National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for routing phone routing

  1. Routing Thoughts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poggio, T.

    In a parallel machine with many thousands of processors the routing of information between processors is a key task, which turns out to require as much hardware and perhaps more sophistication than local computing itself. ...

  2. Profiling Profitable Bus Routes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cervero, Robert

    1992-01-01

    the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard at the city’s southern edge.to downtownand the Naval Shipyard, Route C also interlinks

  3. Buildings on Routes Spring 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Friday Morning Route - F Composting Mon, Wed, Fri Route - H Every Other Week Wednesday Morning Route - I Every Other Week Thursday Afternoon Colter/Mullan/Pryor Miller Dining AJM Johnson/Animal bio Academic

  4. Class network routing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhanot, Gyan (Princeton, NJ); Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton On Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Mount Kisco, NY); Vranas, Pavlos M. (Bedford Hills, NY)

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  5. Laboratory Shuttle Bus Routes: Combined Routes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse Bergkamp Graduate studentScience (SC)Planning Process Combined Routes

  6. Collective network routing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoenicke, Dirk

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

  7. Automatic Routing Using Multiple Prefix Labels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J.J.; Ghosh, R.

    2012-01-01

    Automatic Routing Using Multiple Prefix Labels Rumi GhoshWe present Multi-label Automatic Routing (MAR), the firstthe routing is automatic based on the positional labels of

  8. Automatic Incremental Routing Using Multiple Roots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Rumi; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    J. J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, “Automatic Routing Using MultipleAutomatic Incremental Routing Using Multiple Roots RumiWe present Multi-root Automatic Incremental Rout- ing (

  9. Cognitively Ergonomic Route Alexander Klippel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klippel, Alexander

    Cognitively Ergonomic Route Directions Alexander Klippel C R C - S p a t i a l I n f o r m a t i o principles that allow us to define what makes route directions cognitively ergonomic, technical aspects for cognitively ergonomic route directions (Denis, 1997; Lovelace, Hegarty, & Montello, 1999; Tversky & Lee, 1999

  10. Autonomous routing algorithms for networks with wide-spread failures : a case for differential backlog routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Wajahat Faheem

    2008-01-01

    We study the performance of a differential backlog routing algorithm in a network with random failures. Differential Backlog routing is a novel routing algorithm where packets are routed through multiple paths to their ...

  11. Detailed Routing Hangzhou, March 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vygen, Jens

    are to blocking the (sub)nets The weights should reflect waste of routing space and electrical capacitance and resistance. Edges on track should be cheapest, orthogonal edges and vias more expensive #12;The key

  12. A Backup Route Aware Routing Protocol Fast Recovery from Transient Routing Failures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Lixin

    in experimental studies [14], [15]. Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), a path vector protocol for interdomain routing al [4] propose a solution using pre-established protection tunnels to reroute traffic during failures

  13. Expressive Analytical Model for Routing Protocols infor Routing Protocols in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julien, Christine

    Taesoo Jun Angela Dalton Sh h k B dShreeshankar Bodas Christine Julien Sriram Vishwanath TR-UTEDGE-2007 in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Taesoo Jun, Angela Dalton, Shreeshankar Bodas, Christine Julien, and Sriram, sriram}@ece.utexas.edu Abstract--Many routing protocols exist for mobile ad hoc networks. To select

  14. Cooperative Diversity Routing in Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Cooperative Diversity Routing in Wireless Networks Mostafa Dehghan and Majid Ghaderi Department routing, cooperative commu- nication, cooperative diversity, wireless networks. I. INTRODUCTION Energy efficiency is a challenging problem in wireless networks, especially in ad hoc and sensor networks, where

  15. Routing Around Decoys Max Schuchard1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopper, Nicholas J.

    and Engineering, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities 2: Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science routing systems. We explore China, Syria, Iran, and Egypt as routing capable ad- versaries, and evaluate

  16. Stochastic ship fleet routing with inventory limits 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Yu

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes a stochastic ship routing problem with inventory management. The problem involves finding a set of least costs routes for a fleet of ships transporting a single commodity when the demand for ...

  17. Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System (TRAGIS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    tool for modeling transportation routing. TRAGIS offers numerous options for route calculation the ability to: · Select an origin and destination from a list of city names; · Automatically calculate, railroad companies, or states; · Calculate highway routes that meet U.S. Department of Transportation

  18. Network Layer Routing -II Yatindra Nath Singh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh Yatindra Nath

    networks e.g., Ethernet, point-to-point network, networks which have their own routing protocols. Broadcast network Gateway Point-to-point link Network Arbitrary Gateway Gateway Gateway Fig.2.1 4 #12;' & $ within the existing, the routing table entry is updated. 8 #12;' & $ This gives the increamental update of routing

  19. USING JET ROUTES TO MODEL PATH RE-ROUTING IN THE NATIONAL AIRSPACE SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malloy, Brian

    USING JET ROUTES TO MODEL PATH RE-ROUTING IN THE NATIONAL AIRSPACE SYSTEM Brian A. Malloy #3; Dean Class Diagram, Object-oriented, Floyd's algorithm, Jet routes, Fix, Airport Fix, National Airspace that the majority of air traÆc must negotiate. These paths, or jet routes, intersect at navigation points or #12;xes

  20. Zone routing in a torus network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer

    2013-01-29

    A system for routing data in a network comprising a network logic device at a sending node for determining a path between the sending node and a receiving node, wherein the network logic device sets one or more selection bits and one or more hint bits within the data packet, a control register for storing one or more masks, wherein the network logic device uses the one or more selection bits to select a mask from the control register and the network logic device applies the selected mask to the hint bits to restrict routing of the data packet to one or more routing directions for the data packet within the network and selects one of the restricted routing directions from the one or more routing directions and sends the data packet along a link in the selected routing direction toward the receiving node.

  1. Outage Optimum Routing for Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Outage Optimum Routing for Wireless Networks B. Amiri, H. R.of wireless network outage probability in a fadinguse analytical calculation of outage probability in wireless

  2. Large Neighborhood Search for LNG Inventory Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-12-15

    We consider an LNG IRP from the perspective of an vertically integrated oil ...... Maritime inventory routing with multiple products: A case study from the cement.

  3. Selecting Bicycle Commuting Routes Using GIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yuanlin; Ye, Gordon

    1995-01-01

    and locational criteria for bicycle facilities: User manualfor the development of bicycle facilities. Was h i n gton,Planning for statewide bicycle routes: the North Carolina

  4. DOE HQ Shuttle Bus Route and Schedule

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of each route. The shuttle bus departure and arrival times may be impacted by traffic, weather, or other logistical interruptions. Headquarters employees are reminded of the...

  5. The multi-stop aircraft routing problem 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garci?a Castan?eda, Salvador

    1995-01-01

    which facilitate solution. Since the constraint set of the multi-stop aircraft routing problem includes 0/1 mixed rows, we first derive valid inequalities for this type of regions. Then we apply these results to the constraint set of the routing problem...

  6. ICS 351: Today's plan Routing in general

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biagioni, Edoardo S.

    a router is connected, so this algorithm is called Link- State in wireless ad-hoc networks, OLSR stands-vector (Bellman-Ford, Ford-Fulkerson, RIP-style) routing, each router distributes its routing table to its neighbors an alternative is for each router to broadcast its neighborhood connectivity to all routers once

  7. Associative skew clock routing for difficult instances 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Min-seok

    2006-08-16

    including difficult instances based on an improved delay model. Experimental results show that our algorithm can reduce the total clock routing wirelength by 9%Â?15% compared to greedy-DME, which is one of the best zero skew routing algorithms....

  8. Which route to coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nene, R.G.

    1981-11-01

    Two main methods for producing liquid fuels from coal are currently undergoing intensive evaluation. One, direct liquefaction (e.g., SRC-II, Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS), and H-Coal) produces liquid fuels directly from coal; the other, indirect liquefaction (e.g., Lurgi gasifier followed by Fischer-Tropsch, and Shell-Koppers gasifier followed by methanol synthesis and Mobil's MTG process) first gasifies coal and then converts the gaseous material into liquid products. This paper compares both routes basing its assessment on yields, thermal efficiencies, elemental balances, investment, complexity, and state of development. It is shown that direct liquefaction is more efficient and produces more product per investment dollar. Higher efficiency for direct liquefaction is verified bY stoichiometric and thermodynamic analysis. All approaches require about the same capital investment per unit of feed. Indirect liquefaction can be either more or less complex than direct liquefaction, depending upon the process. Direct liquefaction is least developed. 8 refs.

  9. Utility-based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    , reliability, and delay as routing metrics. Selecting a partic- ular routing protocol mainly depends the destination. As the routing protocol plays an important role in determining the path, a good application

  10. Trading structure for randomness in wireless opportunistic routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chachulski, Szymon (Szymon Kazimierz)

    2007-01-01

    Opportunistic routing is a recent technique that achieves high throughput in the face of lossy wireless links. The current opportunistic routing protocol, ExOR, ties the MAC with routing, imposing a strict schedule on ...

  11. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Routing Conference Call Summaries...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Routing Conference Call Summaries TEC Working Group Topic Groups Routing Conference Call Summaries CONFERENCE CALL SUMMARIES January 31, 2008 December 6, 2007 October 4, 2007...

  12. Biological and Biomimetic Low-Temperature Routes to Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biological and Biomimetic Low-Temperature Routes to Materials for Energy Applications Biological and Biomimetic Low-Temperature Routes to Materials for Energy Applications 2012 DOE...

  13. Innovative Nano-structuring Routes for Novel ThermoelectricMaterials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nano-structuring Routes for Novel Thermoelectric Materials;Phonon Blocking & DOS Engineering Innovative Nano-structuring Routes for Novel Thermoelectric Materials;Phonon Blocking &...

  14. A Solution Route to Thermoelectric Oxide Nanoparticles - A Sol...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Solution Route to Thermoelectric Oxide Nanoparticles - A Sol-Gel Process Employing Heterometallic Alkoxides A Solution Route to Thermoelectric Oxide Nanoparticles - A Sol-Gel...

  15. Geologic selection methodology for transportation corridor routing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shultz, Karin Wilson

    2002-01-01

    A lack of planning techniques and processes on long, linear, cut and cover-tunneling route transportation systems has resulted because of the advancement of transportation systems into underground corridors. The proposed methodology is tested...

  16. Application of network coding for VLSI routing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemade, Nikhil Pandit

    2009-05-15

    This thesis studies the applications of the network coding technique for intercon- nect optimization and improving the routability of Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) designs. The goal of the routing process is to connect ...

  17. Routing Through the Mist: Privacy Preserving Communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kapadia, Apu

    Routing Through the Mist: Privacy Preserving Communication in Ubiquitous Computing Environments National Laboratories. Abstract Ubiquitous computing is poised to revolutionize the way we compute with services and other entities that wander within the ubiquitous computing environment. Keywords Ubiquitous

  18. Corporate Headquarters 317 Route 104

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Sustainable Energy Developments, Inc. is a New York Corporation Founded April 2002 Visualization Phone: (978) 422 7744 Sustainable Energy Developments, Inc. is a New York Corporation Founded Energy Developments, Inc. is a New York Corporation Founded April 2002

  19. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  20. The Balanced Billing Cycle Vehicle Routing Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groer, Christopher S [ORNL; Golden, Bruce [University of Maryland; Edward, Wasil [American University

    2009-01-01

    Utility companies typically send their meter readers out each day of the billing cycle in order to determine each customer s usage for the period. Customer churn requires the utility company to periodically remove some customer locations from its meter-reading routes. On the other hand, the addition of new customers and locations requires the utility company to add newstops to the existing routes. A utility that does not adjust its meter-reading routes over time can find itself with inefficient routes and, subsequently, higher meter-reading costs. Furthermore, the utility can end up with certain billing days that require substantially larger meter-reading resources than others. However, remedying this problem is not as simple as it may initially seem. Certain regulatory and customer service considerations can prevent the utility from shifting a customer s billing day by more than a few days in either direction. Thus, the problem of reducing the meterreading costs and balancing the workload can become quite difficult. We describe this Balanced Billing Cycle Vehicle Routing Problem in more detail and develop an algorithm for providing solutions to a slightly simplified version of the problem. Our algorithm uses a combination of heuristics and integer programming via a three-stage algorithm. We discuss the performance of our procedure on a real-world data set.

  1. A novel DHT Routing Protocol for MANETs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chellamani, Deepak

    2010-04-30

    . This level of indirection enables data-centric communication where the packet addresses identify data objects instead of nodes [22]. This indirection adapts well with the mobility of the nodes in the MANETs. It assures consistent routing if and only if all.... This level of indirection enables data-centric communication where the packet addresses identify data objects instead of nodes [22]. This indirection adapts well with the mobility of the nodes in the MANETs. It assures consistent routing if and only if all...

  2. TigerTransit Routes & Parking Map

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    PARKING ZONE & LOT ASSIGNMENTS Parking in Princeton University parking lots is by permit only. To obtain in the assigned lot and zone indicated on the vehicle hangtag. Parking in an unassigned lot within a designated2014­2015 TigerTransit Routes & Parking Map Contact Us Transportation & Parking Services New South

  3. KV04: Baxter Mountain This route visits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiter, Clifford A.

    11 KV04: Baxter Mountain General This route visits Baxter Mountain which is a short hike that has between Hurricane and Green Mountains. The hike is relatively short although there is a good elevation Description The trail begins on Rt9N directly across from Hurricane Mountain Road. From Keene Valley, go north

  4. Channel Routing for Integrated Optics Christopher Condrat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalla, Priyank

    Channel Routing for Integrated Optics Christopher Condrat (chris@g6net.com) Priyank Kalla (kalla, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Abstract--Increasing scope and applications of integrated optics necessitates the development of automated techniques for physical design of optical systems. This paper presents an automated

  5. Route to: WOC Wetlands Oversight Committee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matrajt, Graciela

    materials be removed from the site (e.g., biological samples, water samples, soil samples, etc.)? Why? If so with the proposed research. We will endeavor to act upon each request as promptly as possible, with the constraints and security personnel. You may request an alternate time for rescheduling at that time. #12;Route to: WOC

  6. Overview: IP routing o Bellman-Ford

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biagioni, Edoardo S.

    if M 0new entries to all my, adding cost of reaching that router to see if route is better than what we have to each of the neighbor's metrics 2. for each entry (D, P', M') in the updated neighbor

  7. SIMULATING PEDESTRIAN ROUTE SELECTION WITH IMPERFECT KNOWLEDGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allan, Vicki H.

    SIMULATING PEDESTRIAN ROUTE SELECTION WITH IMPERFECT KNOWLEDGE Keywords: Multi-Agent Systems:Pedestrian choices allows pedestrians to make decisions in a timely and efficient manner. The heuristic function used of the pedestrian. We implement several common heuristic functions using the PLEASE simulation model and allow

  8. A Secure Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klappenecker, Andreas

    't need to pass through firewalls or gateways Routing protocol controls the network but is based DSR uses source routes in data packets Can lead to DoS #12;Attacks using modification ­ Tunneling Two

  9. NextSTEPS White Paper: Three Routes Forward for Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    NextSTEPS White Paper: Three Routes Forward for Biofuels: Incremental, Transitional, and Leapfrog NOT CITE #12;Three Routes Forward for Biofuels: Incremental, Transitional, and Leapfrog 2 Contents ......................................................................................................................................12 1.a. The Need for Low Carbon Biofuels

  10. On-demand loop-free Multipath Routing (ROAM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    wireless data network, comprising: starting a diffusing search if a routerwireless data network, comprising: creating a routing table entry in a routerwireless data network, comprising: creating a routing table entry in a router

  11. Routing Subsea Cables for Scottish Offshore Renewable Search Areas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iredale, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    -friendly subsea cable routes around Scotland by preparing a GIS cost surface with ecologically-valued predicted habitats and masked-out obstacles and sensitive species, and compares these paths with routes proposed by other organisations, discussing...

  12. Improving service availability during link failure transients through alternate routing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vellanki, Siridhar

    2003-01-01

    A link failure in a network results in interruption of service for many end users. Currently, routers observing a link failure, recompute their routing tables to find new routes around the failure. However, the network ...

  13. ACRR: Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing with Controlled Route Requests Jayesh Kataria*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanyal, Sugata

    * Mumbai University, India, jayeshkataria@gmail.com P.S. Dhekne BARC, Mumbai, India, dhekne@barc.gov.in Sugata Sanyal TIFR, Mumbai, India, sanyal@tifr.res.in *Corresponding Author Abstract Reactive routing

  14. Energy-Aware Data-Centric Routing in Microsensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Xiuzhen "Susan"

    Energy-Aware Data-Centric Routing in Microsensor Networks Azzedine Boukerche SITE, University their operations. However, low power and in- network data processing make data-centric routing in wire- less sensor to facilitate data-centric routing in wireless microsen- sor networks. Our EAD algorithm makes no assumption

  15. Energy-Efficient Routing Schemes for Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Maleq

    -configuration. Data-centric routing is a new use- ful paradigm for energy-constrained sensor networks. The data coming config- urations and data-centric routing schemes to minimize en- ergy consumption for both random processes, Opti- mization, Sensor networks, Data-centric routing. I. INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW Advances

  16. Provable Security of On-Demand Distance Vector Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levente, Buttyán

    the route discovery process primarily, and thus, we are not concerned with them in the rest of the paper. R is secure in our model. 1 Introduction Routing is a fundamental networking function, which makes it an ideal discovery part of the routing protocol only. In other words, we are not concerned with the problem

  17. Using Sphinx to Improve Onion Routing Circuit Construction (short paper)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Ian

    for three onion routing protocols that have emerged as enhancements to the Tor anonymizing network; namely, Tor with predistributed Diffie- Hellman values, pairing-based onion routing, and certificateless onionUsing Sphinx to Improve Onion Routing Circuit Construction (short paper) Aniket Kate and Ian

  18. A Model of Onion Routing with Provable Joan Feigenbaum1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigenbaum, Joan

    design, Tor [6], consists of over 750 routers, each processing an average of 100KB/s. Onion routingA Model of Onion Routing with Provable Anonymity Joan Feigenbaum1 , Aaron Johnson1 , and Paul@itd.nrl.navy.mil Abstract. Onion routing is a scheme for anonymous communication that is designed for practical use. Until

  19. SGor: Trust graph based onion routing Peng Zhou a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ives, Zachary G.

    routers pose a serious threat to existing onion routing networks (e.g., the Tor network [14]). To thwartSGor: Trust graph based onion routing Peng Zhou a, , Xiapu Luo a , Ang Chen b,1 , Rocky K.C. Chang August 2013 Available online 24 August 2013 Keywords: Trust graph Anonymity Onion routing a b s t r a c

  20. Provably Secure and Practical Onion Routing Michael Backes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Ian

    Saarbr¨ucken, Germany mohammadi@cs.uni-saarland.de Abstract--The onion routing network Tor is undoubtedly. INTRODUCTION Over the last few years the onion routing (OR) network Tor [28] has emerged as a successfulProvably Secure and Practical Onion Routing Michael Backes Saarland University and MPI-SWS Saarbr

  1. Anonymity Analysis of Onion Routing in the Universally Composable Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Aaron

    deployed anonymous communications systems. The Tor onion routing network currently comprises some threeAnonymity Analysis of Onion Routing in the Universally Composable Framework Joan Feigenbaum Yale. Specifically we present a probabilistic analysis of onion routing in a black-box model of anonymous

  2. Pairing-Based Onion Routing with Improved Forward Secrecy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Ian

    , Security Additional Key Words and Phrases: Onion routing, Tor, pairing-based cryptography, anonymous key29 Pairing-Based Onion Routing with Improved Forward Secrecy ANIKET KATE, GREG M. ZAVERUCHA, and IAN GOLDBERG University of Waterloo This article presents new protocols for onion routing anonymity

  3. Trust-based Anonymous Communication: Adversary Models and Routing Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Aaron

    Mathewson The Tor Project {arma, nickm}@torproject.org ABSTRACT We introduce a novel model of routing parts of the network. We focus on anonymous communication, and in particular onion routing, although we present as an example a new algorithm to select paths in onion routing. We analyze its effectiveness

  4. Solar-aware Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar-aware Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Thiemo Voigt, Hartmut Ritter and Jochen Schiller energy sources such as solar power may provide unlimited energy resources to a changing subset these nodes is appealing. In this paper, we present solar-aware routing, a rout- ing protocol for wireless

  5. Power-Adaptive Routing Topology for Remote Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mishra, Prabhat

    has the same critical limitations including computation and transmission capabilities, and limited-node is not in transmission range of a sending node, the network must have the capability to route a message from the sending be handled. The routing of messages causes a large energy burden on each node along a routing path, as each

  6. Energy Ef cient Routing With Unreliable Links in Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xiang-Yang

    Energy Ef cient Routing With Unreliable Links in Wireless Networks Xiang-Yang Li Dept. of Compt24@iit.edu Abstract Energy ef cient routings and power control tech- niques in wireless networks have wireless link layers by integrating the power control techniques into the energy ef cient routing. We study

  7. Method for route selection of transcontinental natural gas pipelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

    1 Method for route selection of transcontinental natural gas pipelines Fotios G. Thomaidis1@kepa.uoa.gr Abstract. The route of transcontinental natural gas pipelines is characterized by complexity, compared choices. Keywords: Optimum route method, natural gas, transcontinental pipelines, Caspian Region ­ E

  8. Energy-Efficient Localized Routing in Random Multihop Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yu

    Energy-Efficient Localized Routing in Random Multihop Wireless Networks Yu Wang, Senior Member the energy efficiency of routes in multihop wireless networks. Among them, several geographical localized Localized Energy-Aware Restricted Neighborhood routing (LEARN), which can guarantee the energy efficiency

  9. A Routing Table Insertion (RTI) Attack Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Yingfei

    1 A Routing Table Insertion (RTI) Attack on Freenet Technical Report University of Hawaii at Manoa.2.6 Data Retrieval versus Data Insert Routing 2.3. Routing Algorithm Pseudo-Code 3. RTI Attack 3 Experiment 8.2.2. Experiment Results 8.3. General Anonymous P2P Properties 8.4. RTI Attack 8.4.1. Manual RTI

  10. Development of a cell-based stream flow routing model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raina, Rajeev

    2005-08-29

    This study presents the development of a cell-based routing model. The model developed is a two parameter hydrological routing model that uses a coarse resolution stream network to route runoff from each cell in the watershed to the outlet...

  11. EBRP: Energy Band based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durresi, Arjan

    EBRP: Energy Band based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Sasanka Madiraju Cariappa in an intelligent manner. We study the concept of energy fairness in routing in Sensor Networks so as to increase to route data based on the residual energy of the nodes. This algorithm divides the network into different

  12. Better by a HAIR: Hardware-Amenable Internet Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caesar, Matthew

    scaling challenges in the presence of ever-increasing routing table growth and churn. Recent advances, the number of Internet routes and their churn is steadily increasing, with predictions that current router to rate-limit update traffic, and only periodi- cally exchange deltas (differences) of routing state

  13. Improving the Battery Performance of Ad-Hoc Routing Protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kambhampati, Subbarao

    Improving the Battery Performance of Ad-Hoc Routing Protocols Q. Qi and C. Chakrabarti Department-- In ad-hoc networks formed by battery powered nodes, the network lifetime can be significantly enhanced by incorporateing the battery properties in the routing protocol. In this paper, we propose such a routing mechanism

  14. NIST cooperative laboratory for OSI routing technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montgomery, D.

    1994-05-23

    This document is one of two reports on the Integrated ISIS protocol. Required by the IAB/IESG in order for an Internet routing protocol to advance to Draft Standard Status. Integrated ISIS is an Interior Gateway Protocol and is designed to carry both IP and ISO CLNP routing information. Integrated ISIS is currently designated as a Proposed Standard. The protocol was first published in RFC 1195. Internet Draft was published subsequently to RFC 1195 and documents the current version of the protocol. This report documents experience with Integrated ISIS. This includes reports on interoperability testing, field experience and the current state of Integrated ISIS implementations. It also presents a summary of the Integrated ISIS Management Information Base (MIB), and a summary of the Integrated ISIS authentication mechanism.

  15. Time-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing inTime-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing inTime-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing inTime-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing in Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks withDuty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks withDuty-Cycle Wireles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    Time-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing inTime-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing inTime-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing inTime-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing in Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks with TEMPLE UNIVERSITY #12;Introduction: utility-based routingIntroduction: utility-based routing

  16. Algorithms for Multiple Vehicle Routing Problems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Jung Yun

    2014-06-02

    require a collection of heterogeneous vehicles to visit a set of targets. This dissertation considers three fundamental rout- ing problems involving multiple vehicles that arise in these applications. The main objective of this dissertation is to develop... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.1.2 Approximation algorithm for MDMTHPP . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.1.3 Optimal constrained forest as a two matroid intersection problem 11 2.2 Single depot multiple terminal Hamiltonian path problems . . . . . . 14 2.2.1 Problem statement...

  17. Improving network routing performance in dynamic environments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yong

    2007-04-25

    - lization and path quality diversity factors (asymmetric topology, Pareto type traffic) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 19 Average delay and average loss rate of best-path-only MRC . . . . . 41 20 Routing vector for one pair... are in Mbps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 38 Inhouse traffic end to end delay improvement: asymmetric topol- ogy, Pareto traffic. Topology 1 to 9: 4x2 4x3 4x4 10x2 10x3 10x4 20x2 20x3 20x4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66...

  18. Issues in Security Service Discovery and Routing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sholander, P.; Tarman, T.

    1999-04-07

    The Security Specification, Version 1.0 allows security services to be provided by many devices in a network. It correctly presumes that if a virtual circuit needs these security services, then network topology and device policy will act to ensure that the appropriate security services are applied to the virtual circuit. This contribution moves that the Security Service Discovery and Routing function be included in the Security Version 2.0 work scope.

  19. QoS Routing in Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Husheng

    2010-01-01

    Smart grid is an emerging technology which is able to control the power load via price signaling. The communication between the power supplier and power customers is a key issue in smart grid. Performance degradation like delay or outage may cause significant impact on the stability of the pricing based control and thus the reward of smart grid. Therefore, a QoS mechanism is proposed for the communication system in smart grid, which incorporates the derivation of QoS requirement and applies QoS routing in the communication network. For deriving the QoS requirement, the dynamics of power load and the load-price mapping are studied. The corresponding impacts of different QoS metrics like delay are analyzed. Then, the QoS is derived via an optimization problem that maximizes the total revenue. Based on the derived QoS requirement, a simple greedy QoS routing algorithm is proposed for the requirement of high speed routing in smart grid. It is also proven that the proposed greedy algorithm is a $K$-approximation. ...

  20. A hydraulic approach to streamflow routing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pridal, Daniel Bruce

    1987-01-01

    . Varying Time Step Results 4. Oam Break Simulation Results 5. Stream Routing Reach Summary Page 39 42 46 52 55 . LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Illustration of Open Channel Flow 2. Prism and Wedge Storage . 3. Nodel Time-Distance Grid 4. Prismatic... Representative Cross Section . . . Al. Model Comparisons, Chan. 1, Hydro. 1, S = A2. Nodel Comparisons, Chan. 1, Hydro. 1, S = A3. Model Comparisons, Chan. 1, Hydro. 1, S = A4, Nodel Comparisons, Chan. 1, Hydro. 1, S = A5. Model Comparisons, Chan. 1, Hydro...

  1. Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System (TRAGIS) User's Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, PE

    2003-09-18

    The Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System (TRAGIS) model is used to calculate highway, rail, or waterway routes within the United States. TRAGIS is a client-server application with the user interface and map data files residing on the user's personal computer and the routing engine and network data files on a network server. The user's manual provides documentation on installation and the use of the many features of the model.

  2. Optimization Online - Bound Improvement for LNG Inventory Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feb 14, 2014 ... Bound Improvement for LNG Inventory Routing. Yufen Shao (yufen.shao ***at*** exxonmobil.com) Kevin Furman (kevin.c.furman ***at*** ...

