National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for roughness slope terrain

  1. Geology and slope stability in selected parts of The Geysers geothermal resources area: a guide to geologic features indicative of stable and unstable terrain in areas underlain by Franciscan and related rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedrossian, T.L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a 4-month study of various geologic and topographic features related to the stability of Franciscan terrain in The Geysers GRA are presented. The study consisted of investigations of geologic and topographic features, throughout The Geysers GRA, and geologic mapping at a scale of 1:12,000 of approximately 1500 acres (600 hectares) of landslide terrain within the canyon of Big Sulphur Creek in the vicinity of the Buckeye mine (see plate 1). The area mapped during this study was selected because: (1) it is an area of potential future geothermal development, and (2) it illustrates that large areas mapped as landslides on regional scales (McLaughlin, 1974, 1975b; McNitt, 1968a) may contain zones of varying slope stability and, therefore, should be mapped in more detail prior to development of the land.

  2. All-terrain vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somerton-Rayner, M.

    1986-12-16

    This patent describes an all-terrain vehicle comprising: a chassis; four road wheel axles equally spaced along the chassis; suspension means mounting the axles on the chassis; wheels mounted adjacent both ends of each of the axles, the wheels on the foremost and the rearmost axles being steerably mounted; propulsion and driving means including a single internal combustion engine and gearbox, and first and second transfer boxes both coupled to be driven by the engine through the gearbox; the first transfer box driving the first and third axles and the second transfer box driving the second and fourth axles; means for driving in the alternative all four wheels and only the center two wheels; power-assisted steering gear means operatively connected to the steerably-mounted wheels of the foremost axle; and steering coupling means extending between the steerably-mounted wheels on the foremost and rearmost axles so dimensioned that upon steering of the front wheels, the rear wheels perform castoring constrained to a smaller turning angle and a lower rate of angular movement than the front wheels.

  3. Rock slope stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kliche, C.A.

    1999-07-01

    Whether you're involved in surface mine design, surface mine production, construction, education, or regulation, this is an important new book for your library. It describes the basic rock slope failure modes and methods of analysis--both kinematic and kinetic techniques. Chapters include geotechnical and geomechanical analysis techniques, hydrology, rock slope stabilization techniques, and geotechnical instrumentation and monitoring. Numerous examples, drawings and photos enhance the text.

  4. Large Eddy Simulation of Stable Boundary Layer Turbulent Processes in Complex Terrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric D. Skyllingstad

    2005-01-26

    Research was performed using a turbulence boundary layer model to study the behavior of cold, dense flows in regions of complex terrain. Results show that flows develop a balance between turbulent entrainment of warm ambient air and dense, cold air created by surface cooling. Flow depth and strength is a function of downslope distance, slope angle and angle changes, and the ambient air temperature.

  5. Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1991-11-20

    The Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code (TRAC) is a real-time emergency response modeling capability designed to advise Emergency Managers of the path, timing, and projected impacts from an atmospheric release. TRAC evaluates the effects of both radiological and non-radiological hazardous substances, gases and particulates. Using available surface and upper air meteorological information, TRAC realistically treats complex sources and atmospheric conditions, such as those found in mountainous terrain. TRAC calculates atmospheric concentration, deposition, and dose for more thanmore » 25,000 receptor locations within 80 km of the release point. Human-engineered output products support critical decisions on the type, location, and timing of protective actions for workers and the public during an emergency.« less

  6. Microcomputer Spectrum Analysis Models (MSAM) with terrain data base (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The package contains a collection of 14 radio frequency communications engineering and spectrum management programs plus a menu program. An associated terrain elevation data base with 30-second data is provided for the U.S. (less Alaska), Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the Caribbean and border areas of Canada and Mexico. The following programs are included: Bearing/Distance Program (BDIST); Satellite Azimuth Program (SATAZ); Intermodulation Program (INTMOD); NLAMBDA-90 smooth-earth propagation program (NL90); Frequency Dependent Rejection program (FDR); ANNEX I program to evaluate frequency proposals per NTIA Manual (ANNEXI); Antenna Field Intensity program (AFI); Personal Computer Plot 2-D graphics program (PCPLT); Profile 4/3 earth terrain elevation plot program (PROFILE); Horizon radio line-of-sight plot program (HORIZON); Single-Emitter Analysis Mode (SEAM); Terrain Integrated Rough-Earth Model (TIREM); Power Density Display Program to produce power contour map (PDDP); Line-of-Sight antenna coverage map program (SHADO).

  7. Does surface roughness amplify wetting?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malijevský, Alexandr

    2014-11-14

    Any solid surface is intrinsically rough on the microscopic scale. In this paper, we study the effect of this roughness on the wetting properties of hydrophilic substrates. Macroscopic arguments, such as those leading to the well-known Wenzel's law, predict that surface roughness should amplify the wetting properties of such adsorbents. We use a fundamental measure density functional theory to demonstrate the opposite effect from roughness for microscopically corrugated surfaces, i.e., wetting is hindered. Based on three independent analyses we show that microscopic surface corrugation increases the wetting temperature or even makes the surface hydrophobic. Since for macroscopically corrugated surfaces the solid texture does indeed amplify wetting there must exist a crossover between two length-scale regimes that are distinguished by opposite response on surface roughening. This demonstrates how deceptive can be efforts to extend the thermodynamical laws beyond their macroscopic territory.

  8. North Slope (Wahluke Slope) expedited response action cleanup plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this action is to mitigate any threat to public health and the environment from hazards on the North Slope and meet the expedited response action (ERA) objective of cleanup to a degree requiring no further action. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-I-3 Operable Unit. A No Action record of decision (ROD) may be issued after remediation completion. The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns or administers approximately 140 mi{sup 2} (about 90,000 acres) of land north and east of the Columbia River (referred to as the North Slope) that is part of the Hanford Site. The North Slope, also commonly known as the Wahluke Slope, was not used for plutonium production or support facilities; it was used for military air defense of the Hanford Site and vicinity. The North Slope contained seven antiaircraft gun emplacements and three Nike-Ajax missile positions. These military positions were vacated in 1960--1961 as the defense requirements at Hanford changed. They were demolished in 1974. Prior to government control in 1943, the North Slope was homesteaded. Since the initiation of this ERA in the summer of 1992, DOE signed the modified Hanford Federal Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) with the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in which a milestone was set to complete remediation activities and a draft closeout report by October 1994. Remediation activities will make the North Slope area available for future non-DOE uses. Thirty-nine sites have undergone limited characterization to determine if significant environmental hazards exist. This plan documents the results of that characterization and evaluates the potential remediation alternatives.

  9. Artificial intelligence technologies applied to terrain analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, J.C. ); Powell, D.R. )

    1990-01-01

    The US Army Training and Doctrine Command is currently developing, in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratory, a Corps level combat simulation to support military analytical studies. This model emphasizes high resolution modeling of the command and control processes, with particular attention to architectural considerations that enable extension of the model. A planned future extension is the inclusion of an computer based planning capability for command echelons that can be dynamical invoked during the execution of then model. Command and control is the process through which the activities of military forces are directed, coordinated, and controlled to achieve the stated mission. To perform command and control the commander must understand the mission, perform terrain analysis, understand his own situation and capabilities as well as the enemy situation and his probable actions. To support computer based planning, data structures must be available to support the computer's ability to understand'' the mission, terrain, own capabilities, and enemy situation. The availability of digitized terrain makes it feasible to apply artificial intelligence technologies to emulate the terrain analysis process, producing data structures for uses in planning. The work derived thus for to support the understanding of terrain is the topic of this paper. 13 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. ARM North Slope of Alaska

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In 1997, the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility established research sites on the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), to provide data about cloud and radiative processes in cold environments and high latitudes. Comprehensive measurements from ARM's state-of-the-art instrument systems at Barrow and Oliktok Point will help scientists improve the understanding of high-latitude cloud and radiation processes, and their representation in global climate models. More

  11. Electrokinetic transport in microchannels with random roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Moran [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kang, Qinjun [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We present a numerical framework to model the electrokinetic transport in microchannels with random roughness. The three-dimensional microstructure of the rough channel is generated by a random generation-growth method with three statistical parameters to control the number density, the total volume fraction, and the anisotropy characteristics of roughness elements. The governing equations for the electrokinetic transport are solved by a high-efficiency lattice Poisson?Boltzmann method in complex geometries. The effects from the geometric characteristics of roughness on the electrokinetic transport in microchannels are therefore modeled and analyzed. For a given total roughness volume fraction, a higher number density leads to a lower fluctuation because of the random factors. The electroosmotic flow rate increases with the roughness number density nearly logarithmically for a given volume fraction of roughness but decreases with the volume fraction for a given roughness number density. When both the volume fraction and the number density of roughness are given, the electroosmotic flow rate is enhanced by the increase of the characteristic length along the external electric field direction but is reduced by that in the direction across the channel. For a given microstructure of the rough microchannel, the electroosmotic flow rate decreases with the Debye length. It is found that the shape resistance of roughness is responsible for the flow rate reduction in the rough channel compared to the smooth channel even for very thin double layers, and hence plays an important role in microchannel electroosmotic flows.

  12. Rainfall-ground movement modelling for natural gas pipelines through landslide terrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Neil, G.D.; Simmonds, G.R.; Grivas, D.A.; Schultz, B.C.

    1996-12-31

    Perhaps the greatest challenge to geotechnical engineers is to maintain the integrity of pipelines at river crossings where landslide terrain dominates the approach slopes. The current design process at NOVA Gas Transmission Ltd. (NGTL) has developed to the point where this impact can be reasonably estimated using in-house models of pipeline-soil interaction. To date, there has been no method to estimate ground movements within unexplored slopes at the outset of the design process. To address this problem, rainfall and slope instrumentation data have been processed to derive rainfall-ground movement relationships. Early results indicate that the ground movements exhibit two components: a steady, small rate of movement independent of the rainfall, and, increased rates over short periods of time following heavy amounts of rainfall. Evidence exists of a definite threshold value of rainfall which has to be exceeded before any incremental movement is induced. Additional evidence indicates a one-month lag between rainfall and ground movement. While these models are in the preliminary stage, results indicate a potential to estimate ground movements for both initial design and planned maintenance actions.

  13. North Slope Co. Northwest Arctic Co.

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NPRA Colville River Area ANWR 1002 Area (No 2001 Reserves) North Slope Regional NPRA Barrow Area NPRA ANWR NPRA Wells OIL GAS , INJECTOR 2001 Liquid Reserve Class No 2001...

  14. North Slope Co. Northwest Arctic Co.

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NPRA Colville River Area ANWR 1002 Area (No 2001 Reserves) North Slope Regional NPRA Barrow Area NPRA ANWR NPRA 2001 BOE Reserve Classes 1,000.1 - 10,000 MBOE 10,000.1 - 100,000...

  15. North Slope Co. Northwest Arctic Co.

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NPRA Colville River Area ANWR 1002 Area (No 2001 Reserves) North Slope Regional NPRA Barrow Area NPRA ANWR NPRA Gas Reserve Class 1,000.1 to 10,000 MMCF 10,000.1 to 100,000 MMCF...

  16. Rough surface reconstruction for ultrasonic NDE simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Wonjae; Shi, Fan; Lowe, Michael J. S.; Skelton, Elizabeth A.; Craster, Richard V.

    2014-02-18

    The reflection of ultrasound from rough surfaces is an important topic for the NDE of safety-critical components, such as pressure-containing components in power stations. The specular reflection from a rough surface of a defect is normally lower than it would be from a flat surface, so it is typical to apply a safety factor in order that justification cases for inspection planning are conservative. The study of the statistics of the rough surfaces that might be expected in candidate defects according to materials and loading, and the reflections from them, can be useful to develop arguments for realistic safety factors. This paper presents a study of real rough crack surfaces that are representative of the potential defects in pressure-containing power plant. Two-dimensional (area) values of the height of the roughness have been measured and their statistics analysed. Then a means to reconstruct model cases with similar statistics, so as to enable the creation of multiple realistic realizations of the surfaces, has been investigated, using random field theory. Rough surfaces are reconstructed, based on a real surface, and results for these two-dimensional descriptions of the original surface have been compared with those from the conventional model based on a one-dimensional correlation coefficient function. In addition, ultrasonic reflections from them are simulated using a finite element method.

  17. Stability of submerged slopes on the flanks of the Hawaiian Islands, a simplified approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, H.J.; Torresan, M.E.; McArthur, W.

    1994-12-31

    Undersea transmission lines and shoreline AC-DC conversion stations and near-shore transmission lines are being considered as part of a system for transporting energy between the Hawaiian Islands. These facilities will need to be designed so that they will not be damaged or destroyed by coastal or undersea landslides. Advanced site surveys and engineering design of these facilities will require detailed site specific analyses, including sediment sampling and laboratory testing of samples, in situ testing of sediment and rock, detailed charting of bathymetry, and two- or three-dimensional numerical analyses of the factors of safety of the slopes against failure from the various possible loading mechanisms. An intermediate approximate approach can be followed that involves gravity and piston cores, laboratory testing and the application of simplified models to determine a seismic angle of repose for actual sediment in the vicinity of the planned facility. An even simpler and more approximate approach involves predictions of angles of repose using classification of the sediment along a proposed route as either a coarse volcaniclastic sand, a calcareous ooze, or a muddy terrigenous sediment. The steepest slope that such a sediment can maintain is the static angle of repose. Sediment may be found on slopes as steep as these, but it must be considered metastable and liable to fail in the event of any disturbance, storm or earthquake. The seismic angle of repose likely governs most slopes on the Hawaiian Ridge. This declivity corresponds to the response of the slope to a continuing seismic environment. As a long history of earthquakes affects the slopes, they gradually flatten to this level. Slopes that exceed or roughly equal this value can be considered at risk to fail during future earthquakes. Seismic and static angles of repose for three sediment types are tabulated in this report.

