chen, Shan-Ci; Zheng, Qingdong; Huang, Feng Ding, Kai

    2015-04-20

    High-quality ZnO films (ZnO-MS) are prepared via magnetron sputtering deposition with a high mobility of about 2 cm{sup 2}/(V·s) and are used as electron transport layer for inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) with polymer poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′] dithiophene-co-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-2-carboxylate]:[6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester as the active layer. A significant improvement of J{sub SC}, about 20% enhancement in contrast to the devices built on sol-gel derived ZnO film (ZnO-Sol), is found in the ZnO-MS based device. High performance ZnO-MS based PSCs exhibit power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 8.55%, which is much better than the device based on ZnO-Sol (PCE = 7.78%). Further research on cathode materials is promising to achieve higher performance.

  4. Mobilization of Viable Tumor Cells Into the Circulation During Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Olga A.; Anderson, Robin L.; Russell, Prudence A.; Ashley Cox, R.; Ivashkevich, Alesia; Swierczak, Agnieszka; Doherty, Judy P.; Jacobs, Daphne H.M.; Smith, Jai; Siva, Shankar; Daly, Patricia E.; Ball, David L.; and others

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: To determine whether radiation therapy (RT) could mobilize viable tumor cells into the circulation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: We enumerated circulating tumor cells (CTCs) by fluorescence microscopy of blood samples immunostained with conventional CTC markers. We measured their DNA damage levels using ?-H2AX, a biomarker for radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks, either by fluorescence-activated cell sorting or by immunofluorescence microscopy. Results: Twenty-seven RT-treated NSCLC patients had blood samples analyzed by 1 or more methods. We identified increased CTC numbers after commencement of RT in 7 of 9 patients treated with palliative RT, and in 4 of 8 patients treated with curative-intent RT. Circulating tumor cells were also identified, singly and in clumps in large numbers, during RT by cytopathologic examination (in all 5 cases studied). Elevated ?-H2AX signal in post-RT blood samples signified the presence of CTCs derived from irradiated tumors. Blood taken after the commencement of RT contained tumor cells that proliferated extensively in vitro (in all 6 cases studied). Circulating tumor cells formed ?-H2AX foci in response to ex vivo irradiation, providing further evidence of their viability. Conclusions: Our findings provide a rationale for the development of strategies to reduce the concentration of viable CTCs by modulating RT fractionation or by coadministering systemic therapies.

  5. Wide-bandgap high-mobility ZnO thin-film transistors produced at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortunato, Elvira M.C.; Barquinha, Pedro M.C.; Pimentel, Ana C.M.B.G.; Goncalves, Alexandra M.F.; Marques, Antonio J.S.; Martins, Rodrigo F.P.; Pereira, Luis M.N.

    2004-09-27

    We report high-performance ZnO thin-film transistor (ZnO-TFT) fabricated by rf magnetron sputtering at room temperature with a bottom gate configuration. The ZnO-TFT operates in the enhancement mode with a threshold voltage of 19 V, a saturation mobility of 27 cm{sup 2}/V s, a gate voltage swing of 1.39 V/decade and an on/off ratio of 3x10{sup 5}. The ZnO-TFT presents an average optical transmission (including the glass substrate) of 80% in the visible part of the spectrum. The combination of transparency, high mobility, and room-temperature processing makes the ZnO-TFT a very promising low-cost optoelectronic device for the next generation of invisible and flexible electronics.

  6. Mobility control and scaleup for chemical flooding. Annual report, October 1981-September 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pope, G.A.

    1984-11-01

    The ongoing objectives of this project are: (1) to determine quantitatively the effects of dispersion, relative permeabilities, apparent viscosity and inaccessible pore volume on micellar/polymer flooding, and (2) to develop numerical simulators which incorporate these and other features of the process, so that mobility control design and scaleup of the micellar/polymer flooding process can be better accomplished. Section 2 of this report includes the results for capillary desaturation experiments for low tension fluids in Berea. These results show that some residual brine remains during microemulsion flooding even at the highest capillary number obtained in this experiment. Section 2 also includes more extensive results from the dispersion and relative permeability experiments. This section also includes data which extends the dispersion and relative permeability results from the case of two-phase flow to include initial results of three-phase flow at steady state. Section 3 is a complete description of our updated simulator. Section 4 describes and gives the results of an oil recovery experiment. Section 5 compares the results of this oil recovery experiment with our simulator. The agreement is the best obtained so far. Section 6 compares our simulator with a Sloss experiment reported by Gupta. Again, the agreement is good and demonstrates the capability of the improved simulator to account for the separation of alcohol and surfactant. Section 7 contains the results of several 2-D areal simulations involving new features of the 2-D simulator reported last year. Section 8 is a list of some of the major conclusions of this simulation research. Section 9 is an SPE paper combining the results of Senol with Walsh, a Ph.D. student of Lake and Schechter. Her polymer experiments were interpreted using Walsh's geochemical simulator. 133 references, 118 figures, 21 tables.

  7. Clouds, aerosol, and precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: An ARM mobile facility deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Robert; Luke, Ed; Wyant, Matthew; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Remillard, Jasmine; Kollias, Pavlos; Fletcher, Jennifer; Stemmler, Jayson; deSzoeke, S.; Yuter, Sandra; Miller, Matthew; Mechem, David; Tselioudis, George; Chiu, Christine; Mann, Julia; O Connor, Ewan; Hogan, Robin; Dong, Xiquan; Miller, Mark; Ghate, Virendra; Jefferson, Anne; Min, Qilong; Minnis, Patrick; Palinkonda, Rabindra; Albrecht, Bruce; Hannay, Cecile; Lin, Yanluan

    2014-04-27

    The Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores generated a 21-month (April 2009-December 2010) comprehensive dataset documenting clouds, aerosols, and precipitation using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The scientific aim of the deployment is to gain improved understanding of the interactions of clouds, aerosols, and precipitation in the marine boundary layer. Graciosa Island straddles the boundary between the subtropics and midlatitudes in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and consequently experiences a great diversity of meteorological and cloudiness conditions. Low clouds are the dominant cloud type, with stratocumulus and cumulus occurring regularly. Approximately half of all clouds contained precipitation detectable as radar echoes below the cloud base. Radar and satellite observations show that clouds with tops from 1-11 km contribute more or less equally to surface-measured precipitation at Graciosa. A wide range of aerosol conditions was sampled during the deployment consistent with the diversity of sources as indicated by back-trajectory analysis. Preliminary findings suggest important two-way interactions between aerosols and clouds at Graciosa, with aerosols affecting light precipitation and cloud radiative properties while being controlled in part by precipitation scavenging.The data from Graciosa are being compared with short-range forecasts made with a variety of models. A pilot analysis with two climate and two weather forecast models shows that they reproduce the observed time-varying vertical structure of lower-tropospheric cloud fairly well but the cloud-nucleating aerosol concentrations less well. The Graciosa site has been chosen to be a permanent fixed ARM site that became operational in October 2013.

  8. EXTENDED PERFORMANCE HANDHELD AND MOBILE SENSORS FOR REMOTE DETECTION OF NATURAL GAS LEAKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael B. Frish; B. David Green; Richard T. Wainner; Francesca Scire-Scappuzzo; Paul Cataldi; Matthew C. Laderer

    2005-05-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) to advance the state-of-the-art of surveying for leaks of natural gas from transmission and distribution pipelines. The principal project goal was to develop means of deploying on an automotive platform an improved version of the handheld laser-based standoff natural gas leak detector previously developed by PSI and known as the Remote Methane Leak Detector or RMLD. A laser beam which interrogates the air for methane is projected from a spinning turret mounted upon a van. As the van travels forward, the laser beam scans an arc to the front and sides of the van so as to survey across streets and to building walls from a moving vehicle. When excess methane is detected within the arc, an alarm is activated. In this project, we built and tested a prototype Mobile RMLD (MRMLD) intended to provide lateral coverage of 10 m and one lateral scan for every meter of forward motion at forward speeds up to 10 m/s. Using advanced detection algorithms developed as part of this project, the early prototype MRMLD, installed on the back of a truck, readily detected simulated gas leaks of 50 liters per hour. As a supplement to the originally planned project, PSI also participated in a DoE demonstration of several gas leak detection systems at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) during September 2004. Using a handheld RMLD upgraded with the advanced detection algorithms developed in this project, from within a moving vehicle we readily detected leaks created along the 7.4 mile route of a virtual gas transmission pipeline.

  9. New High Capacity Getter for Vacuum-Insulated Mobile Liquid Hydrogen Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Londer; G. R. Myneni; P. Adderley; G. Bartlok; J. Setina; W. Knapp; D. Schleussner

    2006-05-01

    Current ''Non evaporable getters'' (NEGs), based on the principle of metallic surface sorption of gas molecules, are important tools for the improving the performance of many vacuum systems. High porosity alloys or powder mixtures of Zr, Ti, Al, V, Fe and other metals are the base materials for this type of getters. The continuous development of vacuum technologies has created new challenges for the field of getter materials. The main sorption parameters of the current NEGs, namely, pumping speed and sorption capacity, have reached certain upper limits. Chemically active metals are the basis of a new generation of NEGs. The introduction of these new materials with high sorption capacity at room temperature is a long-awaited development. These new materials enable the new generation of NEGs to reach faster pumping speeds, significantly higher sticking rates and sorption capacities up to 104 times higher during their lifetimes. Our development efforts focus on producing these chemically active metals with controlled insulation or protection. The main structural forms of our new getter materials are spherical powders, granules and porous multi-layers. The full pumping performance can take place at room temperature with activation temperatures ranging from room temperature to 650 C. In one of our first pilot projects, our proprietary getter solution was successfully introduced as a getter pump in a double-wall mobile LH2 tank system. Our getters were shown to have very high sorption capacity of all relevant residual gases, including H2. This new concept opens the opportunity for significant vacuum improvements, especially in the field of H2 pumping which is an important task in many different vacuum applications.

  10. Field effect in the quantum Hall regime of a high mobility graphene wire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barraud, C., E-mail: cbarraud@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: clement.barraud@univ-paris-diderot.fr; Choi, T.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zrich, CH-8093 Zrich (Switzerland); Butti, P.; Shorubalko, I. [Swiss Federal Laboratories of Materials Science and Technologies, EMPA Elect. Metrol. Reliabil. Lab., CH-8600 Dbendorf (Switzerland); Taniguchi, T.; Watanabe, K. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-08-21

    In graphene-based electronic devices like in transistors, the field effect applied thanks to a gate electrode allows tuning the charge density in the graphene layer and passing continuously from the electron to the hole doped regime across the Dirac point. Homogeneous doping is crucial to understand electrical measurements and for the operation of future graphene-based electronic devices. However, recently theoretical and experimental studies highlighted the role of the electrostatic edge due to fringing electrostatic field lines at the graphene edges [P. Silvestrov and K. Efetov, Phys. Rev. B 77, 155436 (2008); F. T. Vasko and I. V. Zozoulenko, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 092115 (2010)]. This effect originates from the particular geometric design of the samples. A direct consequence is a charge accumulation at the graphene edges giving a value for the density, which deviates from the simple picture of a plate capacitor and also varies along the width of the graphene sample. Entering the quantum Hall regime would, in principle, allow probing this accumulation thanks to the extreme sensitivity of this quantum effect to charge density and the charge distribution. Moreover, the presence of an additional and counter-propagating edge channel has been predicted [P. Silvestrov and K. Efetov, Phys. Rev. B 77, 155436 (2008)] giving a fundamental aspect to this technological issue. In this article, we investigate this effect by tuning a high mobility graphene wire into the quantum Hall regime in which charge carriers probe the electrostatic potential at high magnetic field close to the edges. We observe a slight deviation to the linear shift of the quantum Hall plateaus with magnetic field and we study its evolution for different filling factors, which correspond to different probed regions in real space. We discuss the possible origins of this effect including an increase of the charge density towards the edges.

  11. Group-III nitride based high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with barrier/spacer layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chavarkar, Prashant; Smorchkova, Ioulia P.; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh; Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Wu, Yifeng

    2005-02-01

    A Group III nitride based high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) is disclosed that provides improved high frequency performance. One embodiment of the HEMT comprises a GaN buffer layer, with an Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N (y=1 or y 1) layer on the GaN buffer layer. An Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N (0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5) barrier layer on to the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer, opposite the GaN buffer layer, Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer having a higher Al concentration than that of the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer. A preferred Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer has y=1 or y.about.1 and a preferred Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer has 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. A 2DEG forms at the interface between the GaN buffer layer and the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer. Respective source, drain and gate contacts are formed on the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer. The HEMT can also comprising a substrate adjacent to the buffer layer, opposite the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer and a nucleation layer between the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N buffer layer and the substrate.

  12. Clouds, aerosol, and precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: An ARM mobile facility deployment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wood, Robert; Luke, Ed; Wyant, Matthew; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Remillard, Jasmine; Kollias, Pavlos; Fletcher, Jennifer; Stemmler, Jayson; deSzoeke, S.; Yuter, Sandra; et al

    2014-04-27

    The Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores generated a 21-month (April 2009-December 2010) comprehensive dataset documenting clouds, aerosols, and precipitation using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The scientific aim of the deployment is to gain improved understanding of the interactions of clouds, aerosols, and precipitation in the marine boundary layer. Graciosa Island straddles the boundary between the subtropics and midlatitudes in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and consequently experiences a great diversity of meteorological and cloudiness conditions. Low clouds are the dominant cloud type, with stratocumulusmore » and cumulus occurring regularly. Approximately half of all clouds contained precipitation detectable as radar echoes below the cloud base. Radar and satellite observations show that clouds with tops from 1-11 km contribute more or less equally to surface-measured precipitation at Graciosa. A wide range of aerosol conditions was sampled during the deployment consistent with the diversity of sources as indicated by back-trajectory analysis. Preliminary findings suggest important two-way interactions between aerosols and clouds at Graciosa, with aerosols affecting light precipitation and cloud radiative properties while being controlled in part by precipitation scavenging.The data from Graciosa are being compared with short-range forecasts made with a variety of models. A pilot analysis with two climate and two weather forecast models shows that they reproduce the observed time-varying vertical structure of lower-tropospheric cloud fairly well but the cloud-nucleating aerosol concentrations less well. The Graciosa site has been chosen to be a permanent fixed ARM site that became operational in October 2013.« less

  13. Comparison of the Accuracy and Speed of Transient Mobile A/C System Simulation Models: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiss, T.; Lustbader, J.