  3. A general framework for routing management in multi-service ATM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, David

    . Keywords ATM, TMN, load balancing, performance management, route design, routing, routing management, VPCA general framework for routing management in multi-service ATM networks P. Georgatsos Algosystems This paper presents a framework for routing management in ATM networks supporting guaranteed quality

  4. Nash Equilibria in Discrete Routing Games with Convex Latency Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mavronicolas, Marios

    Nash Equilibria in Discrete Routing Games with Convex Latency Functions Martin Gairing1 , Thomas L 20537, Nicosia CY-1678, Cyprus. mavronic@ucy.ac.cy Abstract. We study Nash equilibria in a discrete, this is the first time that mixed Nash equilibria for routing games have been studied in combination with non

  5. Provably Secure and Practical Onion Routing Michael Backes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    @cs.uni-saarland.de Abstract The onion routing network Tor is undoubtedly the most widely employed technology for anony- mous and Predictable Malleability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 6.2 Security of Tor's Onion AlgorithmsProvably Secure and Practical Onion Routing Michael Backes Saarland University and MPI-SWS, Germany

  6. LIRA: Lightweight Incentivized Routing for Rob Jansen Aaron Johnson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    servicing the network. I. INTRODUCTION Onion routing [1], particularly as deployed in Tor [2], [3 Laboratory {rob.g.jansen, aaron.m.johnson, paul.syverson}@nrl.navy.mil Paul Syverson Abstract--Tor, the most popular deployed distributed onion routing network, suffers from performance and scalability prob- lems

  7. Visualizing Sparse Internet Events: Network Outages and Route Changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heidemann, John

    Visualizing Sparse Internet Events: Network Outages and Route Changes Lin Quan · John Heidemann. To understand and man- age network events such as outages, route instability, and spam campaigns, they must- namics of network outages such as January 2011 Egyptian change of government, and the March 2011 Japanese

  8. GreenWave Routing Trees for Wireless Sensor Fikret Sivrikaya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bystroff, Chris

    collisions and minimizing retransmissions in the wireless medium [2] [4] [24] [25] [26]. Most algorithms which construct routing trees rooted at sink nodes to route data to and from sensor nodes. First. Many application scenarios for sensor networks are projected such as environment monitoring, disaster

  9. Top-percentile traffic routing problem by Dynamic Programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grothey, Andreas

    Top-percentile traffic routing problem by Dynamic Programming Andreas Grothey, Xinan Yang School according to top-percentile pricing. We call this problem the Top-percentile Traffic Routing Problem (Tp problem, which is hard to solve due to the integer variables introduced by top-percentile pricing. Several

  10. N-Vehicle Routing Team NineNines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaminsky, Alan

    the most economical and "green" route for a distribution center to deliver goods to m addresses with n Trucks #12;Research Paper 1 Title: "Survey of Green Vehicle Routing Problem: Past and future trends of Green Logistics Environmental, ecological effects taken into consideration Concept of Green Vehicle

  11. LEARNING-BASED ROUTE MANAGEMENT IN WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Littman, Michael L.

    and Wade Trappe The nodes in a wireless ad hoc network must act as routers in a self-configuring network to shortest-path routing protocols for managing router congestion and noise in wireless ad hoc networks. iiLEARNING-BASED ROUTE MANAGEMENT IN WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS BY BRIAN RUSSELL A dissertation

  12. routing, Internet, BGP Internet Expansion, Refinement and Churn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    routing, Internet, BGP Internet Expansion, Refinement and Churn ANDRE BROIDO, EVI NEMETH, KC CLAFFY measures reflect contributions of opposite sign, and that true measure of variation, or churn, is the sum a standalone prefix to a root prefix) are instances of routing system churn. One advantage of using our notion

  13. routing, Internet, BGP Internet Expansion, Refinement and Churn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    routing, Internet, BGP Internet Expansion, Refinement and Churn ANDRE BROIDO, EVI NEMETH, KC CLAFFY contributions of opposite sign, and that true measure of variation, or churn, is the sum of their absolute a standalone prefix to a root prefix) are instances of routing system churn. One advantage of using our notion

  14. Optimal Routing in a Small-World Network Jianyang Zeng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Jianyang "Michael"

    of the network) [9]. In order to examine the routing on random graphs, Kleinberg [9] develops a new model basedOptimal Routing in a Small-World Network Jianyang Zeng and Wen-Jing Hsu Abstract Recently a bulk of research [14, 5, 15, 9] has been done on the modelling of the small- world phenomenon, which has been shown

  15. Energy Optimal Routing in Radio Networks Using Geometric Data Structures ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmitt, Peter H.

    Energy Optimal Routing in Radio Networks Using Geometric Data Structures ? Ren'e Beier, Peter Sanders, and Naveen Sivadasan Max Planck Insitut f¨ur Informatik Saarbr¨ucken, Germany [rbeier routes between pairs of sites such that the energy consumption for this communication is minimized

  16. DAG-based Multipath Routing for Mobile Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Lynn

    DAG-based Multipath Routing for Mobile Sensor Networks Ki-Sup Hong and Lynn Choi School of Electrical Engineering Korea University Seoul, Korea {mastaks, lchoi@korea.ac.kr} Abstract--We propose a new multipath routing protocol called DMR for mobile sensor networks, where any node can move anytime. DMR

  17. ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS Curt Schurgers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shihada, Basem

    by shaping the traffic flow. Several techniques, which rely only on localized metrics are proposed to be unobtrusive, they have a small form-factor and therefore can carry only a small battery. As a result on battery reserve and the energy cost to find the optimal routes [4]. The routing protocol in [5] is based

  18. Safe Routes to Play? Pedestrian and Bicyclist Crashes Near Parks in the Los Angeles Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanning, Cooper; Jerrett, Michael; Su, Jason G.; Wolch, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Poison Prevention. 2009. Pedestrian Safety. Pediatrics 124(15 Safe Routes to Play? Pedestrian and Bicyclist Crashes2012 Safe Routes to Play? Pedestrian and Bicyclist Crashes

  19. Exploration of Melt Spinning as a Route to Large Volume Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exploration of Melt Spinning as a Route to Large Volume Production of Skutterudite Thermoelectric Materials Exploration of Melt Spinning as a Route to Large Volume Production of...

  20. Dynamic vehicle routing for data gathering in wireless networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Celik, Guner Dincer

    We consider a dynamic vehicle routing problem in wireless networks where messages arriving randomly in time and space are collected by a mobile receiver (vehicle or a collector). The collector is responsible for receiving ...

  1. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly Print If the promise of nanotechnology is to be fulfilled, nanoparticles will have to be able to make something of themselves. An important...

  2. An overlay architecture for throughput optimal multipath routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Nathaniel M.

    Legacy networks are often designed to operate with simple single-path routing, like shortest-path, which is known to be throughput suboptimal. On the other hand, previously proposed throughput optimal policies (i.e., ...

  3. Pricing in Dynamic Vehicle Routing Problems Miguel Andres Figliozzi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaillet, Patrick

    The Institute of Transport and Logistics Studies Faculty of Economics & Business Sydney, NSW 2006 miguel Martin Hall, College Park, MD 20742 masmah@umd.edu and Patrick Jaillet Massachusetts Institute: Vehicle Routing Problem, Freight Transportation, Carrier Management Strategies, Carrier Profitability

  4. Identification of Robust Terminal-Area Routes in Convective Weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balakrishnan, Hamsa

    Convective weather is responsible for large delays and widespread disruptions in the U.S. National Airspace System, especially during summer. Traffic flow management algorithms require reliable forecasts of route blockage ...

  5. Method and apparatus for routing data in an inter-nodal communications lattice of a massively parallel computer system by dynamically adjusting local routing strategies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens (Rochester, MN); Musselman, Roy Glenn (Rochester, MN); Peters, Amanda (Rochester, MN); Pinnow, Kurt Walter (Rochester, MN); Swartz, Brent Allen (Chippewa Falls, WI); Wallenfelt, Brian Paul (Eden Prairie, MN)

    2010-03-16

    A massively parallel computer system contains an inter-nodal communications network of node-to-node links. Each node implements a respective routing strategy for routing data through the network, the routing strategies not necessarily being the same in every node. The routing strategies implemented in the nodes are dynamically adjusted during application execution to shift network workload as required. Preferably, adjustment of routing policies in selective nodes is performed at synchronization points. The network may be dynamically monitored, and routing strategies adjusted according to detected network conditions.

  6. Method and apparatus for routing data in an inter-nodal communications lattice of a massively parallel computer system by routing through transporter nodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens (Rochester, MN); Musselman, Roy Glenn (Rochester, MN); Peters, Amanda (Rochester, MN); Pinnow, Kurt Walter (Rochester, MN); Swartz, Brent Allen (Chippewa Falls, WI); Wallenfelt, Brian Paul (Eden Prairie, MN)

    2010-11-16

    A massively parallel computer system contains an inter-nodal communications network of node-to-node links. An automated routing strategy routes packets through one or more intermediate nodes of the network to reach a destination. Some packets are constrained to be routed through respective designated transporter nodes, the automated routing strategy determining a path from a respective source node to a respective transporter node, and from a respective transporter node to a respective destination node. Preferably, the source node chooses a routing policy from among multiple possible choices, and that policy is followed by all intermediate nodes. The use of transporter nodes allows greater flexibility in routing.

  7. An Approach towards Reduction of Routing Paths for Mobile Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thakurta, P. K. Guha; Sinha, Prothoma; Mallick, Nilesh [Dept. of CSE, NIT, Durgapur, WB-713209 (India); Bandyopadhyay, Subhansu [Dept. of CSE, University of Calcutta, WB-700009 (India)

    2010-10-26

    The foundation of various routing paths for a specific call requesting cell has been proposed in this paper. To improve searching efficiency, the number of routing paths has been reduced to a large extent. Hence, this reduction is based on the computation of frequent item sets. The performance of this proposed model is evaluated with respect to a parameter known as 'Occurrence Index (O{sub i})'. With such reduction, a significant performance gain would be achieved.

  8. Systems for the Intermodal Routing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Steven K; Liu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The safe and secure movement of spent nuclear fuel from shutdown and active reactor facilities to intermediate or long term storage sites may, in some instances, require the use of several modes of transportation to accomplish the move. To that end, a fully operable multi-modal routing system is being developed within Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL) WebTRAGIS (Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System). This study aims to provide an overview of multi-modal routing, the existing state of the TRAGIS networks, the source data needs, and the requirements for developing structural relationships between various modes to create a suitable system for modeling the transport of spent nuclear fuel via a multimodal network. Modern transportation systems are comprised of interconnected, yet separate, modal networks. Efficient transportation networks rely upon the smooth transfer of cargoes at junction points that serve as connectors between modes. A key logistical impediment to the shipment of spent nuclear fuel is the absence of identified or designated transfer locations between transport modes. Understanding the potential network impacts on intermodal transportation of spent nuclear fuel is vital for planning transportation routes from origin to destination. By identifying key locations where modes intersect, routing decisions can be made to prioritize cost savings, optimize transport times and minimize potential risks to the population and environment. In order to facilitate such a process, ORNL began the development of a base intermodal network and associated routing code. The network was developed using previous intermodal networks and information from publicly available data sources to construct a database of potential intermodal transfer locations with likely capability to handle spent nuclear fuel casks. The coding development focused on modifying the existing WebTRAGIS routing code to accommodate intermodal transfers and the selection of prioritization constraints and modifiers to determine route selection. The limitations of the current model and future directions for development are discussed, including the current state of information on possible intermodal transfer locations for spent fuel.

  9. Synthesis of graphene platelets by chemical and electrochemical route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramachandran, Rajendran; Felix, Sathiyanathan [Centre for Nanotechnology Research, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Joshi, Girish M. [Materials Physics Division, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Raghupathy, Bala P.C., E-mail: balapraveen2000@yahoo.com [Centre for Nanotechnology Research, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Research and Advanced Engineering Division (Materials), Renault Nissan Technology and Business Center India (P) Ltd., Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Jeong, Soon Kwan, E-mail: jeongsk@kier.re.kr [Climate Change Technology Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Grace, Andrews Nirmala, E-mail: anirmalagrace@vit.ac.in [Centre for Nanotechnology Research, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Climate Change Technology Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: A schematic showing the overall reduction process of graphite to reduced graphene platelets by chemical and electrochemical route. - Highlights: • Graphene was prepared by diverse routes viz. chemical and electrochemical methods. • NaBH{sub 4} was effective for removing oxygen functional groups from graphene oxide. • Sodium borohydride reduced graphene oxide (SRGO) showed high specific capacitance. • Electrochemical rendered a cheap route for production of graphene in powder form. - Abstract: Graphene platelets were synthesized from graphene oxide by chemical and electrochemical route. Under the chemical method, sodium borohydride and hydrazine chloride were used as reductants to produce graphene. In this paper, a novel and cost effective electrochemical method, which can simplify the process of reduction on a larger scale, is demonstrated. The electrochemical method proposed in this paper produces graphene in powder form with good yield. The atomic force microscopic images confirmed that the graphene samples prepared by all the routes have multilayers of graphene. The electrochemical process provided a new route to make relatively larger area graphene sheets, which will have interest for further patterning applications. Attempt was made to quantify the quantum of reduction using cyclic voltammetry and choronopotentiometry techniques on reduced graphene samples. As a measure in reading the specific capacitance values, a maximum specific capacitance value of 265.3 F/g was obtained in sodium borohydride reduced graphene oxide.

  10. The fuel efficient missile combat crew routing network. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacques, E.O. Jr.; Woolley, M.G.

    1980-06-01

    Missile combat crew vehicles are the highest mileage accumulators within SAC and, in the interest of energy conservation, Vice CINCSAC has initiated a long-term study examining utilization of more fuel efficient crew vehicles. This thesis extends the SAC study by determining if alternate dispatch procedures and routes of travel, using currently assigned vehicles, would result in fuel conservation. A network routing model is used to determine the routes of travel for three deployment strategies and five vehicle types at the Minot AFB, ND test base. Fuel efficiency for these fifteen alternatives, measured as gallons of fuel consumed per passenger, is compared with the existing missile combat crew routing network. This study found that ten of the fifteen vehicle/deployment strategy combinations, when employed over the shortest authorized routes of travel that were developed, provided improvement over the fuel efficiency of the MCC routing system that was in effect as of 31 August 1979. The largest potential savings amounted to 52% or 26,255 gallons of fuel per year.

  11. Global-scale flow routing using a source-to-sink algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olivera, Francisco; Famiglietti, James; Asante, Kwabena

    2000-01-01

    hydrological and Earth system models. Hydrographs for somehydrological and Earth system models. FLOW ROUTING [1999

  12. Energy Efficiency of Load Balancing in MANET Routing Protocols Sunsook Jung, Nisar Hundewale, Alex Zelikovsky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zelikovsky, Alexander

    Energy Efficiency of Load Balancing in MANET Routing Protocols Sunsook Jung, Nisar Hundewale, Alex Zelikovsky Abstract This paper considers energy constrained routing pro- tocols and workload balancing techniques for improving MANET routing protocols and energy efficiency. We give new routing protocol

  13. O C T O P U SO C T O P U S Scalable Routing ProtocolScalable Routing Protocol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Segall, Adrian

    , j}.At the end, the east table of node a is {b, c, d, e, j}. a i f ec g h db j 100 200 300 400 500 with updated information. f c g h a b d 100 200 300 400 500 600 100 200 300 400 h? source access target h? h! hO C T O P U SO C T O P U S Scalable Routing ProtocolScalable Routing Protocol For Wireless Ad Hoc

  14. The price of commitment in online stochastic vehicle routing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bent, Russell W; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers online stochastic multiple vehicle routing with time windows in which requests arrive dynamically and the goal is to maximize the number of serviced customers. Early work has focused on very flexible routing settings where the decision to assign a vehicle to a customer is delayed until a vehicle is actually deployed to the customer. Motivated by real applications that require stability in the decision making, this paper considers a setting where the decision to assign a customer request to a vehicle must be taken when that request is accepted. Experimental results suggest that this constraint severely degrades the performance of existing algorithms. However, the paper shows how the use of stochastic information for vehicle assignment and request acceptance improves decision quality considerably. Moreover, the use of resource augmentation quantifies precisely the cost of commitment in online vehicle routing.

  15. On Routing in Distributed Hash Tables Fabius Klemm, Sarunas Girdzijauskas, Jean-Yves Le Boudec, Karl Aberer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aberer, Karl

    routing, small routing tables, and balanced routing load. We present an elegant new solution to construct active replacement of lost routing entries. To evaluate the performance of routing cost and ta- ble require searching for approximate attribute values or for attribute values in a certain range. A DHT

  16. Network Formation and Routing by Strategic Agents using Local Contracts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anshelevich, Elliot

    Network Formation and Routing by Strategic Agents using Local Contracts Elliot Anshelevich1, Murray Hill, NJ. Abstract. The Internet consists of various independent entities that range from small their business goals. For example, customers accept contracts with ISPs to connect them to the Internet while

  17. Nash Equilibria in Discrete Routing Games with Convex Latency Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mavronicolas, Marios

    Nash Equilibria in Discrete Routing Games with Convex Latency Functions Martin Gairing Thomas L is determined by an arbitrary non-decreasing, non-constant and convex latency function . In a Nash equilib- rium on the link it chooses. To evaluate Nash equilibria, we formulate Social Cost as the sum of the users

  18. Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Data-centric routing and storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roussos, George

    Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Data-centric routing and storage Niki Trigoni www.dcs.bbk.ac.uk/~niki niki@dcs.bbk.ac.uk #12;Overview Data-centric approach to tasking a sensor network Directed diffusion #12;Data-centric approach We want to get information from the sensor network about some type of event

  19. Short Paper Chronology of glacial Lake Agassiz meltwater routed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Timothy G.

    Short Paper Chronology of glacial Lake Agassiz meltwater routed to the Gulf of Mexico Timothy G of Mexico Introduction Ice-margin fluctuations, regional geomorphology, and isostatic recovery of the Earth to the Gulf of Mexico, through the eastern outlets to the North Atlantic Ocean, or through the north- western

  20. The Cyclic-Routing UAV Problem is PSPACE-Complete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouaknine, Joël

    The Cyclic-Routing UAV Problem is PSPACE-Complete Hsi-Ming Ho and Joël Ouaknine Department a fixed transit flight time. Given a flock of identical UAVs, can one ensure that every target is repeatedly visited by some UAV at intervals of duration at most the tar- get's relative deadline? The Cyclic

  1. Optimal Energy Routing in Networks with Energy Cooperation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulukus, Sennur

    Optimal Energy Routing in Networks with Energy Cooperation Berk Gurakan Omur Ozel Sennur Ulukus@umd.edu omur@umd.edu ulukus@umd.edu Abstract--We consider the delay minimization problem in an energy harvesting communication network with energy coopera- tion. We investigate the problems of optimal energy

  2. A Bayesian Decision Model for Intelligent Routing in Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marques, Antonio Garcia

    A Bayesian Decision Model for Intelligent Routing in Sensor Networks Roc´io Arroyo-Valles, Antonio are considered in a Bayesian model in order to establish intelligent decision rules that make the network economize in crucial resources. I. INTRODUCTION Recent advances in sensor technology and wireless com

  3. Scalable Onion Routing with Torsk Jon McLachlan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopper, Nicholas J.

    Scalable Onion Routing with Torsk Jon McLachlan University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN 55455 mcla service of the popular Tor anonymity network, that decreases the bandwidth cost of relay selection and maintenance from quadratic to quasilinear while introducing no new attacks on the anonymity provided by Tor

  4. Multi Path Considerations for Anonymized Routing: Challenges and Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunes, Mehmet Hadi

    to the Internet possible for many around the world. Tor network has been built on onion-routing scheme which, Onion-Proxy (OP), which is the Tor software running on end-user computer, connects to a node which can and raising censorship barriers around the world. Tor network has emerged as the most popular option in avail

  5. Multi Path Considerations for Anonymized Routing: Challenges and Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuksel, Murat

    complement underlying onion-routing mechanisms of Tor via exploiting diversity in the Tor network. Our access to the Internet possible for many around the world. Tor network has been built on onion Exit router Onion Proxy Fig. 1. Tor Circuit Establishment user-host creates a TCP connection

  6. The Adversarial Route Analysis Tool: A Web Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casson, William H. Jr.

    2012-08-02

    The Adversarial Route Analysis Tool is a type of Google maps for adversaries. It's a web-based Geospatial application similar to Google Maps. It helps the U.S. government plan operations that predict where an adversary might be. It's easily accessible and maintainble and it's simple to use without much training.

  7. New Trans-Arctic shipping routes navigable by midcentury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of additional ice reductions in the future, have fueled speculations of potential new trans-Arctic shippingNew Trans-Arctic shipping routes navigable by midcentury Laurence C. Smith1 and Scott R. Stephenson changes in sea ice will realistically impact ship navigation are lacking. To address this deficiency, we

  8. Proactive vs Reactive Approaches to Failure Resilient Routing Sanghwan Lee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelakuditi, Srihari

    a loop-free path to a destination if one such path exists. We also formally analyze routing stability decade and has now become the critical information infrastructure for both personal and business and cultural activities. Service disruption for even a short duration could be catastrophic in the world of e

  9. Managing Routing Disruptions in Internet Service Provider Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rexford, Jennifer

    games, and commercial transactions. This new range of applications cannot tolerate poor network the impact of routing changes in their network. I. INTRODUCTION As the Internet becomes an ever more critical increasing pressure to provide good, predictable performance to a wide range of applications. Unfortunately

  10. Directional Routing over Orthogonal Lines: A Performance Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuksel, Murat

    transmission quality in adverse weather conditions. [15] proposed several ways to mitigate these issues requirements of connectivity and scalabil- ity. Recently, [1] has attempted to mitigate this issue by using, flooding poses an obvious scalability problem. In response, several topology-based routing protocols

  11. Upconversion as a Viable Route to Increased Efficiency Solar Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Upconversion as a Viable Route to Increased Efficiency Solar Energy Conversion Joshua Zide, Matt University of Delaware Energy Institute #12;Efficiency drives reduced $/W.... http://www.nrel.gov/ncpv/! Shockley-Queisser Limit! *adopted from http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/MSD-full-spectrum-solar

  12. Routing for Wireless Multi Hop Networks Unifying and Distinguishing Features

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, Nick

    -to-end communication, wireless communication provides flexible deployment and use, cost reduction, mobility, network dynamic network conditions due to interference, loss of signal power with distance and freedom of mobilityRouting for Wireless Multi Hop Networks ­ Unifying and Distinguishing Features Technical Report

  13. The period vehicle routing problem with service choice Peter Francis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smilowitz, Karen

    ). Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Sciences, Northwestern University Department in the delivery of groceries (or other products), the collection of waste, or the distribution of equipment of Industrial Engineering, Tel Aviv University 1 #12;The PVRP is a generalization of the classic vehicle routing

  14. INTEGRATING LOCAL AND GLOBAL ROUTING ON SCALE-FREE NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ±cient. The transport e±ciency can be improved by using some local information, such as the geographical locationINTEGRATING LOCAL AND GLOBAL ROUTING ON SCALE-FREE NETWORKS CUN-LAI PU* School of Information Department of Physics, Northeastern University Boston MA 02115, USA Center for Cancer Systems Biology Dana

  15. A PRINCIPLED APPROACH TO MANAGING ROUTING IN LARGE ISP NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    FOR ACCEPTANCE BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE ADVISOR: PROFESSOR JENNIFER REXFORD JUNE 2009 #12;c propose three abstractions that guide the design and implementation of our system solutions. First, we- Specific BGP" (NS-BGP) model that capture the requirement of customized route selection for different

  16. Simultaneous Routing and Power Allocation in CDMA Wireless Data Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and increasing function of the communica- tions resources allocated the link (this assumption holds for TDMASimultaneous Routing and Power Allocation in CDMA Wireless Data Networks Mikael Johansson* , Lin, in turn, are determined by the allocation of transmit powers across the network. Thus, the optimal network

  17. Title: CanMap RouteLogistics: Ontario Data Creator /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Title: CanMap RouteLogistics: Ontario Data Creator / Copyright Owner: DMTI Spatial Inc. Publisher and highways as well as streetfiles/names for Ontario. It also includes some topographic features from (west), -74 (east), 57 (north), 41.5 (south) Index Map: N/A Keywords (Place): Ontario #12;Keywords

  18. IP ROUTING ISSUES IN SATELLITE CONSTELLATION NETWORKS A. CLERGET,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Lloyd

    constellation networks; Internet Protocol (IP); routing; tunnelling; Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS); Border Gateway Protocol (BGP); Quality of Service (QoS); multicast. 1 INTRODUCTION Satellite; in conjunction with its terrestrial gateway stations it forms an autonomous system (AS). Over the same period

  19. Routing Correlated Data with Fusion Cost in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yonghe

    Tree (MFST), for energy efficient data gathering with aggregation (fusion) in wireless sensor networks] that energy consumption of a beamforming algorithm for acoustic signal fusion is on the same order1 Routing Correlated Data with Fusion Cost in Wireless Sensor Networks Hong Luo, Jun Luo, Yonghe

  20. Energy Efficient Routing with Adaptive Data Fusion in Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yonghe

    Energy Efficient Routing with Adaptive Data Fusion in Sensor Networks Hong Luo College of Computer Adaptive Fusion Steiner Tree (AFST), for energy efficient data gathering in sensor networks that jointly, other networks may require complex operations for data fusion1 . Energy consumption of beamforming

  1. Analysis of routing algorithms for Energy harvesting wireless sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) should satisfy the features of energy con- sumption optimization and extension of network lifetime. A new class of WSN with the ability of harvesting environment power a comprehensive survey on both energy-ecient and energy harvesting routing algorithms in WSN eld. There are few

  2. Distributed Load-Aware Routing in LEO Satellite Evangelos Papapetrou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papapetrou, Evaggelos

    with terrestrial infrastructure. However, over the last years the interest in LEO systems has been renewed algorithm to compute the optimal path for any pair of satellites. In the case of traffic adaptive routing. This reduces the ability of the algorithm to adapt to traffic. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm

  3. Scrolled Sheet Precursor Route to Niobium and Tantalum Oxide Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , this process remains limited in scope mainly to the formation of TiO2 nanotubes and to a single example with MnScrolled Sheet Precursor Route to Niobium and Tantalum Oxide Nanotubes Yoji Kobayashi, Hideo Hata Manuscript Received May 25, 2007 ABSTRACT The nanoscroll-to-nanotube thermal transformation was studied for H

  4. Methods for Optimal Pedestrian Task Scheduling and Routing Srihari Narasimhan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qu, Rong

    Methods for Optimal Pedestrian Task Scheduling and Routing Srihari Narasimhan IPVS, Universit to monitor the movement and behavior of pedestrians, especially where there are a huge number of visitors the pedestrian be- havior. As a result, the congestions as well as the queue sizes at different times can

  5. Dynamic Salting Route Optimisation using Evolutionary Computation Hisashi Handa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Xin

    , if salt is spread when it is not actually required, there are unnecessary financial and environ- mental realises daily dynamic routing and it will yield considerable ben- efits for areas with a marginal ice effective use of resources (i.e. treat- ment vehicles, personnel and de-icing chemical material). The aim

  6. 1 INTRODUCTION Ship weather routing develops an optimum track

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , the term optimum is used to mean maximum safety and crew confort, minimum fuel and oil consumption, minimum for minimization of the vessel's fuel consumption. Numerous variation of this type of method have been presented vessel routing. In addition to time objective, the author tried to minimize fuel consumption

  7. Maximizing Battery Life Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Weifa

    Maximizing Battery Life Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Weifa Liang Department of Computer Abstract--Most wireless ad hoc networks consist of mobile devices which operate on batteries. Power con, for an ad hoc network consisting of the same type of battery mobile nodes, two approximation algorithms

  8. Measurement Aggregation and Routing Techniques for Energy-Efficient Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutsopoulos, Iordanis

    Measurement Aggregation and Routing Techniques for Energy-Efficient Estimation in Wireless Sensor measurements. Mecha- nisms that efficiently compress and transport sensor data in the network are needed. We network lifetime. Sensor spatial correlation, measurement accuracies, link qualities and energy reserves

  9. Before the Hurricane Season Determine safe evacuation routes inland.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, X. Rong

    Before the Hurricane Season Determine safe evacuation routes inland. Learn location of official. Live in a high-rise. Hurricane winds can knock out electricity to elevators, break windows and more bulletins. Hurricane Watch: Hurricane conditions are possible within the specified coastal area. Because

  10. Polydrug Use among IDUs in Tijuana, Mexico: Correlates of Methamphetamine Use and Route of Administration by Gender

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    a function of route of administration. Addiction. 2002; 97(Use and Route of Administration by Gender Melanie L. Rusch,use and routes of administration by gender among injection

  11. Hierarchical Bayesian Nonparametric Approach to Modeling and Learning the Wisdom of Crowds of Urban Traffic Route Planning Agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Jiangbo

    Route prediction is important to analyzing and understanding the route patterns and behavior of traffic crowds. Its objective is to predict the most likely or "popular" route of road segments from a given point in a road ...