  18. North Slope Borough Power & Light | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Borough Power & Light Jump to: navigation, search Name: North Slope Borough Power & Light Place: Alaska Phone Number: (907) 852-0489 Website: www.north-slope.orgdepartment Outage...

  19. Subsurface water flow simulated for hill slopes with spatially dependent soil hydraulic characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, M.L.; Luxmoore, R.J.; DeAngelis, R.; Ward, R.C.; Yeh, G.T.

    1987-08-01

    Water flow through hill slopes consisting of five soil layers, with varying spatial dependence in hydraulic characteristics in the lateral plane was simulated by solving Richards' equation in three dimensions under varying rainfall intensities and for two complexities of terrain. By concepts of similar media the variability in soil hydraulic characteristics was expressed by a single dimensionless parameter, the scaling factor ..cap alpha... The moments of log normally distributed ..cap alpha.. were set as: Mean = 1.0 and standard deviation = 1.0. Four cases of spatial dependence of ..cap alpha.. in the lateral plane were selected for simulation, using exponential variogram functions ranging in spatial structure from random (no spatial dependence) to large dependence (large correlation lengths). The simulations showed that the rates of subsurface flow from the 30/sup 0/ hillslope, during and following rainfall, were significantly enhanced with an increase in spatial dependence. Subsurface drainage was also increased with increases in rainfall intensity and slop complexity. For hill slopes the relative effects of spatial dependence in soil hydraulic characteristics was smaller with 30/sup 0/ horizontal pitching than without pitching. Hill slopes with a random distribution of hydraulic characteristics provided greater opportunity for soil units with differing water capacities to interact than in cases with spatially correlated distributions. This greater interaction is associated with a greater lag in subsurface flow generation. These studies illustrate some of the expected effects of spatial dependence of soil hydraulic characteristics of the integrated hydrologic response of land areas.

  20. Wind profiles on the stoss slope of sand dunes: Implications for eolian sand transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, A.; Kocurek, G. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Starting with the work of R.A. Bagnold it has been recognized that the shear stress exerted by the wind on sand grains is the driving force for eolian sand transport. Calculation of accurate rates of sand transport is essential for prediction of migration rates of sand dunes in modern environments as well as reconstructing paleoclimates (wind speed and direction) from eolian deposits. Because a sand dune is a streamlined obstacle in the path of the wind, continuity necessitates that the flow field is compressed over the windward side of a dune and shear stress should progressively increase up the slope as the flow accelerates. However, airflow measurements over 14 dunes (at White Sands, New Mexico; Algodones, CA; and Padre Island, TX) show that compression of the flow field occurs very close to the surface and as a consequence, the overlying flow actually shows an overall decrease in shear stress up the slope. Measurements commonly collected in the overlying zone are not representative of the near-surface, sand-driving wind. Furthermore, near-surface compression of the flow field implies that a pressure gradient exists that would render the current transport models inappropriate for sloping surfaces that dominate natural sandy desert terrains.

  1. Surface roughness effects on the solar reflectance of cool asphalt...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Surface roughness effects on the solar reflectance of cool asphalt shingles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Surface roughness effects on the solar ...

  2. SOFAST: Sandia Optical Fringe Analysis Slope Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-13

    SOFAST is used to characterize the surface slope of reflective mirrors for solar applications. SOFAST uses a large monitor or projection screen to display fringe patterns, and a machine vision camera to image the reflection of these patterns in the subject mirror. From these images, a detailed map of surface normals can be generated and compared to design or fitted mirror shapes. SOFAST uses standard Fringe Reflection (Deflectometry) approaches to measure the mirror surface normals.more »SOFAST uses an extrinsic analysis of key points on the facet to locate the camera and monitor relative to the facet coordinate system. It then refines this position based on the measured surface slope and integrated shape of the mirror facet. The facet is placed into a reference frame such that key points on the facet match the design facet in orientation and position.« less

  3. SOFAST: Sandia Optical Fringe Analysis Slope Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-10-20

    SOFAST is used to characterize the surface slope of reflective mirrors for solar applications. SOFAST uses a large monitor or projections screen to display fringe patterns, and a machine vision camera to image the reflection of these patterns in the subject mirror. From these images, a detailed map of surface normals can be generated and compared to design or fitted mirror shapes. SOFAST uses standard Fringe Reflection (Deflectometry) approaches to measure the mirror surface normals.more » SOFAST uses an extrinsic analysis of key points on the facet to locate the camera and monitor relative to the facet coordinate system. It then refines this position based on the measured surface slope and integrated shape of the mirror facet. The facet is placed into a reference frame such that key points on the facet match the design facet in orientation and position. This is key to evaluating a facet as suitable for a specific solar application. SOFAST reports the measurements of the facet as detailed surface normal location in a format suitable for ray tracing optical analysis codes. SOFAST also reports summary information as to the facet fitted shape (monomial) and error parameters. Useful plots of the error distribution are also presented.« less

  4. Comparing English, Mandarin, and Russian Hydrographic and Terrain Categories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Chen-Chieh; Sorokine, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    The paper compares hydrographic and terrain categories in the geospatial data standards of the US, Taiwan, and Russian Federation where the dominant languages used are from di erent language families. It aims to identify structural and semantic di erences between similar categories across three geospatial data standards. By formalizing the data standard structures and identifying the properties that di erentiate sibling categories in each geospatial data standard using well-known formal relations and quality universals, we develop a common basis on which hydrographic and terrain categories in the three data standards can be compared. The result suggests that all three data standards structure categories with a mixture of relations with di erent meaning even though most of them are well-known relations in top-level ontologies. Similar categories can be found across all three standards but exact match between similar categories are rare.

  5. Wind Regimes in Complex Terrain of the Great Valley of Eastern Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birdwell, Kevin R

    2011-05-01

    This research was designed to provide an understanding of physical wind mechanisms within the complex terrain of the Great Valley of Eastern Tennessee to assess the impacts of regional air flow with regard to synoptic and mesoscale weather changes, wind direction shifts, and air quality. Meteorological data from 2008 2009 were analyzed from 13 meteorological sites along with associated upper level data. Up to 15 ancillary sites were used for reference. Two-step complete linkage and K-means cluster analyses, synoptic weather studies, and ambient meteorological comparisons were performed to generate hourly wind classifications. These wind regimes revealed seasonal variations of underlying physical wind mechanisms (forced channeled, vertically coupled, pressure-driven, and thermally-driven winds). Synoptic and ambient meteorological analysis (mixing depth, pressure gradient, pressure gradient ratio, atmospheric and surface stability) suggested up to 93% accuracy for the clustered results. Probabilistic prediction schemes of wind flow and wind class change were developed through characterization of flow change data and wind class succession. Data analysis revealed that wind flow in the Great Valley was dominated by forced channeled winds (45 67%) and vertically coupled flow (22 38%). Down-valley pressure-driven and thermally-driven winds also played significant roles (0 17% and 2 20%, respectively), usually accompanied by convergent wind patterns (15 20%) and large wind direction shifts, especially in the Central/Upper Great Valley. The behavior of most wind regimes was associated with detectable pressure differences between the Lower and Upper Great Valley. Mixing depth and synoptic pressure gradients were significant contributors to wind pattern behavior. Up to 15 wind classes and 10 sub-classes were identified in the Central Great Valley with 67 joined classes for the Great Valley at-large. Two-thirds of Great Valley at-large flow was defined by 12 classes. Winds flowed on-axis only 40% of the time. The Great Smoky Mountains helped create down-valley pressure-driven winds, downslope mountain breezes, and divergent air flow. The Cumberland Mountains and Plateau were associated with wind speed reductions in the Central Great Valley, Emory Gap Flow, weak thermally-driven winds, and northwesterly down sloping. Ridge-and-valley terrain enhanced wind direction reversals, pressure-driven winds, as well as locally and regionally produced thermally-driven flow.

  6. Atmospheric studies in complex terrain: a planning guide for future studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orgill, M.M.

    1981-02-01

    The objective of this study is to assist the US Department of Energy in Conducting its atmospheric studies in complex terrain (ASCOT0 by defining various complex terrain research systems and relating these options to specific landforms sites. This includes: (1) reviewing past meteorological and diffusion research on complex terrain; (2) relating specific terrain-induced airflow phenomena to specific landforms and time and space scales; (3) evaluating the technical difficulty of modeling and measuring terrain-induced airflow phenomena; and (4) avolving severdal research options and proposing candidate sites for continuing and expanding field and modeling work. To evolve research options using variable candidate sites, four areas were considered: site selection, terrain uniqueness and quantification, definition of research problems and research plans. 36 references, 111 figures, 20 tables.

  7. Counterintuitive MCNPX Results for Scintillator Surface Roughness Effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-08-12

    We have reported on our recent MCNPX simulation results of energy deposition for a group of 8 scintillation detectors, coupled with various rough surface patterns. The MCNPX results generally favored the detectors with various rough surface patterns. The observed MCNPX results are not fully explained by this work.

  8. Wind Power Curve Modeling in Simple and Complex Terrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulaevskaya, V.; Wharton, S.; Irons, Z.; Qualley, G.

    2015-02-09

    Our previous work on wind power curve modeling using statistical models focused on a location with a moderately complex terrain in the Altamont Pass region in northern California (CA). The work described here is the follow-up to that work, but at a location with a simple terrain in northern Oklahoma (OK). The goal of the present analysis was to determine the gain in predictive ability afforded by adding information beyond the hub-height wind speed, such as wind speeds at other heights, as well as other atmospheric variables, to the power prediction model at this new location and compare the results to those obtained at the CA site in the previous study. While we reach some of the same conclusions at both sites, many results reported for the CA site do not hold at the OK site. In particular, using the entire vertical profile of wind speeds improves the accuracy of wind power prediction relative to using the hub-height wind speed alone at both sites. However, in contrast to the CA site, the rotor equivalent wind speed (REWS) performs almost as well as the entire profile at the OK site. Another difference is that at the CA site, adding wind veer as a predictor significantly improved the power prediction accuracy. The same was true for that site when air density was added to the model separately instead of using the standard air density adjustment. At the OK site, these additional variables result in no significant benefit for the prediction accuracy.

  9. Structure of the nocturnal boundary layer over a complex terrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, M.J. ); Raman, S. . Dept. of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The complex nature of the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) has been shown extensively in the literature Project STABLE was conducted in 1988 to study NBL turbulence and diffusion over the complex terrain of the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Augusta, Georgia. The third night of the study was particularly interesting because of the unusual phenomena observed in the structure of the NBL. Further analyses of microscale and mesoscale data from this night are presented using data from SRS network of eight 61 m towers over 900 km{sup 2}, from six launches of an instrumented tethersonde, from permanent SRL meteorological instrumentation at seven levels of the 304 m (1,000 ft) WJBF-TV tower near SRS, and additional data collected at 36 m (CC) by North Carolina State University (NCSU) including a one dimensional sonic anemometer, fine wire thermocouple, and a three dimensional propeller anemometer. Also, data from the nearby Plant Vogtle nuclear power plant observation tower and the National Weather Service at Augusta's Bush Field (AGS) are presented. The passage of a mesoscale phenomenon, defined as a microfront (with an explanation of the nomenclature used), and a vertical composite schematic of the NBL which shows dual low level wind maxima, dual inversions, and a persistent, elevated turbulent layer over a complex terrain are described.

  10. Structure of the nocturnal boundary layer over a complex terrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, M.J.; Raman, S.

    1992-08-01

    The complex nature of the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) has been shown extensively in the literature Project STABLE was conducted in 1988 to study NBL turbulence and diffusion over the complex terrain of the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Augusta, Georgia. The third night of the study was particularly interesting because of the unusual phenomena observed in the structure of the NBL. Further analyses of microscale and mesoscale data from this night are presented using data from SRS network of eight 61 m towers over 900 km{sup 2}, from six launches of an instrumented tethersonde, from permanent SRL meteorological instrumentation at seven levels of the 304 m (1,000 ft) WJBF-TV tower near SRS, and additional data collected at 36 m (CC) by North Carolina State University (NCSU) including a one dimensional sonic anemometer, fine wire thermocouple, and a three dimensional propeller anemometer. Also, data from the nearby Plant Vogtle nuclear power plant observation tower and the National Weather Service at Augusta`s Bush Field (AGS) are presented. The passage of a mesoscale phenomenon, defined as a microfront (with an explanation of the nomenclature used), and a vertical composite schematic of the NBL which shows dual low level wind maxima, dual inversions, and a persistent, elevated turbulent layer over a complex terrain are described.

  11. A hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis in a municipal solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, L.; Batlle, F.

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > A quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis method was proposed. > The proposed method is a good engineering tool for 3D slope stability analysis. > Factor of safety from 3D analysis is higher than from 2D analysis. > 3D analysis results are more sensitive to cohesion than 2D analysis. - Abstract: Limited space for accommodating the ever increasing mounds of municipal solid waste (MSW) demands the capacity of MSW landfill be maximized by building landfills to greater heights with steeper slopes. This situation has raised concerns regarding the stability of high MSW landfills. A hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis based on the finite element stress analysis was applied in a case study at a MSW landfill in north-east Spain. Potential slides can be assumed to be located within the waste mass due to the lack of weak foundation soils and geosynthetic membranes at the landfill base. The only triggering factor of deep-seated slope failure is the higher leachate level and the relatively high and steep slope in the front. The valley-shaped geometry and layered construction procedure at the site make three-dimensional slope stability analyses necessary for this landfill. In the finite element stress analysis, variations of leachate level during construction and continuous settlement of the landfill were taken into account. The 'equivalent' three-dimensional factor of safety (FoS) was computed from the individual result of the two-dimensional analysis for a series of evenly spaced cross sections within the potential sliding body. Results indicate that the hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis adopted in this paper is capable of locating roughly the spatial position of the potential sliding mass. This easy to manipulate method can serve as an engineering tool in the preliminary estimate of the FoS as well as the approximate position and extent of the potential sliding mass. The result that FoS obtained from three-dimensional analysis increases as much as 50% compared to that from two-dimensional analysis implies the significance of the three-dimensional effect for this study-case. Influences of shear parameters, time elapse after landfill closure, leachate level as well as unit weight of waste on FoS were also investigated in this paper. These sensitivity analyses serve as the guidelines of construction practices and operating procedures for the MSW landfill under study.