    2014-03-01

    The operation of air conditioning (A/C) systems is a significant contributor to the total amount of fuel used by light- and heavy-duty vehicles. Therefore, continued improvement of the efficiency of these mobile A/C systems is important. Numerical simulation has been used to reduce the system development time and to improve the electronic controls, but numerical models that include highly detailed physics run slower than desired for carrying out vehicle-focused drive cycle-based system optimization. Therefore, faster models are needed even if some accuracy is sacrificed. In this study, a validated model with highly detailed physics, the 'Fully-Detailed' model, and two models with different levels of simplification, the 'Quasi-Transient' and the 'Mapped- Component' models, are compared. The Quasi-Transient model applies some simplifications compared to the Fully-Detailed model to allow faster model execution speeds. The Mapped-Component model is similar to the Quasi-Transient model except instead of detailed flow and heat transfer calculations in the heat exchangers, it uses lookup tables created with the Quasi-Transient model. All three models are set up to represent the same physical A/C system and the same electronic controls. Speed and results of the three model versions are compared for steady state and transient operation. Steady state simulated data are also compared to measured data. The results show that the Quasi-Transient and Mapped-Component models ran much faster than the Fully-Detailed model, on the order of 10- and 100-fold, respectively. They also adequately approach the results of the Fully-Detailed model for steady-state operation, and for drive cycle-based efficiency predictions

  14. MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 1 |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    MOED_of_the_Italian_Republic.PDF More Documents & Publications Scanned_Agreement.pdf International_Agreements_January_2001_December_2004.pdf Implementing Arrangement Between DOE and METI on R&D Cooperation on Clean Energy Technology - April 2015 of Energy

    WASHINGTON - On Monday, September 27, 2010, U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu and Representative Rush Holt will tour Applied Photovoltaics. With help from a Recovery Act-funded $1.1 million clean energy manufacturing tax credit,

  15. How are doughnuts to humans like "royal jelly" to bees? Biologist

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a Wind Turbine Works How a Wind Turbine Works June 20, 2014 - 9:09am Addthis How does a wind turbine work? Previous Next Wind turbines operate on a simple principle. The energy in the wind turns two or three propeller-like blades around a rotor. The rotor is connected to the main shaft, which spins a generator to create electricity. Click NEXT to learn more. Blades Rotor Low Speed Shaft Gear Box High Speed Shaft Generator Anemometer Controller Pitch System Brake Wind Vane Yaw Drive Yaw Motor

  16. Mobility of heavy metals through granitic soils using mini column infiltration test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarime, Nur 'Aishah; Yaacob, W. Z.W.

    2014-09-03

    This study is about the mobility of cadmium through compacted granitic soils. Two granitic soils namely the Broga (BGR) and Kajang (KGR) granitic soils were collected in Selangor, Malaysia. Physical and chemical tests were applied for both granitic soils to determine the physical and chemical properties of soil materials. Physical test results shows granitic soils (BGR and KGR) have high percentage of sand ranging between 54%–63% and 46%–54% respectively, an intermediate and intermediate to high plasticity index as well as high specific gravity ie; 2.50–2.59 and 2.45–2.66 respectively. For chemical test, granitic soils shows acidic pH values ranged from 5.35–5.85 for BGR and pH 5.32–5.54 for KGR. For organic matter, SSA and CEC test, it shows low values ranged from 0.22%–0.34% and 0.39%– 0.50% respectively for organic matter test, 17.96 m{sup 2}/g–21.93 m{sup 2}/g and 25.76 m{sup 2}/g–26.83 m{sup 2}/g respectively for SSA test and 0.79 meq/100g–1.35 meq/100g and 1.31 meq/100g–1.35 meq/100g respectively for CEC test. Mini column infiltration test was conducted to determine the retention of cadmium while flowing through granite soils. This test conducted based on the falling head permeability concepts. Different G-force ranging from 231G to 1442G was used in this test. The breakthrough curves show the concentration of Cd becomes higher with the increasing of G-force for both granitic samples (BGR and KGR). The selectivity sorption for both granites ranked in the following decreasing order of; 231G>519G>923G>1442G. Results demonstrated that granitic soils also have low buffering capacity due to low resist of pH changes.

  17. Isotopic and geochemical tracers for U(VI) reduction and U mobility at an in situ recovery U mine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Basu, Anirban; Brown, Shaun T.; Christensen, John N.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Reimus, Paul W.; Heikoop, Jeffrey M.; Woldegabriel, Giday; Simmons, Ardyth M.; House, Brian M.; Hartmann, Matt; et al

    2015-05-19

    In situ recovery (ISR) uranium (U) mining mobilizes U in its oxidized hexavalent form (U(VI)) by oxidative dissolution of U from the roll-front U deposits. Post-mining natural attenuation of residual U(VI) at ISR mines is a potential remediation strategy. Detection and monitoring of naturally occurring reducing subsurface environments are important for successful implementation of this remediation scheme. We used the isotopic tracers ²³⁸U/²³⁵U (δ²³⁸U), ²³⁴U/²³⁸U activity ratio, and ³⁴S/³²S (δ³⁴S), and geochemical measurements of U ore and groundwater collected from 32 wells located within, upgradient, and downgradient of a roll-front U deposit to detect U(VI) reduction and U mobility atmore » an ISR mining site at Rosita, TX, USA. The δ²³⁸U in Rosita groundwater varies from 0.61‰ to -2.49‰, with a trend toward lower δ²³⁸U in downgradient wells. The concurrent decrease in U(VI) concentration and δ²³⁸U with an ε of 0.48‰ ± 0.08‰ is indicative of naturally occurring reducing environments conducive to U(VI) reduction. Additionally, characteristic ²³⁴U/²³⁸U activity ratio and δ³⁴S values may also be used to trace the mobility of the ore zone groundwater after mining has ended. These results support the use of U isotope-based detection of natural attenuation of U(VI) at Rosita and other similar ISR mining sites.« less

  18. Development of improved mobility control agents for surfactant/polymer flooding. Second annual report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, F.D.; Donaruma, L.G.; Hatch, M.J.

    1981-04-01

    The objective of this laboratory work is to develop improved mobility control agents that are more effective than the commercial polymers currently used in this process. During the second year of the project, the baseline testing of commercial products was completed. These baseline tests with polymers include studies on mobility control, retention, and shear degradation in Berea cores, the effect of common ions on rheological properties, thermal stability, microbial degradation, and surfactant-polymer interactions. These data are used for comparison of the commercial agents at standardized sets of conditions, and are also used to evaluate new, modified, or improved polymers. Work was also initiated on the synthesis, characterization, and preliminary screening of new and modified polymers. Testing of these analogs provides systematic correlations of polymer performance with polymer structure. This preliminary testing consists of measurements of shear degradation and viscosity loss in NaCl brines by the use of a simplified screening procedure. To date, a number of potential structure-utility relationships have been observed. Solution viscosities of all nonionic polymers tested are essentially insensitive to changes in NaCl concentration. Increasing the charge-to-mass ratio (degree of hydrolysis) of either polyacrylamides or N-alkyl analogs enhances the ability of these polymers to build viscosity in low salinity NaCl brines. However, such polymers are increasingly subject to viscosity loss as the salinity is increased. Above a certain critical molecular weight, polymers become more susceptible to shear degradation. Many of the polymers that possess stiffer backbones exhibit improved brine and shear stability. The results of these studies will be used to develop an improved mobility control polymer in the next phase of this project.

  19. Ultra-low noise high electron mobility transistors for high-impedance and low-frequency deep cryogenic readout electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Q.; Liang, Y. X.; Ferry, D.; Cavanna, A.; Gennser, U.; Couraud, L.; Jin, Y.

    2014-07-07

    We report on the results obtained from specially designed high electron mobility transistors at 4.2?K: the gate leakage current can be limited lower than 1 aA, and the equivalent input noise-voltage and noise-current at 1?Hz can reach 6.3 nV/Hz{sup 1?2} and 20 aA/Hz{sup 1?2}, respectively. These results open the way to realize high performance low-frequency readout electronics under very low-temperature conditions.

  20. Magnetic field effect on the terahertz emission from nanometer InGaAs/AlInAs high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dyakonova, N.; Teppe, F.; Lusakowski, J.; Knap, W.; Levinshtein, M.; Dmitriev, A.P.; Shur, M.S.; Bollaert, S.; Cappy, A.

    2005-06-01

    The influence of the magnetic field on the excitation of plasma waves in InGaAs/AlInAs lattice matched high electron mobility transistors is reported. The threshold source-drain voltage of the excitation of the terahertz emission shifts to higher values under a magnetic field increasing from 0 to 6 T. We show that the main change of the emission threshold in relatively low magnetic fields (smaller than approximately 4 T) is due to the magnetoresistance of the ungated parts of the channel. In higher magnetic fields, the effect of the magnetic field on the gated region of the device becomes important.

  1. Final report - Reduction of mercury in saturated subsurface sediments and its potential to mobilize mercury in its elemental form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakray, Tamar

    2013-06-13

    The goal of our project was to investigate Hg(II) reduction in the deep subsurface. We focused on microbial and abiotic pathways of reduction and explored how it affected the toxicity and mobility of Hg in this unique environment. The project’s tasks included: 1. Examining the role of mer activities in the reduction of Hg(II) in denitrifying enrichment cultures; 2. Investigating the biotic/abiotic reduction of Hg(II) under iron reducing conditions; 3. Examining Hg(II) redox transformations under anaerobic conditions in subsurface sediments from DOE sites.

  2. Mobile/portable transuranic waste characterization systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory and a model for their use complex-wide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derr, E.D.; Harper, J.R.; Zygmunt, S.J.; Taggart, D.P.; Betts, S.E.

    1997-05-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has implemented mobile and portable characterization and repackaging systems to characterize transuranic (TRU) waste in storage for ultimate shipment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM. These mobile systems are being used to characterize and repackage waste to meet the full requirements of the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and the WIPP Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). Mobile and portable characterization and repackaging systems are being used to supplement the capabilities and throughputs of existing facilities. Utilization of mobile systems is a key factor that is enabling LANL to (1) reduce its TRU waste work-off schedule from 36 years to 8.5 years; (2) eliminate the need to construct a $70M+ TRU waste characterization facility; (3) have waste certified for shipment to WIPP when WIPP opens; (4) continue to ship TRU waste to WIPP at the rate of 5000 drums per year; and (5) reduce overall costs by more than $200M. Aggressive implementation of mobile and portable systems throughout the Department of Energy complex through a centralized-distributed services model will result in similar advantages complex-wide.

  3. Mobile/portable transuranic waste characterization systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory and a model for their use complex-wide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derr, E.D.; Harper, J.R.; Zygmunt, S.J.; Taggart, D.P.; Betts, S.E.

    1997-02-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has implemented mobile and portable characterization and repackaging systems to characterize TRU waste in storage for ultimate shipment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM. These mobile systems are being used to characterize and repackage waste to meet the full requirements of the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and the WIPP Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). Mobile and portable characterization and repackaging systems are being used to supplement the capabilities and throughputs of existing facilities. Utilization of mobile systems is a key factor that is enabling LANL to: (1) reduce its TRU waste work-off schedule from 36 years to 8.5 years; (2) eliminate the need to construct a $70M+ TRU waste characterization facility; (3) have waste certified for shipment to WIPP when WIPP opens; (4) continue to ship TRU waste to WIPP at the rate of 5000 drums per year; and, (5) reduce overall costs by more than $200M. Aggressive implementation of mobile and portable systems throughout the DOE complex through a centralized-distributed services model will result in similar advantages complex-wide.

  4. Plasmonic terahertz detectors based on a high-electron mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bia?ek, M. Witowski, A. M.; Grynberg, M.; ?usakowski, J.; Orlita, M.; Potemski, M.; Czapkiewicz, M.; Umansky, V.

    2014-06-07

    In order to characterize magnetic field (B) tunable THz plasmonic detectors, spectroscopy experiments were carried out at liquid helium temperatures and high magnetic fields on devices fabricated on a high electron mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The samples were either gated (the gate of a meander shape) or ungated. Spectra of a photovoltage generated by THz radiation were obtained as a function of B at a fixed THz excitation from a THz laser or as a function of THz photon frequency at a fixed B with a Fourier spectrometer. In the first type of measurements, the wave vector of magnetoplasmons excited was defined by geometrical features of samples. It was also found that the magnetoplasmon spectrum depended on the gate geometry which gives an additional parameter to control plasma excitations in THz detectors. Fourier spectra showed a strong dependence of the magnetoplasmon resonance amplitude on the conduction-band electron filling factor which was explained within a model of the electron gas heating with THz radiation. The study allows to define both the advantages and limitations of plasmonic devices based on high-mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures for THz detection at low temperatures and high magnetic fields.

  5. Arsenic Re-Mobilization in Water Treatment Adsorbents Under Reducing Conditions: Part II, XAS and Modeling Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu,S.; Jing, C.; Meng, X.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of arsenic re-mobilization in spent adsorbents under reducing conditions was studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and surface complexation model calculations. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy demonstrated that As(V) was partially reduced to As(III) in spent granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), titanium dioxide (TiO2), activated alumina (AA) and modified activated alumina (MAA) adsorbents after 2 years of anaerobic incubation. As(V) was completely reduced to As(III) in spent granular ferric oxide (GFO) under 2-year incubation. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy analysis showed that As(III) formed bidentate binuclear surface complexes on GFO as evidenced by an average As(III)-O bond distance of 1.78 Angstroms and As(III)-Fe distance of 3.34 Angstroms . The release of As from the spent GFO and TiO2 was simulated using the charge distribution multi-site complexation (CD-MUSIC) model. The observed redox ranges for As release and sulfate mobility were described by model calculations.