  12. Cross-Layer Design of Outage Optimum Routing Metric for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    PAPER Cross-layer design of outage optimum routing metricof wireless ad hoc network outage probability in a fadingJ. J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves Outage optimum routing for wireless

  13. Link-State Routing with Hop-by-Hop Forwarding Can Achieve Optimal Traffic Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiang, Mung

    -state routing. Keywords: Interior gateway protocol, traffic engineering, rout- ing, OSPF, optimization, network-to-end tunneling. Such simplicity was thought to come at the expense of optimality. In a procedure known as Traffic

  14. Link-State Routing with Hop-by-Hop Forwarding Can Achieve Optimal Traffic Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rexford, Jennifer

    -state routing. Keywords: Interior gateway protocol, traffic engineering, routing, OSPF, optimization, network in a hop-by-hop fashion without memory or end-to-end tunneling. Such simplicity seems to carry a cost

  15. Deadlock Avoidance in Sequential Resource Allocation Systems with Multiple Resource Acquisitions and Flexible Routings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reveliotis, Spiridon "Spyros"

    resource acquisitions and flexible routings. First, a new siphon-based characterization for the liveness allocations and no routing flexibility. The last part of the paper exploits the aforementioned siphon- based

  16. A Distributed Approach to Dynamic Routing Algorithms Based on Vehicle to Vehicle Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boskovich, Scott Matthew

    2014-01-01

    for route planning in smart cities," Vehicular TrafficManagement for Smart Cities (VTM), 2012 First International

  17. GEM: Graph EMbedding for Routing and Data-Centric Storage in Sensor Networks Without Geographic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Dawn

    GEM: Graph EMbedding for Routing and Data-Centric Storage in Sensor Networks Without Geographic- ularly data-centric storage and information aggregation, rely on efficient routing from one node-to-node routing and data-centric storage and information processing in sensor networks. Un- like previous

  18. GEM: Graph EMbedding for Routing and DataCentric Storage in Sensor Networks Without

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GEM: Graph EMbedding for Routing and Data­Centric Storage in Sensor Networks Without Geographic), an infrastructure for node­to­node routing and data­centric storage and information processing in sensor networks, or the U.S. Government or any of its agencies. #12; Keywords: Sensor networks, routing, data­centric

  19. GEM: Graph EMbedding for Routing and Data-Centric Storage in Sensor Networks Without

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GEM: Graph EMbedding for Routing and Data-Centric Storage in Sensor Networks Without Geographic), an infrastructure for node-to-node routing and data-centric storage and information processing in sensor networks University, or the U.S. Government or any of its agencies. #12;Keywords: Sensor networks, routing, data-centric

  20. Power Optimal Routing in Wireless Networks Rajit Manohar and Anna Scaglione

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manohar, Rajit

    Power Optimal Routing in Wireless Networks Rajit Manohar and Anna Scaglione ECE, Cornell University Abstract-- Reducing power consumption and increasing bat- tery life of nodes in an ad-hoc network requires an integrated power control and routing strategy. Power optimal routing selects the multi-hop links that require

  1. Probabilistic Analysis of Onion Routing in a Black-box Model JOAN FEIGENBAUM, Yale University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Tor 1. INTRODUCTION Every day, half a million people use the onion-routing network Tor [Dingledine etA Probabilistic Analysis of Onion Routing in a Black-box Model JOAN FEIGENBAUM, Yale University a probabilistic analysis of onion routing. The analysis is presented in a black-box model of anonymous

  2. Pairing-Based Onion Routing with Improved Forward Secrecy Aniket Kate Greg M. Zaverucha Ian Goldberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    to scale gracefully. Keywords: onion routing, Tor, pairing-based cryptography, anonymous key agreementPairing-Based Onion Routing with Improved Forward Secrecy Aniket Kate Greg M. Zaverucha Ian {akate,gzaveruc,iang}@cs.uwaterloo.ca Abstract This paper presents new protocols for onion routing

  3. Using Sphinx to Improve Onion Routing Circuit Construction # Aniket Kate and Ian Goldberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    for three onion routing protocols that have emerged as enhancements to the Tor anonymizing network; namely, Tor with predistributed Di#e­Hellman values, pairing­based onion routing, and certificateless onion onion routing project--- Tor [41]---has turned out to be a huge success. However, with its latency times

  4. Post-Quantum Forward-Secure Onion Routing (Future Anonymity in Today's Budget)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    satrajitgh@gmail.com aniket@mmci.uni-saarland.de Abstract The onion routing (OR) network Tor provides, and it only introduces manageable communication overhead to the Tor protocol. Keywords: Tor, Onion routingPost-Quantum Forward-Secure Onion Routing (Future Anonymity in Today's Budget) Satrajit Ghosh

  5. Probabilistic Analysis of Onion Routing in a Black-box [Extended Abstract

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    --Distributed applications General Terms Algorithms, Security, Theory Keywords Anonymity, onion routing, Tor A full version-1-59593-883-1/07/0010 ...$5.00. 1. INTRODUCTION Every day, thousands of people use the onion-routing net- work Tor [6Probabilistic Analysis of Onion Routing in a Black-box Model [Extended Abstract] Joan Feigenbaum

  6. Using Sphinx to Improve Onion Routing Circuit Construction Aniket Kate and Ian Goldberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Ian

    for three onion routing protocols that have emerged as enhancements to the Tor anonymizing network; namely, Tor with predistributed Diffie-Hellman values, pairing-based onion routing, and certificateless onion onion routing project-- Tor [41]--has turned out to be a huge success. However, with its latency times

  7. Pairing-Based Onion Routing Aniket Kate, Greg Zaverucha, and Ian Goldberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Ian

    . #12;2. We use our protocol to build onion routing circuits for anonymity networks like Tor [7]. OurPairing-Based Onion Routing Aniket Kate, Greg Zaverucha, and Ian Goldberg David R. Cheriton School in onion routing anonymity networks. Instead of iteratively and interactively constructing circuits

  8. Synchronization of Washing Operations with Droplet Routing for Cross-Contamination Avoidance in Digital Microfluidic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Synchronization of Washing Operations with Droplet Routing for Cross-Contamination Avoidance in many areas of biochemistry and biomedical sciences. Since cross-contamination between droplets-droplet routing with sample/reagent drop- let-routing steps by controlling the arrival order of droplets at cross-contamination

  9. Routing Mechanisms for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks based on the Energy Drain Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obraczka, Katia

    -points are not directly within their radio range. A critical issue for MANETs is that the activity of #12;nodes is power which nodes can be part of an active route. We describe new route selection mechanisms for MANET routing extends nodal battery life and the duration of paths, while CMDR also minimizes the total transmission

  10. Routing Mechanisms for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks based on the Energy Drain Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obraczka, Katia

    ­points are not directly within their radio range. A critical issue for MANETs is that the activity of #12; nodes is power which nodes can be part of an active route. We describe new route selection mechanisms for MANET routing extends nodal battery life and the duration of paths, while CMDR also minimizes the total transmission

  11. UFO: A Resilient Layered Routing Architecture Yaping Zhu , Andy Bavier , Nick Feamster , Sampath Rangarajan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rexford, Jennifer

    UFO: A Resilient Layered Routing Architecture Yaping Zhu , Andy Bavier , Nick Feamster , Sampath topologies. The paper presents a layered routing architecture called UFO (Underlay Fused with Overlays overlays into the existing routing infrastructure. We call our system UFO (Underlay Fused with Overlays

  12. Consumed-Energy-Type-Aware Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks Shinya Ito and Kenji Yoshigoe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshigoe, Kenji

    Consumed-Energy-Type-Aware Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks Shinya Ito and Kenji Yoshigoe protocol, and several approaches to energy aware routing algorithms in wireless networks have been proposed}@ualr.edu Abstract This study proposes and investigates consumed- energy-type-aware routing (CETAR), a new metric

  13. Energy efficient wireless unicast routing alternatives for machine-to-machine networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uysal-Biyikoglu, Elif

    Review Energy efficient wireless unicast routing alternatives for machine-to-machine networks Neyre: Energy-efficient routing Shortest-path routing Energy-efficient networks M2M M2M applications M2M for large- scale networking of devices without dependence on human interaction. Energy efficiency is one

  14. Energy-Balanced Cooperative Routing in Multihop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yu

    Energy-Balanced Cooperative Routing in Multihop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Siyuan Chen Minsu Huang. In this paper, we aim to study the impact of cooperative routing on balancing the energy distribution among their transmission power, our cooperative routing method can balance the energy among neighboring nodes and maximize

  15. Comparison of two wireless ad hoc routing protocols on a hardware test-bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Timothy X.

    Comparison of two wireless ad hoc routing protocols on a hardware test-bed Shweta Bhandare of the rout- ing protocols is carried out using the Click modular router infrastructure on laptops with wireless ethernet cards running Linux. We demonstrate the working of both ad hoc routing protocols through

  16. Performance of Routing Protocols in HF Wireless Networks Eric E. Johnson*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    Balakrishnan* , and Zibin Tang* Klipsch School of Electrical and Computer Engineering New Mexico State and Routing Protocol (WARRP) and the Internet standard Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol (RFC-3626 in the Internet. The Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol (RFC-3626) [1] is an optimization

  17. Low Latency High Bandwidth Anonymous Overlay Network with Anonymous Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    [3,4,10,7,6,16,14,8,11]. Most of these networks are based on one of two methods: onion routing and DC to be re-configured). Research into the per- formance of Tor [6] and JAP [14] shows a high latency (e.g. around 4 seconds for some Cascades in JAP, around 4.5 seconds for Tor) and either a low (e.g. around 15

  18. Polar Gas to pick route for Arctic Y Line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-26

    Polar Gas Project is considering four possible Y line routes to move gas reserves from the Arctic Islands and the MacKenzie Delta/Beaufort Sea areas to southern Canada. All four routes are west of the single line route proposed by Polar Gas Ltd. in 1977 to run from the Arctic Islands to Longlac, Ontario, and would connect with existing pipelines at either Longlac, Winnipeg, Calgary, or Edmonton. Marketable reserves in the High Arctic Islands are estimated at 12.7 trillion cubic feet, not counting 3-6 trillion cubic feet probably contained in recent discoveries; the MacKenzie Delta reserves are estimated at 5.8 trillion cubic feet. The gas will be chilled to 0C for passage through permafrost regions, to prevent thawing of the soil, but the gas will be at higher temperatures in other areas, with various construction techniques used to protect the area of discontinuous permafrost from thawing. More than $70 million has been spent on project studies. An application will be filed in 1981, and the pipeline could be completed in 7-10 years.

  19. TOUR: Time-sensitive Opportunistic Utility-TOUR: Time-sensitive Opportunistic Utility-TOUR: Time-sensitive Opportunistic Utility-TOUR: Time-sensitive Opportunistic Utility-based Routing in Delay Tolerant Networksbased Routing in Delay Tolerant Networksbas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    TOUR: Time-sensitive Opportunistic Utility-TOUR: Time-sensitive Opportunistic Utility-TOUR: Time-sensitive Opportunistic Utility-TOUR: Time-sensitive Opportunistic Utility- based Routing in Delay Tolerant Networksbased on utility-based routingIntroduction on utility-based routingIntroduction on utility-based routing

  20. Time-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing in Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks with Unreliable Links

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    Time-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing in Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks with Unreliable Links}@ustc.edu.cn Abstract--Utility-based routing is a special routing approach, which takes the reliability and transmission costs into account at the same time. However, the existing utility-based routing algorithms have not yet

  1. Induced Churn as Shelter from Routing-Table Poisoning Tyson Condie, Varun Kacholia, Sriram Sankararaman, Joseph M. Hellerstein, Petros Maniatis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Irvine, University of

    Induced Churn as Shelter from Routing-Table Poisoning Tyson Condie, Varun Kacholia, Sriram. In this paper we address routing-table poisoning attacks against structured overlays, in which adversaries to redi- rect an outgoing link to her, thereby poisoning its routing table. All lookups routed via

  2. An unusual route to polarization reversal in ferroelectric ultrathin nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herchig, R.; Chang, Ch.-M.; Mani, B. K.; Ponomareva, I., E-mail: iponomar@usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States)

    2014-07-07

    Ferroelectric nanowires are promising candidates for miniaturized ferroelectric devices. Some potential nanoscale applications of the nanowires, such as ultra high density ferroelectric memory, utilize their reversible polarization. To meet the ever increasing demand for low energy consumption, it is extremely desirable to reduce the operational fields associated with polarization reversal. In this Letter, we use first-principles-based simulations to explore an unusual route to polarization reversal that utilizes a combination of relatively low bias field and THz pulsed radiation. Such an approach allows for lower operational fields and may lead to other potential applications such as THz radiation sensing and remote switches.

  3. Natural fats and oils route to fatty alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchold, H.

    1983-02-21

    The Philippines will be the site for a chemical plant that will use coconut oil to make fatty alcohols by means of a direct hydrogenation route - eliminating an intermediate esterification step. The facility will produce about 65,000 tonnes/yr of coconut fatty acid and 7,900 tonnes/yr of glycerine. About half of the fatty acid produced will be used to make 29,000 tonnes/yr of fatty alcohols. The principles and operation of the process are outlined.

  4. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ionAAEngineEIA'sANewA New Route

  5. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ionAAEngineEIA'sANewA New RouteA

  6. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016 News BelowAsked toUSC-Aiken,A NewA New Route to

  7. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016 News BelowAsked toUSC-Aiken,A NewA New Route toA

  8. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016 News BelowAsked toUSC-Aiken,A NewA New Route toAA

  9. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016 News BelowAsked toUSC-Aiken,A NewA New Route

  10. A probabilistic approach to reduce the route establishment overhead in AODV algorithm for manet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Preetha, K G; Jacob, K Poulose

    2012-01-01

    Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETS) is a collection of wireless nodes without any infrastructure support. The nodes in MANET can act as either router or source and the control of the network is distributed among nodes. The nodes in MANETS are highly mobile and it maintains dynamic interconnection between those mobile nodes. MANTEs have been considered as isolated stand-alone network. This can turn the dream of networking "at any time and at any where" into reality. The main purpose of this paper is to study the issues in route discovery process in AODV protocol for MANET. Flooding of route request message imposes major concern in route establishment. This paper suggests a new approach to reduce the routing overhead during the route discovery phase. By considering the previous behaviour of the network, the new protocol reduces the unwanted searches during route establishment process

  11. A Self-Adaptive Middleware for Efficient Routing in Distributed Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duan, Sisi; Sun, Jingtao

    2015-01-01

    and D. Rubenstein: Energy-efficient computing for wildlifeIsland Hop- ping: Efficient mobility-assisted forwarding inAdaptive Middleware for Efficient Routing in Distributed

  12. 2012-2013 Keywords: Routing and spectrum allocation (RSA), flexible optical networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varvarigo, Emmanouel "Manos"

    , "Conserving Transmission Power in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks" #12;), flexible optical networks WDM (FWDM) . (RSA) (RWA). FWDM Matlab. 2: Keywords: Routing and spectrum allocation (RSA), flexible optical networks

  13. Comparison of Methanol Exposure Routes Reported to Texas Poison Control Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Givens, Melissa; Kalbfleisch, Kristine; Bryson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    of The American Academy of Poison Control Centers nationalRoutes Reported to Texas Poison Control Centers Melissacases reported to Texas Poison Centers. Methods: All cases

  14. Balanced Multipath Source Routing Shreyas Prasad, Andre Schumacher , Harri Haanpaa, and Pekka Orponen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in wireless net- works. E.g. Nasipuri, Casta~neda, and Das [1] extend the DSR [2] route finding process

  15. Modeling and Tool Wear in Routing of CFRP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iliescu, D.; Fernandez, A.; Gutierrez-Orrantia, M. E.; Lopez de Lacalle, L. N.

    2011-01-17

    This paper presents the prediction and evaluation of feed force in routing of carbon composite material. In order to extend tool life and improve quality of the machined surface, a better understanding of uncoated and coated tool behaviors is required. This work describes (1) the optimization of the geometry of multiple teeth tools minimizing the tool wear and the feed force, (2) the optimization of tool coating and (3) the development of a phenomenological model between the feed force, the routing parameters and the tool wear. The experimental results indicate that the feed rate, the cutting speed and the tool wear are the most significant factors affecting the feed force. In the case of multiple teeth tools, a particular geometry with 14 teeth right helix right cut and 11 teeth left helix right cut gives the best results. A thick AlTiN coating or a diamond coating can dramatically improve the tool life while minimizing the axial force, roughness and delamination. A wear model has then been developed based on an abrasive behavior of the tool. The model links the feed rate to the tool geometry parameters (tool diameter), to the process parameters (feed rate, cutting speed and depth of cut) and to the wear. The model presented has been verified by experimental tests.

  16. Geo-Logical Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks* Dulanjalie C. Dhanapala and Anura P. Jayasumana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayasumana, Anura P.

    Geo-Logical Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks* Dulanjalie C. Dhanapala and Anura P. Jayasumana Abstract-- Geo-Logical Routing (GLR) is a novel technique that combines the advantages of geographic. In logical domain, a node is characterized by a VC vector consisting of minimum number of hops to a set

  17. Multicriteria high-speed rail route selection: application to Malaysia's high-speed rail corridor prioritization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    Multicriteria high-speed rail route selection: application to Malaysia's high-speed rail corridor on multicriteria decision analysis in transportation and provides a case study of high-speed rail (HSR) corridor. Keywords: high-speed rail; route selection; multicriteria analysis; Malaysia Introduction High-speed rail

  18. The Structure and Complexity of Nash Equilibria for a Selfish Routing Game

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutsoupias, Elias

    The Structure and Complexity of Nash Equilibria for a Selfish Routing Game Dimitris Fotakis1@cti.gr. Abstract. In this work, we study the combinatorial structure and the computational complexity of Nash links, to control the routing of its own assigned traffic. In a Nash equilibrium, each user selfishly

  19. The Structure and Complexity of Nash Equilibria for a Selfish Routing Game

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mavronicolas, Marios

    The Structure and Complexity of Nash Equilibria for a Selfish Routing Game Dimitris Fotakis Spyros the combinatorial structure and the computational complexity of Nash equilibria for a certain game that models own assigned traffic. In a Nash equilibrium, each user selfishly routes its traffic on those links

  20. GEM: Graph EMbedding for Routing and DataCentric Storage in Sensor Networks Without Geographic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GEM: Graph EMbedding for Routing and Data­Centric Storage in Sensor Networks Without Geographic­ ularly data­centric storage and information aggregation, rely on e#cient routing from one node to another and data­centric storage and information processing in sensor networks. Un­ like previous approaches

  1. DARD: Distributed Adaptive Routing for Datacenter Networks Dept. of Computer Science, Duke University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Xiaowei

    DARD: Distributed Adaptive Routing for Datacenter Networks Xin Wu Dept. of Computer Science, Duke xwy@cs.duke.edu Abstract--Datacenter networks typically have many paths connecting each host pair, a Distributed Adaptive Routing architecture for Datacenter networks. DARD allows each end host to move traffic

  2. Nested Column Generation applied to the Crude Oil Tanker Routing and Scheduling Problem with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lübbecke, Marco

    Nested Column Generation applied to the Crude Oil Tanker Routing and Scheduling Problem with Split, Germany March 7, 2012 Abstract The split pickup split delivery crude oil tanker routing and scheduling, because of the large expenses in crude oil shipping it is attractive to make use of optimization

  3. Boundary Helps: Efficient Routing Protocol using Directional Antennas in Cognitive Radio Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    directions at the boundary area of a primary user. For every optional route between a source node, and piggybacks that information to the source node for route selection. However, it will cause a lot Ying Dai and Jie Wu Department of Computer and Information Sciences Temple University, Philadelphia, PA

  4. Address Assignment and Routing Schemes for ZigBee-Based Long-Thin Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tseng, Yu-Chee

    that the address assignment and thus the tree routing scheme defined in the original ZigBee specification may work Terms--address assignment, long-thin network, routing protocol, wireless sensor network, ZigBee. I [5]. For interoperability among different systems, standards such as ZigBee [17] have been developed

  5. On the Effects of Energy-Aware Traffic Engineering on Routing Reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, Kwan-Wu

    to maximally switch off redundant network resource at low traffic load to minimize energy usage. These routingOn the Effects of Energy-Aware Traffic Engineering on Routing Reliability Gongqi Lin, Sieteng Soh.lin@postgrad.curtin.edu.au Kwan-Wu Chin School of Electrical, Computer and Telecommunications Engineering University of Wollongong

  6. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF POWER-AWARE ROUTE SELECTION PROTOCOLS IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    , a hybrid protocol like the CMMBCR (Conditional Max-Min Battery Capacity Routing) mechanism has been devised-Max Battery Cost Routing) scheme tries to consider the remaining battery power of nodes to prolong- gardless of the remaining battery power of nodes. Since the transmission network2002: submitted to World

  7. Design principles and improvement of cost function based energy aware routing algorithms for wireless sensor networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Xuemin "Sherman"

    Design principles and improvement of cost function based energy aware routing algorithms, design principles and evaluation methods for cost function based routing algorithms. Two energy aware small changes in nodal remaining energy to large changes in the function value. For DCFR, its cost

  8. Zeolite Salt Occlusion: A Potential Route for the Immobilisation of Iodine-129? Neil C. Hyatt,1*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    Zeolite ­ Salt Occlusion: A Potential Route for the Immobilisation of Iodine-129? Neil C. Hyatt,1 examined as possible starting routes to the long term immobilisation of iodine-129. Heating the salts, where the iodide salt migrates into the zeolite pores. Detailed studies of the Na-A / 5AgI complex

  9. Cross-Contamination Avoidance for Droplet Routing in Digital Microfluidic Biochips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Cross-Contamination Avoidance for Droplet Routing in Digital Microfluidic Biochips Yang Zhao- contamination between droplets of different biomolecules can lead to erroneous outcomes for bioassays, the avoidance of cross- contamination during droplet routing is a key design challenge for biochips. We propose

  10. Low Power Multilevel Interconnect Networks Using Wave-Pipelined Multiplexed (WPM) Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, Ajay

    Low Power Multilevel Interconnect Networks Using Wave-Pipelined Multiplexed (WPM) Routing Ajay 30332, USA {joshi, vinita, jeff}@ece.gatech.edu Abstract A low power multilevel interconnect architecture that uses wave-pipelined multiplexed (WPM) interconnect routing is proposed in this paper. WPM

  11. Energy-efficient Capacity-constrained Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatesan, S.

    1 Energy-efficient Capacity-constrained Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Maulin Patel*, R of packets, which will waste considerable amount of energy. This paper present a Minimum-cost Capacity-hoc networks; Routing; Maximum Lifetime; Energy efficient; Capacity-constrained I. INTRODUCTION Wireless sensor

  12. Centralized Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Ultra Low Duty Cycle to Achieve Maximum Lifetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahk, Saewoong

    Centralized Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Ultra Low Duty Cycle to Achieve performance because most of them are designed without considering a ultra low duty cycled environment to improve a network lifetime and a routing maintenance cost. We explain the issues of a ultra low duty

  13. Optimal Traffic-Oblivious Energy-Aware Routing For Multihop Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holte, Robert

    Optimal Traffic-Oblivious Energy-Aware Routing For Multihop Wireless Networks Yuxi Li Janelle Harms, harms, holte}@cs.ualberta.ca Abstract-- Energy efficiency is an important issue in multihop wireless a routing scheme to minimize the maximum energy utilization of a multihop wireless network with weak

  14. Reliable and Energy-Efficient Routing for Static Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Unreliable Links

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yu

    Reliable and Energy-Efficient Routing for Static Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Unreliable Links. In this paper, we address the problem of energy efficient reliable routing for wireless ad hoc networks communication, energy efficiency. Ç 1 INTRODUCTION WIRELESS ad hoc networks draw lots of attentions in recent

  15. EAGR: Energy Aware Greedy Routing Scheme for Wireless Ad hoc Networks Sachin Sharma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dharmaraja, S.

    EAGR: Energy Aware Greedy Routing Scheme for Wireless Ad hoc Networks Sachin Sharma Tejas Networks, throughput and energy consumption. Keywords: Rate of Energy Consumption, Greedy Routing, Wireless Ad hoc distributed nodes that communicate over a wireless link. In this paper we present a scalable, Energy Aware

  16. Energy Conserving Routing in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks Jae-Hwan Chang and Leandros Tassiulas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Bing

    Energy Conserving Routing in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks Jae-Hwan Chang and Leandros Tassiulas-- energy-sensitive routing, wireless ad-hoc networks, sensor networks I. INTRODUCTION CONSIDER a group of wireless static nodes is considered as it arises in a rapidly deployed, sensor based, monitoring system

  17. Minimum-Energy Cooperative Routing in Wireless Networks with Channel Variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghaderi, Majid

    Minimum-Energy Cooperative Routing in Wireless Networks with Channel Variations Mostafa Dehghan as well. Index Terms Cooperative communication, minimum energy routing, variable wireless channels@ucalgary.ca #12;1 I. INTRODUCTION Energy efficient communication is a fundamental problem in wireless networks

  18. DataCentric Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Edward Woodrow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinzelman, Wendi

    networks that support efficient data and route discovery based on metadata queries. Most ad hoc routing SPIN­IT (Sensor Protocols for Information via Negotiation ­ Information Transfer) and SPIN­DL (­ Directory Listing) use descriptive metadata to search the network for data of interest, and to establish

  19. Improved Power-Delay Trade-off in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Using Opportunistic Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Yong Hoon

    Improved Power-Delay Trade-off in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Using Opportunistic Routing Won power- delay trade-off than the conventional routing while providing up to a logarithmic boost that the power can be reduced at the expense of increased delay for both scenarios, but better trade-off can

  20. A Taxonomy of Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Gergely Acs, Levente Buttyan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levente, Buttyán

    A Taxonomy of Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Gergely ´Acs, Levente Butty application scenarios. In this work, we propose a taxonomy of sensor network routing protocols, and classify the mainstream protocols proposed in the literature using this taxonomy. We distinguish five families

  1. Hop-by-hop Computing for Green Internet Routing (Technical report, under revision)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Dan

    and traffic traces. We show that with green routing, we can save the power that is consumed by line cardsHop-by-hop Computing for Green Internet Routing (Technical report, under revision) Yuan Yang, even without turning-off network devices. As such, we for the first time design a green Internet

  2. ENERGY-EFFICIENT GEOGRAPHIC ROUTING IN ENVIRONMENTALLY POWERED WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Y. Thomas

    ENERGY-EFFICIENT GEOGRAPHIC ROUTING IN ENVIRONMENTALLY POWERED WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS Kai Zengt- efficient routing protocols are requisite for the WSN appli- cations. In this paper, we study energy-efficient efficient than the corresponding residual energy based protocols without considering the property

  3. On the Pitfalls of Directional Locationbased Randomized Routing Israat Tanzeena Haque Ioanis Nikolaidis Pawel Gburzynski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gburzynski, Pawel

    , Canada {israat,yannis,pawel}@cs.ualberta.ca Keywords: mobile ad­hoc networks, location­based routing, directional transmission Abstract Many location­based MANET routing algorithms rely on lo- cal decisions based for dealing with highly dynamic topologies due to mobility. In addition, directional transmission

  4. Cryptographic Protocols to Fight Sinkhole Attacks on Tree-based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ives, Zachary G.

    Cryptographic Protocols to Fight Sinkhole Attacks on Tree-based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks in limiting network degradation caused by sinkhole attacks on tree-based routing topologies in Wireless Sensor in improving resilience against sinkhole attacks, even in the presence of some collusion. I. INTRODUCTION

  5. Cryptographic Protocols to Fight Sinkhole Attacks on Tree-based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le Fessant, Fabrice - Institut national de recherche en informatique et en automatique, Centre de recherche INRIA Saclay

    Cryptographic Protocols to Fight Sinkhole Attacks on Tree-based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks in limiting network degradation caused by sinkhole attacks on tree-based routing topologies in Wireless Sensor are effective in improving resilience against sinkhole attacks, even in the presence of some collusion. I

  6. Optical Signal Processing in All-Optical Packet Routing Systems S. J. Ben Yoo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolner, Brian H.

    Optical Signal Processing in All-Optical Packet Routing Systems S. J. Ben Yoo Department@ece.ucdavis.edu, Abstract: This paper discusses important signal processing functions in all-optical packet routing systems. We will pay special attention to all-optical time-to-live, optical performance monitoring, optical

  7. Asymptotically Optimal Power-Aware Routing for Multihop Wireless Networks with Renewable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srikant, Rayadurgam

    1 Asymptotically Optimal Power-Aware Routing for Multihop Wireless Networks with Renewable Energy the performance of multihop radio networks in the presence of energy constraints, and design routing algorithms to optimally utilize the available energy. The energy model allows vastly different energy sources

  8. MPLS-based Request Routing Arup Acharya, Anees Shaikh, Renu Tewari, Dinesh Verma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -performance, off-the- shelf switching hardware, while also providing the flexibility of a content-based router of networks to Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) to provide flexible routing and sophis- ticated traffic by grouping re- lated packets using a shared, fixed-size label, allowing the packets to be routed and treated

  9. A Novel Cross-Layer QoS Routing Algorithm for Wireless Mesh Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, Kin K.

    is comprised of wireless mesh routers (WMRs) and wireless access points (APs) (Fig. 1). WMRs form a mesh. The challenge is twofold. First, QoS routing with Wireless Backhaul Mesh Network Wireless Mesh Router CellularA Novel Cross-Layer QoS Routing Algorithm for Wireless Mesh Networks Chi Harold Liu, Kin K. Leung

  10. A Hierarchical Manufacturing Route Planner Based on Heuristic Algorithm: Design and Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Hierarchical Manufacturing Route Planner Based on Heuristic Algorithm: Design and Evaluation Dr: kmalaubidy@hotmail.com Abstract: This paper presents the design and evaluation of a manufacturing route planner for flexible manufacturing systems. The aim of the planner is to find the optimal manufacturing

  11. 12003 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing M.Atiquzzaman, Univ. of Oklahoma, June 2003.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atiquzzaman, Mohammed

    12003 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing M.Atiquzzaman, Univ. of Oklahoma, June Fu) School of Computer Science University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019-6151. Email: atiq@ou.edu #12;22003 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing M.Atiquzzaman, Univ. of Oklahoma, June 2003

  12. Conveying Route Information On Mobile Devices Using Communicative Acts William A Mackaness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conveying Route Information On Mobile Devices Using Communicative Acts William A Mackaness Simply displaying a map is far from sufficient when conveying route information on a mobile device/worry, and irritation. Given that mobile devices support a variety of media (non-linguistic auditory acts, spoken

  13. A Realistic Framework for Delay-Tolerant Network Routing in Open Terrains with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Realistic Framework for Delay-Tolerant Network Routing in Open Terrains with Continuous Churn to classify routing protocols based on the difference in their behavior under churn. Keywords: Delay model churn in the network, by having these nodes enter the terrain as a Poisson process and exit

  14. Shadow Prices vs. Vickrey Prices in Multipath Routing Parthasarathy Ramanujam, Zongpeng Li, Lisa Higham

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zongpeng

    Shadow Prices vs. Vickrey Prices in Multipath Routing Parthasarathy Ramanujam, Zongpeng Li, Lisa}@ucalgary.ca Abstract--Shadow price and Vickrey price are two classic metrics that can be applied to measure routing. We show that Vickrey prices provide upper-bounds for shadow prices in general, and the fine

  15. Short Paper: Jamming-Resilient Multipath Routing Leveraging Availability-Based Correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Wenyuan

    Short Paper: Jamming-Resilient Multipath Routing Leveraging Availability-Based Correlation Hossen availability is maintained. Prior work in multipath selection improves routing by choosing node- disjoint paths selection based on the knowledge of a path's availability history. Us- ing Availability History Vectors

  16. Hydro: A Hybrid Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    1 Hydro: A Hybrid Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks Stephen Dawson instances of point-to-point traffic. We present Hydro, a hybrid routing protocol that combines local agility. Evaluations across testbeds and deployments demonstrate the performance and functionality of Hydro across

  17. DAILY FLOW ROUTING WITH THE MUSKINGUM-CUNGE METHOD IN THE PECOS RIVER RIVERWARE MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that is a general river basin modeling tool that runs in an object-oriented modeling environment. While for each river reach must also run one model timestep at a time. The resulting routing method in RiverDAILY FLOW ROUTING WITH THE MUSKINGUM-CUNGE METHOD IN THE PECOS RIVER RIVERWARE MODEL Craig B

  18. Is there a route to a UK Feed in Tariff for renewable energy?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Is there a route to a UK Feed in Tariff for renewable energy? ICEPT Discussion Paper October 2010 University #12;2 Is there a route to a UK Feed in Tariff for renewable energy? Introduction This discussion paper is concerned with the potential to change the way the UK provides support for renewable energy

  19. Social Welfare Based Routing in Ad hoc Networks Mingming Lu and Jie Wu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    is to save energy. Existing energy-efficient routing protocols save energy by selecting the lowest energy cost route. However, energy saving is not equal to energy efficiency. Consider a large number, and hence most packets transmitted through this path are lost, it is energy waste rather than energy saving

  20. DEAR: Delay-bounded Energy-constrained Adaptive Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Jian "Neil"

    DEAR: Delay-bounded Energy-constrained Adaptive Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Shi Bai¶, Weiyi in wireless sensor networks. In this work, we study Delay-bounded Energy-constrained Adaptive Routing (DEAR) problem with reli- ability, differential delay, and transmission energy consumption constraints

  1. The Two-Echelon Capacitated Vehicle Routing Jesus Gonzalez Feliu1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    . The aim of this paper is twofold. First, the new family of Multi- Echelon Vehicle Routing ProblemsThe Two-Echelon Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem Jesus Gonzalez Feliu1 , Guido Perboli1 and traffic planning strategies as well as by companies to model their distribution systems. Unfortunately

  2. Design and Performance Analysis of an Aeronautical Routing Protocol with Ground Station Updates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narra, Hemanth

    2011-08-31

    Aeronautical routing protocol (AeroRP) is a position-based routing protocol developed for highly dynamic airborne networks. It works in conjunction with the aeronautical network protocol (AeroNP). AeroRP is a multi-modal protocol that operates...