  12. Terrain and Ambient Wind Effects on the Warming Footprint of a Wind Machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcmeeking, Gavin R.; Whiteman, Charles D.; Powell, Stuart G.; Clements, Craig B.

    2002-05-20

    An experiment in a vineyard in south-central Washington is described in which a vineyard wind machine used for frost protection was turned on and off while monitoring the air temperature in the vineyard. The wind machine fan, with a hub height of 12 m, rotated around a quasi-horizontal axis that was tilted downward into the vineyard at an angle of 6 degrees. The fan also rotated around a vertical axis once every 4 minutes to protect a roughly circular area surrounding the wind machine tower. A temperature inversion of about 3.5 C occurred above the vineyard between the 3-m and hub-height levels during the experiments. The 300-m diameter warming footprint of the fan was displaced down the south-facing 1-2{sup o} slope of the vineyard when the ambient wind speed was low, showing the effect of the weak and shallow nighttime drainage flow that often occurred in the vineyard. When the ambient wind speed increased, the footprint was displaced downwind and downslope of the tower. The mean warming footprint magnitude when the fan was switched on was about 1-2 C, and the temperature excess in the footprint relative to the surroundings dissipated quickly when the fan was switched off.

  13. West Slope, Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. West Slope is a census-designated place in Washington County, Oregon.1 References US...

  14. Modified Newmark model for seismic displacements of compliant slopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, S.L.; Smith, M.W.

    1997-07-01

    Newmark sliding block analyses are widely used for estimation of permanent displacements of slopes in earthquakes. The conventional Newmark model, however, neglects the dynamic response of the material above a potential failure surface. Decoupled procedures have been developed to account for that response, but they neglect the effects of permanent displacements on the response. A modified Newmark analysis that considers the dynamic response, including the effects of permanent displacements, of the material above the failure surface is presented. The modified Newmark analysis shows that the decoupled approach produces somewhat conservative estimates of permanent displacements for stiff and/or shallow failure masses, but that it may produce unconservative estimates for failure masses that are soft and/or deep. Many slopes of large, lined landfills may fall into this latter category. The notion of a slope spectrum, which illustrates the effect of the natural period of a potential failure mass on permanent slope displacement, is also introduced.

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the North Slope Alaska

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (NSA) Site () | Data Explorer North Slope Alaska (NSA) Site Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the North Slope Alaska (NSA) Site The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To achieve

  16. ARM Airborne Carbon Measurement on the North Slope

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Airborne Carbon Measurement on the North Slope During the summer of 2015, a research campaign gave scientists insight into trends and variability of trace gases in the atmosphere over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility's North Slope of Alaska site to improve Arctic climate models. The ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements (ARM-ACME) campaign-finalizing the fifth phase in the Arctic-is providing a new observational perspective on the Earth's carbon cycle, and how

  17. Slope Error Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed an optical measurement tool for parabolic solar collectors that measures the combined errors due to absorber misalignment and reflector slope error. The combined absorber alignment and reflector slope errors are measured using a digital camera to photograph the reflected image of the absorber in the collector. Previous work using the image of the reflection of the absorber finds the reflector slope errors from the reflection of the absorber and an independent measurement of the absorber location. The accuracy of the reflector slope error measurement is thus dependent on the accuracy of the absorber location measurement. By measuring the combined reflector-absorber errors, the uncertainty in the absorber location measurement is eliminated. The related performance merit, the intercept factor, depends on the combined effects of the absorber alignment and reflector slope errors. Measuring the combined effect provides a simpler measurement and a more accurate input to the intercept factor estimate. The minimal equipment and setup required for this measurement technique make it ideal for field measurements.

  18. Assessment of technologies for constructing self-drying low-slope roofs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, D.M.; Desjarlais, A.O.

    1994-05-01

    Issues associated with removing excessive moisture from low-slope roofs have been assessed. The economic costs associated with moisture trapped in existing roofs have been estimated. The evidence suggests that existing moisture levels cause approximately a 40% overall reduction in the R-value of installed roofing insulation in the United States. Excess operating costs are further increased by a summertime heat transfer mode unique to wet insulation, caused by the daily migration of water within the roof. By itself, this effect can increase peak electrical demand for air conditioning by roughly 15 W/m{sup 2} of roofing, depending on the type of insulation. This effect will increase peak demand capacity required of utilities in any geographic region (e.g., 900 MW in the South). A simple formula has been derived for predicting the effect that self-drying roofs can have upon time-averaged construction costs. It is presumed that time-averaged costs depend predominantly upon (1) actual service life and (2) the likelihood that the less expensive recover membranes can be installed safely over old roofs. For example, an increase in service life from 15 to 20 years should reduce the current cost of roofing ($12 billion/year) by 21%. Another simple formula for predicting the reroofing waste volume indicates that an increase in service life from 15 to 20 years might reduce the current estimated 0.4 billion ft{sup 3}/year of waste by 25%. A finite-difference computer program has been used to study the flow of heat and moisture within typical existing roofs for a variety of US climates. Nearly all publicly available experimental drying data have been consulted. The drying times for most existing low-slope roofs in the United States are controlled largely climate and the permeability of the structural deck to water vapor.

  19. Instrumentation for slope stability -- Experience from an urban area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flentje, P.; Chowdhury, R.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the monitoring of several existing landslides in an urban area near Wollongong in the state of New South Wales, Australia. A brief overview of topography and geology is given and reference is made to the types of slope movement, processes and causal factors. Often the slope movements are extremely slow and imperceptible to the eye, and catastrophic failures are quite infrequent. However, cumulative movements at these slower rates do, over time, cause considerable distress to structures and disrupt residential areas and transport routes. Inclinometers and piezometers have been installed at a number of locations and monitoring of these has been very useful. The performance of instrumentation at different sites is discussed in relation to the monitoring of slope movements and pore pressures. Interval rates of inclinometer shear displacement have been compared with various periods of cumulative rainfall to assess the relationships.

  20. ANALYZING SURFACE ROUGHNESS DEPENDENCE OF LINEAR RF LOSSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reece, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael J.; Xu, Chen

    2012-09-01

    Topographic structure on Superconductivity Radio Frequency (SRF) surfaces can contribute additional cavity RF losses describable in terms of surface RF reflectivity and absorption indices of wave scattering theory. At isotropic homogeneous extent, Power Spectrum Density (PSD) of roughness is introduced and quantifies the random surface topographic structure. PSD obtained from different surface treatments of niobium, such Buffered Chemical Polishing (BCP), Electropolishing (EP), Nano-Mechanical Polishing (NMP) and Barrel Centrifugal Polishing (CBP) are compared. A perturbation model is utilized to calculate the additional rough surface RF losses based on PSD statistical analysis. This model will not consider that superconductor becomes normal conducting at fields higher than transition field. One can calculate the RF power dissipation ratio between rough surface and ideal smooth surface within this field range from linear loss mechanisms.

  1. north-slope-resources | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    North Slope Resources photo of TAPS Alaska North Slope Resources Additional oil production from known resources as well as new discoveries are essential for keeping the Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) operating both technically and economically. The lower limit of effective operation for TAPS is in the range of 200,000 barrels per day. Current production rates are about 700,000 barrels per day down from a maximum of over 2 million barrels per day in 1988. The economic limit of TAPS will

  2. Funding Opportunity Announcement for Wind Forecasting Improvement Project in Complex Terrain

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On April 4, 2014 the U.S. Department of Energy announced a $2.5 million funding opportunity entitled “Wind Forecasting Improvement Project in Complex Terrain.” By researching the physical processes...

  3. March 13, 1968: Oil discovered on Alaska's North Slope | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 13, 1968: Oil discovered on Alaska's North Slope March 13, 1968: Oil discovered on Alaska's North Slope March 13, 1968: Oil discovered on Alaska's North Slope March 13, 1968 The Atlantic Richfield Company and Humble Oil and Refining Company announce the discovery of oil on the North Slope of Alaska at Prudhoe Bay

  4. The 2004 North Slope of Alaska Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004 North Slope of Alaska Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment E. R. Westwater, M. A. Klein, and V. Leuski Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado A. J. Gasiewski, T. Uttal, and D. A. Hazen National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado D. Cimini Remote Sensing Division, CETEMPS Universita'

  5. Case study of slope failures at Spilmans Island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kayyal, M.K.; Hasen, M.

    1998-11-01

    This paper presents a case study for a dredge disposal site called Spilmans Island, located along the Houston-Galveston Ship Channel, east of Houston. Initially classified as a sand bar in the San Jacinto River, Spilmans Island evolved in recent years with the construction of perimeter levees to contain the flow of materials produced from dredging operations. These levees were often constructed on soft dredged sediments, and as the levees were raised, occasionally slope failures occurred. The objectives of this paper are to illustrate the importance of reconstructing the history of a site as a basis for geotechnical analyses, and to demonstrate the significance of keeping accurate records of past investigations, construction activities, slope failures and subsequent remedial measures. The results of the geotechnical investigation described in this paper offer a clear example of how such data can be used to provide reliable predictions on the stability conditions of raised levees.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF SHALLOW VISCOUS OIL RESERVES IN NORTH SLOPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2003-07-01

    North Slope of Alaska has huge oil deposits in heavy oil reservoirs such as Ugnu, West Sak and Shrader Bluff etc. The viscosity of the last two reservoir oils vary from {approx}30 cp to {approx}3000 cp and the amount in the range of 10-20 billion barrels. High oil viscosity and low formation strength impose problems to high recovery and well productivity. Water-alternate-gas injection processes can be effective for the lower viscosity end of these deposits in West Sak and Shrader Bluff. Several gas streams are available in the North Slope containing NGL and CO{sub 2} (a greenhouse gas). The goal of this research is to develop tools to find optimum solvent, injection schedule and well-architecture for a WAG process in North Slope shallow sand viscous oil reservoirs. In the last quarter, we have developed streamline generation and convection subroutines for miscible gas injection. The WAG injection algorithms are being developed. We formulated a four-phase relative permeability model based on two-phase relative permeabilities. The new relative permeability formulations are being incorporated into the simulator. Wettabilities and relative permeabilities are being measured. Plans for the next quarter includes modeling of WAG injection in streamline based simulation, relative permeability studies with cores, incorporation of complex well-architecture.

  7. North Slope Decision Support for Water Resource Planning and Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schnabel, William; Brumbelow, Kelly

    2013-03-31

    The objective of this project was to enhance the water resource decision-making process with respect to oil and gas exploration/production activities on Alaska’s North Slope. To this end, a web-based software tool was developed to allow stakeholders to assemble, evaluate, and communicate relevant information between and amongst themselves. The software, termed North Slope Decision Support System (NSDSS), is a visually-referenced database that provides a platform for running complex natural system, planning, and optimization models. The NSDSS design was based upon community input garnered during a series of stakeholder workshops, and the end product software is freely available to all stakeholders via the project website. The tool now resides on servers hosted by the UAF Water and Environmental Research Center, and will remain accessible and free-of-charge for all interested stakeholders. The development of the tool fostered new advances in the area of data evaluation and decision support technologies, and the finished product is envisioned to enhance water resource planning activities on Alaska’s North Slope.

  8. Comparison of slope stability in two Brazilian municipal landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gharabaghi, B. Singh, M.K.; Inkratas, C. Fleming, I.R. McBean, E.

    2008-07-01

    The implementation of landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) projects has greatly assisted in reducing the greenhouse gases and air pollutants, leading to an improved local air quality and reduced health risks. The majority of cities in developing countries still dispose of their municipal waste in uncontrolled 'open dumps.' Municipal solid waste landfill construction practices and operating procedures in these countries pose a challenge to implementation of LFGTE projects because of concern about damage to the gas collection infrastructure (horizontal headers and vertical wells) caused by minor, relatively shallow slumps and slides within the waste mass. While major slope failures can and have occurred, such failures in most cases have been shown to involve contributory factors or triggers such as high pore pressures, weak foundation soil or failure along weak geosynthetic interfaces. Many researchers who have studied waste mechanics propose that the shear strength of municipal waste is sufficient such that major deep-seated catastrophic failures under most circumstances require such contributory factors. Obviously, evaluation of such potential major failures requires expert analysis by geotechnical specialists with detailed site-specific information regarding foundation soils, interface shearing resistances and pore pressures both within the waste and in clayey barrier layers or foundation soils. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential use of very simple stability analyses which can be used to study the potential for slumps and slides within the waste mass and which may represent a significant constraint on construction and development of the landfill, on reclamation and closure and on the feasibility of a LFGTE project. The stability analyses rely on site-specific but simple estimates of the unit weight of waste and the pore pressure conditions and use 'generic' published shear strength envelopes for municipal waste. Application of the slope stability analysis method is presented in a case study of two Brazilian landfill sites; the Cruz das Almas Landfill in Maceio and the Muribeca Landfill in Recife. The Muribeca site has never recorded a slope failure and is much larger and better-maintained when compared to the Maceio site at which numerous minor slumps and slides have been observed. Conventional limit-equilibrium analysis was used to calculate factors of safety for stability of the landfill side slopes. Results indicate that the Muribeca site is more stable with computed factors of safety values in the range 1.6-2.4 compared with computed values ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 for the Maceio site at which slope failures have been known to occur. The results suggest that this approach may be useful as a screening-level tool when considering the feasibility of implementing LFGTE projects.

  9. Los Alamos Lab to perform slope-side cleanup near Smith's Marketplace

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos Lab to perform slope-side cleanup near Smith's Marketplace Los Alamos National Laboratory to perform slope-side cleanup near Smith's Marketplace The Lab is performing a ...