  6. Uranium vacancy mobility at the Σ5 symmetric tilt and Σ5 twist grain boundaries in UO₂

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Andersson, David A.

    2015-10-01

    Ionic transport at grain boundaries in oxides dictates a number of important phenomena, from ionic conductivity to sintering to creep. For nuclear fuels, it also influences fission gas bubble nucleation and growth. Here, using a combination of atomistic calculations and object kinetic Monte Carlo (okMC) simulations, we examine the kinetic pathways associated with uranium vacancies at two model grain boundaries in UO2. The barriers for vacancy motion were calculated using the nudged elastic band method at all uranium sites at each grain boundary and were used as the basis of the okMC simulations. For both boundaries considered – a simplemore » tilt and a simple twist boundary – the mobility of uranium vacancies is significantly higher than in the bulk. For the tilt boundary, there is clearly preferred migration along the tilt axis as opposed to in the perpendicular direction while, for the twist boundary, migration is essentially isotropic within the boundary plane. These results show that cation defect mobility in fluorite-structured materials is enhanced at certain types of grain boundaries and is dependent on the boundary structure with the tilt boundary exhibiting higher rates of migration than the twist boundary.« less

  7. Uranium vacancy mobility at the Σ5 symmetric tilt and Σ5 twist grain boundaries in UO₂

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Andersson, David A.

    2015-10-01

    Ionic transport at grain boundaries in oxides dictates a number of important phenomena, from ionic conductivity to sintering to creep. For nuclear fuels, it also influences fission gas bubble nucleation and growth. Here, using a combination of atomistic calculations and object kinetic Monte Carlo (okMC) simulations, we examine the kinetic pathways associated with uranium vacancies at two model grain boundaries in UO2. The barriers for vacancy motion were calculated using the nudged elastic band method at all uranium sites at each grain boundary and were used as the basis of the okMC simulations. For both boundaries considered – a simple tilt and a simple twist boundary – the mobility of uranium vacancies is significantly higher than in the bulk. For the tilt boundary, there is clearly preferred migration along the tilt axis as opposed to in the perpendicular direction while, for the twist boundary, migration is essentially isotropic within the boundary plane. These results show that cation defect mobility in fluorite-structured materials is enhanced at certain types of grain boundaries and is dependent on the boundary structure with the tilt boundary exhibiting higher rates of migration than the twist boundary.

  8. Atomic-scale investigation of point defects and hydrogen-solute atmospheres on the edge dislocation mobility in alpha iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatia, M. A.; Solanki, K. N.; Groh, S.

    2014-08-14

    In this study, we present atomistic mechanisms of 1/2 [111](11{sup }0) edge dislocation interactions with point defects (hydrogen and vacancies) and hydrogen solute atmospheres in body centered cubic (bcc) iron. In metals such as iron, increases in hydrogen concentration can increase dislocation mobility and/or cleavage-type decohesion. Here, we first investigate the dislocation mobility in the presence of various point defects, i.e., change in the frictional stress as the edge dislocation interacts with (a) vacancy, (b) substitutional hydrogen, (c) one substitutional and one interstitial hydrogen, (d) interstitial hydrogen, (e) vacancy and interstitial hydrogen, and (f) two interstitial hydrogen. Second, we examine the role of a hydrogen-solute atmosphere on the rate of local dislocation velocity. The edge dislocation simulation with a vacancy in the compression side of the dislocation and an interstitial hydrogen atom at the tension side exhibit the strongest mechanical response, suggesting a higher potential barrier and hence, the higher frictional stress (i.e., ?83% higher than the pure iron Peierls stress). In the case of a dislocation interacting with a vacancy on the compressive side, the vacancy binds with the edge dislocation, resulting in an increase in the friction stress of about 28% when compared with the Peierls stress of an edge dislocation in pure iron. Furthermore, as the applied strain increases, the vacancy migrates through a dislocation transportation mechanism by attaining a velocity of the same order as the dislocation velocity. For the case of the edge dislocation interacting with interstitial hydrogen on the tension side, the hydrogen atom jumps through one layer perpendicular to the glide plane during the pinning-unpinning process. Finally, our simulation of dislocation interactions with hydrogen show first an increase in the local dislocation velocity followed by a pinning of the dislocation core in the atmosphere, resulting in resistance to dislocation motion as the dislocation moves though the hydrogen-solute atmospheres. With this systematic, atomistic study of the edge dislocation with various point defects, we show significant increase in obstacle strengths in addition to an increase in the local dislocation velocity during interaction with solute atmospheres. The results have implications for constitutive development and modeling of the hydrogen effect on dislocation mobility and deformation in metals.

  9. Experimental determination of contaminant metal mobility as a function of temperature, time and solution chemistry. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, S.; Bruton, C.; O'Day, P.; Sahai, N.

    1997-01-01

    'Strontium is significantly more mobile than other hazardous radioactive metals. Its partitioning between aqueous and solid phases is controlled by reactions that occur at the interface between natural waters and minerals. At a groundwater site in Hanford (200-BP-5), the aerial extent of the {sup 90}Sr plume is 100 times larger than the aerial extent of the {sup 137}Cs and the {sup 239}Pu plumes. Similarly, contaminated, perched watertables at INEL have much higher aqueous concentrations of {sup 90}Sr than {sup 137}Cs, presumably because Cs is preferentially sorbed to solids (Duncan 1995). Under high physical flow conditions, such as those in the highly fractured rock at Hanford and INEL, {sup 90}Sr present in plumes may spread off-site and cause contamination of aquifers or other water sources. Geochemical factors that may contribute to the overall mobility of Sr in natural waters are the solubilities of phases such as strontianite (SrCO{sub 3}) and formation of strong complexes with sulfate and nitrate. Although {sup 90}Sr is mobilized in natural waters in these examples, significant concentrations may also be present in solid phases. Sorption experiments using a wide variety of substrates at room temperature have shown that Sr is removed from solution under certain conditions. Additionally, strontianite (SrCO{sub 3}) may precipitate at low Sr concentrations in the pH range of waters in contact with basaltic rocks, which varies between pH 8 and 10. Waters contain variable amounts of carbonate owing to atmospheric interactions; the partial pressure of CO{sub 2} is about 10 x 3.5 atm in air and commonly as high as 10 x 2.5 atm in soils. The objective of this work is to determine the fundamental data needed to predict the behavior of strontium at temperature and time scales appropriate to thermal remediation. The authors approach combines macroscopic sorption/precipitation and desorption/dissolution kinetic experiments, which track changes in solution composition, with direct molecular characterization of strontium in the solid phase using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. These experiments will be used to identify mechanistic geochemical reactions and their thermochemical properties that will be incorporated into geochemical computer codes. This report consists of two sections: (1) a description of the preliminary results of strontium sorption to kaolinite and goethite from pH 4 to 10 at 25, 50, and 80 C and atmospheric CO{sub 2}(g); and (2) a review of the available thermodyanimc data in the is Fe-Sr-Na-NO{sub 3}-CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system.'

  10. Electron tunneling spectroscopy study of electrically active traps in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Jie Cui, Sharon; Ma, T. P.; Hung, Ting-Hsiang; Nath, Digbijoy; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Rajan, Siddharth

    2013-11-25

    We investigate the energy levels of electron traps in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors by the use of electron tunneling spectroscopy. Detailed analysis of a typical spectrum, obtained in a wide gate bias range and with both bias polarities, suggests the existence of electron traps both in the bulk of AlGaN and at the AlGaN/GaN interface. The energy levels of the electron traps have been determined to lie within a 0.5?eV band below the conduction band minimum of AlGaN, and there is strong evidence suggesting that these traps contribute to Frenkel-Poole conduction through the AlGaN barrier.

  11. Mobile Ocean Test Berth Support: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-413

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LiVecchi, Albert

    2015-12-01

    The Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center (NNMREC), headquartered at the Oregon State University, is establishing the capabilities to test prototype wave energy conversion devices in the ocean. This CRADA will leverage the technical expertise and resources at NREL in the wind industry and in ocean engineering to support and enhance the development of the NNMREC Mobile Ocean Test Berth (MOTB). This CRADA will provide direct support to NNMREC by providing design evaluation and review of the MOTB, developing effective protocols for testing of the MOTB and wave energy conversion devices in the ocean, assisting in the specification of appropriate instrumentation and data acquisition packages, and providing guidance on obtaining and maintaining A2LA (American Association for Laboratory Accreditation) accreditation.

  12. Development of Proof-of-Concept Units for the Advanced Medium-Sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andriulli, JB

    2002-04-03

    The purpose of this report is to document the development of the proof-of-concept units within the Advanced Medium-sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) program. The design used a small, lightweight diesel engine, a permanent magnet alternator, power electronics and digital controls as outlined in the philosophy detailed previously. One small proof-of-concept unit was completed and delivered to the military. The unit functioned well but was not optimized at the time of delivery to the military. A tremendous amount of experience was gained during this phase that can be used in the development of any follow-on AMMPS production systems. Lessons learned and recommendations for follow-on specifications are provided. The unit demonstrated that significant benefits are possible with the new design philosophy. Trade-offs will have to be made but many of the advantages appear to be within the technical grasp of the market.

  13. Characteristics of InGaP/InGaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors with triple delta-doped sheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, Kuei-Yi; Chiang, Meng-Hsueh Cheng, Shiou-Ying; Liu, Wen-Chau

    2012-02-15

    Fundamental and insightful characteristics of InGaP/InGaAs double channel pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors (DCPHEMTs) with graded and uniform triple {delta}-doped sheets are coomprehensively studied and demonstrated. To gain physical insight, band diagrams, carrier densities, and direct current characteristics of devices are compared and investigated based on the 2D semiconductor simulator, Atlas. Due to uniform carrier distribution and high electron density in the double InGaAs channel, the DCPHEMT with graded triple {delta}-doped sheets exhibits better transport properties, higher and linear transconductance, and better drain current capability as compared with the uniformly triple {delta}-doped counterpart. The DCPHEMT with graded triple {delta}-doped structure is fabricated and tested, and the experimental data are found to be in good agreement with simulated results.

  14. Electron heating due to microwave photoexcitation in the high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanayaka, A. N.; Mani, R. G.; Wegscheider, W.

    2013-12-04

    We extract the electron temperature in the microwave photo-excited high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron system (2DES) by studying the influence of microwave radiation on the amplitude of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations (SdHOs) in a regime where the cyclotron frequency, ?{sub c}, and the microwave angular frequency, ?, satisfy 2? ? ?{sub c} ? 3.5? The results indicate that increasing the incident microwave power has a weak effect on the amplitude of the SdHOs and therefore the electron temperature, in comparison to the influence of modest temperature changes on the dark-specimen SdH effect. The results indicate negligible electron heating under modest microwave photo-excitation, in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  15. Single shot spin readout with a cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor amplifier at sub-Kelvin temperatures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tracy, Lisa A.; Luhman, Dwight R.; Carr, Stephen M.; Bishop, Nathaniel C.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Pluym, Tammy; Wendt, Joel R.; Lilly, Michael P.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2016-02-08

    We use a cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor circuit to amplify the current from a single electron transistor, allowing for demonstration of single shot readout of an electron spin on a single P donor in Si with 100 kHz bandwidth and a signal to noise ratio of ~9. In order to reduce the impact of cable capacitance, the amplifier is located adjacent to the Si sample, at the mixing chamber stage of a dilution refrigerator. For a current gain of ~2.7 x 103 the power dissipation of the amplifier is 13 μW, the bandwidth is ~1.3 MHz, and for frequencies above 300more » kHz the current noise referred to input is ≤ 70 fA/√Hz. Furthermore, with this amplification scheme, we are able to observe coherent oscillations of a P donor electron spin in isotopically enriched 28Si with 96% visibility.« less

  16. Boost the electron mobility of solution-grown organic single crystals via reducing the amount of polar solvent residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue, Guobiao; Xin, Huolin L.; Wu, Jiake; Fan, Congcheng; Liu, Shuang; Huang, Zhuoting; Liu, Yujing; Shan, Bowen; Miao, Qian; Chen, Hongzheng; Li, Hanying

    2015-10-29

    Enhancing electron transport to match with the development in hole transport is critical for organic electronics in the future. As electron motion is susceptible to extrinsic factors, seeking these factors and avoiding their negative effects have become the central challenge. Here, the existence of polar solvent residues in solution-grown single-crystals of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)-5,7,12,14-tetraazapentacene is identified as a factor detrimental to electron motion. Field-effect transistors of the crystals exhibit electron mobility boosted by about 60% after the residues are removed. The average electron mobility reaches up to 8.0 ± 2.2 cm2 V–1 s–1 with a highest value of 13.3 cm2 V–1 s–1; these results are significantly higher than those obtained previously for the same molecule (1.0–5.0 cm2 V–1 s–1). Furthermore, the achieved mobility is also higher than the maximum reported electron mobility for organic materials (11 cm2 V–1 s–1). As a result, this work should greatly accelerate the advancement of organic electron-transporting materials.

  17. Laterally Mobile, Functionalized Self-Assembled Monolayers at the Fluorous?Aqueous Interface in a Plug-Based Microfluidic System: Characterization and Testing with Membrane Protein Crystallization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreutz, Jason E.; Li, Liang; Roach, L. Spencer; Hatakeyama, Takuji; Ismagilov, Rustem F.; (UC)

    2009-11-04

    This paper describes a method to generate functionalizable, mobile self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) in plug-based microfluidics. Control of interfaces is advancing studies of biological interfaces, heterogeneous reactions, and nanotechnology. SAMs have been useful for such studies, but they are not laterally mobile. Lipid-based methods, though mobile, are not easily amenable to setting up the hundreds of experiments necessary for crystallization screening. Here we demonstrate a method, complementary to current SAM and lipid methods, for rapidly generating mobile, functionalized SAMs. This method relies on plugs, droplets surrounded by a fluorous carrier fluid, to rapidly explore chemical space. Specifically, we implemented his-tag binding chemistry to design a new fluorinated amphiphile, RfNTA, using an improved one-step synthesis of RfOEG under Mitsunobu conditions. RfNTA introduces specific binding of protein at the fluorous-aqueous interface, which concentrates and orients proteins at the interface, even in the presence of other surfactants. We then applied this approach to the crystallization of a his-tagged membrane protein, Reaction Center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, performed 2400 crystallization trials, and showed that this approach can increase the range of crystal-producing conditions, the success rate at a given condition, the rate of nucleation, and the quality of the crystal formed.