  3. Spherical Representation and Polyhedron Routing for Load Balancing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    -Andreev-Thurston Theorem for any 3-connected planar graphs. In our paper we use discrete Ricci flow to develop, to prevent some nodes running out of battery immaturely. In terms of routing, we hope that the selected routes are `load balanced' such that the node residual battery levels are as uniform as possible

  4. Exploiting Overhearing: Flow-Aware Routing for Improved Lifetime in Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mans, Bernard

    neighboring flows and adapt their local routing dynamically. By combining this awareness with battery- aware flow and neighborhood is then presented in Section II-D. By combining the flow awareness with batteryExploiting Overhearing: Flow-Aware Routing for Improved Lifetime in Ad Hoc Networks Nirisha

  5. Solvothermal routes for synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2005-03-01

    Control of the synthesis of nanomaterials to produce morphologies exhibiting quantized properties will enable device integration of several novel applications including biosensors, catalysis, and optical devices. In this work, solvothermal routes to produce zinc oxide nanorods are explored. Much previous work has relied on the addition of growth directing/inhibiting agents to control morphology. It was found in coarsening studies that zinc oxide nanodots will ripen to nanorod morphologies at temperatures of 90 to 120 C. The resulting nanorods have widths of 9-12 nm average dimension, which is smaller than current methods for nanorod synthesis. Use of nanodots as nuclei may be an approach that will allow for controlled growth of higher aspect ratio nanorods.

  6. UAV-Aided Cross-Layer Routing for MANETs Yuan Guo Xiaolong Li Homayoun Yousefi'zadeh Hamid Jafarkhani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yousefi'zadeh, Homayoun

    UAV-Aided Cross-Layer Routing for MANETs Yuan Guo Xiaolong Li Homayoun Yousefi'zadeh Hamid,xiaolonl,hyousefi,hamidj]@uci.edu Abstract--In this paper, we present UAV-aided Cross-Layer Routing Protocol (UCLR) that aims at improving the routing performance of a ground MANET network with aid from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The UAV

  7. On selection of candidate paths for proportional routing q Srihari Nelakuditi a,*, Zhi-Li Zhang b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    On selection of candidate paths for proportional routing q Srihari Nelakuditi a,*, Zhi-Li Zhang b on the core routers. On the other hand, proportional routing schemes proportion incoming flows among a set of candidate paths. Two key questions that arise under proportional routing are how to select candidate paths

  8. Induced Churn as Shelter from Routing-Table Poisoning Tyson Condie, Varun Kacholia, Sriram Sankararaman, Joseph M. Hellerstein, Petros Maniatis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hellerstein, Joseph M.

    Induced Churn as Shelter from Routing-Table Poisoning Tyson Condie, Varun Kacholia, Sriram, induced churn, utilizes periodic routing-table re- sets, unpredictable identifier changes, and a rate limit on routing-table updates. Induced churn leaves adversaries at the mercy of chance: they have

  9. All-optical routing of single photons with multiple input and output ports by interferences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei-Bin Yan; Bao Liu; Ling Zhou; Heng Fan

    2014-09-23

    We propose a waveguide-cavity coupled system to achieve the routing of photons by the phases of other photons. Our router has four input ports and four output ports. The transport of the coherent-state photons injected through any input port can be controlled by the phases of the coherent-state photons injected through other input ports. This control can be achieved when the mean numbers of the routed and control photons are small enough and require no additional control fields. Therefore, the all-optical routing of photons can be achieved at the single-photon level.

  10. Connectivity-Enhanced Route Selection and Adaptive Control for the Chevrolet Volt: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonder, J.; Wood, E.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2014-09-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory and General Motors evaluated connectivity-enabled efficiency enhancements for the Chevrolet Volt. A high-level model was developed to predict vehicle fuel and electricity consumption based on driving characteristics and vehicle state inputs. These techniques were leveraged to optimize energy efficiency via green routing and intelligent control mode scheduling, which were evaluated using prospective driving routes between tens of thousands of real-world origin/destination pairs. The overall energy savings potential of green routing and intelligent mode scheduling was estimated at 5% and 3% respectively. These represent substantial opportunities considering that they only require software adjustments to implement.

  11. Method and apparatus for routing data in an inter-nodal communications lattice of a massively parallel computer system by semi-randomly varying routing policies for different packets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens (Rochester, MN); Musselman, Roy Glenn (Rochester, MN); Peters, Amanda (Rochester, MN); Pinnow, Kurt Walter (Rochester, MN); Swartz, Brent Allen (Chippewa Falls, WI); Wallenfelt, Brian Paul (Eden Prairie, MN)

    2010-11-23

    A massively parallel computer system contains an inter-nodal communications network of node-to-node links. Nodes vary a choice of routing policy for routing data in the network in a semi-random manner, so that similarly situated packets are not always routed along the same path. Semi-random variation of the routing policy tends to avoid certain local hot spots of network activity, which might otherwise arise using more consistent routing determinations. Preferably, the originating node chooses a routing policy for a packet, and all intermediate nodes in the path route the packet according to that policy. Policies may be rotated on a round-robin basis, selected by generating a random number, or otherwise varied.

  12. The application of network coding to multicast routing in wireless networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jennings, Michael (Michael Vincent)

    2007-01-01

    This thesis considers the application of network coding and opportunistic routing to improve the performance of multicast flows in wireless networks. Network coding allows routers to randomly mix packets before forwarding ...

  13. A Multi-Objective Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Infrastructure Routing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Walter

    2012-07-16

    An algorithm is presented that is capable of producing Pareto-optimal solutions for multi-objective infrastructure routing problems: the Multi-Objective Ant Colony Optimization (MOACO). This algorithm offers a constructive search technique...

  14. Content-Based Routing with On-Demand Multicast Eiko Yoneki and Jean Bacon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Content-Based Routing with On-Demand Multicast Eiko Yoneki and Jean Bacon University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory J J Thomson Avenue Cambridge CB3 0FD, UK {eiko.yoneki, jean.bacon

  15. Routing Vehicles with Motion, Resource and Mission Constraints: Algorithms and Bounds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manyam, Satyanarayana Gupta

    2015-04-20

    ). Simulation results are presented to show that this method significantly improved the existing lower bounds. The second problem we consider is the routing of UAVs in GPS denied environments and with limited communication range. Two different architectures...

  16. A Novel Route to Enantioenriched ?-Allyl ?-Fluoroketones via Palladium Catalyzed Decarboxylation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barron, Briana R.

    2008-08-21

    This thesis details the development of a novel catalytic asymmetric route to ?-fluorinated ketones. Enantioenriched ?-fluoroketones were produced in good yields and high enantiomeric ratios via palladium-catalyzed decarboxylation of cyclic ?...

  17. Exploring the Role of a Planetary GIS in the Route Selection of Martian Rovers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strang, Adam L

    2009-11-26

    The route management of a Martian rover is both complex and perilous. Its perambulations subject to myriad constraints: all the while looking to operate at maximum efficacy within an alien environment under the duress of a prohibitively limited...

  18. Constraint-Based Routing Models for the Transport of Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Steven K

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has a historic programmatic interest in the safe and secure routing, tracking, and transportation risk analysis of radiological materials in the United States. In order to address these program goals, DOE has funded the development of several tools and related systems designed to provide insight to planners and other professionals handling radioactive materials shipments. These systems include the WebTRAGIS (Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System) platform. WebTRAGIS is a browser-based routing application developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) focused primarily on the safe transport of spent nuclear fuel from US nuclear reactors via railway, highway, or waterway. It is also used for the transport planning of low-level radiological waste to depositories such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility. One particular feature of WebTRAGIS is its coupling with high-resolution population data from ORNL s LandScan project. This allows users to obtain highly accurate population count and density information for use in route planning and risk analysis. To perform the routing and risk analysis WebTRAGIS incorporates a basic routing model methodology, with the additional application of various constraints designed to mimic US Department of Transportation (DOT), DOE, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Aside from the routing models available in WebTRAGIS, the system relies on detailed or specialized modal networks for the route solutions. These include a highly detailed network model of the US railroad system, the inland and coastal waterways, and a specialized highway network that focuses on the US interstate system and the designated hazardous materials and Highway Route Controlled Quantity (HRCQ) -designated roadways. The route constraints in WebTRAGIS rely upon a series of attributes assigned to the various components of the different modal networks. Routes are determined via a constrained shortest-path Dijkstra algorithm that has an assigned impedance factor. The route constraints modify the various impedance weights to bias or prefer particular network characteristics as desired by the user. Both the basic route model and the constrained impedance function calculations are determined by a series of network characteristics and shipment types. The study examines solutions under various constraints modeled by WebTRAGIS including possible routes from select shut-down reactor sites in the US to specific locations in the US. For purposes of illustration, the designated destinations are Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. To the degree that routes express sameness or variety under constraints serves to illustrate either a) the determinism of particular transport modes by either configuration or regulatory compliance, and/or b) the variety of constrained routes that are regulation compliant but may not be operationally feasible.

  19. Simulating service reliability of a high frequency bus route using automatically collected data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milkovits, Martin Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    High frequency bus routes are subject to a variety of influences that can affect the quality of service provided to passengers. Since they have short headways and high passenger demand interaction between buses can easily ...

  20. Congestion-aware traffic routing for large-scale mobile agent systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Sejoon

    2012-01-01

    Traffic congestion is a serious world-wide problem. Drivers have little knowledge of historical and real-time traffic congestion for the paths they take and often tend to drive suboptimal routes. Congestion phenomena are ...

  1. The development and evaluation of alternative designs for the Texas Farm-To-Market route marker 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fenno, David W

    1994-01-01

    This thesis documents the development and evaluation of alternative designs for the Texas Fann-to-Market (FM) Highway route marker. Previous research by the Texas Transportation Institute has shown that some portion of the driving population has...

  2. The DYMO Routing Protocol in VANET Scenarios Christoph Sommer and Falko Dressler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breu, Ruth

    The DYMO Routing Protocol in VANET Scenarios Christoph Sommer and Falko Dressler Computer Networks and Communication Systems Dept. of Computer Sciences, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany {christoph.sommer

  3. A survey of routing techniques in store-and-forward and wormhole interconnects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holman, David Michael; Lee, David S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of algorithms for directing messages through networks of varying topology. These are commonly referred to as routing algorithms in the literature that is presented. In addition to providing background on networking terminology and router basics, the paper explains the issues of deadlock and livelock as they apply to routing. After this, there is a discussion of routing algorithms for both store-and-forward and wormhole-switched networks. The paper covers both algorithms that do and do not adapt to conditions in the network. Techniques targeting structured as well as irregular topologies are discussed. Following this, strategies for routing in the presence of faulty nodes and links in the network are described.

  4. Diff-Max: Separation of routing and scheduling in backpressure-based wireless networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seferoglu, Hulya

    Backpressure routing and scheduling, with throughput-optimal operation guarantee, is a promising technique to improve throughput in wireless multi-hop networks. Although backpressure is conceptually viewed as layered, the ...

  5. Route 66, where are you? : four cities and the development of a shared cultural resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dodge, Anne Clayton

    2006-01-01

    Although small towns, rural areas, state organizations, and federal programs are all pursuing the redevelopment of the Route 66 corridor, this paper focuses on how four urban communities currently are engaging with this ...

  6. Vehicle routing and scheduling for the ultra short haul transportation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Barry C.

    1979-01-01

    A method of vehicle routing and scheduling for an air based intraurban transportation system is developed. The maximization of level of service to passengers in a system operating under time varying demand is considered ...

  7. Density-based vs. Proximity-based Anycast Routing for Mobile Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lenders, Vincent

    Density-based vs. Proximity-based Anycast Routing for Mobile Networks Vincent Lenders, Martin May of Technology (ETH) Z¨urich, Switzerland Email: {lenders, may, plattner}@tik.ee.ethz.ch Abstract-- Existing

  8. TDROP: A routing protocol for physically hierarchical ad hoc mobile networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Zaheer

    2000-01-01

    Many protocols for routing in mobile ad hoc networks have been proposed. None of these protocols differentiates mobile nodes based on their physical characteristics and also there is only one proposal for connecting ad hoc ...

  9. Leveraging infrastructure : sustainable bus rapid transit route planning in Beirut, Lebanon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nabti, Jumana M., 1976-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis applies the concepts of urban design, public transportation planning, economic development, and sustainability, to the routing and site plan of a two-kilometer bus rapid transit (BRT) line segment into downtown ...

  10. The development of a flood routing model for the flow analyses of mine tailings materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rokohl, Don Richard

    1984-01-01

    Flood, West Virginia Aberfsn Flow Slide, Wales Mochikoshi Tailings Dam, Japan A LITERATURE REVIEW OF EXISTING FLOOD ROUTING MODELS Theoretical Flood Routing Analysis Models Models Developed for Turbulent Flow Analysis U. S. Army Corps of Engineers... Front of Water Retaining Dam Showing Breach Formation 13 Characteristics of Bingham Plastic Model Characteristics of Modified Ramberg-Osgood Nodel Weight versus Velocity for Bunker Hill Tailings Vened Coaxial Viscometer 23 25 27 28 Comparison...

  11. Composition and microstructure of zirconium and hafnium germanates obtained by different chemical routes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Utkin, A.V. Prokip, V.E.; Baklanova, N.I.

    2014-01-15

    The phase composition and morphology of zirconium and hafnium germanates synthesized by ceramic and co-precipitation routes were studied. The products were characterized using high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal (TG/DTA) analysis. To investigate the phase composition and stoichiometry of compounds the unit cell parameters were refined by full-profile Rietveld XRD analysis. The morphology of products and its evolution during high-temperature treatment was examined by SEM analysis. It was stated that there is the strong dependence of the phase composition and morphology of products on the preparation route. The ceramic route requires a multi-stage high-temperature treatment to obtain zirconium and hafnium germanates of 95% purity or more. Also, there are strong diffusion limitations to obtain hafnium germanate Hf{sub 3}GeO{sub 8} by ceramic route. On the contrary, the co-precipitation route leads to the formation of nanocrystalline single phase germanates of stoichiometric composition at a relatively low temperatures (less than 1000 °C). The results of quantitative XRD analysis showed the hafnium germanates are stoichiometric compounds in contrast to zirconium germanates that form a set of solid solutions. This distinction may be related to the difference in the ion radii of Zr and Hf. - Graphical abstract: The phase composition and morphology of zirconium and hafnium germanates synthesized by ceramic and co-precipitation routes were studied. It was stated that there is the strong dependence of the phase composition and morphology of products on the preparation route. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Zr and Hf germanates were synthesized by ceramic and co-precipitation routes. • The morphology of products depends on the synthesis parameters. • Zirconium germanates forms a set of solid solutions. • Hafnium germanates are stoichiometric compounds.

  12. Oscillatory instability and routes to chaos in Rayleigh-Bénard convection: effect of external magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yada Nandukumar; Pinaki Pal

    2015-10-19

    We investigate oscillatory instability and routes to chaos in Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection of electrically conducting fluids in presence of external horizontal magnetic field. Three dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the governing equations are performed for the investigation. DNS shows that oscillatory instability is inhibited by the magnetic field. The supercritical Rayleigh number for the onset of oscillation is found to scale with the Chandrasekhar number $\\mathrm{Q}$ as $\\mathrm{Q}^{\\alpha}$ in DNS with $\\alpha = 1.8$ for low Prandtl numbers ($\\mathrm{Pr}$). Most interestingly, DNS shows $\\mathrm{Q}$ dependent routes to chaos for low Prandtl number fluids like mercury ($\\mathrm{Pr} = 0.025$). For low $\\mathrm{Q}$, period doubling routes are observed, while, quasiperiodic routes are observed for high $\\mathrm{Q}$. The bifurcation structure associated with $\\mathrm{Q}$ dependent routes to chaos is then understood by constructing a low dimensional model from the DNS data. The model also shows similar scaling laws as DNS. Bifurcation analysis of the low dimensional model shows that origin of different routes are associated with the bifurcation structure near the primary instability. These observations show similarity with the previous results of convection experiments performed with mercury.

  13. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, A. (Achla); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  14. Baseline requirements of the proposed action for the Transportation Management Division routing models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.

    1995-02-01

    The potential impacts associated with the transportation of hazardous materials are important to shippers, carriers, and the general public. This is particularly true for shipments of radioactive material. The shippers are primarily concerned with safety, security, efficiency, and equipment requirements. The carriers are concerned with the potential impact that radioactive shipments may have on their operations--particularly if such materials are involved in an accident. The general public has also expressed concerns regarding the safety of transporting radioactive and other hazardous materials through their communities. Because transportation routes are a central concern in hazardous material transport, the prediction of likely routes is the first step toward resolution of these issues. In response to these routing needs, several models have been developed over the past fifteen years at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The HIGHWAY routing model is used to predict routes for truck transportation, the INTERLINE routing model is used to predict both rail and barge routes, and the AIRPORT locator model is used to determine airports with specified criteria near a specific location. As part of the ongoing improvement of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management Transportation Management Division`s (EM-261) computer systems and development efforts, a Baseline Requirements Assessment Session on the HIGHWAY, INTERLINE, and AIRPORT models was held at ORNL on April 27, 1994. The purpose of this meeting was to discuss the existing capabilities of the models and data bases and to review enhancements of the models and data bases to expand their usefulness. The results of the Baseline Requirements Assessment Section will be discussed in this report. The discussions pertaining to the different models are contained in separate sections.

  15. A Physically Based Runoff Routing Model for Land Surface and Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hongyi; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Wu, Huan; Huang, Maoyi; Ke, Yinghai; Coleman, Andre M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-06-13

    A new physically based runoff routing model, called the Model for Scale Adaptive River Transport (MOSART), has been developed to be applicable across local, regional, and global scales. Within each spatial unit, surface runoff is first routed across hillslopes and then discharged along with subsurface runoff into a ‘‘tributary subnetwork’’ before entering the main channel. The spatial units are thus linked via routing through the main channel network, which is constructed in a scale-consistent way across different spatial resolutions. All model parameters are physically based, and only a small subset requires calibration.MOSART has been applied to the Columbia River basin at 1/ 168, 1/ 88, 1/ 48, and 1/ 28 spatial resolutions and was evaluated using naturalized or observed streamflow at a number of gauge stations. MOSART is compared to two other routing models widely used with land surface models, the River Transport Model (RTM) in the Community Land Model (CLM) and the Lohmann routing model, included as a postprocessor in the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model package, yielding consistent performance at multiple resolutions. MOSART is further evaluated using the channel velocities derived from field measurements or a hydraulic model at various locations and is shown to be capable of producing the seasonal variation and magnitude of channel velocities reasonably well at different resolutions. Moreover, the impacts of spatial resolution on model simulations are systematically examined at local and regional scales. Finally, the limitations ofMOSART and future directions for improvements are discussed.

  16. Exploring a Centralized/Distributed Hybrid Routing Protocol for Low Power Wireless Networks and Large-Scale Datacenters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tavakoli, Arsalan

    2009-01-01

    and Nicolas Riou. Building automation routing requirementsmonitoring [59], building automation [53], and smart homes [applications include building automation [53] and smart

  17. Routing over Bursty Wireless Links Muhammad Hamad Alizai, Olaf Landsiedel, Jo Agila Bitsch Link, Stefan Goetz, Klaus Wehrle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    routing progress. Their use might therefore reduce the number of transmissions, lower energy usage, Stefan Goetz, Klaus Wehrle Distributed Systems Group RWTH Aachen University Aachen, Germany Email

  18. Fear: A Fuzzy-based Energy-aware Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahvar, Ehsan; Piran, Mohammad Jalil

    2011-01-01

    Many energy-aware routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks. Most of them are only energy savers and do not take care about energy balancing. The energy saver protocols try to decrease the energy consumption of the network as a whole; however the energy manager protocols balance the energy consumption in the network to avoid network partitioning. This means that energy saver protocols are not necessarily energy balancing and vice versa. However, the lifetime of wireless sensor network is strictly depending on energy consumption; therefore, energy management is an essential task to be considered. This paper proposes an energy aware routing protocol, named FEAR, which considers energy balancing and energy saving. It finds a fair trade-off between energy balancing and energy saving by fuzzy set concept. FEAR routing protocol is simulated and evaluated by Glomosim simulator.

  19. Deadlock-free class routes for collective communications embedded in a multi-dimensional torus network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Dong; Eisley, Noel A.; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Heidelberger, Philip

    2013-01-29

    A computer implemented method and a system for routing data packets in a multi-dimensional computer network. The method comprises routing a data packet among nodes along one dimension towards a root node, each node having input and output communication links, said root node not having any outgoing uplinks, and determining at each node if the data packet has reached a predefined coordinate for the dimension or an edge of the subrectangle for the dimension, and if the data packet has reached the predefined coordinate for the dimension or the edge of the subrectangle for the dimension, determining if the data packet has reached the root node, and if the data packet has not reached the root node, routing the data packet among nodes along another dimension towards the root node.

  20. Closing the loop between traffic/pollution sensing and vehicle route control NSF CPS Workshop, March 17-18, 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajkumar, Ragunathan "Raj"

    Closing the loop between traffic/pollution sensing and vehicle route control NSF CPS Workshop manager and vehicle route/speed enforcement with the aim of simultaneously reducing congestion, pollution); the on-board navigator; the vehicle control knobs (breaks, accelerator, steering wheel) and; last

  1. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 5, NO. 1, JANUARY 2014 303 Opportunistic Routing for Smart Grid With Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahk, Saewoong

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 5, NO. 1, JANUARY 2014 303 Opportunistic Routing for Smart communications (PLCs) have recently absorbed interest in the smart grid since they offer communi- cation--Access network, narrowband PLC, opportunistic routing, power line communications, smart grid. I. INTRODUCTION

  2. An Adaptive Routing Mechanism For Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Jane E Tateson and Ian W Marshall, BTexact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haddadi, Hamed

    An Adaptive Routing Mechanism For Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks Jane E Tateson and Ian W Marshall for a network of ad hoc wireless sensor nodes. The mechanism enables sensor nodes to minimize route cost by varying their transmission range, and by experimenting with the neighbours from which they forward data

  3. IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, VOL. 16, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2008 51 An Algorithmic Approach to Geographic Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, VOL. 16, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2008 51 An Algorithmic Approach to Geographic Routing in Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks Fabian Kuhn, Member, IEEE, Roger Wattenhofer, and Aaron Zollinger, Member, IEEE Abstract--The one type of routing in ad hoc and sensor networks that currently

  4. Performance and energy efficiency of position-based routing in IEEE 802.15.4a low data rate Wireless

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Benedetto, Maria-Gabriella

    Performance and energy efficiency of position-based routing in IEEE 802.15.4a low data rate distributed positioning protocol based on Time Of Arrival and energy efficiency. Results also show that the energy efficiency of the position based routing protocol is affected by the accuracy distan eetma ared

  5. Design Considerations for an On-Demand Minimum Energy Routing Protocol for a Wireless Ad Hoc Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Timothy X.

    1 Design Considerations for an On-Demand Minimum Energy Routing Protocol for a Wireless Ad Hoc at Boulder Boulder, CO-80309 Abstract--A minimum energy routing protocol reduces the energy con- sumption of energy to get the packets to their destination. This paper identifies the necessary features of an on

  6. IEEE Wireless Communications December 2005 691536-1284/05/$20.00 2005 IEEE Since routing is an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yuanzhu Peter

    IEEE Wireless Communications · December 2005 691536-1284/05/$20.00 © 2005 IEEE Since routing is an essential function in these networks, developing power- aware routing protocols for ad hoc wireless networks have been proposed from a variety of perspectives. ACCEPTED FROM OPEN CALL INTRODUCTION Ad hoc wireless

  7. Technical Briefs in hisTorical archaeology, 2008, 3: 3947 Previous attempts to plot the exact invasion route of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorn, Ron

    conflict with the gauls and the trek over a major col of passage into italia.The use of various scientific route,and sites of interest to geoarchaeologists. Introduction The Punic invasion of italia in 218 B recently prompted four expeditions to survey the approach routes through the Pyrenees and the alps (figure

  8. Efficient and Scalable Multi-Geography Route Planning Vidhya Balasubramanian Dmitri V. Kalashnikov Sharad Mehrotra Nalini Venkatasubramanian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalashnikov, Dmitri V.

    Efficient and Scalable Multi-Geography Route Planning Vidhya Balasubramanian Dmitri V. Kalashnikov Irvine, CA 92697, USA ABSTRACT This paper considers the problem of Multi-Geography Route Planning (MGRP first design a flexible and scalable representation to model individual geographies

  9. Oscillatory instability and routes to chaos in Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection: effect of external magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nandukumar, Yada

    2015-01-01

    We investigate oscillatory instability and routes to chaos in Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection of electrically conducting fluids in presence of external horizontal magnetic field. Three dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the governing equations are performed for the investigation. DNS shows that oscillatory instability is inhibited by the magnetic field. The supercritical Rayleigh number for the onset of oscillation is found to scale with the Chandrasekhar number $\\mathrm{Q}$ as $\\mathrm{Q}^{\\alpha}$ in DNS with $\\alpha = 1.8$ for low Prandtl numbers ($\\mathrm{Pr}$). Most interestingly, DNS shows $\\mathrm{Q}$ dependent routes to chaos for low Prandtl number fluids like mercury ($\\mathrm{Pr} = 0.025$). For low $\\mathrm{Q}$, period doubling routes are observed, while, quasiperiodic routes are observed for high $\\mathrm{Q}$. The bifurcation structure associated with $\\mathrm{Q}$ dependent routes to chaos is then understood by constructing a low dimensional model from the DNS data. The model also shows...

  10. Computational Light Routing: 3D Printed Optical Fibers For Sensing and Display

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    applications. Printing optical fibers is made possible by modern multi-material 3D printers. We print twoComputational Light Routing: 3D Printed Optical Fibers For Sensing and Display THIAGO PEREIRA or restrict themselves to light dif- fusion in volumes. We use multi-material 3D printing to fabricate objects

  11. Culvert Design for Flood Routing considering Sediment Transport W.J. Rahmeyer PhD.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahmeyer, William J.