  10. Roughness Optimization at High Modes for GDP CHx Microshells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theobald, M.; Dumay, B.; Chicanne, C.; Barnouin, J.; Legaie, O.; Baclet, P.

    2004-03-15

    For the ''Megajoule'' Laser (LMJ) facility of the CEA, amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) is the nominal ablator to be used for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. These capsules contain the fusible deuterium-tritium mixture to achieve ignition. Coatings are prepared by glow discharge polymerization (GDP) with trans-2-butene and hydrogen. The films properties have been investigated. Laser fusion targets must have optimized characteristics: a diameter of about 2.4 mm for LMJ targets, a thickness up to 175 {mu}m, a sphericity and a thickness concentricity better than 99% and an outer and an inner roughness lower than 20 nm at high modes. The surface finish of these laser fusion targets must be extremely smooth to minimize hydrodynamic instabilities.Movchan and Demchishin, and later Thornton introduced a structure zone model (SZM) based on both evaporated and sputtered metals. They investigated the influence of base temperature and the sputtering gas pressure on structure and properties of thick polycrystalline coatings of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminum oxide. An original cross-sectional analysis by atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows amorphous materials characterization and permits to make an analogy between the amorphous GDP material and the existing model (SZM). The purpose of this work is to understand the relationship between the deposition parameters, the growing structures and the surface roughness.The coating structure as a function of deposition parameters was first studied on plane silicon substrates and then optimized on PAMS shells. By adjusting the coating parameters, the structures are modified, and in some case, the high modes roughness decreases dramatically.

  11. Biocorrosive Thermophilic Microbial Communities in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, Kathleen E.; Gieg, Lisa M.; Parisi, Victoria A.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Green Tringe, Susannah; Bristow, Jim; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2009-09-16

    Corrosion of metallic oilfield pipelines by microorganisms is a costly but poorly understood phenomenon, with standard treatment methods targeting mesophilic sulfatereducing bacteria. In assessing biocorrosion potential at an Alaskan North Slope oil field, we identified thermophilic hydrogen-using methanogens, syntrophic bacteria, peptideand amino acid-fermenting bacteria, iron reducers, sulfur/thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and sulfate-reducing archaea. These microbes can stimulate metal corrosion through production of organic acids, CO2, sulfur species, and via hydrogen oxidation and iron reduction, implicating many more types of organisms than are currently targeted. Micromolar quantities of putative anaerobic metabolites of C1-C4 n-alkanes in pipeline fluids were detected, implying that these low molecular weight hydrocarbons, routinely injected into reservoirs for oil recovery purposes, are biodegraded and provide biocorrosive microbial communities with an important source of nutrients.

  12. Natural gas hydrates on the North Slope of Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collett, T.S.

    1991-01-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, mainly methane, in which a solid-water lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure, or clathrate. These substances often have been regarded as a potential (unconventional) source of natural gas. Significant quantities of naturally occurring gas hydrates have been detected in many regions of the Arctic including Siberia, the Mackenzie River Delta, and the North Slope of Alaska. On the North Slope, the methane-hydrate stability zone is areally extensive beneath most of the coastal plain province and has thicknesses as great as 1000 meters in the Prudhoe Bay area. Gas hydrates have been identified in 50 exploratory and production wells using well-log responses calibrated to the response of an interval in one well where gas hydrates were recovered in a core by ARCO Alaska and EXXON. Most of these gas hydrates occur in six laterally continuous Upper Cretaceous and lower Tertiary sandstone and conglomerate units; all these gas hydrates are geographically restricted to the area overlying the eastern part of the Kuparuk River Oil Field and the western part of the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field. The volume of gas within these gas hydrates is estimated to be about 1.0 {times} 10{sup 12} to 1.2 {times} 10{sup 12} cubic meters (37 to 44 trillion cubic feet), or about twice the volume of conventional gas in the Prudhoe Bay Field. Geochemical analyses of well samples suggest that the identified hydrates probably contain a mixture of deep-source thermogenic gas and shallow microbial gas that was either directly converted to gas hydrate or first concentrated in existing traps and later converted to gas hydrate. The thermogenic gas probably migrated from deeper reservoirs along the same faults thought to be migration pathways for the large volumes of shallow, heavy oil that occur in this area. 51 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Evaluation of Single-Doppler Radar Wind Retrievals in Flat and Complex Terrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newsom, Rob K.; Berg, Larry K.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Fast, Jerome D.; Xu, Qin; Zhang, Pengfei; Yang, Qing; Shaw, William J.; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2014-08-01

    The accuracy of winds derived from NEXRAD level II data is assessed by comparison with independent observations from 915 MHz radar wind profilers. The evaluation is carried out at two locations with very different terrain characteristics. One site is located in an area of complex terrain within the State Line Wind Energy Center in northeast Oregon. The other site is located in an area of flat terrain on the east-central Florida coast. The National Severe Storm Laboratorys 2DVar algorithm is used to retrieve wind fields from the KPDT (Pendleton OR) and KMLB (Melbourne FL) NEXRAD radars. Comparisons between the 2DVar retrievals and the radar profilers were conducted over a period of about 6 months and at multiple height levels at each of the profiler sites. Wind speed correlations at most observation height levels fell in the range from 0.7 to 0.8, indicating that the retrieved winds followed temporal fluctuations in the profiler-observed winds reasonably well. The retrieved winds, however, consistently exhibited slow biases in the range of1 to 2 ms-1. Wind speed difference distributions were broad with standard deviations in the range from 3 to 4 ms-1. Results from the Florida site showed little change in the wind speed correlations and difference standard deviations with altitude between about 300 and 1400 m AGL. Over this same height range, results from the Oregon site showed a monotonic increase in the wind speed correlation and a monotonic decrease in the wind speed difference standard deviation with increasing altitude. The poorest overall agreement occurred at the lowest observable level (~300 m AGL) at the Oregon site, where the effects of the complex terrain were greatest.

  14. Sub-microradian Surface Slope Metrology with the ALS Developmental Long Trace Profiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V; Barber, Samuel; Domning, Edward E.; Kirschman, Jonathan L.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Smith, Brian V; Siewert, Frank; Zeschke, Thomas; Geckeler, Ralf; Just, Andreas

    2009-09-11

    A new low budget slope measuring instrument, the Developmental Long Trace Profiler (DLTP), was recently brought to operation at the ALS Optical Metrology Laboratory. The design, instrumental control and data acquisition system, initial alignment and calibration procedures, as well as the developed experimental precautions and procedures are described in detail. The capability of the DLTP to achieve sub-microradian surface slope metrology is verified via cross-comparison measurements with other high performance slope measuring instruments when measuring the same high quality test optics. The directions of future work to develop a surface slope measuring profiler with nano-radian performance are also discussed.

  15. File:EIA-AK-NorthSlope-gas.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    applicationpdf) Description Alaskan North Slope By 2001 Gas Reserve Class Sources Energy Information Administration Authors Samuel H. Limerick; Lucy Luo; Gary Long; David F....

  16. Adding Complex Terrain and Stable Atmospheric Condition Capability to the Simulator for On/Offshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churchfield, M. J.

    2013-06-01

    This presentation describes changes made to NREL's OpenFOAM-based wind plant aerodynamics solver so that it can compute the stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer and flow over terrain. Background about the flow solver, the Simulator for Off/Onshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) is given, followed by details of the stable stratification/complex terrain modifications to SOWFA, along with some preliminary results calculations of a stable atmospheric boundary layer and flow over a simple set of hills.

  17. Exporting Alaskan North Slope crude oil: Benefits and costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy study examines the effects of lifting the current prohibitions against the export of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) crude. The study concludes that permitting exports would benefit the US economy. First, lifting the ban would expand the markets in which ANS oil can be sold, thereby increasing its value. ANS oil producers, the States of California and Alaska, and some of their local governments all would benefit from increased revenues. Permitting exports also would generate new economic activity and employment in California and Alaska. The study concludes that these economic benefits would be achieved without increasing gasoline prices (either in California or in the nation as a whole). Lifting the export ban could have important implications for US maritime interests. The Merchant Marine Act of 1970 (known as the Jones Act) requires all inter-coastal shipments to be carried on vessels that are US-owned, US-crewed, and US-built. By limiting the shipment of ANS crude to US ports only, the export ban creates jobs for the seafarers and the builders of Jones Act vessels. Because the Jones Act does not apply to exports, however, lifting the ban without also changing US maritime law would jeopardize the jobs associated with the current fleet of Jones Act tankers. Therefore the report analyzes selected economic impacts of several maritime policy alternatives, including: Maintaining current law, which allows foreign tankers to carry oil where export is allowed; requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on Jones Act vessels; and requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on vessels that are US-owned and US-crewed, but not necessarily US-built. Under each of these options, lifting the export ban would generate economic benefits.

  18. Economics of Alaska North Slope gas utilization options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Hackworth, J.H.; North, W.B.; Robertson, E.P.

    1996-08-01

    The recoverable natural gas available for sale in the developed and known undeveloped fields on the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) total about 26 trillion cubic feet (TCF), including 22 TCF in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU) and 3 TCF in the undeveloped Point Thomson Unit (PTU). No significant commercial use has been made of this large natural gas resource because there are no facilities in place to transport this gas to current markets. To date the economics have not been favorable to support development of a gas transportation system. However, with the declining trend in ANS oil production, interest in development of this huge gas resource is rising, making it important for the U.S. Department of Energy, industry, and the State of Alaska to evaluate and assess the options for development of this vast gas resource. The purpose of this study was to assess whether gas-to-liquids (GTL) conversion technology would be an economic alternative for the development and sale of the large, remote, and currently unmarketable ANS natural gas resource, and to compare the long term economic impact of a GTL conversion option to that of the more frequently discussed natural gas pipeline/liquefied natural gas (LNG) option. The major components of the study are: an assessment of the ANS oil and gas resources; an analysis of conversion and transportation options; a review of natural gas, LNG, and selected oil product markets; and an economic analysis of the LNG and GTL gas sales options based on publicly available input needed for assumptions of the economic variables. Uncertainties in assumptions are evaluated by determining the sensitivity of project economics to changes in baseline economic variables.

  19. Application and analysis of anchored geosynthetic systems for stabilization of abandoned mine land slopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitton, S.J.; Whitman, F.; Liang, R.Y.; Harris, W.W.

    1996-12-31

    An anchored geosynthetic system (AGS) was used in the remediation of a landslide associated with an abandoned coal mine located near Hindman, Kentucky. In concept, AGS is a system that provides in-situ stabilization of soil slopes by combining a surface-deployed geosynthetic with an anchoring system of driven reinforcing rods similar to soil nailing. Installation of the system of driven reinforcing rods similar to soil nailing. Installation of the system involves tensioning a geosynthetic over a slope`s surface by driving anchors through the geosynthetic at a given spacing and distance. By tensioning the geosynthetic over the slope`s surface, a compressive load is applied to the slope. Benefits of AGS are described to include the following: (1) increase soil strength due to soil compression including increased compressive loading on potential failure surfaces, (2) soil reinforcement through soil nailing, (3), halt of soil creep, (4) erosion control, and (5) long term soil consolidation. Following installation of the AGS and one year of monitoring, it was found that the anchored geosynthetic system only provided some of the reported benefits and in general did not function as an active stabilization system. This was due in part to the inability of the system to provide and maintain loading on the geosynthetic. The geosynthetic, however, did tension when slope movement occurred and prevented the slope from failing. Thus, the system functioned more as a passive restraint system and appeared to function well over the monitoring period.

  20. Heat Transfer and Friction-Factor Methods Turbulent Flow Inside Pipes 3d Rough

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-01-21

    Three-dimensional roughened internally enhanced tubes have been shown to be one of the most energy efficient for turbulent, forced convection applications. However, there is only one prediction method presented in the open literature and that is restricted to three-dimensional sand-grain roughness. Other roughness types are being proposed: hemispherical sectors, truncated cones, and full and truncated pyramids. There are no validated heat-transfer and friction-factor prediction methods for these different roughness shapes that can be used inmore » the transition and fully rough region. This program calculates the Nusselt number and friction factor values, for a broad range of three-dimensional roughness types such as hemispherical sectors, truncated cones, and full and truncated pyramids. Users of this program are heat-exchangers designers, enhanced tubing suppliers, and research organizations or academia who are developing or validating prediction methods.« less

  1. Final Report of the Grant: ''Vertical Transport and Mixing in Complex Terrain Airsheds''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernando, Joseph Harindra; Anderson, James; Boyer, Don; Berman, Neil

    2004-12-29

    Stable stratification associated with nocturnal thermal circulation in areas of complex terrain leads to interesting and important phenomena that govern local meteorology and contaminant dispersion. Given that most urban areas are in complex topography, understanding and prediction of such phenomena are of immediate practical importance. This project dealt with theoretical, laboratory, numerical and field experimental studies aimed at understanding stratified flow and turbulence phenomena in urban areas, with particular emphasis on flow, turbulence and contaminant transport and diffusion in such flows. A myriad of new results were obtained and some of these results were used to improve the predictive capabilities of the models.