  18. Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Volume I. Design. [KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Volume 1 describes the proposed plant: KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process, and also with ancillary processes, such as oxygen plant, shift process, RECTISOL purification process, sulfur recovery equipment and pollution control equipment. Numerous engineering diagrams are included. (LTN)

  19. Design and application of a mobile ground-based observatory for continuous measurements of atmospheric trace-gas and criteria pollutant species

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bush, S. E.; Hopkins, F. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Lai, C.-T.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-01-06

    Ground-based measurements of atmospheric trace gas species and criteria pollutants are essential for understanding emissions dynamics across space and time. Gas composition in the surface 50 m has the greatest direct impacts on human health as well as ecosystem processes, hence data at this level is necessary for addressing carbon cycle and public health related questions. However, such surface data are generally associated with stationary measurement towers, where spatial representation is limited due to the high cost of establishing and maintaining an extensive network of measurement stations. We describe here a compact mobile laboratory equipped to provide high-precision, high-frequency, continuous,more » on-road synchronous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O, NOx, O3, aerosol, meteorological, and geospatial position data. The mobile laboratory has been deployed across the western USA. In addition to describing the vehicle and its capacity, we present data that illustrate the use of the laboratory as a powerful tool for investigating the spatial structure of urban trace gas emissions and criteria pollutants at spatial scales ranging from single streets to whole ecosystem and regional scales. We identify fugitive urban CH4 emissions and assess the magnitude of CH4 emissions from known point sources. We illustrate how such a mobile laboratory can be used to better understand emissions dynamics and quantify emissions ratios associated with trace gas emissions from wildfire incidents. Lastly, we discuss additional mobile laboratory applications in health and urban metabolism.« less

  20. Mobilization of Metals from Eau Claire Siltstone and the Impact of Oxygen under Geological Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Hongbo; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Krogstad, Eirik J.; Newburn, Matthew K.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2014-09-01

    Geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS) has been proposed as a viable strategy to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emission; however, the increased cost that will be incurred by fossil energy production facilities is a deterrent to implementation of this technology. Allowing impurities in the effluent CO2 stream could result in significant financial and energy savings for CO2 capture and separation. However, impurities such as O2 have the potential to influence the redox state and alter the geochemical interactions that occur within GCS reservoirs, which increases the concern for CO2 and brine leakage from the storage reservoir as well as the overlying groundwater contamination. In this work, to investigate the impact of O2 co-injected with CO2 on the geochemical interactions, especially the trace metal mobilization from a GCS reservoir rock, batch studies were conducted with Eau Claire siltstone collected from CO2 sequestration sites. The rock was reacted with synthetic brines in contact with either 100% CO2 or a mixture of 95 mole% CO2-5 mole% O2 at 10.1 MPa and 75 C. Both microscopic and spectroscopic measurements, including 57Fe-Mssbauer spectroscopy, Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and chemical extraction were combined in this study to investigate reaction mechanisms. The Eau Claire siltstone contains quartz (52 wt%), fluorapatite (40%), and aluminosilicate (5%) as major components, and dolomite (2%), pyrite (1%), and small-particle-/poorly-crystalline Fe-oxides as minor components. With the introduction of CO2 into the reaction vessel containing rock and brine, the leaching of small amounts of fluorapatite, aluminosilicate, and dolomite occurred. Trace metals of environmental concern, including Pb, As, Cd, and Cu were detected in the leachate with concentrations up to 400 ppb in the CO2-brine-rock reaction system within 30 days. In the presence of O2, the mobilization of Pb, Cd, and Cu was significantly enhanced, whereas As concentrations decreased, compared with the reaction system without oxygen. The presence of oxygen resulted in the formation of secondary Fe-oxides which appear to be Fe(II)-substituted P-containing ferrihydrite. Although the rock contained only 1.04 wt% total Fe, oxidative dissolution of pyrite, leaching and oxidation of structural Fe(II) in fluorapatite, and precipitation of Fe-oxides significantly decreased the pH in brine with oxygen(pH 3.3-3.7), compared with the reaction system without oxygen (pH 4.2-4.4). In the CO2-rock-brine system without O2, the majority of As remained in the rock, with about 1.1% of the total As being released from intrinsic Fe-oxides to the aqueous phase. The release behavior of As to solution was consistent with competitive adsorption between phosphate/fluoride and As on Fe-oxide surfaces. In the presence of O2 the mobility of As was reduced due to enhanced adsorption onto both intrinsic and secondary Fe-oxide surfaces.When O2 was present, the dominant species in solution was the less toxic As(V). This work will advance our understanding of the geochemical reaction mechanisms that occur under GCS conditions and help to evaluate the risks associated with geological CO2 sequestration.

  1. Assessment of microbial processes on radionuclide mobility in shallow land burial. [West Valley, NY; Beatty, Nevada; Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colombo, P.; Tate, R.L. III; Weiss, A.J.

    1982-07-01

    The impact of microbial metabolism of the organic substituents of low level radioactive wastes on radionuclide mobility in disposal sites, the nature of the microbial transformations involved in this metabolism and the effect of the prevailing environmental parameters on the quantities and types of metabolic intermediates accumulated were examined. Since both aerobic and anaerobic periods can occur during trench ecosystem development, oxidation capacities of the microbial community in the presence and absence of oxygen were analyzed. Results of gas studies performed at three commercial low level radioactive waste disposal sites were reviewed. Several deficiencies in available data were determined. Further research needs are suggested. This assessment has demonstrated that the biochemical capabilities expressed within the low level radioactive waste disposal site are common to a wide variety of soil bacteria. Hence, assuming trenches would not be placed in sites with such extreme abiotic conditions that all microbial activity is precluded, the microbial populations needed for colonization and decomposition of the organic waste substances are readily provided from the waste itself and from the soil of existing and any proposed disposal sites. Indeed, considering the ubiquity of occurrence of the microorganisms responsible for waste decomposition and the chemical nature of the organic waste material, long-term prevention of biodecomposition is difficult, if not impossible.

  2. On the redox origin of surface trapping in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Chen, Di; Tuller, Harry L.; Thompson, Carl V.; Palacios, Toms

    2014-03-28

    Water-related redox couples in ambient air are identified as an important source of the surface trapping states, dynamic on-resistance, and drain current collapse in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Through in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), direct signature of the water-related specieshydroxyl groups (OH) was found at the AlGaN surface at room temperature. It was also found that these species, as well as the current collapse, can be thermally removed above 200?C in vacuum conditions. An electron trapping mechanism based on the H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O/O{sub 2} redox couples is proposed to explain the 0.5?eV energy level commonly attributed to the surface trapping states. Finally, the role of silicon nitride passivation in successfully removing current collapse in these devices is explained by blocking the water molecules away from the AlGaN surface.

  3. Method for selective detection of explosives in mass spectrometer or ion mobility spectrometer at parts-per-quadrillion level

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.; Clowers, Brian H.

    2015-09-01

    A method for selective detection of volatile and non-volatile explosives in a mass spectrometer or ion mobility spectrometer at a parts-per-quadrillion level without preconcentration is disclosed. The method comprises the steps of ionizing a carrier gas with an ionization source to form reactant ions or reactant adduct ions comprising nitrate ions (NO.sub.3.sup.-); selectively reacting the reactant ions or reactant adduct ions with at least one volatile or non-volatile explosive analyte at a carrier gas pressure of at least about 100 Ton in a reaction region disposed between the ionization source and an ion detector, the reaction region having a length which provides a residence time (tr) for reactant ions therein of at least about 0.10 seconds, wherein the selective reaction yields product ions comprising reactant ions or reactant adduct ions that are selectively bound to the at least one explosive analyte when present therein; and detecting product ions with the ion detector to determine presence or absence of the at least one explosive analyte.

  4. A Community-Based Approach to Developing a Mobile Device for Measuring Ambient Air Exposure, Location, and Respiratory Health

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rohlman, Diana; Syron, Laura; Hobbie, Kevin; Anderson, Kim A.; Scaffidi, Christopher; Sudakin, Daniel; Peterson, Elena S.; Waters, Katrina M.; Haynes, Erin; Arkin, Lisa; et al

    2015-08-15

    In west Eugene (Oregon), community research indicates residents are disproportionately exposed to industrial air pollution and exhibit increased asthma incidence. In Carroll County (Ohio), recent increases in unconventional natural gas drilling sparked air quality concerns. These community concerns led to the development of a prototype mobile device to measure personal chemical exposure, location, and respiratory function. Working directly with the environmental justice (EJ) communities, the prototype was developed to (1) meet the needs of the community and; (2) evaluate the use in EJ communities. The prototype was evaluated in 3 community focus groups (n=25) to obtain feedback on the prototypemore » and feasibility study design to evaluate the efficacy of the device to address community concerns. Focus groups were recorded and qualitatively analyzed with discrete feedback tabulated for further refinement. The prototype was improved by community feedback resulting in 8 alterations/additions to software and instructional materials. Overall, focus group participants were supportive of the device and believed it would be a useful environmental health tool. The use of focus groups ensured that community members were engaged in the research design and development of a novel environmental health tool. We found that community-based research strategies resulted in a refined device as well as relevant research questions, specific to the EJ community needs and concerns.« less

  5. Mobility of Supercooled liquid Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Benzene near their Glass Transition Temperatures Investigated using Inert Gas Permeation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Robert A.; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.

    2013-11-21

    We investigate the mobility of supercooled liquid toluene, ethylbenzene, and benzene near their respective glass transition temperatures (Tg). The permeation rate of Ar, Kr, and Xe through the supercooled liquid created when initially amorphous overlayers heated above their glass transition temperature is used to determine the diffusivity. Amorphous benzene crystallizes at temperatures well below its Tg and as a result the inert gas underlayer remains trapped until the onset of benzene desorption. In contrast, for toluene and ethylbenzene the onset of inert gas permeation is observed at temperatues near Tg. The inert gas desorption peak temperature as a function of the heating rate and overlayer thickness is used to quantify the diffusivity of supercooled liquid toluene and ethylbenzene from 115 K to 135 K. In this temperature range, diffusivities are found to vary across five orders of magnitude (~10-14 to 10-9 cm2/s). These data are compared to viscosity measurements and used to determine the low temperature fractional Stokes-Einstein exponent. Efforts to determine the diffusivity of a mixture of benzene and ethylbenzene are detailed, and the effect of mixing these materials on benzene crystallization is explored using infrared spectroscopy.

  6. A Community-Based Approach to Developing a Mobile Device for Measuring Ambient Air Exposure, Location, and Respiratory Health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohlman, Diana; Syron, Laura; Hobbie, Kevin; Anderson, Kim A.; Scaffidi, Christopher; Sudakin, Daniel; Peterson, Elena S.; Waters, Katrina M.; Haynes, Erin; Arkin, Lisa; Feezel, Paul; Kincl, Laurel

    2015-08-15

    In west Eugene (Oregon), community research indicates residents are disproportionately exposed to industrial air pollution and exhibit increased asthma incidence. In Carroll County (Ohio), recent increases in unconventional natural gas drilling sparked air quality concerns. These community concerns led to the development of a prototype mobile device to measure personal chemical exposure, location, and respiratory function. Working directly with the environmental justice (EJ) communities, the prototype was developed to (1) meet the needs of the community and; (2) evaluate the use in EJ communities. The prototype was evaluated in 3 community focus groups (n=25) to obtain feedback on the prototype and feasibility study design to evaluate the efficacy of the device to address community concerns. Focus groups were recorded and qualitatively analyzed with discrete feedback tabulated for further refinement. The prototype was improved by community feedback resulting in 8 alterations/additions to software and instructional materials. Overall, focus group participants were supportive of the device and believed it would be a useful environmental health tool. The use of focus groups ensured that community members were engaged in the research design and development of a novel environmental health tool. We found that community-based research strategies resulted in a refined device as well as relevant research questions, specific to the EJ community needs and concerns.

  7. Microbiological, Geochemical and Hydrologic Processes Controlling Uranium Mobility: An Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site at Rifle, Colorado, Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-01-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cleaning up and/or monitoring large, dilute plumes contaminated by metals, such as uranium and chromium, whose mobility and solubility change with redox status. Field-scale experiments with acetate as the electron donor have stimulated metal-reducing bacteria to effectively remove uranium [U(VI)] from groundwater at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Rifle, Colorado. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and a multidisciplinary team of national laboratory and academic collaborators has embarked on a research proposed for the Rifle site, the object of which is to gain a comprehensive and mechanistic understanding of the microbial factors and associated geochemistry controlling uranium mobility so that DOE can confidently remediate uranium plumes as well as support stewardship of uranium-contaminated sites. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Rifle Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Project.

  8. Investigation of high hole mobility In{sub 0.41}Ga{sub 0.59}Sb/Al{sub

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    0.91}Ga{sub 0.09}Sb quantum well structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Investigation of high hole mobility In{sub 0.41}Ga{sub 0.59}Sb/Al{sub 0.91}Ga{sub 0.09}Sb quantum well structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Investigation of high hole mobility In{sub 0.41}Ga{sub 0.59}Sb/Al{sub 0.91}Ga{sub 0.09}Sb quantum well structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy Modulation-doped In{sub 0.41}Ga{sub

  9. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive flexible metal substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, P. Rathi, M.; Gao, Y.; Yao, Y.; Selvamanickam, V.; Zheng, N.; Ahrenkiel, P.; Martinez, J.