    Culvert Design for Flood Routing considering Sediment Transport W.J. Rahmeyer PhD.1 and W Education Utah State University Brigham City, UT 84302 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Abstract: Current flood systems where flood flows deliver sediments to and through culvert inlets. Keywords: Culvert bed

  12. The Price of Routing Unsplittable Flow Baruch Awerbuch # Yossi Azar + Amir Epstein #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiat, Amos

    The Price of Routing Unsplittable Flow Baruch Awerbuch # Yossi Azar + Amir Epstein # Abstract. In this paper, we assume this more realistic unsplittable model, and investigate the ''price of anarchy that for linear edge latency functions the price of anarchy is exactly 2.618 for weighted demand and exactly 2

  13. OnLine Routing of Virtual Circuits with Applications to Load Balancing and Machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiat, Amos

    On­Line Routing of Virtual Circuits with Applications to Load Balancing and Machine Scheduling on line and each job must be assigned to one of the machines immediately upon arrival. Assigning a job to a machine increases this machine's load by an amount that depends both on the job and on the machine

  14. Nash Equilibria in Competitive Societies, with Applications to Facility Location, Trac Routing and Auctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vetta, Adrian

    Nash Equilibria in Competitive Societies, with Applications to Facility Location, TraÃ?c Routing, guarantees on the social performance of Nash equilibria. For submodular utility functions, any Nash-dependent additive term. For non-decreasing, submodular utility functions, any Nash equilibrium gives an expected

  15. A Context and Content-Based Routing Protocol for Mobile Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cugola, Gianpaolo

    -sink, mobile WSNs. CCBR adopts content-based addressing to effectively support the data-centric commu- nication of data-aware routing protocols. Indeed, one of the main peculiarities of WSNs is the data-centric form at the typical scenarios of usage of a WSN, we may notice that communication is not only data-centric

  16. Routing Bandwidth Guaranteed Paths with Local Restoration in Label Switched Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Li Erran

    information. We first show that joint optimization of primary and backup paths is NP-hard in all cases. We along the primary path, the source node detects path failure and activates the backup path or nodes along primary path fail. In this paper, we address the problem of distributed routing

  17. Impact of Node Heterogeneity in ZigBee Mesh Network Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ling-Jyh

    Impact of Node Heterogeneity in ZigBee Mesh Network Routing Nia-Chiang Liang1, Ping-Chieh Chen1-WPAN standard, the ZigBee standard has been proposed to interconnect simple, low rate, and battery powered wireless devices. The deploy- ment of ZigBee networks is expected to facilitate numerous applications

  18. Non-Blocking, Localized Routing Algorithm for Balanced Energy Consumption in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Chansu

    relevant nodes but also to balance individual battery levels. Unbalanced energy usage will result1 Non-Blocking, Localized Routing Algorithm for Balanced Energy Consumption in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Kyungtae Woo, Chansu Yu, and Dongman Lee Hee Yong Youn Ben Lee School of Engineering Information

  19. Energy-Aware Geographic Routing in Lossy Wireless Sensor Networks with Environmental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    wireless channel condition and the renewal capability of environmental energy supply when making routing are typically battery powered and the lifetime of the battery imposes a limitation on the operation hours), battery technology has been relatively unchanged for many years. Energy efficiency has been a critical

  20. SUBMITTED TO IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING 1 Lattice Networks: Capacity Limits, Optimal Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beferull-Lozano, Baltasar

    networks. Such networks are used in regular settings like grid computing and can be seen that achieve the maximum rate. Index Terms Lattice networks, square grid, torus, routing, queueing theory] and wired circuits such as CMOS circuits and CCD-based devices [4]. Lattice networks are also known as grid

  1. A RECONFIGURABLE ARCHITECTURE FOR MULTI-GIGABIT SPEED CONTENT-BASED ROUTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Young Hyun

    are automatically generated using an application-specific compiler that is de- scribed in this paper. The compiler was sponsored by the Air Force Research Laboratory, Air Force Materiel Command, USAF, under Contract number MDA the freedom to de- scribe routing schemes in the application layer of the net- work packets. Content

  2. Adaptive Multiple Metrics Routing Protocols for Heterogeneous Multi-Hop Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yu

    , energy consumption, and traffic load into the path cost calculation for ad hoc or multihop of multiple metrics for calculating path costs results in improved performance and lower overall system The calculation of path cost is a critical component of routing for multi-hop networks, including ad hoc

  3. NextSTEPS White Paper: Four-Page Summary Three Routes Forward for Biofuels1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    of extent of deployment and financial support. · Underscore why all three routes should be pursued, some" encompasses any transportation fuel derived from biomass--organic material derived from living or recently to increase the knowledge base for handling and converting cellulosic biomass. · Leapfrog -- cellulosic

  4. Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Mehdi Kalantari and Mark Shayman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shayman, Mark A.

    purposes. This station is a data sink, and it has enough processing power, storage space, and capability1 Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Mehdi Kalantari and Mark Shayman Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 {mehkalan, shayman

  5. Onion Routing Circuit Construction Via Latency Graphs Sergio Castillo-Perez,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin

    privacy problems on the Internet. Tor (short for The onion router) is a popular low-latency anonymity]. Nowadays, it is distributed as a free software implementation known as Tor (The onion router [2]). It canOnion Routing Circuit Construction Via Latency Graphs Sergio Castillo-P´erez,a , Joaquin Garcia

  6. XPay: Practical anonymous payments for Tor routing and other networked services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbunar, Bogdan

    XPay: Practical anonymous payments for Tor routing and other networked services Yao Chen, Radu Sion for Tor. We then propose micro- payment protocols of increasingly complex requirements for networked overheads of under 4% and 0.9 ms respectively (in ORPay for Tor), provide full anonymity (both for payers

  7. Modelling Data-Centric Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Bhaskar Krishnamachari, Deborah Estrin, and Stephen Wicker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnamachari, Bhaskar

    sensors is based on common phenomena, there is likely to 1 #12;be some redundancy in the data beingModelling Data-Centric Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Bhaskar Krishnamachari, Deborah Estrin ­ Systems University of Southern California Los Angeles, California 90089-2562 213-740-4465 #12;Modelling

  8. From Standalone to Collective Intelligent Route Control M. Yannuzzi, X. Masip-Bruin,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masip Bruin, Xavier

    }@dei.uc.pt Abstract--In this paper we investigate the main limitations of the existing Intelligent Route Control (IRC IRC model from standalone and selfish to a collective and friendlier IRC model. Our evaluations be installed and used today, by simply perform- ing software upgrades to any of the existing IRC solutions

  9. Study of Joint Routing and Wireless Charging Strategies in Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiao, Daji

    Study of Joint Routing and Wireless Charging Strategies in Sensor Networks Zi Li, Yang Peng,yangpeng,wzhang,daji}@iastate.edu Abstract. In recent years, wireless charging (a.k.a. wireless energy transfer- ring) [3] has been. Comparing to the conventional energy conservation or harvesting approaches, wireless charging can replenish

  10. A Secure Energy Routing Mechanism for Sharing Renewable Energy in Smart Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    A Secure Energy Routing Mechanism for Sharing Renewable Energy in Smart Microgrid Ting Zhu Sheng, Binghamton, NY, USA Abstract--Due to volatile and rising energy prices, smart microgrids appear to be increasingly popular. Instead of one centrally located power plant, the microgrids will rely on solar panels

  11. A piecewise-constant congestion taxing policy for repeated routing games q,qq

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    on the flow of the vehicles on each road prior to the beginning of the taxing window (and, henceA piecewise-constant congestion taxing policy for repeated routing games q,qq Farhad Farokhi a-constant congestion tax- ing in which a central planner sets and announces the congestion taxes for fixed windows

  12. Reducing the Risk of Rail Transport of Hazardous Materials by Route Rationalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    Reducing the Risk of Rail Transport of Hazardous Materials by Route Rationalization Athaphon;Kawprasert & Barkan 08-2801 2 ABSTRACT Hazardous materials traffic originates and terminates at numerous different locations throughout the North American railroad network. Rerouting of this traffic, especially

  13. FLOOD FREQUENCYAND ROUTING PROCESSES AT A CONFLUENCE OF THE MIDDLE YELLOW RIVER IN CHINA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Qian

    FLOOD FREQUENCYAND ROUTING PROCESSES AT A CONFLUENCE OF THE MIDDLE YELLOW RIVER IN CHINA HONGMING, Boston, Massachusetts 02125, USA ABSTRACT Floods cause environmental hazards and influence on socio-economic activities. In this study, we evaluated the historic flood frequency at a confluence in the middle Yellow

  14. Helicopter Routing for Maintaining Remote Sites in Alaska using a Genetic Algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mock, Kenrick

    Helicopter Routing for Maintaining Remote Sites in Alaska using a Genetic Algorithm Nicholas with little transportation infrastructure (none, between many villages), helicopters must be used to visit these sites. It is extremely expensive, primarily in fuel costs, to fly helicopters all over the state, so

  15. GreenCoop: Cooperative Green Routing with Energy-efficient Servers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GreenCoop: Cooperative Green Routing with Energy-efficient Servers Luca Chiaraviglio Dipartimento Energy-efficient communication has recently become a key challenge for both researchers and industries. In this paper, we propose a new model in which a Content Provider and an Internet Service Provider cooperate

  16. Intention-Aware Routing to Minimise Delays at Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    to occur because fully charging an EV currently takes between half an hour and several hours and, moreover, EVs need to be charged frequently to complete longer trips. In order to address this challenge, new not consider the specific requirements of EVs, which have a limited charge and may need to route past charging

  17. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS 1 Enforcing Minimum-Cost Multicast Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zongpeng

    . Index Terms-- Communication/Networking, Multicast, Graph Algorithms. I. INTRODUCTION THE classic min-costIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS 1 Enforcing Minimum-Cost Multicast Routing point incurring minimum total edge cost, through appropriate cost allocation and other economic measures

  18. Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Ultra Low Duty Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahk, Saewoong

    Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Ultra Low Duty Cycle Wooguil of high energy consumption mainly caused by the clock drift in ultra low duty cycled environments because most of them are designed without considering ultra low duty cycled environments. To achieve

  19. R: Energy Efficient Routing for Multi-hop Green Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    E2 R: Energy Efficient Routing for Multi-hop Green Wireless Networks Ting Zhu, Don Towsley-- Wireless communication consumes a significant amount of energy in wireless networks. Most multi packet transmission. These particular characteristics of wireless network make it energy inefficient

  20. LMEEC: Layered Multi-Hop Energy Efficient Cluster-based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khelifi, Manel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose LMEEC, a cluster-based routing protocol with low energy consumption for wireless sensor networks. Our protocol is based on a strategy which aims to provide a more reasonable exploitation of the selected nodes (cluster-heads) energy. Simulation results show the effectiveness of LMEEC in decreasing the energy consumption, and in prolonging the network lifetime, compared to LEACH.

  1. Testing and Evaluation of Routing Robustness in Assurable Inter-domain Networking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009 2009 Move Data to Ls8 SQL Storage Engine SQL Storage Engine Data Storage Engine (DSE) SQL Storage Engine SQL Storage Engine Data Storage Engine (DSE) Transfer data for Conversion HDD Retrieve data Store Convert Delete MRT Route Converter (MRC) MySQL RIB UPD RIR MySQL RIB UPD RIR to SQL server Converted Data

  2. A methodology for comparing distances traveled by performance-equivalent fixed-route and demand responsive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quadrifoglio, Luca

    -route and a demand responsive service, while ensuring a comparable service to the same set of customers. We consider to our findings, demand responsive transit services perform better for high- quality service levels and low demand density scenarios. Keywords: transit; bus lines; demand responsive services; service level

  3. On Computing Mobile Agent Routes for Data Fusion in Distributed Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    such as adequate detection energy for target detection or tracking. In conventional fusion architectures, allOn Computing Mobile Agent Routes for Data Fusion in Distributed Sensor Networks Qishi Wu, Member strength and inversely proportional to the path loss and energy consumption. We show this problem to be NP

  4. Adaptive Data Fusion for Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yonghe

    1 Adaptive Data Fusion for Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Hong Luo, Jun Luo redundancy and hence curtail network load, the fusion process itself may introduce significant energy Fusion Steiner Tree (AFST), for energy efficient data gathering in sensor networks. Not only does AFST

  5. On the Cover: One route to harvesting the energy of the sun involves learning to mimic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Zhigang

    #12;On the Cover: One route to harvesting the energy of the sun involves learning to mimic natural the chlorophylls, which play a central role in capturing light and using its energy for photosynthesis in green, and atmospheric carbon dioxide. #12;BASIC RESEARCH NEEDS FOR SOLAR ENERGY UTILIZATION Report on the Basic Energy

  6. Dynamic Non-Continuous Single Slot Advance Reservation over Wavelength Routed Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dynamic Non-Continuous Single Slot Advance Reservation over Wavelength Routed Networks Bharath H) requests in all- optical wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) networks. We propose a two-phase novel signaling in the network by reducing the average number of lightpath switches significantly and greatly

  7. Route Throughput Analysis with Spectral Reuse for Multi-Rate Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tseng, Yu-Chee

    networks (MANETs) have received a lot of attention for its flexible network architecture. While many network (MANET) is a flexible and dynamic architecture that is attractive due to its ease in network1 Route Throughput Analysis with Spectral Reuse for Multi-Rate Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Lien-Wu Chen

  8. Improving the Energy Balance of Field-based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scheuermann, Peter

    Improving the Energy Balance of Field-based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Goce Trajcevski of the network merge into a single path. These path merging effects decrease significantly the energy balance deployments. When multiple sources transmit infor- mation simultaneously, together with energy balancing

  9. Load-Balanced Routing Scheme for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boutaba, Raouf

    Load-Balanced Routing Scheme for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks Fatma Bouabdallah, Nizar. In this paper, we investigate the potential energy conservation achieved by balancing the traffic throughout, load balancing, performance analysis. I. INTRODUCTION In order to minimize the energy consumption

  10. Wilson Bull., 108(4), 1996, pp. 662-672 MIGRATION ROUTES OF THE WESTERN SANDPIPER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandercock, Brett K.

    Wilson Bull., 108(4), 1996, pp. 662-672 MIGRATION ROUTES OF THE WESTERN SANDPIPER ROBERTW. BUTLER, Mexico, British Columbia, and Alaska. Ninety-five sightings were made in states and provinces along Peru were seen east of the Rocky Mountains. We propose that most Western Sandpipers migrate from

  11. Routing, Storage Management and Caching, and Security of Peer-to-Peer Storage Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yingwu "Jason"

    Routing, Storage Management and Caching, and Security of Peer-to-Peer Storage Systems Yingwu Zhu such as Napster, Gnutella and Freenet, has inspired a whole new breed of P2P storage systems, which aims-tolerant, and highly-available storage without centralized servers. Many P2P storage systems have been proposed

  12. Geodesic packet routing over self-organizing mobile ad-hoc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julien, Christine

    -011 Thayne R. Coffman Christine Julien © Copyright 2006 The University of Texas at Austin #12;IEEE SECON `07 Thayne R. Coffman and Christine Julien, Member, IEEE Abstract--The development of routing protocols of some basic simulations that measure its ability to perform efficient geodesic packet forwarding over

  13. Joint Power Control, Scheduling and Routing for Multihop Energy Harvesting Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Vinod

    , wind turbines and piezo- electric cells, which extract energy from the environment. Among these, solarJoint Power Control, Scheduling and Routing for Multihop Energy Harvesting Sensor Networks Vinay study wireless multihop energy harvesting sensor net- works employed for random field estimation

  14. A Simple Asymptotically Optimal Joint Energy Allocation and Routing Scheme in Rechargeable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 A Simple Asymptotically Optimal Joint Energy Allocation and Routing Scheme in Rechargeable Sensor problem for a sensor network with energy replenishment. Each sensor node consumes energy in its battery of the optimum. Through simulations with replenishment profile traces for solar and wind energy, we numerically

  15. J-RoC: a Joint Routing and Charging Scheme to Prolong Sensor Network Lifetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiao, Daji

    -lasting and fundamental problem. To address this issue, harvesting the ambient energy such as solar [1], wind [2. Zhang et al. [7] apply this technique to replenish battery energy in med- ical sensors and implantableJ-RoC: a Joint Routing and Charging Scheme to Prolong Sensor Network Lifetime Zi Li, Yang Peng

  16. Multi-resource routing with flexible tasks: an application in drayage operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smilowitz, Karen

    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Sciences Northwestern University January 5, 2006 Abstract This paper introduces an application of a Multi-Resource Routing Problem (MRRP) in drayage operations. Drayage involves the movement of loaded and empty equipment between rail yards, shippers, consignees

  17. A Study on Energy Harvesting Aware Routing for Vibration-Motivated Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Sunho

    A Study on Energy Harvesting Aware Routing for Vibration-Motivated Wireless Sensor Networks TTU an electrical energy from various environmental sources, called energy harvesting (or energy scavenging), has been an issue and attracting researchers' attention in energy replenishable networks. In par- ticular

  18. Self-Selecting Reliable Path Routing in Diverse Wireless Sensor Network Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varela, Carlos

    , szymansk}@cs.rpi.edu Abstract Routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) face three major three of the afore-mentioned challenges. 1. Introduction A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists environments for extended periods of time. Moreover, WSN must be autonomous, fault tolerant, and energy

  19. Towards Robust Multi-layer Traffic Engineering: Optimization of Congestion Control and Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    Towards Robust Multi-layer Traffic Engineering: Optimization of Congestion Control and Routing. Keywords: Congestion control, Traffic Engineering, Network util- ity maximization, Optimization, Robustness, in a process known as traffic engineering. TCP congestion control assumes that the network paths do not change

  20. Maintenance Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Andre Barroso, Utz Roedig and Cormac Sreenan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sreenan, Cormac J.

    of maintenance operations in a sensor field is essentially dependent on the way nodes are de- pleted. Given- tive definition of a maintenance operation as the replace- ment of batteries from one or more nodes of evaluating the impact of routing pro- tocols in the maintenance operations also requires the as- sumption

  1. Energy-Aware Routing in Sensor Networks: A Large System Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srikant, Rayadurgam

    Energy-Aware Routing in Sensor Networks: A Large System Approach Longbi Lin a , Ness B. Shroff a, Sensor Network, Large System, Mathematical Programming/Optimization, Simulations 1 Introduction Energy re- plenishment. Energy sources, e.g., solar cells, can be attached to sensor nodes to prolong

  2. GeOpps: Geographical Opportunistic Routing for Vehicular Networks Ilias Leontiadis and Cecilia Mascolo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mascolo, Cecilia

    of hybrid delay tolerant network where a mixture of infostations and vehicles can be used to geographically-hoc networks on the fly and connect with fixed infostations while passing by [7]. Vehicular networks are hybrid that employ vehicular DTN routing pro- tocols like CarTel [2], DieselNet [1], Drive Through Inter- net [16

  3. Probabilistic Resource Route Queries with Reappearance Gregor Joss, Klaus Arthur Schmid, Matthias Schubert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kriegel, Hans-Peter

    , Germany {josse,schmid,schubert}@dbs.ifi.lmu.de ABSTRACT In many routing applications, it is unclear With increasing gas prices, escalating greenhouse gas emissions and heavy traffic congestion in metropolitan areas vacant spots upon arrival. Another example are drivers of electric cars looking for public charging sta

  4. WDS-Based Layer 2 Routing for Wireless Mesh Networks [Extended Abstract

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuah, Chen-Nee

    - struct flow-based MAC tables at each wireless router. For an incoming packet, the router will matchWDS-Based Layer 2 Routing for Wireless Mesh Networks [Extended Abstract] Dhruv Gupta, Jason Le-communication Networks]: Network Architecture and Design--wireless communication General Terms design

  5. EFW: A Cross-Layer Metric for Reliable Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks with Selfish Participants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nita-Rotaru, Cristina

    metrics have been designed assuming that each wireless mesh router participates honestly in the forwardingEFW: A Cross-Layer Metric for Reliable Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks with Selfish Participants.martignon@unibg.it Abstract--Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) have emerged as a flexible and low-cost network infrastructure

  6. Tangle: Route-Oriented Dynamic Voltage Minimization for Variation-Afflicted, Energy-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torrellas, Josep

    Voltage EnergyperOperation 1.0V #12;Low-Voltage Operation Vdd reduction is one of the best leversTangle: Route-Oriented Dynamic Voltage Minimization for Variation-Afflicted, Energy- Efficient On for energy efficiency o Big reduction in dynamic power; also reduction in static power New technologies

  7. Distributed Iterative Optimal Resource Allocation with Concurrent Updates of Routing and Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Jayakrishnan U.

    in the network. We define `good' operating points as those that maximize f subject to the capacity constraints of its transfer rate. The transfer rates of all sessions and the routing policy define the operating online implementation. The convergence of the concurrent update scheme is proved rigorously. Index Terms

  8. Flow-induced chain scission as a physical route to narrowly distributed, high molar mass polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barron, Annelise E.

    Flow-induced chain scission as a physical route to narrowly distributed, high molar mass polymers Abstract We present data showing a substantial narrowing of the polydispersity index (PDI) of high polymers experiments, semi-dilute aqueous solutions of high-molar mass, polydisperse polymers (PDI . 1.4) were injected

  9. 12003 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing M.Atiquzzaman, Univ. of Oklahoma, June 2003.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atiquzzaman, Mohammed

    12003 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing M.Atiquzzaman, Univ. of Oklahoma, June Mohammed Atiquzzaman School of Computer Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019-6151. Email: atiq.Atiquzzaman, Univ. of Oklahoma, June 2003. Queue Management Passive No preventive packet drop until buffer reaches

  10. c 2001, Dr.Y.N.Singh, EED, IITK 1 Network Layer Routing -V

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh Yatindra Nath

    c 2001, Dr.Y.N.Singh, EED, IITK 1 ' & $ Network Layer Routing - V Border Gateway Protocol -4 Yatindra Nath Singh ynsingh@ieee.org Dept. Of Electrical Engineering IIT Kanpur-208016 22 August 2001 #12;c 2001, Dr.Y.N.Singh, EED, IITK 2 ' & $ Border Gateway Protocol - 4 BGP-4 RFC 1771 - http: www

  11. Investigation of routes and funnels in protein folding by free energy functional methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plotkin, Steven S.

    Investigation of routes and funnels in protein folding by free energy functional methods Steven S, and approved March 20, 2000 (received for review December 17, 1999) We use a free energy functional theory the free energy barrier to folding. Correlating stronger contact energies with entropically likely contacts

  12. Optimal Routing Algorithm in Swarm Robotic Systems Moya Chen, James Macdonald

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wierman, Adam

    problem (VRP) is well studied, studying routing on a system of drones that can near has developed significantly in recent years. Modern-day drones are now capable of doing an assortment use "UAV", "drone", and "quadcopter" interchangably. 2 While a little unrelated, we recommend

  13. New York State Legislation Supporting Safe Routes to School and Healthy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandrova, Ivana

    New York State Legislation Supporting Safe Routes to School and Healthy Infrastructure Background transportation alternatives to school. In New York State, "Transportations Alternatives, New York City program with millions of dollars of federal funding allocated between 2005 and 2009. In New York State

  14. A Multiobjective Performance Evaluation Framework for Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaffrès-Runser, Katia

    network when delay, robustness and energy are considered. I. INTRODUCTION Wireless ad hoc and sensor to transmission delay [8], energy consumption [9] or fairness [10] are added on top of its main design goalA Multiobjective Performance Evaluation Framework for Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Katia

  15. Tradeoffs and Average-Case Equilibria in Selfish Routing Martin Hoefer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiterer, Harald

    the expected price of anarchy of the game for various social cost functions. For total latency social cost cost in polyno- mial time. Furthermore, our analyses of the expected prices are average-case analyses, 2007 Abstract We consider the price of selfish routing in terms of tradeoffs and from an average

  16. A Micellar Route to Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Hydrophobic Functional Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yue

    A Micellar Route to Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Hydrophobic Functional Polymers Qi Bo, Xia Tong, Yi, 2008 ABSTRACT: We demonstrate a general approach to introduce hydrophobic functional polymers-chain liquid crystalline polymer (SCLCP) were synthesized using atom transfer radical polymerization, followed

  17. Final Accepted Version Collision risk-capacity tradeoff analysis of an en-route

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    highways in the sky. Safety, performance and cost are three primary criteria used to measure design-continuous simulation method. A basic two-dimensional en-route flow corridor with performance rules are designed-separation and dynamic activation rules are three of the prominent attributes of corridors. The well-designed corridor

  18. Characterizing the Interaction Between Routing and MAC Protocols in Ad-Hoc Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, A. (Achla); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)

    2002-01-01

    We empirically study the effect of mobility on the performance of protocols designed for wireless ad-hoc networks. An important objective is to study the interaction of the Routing and MAC layer protocols under different mobility parameters. We use three basic mobility models: grid mobility model, random waypoint model, and exponential correlated random model. The performance of protocols is measured in terms of (i) latency, (ii) throughput, (iii) number of packets received, (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC and routing layer level. Three different commonly studied routing protocols are used: AODV, DSR and LAR1. Similarly three well known MAC protocols are used: MACA, 802.1 1 and CSMA. Our main contribution is simulation based experiments coupled with rigorous statistical analysis to characterize the interaction of MAC layer protocols with routing layer protocols in ad-hoc networks. From the results, we can conclude the following: e No single MAC or Routing protocol dominated the other protocols in their class. Probably more interestingly, no MAURouting protocol combination was better than other combinations over all scenarios and response variables. 0 In general, it is not meaningful to speak about a MAC or a routing protocol in isolation. Presence of interaction leads to trade-offs between the amount of control packets generated by each layer. The results raise the possibility of improving the performance of a particular MAC layer protocol by using a cleverly designed routing protocol or vice-versa. Thus in order to improve the performanceof a communication network, it is important to study the entire protocol stack as a single algorithmic construct; optimizing individual layers in the seven layer OS1 stack will not yield performance improvements beyond a point. A methodological contribution of this paper is the use of statistical methods such as analysis of variance (ANOVA), to characterize the interaction between the protocols, mobility patterns and speed. Such methods allow us to analyze complicated experiments with large input space in a systematic manner.

  19. Automating Risk Assessments of Hazardous Material Shipments for Transportation Routes and Mode Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbara H. Dolphin; William D. RIchins; Stephen R. Novascone

    2010-10-01

    The METEOR project at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) successfully addresses the difficult problem in risk assessment analyses of combining the results from bounding deterministic simulation results with probabilistic (Monte Carlo) risk assessment techniques. This paper describes a software suite designed to perform sensitivity and cost/benefit analyses on selected transportation routes and vehicles to minimize risk associated with the shipment of hazardous materials. METEOR uses Monte Carlo techniques to estimate the probability of an accidental release of a hazardous substance along a proposed transportation route. A METEOR user selects the mode of transportation, origin and destination points, and charts the route using interactive graphics. Inputs to METEOR (many selections built in) include crash rates for the specific aircraft, soil/rock type and population densities over the proposed route, and bounding limits for potential accident types (velocity, temperature, etc.). New vehicle, materials, and location data are added when available. If the risk estimates are unacceptable, the risks associated with alternate transportation modes or routes can be quickly evaluated and compared. Systematic optimizing methods will provide the user with the route and vehicle selection identified with the lowest risk of hazardous material release. The effects of a selected range of potential accidents such as vehicle impact, fire, fuel explosions, excessive containment pressure, flooding, etc. are evaluated primarily using hydrocodes capable of accurately simulating the material response of critical containment components. Bounding conditions that represent credible accidents (i.e; for an impact event, velocity, orientations, and soil conditions) are used as input parameters to the hydrocode models yielding correlation functions relating accident parameters to component damage. The Monte Carlo algorithms use random number generators to make selections at the various decision points such as; crash, location, etc. For each pass through the routines, when a crash is randomly selected, crash parameters are then used to determine if failure has occurred using either external look up tables, correlations functions from deterministic calculations, or built in data libraries. The effectiveness of the software was recently demonstrated in safety analyses of the transportation of radioisotope systems for the US Dept. of Energy. These methods are readily adaptable to estimating risks associated with a variety of hazardous shipments such as spent nuclear fuel, explosives, and chemicals.

  20. Long-Range Correlations and Memory in the Dynamics of Internet Interdomain Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitsak, Maksim; Havlin, Shlomo; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Data transfer is one of the main functions of the Internet. The Internet consists of a large number of interconnected subnetworks or domains, known as Autonomous Systems. Due to privacy and other reasons the information about what route to use to reach devices within other Autonomous Systems is not readily available to any given Autonomous System. The Border Gateway Protocol is responsible for discovering and distributing this reachability information to all Autonomous Systems. Since the topology of the Internet is highly dynamic, all Autonomous Systems constantly exchange and update this reachability information in small chunks, known as routing control packets or Border Gateway Protocol updates. Motivated by scalability and predictability issues with the dynamics of these updates in the quickly growing Internet, we conduct a systematic time series analysis of Border Gateway Protocol update rates. We find that Border Gateway Protocol update time series are extremely volatile, exhibit long-term correlations a...

  1. Improving energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks through scheduling and routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R, Rathna; 10.5121/ijassn.2012.2103

    2012-01-01

    This paper is about the wireless sensor network in environmental monitoring applications. A Wireless Sensor Network consists of many sensor nodes and a base station. The number and type of sensor nodes and the design protocols for any wireless sensor network is application specific. The sensor data in this application may be light intensity, temperature, pressure, humidity and their variations .Clustering and routing are the two areas which are given more attention in this paper.

  2. LMEEC: Layered Multi-Hop Energy Efficient Cluster-based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khelifi, Manel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose LMEEC, a cluster-based rout- ing protocol with low energy consumption for wireless sensor networks. Our protocol is based on a strategy which aims to provide a more equitable exploitation of the selected nodes (cluster-heads) energy. Simulation results show the effective- ness of LMEEC in decreasing the energy consumption, and in prolonging the network lifetime, compared to LEACH.