  2. Alaska North Slope Tundra Travel Model and Validation Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry R. Bader; Jacynthe Guimond

    2006-03-01

    The Alaska Department of Natural Resources (DNR), Division of Mining, Land, and Water manages cross-country travel, typically associated with hydrocarbon exploration and development, on Alaska's arctic North Slope. This project is intended to provide natural resource managers with objective, quantitative data to assist decision making regarding opening of the tundra to cross-country travel. DNR designed standardized, controlled field trials, with baseline data, to investigate the relationships present between winter exploration vehicle treatments and the independent variables of ground hardness, snow depth, and snow slab thickness, as they relate to the dependent variables of active layer depth, soil moisture, and photosynthetically active radiation (a proxy for plant disturbance). Changes in the dependent variables were used as indicators of tundra disturbance. Two main tundra community types were studied: Coastal Plain (wet graminoid/moist sedge shrub) and Foothills (tussock). DNR constructed four models to address physical soil properties: two models for each main community type, one predicting change in depth of active layer and a second predicting change in soil moisture. DNR also investigated the limited potential management utility in using soil temperature, the amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by plants, and changes in microphotography as tools for the identification of disturbance in the field. DNR operated under the assumption that changes in the abiotic factors of active layer depth and soil moisture drive alteration in tundra vegetation structure and composition. Statistically significant differences in depth of active layer, soil moisture at a 15 cm depth, soil temperature at a 15 cm depth, and the absorption of photosynthetically active radiation were found among treatment cells and among treatment types. The models were unable to thoroughly investigate the interacting role between snow depth and disturbance due to a lack of variability in snow depth cover throughout the period of field experimentation. The amount of change in disturbance indicators was greater in the tundra communities of the Foothills than in those of the Coastal Plain. However the overall level of change in both community types was less than expected. In Coastal Plain communities, ground hardness and snow slab thickness were found to play an important role in change in active layer depth and soil moisture as a result of treatment. In the Foothills communities, snow cover had the most influence on active layer depth and soil moisture as a result of treatment. Once certain minimum thresholds for ground hardness, snow slab thickness, and snow depth were attained, it appeared that little or no additive effect was realized regarding increased resistance to disturbance in the tundra communities studied. DNR used the results of this modeling project to set a standard for maximum permissible disturbance of cross-country tundra travel, with the threshold set below the widely accepted standard of Low Disturbance levels (as determined by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). DNR followed the modeling project with a validation study, which seemed to support the field trial conclusions and indicated that the standard set for maximum permissible disturbance exhibits a conservative bias in favor of environmental protection. Finally DNR established a quick and efficient tool for visual estimations of disturbance to determine when investment in field measurements is warranted. This Visual Assessment System (VAS) seemed to support the plot disturbance measurements taking during the modeling and validation phases of this project.

  3. A case study of pipeline route selection and design through discontinuous permafrost terrain in northwestern Alberta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiechnik, C.; Boivin, R.; Henderson, J.; Bowman, M.

    1996-12-31

    As the natural gas pipeline system in Western Canada expands northward, it traverses the discontinuous permafrost zone. As the ground temperature of the frozen soil in this zone is just below freezing, it can be expected that within the design life of a pipeline the permafrost adjacent to it will melt due to the disturbance of the insulating cover by construction activities. Differential settlement at the thawing frozen/unfrozen soil interfaces gives rise to pipeline strain. Based on the calculated settlement and resulting strain level, a cost effective mechanical or civil design solution can be selected to mitigate the differential settlement problem. Since these design solutions can be costly, it is desirable to combine them with a pipeline route that traverses the least amount of discontinuous permafrost terrain while minimizing the overall length of the pipeline. This paper will detail the framework utilized to select the routing for a package of pipeline projects in northwestern Alberta. It is believed that the increased front end effort will result in lower operating costs and an overall reduced life-cycle cost. This basic design methodology can be applied to any project that traverses discontinuous permafrost terrain.

  4. Influence of pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s performance loss due to roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tangler, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of blade geometric parameters such as pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s sensitivity to leading edge roughness. The approach began with an evaluation of available test data of performance degradation due to roughness effects for several rotors. In addition to airfoil geometry, this evaluation suggested that a rotor`s sensitivity to roughness was also influenced by the blade geometric parameters. Parametric studies were conducted using the PROP computer code with wind-tunnel airfoil characteristics for smooth and rough surface conditions to quantify the performance loss due to roughness for tapered and twisted blades relative to a constant-chord, non-twisted blade at several blade pitch angles. The results indicate that a constant-chord, non-twisted blade pitched toward stall will have the greatest losses due to roughness. The use of twist, taper, and positive blade pitch angles all help reduce the angle-of-attack distribution along the blade for a given wind speed and the associated performance degradation due to roughness. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Site Scientist for the North Slope of Alaska Site (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Site Scientist for the North Slope of Alaska Site Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Site Scientist for the North Slope of Alaska Site Under this grant our team contributed scientific support to the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Program's (DOE-ARM) Infrastructure team to maintain high quality research data at the DOE-ARM North Slope of Alaska with special emphasis on the radars. Under our guidance two major

  6. ARM-ACME V: ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements V on the North Slope...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Program Document: ARM-ACME V: ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements V on the North Slope of Alaska Science and Implementation Plan Citation Details ...

  7. ARM-ACME V: ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements V on the North Slope...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: ARM-ACME V: ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements V on the North Slope of Alaska Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document ...

  8. Data from Innovative Methane Hydrate Test on Alaska's North Slope Now Available on NETL Website

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Data from an innovative test conducted last year that used CO2 and N2 injection to release natural gas from methane hydrates at a well on the Alaska North Slope is now available to researchers and the public.

  9. A Year of Radiation Measurements at the North Slope of Alaska Second

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Quarter 2009 ARM and Climate Change Prediction Program Metric Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Year of Radiation Measurements at the North Slope of Alaska Second Quarter 2009 ARM and Climate Change Prediction Program Metric Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Year of Radiation Measurements at the North Slope of Alaska Second Quarter 2009 ARM and Climate Change Prediction Program Metric Report In 2009, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the

  10. FACT SHEET U.S. Department of Energy North Slope of Alaska

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    North Slope of Alaska Because the environment in the Arctic is changing rapidly, the North Slope of Alaska has become a focal point for atmospheric and ecological research. Aerosols and clouds have strong impacts on the Arctic surface energy balance through absorption and reflection of shortwave and longwave radiation, and in turn, changes in the surface conditions, such as melting of sea ice, snow, or permafrost, can feed back to atmospheric structure and circulation, water vapor, gas and

  11. ARM-ACME V: ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements V on the North Slope of Alaska

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Science and Implementation Plan (Program Document) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Program Document: ARM-ACME V: ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements V on the North Slope of Alaska Science and Implementation Plan Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM-ACME V: ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements V on the North Slope of Alaska Science and Implementation Plan Atmospheric temperatures are warming faster in the Arctic than predicted by climate models. The impact of this warming

  12. Solid Deuterium-Tritium Surface Roughness In A Beryllium Inertial Confinement Fusion Shell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozioziemski, B J; Sater, J D; Moody, J D; Montgomery, D S; Gautier, C

    2006-04-19

    Solid deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel layers for inertial confinement fusion experiments were formed inside of a 2 mm diameter beryllium shell and were characterized using phase-contrast enhanced x-ray imaging. The solid D-T surface roughness is found to be 0.4 {micro}m for modes 7-128 at 1.5 K below the melting temperature. The layer roughness is found to increase with decreasing temperature, in agreement with previous visible light characterization studies. However, phase-contrast enhanced x-ray imaging provides a more robust surface roughness measurement than visible light methods. The new x-ray imaging results demonstrate clearly that the surface roughness decreases with time for solid D-T layers held at 1.5 K below the melting temperature.

  13. Enhancement of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernitsas, Michael M.; Raghavan, Kamaldev

    2011-11-01

    Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to increase Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Enhancement is needed in such applications as harnessing of clean and renewable energy from ocean/river currents using the ocean energy converter VIVACE (Vortex Induced Vibration for Aquatic Clean Energy).

  14. Reduction of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernitsas, Michael M; Raghavan, Kamaldev

    2014-04-01

    Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to decrease/suppress Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Suppression is required when fluid-structure interaction becomes destructive as in VIM of flexible cylinders or rigid cylinders on elastic support, such as underwater pipelines, marine risers, tubes in heat exchangers, nuclear fuel rods, cooling towers, SPAR offshore platforms.

  15. Atomic-Level Measurements of Rough Surfaces | U.S. DOE Office of Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (SC) Atomic-Level Measurements of Rough Surfaces Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More Information » 12.14.15 Atomic-Level Measurements of Rough

  16. Simulation of surface roughness during the formation of thermal spray coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanouff, M.P.

    1996-07-01

    The formation of a thermal spray coating was analyzed to identify methods to reduce the surface roughness of the coating. A new methodology was developed which uses a string of equally spaced node points to define the shape of the coating surface and to track the shape change as the thermal spray mass is deposited. This allows the calculation of arbitrary shapes for the coating surface which may be very complex. The model simulates the stochastic deposition of a large number of thermal spray droplets, where experimental data is used for the mass flux distribution on the target surface. This data shows that when the thermal spray mass impinges on the target surface, a large fraction of it (over-spray) splashes off the target and is re-deposited with a small spray angle, resulting in a large coating roughness. This analysis was used in a parameter study to identify methods for reducing the coating roughness. Effect of the shape of the profile for the pre-roughened substrate was found to be small. Decreasing the droplet size by a factor of 2 decreased the roughness by 13%. Increasing the spray angle for the over-spray by a factor of 2 decreased the roughness by 50%, and decreasing the amount of over- spray by a factor of 2 decreased the roughness by 51%.

  17. Geologic reconnaissance of natural fore-reef slope and a large submarine rockfall exposure, Enewetak Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halley, R.B.; Slater, R.A.

    1987-05-01

    In 1958 a submarine rockfall exposed a cross section through the reef and fore-reef deposits along the northwestern margin of Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands. Removal of more than 10/sup 8/ MT of rock left a cirque-shaped submarine scarp 220 m high, extending back 190 m into the modern reef, and 1000 m along the reef trend. The scarp exposed older, steeply dipping beds below 220 m along which the rockfall detached. They sampled this exposure and the natural fore-reef slope surrounding it in 1984 and 1985 using a manned submersible. The natural slope in this area is characterized by three zone: (1) the reef plate, crest, and near fore reef that extends from sea level to -16 m, with a slope of less than 10/sup 0/, (2) the bypass slope that extends from -16 to -275 m, with slopes of 55/sup 0/ decreasing to 35/sup 0/ near the base, and (3) a debris slope of less than 35/sup 0/ below -275 m. Vertical walls, grooves, and chutes, common on other fore-reef slopes, are sparse on the northwestern slope of Enewetak. The scarp exposes three stratigraphic units that are differentiated by surficial appearance: (1) a near-vertical wall from the reef crest to 76 m that appears rubbly, has occasional debris-covered ledges, and is composed mainly of coral; (2) a vertical to overhanging wall from -76 m to -220 m that is massive and fractured, and has smooth, blocky surfaces; and (3) inclined bedding below -220 m along which the slump block has fractured, exposing a dip slope of hard, dense, white limestone and dolomite that extends below -400 m. Caves occur in all three units. Open cement-lined fractures and voids layered with cements are most common in the middle unit, which now lies within the thermocline. Along the sides of the scarp are exposed fore-reef boulder beds dipping at 30/sup 0/ toward the open sea; the steeper (55/sup 0/) dipping natural surface truncates these beds, which gives evidence of the erosional nature of the bypass slope.

  18. Shear Wave Velocity Structure of Southern African Crust: Evidence for Compositional Heterogeneity within Archaean and Proterozoic Terrains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kgaswane, E M; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Dirks, P H H M; Durrheim, R J; Pasyanos, M E

    2008-11-11

    Crustal structure in southern Africa has been investigated by jointly inverting receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities for 89 broadband seismic stations spanning much of the Precambrian shield of southern Africa. 1-D shear wave velocity profiles obtained from the inversion yield Moho depths that are similar to those reported in previous studies and show considerable variability in the shear wave velocity structure of the lower part of the crust between some terrains. For many of the Archaean and Proterozoic terrains in the shield, S velocities reach 4.0 km/s or higher over a substantial part of the lower crust. However, for most of the Kimberley terrain and adjacent parts of the Kheis Province and Witwatersrand terrain, as well as for the western part of the Tokwe terrain, mean shear wave velocities of {le} 3.9 km/s characterize the lower part of the crust along with slightly ({approx}5 km) thinner crust. These findings indicate that the lower crust across much of the shield has a predominantly mafic composition, except for the southwest portion of the Kaapvaal Craton and western portion of the Zimbabwe Craton, where the lower crust is intermediate-to-felsic in composition. The parts of the Kaapvaal Craton underlain by intermediate-to-felsic lower crust coincide with regions where Ventersdorp rocks have been preserved, and thus we suggest that the intermediate-to-felsic composition of the lower crust and the shallower Moho may have resulted from crustal melting during the Ventersdorp tectonomagmatic event at c. 2.7 Ga and concomitant crustal thinning caused by rifting.

  19. The stability of slopes subjected to blasting vibration -- Assessment and application in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, R.; Keller, R.

    1996-12-01

    In the rush to beat the clock before the handover of Hong Kong back to China in June of 1997, an unprecedented amount of infrastructure work is being undertaken at a breakneck pace. In the middle of this construction explosion, on this island of barren granite, stands some of the most concerning and restrictive slope stability measures. So conservative, these measures impact blasting and vibration control to an extent unmatched anywhere in the world. This paper covers the application of vibration limitations and assessment of the stability of rock slopes subjected to blasting vibration in a very challenging application. The widening of the Tuen Mun highway, a project to improve a main artery to the city center to accommodate the ever increasing traffic, involves the blasting of existing slopes in cuts only a few meters wide and up to 45 meters in height, while addressing assessment limitations in a variety of geological conditions. Discussed in the paper is the application of guidelines imposed by the Geotechnical Engineering Office and the Mines Division of the Hong Kong Government and measures taken to address them, i.e., adjustment of geological factors for practical application in blast design; blasting with minimal effect; and maximum protective measures. As slope stability becomes another ever-increasing environmental concern affecting blasting, these applications may be helpful in addressing the encroachment of impending restrictions in other parts of the world on challenging projects where blast assessment of slopes is a critical factor.

  20. A water balance study of four landfill cover designs varying in slope for semiarid regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Schofield, T.G.; Salazar, J.A.