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate heteroepitaxial growth of single-crystalline-like n and p-type doped GaAs thin films on inexpensive, flexible, and light-weight metal foils by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Single-crystalline-like Ge thin film on biaxially textured templates made by ion beam assisted deposition on metal foil served as the epitaxy enabling substrate for GaAs growth. The GaAs films exhibited strong (004) preferred orientation, sharp in-plane texture, low grain misorientation, strong photoluminescence, and a defect density of ?10{sup 7?}cm{sup ?2}. Furthermore, the GaAs films exhibited hole and electron mobilities as high as 66 and 300?cm{sup 2}/V-s, respectively. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive metal substrates can pave the path for roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible III-V solar cells for the mainstream photovoltaics market.

  10. Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr William Apel (INL), Brent Peyton (MSU), Robin Gerlach (MSU), Brady Lee (INL) 1. Research Objectives: Predicting the potential migration of metals and radionuclides from waste pits and trenches will require understanding the effects of carbon and electron flow through these environments. Important aspects of this flow include the physiological activity of cellulolytic

  11. Design and application of a mobile ground-based observatory for continuous measurements of atmospheric trace gas and criteria pollutant species

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bush, S. E.; Hopkins, F. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Lai, C.-T.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-08-26

    Ground-based measurements of atmospheric trace gas species and criteria pollutants are essential for understanding emissions dynamics across space and time. Gas composition in the lower 50 m of the atmosphere has the greatest direct impacts on human health as well as ecosystem processes; hence data at this level are necessary for addressing carbon-cycle- and public-health-related questions. However, such surface data are generally associated with stationary measurement towers, where spatial representation is limited due to the high cost of establishing and maintaining an extensive network of measurement stations. We describe here a compact mobile laboratory equipped to provide high-precision, high-frequency, continuous,more » on-road synchronous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O, NOx, O3, aerosol, meteorological, and geospatial position data. The mobile laboratory has been deployed across the western USA. In addition to describing the vehicle and its capacity, we present data that illustrate the use of the laboratory as a powerful tool for investigating the spatial structure of urban trace gas emissions and criteria pollutants at spatial scales ranging from single streets to whole ecosystem and regional scales. We assess the magnitude of known point sources of CH4 and also identify fugitive urban CH4 emissions. We illustrate how such a mobile laboratory can be used to better understand emissions dynamics and quantify emissions ratios associated with trace gas emissions from wildfire incidents. Lastly, we discuss additional mobile laboratory applications in health and urban metabolism.« less

  12. Testing the effectiveness of mobile home weatherization measures in a controlled environment: The SERI CMFERT (Collaborative Manufactured Buildings Facility for Energy Research and Training) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judkoff, R.D.; Hancock, C.E.; Franconi, E.

    1990-03-01

    For several years the Solar Energy Research Institute has been testing the effectiveness of mobile home weatherization measures, with the support of the US DOE Office of State and Local Assistance Programs Weatherization Assistance Program, the DOE Office of Buildings and Community Systems, the seven states within the federal Weatherization Region 7, the Colorado Division of Housing, and the DOE Denver Support Office. During the winter of 1988--89, several weatherization measures were thermally tested on three mobile homes under controlled conditions inside a large environmental enclosure. The effects of each weatherization measure on conduction losses, infiltration losses, and combined furnace and duct-delivered heat efficiency were monitored. The retrofit options included air sealing, duct repair, furnace tune-up, interior storm panels, floor insulation, and roof insulation. The study demonstrated that cost-effective heating energy savings of about 20% to 50% are possible if weatherization techniques adapted to the special construction details in mobile homes are applied. 24 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. The Mars Hopper: a radioisotope powered, impulse driven, long-range, long-lived mobile platform for exploration of Mars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven D. Howe; Robert C. O'Brien; William Taitano; Doug Crawford; Nathan Jerred; Spencer Cooley; John Crapeau; Steve Hansen; Andrew Klein; James Werner

    2011-02-01

    Planetary exploration mission requirements are becoming more demanding. Due to the increasing cost, the missions that provide mobile platforms that can acquire data at multiple locations are becoming more attractive. Wheeled vehicles such as the MER rovers have proven extremely capable but have very limited range and cannot traverse rugged terrain. Flying vehicles such as balloons and airplanes have been proposed but are problematic due to the very thin atmospheric pressure and the strong, dusty winds present on Mars. The Center for Space Nuclear Research has designed an instrumented platform that can acquire detailed data at hundreds of locations during its lifetime - a Mars Hopper. The Mars Hopper concept utilizes energy from radioisotopic decay in a manner different from any existing radioisotopic power sourcesas a thermal capacitor. By accumulating the heat from radioisotopic decay for long periods, the power of the source can be dramatically increased for short periods. The platform will be able to "hop" from one location to the next every 5-7 days with a separation of 5-10 km per hop. Preliminary designs show a platform that weighs around 52 kgs unfueled which is the condition at deployment. Consequently, several platforms may be deployed on a single launch from Earth. With sufficient lifetime, the entire surface of Mars can be mapped in detail by a couple dozen platforms. In addition, Hoppers can collect samples from all over the planet, including gorges, mountains and crevasses, and deliver them to a central location for eventual pick-up by a Mars Sample Return mission. The status of the Mars Hopper development project at the CSNR is discussed.

  14. Development of an Advanced Simulator to Model Mobility Control and Geomechanics during CO{sub 2} Floods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delshad, Mojdeh; Wheeler, Mary; Sepehrnoori, Kamy; Pope, Gary

    2013-12-31

    The simulator is an isothermal, three-dimensional, four-phase, compositional, equation-of– state (EOS) simulator. We have named the simulator UTDOE-CO2 capable of simulating various recovery processes (i.e., primary, secondary waterflooding, and miscible and immiscible gas flooding). We include both the Peng-Robinson EOS and the Redlich-Kwong EOS models. A Gibbs stability test is also included in the model to perform a phase identification test to consistently label each phase for subsequent property calculations such as relative permeability, viscosity, density, interfacial tension, and capillary pressure. Our time step strategy is based on an IMPEC-type method (implicit pressure and explicit concentration). The gridblock pressure is solved first using the explicit dating of saturation-dependent terms. Subsequently, the material balance equations are solved explicitly for the total concentration of each component. The physical dispersion term is also included in the governing equations. The simulator includes (1) several foam model(s) for gas mobility control, (2) compositional relative permeability models with the hysteresis option, (3) corner point grid and several efficient solvers, (4) geomechanics module to compute stress field as the result of CO{sub 2} injection/production, (5) the format of commercial visualization software, S3graf from Science-soft Ltd., was implemented for user friendly visualization of the simulation results. All tasks are completed and the simulator was fully tested and delivered to the DOE office including a user’s guide and several input files and the executable for Windows Pcs. We have published several SPE papers, presented several posters, and one MS thesis is completed (V. Pudugramam, 2013) resulting from this DOE funded project.

  15. Intelligent mobile sensor system for drum inspection and monitoring: Topical report, October 1, 1993--April 22, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    The objective of the Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) project is to develop an operational system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations at several DOE sites. Specifically, the product of this effort is a robotic device with enhanced intelligence and maneuverability capable of conducting routine inspection of stored waste drums. The system has an integrated sensor suite for problem-drum detection, and is linked to a site database both for inspection planning and for data correlation, updating, and report generation. The system is capable of departing on an assigned mission, collecting required data, recording which portions of its mission had to be aborted or modified due to environmental constraints, and reporting back when the mission is complete. Successful identification of more than 96% of drum defects has been demonstrated in a high fidelity waste storage facility mockup. Identified anomalies included rust spots, rust streaks, areas of corrosion, dents, and tilted drums. All drums were positively identified and correlated with the site database. This development effort is separated into three phases of which phase two is now complete. The second phase demonstrated a prototype system appropriate for operational use in an actual storage facility. The prototype provides an integrated design that considers operational requirements, hardware costs, maintenance, safety, and robustness. The final phase will demonstrate commercial viability using the prototype vehicle in a pilot waste operations and inspection project. This report summarizes the design and evaluation of the new IMSS Phase 2 system and vehicle. Several parts of the IMSS Phase 1 Topical (Final) Report, which describes the requirements, design guidelines, and detailed design of the Phase 1 IMSS vehicle, are incorporated here, with modifications to reflect the changes in the design and the new elements added during the Phase 2 work.

  16. Intelligent Mobile Sensor System for drum inspection and monitoring -- Volume 1. Final report, October 1, 1993--April 22, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of the Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) project is to develop an operational system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations at several DOE sites. Specifically, the product of this effort is a robotic device with enhanced intelligence and maneuverability capable of conducting routine inspection of stored waste drums. The device is capable of operating in the narrow free aisle space between rows of stacked drums. The system has an integrated sensor suite for problem-drum detection, and is linked to a site database both for inspection planning and for data correlation, updating, and report generation. The system is capable of departing on an assigned mission, collecting required data, recording which portions of its mission had to be aborted or modified due to environmental constraints, and reporting back when the mission is complete. Successful identification of more than 96% of drum defects has been demonstrated in a high fidelity waste storage facility mockup. Identified anomalies included rust spots, rust streaks, areas of corrosion, dents, and tilted drums. All drums were positively identified and correlated with the site database. This development effort is separated into three phases of which phase two is now complete. The first phase demonstrated an integrated system (maturity level IVa) for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations. The second phase demonstrated a prototype system appropriate for operational use in an actual storage facility. The prototype provides an integrated design that considers operational requirements, hardware costs, maintenance, safety, and robustness. The final phase will demonstrate commercial viability using the prototype vehicle in a pilot waste operations and inspection project. This report summarizes the design and evaluation of the new IMSS Phase 2 system and vehicle.

  17. Future Mobility in Maryland

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... repair costs and increased fuel consumption and tire wear. * In the Las Vegas ... development of environmentally-friendly energy sources (NSTPRSC). * Speed up project ...

  18. Cooperative Mobile Sensing Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, R S; Kent, C A; Jones, E D; Cunningham, C T; Armstrong, G W

    2003-02-10

    A cooperative control architecture is presented that allows a fleet of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) to collect data in a parallel, coordinated and optimal manner. The architecture is designed to react to a set of unpredictable events thereby allowing data collection to continue in an optimal manner.

  19. DNA mobility modifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barron, Annelise E.

    2004-04-20

    Polyamides comprising at least one hydrophilic C.sub.1 -C.sub.10 hydrocarbyl substituent on an amide nitrogen atom, and methods for producing and using the same is provided. In particular, polyamides of the formula: ##STR1## and methods for using the same for altering the ratio of charge/translational frictional drag of binding polymers to allow electrophoretic separation of polynucleotides or analogs thereof in a non-sieving liquid medium is provided, where a, q, L.sup.1, P.sup.1, Q.sup.1, R, R.sup.1, R.sup.10 and R.sup.11 are those described herein.

  20. DNA mobility modifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barron, Annelise

    2002-01-01

    Polyamides comprising at least one hydrophilic C.sub.1 -C.sub.10 hydrocarbyl substituent on an amide nitrogen atom, and methods for producing and using the same is provided. In particular, polyamides of the formula: ##STR1## and methods for using the same for altering the ratio of charge/translational frictional drag of binding polymers to allow electrophoretic separation of polynucleotides or analogs thereof in a non-sieving liquid medium is provided, where a, q, L.sup.1, P.sup.1, Q.sup.1, R, R.sup.1, R.sup.10 and R.sup.11 are those described herein.

  1. Aerosol mobility size spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jian; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2007-11-20

    A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

  2. MobileMatch App

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Community Feature Stories Economic Development Giving LANL Calendar Speakers Bureau STEM Education Volunteering RELATED NEWS Los Alamos physicist wins 2016 Joseph F. Keithley...

  3. Isotopic and geochemical tracers for U(VI) reduction and U mobility at an in situ recovery U mine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Anirban; Brown, Shaun T.; Christensen, John N.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Reimus, Paul W.; Heikoop, Jeffrey M.; Woldegabriel, Giday; Simmons, Ardyth M.; House, Brian M.; Hartmann, Matt; Maher, Kate

    2015-05-19

    In situ recovery (ISR) uranium (U) mining mobilizes U in its oxidized hexavalent form (U(VI)) by oxidative dissolution of U from the roll-front U deposits. Post-mining natural attenuation of residual U(VI) at ISR mines is a potential remediation strategy. Detection and monitoring of naturally occurring reducing subsurface environments are important for successful implementation of this remediation scheme. We used the isotopic tracers ²³⁸U/²³⁵U (δ²³⁸U), ²³⁴U/²³⁸U activity ratio, and ³⁴S/³²S (δ³⁴S), and geochemical measurements of U ore and groundwater collected from 32 wells located within, upgradient, and downgradient of a roll-front U deposit to detect U(VI) reduction and U mobility at an ISR mining site at Rosita, TX, USA. The δ²³⁸U in Rosita groundwater varies from 0.61‰ to -2.49‰, with a trend toward lower δ²³⁸U in downgradient wells. The concurrent decrease in U(VI) concentration and δ²³⁸U with an ε of 0.48‰ ± 0.08‰ is indicative of naturally occurring reducing environments conducive to U(VI) reduction. Additionally, characteristic ²³⁴U/²³⁸U activity ratio and δ³⁴S values may also be used to trace the mobility of the ore zone groundwater after mining has ended. These results support the use of U isotope-based detection of natural attenuation of U(VI) at Rosita and other similar ISR mining sites.

  4. Impacts of SiN passivation on the degradation modes of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors under reverse-bias stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Wei-Wei; Ma, Xiao-Hua E-mail: yhao@xidian.edu.cn; Hou, Bin; Zhu, Jie-Jie; Chen, Yong-He; Zheng, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Jin-Cheng; Hao, Yue E-mail: yhao@xidian.edu.cn

    2014-10-27

    Impacts of SiN passivation on the degradation modes of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors are investigated. The gate leakage current decreases significantly upon removing the SiN layer and no clear critical voltage for the sudden degradation of the gate leakage current can be observed in the reverse-bias step-stress experiments. Gate-lag measurements reveal the decrease of the fast-state surface traps and the increase of slow-state traps after the passivation layer removal. It is postulated that consistent surface charging relieves the electric field peak on the gate edge, thus the inverse piezoelectric effect is shielded.