  3. Treatment of Portosystemic Shunt Myelopathy with a Stent Graft Deployed through a Transjugular Intrahepatic Route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Deepak Arora, Ankur; Deka, Pranjal; Mukund, Amar Bhatnagar, Shorav; Jindal, Deepti Kumar, Niteen Pamecha, Viniyendra

    2013-08-01

    A case of surgically created splenorenal shunt complicated with shunt myelopathy was successfully managed by placement of a stent graft within the splenic vein to close the portosystemic shunt and alleviate myelopathy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of shunt myelopathy in a patient with noncirrhotic portal fibrosis without cirrhosis treated by a novel technique wherein a transjugular intrahepatic route was adopted to deploy the stent graft.

  4. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Analysis Methodology and Basic Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitali, Luigino; Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo

    2008-07-08

    Twin oil (20 and 24 inch) and gas (20 and 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE)--the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. This Paper describes the steps followed to formulate the concept of the special trenches and the analytical characteristics of the Model.

  5. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Pipeline Design and Risk Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo; Strom, Alexander

    2008-07-08

    Twin oil (20 and 24 inch) and gas (20 and 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE) - the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. Detailed Design was performed with due regard to actual topography and to avoid the possibility of the trenches freezing in winter, the implementation of specific drainage solutions and thermal protection measures.

  6. A Dirichlet reputation system in reliable routing of wireless ad hoc network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dr. Li [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Cemerlic, Alma [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2010-01-01

    Ad hoc networks are very helpful in situations when no fixed network infrastructure is available, such as natural disasters and military conflicts. In such a network, all wireless nodes are equal peers simultaneously serving as both senders and routers for other nodes. Therefore, how to route packets through reliable paths becomes a fundamental problems when behaviors of certain nodes deviate from wireless ad hoc routing protocols. We proposed a novel Dirichlet reputation model based on Bayesian inference theory which evaluates reliability of each node in terms of packet delivery. Our system offers a way to predict and select a reliable path through combination of first-hand observation and second-hand reputation reports. We also proposed moving window mechanism which helps to adjust ours responsiveness of our system to changes of node behaviors. We integrated the Dirichlet reputation into routing protocol of wireless ad hoc networks. Our extensive simulation indicates that our proposed reputation system can improve good throughput of the network and reduce negative impacts caused by misbehaving nodes.

  7. Exploring a Centralized/Distributed Hybrid Routing Protocol for Low Power Wireless Networks and Large-Scale Datacenters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tavakoli, Arsalan

    2009-01-01

    5.1.1 Datacenter Network Architecture . . . . . . . . 5.1.2Switching Layer for Data Centers 5.1 Datacenter Routing anda) Prevalent 3-layer datacenter network topology. (b) Layer-

  8. O(C + D) HotPotato Routing on Trees Costas Busch # Malik MagdonIsmail + Marios Mavronicolas # Roger Wattenhofer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bystroff, Chris

    ]. They have been used in parallel machines such as the HEP multiprocessor [31], the Connection machine [17 be used to route packets in an arbitrary network. We consider trees in which nodes are synchronous, namely

  9. En Route to the Clinic: Diagnostic Sequencing Applications Using the Ion Torrent ( 7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Muzny, Donna [Baylor College of Medicine

    2013-03-22

    Donna Muzny on "En route to the clinic: Diagnostic sequencing applications using the Ion Torrent" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  10. Multi-objective Mobile Agent Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Ramesh Rajagopalan, Chilukuri K. Mohan, Pramod Varshney, Kishan Mehrotra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coello, Carlos A. Coello

    Due to their flexibility and cost effectiveness, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been usedMulti-objective Mobile Agent Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Ramesh Rajagopalan, Chilukuri K. Mohan, Pramod Varshney, Kishan Mehrotra Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Dept., Syracuse

  11. Avoidance Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kline, Erik A.

    2012-01-01

    Security Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Security Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .there is too much information about security properties in

  12. Two Nineteenth Century Trade Routes in the Eastern Himalayas: the Bhutanese trade with Tibet and Bengal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Ratna; Ray, Indrajit

    2006-01-01

    to the freezing point in the Himalayan kingdoms, it was by far the best season for caravan trade. The chance of rain was least; also the river beds were dry so that the caravans could smoothly proceed along those beds minimizing their toil and fatalities. Food... was cheap, especially barley, meat and wine, and easily available in the route-side localities.9 Also, this was the season when farm activities were slack, and farmers had time to vend their crops and to opt for subsidiary jobs. In Tibet, for example...

  13. Efficient Route to Highly Water-Soluble Aromatic Cyclic Hydroxamic Acid Ligands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seitz, Michael; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-02-06

    2-Hydroxyisoquinolin-1-one (1,2-HOIQO) is a new member of the important class of aromatic cyclic hydroxamic acid ligands which are widely used in metal sequestering applications and metal chelating therapy. The first general approach for the introduction of substituents at the aromatic ring of the chelating moiety is presented. As a useful derivative, the highly water-soluble sulfonic acid has been synthesized by an efficient route that allows general access to 1,2-HOQIO 3-carboxlic acid amides, which are the most relevant for applications.

  14. A Route to Scale up DNA Origami Using DNA Tiles as Folding Staples

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016 News BelowAsked toUSC-Aiken,A NewA NewPathAA Route

  15. Method and apparatus for routing data in an inter-nodal communications lattice of a massively parallel computer system by employing bandwidth shells at areas of overutilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Musselman, Roy Glenn; Peters, Amanda; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Swartz, Brent Allen; Wallenfelt, Brian Paul

    2010-04-27

    A massively parallel computer system contains an inter-nodal communications network of node-to-node links. An automated routing strategy routes packets through one or more intermediate nodes of the network to reach a final destination. The default routing strategy is altered responsive to detection of overutilization of a particular path of one or more links, and at least some traffic is re-routed by distributing the traffic among multiple paths (which may include the default path). An alternative path may require a greater number of link traversals to reach the destination node.

  16. Recoverable DTN Routing based on a Relay of Cyclic Message-Ferries on a MSQ Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayashi, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    An interrelation between a topological design of network and efficient algorithm on it is important for its applications to communication or transportation systems. In this paper, we propose a design principle for a reliable routing in a store-carry-forward manner based on autonomously moving message-ferries on a special structure of fractal-like network, which consists of a self-similar tiling of equilateral triangles. As a collective adaptive mechanism, the routing is realized by a relay of cyclic message-ferries corresponded to a concatenation of the triangle cycles and using some good properties of the network structure. It is recoverable for local accidents in the hierarchical network structure. Moreover, the design principle is theoretically supported with a calculation method for the optimal service rates of message-ferries derived from a tandem queue model for stochastic processes on a chain of edges in the network. These results obtained from a combination of complex network science and computer scie...

  17. A case study of pipeline route selection and design through discontinuous permafrost terrain in northwestern Alberta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiechnik, C.; Boivin, R.; Henderson, J.; Bowman, M.

    1996-12-31

    As the natural gas pipeline system in Western Canada expands northward, it traverses the discontinuous permafrost zone. As the ground temperature of the frozen soil in this zone is just below freezing, it can be expected that within the design life of a pipeline the permafrost adjacent to it will melt due to the disturbance of the insulating cover by construction activities. Differential settlement at the thawing frozen/unfrozen soil interfaces gives rise to pipeline strain. Based on the calculated settlement and resulting strain level, a cost effective mechanical or civil design solution can be selected to mitigate the differential settlement problem. Since these design solutions can be costly, it is desirable to combine them with a pipeline route that traverses the least amount of discontinuous permafrost terrain while minimizing the overall length of the pipeline. This paper will detail the framework utilized to select the routing for a package of pipeline projects in northwestern Alberta. It is believed that the increased front end effort will result in lower operating costs and an overall reduced life-cycle cost. This basic design methodology can be applied to any project that traverses discontinuous permafrost terrain.

  18. Estimate of air carrier and air taxi crash frequencies from high altitude en route flight operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanzo, D.; Kimura, C.Y.; Prassinos, P.G.

    1996-06-03

    In estimating the frequency of an aircraft crashing into a facility, it has been found convenient to break the problem down into two broad categories. One category estimates the aircraft crash frequency due to air traffic from nearby airports, the so-called near-airport environment. The other category estimates the aircraft crash frequency onto facilities due to air traffic from airways, jet routes, and other traffic flying outside the near-airport environment The total aircraft crash frequency is the summation of the crash frequencies from each airport near the facility under evaluation and from all airways, jet routes, and other traffic near the facility of interest. This paper will examine the problems associated with the determining the aircraft crash frequencies onto facilities outside the near-airport environment. This paper will further concentrate on the estimating the risk of aircraft crashes to ground facilities due to high altitude air carrier and air taxi traffic. High altitude air carrier and air taxi traffic will be defined as all air carrier and air taxi flights above 18,000 feet Mean Sea Level (MSL).

  19. A Time-Slotted On-Demand Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Unmanned Vehicle Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hope Forsmann; Robert Hiromoto; John Svoboda

    2007-04-01

    The popularity of UAVs has increased dramatically because of their successful deployment in military operations, their ability to preserve human life, and the continual improvements in wireless communication that serves to increase their capabilities. We believe the usefulness of UAVs would be dramatically increased if formation flight were added to the list of capabilities. Currently, sustained formation flight with a cluster of UAVs has only been achieved with two nodes by the Multi-UAV Testbed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (Park, 2004) Formation flight is a complex operation requiring the ability to adjust the flight patterns on the fly and correct for wind gusts, terrain, and differences in node equipment. All of which increases the amount of inner node communication. Since one of the problems with MANET communication is network congestion, we believe a first step towards formation flight can be made through improved inner node communication. We have investigated current communication routing protocols and developed an altered hybrid routing protocol in order to provide communication with less network congestion.

  20. Synthesis of Sol-Gel Matrices for Encapsulation of Enzymes Using an Aqueous Route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashley, C.S.; Bhatia, R.B.; Brinker, C.J.; Harris, T.M.

    1998-11-23

    Sol-gel matrices are promising host materials for potential chemical and biosensor applications. Previous studies have focused on modified sol-gel routes using alkoxides for encapsulation of enzymes. However the formation of alcohol as a byproduct during hydrolysis and condensation reactions poses limitations. We report the immobilization of glucose oxidase and peroxidase in silica prepared by an aqueous route which may provide a more favorable environment for the biomolecules. A two step aqueous sol-gel procedure using sodium silicate as the precursor was developed to encapsulate the enzymes and the dye precursor, o-dianisidine. Glucose oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of glucose to give gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Peroxidase then catalyzes the reaction of the dye precursor with hydrogen peroxide to produce a colored product. The kinetics of the coupled enzymatic reactions were monitored by optical spectroscopy and compared to those occurring in tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) derived silica matrices developed by Yamanaka. Enhanced kinetics in the aqueous silicate matrices were related to differences in the host microstructure as elucidated by microstructural comparisons of the corresponding aerogels.

  1. Nonlinear metaldielectric nanoantennas for light switching and routing This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nonlinear metal­dielectric nanoantennas for light switching and routing This article has been for this issue, or go to the journal homepage for more Home Search Collections Journals About Contact us My metal­dielectric nanoantennas for light switching and routing R E Noskov1,3 , A E Krasnok1 and Yu

  2. Self-Learning Routing for ZigBee Wireless Mesh Chia-Hung Tsai, Meng-Shiuan Pan, Yi-Chen Lu, and Yu-Chee Tseng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tseng, Yu-Chee

    Self-Learning Routing for ZigBee Wireless Mesh Networks Chia-Hung Tsai, Meng-Shiuan Pan, Yi-Chen Lu results show that SLR outperforms ZigBee tree routing in path length. Our implementation results, ZigBee. I. INTRODUCTION The rapid progress of wireless communication and embed- ded micro-sensing MEMS

  3. Hiding Amongst the Clouds: A Proposal for Cloud-based Onion Routing Nicholas Jones, Matvey Arye, Jacopo Cesareo, and Michael J. Freedman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    number of volunteers (as Tor does), we propose mov- ing onion-routing services to the "cloud" to leverageHiding Amongst the Clouds: A Proposal for Cloud-based Onion Routing Nicholas Jones, Matvey Arye and surveillance have made anonymity tools increasingly critical for free and open Internet access. Tor, and its

  4. IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, VOL. 15, NO. 4, AUGUST 2007 775 NIRA: A New Inter-Domain Routing Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Xiaowei

    -Domain Routing Architecture Xiaowei Yang, Member, IEEE, David Clark, Fellow, IEEE, and Arthur W. Berger Abstract have entered the network, they have little control over the overall routes their packets take. Giving is with the University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 USA (e-mail: xwy@uci.edu). D. Clark is with MIT CSAIL

  5. Energy-Aware Routing: a Reality Check Aruna Prem Bianzino1, Claude Chaudet1, Federico Larroca2, Dario Rossi1, Jean-Louis Rougier1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rougier, Jean-Louis

    of green routing algorithms and evaluate the achievable energy savings that such mechanisms could allow of bringing energy- awareness in network elements and processes is usually re- ferred to as green networking1 Energy-Aware Routing: a Reality Check Aruna Prem Bianzino1, Claude Chaudet1, Federico Larroca2

  6. An alternative route for efficient optical indirect-gap excitation in Ge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Hayashi, Shuhei; Fukatsu, Susumu, E-mail: cfkatz@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Yasutake, Yuhsuke [Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2014-07-28

    We explored optical excitation pathways in the multivalley semiconductor Ge in an attempt to expedite selective electron injection into the indirect L-band-edge. An off-peak resonant excitation route was developed, which offers the pumping efficiency outperforming the phonon-assisted near-indirect-edge absorption by more than six orders of magnitude. The valley selectivity results from the intra-valley relaxation that separates electrons and holes in momentum space following excitation. Fortuitously, the widely used green laser, 532?nm, is found to be nearly ideally suited to the efficient L-valley-selective excitation in Ge. Such valley-specific pumping may help clarify the otherwise complicated electron dynamics involving intervalley processes.

  7. The World's Colonisation and Trade Routes Formation as Imitated by Slime Mould

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is renowned for spanning sources of nutrients with networks of protoplasmic tubes. The networks transport nutrients and metabolites across the plasmodium's body. To imitate a hypothetical colonisation of the world and formation of major transportation routes we cut continents from agar plates arranged in Petri dishes or on the surface of a three-dimensional globe, represent positions of selected metropolitan areas with oat flakes and inoculate the plasmodium in one of the metropolitan areas. The plasmodium propagates towards the sources of nutrients, spans them with its network of protoplasmic tubes and even crosses bare substrate between the continents. From the laboratory experiments we derive weighted Physarum graphs, analyse their structure, compare them with the basic proximity graphs and generalised graphs derived from the Silk Road and the Asia Highway networks.

  8. Time dynamics of multiparty quantum correlations indicate energy transfer route in light-harvesting complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Titas Chanda; Utkarsh Mishra; Aditi Sen De; Ujjwal Sen

    2015-02-10

    The time-evolution of multiparty quantum correlations as quantified by monogamy scores and bipartition collections of quantum correlations is investigated for light-harvesting complexes modeled by the fully connected and the Fenna-Mathews-Olson (FMO) networks. The dynamics consists of a coherent term as well as dissipative, dephasing, and sink operator terms. The multiparty quantum correlation reveals important information regarding the sharability of quantum correlations in the networks, which allow us to categorize the network sites into three distinct groups in the FMO complex and to predict the structural geometry of the complex. In particular, we show that the relative values of the ingredients of multiparty quantum correlation measures in the time dynamics clearly indicate the primary route of energy transfer from the antenna to the bacterial reaction center in the FMO complex.

  9. Apparatus and method for routing a transmission line through a downhole tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Briscoe, Michael; Reynolds, Jay

    2006-07-04

    A method for routing a transmission line through a tool joint having a primary and secondary shoulder, a central bore, and a longitudinal axis, includes drilling a straight channel, at a positive, nominal angle with respect to the longitudinal axis, through the tool joint from the secondary shoulder to a point proximate the inside wall of the centtral bore. The method further includes milling back, from within the central bore, a second channel to merge with the straight channel, thereby forming a continuous channel from the secondary shoulder to the central bore. In selected embodiments, drilling is accomplished by gun-drilling the straight channel. In other embodiments, the method includes tilting the tool joint before drilling to produce the positive, nominal angle. In selected embodiments, the positive, nominal angle is less than or equal to 15 degrees.

  10. Hydrodynamic Instabilities Provide A Generic Route To Spontaneous Biomimetic Oscillations In Chemomechanically Active Filaments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abhrajit Laskar; Rajeev Singh; Somdeb Ghose; Gayathri Jayaraman; P. B. Sunil Kumar; R. Adhikari

    2013-06-11

    Non-equilibrium processes which convert chemical energy into mechanical motion enable the motility of organisms. Bundles of inextensible filaments driven by energy transduction of molecular motors form essential components of micron-scale motility engines like cilia and flagella. The mimicry of cilia-like motion in recent experiments on synthetic active filaments supports the idea that generic physical mechanisms may be sufficient to generate such motion. Here we show, theoretically, that the competition between the destabilising effect of hydrodynamic interactions induced by force-free and torque-free chemomechanically active flows, and the stabilising effect of nonlinear elasticity, provides a generic route to spontaneous oscillations in active filaments. These oscillations, reminiscent of prokaryotic and eukaryotic flagellar motion, are obtained without having to invoke structural complexity or biochemical regulation. This minimality implies that biomimetic oscillations, previously observed only in complex bundles of active filaments, can be replicated in simple chains of generic chemomechanically active beads.

  11. Distributed Power Flow Control: Distributed Power Flow Control using Smart Wires for Energy Routing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-04-24

    GENI Project: Smart Wire Grid is developing a solution for controlling power flow within the electric grid to better manage unused and overall transmission capacity. The 300,000 miles of high-voltage transmission line in the U.S. today are congested and inefficient, with only around 50% of all transmission capacity utilized at any given time. Increased consumer demand should be met in part with more efficient and an economical power flow. Smart Wire Grid’s devices clamp onto existing transmission lines and control the flow of power within—much like how internet routers help allocate bandwidth throughout the web. Smart wires could support greater use of renewable energy by providing more consistent control over how that energy is routed within the grid on a real-time basis. This would lessen the concerns surrounding the grid’s inability to effectively store intermittent energy from renewables for later use.

  12. IP Routing Table Compression Using TCAM and Distance-one Merge 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bollapalli, Kalyana Chakravarthy

    2011-02-22

    1 1000 1100 2 2 1100 1100 2 3 1010 1110 3 4 1000 1110 4 5 1111 1111 2 6 1100 1110 4 7 1110 1110 5 8 1010 1111 6 9 1011 1111 6 10 0000 1110 7 11 0010 1110 7 12 0100 1110 7 13 0110 1110 7 14 0100 1100 8 16 Table III.4. Example Routing Table after... Compression Entry Prefix Mask Next Hop 1&2 1000 1000 2 3 1010 1110 3 4&6 1000 1010 4 7 1110 1110 5 8&9 1010 1110 6 10,11,12&13 0000 1000 7 14 0100 1100 8 pruning step of [19] but more efficient. As seen earlier, this approach could also lead to a corrupted...

  13. Diffraction limited focusing and routing of gap plasmons by a metal-dielectric-metal lens

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dennis, Brian S.; Czaplewski, David A.; Haftel, Michael I.; Lopez, Daniel; Blumberg, Girsh; Aksyuk, Vladimir

    2015-08-12

    Passive optical elements can play key roles in photonic applications such as plasmonic integrated circuits. Here we experimentally demonstrate passive gap-plasmon focusing and routing in two-dimensions. This is accomplished using a high numerical-aperture metal-dielectric-metal lens incorporated into a planar-waveguide device. Fabrication via metal sputtering, oxide deposition, electron- and focused-ion- beam lithography, and argon ion-milling is reported on in detail. Diffraction-limited focusing is optically characterized by sampling out-coupled light with a microscope. The measured focal distance and full-width-half-maximum spot size agree well with the calculated lens performance. The surface plasmon polariton propagation length is measured by sampling light from multiple out-couplermore »slits.« less

  14. Dual trapped-ion quantum simulators: an alternative route towards exotic quantum magnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graß, Tobias; Bermudez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    We present a route towards the quantum simulation of exotic quantum magnetism in ion traps by exploiting dual relations between different spin models. Our strategy allows one to start from Hamiltonians that can be realized with current technology, while properties of an exotic dual model are inferred from measurements of non-local, string-order-like, operators. The latter can be achieved from fluorescence, or from certain spectroscopic measurements, both of which can be combined with finite-size scaling by controlling the number of ions in the dual quantum simulator. We apply this concept to propose quantum simulators of frustrated quantum magnets, and Ising models with multi-spin interactions. We test the validity of the idea by showing numerically that the predictions of an ideal dual quantum simulator are not qualitatively modified by relevant perturbations that occur naturally in the trapped-ion scenario.

  15. Three long mountain adventures Below is a detailed description of three long (24 hour) routes undertaken in early summer 2009.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Mark

    Three long mountain adventures Below is a detailed description of three long (24 hour) routes. This was to be the first of my spring/summer mountain trips with fairly little long-distance preparations in the preceeding a mountainous atmosphere once one glances the Langdale Pikes with their rocky tops and the distant cloud topped

  16. Query Routing: Finding Ways in the Maze of the Deep Web Govind Kabra Chengkai Li Kevin Chen-Chuan Chang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Chengkai

    Query Routing: Finding Ways in the Maze of the Deep Web Govind Kabra Chengkai Li Kevin Chen-occurrence framework for ranking and select- ing Deep Web sources that provide information relevant to users requirement. Given the huge number of heterogeneous Deep Web data sources, the end users may not know

  17. that minimizes vehicle emissions during design of routes in congested environments with time-dependent travel speeds, hard time windows,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    that minimizes vehicle emissions during design of routes in congested environments with time emissions, and several laboratory and field methods are available for estimating vehicle emissions rates (1 and then begins to increase again (2); hence, the relationship between emission rates and travel speed

  18. The importance of Opuntia in Mexico and routes of invasion and impact of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soberó n, Jorge; Golubov, J.; Sarukhá n, J.

    2001-12-01

    for these two purposes. By using bioclimatic modeling, we predicted the potential distribution of C. cactorum and overlaid this on the actual distribution of Opuntia species. The resulting maps indicate that the possible routes of invasion to Mexico are 1) along...

  19. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VT-2007-00572.R2 1 Exploiting Spectral Reuse in Routing,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tseng, Yu-Chee

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VT-2007-00572.R2 1 Exploiting Spectral Reuse in Routing, Resource Allocation, and Scheduling for IEEE 802.16 Mesh Networks Lien-Wu Chen, Yu-Chee Tseng, Senior Member, IEEE, You-Chiun Wang, Member, IEEE, Da-Wei Wang, Member, IEEE, and Jan-Jan Wu Member, IEEE

  20. Centralized route recovery based on multi-hop wakeup time estimation for wireless sensor networks with ultra low duty cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahk, Saewoong

    with ultra low duty cycles Wooguil Pak, Saewoong Bahk Department of EECS & INMC, Seoul National University Keywords: Wireless sensor network Routing protocol Ultra low duty cycle Network lifetime Multi-hop wakeup time estimation to maximize the network lifetime of WSNs under ultra low duty cycles. It does not use

  1. Dynamical mean-field theory using Wannier functions: A flexible route to electronic structure calculations of strongly correlated materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Dynamical mean-field theory using Wannier functions: A flexible route to electronic structure materials with different degrees of structural and electronic complexity, SrVO3 and BaVS3, are investigated calculations of strongly correlated materials F. Lechermann,1,2, * A. Georges,1 A. Poteryaev,1 S. Biermann,1 M

  2. 4976 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 58, NO. 9, NOVEMBER 2009 Hybrid Geographic Routing for Flexible

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Min

    Routing for Flexible Energy-Delay Tradeoff Min Chen, Member, IEEE, Victor C. M. Leung, Fellow, IEEE in a flexible manner. To further facilitate a tradeoff between energy consumption and end- to-end delay, we constraints on the average end-to-end delay of specific applications while minimizing energy consumption

  3. Polymer sphere lithography for solid oxide fuel cells: a route to functional, well-defined electrode structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polymer sphere lithography for solid oxide fuel cells: a route to functional, well. Introduction Dramatic breakthroughs in the materials, particularly electrode materials, for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have been reported in recent years.1­3 Fundamental understanding of the electro- catalytic

  4. IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 25, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2007 471 Cooperative Routing for Distributed Detection in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tong, Lang

    be significantly more energy efficient than noncooperative routing for the same detection performance. Index Terms collected from multiple sensors and send them to a fusion center where a global decision can be made data to the fusion center may be both inefficient (in utilization of the network's resources

  5. Controlled Room Temperature Synthesis of CoFe2O4 Nanoparticles through a Block Copolymer Nanoreactor Route

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    matrix at room temperature. Comparable inorganic methods for synthesis of nanoscale mixed- metal oxidesControlled Room Temperature Synthesis of CoFe2O4 Nanoparticles through a Block Copolymer Nanoreactor Route Sufi R. Ahmed and Peter Kofinas*, Department of Materials and Nuclear Engineering

  6. Aquaporin-9 Protein Is the Primary Route of Hepatocyte Glycerol Uptake for Glycerol Gluconeogenesis in Mice*S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Groot, Bert

    Aquaporin-9 Protein Is the Primary Route of Hepatocyte Glycerol Uptake for Glycerol Gluconeogenesis glycerol uptake for gluconeogenesis. Significance: Aquaporin-9 may be a drug target in diabetes treatment of hepatocyte glycerol uptake for gluconeogenesis and thereby explain the previously observed, alleviated

  7. 978-1-4244-4793-0/09/$25.00 c 2009 IEEE A Locality Preserving Routing Overlay using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von Bochmann, Gregor

    data content using data-keys are often called distributed hash tables (DHT) for the hash-table-like get properties ­ stretch and route-convergence, is evaluated by simulation studies. Real topology data of 65 ISPs with presence in 534 cities across the world, collected by the Rock- etFuel project, is used as the basis

  8. Atomic Layer Deposition of In2O3 Using Cyclopentadienyl Indium: A New Synthetic Route to Transparent Conducting Oxide Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atomic Layer Deposition of In2O3 Using Cyclopentadienyl Indium: A New Synthetic Route we present a new method for depositing In2O3 thin films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using-15 and atomic layer deposition (ALD).16-20 Of these techniques, ALD shows significant promise as this method

  9. 1960 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 24, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2006 Joint Channel Assignment and Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yuanzhu Peter

    networks. Equipping wireless routers with multiple radios further improves the capacity by transmitting, the aggre- gate traffic load of each mesh router changes infrequently. In in- frastructure wireless mesh Assignment and Routing for Throughput Optimization in Multiradio Wireless Mesh Networks Mansoor Alicherry

  10. IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, VOL. , NO. , 1 Geographic Routing in d-dimensional Spaces with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lam, Simon S.

    protocols are specially designed to handle churn, i.e., dynamic topology changes due to addition% during churn and node states converge quickly to a correct MDT after churn. Index Terms--Geographic routing, greedy forwarding, dis- tributed Delaunay triangulation, resilience to churn, protocol design. I

  11. A Resilient Routing Policy for Peering Management Stefano Seccia, Huaiyuan Mab, Bjarne Emil Helvikb, Jean-Louis Rougierc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Secci, Stefano

    A Resilient Routing Policy for Peering Management Stefano Seccia, Huaiyuan Mab, Bjarne Emil Helvikb preserving their respective interests and independence. In this paper, we propose a resilient PEMP execution forms of BGP multipath (see, e.g., [4] and [5]). To our knowledge, these extensions are however seldom

  12. Factors Affecting Route Selection and Survival of Steelhead Kelts at Snake River Dams in 2012 and 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harnish, Ryan A.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Li, Xinya; Ham, Kenneth D.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2014-12-15

    In 2012 and 2013, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a study that summarized the passage proportions and route-specific survival rates of steelhead kelts that passed through Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) dams. To accomplish this, a total of 811 steelhead kelts were tagged with Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) transmitters. Acoustic receivers, both autonomous and cabled, were deployed throughout the FCRPS to monitor the downstream movements of tagged-kelts. Kelts were also tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder tags to monitor passage through juvenile bypass systems and detect returning fish. The current study evaluated data collected in 2012 and 2013 to identify individual, behavioral, environmental and dam operation variables that were related to passage and survival of steelhead kelts that passed through FCRPS dams. Bayesian model averaging of multivariable logistic regression models was used to identify the environmental, temporal, operational, individual, and behavioral variables that had the highest probability of influencing the route of passage and the route-specific survival probabilities for kelts that passed Lower Granite (LGR), Little Goose (LGS), and Lower Monumental (LMN) dams in 2012 and 2013. The posterior probabilities of the best models for predicting route of passage ranged from 0.106 for traditional spill at LMN to 0.720 for turbine passage at LGS. Generally, the behavior (depth and near-dam searching activity) of kelts in the forebay appeared to have the greatest influence on their route of passage. Shallower-migrating kelts had a higher probability of passing via the weir and deeper-migrating kelts had a higher probability of passing via the JBS and turbines than other routes. Kelts that displayed a higher level of near-dam searching activity had a higher probability of passing via the spillway weir and those that did less near-dam searching had a higher probability of passing via the JBS and turbines. The side of the river in which kelts approached the dam and dam operations also affected route of passage. Dam operations and the size and condition of kelts were found to have the greatest effect on route-specific survival probabilities for fish that passed via the spillway at LGS. That is, longer kelts and those in fair condition had a lower probability of survival for fish that passed via the spillway weir. The survival of spillway weir- and deep-spill passed kelts was positively correlated with the percent of the total discharge that passed through turbine unit 4. Too few kelts passed through the traditional spill, JBS, and turbine units to evaluate survival through these routes. The information gathered in this study describes Snake River steelhead kelt passage behavior, rates, and distributions through the FCRPS as well as provide information to biologists and engineers about the dam operations and abiotic conditions that are related to passage and survival of steelhead kelts.