    1997-02-01

    The goal of disposing of radioactive and hazardous waste in shallow landfills is to reduce risk to human health and to the environment by isolating contaminants until they no longer pose a hazard. In order to achieve this, the performance of a landfill cover design without an engineered barrier (Conventional Design) was compared with three designs containing either a hydraulic barrier (EPA Design) or a capillary barrier (Loam and Clay Loam Capillary Barrier Designs). Water balance parameters were measured since 1991 at six-hour intervals for four different landfill cover designs in 1.0- by 10.0-m plots with downhill slopes of 5, 10, 15, and 25%. Whereas runoff generally accounted for only 2-3% of the precipitation losses on these designs, similar values for evapotranspiration ranged from 86% to 91%, with increased evapotranspiration occurring with increases in slope. Consequently, interflow and seepage usually decreased with increasing slope for each landfill cover design. Seepage consisted of up to 10% of the precipitation on the Conventional Design, whereas the hydraulic barrier in the EPA Design effectively controlled seepage at all slopes, and both of the capillary designs worked effectively to eliminate seepage at the higher slopes.

  1. Large-eddy simulations of surface roughness parameter sensitivity to canopy-structure characteristics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maurer, K. D.; Bohrer, G.; Kenny, W. T.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2015-04-30

    Surface roughness parameters, namely the roughness length and displacement height, are an integral input used to model surface fluxes. However, most models assume these parameters to be a fixed property of plant functional type and disregard the governing structural heterogeneity and dynamics. In this study, we use large-eddy simulations to explore, in silico, the effects of canopy-structure characteristics on surface roughness parameters. We performed a virtual experiment to test the sensitivity of resolved surface roughness to four axes of canopy structure: (1) leaf area index, (2) the vertical profile of leaf density, (3) canopy height, and (4) canopy gap fraction.more » We found roughness parameters to be highly variable, but uncovered positive relationships between displacement height and maximum canopy height, aerodynamic canopy height and maximum canopy height and leaf area index, and eddy-penetration depth and gap fraction. We also found negative relationships between aerodynamic canopy height and gap fraction, as well as between eddy-penetration depth and maximum canopy height and leaf area index. We generalized our model results into a virtual "biometric" parameterization that relates roughness length and displacement height to canopy height, leaf area index, and gap fraction. Using a decade of wind and canopy-structure observations in a site in Michigan, we tested the effectiveness of our model-driven biometric parameterization approach in predicting the friction velocity over heterogeneous and disturbed canopies. We compared the accuracy of these predictions with the friction-velocity predictions obtained from the common simple approximation related to canopy height, the values calculated with large-eddy simulations of the explicit canopy structure as measured by airborne and ground-based lidar, two other parameterization approaches that utilize varying canopy-structure inputs, and the annual and decadal means of the surface roughness parameters at the site from meteorological observations. We found that the classical representation of constant roughness parameters (in space and time) as a fraction of canopy height performed relatively well. Nonetheless, of the approaches we tested, most of the empirical approaches that incorporate seasonal and interannual variation of roughness length and displacement height as a function of the dynamics of canopy structure produced more precise and less biased estimates for friction velocity than models with temporally invariable parameters.« less

  2. Development of an Immersed Boundary Method to Resolve Complex Terrain in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunquist, K A; Chow, F K; Lundquist, J K; Mirocha, J D

    2007-09-04

    Flow and dispersion processes in urban areas are profoundly influenced by the presence of buildings which divert mean flow, affect surface heating and cooling, and alter the structure of turbulence in the lower atmosphere. Accurate prediction of velocity, temperature, and turbulent kinetic energy fields are necessary for determining the transport and dispersion of scalars. Correct predictions of scalar concentrations are vital in densely populated urban areas where they are used to aid in emergency response planning for accidental or intentional releases of hazardous substances. Traditionally, urban flow simulations have been performed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes which can accommodate the geometric complexity inherent to urban landscapes. In these types of models the grid is aligned with the solid boundaries, and the boundary conditions are applied to the computational nodes coincident with the surface. If the CFD code uses a structured curvilinear mesh, then time-consuming manual manipulation is needed to ensure that the mesh conforms to the solid boundaries while minimizing skewness. If the CFD code uses an unstructured grid, then the solver cannot be optimized for the underlying data structure which takes an irregular form. Unstructured solvers are therefore often slower and more memory intensive than their structured counterparts. Additionally, urban-scale CFD models are often forced at lateral boundaries with idealized flow, neglecting dynamic forcing due to synoptic scale weather patterns. These CFD codes solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and include limited options for representing atmospheric processes such as surface fluxes and moisture. Traditional CFD codes therefore posses several drawbacks, due to the expense of either creating the grid or solving the resulting algebraic system of equations, and due to the idealized boundary conditions and the lack of full atmospheric physics. Meso-scale atmospheric boundary layer simulations, on the other hand, are performed by numerical weather prediction (NWP) codes, which cannot handle the geometry of the urban landscape, but do provide a more complete representation of atmospheric physics. NWP codes typically use structured grids with terrain-following vertical coordinates, include a full suite of atmospheric physics parameterizations, and allow for dynamic synoptic scale lateral forcing through grid nesting. Terrain following grids are unsuitable for urban terrain, as steep terrain gradients cause extreme distortion of the computational cells. In this work, we introduce and develop an immersed boundary method (IBM) to allow the favorable properties of a numerical weather prediction code to be combined with the ability to handle complex terrain. IBM uses a non-conforming structured grid, and allows solid boundaries to pass through the computational cells. As the terrain passes through the mesh in an arbitrary manner, the main goal of the IBM is to apply the boundary condition on the interior of the domain as accurately as possible. With the implementation of the IBM, numerical weather prediction codes can be used to explicitly resolve urban terrain. Heterogeneous urban domains using the IBM can be nested into larger mesoscale domains using a terrain-following coordinate. The larger mesoscale domain provides lateral boundary conditions to the urban domain with the correct forcing, allowing seamless integration between mesoscale and urban scale models. Further discussion of the scope of this project is given by Lundquist et al. [2007]. The current paper describes the implementation of an IBM into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, which is an open source numerical weather prediction code. The WRF model solves the non-hydrostatic compressible Navier-Stokes equations, and employs an isobaric terrain-following vertical coordinate. Many types of IB methods have been developed by researchers; a comprehensive review can be found in Mittal and Iaccarino [2005]. To the authors knowledge, this is the first IBM approach that is able to

  3. Process of Equiaxed Grains of RE-Al Alloy under Slope Vibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie Shikun; Yi Rongxi; Pan Xiaoliang; Zheng Xiaoqiu; Guo Xiuyan [School of Engineering, Jinggangshan University, Ji'an, 343009 (China)

    2010-06-15

    A new technique using slope vibration casting process during heating and isothermal holding period to prepare Al-7Si-2RE alloy has been studied. The small, near-spherical and non-dendritic microstructure with the semi-solid processing requirements has been obtained. Experiments show that the cooling method, pouring process and the convection of melt caused by slope vibration had significant effects on the formation of near-spherical primary gains. The water-cooled copper mold casting with slope vibration at the temperature near liquidus can obtain Al-7Si-2RE alloy with small homogeneous equiaxed grains, the average grain diameter is 48.3 mum, and the average grain roundness is 1.92.

  4. Benthic study of the continental slope off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz, R.J.; Blake, J.A.; Lohse, D.P.

    1993-03-01

    A number of blocks off Cape Hatteras have been leased by Mobil Oil, which has requested permission to drill an exploratory well, at 820-m depth, in a block identified as Manteo 467. The proposed well location is 39 miles from the coast of North Carolina. The possibility of extracting gas from the continental slope off the coast of North Carolina, particularly at slope depths, has raised a number of environmental concerns that cannot be addressed from existing data. The present study was developed by the Minerals Management Service to better define the nature of the continental slope benthic communities off Cape Hatteras and to delineate their areal extent. Emphasis was placed on the area around the proposed drill site in the Manteo 467 lease block.

  5. Rough surface electrical contact resistance considering scale dependent properties and quantum effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Robert L.; Crandall, Erika R.; Bozack, Michael J.

    2015-05-21

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of scale dependent mechanical and electrical properties on electrical contact resistance (ECR) between rough surfaces. This work attempts to build on existing ECR models that neglect potentially important quantum- and size-dependent contact and electrical conduction mechanisms present due to the asperity sizes on typical surfaces. The electrical conductance at small scales can quantize or show a stepping trend as the contact area is varied in the range of the free electron Fermi wavelength squared. This work then evaluates if these effects remain important for the interface between rough surfaces, which may include many small scale contacts of varying sizes. The results suggest that these effects may be significant in some cases, while insignificant for others. It depends on the load and the multiscale structure of the surface roughness.

  6. Bringing Alaska North Slope Natural Gas to Market (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    At least three alternatives have been proposed over the years for bringing sizable volumes of natural gas from Alaska's remote North Slope to market in the lower 48 states: a pipeline interconnecting with the existing pipeline system in central Alberta, Canada; a gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant on the North Slope; and a large liquefied natural gas (LNG) export facility at Valdez, Alaska. The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) explicitly models the pipeline and GTL options. The what if LNG option is not modeled in NEMS.

  7. ARM-ACME V: ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements V on the North Slope of Alaska

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Field Campaign Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: ARM-ACME V: ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements V on the North Slope of Alaska Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM-ACME V: ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements V on the North Slope of Alaska Field Campaign Report Atmospheric temperatures are warming faster in the Arctic than predicted by climate models. The impact of this warming on permafrost degradation is

  8. Los Alamos Lab to perform slope-side cleanup near Smith's Marketplace

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos Lab to perform slope-side cleanup near Smith's Marketplace Los Alamos National Laboratory to perform slope-side cleanup near Smith's Marketplace The Lab is performing a high-angle canyon-side cleanup on U.S. Department of Energy property just south of the new Smith's Marketplace. May 1, 2015 Los Alamos National Laboratory To complete cleanup activities at one of the few remaining legacy sites along Los Alamos Canyon, crews are using a specialized spider excavator to remove a small

  9. Effect of surface roughness and polymeric additive on nucleate pool boiling at subatmospheric pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, P.K.; Verma, R.K.; Ramani, M.P.S.; Mahajan, S.P.

    1986-09-01

    This investigation pertains to boiling heat transfer from a submerged flat surface at subatmospheric and atmospheric pressures in the presence of hydroxy ethyl cellulose (HEC) as a polymeric additive in small doses. Boiling was carried out in presence of the additive on smooth and rough aluminium surfaces having effective cavity size within the range as predicted by Hsu model and the pressure was kept in the range of 8 - 100 KN/sq.m (abs). Effects of surface roughness, saturation pressure and polymer concentration on boiling heat transfer were studied and the results were compared with Rohsenow's correlation.

  10. Newly Installed Alaska North Slope Well Will Test Innovative Hydrate Production Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A fully instrumented well that will test innovative technologies for producing methane gas from hydrate deposits has been safely installed on the North Slope of Alaska. As a result, the "Iġnik Sikumi" (Iñupiaq for "fire in the ice") gas hydrate field trial well will be available for field experiments as early as winter 2011-12.

  11. Large eddy simulations of surface roughness parameter sensitivity to canopy-structure characteristics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maurer, K. D.; Bohrer, G.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2014-11-27

    Surface roughness parameters are at the core of every model representation of the coupling and interactions between land-surface and atmosphere, and are used in every model of surface fluxes. However, most models assume these parameters to be a fixed property of plant functional type and do not vary them in response to spatial or temporal changes to canopy structure. In part, this is due to the difficulty of reducing the complexity of canopy structure and its spatiotemporal dynamic and heterogeneity to less than a handful of parameters describing its effects of atmosphere–surface interactions. In this study we use large-eddy simulationsmore » to explore, in silico, the effects of canopy structure characteristics on surface roughness parameters. We performed a virtual experiment to test the sensitivity of resolved surface roughness to four axes of canopy structure: (1) leaf area index, (2) the vertical profile of leaf density, (3) canopy height, and (4) canopy gap fraction. We found roughness parameters to be highly variable, but were able to find positive relationships between displacement height and maximum canopy height, aerodynamic canopy height and maximum canopy height and leaf area index, and eddy-penetration depth and gap fraction. We also found negative relationships between aerodynamic canopy height and gap fraction, and between eddy-penetration depth and maximum canopy height and leaf area index. Using a decade of wind and canopy structure observations in a site in Michigan, we tested the effectiveness of our model-resolved parameters in predicting the frictional velocity over heterogeneous and disturbed canopies. We compared it with three other semi-empirical models and with a decade of meteorological observations. We found that parameterizations with fixed representations of roughness performed relatively well. Nonetheless, some empirical approaches that incorporate seasonal and inter-annual changes to the canopy structure performed even better than models with temporally fixed parameters.« less

  12. A guidebook for insulated low-slope roof systems. IEA Annex 19, Low-slope roof systems: International Energy Agency Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems Programme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Low-slope roof systems are common on commercial and industrial buildings and, to a lesser extent, on residential buildings. Although insulating materials have nearly always been a component of low-slope roofs, the amount of insulation used has increased in the past two decades because of escalation of heating and cooling costs and increased awareness of the need for energy conservation. As the amount of insulation has increased, the demand has intensified for design, installation, and maintenance information specifically for well-insulated roofs. Existing practices for design, installation, and maintenance of insulated roofs have evolved from experience. Typically, these practices feature compromises due to the different properties of materials making up a given roof system. Therefore, they should be examined from time to time to ensure that they are appropriate as new materials continue to enter the market and as the data base on existing systems expands. A primary purpose of this International Energy Agency (IEA) study is to assess current roofing insulation practices in the context of an accumulating data base on performance.

  13. Tensile cracking of a brittle conformal coating on a rough substrate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reedy, Jr., E. D.