  5. Localization-delocalization transition of electrons at the percolation threshold of semiconductor GaAs1–xNx alloys: The appearance of a mobility edge

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Alberi, K.; Fluegel, B.; Beaton, D. A.; Ptak, A. J.; Mascarenhas, A.

    2012-07-09

    Electrons in semiconductor alloys have generally been described in terms of Bloch states that evolve from constructive interference of electron waves scattering from perfectly periodic potentials, despite the loss of structural periodicity that occurs on alloying. Using the semiconductor alloy GaAs₁₋xNx as a prototype, we demonstrate a localized to delocalized transition of the electronic states at a percolation threshold, the emergence of a mobility edge, and the onset of an abrupt perturbation to the host GaAs electronic structure, shedding light on the evolution of electronic structure in these abnormal alloys.

  6. Reliability of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors on low dislocation density bulk GaN substrate: Implications of surface step edges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Killat, N. E-mail: Martin.Kuball@bristol.ac.uk; Montes Bajo, M.; Kuball, M. E-mail: Martin.Kuball@bristol.ac.uk; Paskova, T.; Materials Science and Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 ; Evans, K. R.; Leach, J.; Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 ; Li, X.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.; Chabak, K. D.; Crespo, A.; Gillespie, J. K.; Fitch, R.; Kossler, M.; Walker, D. E.; Trejo, M.; Via, G. D.; Blevins, J. D.

    2013-11-04

    To enable gaining insight into degradation mechanisms of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors, devices grown on a low-dislocation-density bulk-GaN substrate were studied. Gate leakage current and electroluminescence (EL) monitoring revealed a progressive appearance of EL spots during off-state stress which signify the generation of gate current leakage paths. Atomic force microscopy evidenced the formation of semiconductor surface pits at the failure location, which corresponds to the interaction region of the gate contact edge and the edges of surface steps.

  7. Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Technical progress report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitts, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economics of the combined technology. This report examines effect of rock type on oil recovery by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. This report also begins a series of evaluations to improve the economics of alkaline-surfactant-polymer oil recovery.

  8. SU-E-J-252: A Motion Algorithm to Extract Physical and Motion Parameters of a Mobile Target in Cone-Beam Computed Tomographic Imaging Retrospective to Image Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, I; Ahmad, S; Alsbou, N

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A motion algorithm was developed to extract actual length, CT-numbers and motion amplitude of a mobile target imaged with cone-beam-CT (CBCT) retrospective to image-reconstruction. Methods: The motion model considered a mobile target moving with a sinusoidal motion and employed three measurable parameters: apparent length, CT number level and gradient of a mobile target obtained from CBCT images to extract information about the actual length and CT number value of the stationary target and motion amplitude. The algorithm was verified experimentally with a mobile phantom setup that has three targets with different sizes manufactured from homogenous tissue-equivalent gel material embedded into a thorax phantom. The phantom moved sinusoidal in one-direction using eight amplitudes (0–20mm) and a frequency of 15-cycles-per-minute. The model required imaging parameters such as slice thickness, imaging time. Results: This motion algorithm extracted three unknown parameters: length of the target, CT-number-level, motion amplitude for a mobile target retrospective to CBCT image reconstruction. The algorithm relates three unknown parameters to measurable apparent length, CT-number-level and gradient for well-defined mobile targets obtained from CBCT images. The motion model agreed with measured apparent lengths which were dependent on actual length of the target and motion amplitude. The cumulative CT-number for a mobile target was dependent on CT-number-level of the stationary target and motion amplitude. The gradient of the CT-distribution of mobile target is dependent on the stationary CT-number-level, actual target length along the direction of motion, and motion amplitude. Motion frequency and phase did not affect the elongation and CT-number distributions of mobile targets when imaging time included several motion cycles. Conclusion: The motion algorithm developed in this study has potential applications in diagnostic CT imaging and radiotherapy to extract actual length, size and CT-numbers distorted by motion in CBCT imaging. The model provides further information about motion of the target.

  9. High mobility field effect transistor based on BaSnO{sub 3} with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Chulkwon; Kim, Useong; Ju, Chan Jong; Park, Ji Sung; Kim, Young Mo; Char, Kookrin

    2014-11-17

    We fabricated an n-type accumulation-mode field effect transistor based on BaSnO{sub 3} transparent perovskite semiconductor, taking advantage of its high mobility and oxygen stability. We used the conventional metal-insulator-semiconductor structures: (In,Sn){sub 2}O{sub 3} as the source, drain, and gate electrodes, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the gate insulator, and La-doped BaSnO{sub 3} as the semiconducting channel. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide was deposited by atomic layer deposition technique. At room temperature, we achieved the field effect mobility value of 17.8?cm{sup 2}/Vs and the I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratio value higher than 10{sup 5} for V{sub DS}?=?1?V. These values are higher than those previously reported on other perovskite oxides, in spite of the large density of threading dislocations in the BaSnO{sub 3} on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. However, a relatively large subthreshold swing value was found, which we attribute to the large density of charge traps in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as well as the threading dislocations.

  10. Equivalence of donor and acceptor fits of temperature dependent Hall carrier density and Hall mobility data: Case of ZnO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brochen, Stphane; Feuillet, Guy; Pernot, Julien

    2014-04-28

    In this work, statistical formulations of the temperature dependence of ionized and neutral impurity concentrations in a semiconductor, needed in the charge balance equation and for carrier scattering calculations, have been developed. These formulations have been used in order to elucidate a confusing situation, appearing when compensating acceptor (donor) levels are located sufficiently close to the conduction (valence) band to be thermally ionized and thereby to emit (capture) an electron to (from) the conduction (valence) band. In this work, the temperature dependent Hall carrier density and Hall mobility data adjustments are performed in an attempt to distinguish the presence of a deep acceptor or a deep donor level, coexisting with a shallower donor level and located near the conduction band. Unfortunately, the present statistical developments, applied to an n-type hydrothermal ZnO sample, lead in both cases to consistent descriptions of experimental Hall carrier density and mobility data and thus do not allow to determine the nature, donor or acceptor, of the deep level. This demonstration shows that the emission of an electron in the conduction band, generally assigned to a (0/+1) donor transition from a donor level cannot be applied systematically and could also be attributed to a (?1/0) donor transition from an acceptor level. More generally, this result can be extended for any semiconductor and also for deep donor levels located close to the valence band (acceptor transition)

  11. Novel imaging techniques, integrated with mineralogical, geochemical and microbiological characterizations to determine the biogeochemical controls on technetium mobility in FRC sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonathan R. Lloyd

    2009-02-03

    The objective of this research program was to take a highly multidisciplinary approach to define the biogeochemical factors that control technetium (Tc) mobility in FRC sediments. The aim was to use batch and column studies to probe the biogeochemical conditions that control the mobility of Tc at the FRC. Background sediment samples from Area 2 (pH 6.5, low nitrate, low {sup 99}Tc) and Area 3 (pH 3.5, high nitrate, relatively high {sup 99}Tc) of the FRC were selected (http://www.esd.ornl.gov/nabirfrc). For the batch experiments, sediments were mixed with simulated groundwater, modeled on chemical constituents of FRC waters and supplemented with {sup 99}Tc(VII), both with and without added electron donor (acetate). The solubility of the Tc was monitored, alongside other biogeochemical markers (nitrate, nitrite, Fe(II), sulfate, acetate, pH, Eh) as the 'microcosms' aged. At key points, the microbial communities were also profiled using both cultivation-dependent and molecular techniques, and results correlated with the geochemical conditions in the sediments. The mineral phases present in the sediments were also characterized, and the solid phase associations of the Tc determined using sequential extraction and synchrotron techniques. In addition to the batch sediment experiments, where discrete microbial communities with the potential to reduce and precipitate {sup 99}Tc will be separated in time, we also developed column experiments where biogeochemical processes were spatially separated. Experiments were conducted both with and without amendments proposed to stimulate radionuclide immobilization (e.g. the addition of acetate as an electron donor for metal reduction), and were also planned with and without competing anions at high concentration (e.g. nitrate, with columns containing Area 3 sediments). When the columns had stabilized, as determined by chemical analysis of the effluents, we used a spike of the short-lived gamma emitter {sup 99m}Tc (50-200 MBq; half life 6 hours) and its mobility was monitored using a {gamma}-camera. Incorporation of low concentrations of the long-lived 99Tc gave a tracer that can be followed by scintillation counting, should the metastable form of the radionuclide decay to below detection limits before the end of the experiment (complete immobilization or loss of the Tc from the column). After the Tc was reduced and immobilized, or passed through the system, the columns were dismantled carefully in an anaerobic cabinet and the pore water geochemistry and mineralogy of the columns profiled. Microbial community analysis was determined, again using molecular and culture-dependent techniques. Experimental results were also modeled using an established coupled speciation and transport code, to develop a predictive tool for the mobility of Tc in FRC sediments. From this multidisciplinary approach, we hoped to obtain detailed information on the microorganisms that control the biogeochemical cycling of key elements at the FRC, and we would also be able to determine the key factors that control the mobility of Tc at environmentally relevant concentrations at this site.

  12. In Situ Studies of Surface Mobility on Noble Metal Model Catalysts Using STM and XPS at Ambient Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, Derek Robert

    2010-06-14

    High Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (HP-STM) and Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy were used to study the structural properties and catalytic behavior of noble metal surfaces at high pressure. HP-STM was used to study the structural rearrangement of the top most atomic surface layer of the metal surfaces in response to changes in gas pressure and reactive conditions. AP-XPS was applied to single crystal and nanoparticle systems to monitor changes in the chemical composition of the surface layer in response to changing gas conditions. STM studies on the Pt(100) crystal face showed the lifting of the Pt(100)-hex surface reconstruction in the presence of CO, H2, and Benzene. The gas adsorption and subsequent charge transfer relieves the surface strain caused by the low coordination number of the (100) surface atoms allowing the formation of a (1 x 1) surface structure commensurate with the bulk terminated crystal structure. The surface phase change causes a transformation of the surface layer from hexagonal packing geometry to a four-fold symmetric surface which is rich in atomic defects. Lifting the hex reconstruction at room temperature resulted in a surface structure decorated with 2-3 nm Pt adatom islands with a high density of step edge sites. Annealing the surface at a modest temperature (150 C) in the presence of a high pressure of CO or H{sub 2} increased the surface diffusion of the Pt atoms causing the adatom islands to aggregate reducing the surface concentration of low coordination defect sites. Ethylene hydrogenation was studied on the Pt(100) surface using HP-STM. At low pressure, the lifting of the hex reconstruction was observed in the STM images. Increasing the ethylene pressure to 1 Torr, was found to regenerate the hexagonally symmetric reconstructed phase. At room temperature ethylene undergoes a structural rearrangement to form ethylidyne. Ethylidyne preferentially binds at the three-fold hollow sites, which are present on the Pt(100) hex reconstructed phase, but not the (100)-(1x1) surface. The increase in ethylene pressure caused the adsorbate interactions to dominate the crystal morphology and imposed a surface layer structure that matched the ethylidyne binding geometry. The STM results also showed that the surface was reversibly deformed during imaging due to increases in Pt mobility at high pressure. The size dependence on the activity and surface chemistry of Rh nanoparticles was studied using AP-XPS. The activity was found to increase with particle size. The XPS spectra show that in reaction conditions the particle surface has an oxide layer which is chemically distinct from the surface structure formed by heating in oxygen alone. This surface oxide which is stabilized in the catalytically active CO oxidation conditions was found to be more prevalent on the smaller nanoparticles. The reaction-induced surface segregation behavior of bimetallic noble metal nanoparticles was observed with APXPS. Monodisperse 15 nm RhPd and PdPt nanoparticles were synthesized with well controlled Rh/Pd and Pd/Pt compositions. In-situ XPS studies showed that at 300 C in the presence of an oxidizing environment (100 mTorr NO or O{sub 2}) the surface concentration of the more easily oxidized element (Rh in RhPd and Pd in PdPt) was increased. Switching the gas environment to more reducing conditions (100 mTorr NO and 100 mTorr CO) caused the surface enrichment of the element with the lowest surface energy in its metallic state. Using in-situ characterization, the redox chemistry and the surface composition of bimetallic nanoparticle samples were monitored in reactive conditions. The particle surfaces were shown to reversibly restructure in response to the gas environment at high temperature. The oxidation behavior of the Pt(110) surface was studied using surface sensitive in-situ characterization by APXPS and STM. In the presence of 500 mTorr O{sub 2} and temperatures between 25 and 200 C, subsurface oxygen was detected in the surface layer. STM images show that these conditions were found to cause a roughened surface decorated with 1 nm islands. The formation of this surface oxide is a high pressure phenomenon and was not detected in 50 mTorr O{sub 2}. After forming the surface oxide at high pressure, its chemical activity was measured through the reaction with CO at low pressure while continuously monitoring the oxygen species with XPS. The subsurface oxygen was removed by CO oxidation at a comparable rate to the chemisorbed oxygen at 2 C. Repeating the experiment at -3 C reduced the reaction rate, but not the relative activity of the two chemical species suggesting that neither species is significantly more active for the CO oxidation reaction. These studies use molecular level surface characterization in the presence of gases to show the structural changes induced by gas adsorption at high pressure.

  13. Ultrasensitive detection of Hg{sup 2+} using oligonucleotide-functionalized AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Junjie; Li, Jiadong; Miao, Bin; Wu, Dongmin; Wang, Jine; Pei, Renjun; Wu, Zhengyan

    2014-08-25

    An oligonucleotide-functionalized ion sensitive AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) was fabricated to detect trace amounts of Hg{sup 2+}. The advantages of ion sensitive AlGaN/GaN HEMT and highly specific binding interaction between Hg{sup 2+} and thymines were combined. The current response of this Hg{sup 2+} ultrasensitive transistor was characterized. The current increased due to the accumulation of Hg{sup 2+} ions on the surface by the highly specific thymine-Hg{sup 2+}-thymine recognition. The dynamic linear range for Hg{sup 2+} detection has been determined in the concentrations from 10{sup ?14} to 10{sup ?8} M and a detection limit below 10{sup ?14} M level was estimated, which is the best result of AlGaN/GaN HEMT biosensors for Hg{sup 2+} detection till now.