  13. Deterministic multivalued logic scheme for information processing and routing in the brain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. M. Bezrukov; L. B. Kish

    2009-05-06

    Driven by analogies with state vectors of quantum informatics and noise-based logic, we propose a general scheme and elements of neural circuitry for processing and addressing information in the brain. Specifically, we consider random (e.g., Poissonian) trains of finite-duration spikes, and, using the idealized concepts of excitatory and inhibitory synapses, offer a procedure for generating 2^N-1 orthogonal vectors out of N partially overlapping trains ("neuro-bits"). We then show that these vectors can be used to construct 2^(2^N-1)-1 different superpositions which represent the same number of logic values when carrying or routing information. In quantum informatics the above numbers are the same, however, the present logic scheme is more advantageous because it is deterministic in the sense that the presence of a vector in the spike train is detected by an appropriate coincidence circuit. For this reason it does not require time averaging or repeated measurements of the kind used in standard cross-correlation analysis or in quantum computing.

  14. Robust Maximum Lifetime Routing and Energy Allocation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch.; Wu, Ruomin

    2012-01-01

    We consider the maximum lifetime routing problem in wireless sensor networks in two settings: (a) when nodes’ initial energy is given and (b) when it is subject to optimization. The optimal solution and objective value provide optimal flows and the corresponding predicted lifetime, respectively. We stipulate that there is uncertainty in various network parameters (available energy and energy depletion rates). In setting (a) we show that for specific, yet typical, network topologies, the actual network lifetime will reach the predicted value with a probability that converges to zero as the number of nodes grows large. In setting (b) the samemore »result holds for all topologies. We develop a series of robust problem formulations, ranging from pessimistic to optimistic. A set of parameters enable the tuning of the conservatism of the formulation to obtain network flows with a desirably high probability that the corresponding lifetime prediction is achieved. We establish a number of properties for the robust network flows and energy allocations and provide numerical results to highlight the tradeoff between predicted lifetime and the probability achieved. Further, we analyze an interesting limiting regime of massively deployed sensor networks and essentially solve a continuous version of the problem.« less

  15. Ion-assisted phase separation in compound films: An alternate route to ordered nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, Scott A., E-mail: snorris@smu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2013-11-28

    In recent years, observations of highly ordered, hexagonal arrays of self-organized nanostructures on binary or impurity-laced targets under normal-incidence ion irradiation have excited interest in this phenomenon as a potential route to high-throughput, low-cost manufacture of nanoscale devices or nanostructured coatings. The currently prominent explanation for these structures is a morphological instability driven by ion erosion discovered by Bradley and Shipman; however, recent parameter estimates via molecular dynamics simulations suggest that this erosive instability may not be active for the representative GaSb system in which hexagonal structures were first observed. Motivated by recent experimental and numerical evidence suggesting the likely importance of phase separation during thin-film processing, we here generalize the Bradley-Shipman theory to include the effect of ion-assisted phase separation. The resulting system admits a chemically driven finite-wavelength instability that can explain the order of observed patterns even when the erosive Bradley-Shipman instability is inactive. In a relevant simplifying limit, it also provides an intuitive instability criterion similar to results in thin-film deposition, as well as predictions on pattern wavelengths that agree qualitatively with experimental observations. Finally, we identify a characteristic experimental signature that distinguishes the chemical and morphological instabilities and highlights the need for specific additional experimental data on the GaSb system.

  16. Simple route for the synthesis of supercapacitive Co-Ni mixed hydroxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubal, D.P.; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 ; Jagadale, A.D.; Patil, S.V.; Lokhande, C.D.

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel method for deposition of Co-Ni mixed hydroxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticle network of Co-Ni hydroxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High specific capacitance of 672 F g{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High discharge/charge rates. -- Abstract: Facile synthesis of Co-Ni mixed hydroxides films with interconnected nanoparticles networks through two step route is successfully established. These films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared technique (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and wettability test. Co-Ni film formation is confirmed from XRD and FTIR study. SEM shows that the surface of Co-Ni films is composed of interconnected nanoparticles. Contact angle measurement revealed the hydrophilic nature of films which is feasible for the supercapacitor. The electrochemical performance of the film is evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, and constant-current charge/discharge cycling techniques. Specific capacitance of the Co-Ni mixed hydroxide electrode achieved 672 F g{sup -1}. Impedance analysis shows that Co-Ni mixed hydroxide electrode provides less resistance for the intercalation and de-intercalation of ions. The Co-Ni mixed electrode exhibited good charge/discharge rate at different current densities. The results demonstrated that Co-Ni mixed hydroxide composite is very promising for the next generation high performance electrochemical supercapacitors.

  17. PathBicycle Enclosure ACT Government Dual Use Cycle Route A B C D E F G H

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PathBicycle Enclosure ACT Government Dual Use Cycle Route A B C D E F G H 5 4 3 2 1 C D E F G H 5 4 CLARKE A.D.HOPE LINNAEUS DRIVE BARRY McCAUGHEY ST DALEY ROAD WAY ROAD ROSS STREET NORTH HUTTONST RD THE AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY CYCLE-PEDESTRIAN PATHS International Sculpture Park Facilities & Services

  18. Effect of quantity and route of administration of manganese monoxide on feed intake and serum manganese in ruminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, J.R.; Ammerman, C.B.; Henry, P.R.

    1985-02-01

    The experiment investigated effects of high quantities of manganese and route of administration (diet versus capsule-dosed) on feed intake and blood characteristics in sheep. Twenty-four Florida native or Florida native by St. Croix crossbred wethers, 47 kg initially, were assigned randomly to eight treatments including basal diet supplemented with 0, 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm manganese as a reagent grade manganese monoxide or basal diet plus gelatin capsules containing the equivalent of 0, 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm manganese based on intake of the previous day. Three sheep per treatment were provided feed and tap water for ad libitum intake. Sheep were fed basal diet for 7 days followed by a 21-day experimental period, then placed back on the basal diet for 7 days. Average daily feed intake was reduced by increasing supplemental manganese, regardless of route. Animals dosed by capsule consumed less feed than those administered manganese in the diet. Serum manganese increased as manganese supplementation increased, but route of administration had no effect.

  19. Solar UV radiation exposure of seamen - Measurements, calibration and model calculations of erythemal irradiance along ship routes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feister, Uwe; Meyer, Gabriele; Kirst, Ulrich

    2013-05-10

    Seamen working on vessels that go along tropical and subtropical routes are at risk to receive high doses of solar erythemal radiation. Due to small solar zenith angles and low ozone values, UV index and erythemal dose are much higher than at mid-and high latitudes. UV index values at tropical and subtropical Oceans can exceed UVI = 20, which is more than double of typical mid-latitude UV index values. Daily erythemal dose can exceed the 30-fold of typical midlatitude winter values. Measurements of erythemal exposure of different body parts on seamen have been performed along 4 routes of merchant vessels. The data base has been extended by two years of continuous solar irradiance measurements taken on the mast top of RV METEOR. Radiative transfer model calculations for clear sky along the ship routes have been performed that use satellite-based input for ozone and aerosols to provide maximum erythemal irradiance and dose. The whole data base is intended to be used to derive individual erythemal exposure of seamen during work-time.

  20. Estimation of Hourly Solar Loads on the Surfaces of Moving Refrigerated Tractor Trailers Outfitted with Phase Change Materials (PCMs) for Several Routes across the Continental U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varadarajan, Krupasagar

    2011-08-31

    The primary objective of this thesis was to calculate solar loads, wind chill temperatures on the surfaces of moving refrigerated tractor trailers outfitted with phase change materials (PCMs) for several routes across the ...

  1. A Hybrid Routing Approach for Opportunistic Networks Ling-Jyh Chen Chen-Hung Yu Tony Sun Yung-Chih Chen Hao-hua Chu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Hao-hua

    .), the design for an effective routing scheme that considers and ac- commodates the various intricate behaviors observed in an opportunistic network is of interest and remained desirable. While previous solutions use

  2. Route to polarization switching induced by optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sciamanna, M.; Panajotov, K.

    2006-02-15

    We perform a theoretical investigation of the polarization dynamics in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) subject to orthogonal optical injection, i.e., the injected field has a linear polarization (LP) orthogonal to that of the free-running VCSEL. In agreement with previous experiments [Z. G. Pan et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2999 (1993)], an increase of the injection strength may lead to a polarization switching accompanied by an injection locking. We find that this route to polarization switching is typically accompanied by a cascade of bifurcations to wave-mixing dynamics and time-periodic and possibly chaotic regimes. A detailed mapping of the polarization dynamics in the plane of the injection parameters (detuning, injection strength) unveils a large richness of dynamical scenarios. Of particular interest is the existence of another injection-locked solution for which the two LP modes both lock to the master laser frequency, i.e., an elliptically polarized injection-locked (EPIL) steady state. Modern continuation techniques allow us to unveil an unfolding mechanism of the EPIL solution as the detuning varies and also to link the existence of the EPIL solution to a resonance condition between the master laser frequency and the free-running frequency of the normally depressed LP mode in the slave laser. We furthermore report an additional case of bistability, in which the EPIL solution may coexist with the second injection-locked solution (the one being locked to the master polarization). This case of bistability is a result of the interaction between optical injection and the two-polarization-mode characteristics of VCSEL devices.

  3. Using GPS data in route choice analysis : case study in Boston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Anyang

    2010-01-01

    The pervasive location-based technologies, such as GPS and cell phone, help us find the pattern of geographical information of human behavior and also help dig opportunities in real world. In transportation field, they ...

  4. The effect of different annealing temperatures on tin and cadmium telluride phases obtained by a modified chemical route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mesquita, Anderson Fuzer; Porto, Arilza de Oliveira; Magela de Lima, Geraldo; Paniago, Roberto; Ardisson, José Domingos

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Synthesis of cadmium and tin telluride. ? Chemical route to obtain pure crystalline cadmium and tin telluride. ? Effect of the annealing temperature on the crystalline phases. ? Removal of tin oxide as side product through thermal treatment. -- Abstract: In this work tin and cadmium telluride were prepared by a modification of a chemical route reported in the literature to obtain metallacycles formed by oxidative addition of tin-tellurium bonds to platinum (II). Through this procedure it was possible to obtain tin and cadmium telluride. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to identify the crystalline phases obtained as well as the presence of side products. In the case of tin telluride it was identified potassium chloride, metallic tellurium and tin oxide as contaminants. The tin oxidation states were also monitored by {sup 119}Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy. The annealing in hydrogen atmosphere was chosen as a strategy to reduce the tin oxide and promote its reaction with the excess of tellurium present in the medium. The evolution of this tin oxide phase was studied through the annealing of the sample at different temperatures. Cadmium telluride was obtained with high degree of purity (98.5% relative weight fraction) according to the Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data. The modified procedure showed to be very effective to obtain amorphous tin and cadmium telluride and the annealing at 450 °C has proven to be useful to reduce the amount of oxide produced as side product.

  5. Walk the Line: The Development of Route Selection Standards for Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-level Radioactive Waste in the United States - 13519

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilger, Fred; Halstead, Robert J.; Ballard, James D.

    2013-07-01

    Although storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) are widely dispersed throughout the United States, these materials are also relatively concentrated in terms of geographic area. That is, the impacts of storage occur in a very small geographic space. Once shipments begin to a national repository or centralized interim storage facility, the impacts of SNF and HLRW will become more geographically distributed, more publicly visible, and almost certainly more contentious. The selection of shipping routes will likely be a major source of controversy. This paper describes the development of procedures, regulations, and standards for the selection of routes used to ship spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The paper begins by reviewing the circumstances around the development of HM-164 routing guidelines. The paper discusses the significance of New York City versus the Department of Transportation and application of HM-164. The paper describes the methods used to implement those regulations. The paper will also describe the current HM-164 designated routes and will provide a summary data analysis of their characteristics. This analysis will reveal the relatively small spatial scale of the effects of HM 164. The paper will then describe subsequent developments that have affected route selection for these materials. These developments include the use of 'representative routes' found in the Department of Energy (DOE) 2008 Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the formerly proposed Yucca Mountain geologic repository. The paper will describe recommendations related to route selection found in the National Academy of Sciences 2006 report Going the Distance, as well as recommendations found in the 2012 Final Report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future. The paper will examine recently promulgated federal regulations (HM-232) for selection of rail routes for hazardous materials transport. The paper concludes that while the HM 164 regime is sufficient for certain applications, it does not provide an adequate basis for a national plan to ship spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste to centralized storage and disposal facilities over a period of 30 to 50 years. (authors)

  6. A two-step route to planar perovskite cells exhibiting reduced hysteresis Alexander H. Ip, Li Na Quan, Michael M. Adachi, Jeffrey J. McDowell, Jixian Xu, Dong Ha Kim, and Edward H.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    A two-step route to planar perovskite cells exhibiting reduced hysteresis Alexander H. Ip, Li Na-efficiency planar perovskite solar cells Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 253508 (2014); 10.1063/1.4885367 Dominating to IP: 142.150.235.171 On: Mon, 08 Jun 2015 18:21:31 #12;A two-step route to planar perovskite cells

  7. Influence of transition metals on the surface acidic properties of titania prepared by sol-gel route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shali, N.B. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin-22, Kerala (India); Sugunan, S. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin-22, Kerala (India)]. E-mail: ssg@cusat.ac.in

    2007-09-04

    A series of titania catalysts containing chromium, molybdenum as well as tungsten has been prepared by colloidal sol-gel route using metatitanic acid as the precursor. Structural characterization of the prepared catalysts was done with Energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, BET surface area and pore volume measurements. The influence of different transition metals like chromium, molybdenum and tungsten on the surface acidic properties of titania is investigated in detail. Two independent methods have been used to study the surface acidity of these catalyst systems: temperature programmed desorption of ammonia which is a measure of total acidity and thermodesorption studies using 2,6-dimethyl pyridine which is a measure of Bronsted acidity. Cumene cracking reaction is carried out over the prepared systems for further characterizing the acidity of the prepared catalysts. Remarkable enhancement in the surface acidity is observed after transition metal incorporation. The catalytic activity of the prepared catalysts was tested towards the dehydrogenation of cyclohexane.

  8. Real-time Global Flood Estimation using Satellite-based Precipitation and a Coupled Land Surface and Routing Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Huan; Adler, Robert F.; Tian, Yudong; Huffman, George; Li, Hongyi; Wang, Jianjian

    2014-04-09

    A community land surface model, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, is coupled with a newly developed hierarchical dominant river tracing-based runoff-routing model to form the Dominant river tracing-Routing Integrated with VIC Environment (DRIVE) model system, which serves as the new core of the real-time Global Flood Monitoring System (GFMS). The GFMS uses real-time satellite-based precipitation to derive flood-monitoring parameters for the latitude-band 50{degree sign}N-50{degree sign}S at relatively high spatial (~12km) and temporal (3-hourly) resolution. Examples of model results for recent flood events are computed using the real-time GFMS (http://flood.umd.edu). To evaluate the accuracy of the new GFMS, the DRIVE model is run retrospectively for 15 years using both research-quality and real-time satellite precipitation products. Statistical results are slightly better for the research-quality input and significantly better for longer duration events (three-day events vs. one-day events). Basins with fewer dams tend to provide lower false alarm ratios. For events longer than three days in areas with few dams, the probability of detection is ~0.9 and the false alarm ratio is ~0.6. In general, these statistical results are better than those of the previous system. Streamflow was evaluated at 1,121 river gauges across the quasi-global domain. Validation using real-time precipitation across the tropics (30ºS-30ºN) gives positive daily Nash-Sutcliffe Coef?cients for 107 out of 375 (28%) stations with a mean of 0.19 and 51% of the same gauges at monthly scale with a mean of 0.33. There were poorer results in higher latitudes, probably due to larger errors in the satellite precipitation input.

  9. Scalable Routing in 3D High Genus Sensor Networks Using Graph Xiaokang Yu Xiaotian Yin Wei Han Jie Gao Xianfeng Gu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Jie

    of environments that are otherwise difficult to access. Examples of such appli- cations include coal mine and the network has complex topology. We propose a routing scheme by first embedding the network on a surface with possibly non-zero genus. Then we compute a canonical hyperbolic metric of the embedded surface, and use

  10. Report to California Energy Commission on route to scale-up of polymer based PV: Funding suggestions for research and technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Islam, M. Saif

    Report to California Energy Commission on route to scale-up of polymer based PV: Funding, 1 Shields Ave, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616 Abstract Solar power is the most by humans comes directly from solar sources because harvesting solar energy using a photovoltaic (PV) panel

  11. Queueing in Traffic Flows This project studies the effects of vehicle routing on pollution levels. We aim to develop queueing theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boucherie, Richard J.

    model to predict air pollution in a wider region. These predictions will be tested using remote sensing forecast can then predict how air pollution is affected by this emission. Rerouting Alternative routing can reduce traffic jams and air pollution. Numereous options are available to reroute traffic flows, e

  12. Queueing in Traffic Flows This project studies the effects of vehicle routing on pollution levels. We aim to develop queueing theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boucherie, Richard J.

    Queueing in Traffic Flows This project studies the effects of vehicle routing on pollution levels model to predict air pollution in a wider region. These predictions will be tested using remote sensing)-direct road traffic to avoid pollution. Traffic Theory The capacity drop is a process in which the traffic

  13. Xerox Palo Alto Research Center Technical Report P2001-10113, May 2001. Revised July 25, 2001. Scalable Information-Driven Sensor Querying and Routing for ad hoc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Feng

    battery power, frequent node attrition, and variable data and communication quality. To scale up, California 94304, U.S.A. Abstract This paper describes two novel techniques, information-driven sensor that the information-driven querying and routing techniques are more energy efficient, have lower detection latency

  14. Cumulative watershed effects (CWEs) result from the overlapping effects of management activities in time or space. The routing and downstream accumulation of sediment from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Lee

    activities in time or space. The routing and downstream accumulation of sediment from forest management range from the short-term variability of sediment transport rates to the variability in annual sediment data indicated that 13-95% of the variation in sediment transport rates could be explained by discharge

  15. IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, VOL. 19, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2011 1717 Link-State Routing With Hop-by-Hop Forwarding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rexford, Jennifer

    that are not only optimal, but also realizable by link-state routing. Index Terms--Interior gateway protocol-by-hop fashion without end-to-end tunneling. Such simplicity was thought to come at the expense of opti- mality

  16. 5244 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2008 Joint Medium Access Control, Routing and Energy Distribution in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Hai

    5244 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 7, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2008 Joint Medium Access Control, Routing and Energy Distribution in Multi-Hop Wireless Networks Khoa T. Phan, Student, Senior Member, IEEE, and Rongfei Fan Abstract--It is a challenging task for multi-hop wireless networks

  17. 978-1-4244-7265-9/10/$26.00 c2010 IEEE Misbehaving Router Detection in Link-state Routing for Wireless Mesh Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bencsáth, Boldizsár

    }@crysys.hu Abstract--In this paper, we address the problem of detecting misbehaving routers in wireless mesh networks consists of mesh routers that form a static wireless ad hoc network. Some of the mesh routers function978-1-4244-7265-9/10/$26.00 c2010 IEEE Misbehaving Router Detection in Link-state Routing

  18. Route-Specific Passage Proportions and Survival Rates for Fish Passing through John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-06-04

    This report fulfills a request of the U.S. Army Engineer District, Portland, Oregon, to produce an interim report of estimates of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates for lower Columbia River dams in 2010 and 2011. The estimates are needed to update the Compass Model for the Columbia River Treaty and the new Biological Opinion before detail technical reports are published in late 2012. This report tabulates route-specific fish-passage proportions and survival rates for steelhead and Chinook salmon smolts passing through various sampled routes at John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011. Results were compiled from analyses of data acquired in spring 2010 and 2011 studies that were specifically designed to estimate dam-passage and forebay-to-tailrace survival rates, travel time metrics, and spill passage efficiency, as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion and the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. The study designs allowed for estimation of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates as well as estimation of forebay-passage survival, all of which are summarized herein.

  19. The OH-Initiated Oxidation of 1,3-Butadiene in the Presence of O2 and NO: A Photolytic Route To Study Isomeric Selective Reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North, Simon W.

    The OH-Initiated Oxidation of 1,3-Butadiene in the Presence of O2 and NO: A Photolytic Route, 2005 We report the study of the isomeric selective OH-initiated oxidation of 1,3-butadiene provides only one of the possible OD-butadiene adducts, the minor addition channel product, simplifying

  20. Abstract--Wave energy will have a key role in meeting re-newable energy targets en route to a low carbon economy. How-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Gareth

    1 Abstract--Wave energy will have a key role in meeting re- newable energy targets en route will impact on wave energy conversion. Where the resource is restricted there may be reductions in energy the sensitivity of wave energy production and econom- ics to changes in climate. Index Terms--Wave energy

  1. Route-Specific Passage and Survival of Steelhead Kelts at The Dalles and Bonneville Dams, 2012 - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayamajhi, Bishes; Ploskey, Gene R.; Woodley, Christa M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derek M.; Kim, Jin A.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao

    2013-07-31

    This study was mainly focused on evaluating the route-specific passage and migration success of steelhead kelts passing downstream through The Dalles Dam (TDA) and Bonneville Dam (BON) at Columbia River (CR) river kilometers 309 and 234 respectively. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) personnel collected, tagged and released out-migrating steelhead kelts in the tributaries of the Deschutes River, 15 Mile Creek and Hood River between April 14 and June 4, 2012. A PIT tag was injected into each kelt’s dorsal sinus whereas a Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic micro-transmitter was attached to an external FLoy T-bar tag and inserted into the dorsal back musculature using a Floy tagging gun. JSATS cabled arrays were deployed at TDA and BON and autonomous node arrays were deployed near Celilo, Oregon (CR325); the BON forebay (CR236); the BON tailrace (CR233); near Knapp, Washington (CR156); and near Kalama, Washington (CR113) to monitor the kelts movement while passing through the dams and above mentioned river cross-sections.

  2. Surfactant-directed synthesis of mesoporous films made single-step by a tandem photosol-gel/photocalcination route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Paz-Simon, Héloïse; Chemtob, Abraham, E-mail: abraham.chemtob@uha.fr; Croutxé-Barghorn, Céline [Laboratory of Macromolecular Photochemistry and Engineering, ENSCMu, University of Haute-Alsace, 3 bis rue Alfred Werner, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Rigolet, Séverinne; Michelin, Laure; Vidal, Loïc; Lebeau, Bénédicte [Institut de Science des Matériaux de Mulhouse, UMR-CNRS 7361, University of Haute-Alsace, 3 rue Alfred Werner, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France)

    2014-11-01

    In view of their technological impact in materials chemistry, a simplified and more efficient synthetic route to mesoporous films is highly sought. We report, herein, a smart UV-mediated approach coupling in a one-stage process sol-gel photopolymerization and photoinduced template decomposition/ablation to making mesoporous silica films. Performed at room temperature with a solvent-free solution of silicate precursor and amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymer, the synthesis relies on photoacid generation to induce the fast formation (?10 min) of mesostructured silica/surfactant domains. Continuation of UV exposure for three additional hours enables subsequent and complete photodegradation of the polyether copolymer, resulting in ordered or disordered mesoporous silica film. One of the most attractive features is that the one-step procedure relies on a continuous illumination provided by the same conventional medium-pressure Hg-Xe arc lamp equipped with a 254 nm reflector to enhance the emission of energetic photons <300 nm. In addition to X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, time-resolved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has proved to be a powerful in situ technique to probe the different chemical transformations accompanying irradiation. Photocalcination strengthens the inorganic network, while allowing to preserve a higher fraction of residual silanol groups compared with thermal calcination. A polyether chain degradation mechanism based on oxygen reactive species-mediated photo-oxidation is proposed.

  3. Facile synthesis of Ba1-xKxFe?As? superconductors via hydride route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaikina, Julia V. [Univ. of California at Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Batuk, Maria [Univ. of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Abakumov, Artem M. [Univ. of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Navrotsky, Alexandra [Univ. of California at Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Kauzlarich, Susan M. [Univ. of California at Davis, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-03

    We have developed a fast, easy, and scalable synthesis method for Ba1-xKxFe?As? (0 ? x ? 1) superconductors using hydrides BaH? and KH as a source of barium and potassium metals. Synthesis from hydrides provides better mixing and easier handling of the starting materials, consequently leading to faster reactions and/or lower synthesis temperatures. The reducing atmosphere provided by the evolved hydrogen facilitates preparation of oxygen-free powders. By a combination of methods we have shown that Ba1-xKxFe?As? obtained via hydride route has the same characteristics as when it is prepared by traditional solid-state synthesis. Refinement from synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction data confirms a linear dependence of unit cell parameters upon K content as well as the tetragonal to orthorhombic transition at low temperatures for compositions with x < 0.2. Magnetic measurements revealed dome-like dependence of superconducting transition temperature Tc upon K content with a maximum of 38 K for x close to 0.4. Electron diffraction and high-resolution high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy indicates an absence of Ba/K ordering, while local inhomogeneity in the Ba/K distribution takes place at a scale of several angstroms along [110] crystallographic direction.

  4. New sol-gel synthetic route to transition and main-group metal oxide aerogels using inorganic salt precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gash, A E; Tillotson, T M; Satcher Jr, J H; Hrubesh, L W; Simpson, R L

    2000-09-12

    We have developed a new sol-gel route to synthesize several transition and main-group metal oxide aerogels. The approach is straightforward, inexpensive, versatile, and it produces monolithic microporous materials with high surface areas. Specifically, we report the use of epoxides as gelation agents for the sol-gel synthesis of chromia aerogels and xerogels from simple Cr(III) inorganic salts. The dependence of both gel formation and its rate was studied by varying the solvent used, the Cr(III) precursor salt, the epoxide/Cr(III) ratio, as well as the type of epoxide employed. All of these variables were shown to affect the rate of gel formation and provide a convenient control of this parameter. Dried chromia aerogels were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analyses, results of which will be presented. Our studies have shown that rigid monolithic gels can be prepared from many different metal ions salts, provided the formal oxidation state of the metal ion is greater than or equal to +3. Conversely, when di-valent transition metal salts are used precipitated solids are the products.

  5. Simple and Versatile Route to the Synthesis of Anisotropic Bimetallic Core-Shell and Monometallic Hollow Nanostructures: Ag (AgCl)-Pt Core-Shell Nanocubes and Pt Nanoboxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Yen Nee

    We report herewith a simple and versatile route for the preparation of anisotropic Ag(AgCl)-Pt core-shell nanocubes and Pt nanoboxes. The core-shell nanocubes were first synthesized through the simultaneous reduction method ...

  6. Tracking a defined route for O[subscript 2] migration in a dioxygen-activating diiron enzyme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Woon Ju; Gucinski, Grant; Sazinsky, Matthew H.; Lippard, Stephen J. (MIT); (Pomona)

    2011-09-08

    For numerous enzymes reactive toward small gaseous compounds, growing evidence indicates that these substrates diffuse into active site pockets through defined pathways in the protein matrix. Toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase hydroxylase is a dioxygen-activating enzyme. Structural analysis suggests two possible pathways for dioxygen access through the {alpha}-subunit to the diiron center: a channel or a series of hydrophobic cavities. To distinguish which is utilized as the O{sub 2} migration pathway, the dimensions of the cavities and the channel were independently varied by site-directed mutagenesis and confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The rate constants for dioxygen access to the diiron center were derived from the formation rates of a peroxodiiron(III) intermediate, generated upon treatment of the diiron(II) enzyme with O2. This reaction depends on the concentration of dioxygen to the first order. Altering the dimensions of the cavities, but not the channel, changed the rate of dioxygen reactivity with the enzyme. These results strongly suggest that voids comprising the cavities in toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase hydroxylase are not artifacts of protein packing/folding, but rather programmed routes for dioxygen migration through the protein matrix. Because the cavities are not fully connected into the diiron active center in the enzyme resting state, conformational changes will be required to facilitate dioxygen access to the diiron center. We propose that such temporary opening and closing of the cavities may occur in all bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases to control O{sub 2} consumption for efficient catalysis. Our findings suggest that other gas-utilizing enzymes may employ similar structural features to effect substrate passage through a protein matrix.

  7. Routing Along DAGs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Junda

    2011-01-01

    in-a-box: emulating datacenter network architectures usingenterprise networks, and datacenter networks alike, and atAn exception, for the datacenter, is ECMP, which does both

  8. Route Type Determination Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett Stone

    2011-09-01

    According to the 2009 National Household Travel Survey 44.4 percent of all miles travelled by Americans in 2009 (including airplanes, trains, boats, golf carts, subways, bikes, etc.) were travelled in cars. If vans, SUV's and pickup trucks are included, that level increases to 86 percent. We do a lot of travelling on the road in personal vehicles - it's important to be able to understand how we get there and how to rate the fuel economy of our trips. An essential part of this is knowing how to decide if a trip is a city or highway trip.

  9. Interdomain Multipath Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganichev, Igor

    2011-01-01

    2) A technique for reducing churn by localizing routingupdates: Much of the churn created by BGP is due to the factnot only reduces YAMR’s churn, it also increases (by an

  10. Optimal ship routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avgouleas, Kyriakos

    2008-01-01

    Fuel savings in ship navigation has always been a popular subject in the maritime industry as well as the world's largest Navies. Oil prices and environmental considerations drive the effort for more fuel-efficient navigation. ...