    2016-04-07

    This note examines the effect of interfacial roughness on the initiation and growth of channel cracks in a brittle film. A conformal film with cusp-like surface flaws that replicate the substrate roughness is investigated. This type of surface flaw is relatively severe in the sense that stress diverges as the cusp-tip is approached (i.e., there is a power-law stress singularity). For the geometry and range of film properties considered, the analysis suggests that smoothing the substrate could substantially increase the film’s resistance to the formation of the through-the-thickness cracks that precede channel cracking. Furthermore, smoothing the substrate’s surface has amore » relatively modest effect on the film stress needed to propagate a channel crack.« less

  14. Surface roughness and interface width scaling of magnetron sputter deposited Ni/Ti multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maidul Haque, S.; Biswas, A.; Tokas, R. B.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sahoo, N. K.; Bhattacharya, Debarati

    2013-09-14

    Using an indigenously built r.f. magnetron sputtering system, several single layer Ti and Ni films have been deposited at varying deposition conditions. All the samples have been characterized by Grazing Incidence X-ray Reflectivity (GIXR) and Atomic Force Microscopy to estimate their thickness, density, and roughness and a power law dependence of the surface roughness on the film thickness has been established. Subsequently, at optimized deposition condition of Ti and Ni, four Ni/Ti multilayers of 11-layer, 21-layer, 31-layer, and 51-layer having different bilayer thickness have been deposited. The multilayer samples have been characterized by GIXR and neutron reflectivity measurements and the experimental data have been fitted assuming an appropriate sample structure. A power law correlation between the interface width and bilayer thickness has been observed for the multilayer samples, which was explained in the light of alternate roughening/smoothening of multilayers and assuming that at the interface the growth restarts every time.

  15. Electrochemical machining process for forming surface roughness elements on a gas turbine shroud

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Wei, Bin (Mechanicville, NY); Wang, Hsin-Pang (Rexford, NY)

    2002-01-01

    The back side recessed cooling surface of a shroud defining in part the hot gas path of a turbine is electrochemically machined to provide surface roughness elements and spaces therebetween to increase the heat transfer coefficient. To accomplish this, an electrode with insulating dielectric portions and non-insulating portions is disposed in opposition to the cooling surface. By passing an electrolyte between the cooling surface and electrode and applying an electrical current between the electrode and a shroud, roughness elements and spaces therebetween are formed in the cooling surface in opposition to the insulating and non-insulating portions of the electrode, hence increasing the surface area and heat transfer coefficient of the shroud.

  16. Infrared Cloud Imager Deployment at the North Slope of Alaska During Early 2002

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Cloud Imager Deployment at the North Slope of Alaska During Early 2002 J. A. Shaw and B. Thurairajah Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Montana State University Bozeman, Montana E. Edqvist National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado K. Mizutani Communications Research Laboratory Koganei, Tokyo, Japan Introduction Starting in February 2002, we deployed a new cloud-radiation sensor called the infrared cloud imager

  17. ARMs Climate Change Educational Outreach on the North Slope of Alaska

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM's Climate Change Educational Outreach on the North Slope of Alaska C. E. Talus, F. J. Barnes, and M. H. Springer Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, New Mexico R. H. Brower Sr. Iñupiat Heritage Center Barrow, Alaska B. D. Zak Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico Introduction The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Education Program is involved in climate change education in the communities hosting the ARM Program's field sites. Our goals are

  18. Optimal tuning and calibration of bendable mirrors with slope measuring profilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinney, Wayne; Kirschman, Jonathan; MacDowell, Alastair; Warwick, Tony; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2009-06-22

    We describe a technique to optimally tune and calibrate bendable x-ray optics for sub-micron focusing. The focusing is divided between two elliptically cylindrical reflecting elements, a Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) pair. Each optic is shaped by applying unequal bending couples to each end of a flat mirror. The developed technique allowsoptimal tuning of these systems using surface slope data obtained with a slope measuring instrument, the long trace profiler (LTP). Due to the near linearity of the problem, the minimal set of data necessary for the tuning of each bender, consists of only three slope traces measured before and after a single adjustment of each bending couple. The data are analyzed with software realizing a method of regression analysis with experimentally found characteristic functions of the benders. The resulting approximation to the functional dependence of the desired shape provides nearly final settings. Moreover, the characteristic functions of the benders found in the course of tuning, can be used for retuning to a new desired shape without removal from the beamline and re-measuring. We perform a ray trace, using profiler data for the finally tuned optics, predicting the performance to be expected during use of the optics on the beamline.

  19. Slope Stability Analysis In Seismic Areas Of The Northern Apennines (Italy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lo Presti, D.; Fontana, T.; Marchetti, D.

    2008-07-08

    Several research works have been published on the slope stability in the northern Tuscany (central Italy) and particularly in the seismic areas of Garfagnana and Lunigiana (Lucca and Massa-Carrara districts), aimed at analysing the slope stability under static and dynamic conditions and mapping the landslide hazard. In addition, in situ and laboratory investigations are available for the study area, thanks to the activities undertaken by the Tuscany Seismic Survey. Based on such a huge information the co-seismic stability of few ideal slope profiles have been analysed by means of Limit equilibrium method LEM - (pseudo-static) and Newmark sliding block analysis (pseudo-dynamic). The analysis--results gave indications about the most appropriate seismic coefficient to be used in pseudo-static analysis after establishing allowable permanent displacement. Such indications are commented in the light of the Italian and European prescriptions for seismic stability analysis with pseudo-static approach. The stability conditions, obtained from the previous analyses, could be used to define microzonation criteria for the study area.

  20. SPECTRAL SLOPE VARIATION AT PROTON SCALES FROM FAST TO SLOW SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruno, R.; Trenchi, L.; Telloni, D.

    2014-09-20

    We investigated the behavior of the spectral slope of interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations at proton scales for selected high-resolution time intervals from the WIND and MESSENGER spacecraft at 1 AU and 0.56 AU, respectively. The analysis was performed within the profile of high-speed streams, moving from fast to slow wind regions. The spectral slope showed a large variability between –3.75 and –1.75 and a robust tendency for this parameter to be steeper within the trailing edge, where the speed is higher, and to be flatter within the subsequent slower wind, following a gradual transition between these two states. The value of the spectral index seems to depend firmly on the power associated with the fluctuations within the inertial range; the higher the power, the steeper the slope. Our results support previous analyses suggesting that there must be some response of the dissipation mechanism to the level of the energy transfer rate along the inertial range.

  1. The Effect of Excimer Laser Treatment on the Surface Roughness and Fracture Strength of Alumina Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smoot, J.E.

    1998-05-13

    The microelectronics industry requires alumina substrates with exceptionally smooth surfaces and few surface defects to allow successful deposition of metallic films for reliable electronic performance. Irradiation by a 248-nm wavelength excimer laser beam (KrF) at a fluence of 125 mJ/mm{sup 2} and at various angles of incidence is shown to significantly reduce the surface roughness of alumina substrates. However, irradiation also creates a fine particulate deposit of alumina that only partially adheres to the substrate and impedes deposition of metal films. Annealing in air between 1350 C and 1450 C was found to remove the particles by sintering. As-received material showed surface roughness average (R{sub a}) mean values of 457 nm, which was reduced to 60 nm (mean) following irradiation and 71 nm (mean) following irradiation and annealing at 1350 C. Irradiation also produced a decrease in the number and severity of surface defects. The flexural strength and Weibull modulus were both increased by laser irradiation and thermal treatment. Flexural strength went from an as-received value of 450 MPa to 560 MPa following irradiation/sintering, measured at 10% probability of failure. The Weibull modulus was increased from the as-received value of about 9, to about 13 following irradiation/sintering. It was concluded that irradiation at an angle of incidence of 60{degree} from perpendicular was most effective in producing a low surface roughness.

  2. Effects of roughness and temperature on low-energy hydrogen positive and negative ion reflection from silicon and carbon surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, N.; Kato, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Wada, M.; Nishiura, M.; Tsumori, K.; Matsumoto, Y.; Kenmotsu, T.; Okamoto, A.; Kitajima, S.; Sasao, M.; Yamaoka, H.

    2014-02-15

    Angle-resolved energy distribution functions of positive and negative hydrogen ions produced from a rough-finished Si surface under 1 keV proton irradiation have been measured. The corresponding distribution from a crystalline surface and a carbon surface are also measured for comparison. Intensities of positive and negative ions from the rough-finished Si are substantially smaller than those from crystalline Si. The angular distributions of these species are broader for rough surface than the crystalline surface. No significant temperature dependence for positive and negative ion intensities is observed for all samples in the temperature range from 300 to 400 K.

  3. The Component Slope Linear Model for Calculating Intensive Partial Molar Properties: Application to Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, Jacob G.

    2013-01-11

    Partial molar properties are the changes occurring when the fraction of one component is varied while the fractions of all other component mole fractions change proportionally. They have many practical and theoretical applications in chemical thermodynamics. Partial molar properties of chemical mixtures are difficult to measure because the component mole fractions must sum to one, so a change in fraction of one component must be offset with a change in one or more other components. Given that more than one component fraction is changing at a time, it is difficult to assign a change in measured response to a change in a single component. In this study, the Component Slope Linear Model (CSLM), a model previously published in the statistics literature, is shown to have coefficients that correspond to the intensive partial molar properties. If a measured property is plotted against the mole fraction of a component while keeping the proportions of all other components constant, the slope at any given point on a graph of this curve is the partial molar property for that constituent. Actually plotting this graph has been used to determine partial molar properties for many years. The CSLM directly includes this slope in a model that predicts properties as a function of the component mole fractions. This model is demonstrated by applying it to the constant pressure heat capacity data from the NaOH-NaAl(OH{sub 4}H{sub 2}O system, a system that simplifies Hanford nuclear waste. The partial molar properties of H{sub 2}O, NaOH, and NaAl(OH){sub 4} are determined. The equivalence of the CSLM and the graphical method is verified by comparing results detennined by the two methods. The CSLM model has been previously used to predict the liquidus temperature of spinel crystals precipitated from Hanford waste glass. Those model coefficients are re-interpreted here as the partial molar spinel liquidus temperature of the glass components.

  4. Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the S814 airfoil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janiszewska, J.M.; Ramsay, R.R.; Hoffmann, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Horizontal-axis wind turbine rotors experience unsteady aerodynamics when the rotor is yawed, when rotor blades pass through the support tower wake, and when the wind is gusting. An understanding of this unsteady behavior is necessary to assist in the design of new rotor airfoils. The rotors also experience performance degradation due to surface roughness. These surface irregularities are due to the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and/or the aging process. Wind tunnel studies that examine both the steady and unsteady behavior of airfoils can help define pertinent flow phenomena, and the resultant data can also be used to validate analytical computer codes. An S814 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3 X 5 subsonic wind tunnel (3 X 5) under steady flow with both stationary model conditions and pitch oscillations. To study the extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a leading edge grit roughness pattern (LEGR) was used to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 million, while the angle of attack ranged from -20{degrees} to +40{degrees}. While the model underwent pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions {+-}5.5{degrees} and {+-}10{degrees}, were used; at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions means the model was in pitch oscillation.

  5. Comparator circuits with local ramp buffering for a column-parallel single slope ADC

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milkov, Mihail M.

    2016-04-26

    A comparator circuit suitable for use in a column-parallel single-slope analog-to-digital converter comprises a comparator, an input voltage sampling switch, a sampling capacitor arranged to store a voltage which varies with an input voltage when the sampling switch is closed, and a local ramp buffer arranged to buffer a global voltage ramp applied at an input. The comparator circuit is arranged such that its output toggles when the buffered global voltage ramp exceeds the stored voltage. Both DC- and AC-coupled comparator embodiments are disclosed.

  6. STUDY OF TRANSPORTATION OF GTL PRODUCTS FROM ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE (ANS) TO MARKETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godwin A. Chukwu, Ph.D., P.E.

    2002-09-01

    The Alaskan North Slope is one of the largest hydrocarbon reserves in the US where Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) technology can be successfully implemented. The proven and recoverable reserves of conventional natural gas in the developed and undeveloped fields in the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) are estimated to be 38 trillion standard cubic feet (TCF) and estimates of additional undiscovered gas reserves in the Arctic field range from 64 TCF to 142 TCF. Transportation of the natural gas from the remote ANS is the key issue in effective utilization of this valuable and abundance resource. The throughput of oil through the Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) has been on decline and is expected to continue to decline in future. It is projected that by the year 2015, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level that there will be a critical need for pumping additional liquid from GTL process to provide an adequate volume for economic operation of TAPS. The pumping of GTL products through TAPS will significantly increase its economic life. Transporting GTL products from the North Slope of Alaska down to the Marine terminal at Valdez is no doubt the great challenge facing the Gas to Liquids options of utilizing the abundant natural gas resource of the North Slope. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate and assess the economic feasibility of transporting GTL products through the TAPS. Material testing program for GTL and GTL/Crude oil blends was designed and implemented for measurement of physical properties of GTL products. The measurement and evaluation of the properties of these materials were necessary so as to access the feasibility of transporting such materials through TAPS under cold arctic conditions. Results of the tests indicated a trend of increasing yield strength with increasing wax content. GTL samples exhibited high gel strengths at temperatures as high as 20 F, which makes it difficult for cold restart following winter shutdowns. Simplified analytical models were developed to study the flow of GTL and GTL/crude oil blends through TAPS in both commingled and batch flow models. The economics of GTL transportations by either commingled or batching mode were evaluated. The choice of mode of transportation of GTL products through TAPS would depend on the expected purity of the product and a trade-off between loss in product value due to contamination and cost of keeping the product pure at the discharge terminal.

  7. Benthic study of the continental slope off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Volume 3. Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz, R.J.; Blake, J.A.; Lohse, D.P.

    1993-03-01

    The Point is an area that supports a most productive pelagic fishery, including tuna, swordfish, marlin, and more. The objective of the study is to analyze video tapes from near the Point, in order to provide data on epibenthic, megafaunal invertebrates including species composition, relative abundances, and large scale (1 km) distribution. The Point is not a defined spot on a chart. Although fishermen do use the steep shelf break for location, they generally look for the west wall of the Gulf Stream. The Point and the oil lease site coincidentally occur where the Gulf Stream parts the continental slope, just north of the eastern-most tip of Cape Hatteras.