  14. High electron mobility thin-film transistors based on Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} grown by atmospheric ultrasonic spray pyrolysis at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Stuart R. E-mail: thomas.anthopoulos@imperial.ac.uk; Lin, Yen-Hung; Faber, Hendrik; Anthopoulos, Thomas D. E-mail: thomas.anthopoulos@imperial.ac.uk; Adamopoulos, George; Sygellou, Labrini; Stratakis, Emmanuel; Pliatsikas, Nikos; Patsalas, Panos A.

    2014-09-01

    We report on thin-film transistors based on Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films grown by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis in ambient atmosphere at 400450?C. The elemental, electronic, optical, morphological, structural, and electrical properties of the films and devices were investigated using a range of complementary characterisation techniques, whilst the effects of post deposition annealing at higher temperature (700?C) were also investigated. Both as-grown and post-deposition annealed Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films are found to be slightly oxygen deficient, exceptionally smooth and exhibit a wide energy bandgap of ?4.9?eV. Transistors based on as-deposited Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films show n-type conductivity with the maximum electron mobility of ?2?cm{sup 2}/V s.

  15. Recovery in dc and rf performance of off-state step-stressed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Byung-Jae; Hwang, Ya-Hsi; Ahn, Shihyun; Zhu, Weidi; Dong, Chen; Lu, Liu; Ren, Fan; Holzworth, M. R.; Jones, Kevin S.; Pearton, Stephen J.; Smith, David J.; Kim, Jihyun; Zhang, Ming-Lan

    2015-04-13

    The recovery effects of thermal annealing on dc and rf performance of off-state step-stressed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors were investigated. After stress, reverse gate leakage current and sub-threshold swing increased and drain current on-off ratio decreased. However, these degradations were completely recovered after thermal annealing at 450?C for 10 mins for devices stressed either once or twice. The trap densities, which were estimated by temperature-dependent drain-current sub-threshold swing measurements, increased after off-state step-stress and were reduced after subsequent thermal annealing. In addition, the small signal rf characteristics of stressed devices were completely recovered after thermal annealing.

  16. Current collapse imaging of Schottky gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors by electric field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katsuno, Takashi Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Uesugi, Tsutomu; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2014-06-23

    Two-dimensional current collapse imaging of a Schottky gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor device was achieved by optical electric field-induced second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurements. EFISHG measurements can detect the electric field produced by carriers trapped in the on-state of the device, which leads to current collapse. Immediately after (e.g., 1, 100, or 800 μs) the completion of drain-stress voltage (200 V) in the off-state, the second-harmonic (SH) signals appeared within 2 μm from the gate edge on the drain electrode. The SH signal intensity became weak with time, which suggests that the trapped carriers are emitted from the trap sites. The SH signal location supports the well-known virtual gate model for current collapse.

  17. Mobil/Marathon takeover. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session, November 19, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The exercise of corporate power and money as well as the effect on energy policy were the underlying issues in a hearing on the proposed merger of Mobil and Marathon oil companies. The use of capital in this way would deny funds for economic recovery and energy development at a time when the oil companies complain that they need more financial incentives. The companies' response in the direction of mergers suggest that deregulation and tax incentives are not developing solutions to energy supply, but are creating new problems. The witnesses included representatives of Ohio, DOE's Office of Competition, and independent oil jobbers and distributors, who argued against the merger. Additional letters and statement from the witnesses follow their testimony. (DCK)

  18. Electron density and currents of AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with thin GaN/AlN buffer layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bairamis, A.; Zervos, Ch.; Georgakilas, A.; Adikimenakis, A.; Kostopoulos, A.; Kayambaki, M.; Tsagaraki, K.; Konstantinidis, G.

    2014-09-15

    AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures with thin GaN/AlN buffer layer have been analyzed theoretically and experimentally, and the effects of the AlN barrier and GaN buffer layer thicknesses on two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density and transport properties have been evaluated. HEMT structures consisting of [300?nm GaN/ 200?nm AlN] buffer layer on sapphire were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and exhibited a remarkable agreement with the theoretical calculations, suggesting a negligible influence of the crystalline defects that increase near the heteroepitaxial interface. The 2DEG density varied from 6.8??10{sup 12} to 2.1 10{sup 13} cm{sup ?2} as the AlN barrier thickness increased from 2.2 to 4.5?nm, while a 4.5?nm AlN barrier would result to 3.1??10{sup 13} cm{sup ?2} on a GaN buffer layer. The 3.0?nm AlN barrier structure exhibited the highest 2DEG mobility of 900?cm{sup 2}/Vs for a density of 1.3??10{sup 13} cm{sup ?2}. The results were also confirmed by the performance of 1??m gate-length transistors. The scaling of AlN barrier thickness from 1.5?nm to 4.5?nm could modify the drain-source saturation current, for zero gate-source voltage, from zero (normally off condition) to 0.63?A/mm. The maximum drain-source current was 1.1?A/mm for AlN barrier thickness of 3.0?nm and 3.7?nm, and the maximum extrinsic transconductance was 320 mS/mm for 3.0?nm AlN barrier.

  19. Moderate extracellular acidification inhibits capsaicin-induced cell death through regulating calcium mobilization, NF-{kappa}B translocation and ROS production in synoviocytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Fen; Yang, Shuang; Zhao, Dan; Zhu, Shuyan; Wang, Yuxiang; Li, Junying

    2012-07-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate extracellular acidification regulates intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification activates NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation in synoviocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification depresses the ROS production induced by capsaicin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification inhibits capsaicin-caused synoviocyte death. -- Abstract: We previously show the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in primary synoviocytes from collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Capsaicin and lowered extracellular pH from 7.4 to 5.5 induce cell death through TRPV1-mediated Ca{sup 2+} entry and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, under the pathological condition in rheumatoid arthritis, the synovial fluid is acidified to a moderate level (about pH 6.8). In the present study, we examined the effects of pH 6.8 on the TRPV1-mediated cell death. Our finding is different or even opposite from what was observed at pH 5.5. We found that the moderate extracellular acidification (from pH 7.4 to 6.8) inhibited the capsaicin-induced Ca{sup 2+} entry through attenuating the activity of TRPV1. In the mean time, it triggered a phospholipse C (PLC)-related Ca{sup 2+} release from intracellular stores. The nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B was found at pH 6.8, and this also depends on PLC activation. Moreover, the capsaicin-evoked massive ROS production and cell death were depressed at pH 6.8, both of which are dependent on the activation of PLC and NF-{kappa}B. Taken together, these results suggested that the moderate extracellular acidification inhibited the capsaicin-induced synoviocyte death through regulating Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, activating NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation and depressing ROS production.

  20. Final Technical Report for DE-FG02-06ER15835: Chemical Imaging with 100nm Spatial Resolution: Combining High Resolution Flurosecence Microscopy and Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buratto, Steven K.

    2013-09-03

    We have combined, in a single instrument, high spatial resolution optical microscopy with the chemical specificity and conformational selectivity of ion mobility mass spectrometry. We discuss the design and construction of this apparatus as well as our efforts in applying this technique to thin films of molecular semiconductor materials.

  1. Effect of tunnel injection through the Schottky gate on the static and noise behavior of GaInAs/AlInAs high electron mobility transistor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moro-Melgar, Diego; Mateos, Javier Gonzlez, Toms Vasallo, Beatriz G.

    2014-12-21

    By using a Monte Carlo simulator, the influence of the tunnel injection through the Schottky contact at the gate electrode of a GaInAs/AlInAs High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) has been studied in terms of the static and noise performance. The method used to characterize the quantum tunnel current has been the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approach. The possibility of taking into account the influence of the image charge effect in the potential barrier height has been included as well. Regarding the static behavior, tunnel injection leads to a decrease in the drain current I{sub D} due to an enhancement of the potential barrier controlling the carrier transport through the channel. However, the pinch-off is degraded due to the tunneling current. Regarding the noise behavior, since the fluctuations in the potential barrier height caused by the tunnel-injected electrons are strongly coupled with the drain current fluctuations, a significant increase in the drain-current noise takes place, even when the tunnel effect is hardly noticeable in the static I-V characteristics, fact that must be taken into account when designing scaled HEMT for low-noise applications. In addition, tunnel injection leads to the appearance of full shot noise in the gate current.

  2. Metal-interconnection-free integration of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Chao; Cai, Yuefei; Liu, Zhaojun; Ma, Jun; Lau, Kei May

    2015-05-04

    We report a metal-interconnection-free integration scheme for InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) and AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) by combining selective epi removal (SER) and selective epitaxial growth (SEG) techniques. SER of HEMT epi was carried out first to expose the bottom unintentionally doped GaN buffer and the sidewall GaN channel. A LED structure was regrown in the SER region with the bottom n-type GaN layer (n-electrode of the LED) connected to the HEMTs laterally, enabling monolithic integration of the HEMTs and LEDs (HEMT-LED) without metal-interconnection. In addition to saving substrate real estate, minimal interface resistance between the regrown n-type GaN and the HEMT channel is a significant improvement over metal-interconnection. Furthermore, excellent off-state leakage characteristics of the driving transistor can also be guaranteed in such an integration scheme.

  3. Are the Radical Centers in Peptide Radical Cations Mobile? The Generation, Tautomerism, and Dissociation of Isomeric α-Carbon-Centered Triglycine Radical Cations in the Gas Phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, Ivan K.; Zhao, Junfang; Xu, Minjie; Siu, Shiu On; Hopkinson, Alan C.; Siu , K W Michael

    2008-05-31

    The mobility of the radical center in three isomeric triglycine radical cationss[G•GG]+, [GG•G]+, and [GGG•]+shas been investigated theoretically via density functional theory (DFT) and experimentally via tandem mass spectrometry. These radical cations were generated by collision-induced dissociations (CIDs) of Cu(II)-containing ternary complexes that contain the tripeptides YGG, GYG, and GGY, respectively (G and Y are the glycine and tyrosine residues, respectively). Dissociative electron transfer within the complexes led to observation of [Y•GG]+, [GY•G]+, and [GGY•]+; CID resulted in cleavage of the tyrosine side chain as p-quinomethide, yielding [G•GG]+, [GG•G]+, and [GGG•]+, respectively. Interconversions between these isomeric triglycine radical cations have relatively high barriers (g44.7 kcal/mol), in support of the thesis that isomerically pure [G•GG]+, [GG•G]+, and [GGG•]+ can be experimentally produced. This is to be contrasted with barriers < 17 kcal/mol that were encountered in the tautomerism of protonated triglycine [Rodriquez C. F. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 3006-3012]. The CID spectra of [G•GG]+, [GG•G]+, and [GGG•]+ were substantially different, providing experimental proof that initially these ions have distinct structures. DFT calculations showed that direct dissociations are competitive with interconversions followed by dissociation.

  4. Experimental Evaluation and Optimization of Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations for Ion Mobility Spectrometry with Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Ian K.; Garimella, Venkata BS; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Zhang, Xinyu; Norheim, Randolph V.; Prost, Spencer A.; Lamarche, Brian L.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-09-05

    We report on the performance of Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulation (SLIM) devices as a means for transmitting ions and performing ion mobility separations (IMS). Ions were successfully transferred from an electrospray ionization (ESI) source to the TOF MS analyzer by means of a linear SLIM device and an alternative arrangement including a 90 turn. First, the linear geometry was optimized for radial confinement by tuning RF on the central rung electrodes and potentials on the DC-only guard electrodes. Selecting an appropriate DC guard bias (2-6 V) and RF amplitude (?160 Vp-p at 750 kHz) resulted in the greatest ion intensities. Close to ideal IMS resolving power was maintained over a range of applied voltages. Second, the 90 turn was optimized for radial confinement by tuning the RF on the rung electrodes and DC on the guard electrodes; however, both resolving power and ion transmission showed a dependence on these voltages and the best conditions for both were > 300 Vp-p RF (685 kHz) and 7-11 V guard DC bias. Both geometries provide IMS resolving powers at the theoretical limit (R~58), showing that the negative racetrack effect from turning around a corner can be successfully avoided, as well as the capability for essentially lossless ion transmission.

  5. Determining conductivity and mobility values of individual components in multiphase composite Cu{sub 1.97}Ag{sub 0.03}Se

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day, Tristan W.; Brown, David R.; Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Zeier, Wolfgang G.; Melot, Brent C.

    2014-10-27

    The intense interest in phase segregation in thermoelectrics as a means to reduce the lattice thermal conductivity and to modify the electronic properties from nanoscale size effects has not been met with a method for separately measuring the properties of each phase assuming a classical mixture. Here, we apply effective medium theory for measurements of the in-line and Hall resistivity of a multiphase composite, in this case Cu{sub 1.97}Ag{sub 0.03}Se. The behavior of these properties with magnetic field as analyzed by effective medium theory allows us to separate the conductivity and charge carrier mobility of each phase. This powerful technique can be used to determine the matrix properties in the presence of an unwanted impurity phase, to control each phase in an engineered composite, and to determine the maximum carrier concentration change by a given dopant, making it the first step toward a full optimization of a multiphase thermoelectric material and distinguishing nanoscale effects from those of a classical mixture.