  11. Laboratory Shuttle Bus Routes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and masthead BerkeleySite IndexRear bike rack

  12. A facile gel-combustion route for fine particle synthesis of spinel ferrichromite: X-ray and Mössbauer study on effect of Mg and Ni content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vader, V.T.; Achary, S.N.; Meena, S.S.

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • A novel and facile synthesis route. • Transformation of system from random to inverse spinel. • Appearance of superparamagnetism phase. - Abstract: A novel nitrate–citrate gel combustion route was used to prepare fine particle of a series Mg{sub 1?x}Ni{sub x}FeCrO{sub 4} (0.0 ? x ? 1.0) and its structural properties were investigated. The in situ oxidizing environment provided by the nitrate ions in the gel increases the rate of oxidation and lowers the decomposition temperature of component. All the samples after sintering were characterized at room temperature by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and Mössbauer spectroscopy techniques. The X-ray and Mössbauer studies confirmed the single phase cubic spinel structure with all Fe ions in 3+ charge state. XRD and Mössbauer studies revealed that the samples of x = 0.0, and 0.2 are random spinel and show rather broad lines, while x = 0.4–1.0 are inverse spinel.

  13. Low-field magnetoresistance up to 400 K in double perovskite Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6} synthesized by a citrate route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harnagea, L.; Jurca, B.; Berthet, P.

    2014-03-15

    A wet-chemistry technique, namely the citrate route, has been used to prepare high-quality polycrystalline samples of double perovskite Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6}. We report on the evolution of magnetic and magnetoresistive properties of the synthesized samples as a function of three parameters (i) the pH of the starting solution, (ii) the decomposition temperature of the citrate precursors and (iii) the sintering conditions. The low-field magnetoresistance (LFMR) value of our best samples is as high as 5% at room temperature for an applied magnetic field of 1 kOe. Additionally, the distinguishing feature of these samples is the persistence of LFMR, with a reasonably large value, up to 400 K which is a crucial parameter for any practical application. Our study indicates that the enhancement of LFMR observed is due to a good compromise between the grain size distribution and their magnetic polarization. -- Graphical abstract: The microstructure (left panel) and corresponding low-field magnetoresistance of one of the Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6} samples synthesized in the course of this work. Highlights: • Samples of Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6} are prepared using a citrate route under varying conditions. • Magnetoresistive properties are improved and optimized. • Low-field magnetoresitence values as large as 5% at 300 K/1 kOe are reported. • Persistence of low-field magnetoresistance up to 400 K.

  14. Lambda network having 2{sup m{minus}1} nodes in each of m stages with each node coupled to four other nodes for bidirectional routing of data packets between nodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Napolitano, L.M. Jr.

    1995-11-28

    The Lambda network is a single stage, packet-switched interprocessor communication network for a distributed memory, parallel processor computer. Its design arises from the desired network characteristics of minimizing mean and maximum packet transfer time, local routing, expandability, deadlock avoidance, and fault tolerance. The network is based on fixed degree nodes and has mean and maximum packet transfer distances where n is the number of processors. The routing method is detailed, as are methods for expandability, deadlock avoidance, and fault tolerance. 14 figs.

  15. Neutron structural characterization, inversion degree and transport properties of NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel prepared by the hydroxide route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sagua, A.; Lescano, Gabriela M.; Alonso, J.A.; Martínez-Coronado, R.; Fernández-Díaz, M.T.; Morán, E.

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: A pure specimen has been synthesized by the hydroxide route. This spinel, studied by NPD, shows an important inversion degree, ? = 0.80. A bond-valence study shows that the tetrahedral Mn ions are divalent whereas the octahedral Mn and Ni are slightly oxidized from the expected 3+ and 2+ values, respectively. The mixed valence Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} accounts for a hopping mechanism between adjacent octahedral sites, leading to a significant conductivity. Highlights: ? A low-temperature hydroxide route allowed preparing almost pure specimens of NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}. ? NPD essential to determine inversion degree; contrasting Ni and Mn for neutrons. ? Bond valence establishes valence state of octahedral and tetrahedral Ni and Mn ions. ? Thermal analysis, transport measurements complement characterization of this oxide. ? A structure–properties relationship is established. -- Abstract: The title compound has been synthesized by the hydroxide route. The crystal structure has been investigated at room temperature from high-resolution neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data. It crystallizes in a cubic spinel structure, space group Fd3{sup ¯}m, Z = 8, with a = 8.3940(2) ? at 295 K. The crystallographic formula is (Ni{sub 0.202(1)}Mn{sub 0.798(1)}){sub 8a}(Ni{sub 0.790(1)}Mn{sub 1.210(1)}){sub 16d}O{sub 4} where 8a and 16d stand for the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the spinel structure, respectively. There is a significant inversion degree of the spinel structure, ? = 0.80. In fact, the variable parameter for the oxygen position, u = 0.2636(4), is far from that expected (u = 0.25) for normal spinels. From a bond-valence study, it seems that the valence distribution in NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel is not as trivial as expected (Ni{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+}), but clearly the tetrahedral Mn ions are divalent whereas the octahedral Mn and Ni are slightly oxidized from the expected +3 and +2 values, respectively. The mixed valence observed at the octahedral sites provides the charge carriers that, by a hopping mechanism between Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} adjacent sites, leads to a significant conductivity, up to 0.85 S cm{sup ?1} at 800 °C in air.

  16. Eliminating livelock by assigning the same priority state to each message that is input into a flushable routing system during N time intervals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faber, V.

    1994-11-29

    Livelock-free message routing is provided in a network of interconnected nodes that is flushable in time T. An input message processor generates sequences of at least N time intervals, each of duration T. An input register provides for receiving and holding each input message, where the message is assigned a priority state p during an nth one of the N time intervals. At each of the network nodes a message processor reads the assigned priority state and awards priority to messages with priority state (p-1) during an nth time interval and to messages with priority state p during an (n+1) th time interval. The messages that are awarded priority are output on an output path toward the addressed output message processor. Thus, no message remains in the network for a time longer than T. 4 figures.

  17. Synthesis of CdS/CdSe core/shell ultra small nanostructures using new microwave assisted ultrasonic sol gel route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goswami, Y. C., E-mail: y-goswami@yahoo.com; Kumar, Vijay, E-mail: y-goswami@yahoo.com [School of Physical Sciences, ITM University, Sithouli, Gwalior- 474001 (India); Sharma, Ranjana [Institute of Technology and Management, Sithouli, Gwalior- 474001 (India); Singh, Rajeev [Institute of Information Technology and Management, Sithouli, Gwalior, MP 474001 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Core-shell CdS/CdSe nanostructures have been synthesized by new microwave assisted ultrasonic sol gel route. The solution was obtained by dissolving cadmium acetate and Thiourea in the molar ratio 1:1 in Triethlioamine. The solution was Ultrasonically irradiated by Ultrasonic crystal at 40 Hz for 3 hours at 70°C. The sol was kept for another 24 hours for gel formation. Selenium dioxide was used as a selenium source and added separately. The gel was spin coated on Quartz and Glass slides followed by microwave heat treatment. The samples were characterized by structural morphological and optical characterization. XRD studies confirm the zinc blende phase of the CdS nanoparticles. The mean nanocrystal sizes calculated using Scherrer equation is ?1.2nm. Optical studies show the strong blue shift in the spectra due to very small size of the nanocrystals. TEM and HRTEM confirm the formation of core shell structures.

  18. Influence of crystalline phase and defects in the ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles synthesized by thermal plasma route on its photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nawale, Ashok B.; Kanhe, Nilesh S.; Bhoraskar, S.V.; Mathe, V.L.; Das, A.K.

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Thermal plasma synthesized nanophase zirconia showing the blue shift in the band gap of monoclinic phase as found from the photoabsorption spectroscopy was found to be the dominant parameter for the enhancement in its photocatalytic activity. The existence of different defect states and their concentration in as synthesized samples also inferred from the photoabsorption measurements were also found to be responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the samples. Highlights: ? Phase controlled structural formation of nanophase ZrO{sub 2} by thermal plasma route. ? Enhanced photocatalytic degradation rate of methylene blue dye. ? The blue shift in the band gap of monoclinic phase of nanocrystalline ZrO{sub 2}. ? Existence of different defect states in the as synthesized nano phase ZrO{sub 2}. ? Several competing processes which controls the photocatalytic degradation rate. -- Abstract: The photocatalytic activity of pure ZrO{sub 2} samples, prepared by a thermal plasma route, and characterized by X-ray diffraction technique was tested for the degradation of methylene blue, which is known to be a hazardous dye. Although, all these samples synthesized at different operating pressures of the thermal plasma reactor showed the photocatalytic activity; the sample synthesized at 1.33 bar of operating pressure showed the highest photocatalytic activity. The blue shift in the band gap of monoclinic phase, as observed from the photo-absorption spectroscopy, may be attributed to the enhanced photocatalytic activity. The existence of different defect states and their concentration as, inferred from the photo-absorption measurements were also found to be responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the as synthesized samples.

  19. Simultaneous use of camera and probe diagnostics to unambiguously identify and study the dynamics of multiple underlying instabilities during the route to plasma turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thakur, S. C. Tynan, G. R.; Brandt, C.; Cui, L.; Gosselin, J. J.; Light, A.

    2014-11-15

    We use multiple-tip Langmuir probes and fast imaging to unambiguously identify and study the dynamics of underlying instabilities during the controlled route to fully-developed plasma turbulence in a linear magnetized helicon plasma device. Langmuir probes measure radial profiles of electron temperature, plasma density and potential; from which we compute linear growth rates of instabilities, cross-phase between density and potential fluctuations, Reynold's stress, particle flux, vorticity, time-delay estimated velocity, etc. Fast imaging complements the 1D probe measurements by providing temporally and spatially resolved 2D details of plasma structures associated with the instabilities. We find that three radially separated plasma instabilities exist simultaneously. Density gradient driven resistive drift waves propagating in the electron diamagnetic drift direction separate the plasma into an edge region dominated by strong, velocity shear driven Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities and a central core region which shows coherent Rayleigh-Taylor modes propagating in the ion diamagnetic drift direction. The simultaneous, complementary use of both probes and camera was crucial to identify the instabilities and understand the details of the very rich plasma dynamics.

  20. Advanced Photonic Routing Sub-systems with Efficient Routing Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, I. H.; Ding, M.; Cheng, Q.; Wonfor, A.; Penty, R. V.

    2015-01-01

    fabricated using a generic foundry within the EU FP7 PARADIGM project as shown by the photograph in Fig. 1(b) [11]. Figure 1: (a) Schematic layout of an 8x8 SOA switch; (b) Photograph of the fabricated 8x8 SOA switch [12] The input and output ports... . 1268, 2001. [11] M. K. Smit, et al., “A generic foundry model for InP-based photonic ICs,” in Proc. OFC, OM3E.3, 2012. [12] Q. Cheng, et al., “Low-Energy, High-Performance Lossless 8x8 SOA Switch,” in Proc. OFC, Th4E-6, 2015. [13] I. H. White, et al...

  1. Oak Ridge via State Route

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S T U V ORAU/ORISE/POLLARD AUDITORIUM U.S. POST OFFICE METHODIST MEDICAL CENTER UT ARBORETUM W X Y Z

  2. Alkoxide routes to Inorganic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, George H [ORNL

    2007-12-01

    An all alkoxide solution chemistry utilizing metal 2-methoxyethoxide complexes in 2-methoxyethanol was used to deposit thin-films of metal oxides on single-crystal metal oxide substrates and on biaxially textured metal substrates. This same chemistry was used to synthesize complex metal oxide nanoparticles. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy was used to study precursor solutions of the alkaline niobates and tantalates. Film crystallization temperatures were determined from x-ray diffraction patterns of powders derived from the metal oxide precursor solutions. Film structure was determined via x-ray diffraction. Film morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Epitaxial thin-films of strontium bismuth tantalate (SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9}, SBT) and strontium bismuth niobate (SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9}, SBN) were deposited on single crystal [1 0 0] magnesium oxide (MgO) buffered with lanthanum manganate (LaMnO{sub 3}, LMO). Epitaxial thin films of LMO were deposited on single crystal [100] MgO via Rf-magnetron sputtering and on single crysal [100] lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO{sub 3}) via the chemical solution deposition technique. Epitaxial thin-films of sodium potassium tantalate (na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}TaO{sub 3}, NKT), sodium potassium niobate (Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3}, NKN) and sodium potassium tantalum niobate (Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}, NKTN) were deposited on single crystal [1 0 0] lanthanum aluminate and [1 0 0] MgO substrates (NKT and NKN) and biaxially textured metal substrates via the chemical solution deposition technique. Epitaxial growth of thin-films of NKT, NKN and NKTN was observed on LAO and Ni-5% W. Epitaxial growth of thin-films of NKN and the growth of c-axis aligned thin-films of NKT was observed on MgO. Nanoparticles of SBT, SBN, NKT and NKN were synthesized in reverse micelles from alkoxide precursor solutions. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron spectroscopy investigations reveal that amorphous nanoparticles ({approx} 5 nm) of SBT and SBN were synthesized. X-ray diffraction investigations reveal that nanoparticles ({approx} nm) of NKT and NKN were also synthesized by this method.

  3. Jeff Larkey: Route One Farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farmer, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    solar technology program was doing really well until 1980, when Ronald Reagan got elected and cut all the federal tax credits and funding

  4. The Sasol route to fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dry, M.E.

    1982-12-01

    Details are given of the Sasol operation in South Africa. Flow sheets are provided for Sasol 1 and Sasol 2 and 3. The Sasol 1 plant produces waxes, liquid fuels, pipeline gas and chemicals; the Sasol 2 and 3 plants primarily produce ethylene, gasoline and diesel fuel. The versatility of the process is emphasized. The product selectivities of the fixed bed and Synthol reactors are shown and the properties of the products are compared. The influence of the catalyst on selectivity is examined.

  5. Corporate Headquarters 317 Route 104

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    utilizing wind industry best practices, setbacks from residential and/or sensitive environmental areas areas to evaluate the shadow flicker impacts from the UD wind turbine. The receptors are representative@sed-net.com Sustainable Energy Developments, Inc. is a New York Corporation Founded April 2002 Shadow Flicker Analysis

  6. Jeff Larkey: Route One Farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farmer, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    ve heard. Instead of the microbes. Larkey: Exactly. And thenwant to create beneficial microbes, is what you’re doing. (trying to breed beneficial microbes, and to the extent that

  7. Jeff Larkey: Route One Farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farmer, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    my farm, no. Most of my compost is imported. I get it mostlyThere’s manure in the compost, as well as green wastereally super-good quality compost companies. That’s why I’m

  8. New Routes to Phosphametallocene Derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escobar, Aholibama

    2011-01-01

    and -0.519 e.Å-3 Table S2. Atomic coordinates ( x 104) and23(8) C(7) 70(8) Table S5. Hydrogen coordinates ( x 104) andand -0.233 e.Å-3 Table S2. Atomic coordinates ( x 104) and

  9. The Modern Energy Savings Route 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, M.

    1987-01-01

    be the good bad and ugly cooling towers. In ord save energy costs it is necessary to identify where the energy is used in the tower. A mod rn cooling tower uses energy in two devices. Th water pump that recirculates the water throug the cooling circuit... to the inlet of the water tower. 4. Increase the efficiency of the pump. The second user of electrical energy is the f n motor. There are only three ways to reduce t e energy used by the fan. 1. Reduce the volume of air moved. ESL-IE-87-09-77 Proceedings...

  10. Jeff Larkey: Route One Farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farmer, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    a hundred percent biofuel, biodiesel. All my tractors are afuel? Larkey: Pacific Biodiesel. They deliver. I get threeto grow it. But Pacific Biodiesel is actually organizing

  11. Jeff Larkey: Route One Farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farmer, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Merrill, and this whole alternative energy program startedsprung up to do alternative energy Jeff Larkey installationsas well as the alternative energy program. I actually became

  12. Preferred walking route (off campus)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasuriya, Sanjeeva

    Centre Bligh Building Darling Building Animal House Gatehouse ICT 316 Abercrombie Street The Bosch Emergency telephone Footbridge Theatre Wallace Theatre Darlington House Darlington Road Terraces Institute Building Noel Martin Sports & Aquatic Centre Mandelbaum House Gordon Yu- Hoi Chiu Building Bruce Williams

  13. Green Streets/Safe Routes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gietema, W.

    2011-01-01

    Energy Efficient Neighborhood Design William Gietema Arcadia Realty The Human Transect Community Design 58 Hours Texas Transportation Institute 79 Hours NCTCOG Where We Are Really Driving To Parents driving their children to school...

  14. Alternate Routes to Enter Westgate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TA I N P A T TSorbentsAllostericIn This Issue â– Manter

  15. Nanocrystalline Sm{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3??} synthesized using a chelating route for use in IT-SOFC cathodes: Microstructure, surface chemistry and electrical conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scurtu, Rares; Somacescu, Simona; Calderon-Moreno, Jose Maria; Culita, Daniela; Bulimestru, Ion; Popa, Nelea; Gulea, Aurelian; Osiceanu, Petre

    2014-02-15

    Nanocrystalline Sm{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3??} powders were synthesized by a chelating route using different polyfunctional H{sub x}APC acids (APC=aminopolycarboxylate; x=3, 4, 5). Different homologous aminopolycarboxylic acids, namely nitrilotriacetic (H{sub 3}nta), ethylenediaminetetraacetic (H{sub 4}edta), 1,2-cyclohexanediaminetetracetic (H{sub 4}cdta) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic (H{sub 5}dtpa) acid, were used as chelating agents to combine Sm, Sr, Co elements into a perovskite structure. The effects of the chelating agents on the crystalline structure, porosity, surface chemistry and electrical properties were investigated. The electrical properties of the perovskite-type materials emphasized that their conductivities in the temperature range of interest (600–800 °C) depend on the nature of the precursors as well as on the presence of a residual Co oxide phase as shown by XRD and XPS analysis. The surface chemistry and the surface stoichiometries were determined by XPS revealing a complex chemical behavior of Sr that exhibits a peculiar “surface phase” and “bulk phase” chemistry within the detected volume (<10 nm). - Graphical abstract: Synthesis of nanocrystalline Sm{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3??} powders by a chelating route and the investigation of the microstructure, surface chemistry and electrical properties. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline Sm{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3??} obtained by a chelating synthesis route. • Cubic perovskite structures with crystallite sizes ?23±2 nm. • The porous nature revealed by N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption (BET). • The surface chemistry and the surface stoichiometries highlighted by XPS. • A complex chemical behavior of Sr exhibits a peculiar “surface phase” and “bulk phase” chemistry.

  16. Minimally Invasive Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Free-Hand Aspiration of Symptomatic Nerve Route Compressing Lumbosacral Cysts Using a 1.0-Tesla Open Magnetic Resonance Imaging System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bucourt, Maximilian de, E-mail: mdb@charite.de; Streitparth, Florian, E-mail: florian.streitparth@charite.de; Collettini, Federico [Charite-University Medicine, Department of Radiology (Germany); Guettler, Felix [Jena University, Department of Radiology (Germany); Rathke, Hendrik; Lorenz, Britta; Rump, Jens; Hamm, Bernd [Charite-University Medicine, Department of Radiology (Germany); Teichgraeber, U. K. [Jena University, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of minimally invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided free-hand aspiration of symptomatic nerve route compressing lumbosacral cysts in a 1.0-Tesla (T) open MRI system using a tailored interactive sequence. Materials and Methods: Eleven patients with MRI-evident symptomatic cysts in the lumbosacral region and possible nerve route compressing character were referred to a 1.0-T open MRI system. For MRI interventional cyst aspiration, an interactive sequence was used, allowing for near real-time position validation of the needle in any desired three-dimensional plane. Results: Seven of 11 cysts in the lumbosacral region were successfully aspirated (average 10.1 mm [SD {+-} 1.9]). After successful cyst aspiration, each patient reported speedy relief of initial symptoms. Average cyst size was 9.6 mm ({+-}2.6 mm). Four cysts (8.8 {+-} 3.8 mm) could not be aspirated. Conclusion: Open MRI systems with tailored interactive sequences have great potential for cyst aspiration in the lumbosacral region. The authors perceive major advantages of the MR-guided cyst aspiration in its minimally invasive character compared to direct and open surgical options along with consecutive less trauma, less stress, and also less side-effects for the patient.

  17. Synthesis of nanocrystalline REBO{sub 3} (RE=Y, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Ho) and YBO{sub 3}:Eu using a borohydride-based solution precursor route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henkes, Amanda E.; Schaak, Raymond E.

    2008-12-15

    A solution precursor route has been used to synthesize a series of nanocrystalline rare-earth borates. Amorphous precursor powders are precipitated during an aqueous reaction between RE{sup 3+} and NaBH{sub 4}, and the isolated powders can be annealed in air at 700 deg. C to form YBO{sub 3}, NdBO{sub 3}, SmBO{sub 3}, EuBO{sub 3}, GdBO{sub 3}, and HoBO{sub 3}. YBO{sub 3}:Eu formed using this strategy shows red-orange emission properties that are similar to high-quality nanocrystals prepared by other methods. The materials have been characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, powder XRD, SEM, DSC, UV-Vis fluorimetry, and TEM with EDS and element mapping. - Graphical abstract: Amorphous nanoscopic precursor powders are formed through the aqueous reaction of RE{sup 3+} with NaBH{sub 4}. Once isolated, the powders can be annealed at 700 deg. C in air to form a series of nanocrystalline REBO{sub 3} orthoborates. Nanocrystalline YBO{sub 3}:Eu formed using this strategy shows red-orange emission properties when excited with UV light.

  18. Efficient routing algorithms for OTIS networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Awwad, A.; Al-Ayyoub, A.; Ould-Khaoua, M.

    Awwad,A. Al-Ayyoub,A. Ould-Khaoua,M. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Information Technology (ACIT' 2002), The University of Qatar- Doha, Dec. 16-19, 2002 pp 138-144

  19. Scalable Routes to Efficient Thermoelectric Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feser, Joseph Patrick

    2010-01-01

    thermoelectric materials consisting of epitaxially-grownefficient thermoelectric materials," Nature, vol. 451, pp.superlattice thermoelectric materials and devices," Science,

  20. Bound Improvement for LNG Inventory Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-10-29

    The LNG supply chain includes one or multiple production terminals where natural gas is .... we include penalty for unmet annual delivery requirements at each demand port; ..... Nevertheless, these studies show that their optimality gaps

  1. Liquid Silane Routes to Electronic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas L. Schulz; Xuliang Dai; Kendric J. Nelson; Konstantin Pokhodnya; Justin M. Hoey; Iskander S. Akhatov; Orven F. Swenson; Jeremiah Smith; John Lovaasen; Matt Robinson; Scott Payne; Philip R. Boudjouk

    2008-12-04

    New chemistries based upon liquid cyclohexasilane (Si{sub 6}H{sub 12} or CHS) have been used as precursors to silicon-containing electronic materials. Spin-coating of CHS-based inks with subsequent UV light and/or thermal treatment yielded amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films. While initial ink chemistries gave a-Si:H with high resistivity (i.e., > 10{sup 6} {Omega}.cm), several doping strategies are under development to address this limitation. In this contribution, the current status of solution processed rectifying diodes and field effect transistors fabricated from CHS-based inks will be presented. Additionally, a new printing approach termed collimated aerosol beam direct write (CAB-DW{sup TM}) was developed that allows the deposition of printed Ag lines 5 {mu}m in width. A status update will be given where CHS-based inks have been used to CAB-DW silicon-based features with linewidths <10 {mu}m. Assuming silicon thin film materials with good electrical properties will be developed, there may be significant cost advantages associated with the ability to controllably deposit the semiconductor in a metered fashion.

  2. Three roads diverged? Routes to phylogeographic inference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suchard, Marc A.

    . Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC): simulation technique used to draw statistical inference based on data Department of Biostatistics, UCLA School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA 4 Departments of Biomathematics and Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA

  3. Sewer Line Planning: Choosing Optimal Routings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, Louis J.

    . Several different criteria such as maximization of the return to KUB, maximization of the fraction. This cost covers both the cost of materials and excavation. 7. Example: for 20 houses, and 4 do not want of like the Communist Party in the old Soviet Union). After the pipes are laid, all new income is revenue

  4. Incentive Compatible Route Coordination of Crowdsourced Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are owned and controlled by an authority. 1 #12;In such infrastructure-based systems, such as sensor

  5. Multiple Vehicle Routing Problem with Fuel Constraints 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, David

    2013-06-26

    of this problem is mainly in the improvement of feasible solutions, but the following steps are discussed: Cost Matrix Transformation, Field Partitioning, Tour Generation and Rerouting, and Tour Improvement. Four neighborhoods were investigated (2-opt, 3-opt...

  6. Capacitated Node Routing Problems (Preliminary Progress Report)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ralphs, Ted

    and telecommunications networks under capacity constraints. The CTP [104] models the problem of digging trenches of these problems. Because of the intense effort devoted to solving the well-studied Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP The CNRP is a variant of the well-known fixed-charge network flow problem (FCNFP), in which we have only

  7. Emissions Minimization Vehicle Routing Problem Miguel Figliozzi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    costs will have a clear economic value, e.g CO2 emissions in $/kg. This research aims to formulate it is likely that GHG emissions will have a monetary cost. Under cap and trade emissions system initiatives is the primary objective or is part of a generalized cost function. In addition, departure times and travel

  8. Greedy Routing with Bounded Stretch Roland Flury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    @tik.ee.ethz.ch Sriram V. Pemmaraju The University of Iowa, USA sriram@cs.uiowa.edu Roger Wattenhofer ETH Zurich

  9. A rational route to probing membrane proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keating, Amy E.

    A recent report describes the design of short peptides that bind specifically to transmembrane regions of integrins, providing an exciting tool for probing the biology of membrane proteins.

  10. Multicommodity Flow, Welllinked Terminals, and Routing Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khanna, Sanjeev

    600 Mountain Avenue Murray Hill, NJ 07974. chekuri@research.bell­labs.com Sanjeev Khanna + Dept Shepherd # Lucent Bell Labs 600 Mountain Avenue Murray Hill, NJ 07974. bshep that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice

  11. California State Route 73 Alireza Abrishamkar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prevedouros, Panos D.

    problems by reducing air pollution ­ Increased desirability of the area for employees to live #12;Policy Presentation, March 2009 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Hawaii at Manoa #12

  12. Salinity routing in reservoir system modeling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ha, Mi Ae

    2007-04-25

    This research evaluates and improves capabilities incorporated in the Water Rights Analysis Package (WRAP) modeling system for tracking salt loads, particularly for applications dealing with natural salt pollution problems ...

  13. Large Neighborhood Search for LNG Inventory Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feb 3, 2012 ... Abstract: Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is steadily becoming a common mode for commercializing natural gas. Due to the capital intensive ...

  14. Route profile analysis system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullenhoff, D.J.; Wilson, S.W.

    1982-07-29

    A system for recording terrain profile information is disclosed. The system accurately senses incremental distances traveled by a vehicle along with vehicle inclination, recording both with elapsed time. The incremental distances can subsequently be differentiated with respect to time to obtain acceleration. The computer acceleration can then be used to correct the sensed inclination.

  15. 1 -Routing Number 2 -Account Number

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    you will need: · Your Harvard University Id Number (HUID) · Your HUID pin number · Your Checking/Savings on the right side of the screen under Payroll and Compensation. #12;*Please, in an effort to save paper and if you do not wish to receive a paper copy of the check. Click the small box above the SAVE button. CLICK

  16. The Inventory Routing Problem Ann Campbell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleywegt, Anton

    The Logistics Institute School of Industrial and Systems Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA 30332­0205 Abstract Vendor managed resupply is an emerging trend in logistics and refers to situ­ ations 1997 1 Introduction The role of logistics management is changing. Many companies are realizing

  17. Scalable Routes to Efficient Thermoelectric Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feser, Joseph Patrick

    2010-01-01

    conductivity anisotropy in polyimide films," Journal ofproperties of spin-coated polyimide films. This was donethin-films of spin-coated polyimide using this technique and

  18. Static virtual channel allocation in oblivious routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shim, Keun Sup

    Most virtual channel routers have multiple virtual channels to mitigate the effects of head-of-line blocking. When there are more flows than virtual channels at a link, packets or flows must compete for channels, either ...

  19. Dynamics of spectral algorithms for distributed routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maymounkov, Petar (Petar Borissov)

    2012-01-01

    In the past few decades distributed systems have evolved from man-made machines to organically changing social, economic and protein networks. This transition has been overwhelming in many ways at once. Dynamic, heterogeneous, ...

  20. Low temperature route to uranium nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Darien, IL); Yeamans, Charles (Berkeley, CA); Hartmann, Thomas (Idaho Falls, ID); Silva, G. W. Chinthaka (Las Vegas, NV); Cerefice, Gary (Henderson, NV); Czerwinski, Kenneth R. (Henderson, NV)

    2009-09-01

    A method of preparing an actinide nitride fuel for nuclear reactors is provided. The method comprises the steps of a) providing at least one actinide oxide and optionally zirconium oxide; b) mixing the oxide with a source of hydrogen fluoride for a period of time and at a temperature sufficient to convert the oxide to a fluoride salt; c) heating the fluoride salt to remove water; d) heating the fluoride salt in a nitrogen atmosphere for a period of time and at a temperature sufficient to convert the fluorides to nitrides; and e) heating the nitrides under vacuum and/or inert atmosphere for a period of time sufficient to convert the nitrides to mononitrides.