  6. Investigation of high hole mobility In{sub 0.41}Ga{sub 0.59}Sb/Al{sub 0.91}Ga{sub 0.09}Sb quantum well structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Juan; Xing, Jun-Liang; Xiang, Wei; Wang, Guo-Wei; Xu, Ying-Qiang; Ren, Zheng-Wei; Niu, Zhi-Chuan

    2014-02-03

    Modulation-doped In{sub 0.41}Ga{sub 0.59}Sb/Al{sub 0.91}Ga{sub 0.09}Sb quantum-well (QW) structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy studies show high crystalline quality and smooth surface morphology. X-ray diffraction investigations confirm 1.94% compressive strain within In{sub 0.41}Ga{sub 0.59}Sb channel. High room temperature hole mobility with high sheet density of 1000 cm{sup 2}/Vs, 0.877??10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2}, and 965 cm{sup 2}/Vs, 1.112??10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2} were obtained with different doping concentrations. Temperature dependent Hall measurements show different scattering mechanisms on hole mobility at different temperature range. The sheet hole density keeps almost constantly from 300?K to 77?K. This study shows great potential of In{sub 0.41}Ga{sub 0.59}Sb/Al{sub 0.91}Ga{sub 0.09}Sb QW for high-hole-mobility device applications.

  7. Mobile Technology and Social Media in the Clinical Practice of Young Radiation Oncologists: Results of a Comprehensive Nationwide Cross-sectional Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibault, Jean-Emmanuel; Leroy, Thomas; Blanchard, Pierre; Biau, Julian; Cervellera, Mathilde; Diaz, Olivia; Faivre, Jean Christophe; and others

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Social media and mobile technology are transforming the way in which young physicians are learning and practicing medicine. The true impact of such technologies has yet to be evaluated. Methods and Materials: We performed a nationwide cross-sectional survey to better assess how young radiation oncologists used these technologies. An online survey was sent out between April 24, 2013, and June 1, 2013. All residents attending the 2013 radiation oncology French summer course were invited to complete the survey. Logistic regressions were performed to assess predictors of use of these tools in the hospital on various clinical endpoints. Results: In all, 131 of 140 (93.6%) French young radiation oncologists answered the survey. Of these individuals, 93% owned a smartphone and 32.8% owned a tablet. The majority (78.6%) of the residents owning a smartphone used it to work in their department. A total of 33.5% had more than 5 medical applications installed. Only 60.3% of the residents verified the validity of the apps that they used. In all, 82.9% of the residents had a social network account. Conclusions: Most of the residents in radiation oncology use their smartphone to work in their department for a wide variety of tasks. However, the residents do not consistently check the validity of the apps that they use. Residents also use social networks, with only a limited impact on their relationship with their patients. Overall, this study highlights the irruption and the risks of new technologies in the clinical practice and raises the question of a possible regulation of their use in the hospital.

  8. ARM - Mobile Aerosol Observing System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AMF1 AMF2 AMF3 MAOS Data Operations AMF Fact Sheet Images ... 2009-2010 Shouxian, China, 2008 Black Forest, ... Optical Absorption Weather Transmitter (WXT-520) ...

  9. Mobile inductively coupled plasma system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D`Silva, A.P.; Jaselskis, E.J.

    1999-03-30

    A system is described for sampling and analyzing a material located at a hazardous site. A laser located remotely from the hazardous site is connected to an optical fiber, which directs laser radiation proximate the material at the hazardous site. The laser radiation abates a sample of the material. An inductively coupled plasma is located remotely from the material. An aerosol transport system carries the ablated particles to a plasma, where they are dissociated, atomized and excited to provide characteristic optical reduction of the elemental constituents of the sample. An optical spectrometer is located remotely from the site. A second optical fiber is connected to the optical spectrometer at one end and the plasma source at the other end to carry the optical radiation from the plasma source to the spectrometer. 10 figs.

  10. Shimpent mobility accountability collection (SMAC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Best, R.E.; Hamberger, C.R.; Moerchen, M.F.; Maddigan, R.J.; Lester, P.B.; Shappert, L.B.

    1995-12-31

    SMAC{sup 4} is the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) information system that collects, stores, and analyzes information on all unclassified shipments to and from DOE facilities. SMAC is operated for and under the direction of DOE`s Office of Environmental Management (EM) Transportation Management Division (TMD). Currently, SMAC serves DOE Headquarters, Operations offices, Field Offices, and 64 field locations. The system provides data and analysis services to DOE and its contractors, transportation managers, and specialists. It is used to collect data from the sources of transportation activities, screen the data to ensure their quality, train personnel who collect and report the data, analyze data elements, help users conduct their own analyses, and develop and present reports on DOE`s transportation activities to DOE and contractor management.

  11. Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Energy - Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Alternative Fueling Station Locator Fuel Type Biodiesel (B20 and above) Compressed Natural Gas Electric Ethanol (E85) Hydrogen Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Propane) Location Enter a city, postal code, or address Include private stations Not all stations are open to the public. Choose this option to also search private fueling stations. Search Caution: The AFDC recommends that users verify that stations are open, available

  12. Mobile inductively coupled plasma system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Silva, Arthur P. (Ames, IA); Jaselskis, Edward J. (Ames, IA)

    1999-03-30

    A system for sampling and analyzing a material located at a hazardous site. A laser located remote from the hazardous site is connected to an optical fiber, which directs laser radiation proximate the material at the hazardous site. The laser radiation abates a sample of the material. An inductively coupled plasma is located remotely from the material. An aerosol transport system carries the ablated particles to a plasma, where they are dissociated, atomized and excited to provide characteristic optical reduction of the elemental constituents of the sample. An optical spectrometer is located remotely from the site. A second optical fiber is connected to the optical spectrometer at one end and the plasma source at the other end to carry the optical radiation from the plasma source to the spectrometer.

  13. Not Your Parents' Mobile Home

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Hadley, Donald L.

    2002-11-01

    This article describes construction of the first manufactured home ever produced from structural insulated panels. The home was built in July 2000 by Champion Enterprises at its Silverton, Oregon, plant. The house was completed on the assembly line in 9 days including a 300-mile road test. The paper examines the design and approval process leading to the project, the manufacturing process and its adjustment to SIPs, and the transportation and energy performance of the house after it was built. PNNL coordinated this project and conducted long-term monitoring on the house. The WSU Energy Program conducted building diagnostics testing once the house was occupied. PNNL and WSU involvement was funded by the U.S. DOE Building America Program. The Oregon Office of Energy conducted blower door and duct blaster tests. The completed home was estimated to reduce energy consumption by 50% and to have twice the structural strength required by HUD code for manufactured homes. The demonstration proved that the manufactured home production line could support SIPs production simultaneously with traditional construction and without major modifications, the line work in parallel with SIPs and traditional materials. The project revealed severl possibilities for further improving cost and time savings with SIPs construction, that might translate into increased capacity.

  14. Localization-delocalization transition of electrons at the percolation threshold of semiconductor GaAs1xNx alloys: The appearance of a mobility edge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alberi, K.; Fluegel, B.; Beaton, D. A.; Ptak, A. J.; Mascarenhas, A.

    2012-07-09

    Electrons in semiconductor alloys have generally been described in terms of Bloch states that evolve from constructive interference of electron waves scattering from perfectly periodic potentials, despite the loss of structural periodicity that occurs on alloying. Using the semiconductor alloy GaAs??xNx as a prototype, we demonstrate a localized to delocalized transition of the electronic states at a percolation threshold, the emergence of a mobility edge, and the onset of an abrupt perturbation to the host GaAs electronic structure, shedding light on the evolution of electronic structure in these abnormal alloys.

  15. LABORATORY REPORT ON IODINE ({sup 129}I AND {sup 127}I) SPECIATION, TRANSFORMATION AND MOBILITY IN HANFORD GROUNDWATER, SUSPENDED PARTICLES AND SEDIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, D.; Santschi, P.; Xu, C.; Zhang, S.; Ho, Y.; Li, H.; Schwehr, K.

    2012-09-30

    The Hanford Site in eastern Washington produced plutonium for several decades and in the process generated billions of gallons of radioactive waste. Included in this complex mixture of waste was 50 Ci of iodine-129 ({sup 129}I). Iodine-129s high abundance, due to its high fission yield, and extreme toxicity result in iodine-129 becoming a key risk driver at many Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The mobility of radioiodine in arid environments, such as the Hanford Site, depends largely on its chemical speciation and is also greatly affected by many other environmental factors, especially natural sediment organic matter (SOM). Groundwater radioiodine speciation has not been measured in arid regions with major plumes or large disposed {sup 129}I inventories, including the Hanford Site, Idaho National Laboratory, and Nevada Test Site. In this study, stable iodine-127 and radioiodine-129 speciation, pH, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of groundwater samples collected from seven wells located in the 200-West Area of the Hanford site were investigated. The most striking finding was that iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup -}) was the most abundant species. Unexpectedly, iodide (I{sup -}), which was likely the form of iodine in the source materials and the expected dominant groundwater species based on thermodynamic considerations, only accounted for 1-2% of the total iodine concentration. It is likely that the relatively high pH and the low abundance of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) that is present at the site slowed down or even inhibited the reduction of iodate, as SOM abiotically reduce iodate into iodide. Moreover, a study on the kinetics of iodide and iodate uptake and aqueous speciation transformation by three representative subsurface Hanford sediments was performed over a period of about one month. This study was carried out by using iodide-125 or iodate-125 at the ambient iodine-127concentration found at the site. Iodate K{sub d} values were on average 89% greater than iodide K{sub d} values, and the K{sub d} values for both species tended to increase with the amount of organic carbon (OC) present in the sediment. It is especially noteworthy that this trend existed at the very low OC concentrations that naturally exist in the Hanford sediments. Iodine and OC can form essentially irreversible covalent bonds, thereby providing a yet unstudied {sup 129}I retardation reaction at the Hanford Site. In addition to the transformation of iodine species, the sediment collected from the vadose zone also released stable iodide into the aqueous phase. It was found that the three sediments all took up the ambient iodate from the groundwater and slowly transformed it into iodide under the laboratory conditions, likely dependent on the abundance of reducing agents such as organic matter and Fe{sup 2+}. Therefore two competitive iodine processes were identified, the tendency for the sediment to reduce iodate to iodide, and the groundwater chemistry to maintain the iodine as iodate, presumably it is largely the result of natural pH and dissolved O{sub 2}/Eh levels. Suspended carbonate (and silica) particles collected from Hanford groundwater contained elevated amounts of iodine (142 8 ?g/g iodine), consisting mainly of iodate (>99%). Iodate was likely incorporated into the carbonate structure during calcite precipitation upon degasing of CO{sub 2} as the groundwater samples were removed from the subsurface. This concentration of groundwater iodate in precipitated carbonate has implication to long-term fate and transport of 129I and on active in-situ {sup 129}I groundwater remediation. This study provides some of the first groundwater radioiodine speciation studies conducted in arid environments and provides much needed mechanistic descriptions to permit making informed decisions about low-cost/high intellectual input remediation options, such as monitored natural attenuation, or long-term stewardship of nuclear waste disposal sites.

  16. Mobility chains analysis of technologies for passenger cars and light duty vehicles fueled with biofuels : application of the Greet model to project the role of biomass in America's energy future (RBAEF) project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, M.; Wu, Y.; Wang, M; Energy Systems

    2008-01-31

    The Role of Biomass in America's Energy Future (RBAEF) is a multi-institution, multiple-sponsor research project. The primary focus of the project is to analyze and assess the potential of transportation fuels derived from cellulosic biomass in the years 2015 to 2030. For this project, researchers at Dartmouth College and Princeton University designed and simulated an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity using the ASPEN Plus{trademark} model. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted, for the RBAEF project, a mobility chains or well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at ANL. The mobility chains analysis was intended to estimate the energy consumption and emissions associated with the use of different production biofuels in light-duty vehicle technologies.

  17. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  18. Comment on A study of vertical and in-plane electron mobility due to interface roughness scattering at low temperature in InAs-GaSb superlattices [J. Appl. Phys. 114, 053712 (2013)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szmulowicz, F.

    2014-04-14

    The purpose of this comment is to point out that the paper by Safa, Asgari, and Faraone [J. Appl. Phys. 114, 053712 (2013)] (SAF) on electronic transport in superlattices contains a number of errors in physics and execution. By dealing with a finite number of periods and forcing the wave function to be zero at the upper and lower boundaries of the superlattice stack, SAF have turned the system into a quantum well for which the momentum along the growth axis is not a good quantum number, so that the bands in the growth direction are flat and the corresponding carrier velocities and vertical mobilities are zero. A number of other errors allow the authors to get nonzero results and to reach conclusions that qualitatively mirror those of Szmulowicz, Haugan, Elhamri, and Brown [Phys. Rev. B 84, 155307 (2011)].

  19. Diesel Engine CO2 and SOx Emission Compliance Strategy for the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CO2 and SOx Emission Compliance Strategy for the Royal Navy (RN) and Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) Flotillas Diesel Engine CO2 and SOx Emission Compliance Strategy for the Royal Navy ...

  20. Depth-resolved ultra-violet spectroscopic photo current-voltage measurements for the analysis of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor epilayer deposited on Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozden, Burcu; Yang, Chungman; Tong, Fei; Khanal, Min P.; Mirkhani, Vahid; Sk, Mobbassar Hassan; Ahyi, Ayayi Claude; Park, Minseo

    2014-10-27

    We have demonstrated that the depth-dependent defect distribution of the deep level traps in the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) epi-structures can be analyzed by using the depth-resolved ultra-violet (UV) spectroscopic photo current-voltage (IV) (DR-UV-SPIV). It is of great importance to analyze deep level defects in the AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure, since it is recognized that deep level defects are the main source for causing current collapse phenomena leading to reduced device reliability. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT epi-layers were grown on a 6 in. Si wafer by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The DR-UV-SPIV measurement was performed using a monochromatized UV light illumination from a Xe lamp. The key strength of the DR-UV-SPIV is its ability to provide information on the depth-dependent electrically active defect distribution along the epi-layer growth direction. The DR-UV-SPIV data showed variations in the depth-dependent defect distribution across the wafer. As a result, rapid feedback on the depth-dependent electrical homogeneity of the electrically active defect distribution in the AlGaN/GaN HEMT epi-structure grown on a Si wafer with minimal sample preparation can be elucidated from the DR-UV-SPIV in combination with our previously demonstrated spectroscopic photo-IV measurement with the sub-bandgap excitation.