  8. EFFECTS OF GRAPHITE SURFACE ROUGHNESS ON BYPASS FLOW COMPUTATIONS FOR AN HTGR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich Johnson; Yu-Hsin Tung; Hiroyuki Sato

    2011-07-01

    Bypass flow in a prismatic high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) occurs between graphite blocks as they sit side by side in the core. Bypass flow is not intentionally designed to occur in the reactor, but is present because of tolerances in manufacture, imperfect installation and expansion and shrinkage of the blocks from heating and irradiation. It is desired to increase the knowledge of the effects of such flow, which has been estimated to be as much as 20% of the total helium coolant flow. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations can provide estimates of the scale and impacts of bypass flow. Previous CFD calculations have examined the effects of bypass gap width, level and distribution of heat generation and effects of shrinkage. The present contribution examines the effects of graphite surface roughness on the bypass flow for different relative roughness factors on three gap widths. Such calculations should be validated using specific bypass flow measurements. While such experiments are currently underway for the specific reference prismatic HTGR design for the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) program of the U. S. Dept. of Energy, the data are not yet available. To enhance confidence in the present calculations, wall shear stress and heat transfer results for several turbulence models and their associated wall treatments are first compared for flow in a single tube that is representative of a coolant channel in the prismatic HTGR core. The results are compared to published correlations for wall shear stress and Nusselt number in turbulent pipe flow. Turbulence models that perform well are then used to make bypass flow calculations in a symmetric onetwelfth sector of a prismatic block that includes bypass flow. The comparison of shear stress and Nusselt number results with published correlations constitutes a partial validation of the CFD model. Calculations are also compared to ones made previously using a different CFD code. Results indicate that increasing surface roughness increases the maximum fuel and helium temperatures as do increases in gap width. However, maximum coolant temperature variation due to increased gap width is not changed by surface roughness.

  9. Y-12's rough roads smoothed over with 23,000 tons of recycled asphalt |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration Home / Blog Y-12's rough roads smoothed over with 23,000 tons of recycled asphalt Tuesday, December 29, 2015 - 12:00am NNSA Blog Some 23,000 tons of asphalt removed during this summer's UPF site work have been put to use throughout the site. Potholes and gravel roads are now "paved" with the recycled asphalt that has been ground into a material called base course. Unlike gravel, the material tends to rebind into a solid form as it is packed

  10. Single-layer MoS{sub 2} roughness and sliding friction quenching by interaction with atomically flat substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quereda, J.; Castellanos-Gomez, A.; Agrat, N.; Rubio-Bollinger, G.

    2014-08-04

    We experimentally study the surface roughness and the lateral friction force in single-layer MoS{sub 2} crystals deposited on different substrates: SiO{sub 2}, mica, and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). Roughness and sliding friction measurements are performed by atomic force microscopy. We find a strong dependence of the MoS{sub 2} roughness on the underlying substrate material, being h-BN the substrate which better preserves the flatness of the MoS{sub 2} crystal. The lateral friction also lowers as the roughness decreases, and attains its lowest value for MoS{sub 2} flakes on h-BN substrates. However, it is still higher than for the surface of a bulk MoS{sub 2} crystal, which we attribute to the deformation of the flake due to competing tip-to-flake and flake-to-substrate interactions.

  11. Slope and bank erosional stability of the Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, UMTRA disposal site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report was prepared in response to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) comments received in a letter of 8 March 1994. This letter included discussions of the US Department of Energy (DOE) 21 May 1993 geomorphic report for the Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, site. To clarify the NRC`s position, a DOE/NRC conference call was held on 12 April 1994. The NRC clarified that it did not require a preliminary erosion protection design for the Canonsburg site, but directed the DOE to address a ``one-bad-year`` scenario. The NRC wants confirmation that one bad year of stream flooding and landsliding will not release residual radioactive material (RRM) from the Canonsburg site into the creek. The NRC is concerned that a bad year theoretically could occur between postcell-closure inspections. These annual inspections are conducted in September or October. The NRC suggested that the following procedures should be conducted in this analysis: a flooding analysis, including the maximum saturation levels (flood water elevations) anticipated during a 100-year flood; a stream bank erosion analysis to determine how much of the bank adjacent to the site may be removed in a bad year; a slope stability analysis to determine how far back the site would be disturbed by slope instability that could be triggered by a bad year of stream bank erosion; and a ``critical cross section`` study to show the relationship of the RRM located outside the disposal cell to the maximum computer estimated erosion/landslide activity.

  12. Role of slope stability in cumulative impact assessment of hydropower development: North Cascades, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, R.R.; Staub, W.P.

    1993-08-01

    Two environmental assessments considered the potential cumulative environmental impacts resulting from the development of eight proposed hydropower projects in the Nooksack River Basin and 11 proposed projects in the Skagit River Basin, North Cascades, Washington, respectively. While not identified as a target resource, slope stability and the alteration of sediment supply to creeks and river mainstems significantly affect other resources. The slope stability assessment emphasized the potential for cumulative impacts under disturbed conditions (e.g., road construction and timber harvesting) and a landslide-induced pipeline rupture scenario. In the case of small-scale slides, the sluicing action of ruptured pipeline water on the fresh landslide scarp was found to be capable of eroding significantly more material than the original landslide. For large-scale landslides, sluiced material was found to be a small increment of the original landslide. These results predicted that hypothetical accidental pipeline rupture by small-scale landslides may result in potential cumulative impacts for 12 of the 19 projects with pending license applications in both river basins. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the North Slope Alaska (NSA) Site

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To achieve this goal, ARM scientists and researchers around the world use continuous data obtained through the ARM Climate Research Facility. ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility to other sites as determined. The North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site is a permanent site providing data about cloud and radiative processes at high latitudes. These data are being used to refine models and parameterizations as they relate to the Arctic. Centered at Barrow and extending to the south (to the vicinity of Atqasuk), west (to the vicinity of Wainwright), and east (towards Oliktok), the NSA site has become a focal point for atmospheric and ecological research activity on the North Slope. Approximately 300,000 NSA data sets from 1993 to the present reside in the ARM Archive at http://www.archive.arm.gov/. Users will need to register for a password, but all files are then free for viewing or downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  14. Physical and Chemical Implications of Mid-Winter Pumping of Trunda Lakes - North Slope, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinzman, Larry D.; Lilly, Michael R.; Kane, Douglas L.; Miller, D. Dan; Galloway, Braden K.; Hilton, Kristie M.; White, Daniel M.

    2005-09-30

    Tundra lakes on the North Slope, Alaska, are an important resource for energy development and petroleum field operations. A majority of exploration activities, pipeline maintenance, and restoration activities take place on winter ice roads that depend on water availability at key times of the winter operating season. These same lakes provide important fisheries and ecosystem functions. In particular, overwintering habitat for fish is one important management concern. This study focused on the evaluation of winter water use in the current field operating areas to provide a better understanding of the current water use practices. It found that under the current water use practices, there were no measurable negative effects of winter pumping on the lakes studied and current water use management practices were appropriately conservative. The study did find many areas where improvements in the understanding of tundra lake hydrology and water usage would benefit industry, management agencies, and the protection of fisheries and ecosystems.

  15. Issues facing the future use of Alaskan NorthSlope natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowsher, C.A.

    1983-05-12

    The North Slope of Alaska contains over 26 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. In 1977, the President and the Congress approved construction of a 4800-mile gas pipeline to bring this gas to US consumers by 1983. However, completion of the project is not now expected until late 1989 at the earliest. This report examines the status and outlook for the Alaskan gas pipeline (the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System). It also evaluates the pros and cons of (1) alternative systems to deliver this gas to market, including a gas pipeline with Alaska for export of liquefied natural gas; (2) processing the gas in Alaska by converting it to methanol and petrochemicals for export; and (3) using the gas within Alaska.

  16. A study of pitch oscillation and roughness on airfoils used for horizontal axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregorek, G.M.; Hoffmann, M.J.; Ramsay, R.R.; Janiszewska, J.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Under subcontract XF-1-11009-3 the Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed an extensive database of empirical aerodynamic data. These data will assist in the development of analytical models and in the design of new airfoils for wind turbines. To accomplish the main objective, airfoil models were designed, built and wind tunnel tested with and without model leading edge grit roughness (LEGR). LEGR simulates surface irregularities due to the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and/or the aging process. This report is a summary of project project activity for Phase III, which encompasses the time period from September 17, 1 993 to September 6, 1 994.

  17. Organic photosensitive cells grown on rough electrode with nano-scale morphology control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Fan; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2011-06-07

    An optoelectronic device and a method for fabricating the optoelectronic device includes a first electrode disposed on a substrate, an exposed surface of the first electrode having a root mean square roughness of at least 30 nm and a height variation of at least 200 nm, the first electrode being transparent. A conformal layer of a first organic semiconductor material is deposited onto the first electrode by organic vapor phase deposition, the first organic semiconductor material being a small molecule material. A layer of a second organic semiconductor material is deposited over the conformal layer. At least some of the layer of the second organic semiconductor material directly contacts the conformal layer. A second electrode is deposited over the layer of the second organic semiconductor material. The first organic semiconductor material is of a donor-type or an acceptor-type relative to the second organic semiconductor material, which is of the other material type.

  18. Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ting

    2013-08-13

    The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

  19. Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ting

    2011-04-26

    The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

  20. Alaska North Slope National Energy Strategy initiative: Analysis of five undeveloped fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, C.P.; Allaire, R.B.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy was directed in the National Energy Strategy to establish a federal interagency task force to identify specific technical and regulatory barriers to the development of five undeveloped North Slope Alaska fields and make recommendations for their resolution. The five fields are West Sak, Point Thomson, Gwydyr Bay, Seal Island/Northstar, and Sandpiper Island. Analysis of environmental, regulatory, technical, and economic information, and data relating to the development potential of the five fields leads to the following conclusions: Development of the five fields would result in an estimated total of 1,055 million barrels of oil and 4.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and total investment of $9.4 billion in 1992 dollars. It appears that all five of the fields will remain economically marginal developments unless there is significant improvement in world oil prices. Costs of regulatory compliance and mitigation, and costs to reduce or maintain environmental impacts at acceptable levels influence project investments and operating costs and must be considered in the development decision making process. The development of three of the fields (West Sak, Point Thomson, and Gwydyr Bay) that are marginally feasible would have an impact on North Slope production over the period from about 2000 to 2014 but cannot replace the decline in Prudhoe Bay Unit production or maintain the operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) beyond about 2014 with the assumption that the TAPS will shut down when production declines to the range of 400 to 200 thousand barrels of oil/day. Recoverable reserves left in the ground in the currently producing fields and soon to be developed fields, Niakuk and Point McIntyre, would range from 1 billion to 500 million barrels of oil corresponding to the time period of 2008 to 2014 based on the TAPS shutdown assumption.

  1. The Wahluke (North) Slope of the Hanford Site: History and present challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1996-04-16

    The Hanford Site was founded in early 1943 for the top secret government mission of producing plutonium for the world`s first atomic weapons. A great deal of land was needed, both to separate various Site facilities from each other, and to provide buffer zones for safety and security purposes. In total, 640 square miles were occupied by the original Hanford Site and its buffer zones. Much of this land had been earmarked for inclusion in the Columbia Basin Irrigation Project (CBP). After World War II ended, a series of national decisions led to a long-term mission for the Hanford Site, and area residents learned that the Site lands they had hoped to farm would be withheld from agricultural production for the foreseeable future. A long set of negotiations commenced between the federal management agency responsible for Hanford (the Atomic Energy Commission -- AEC), and the Bureau of Reclamation (BOR), Department of the Interior that managed the CBP. Some lands were turned back to agriculture, and other compromises made, in the Site`s far northern buffer lands known as the Wahluke Slope, during the 1950s. In the mid-1960s, further negotiations were about to allow farming on lands just north of the Columbia River, opposite Hanford`s reactors, when studies conducted by the BOR found drainage barriers to irrigation. As a result of these findings, two wildlife refuges were created on that land in 1971. Today, after the Hanford Site plutonium production mission has ended and as Site cleanup goes forward, the possibility of total release of Wahluke Slope lands from the control of the Department of Energy (DOE -- a successor agency to the AEC) is under discussion. Such discussion encompasses not just objective and clearly visible criteria, but it resurrects historical debates about the roles of farming and government presence in the Columbia Basin.

  2. Study of biological processes on the US South Atlantic slope and rise. Phase 1: Benthic characterization. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, J.A.; Hecker, B.; Grassle, J.F.; Maciolek-Blake, N.; Brown, B.

    1985-06-01

    Concerns about the potential effects of oil and gas exploration on the U.S. Continental Slope and Rise led to the initiation of a deep-sea characterization study off North Carolina. The biological communities off North Carolina were poorly known, and prior to any drilling activities, a limited regional data base was required. The program included a seasonal characterization of biological and surficial geological properties at a limited number of slope and rise sites, with special emphasis on areas of high oil industry interest. A rich and highly diverse benthic infauna was discovered, with a large percentage of the 877 species being new to science. Annelids were the dominant taxa both in terms of density, numbers of species, and biomass. Foraminiferan tests comprised most of the sand fraction. Hydrographic data indicated some intrusion of colder water on the upper slope benthos from deeper water.

  3. Image Formation by Incoherent and Coherent Transition Radiation from Flat and Rough Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we derive equations for the image formation of transverse profile of a relativistic beam obtained by means of optical transition radiation (OTR) from flat and rough metal surfaces. The motivation behind this study lies in the desire to suppress coherent transition radiation (COTR) observed in experiments at modern free electron lasers. The physical mechanism behind the problem of COTR is that the OTR is predominantly radiated at small angles of order of 1/{gamma} where {gamma} is the relativistic factor of the beam. This means that the transverse formation size of the image is of order of {bar {lambda}}{gamma} where {bar {lambda}} = {lambda}/2{pi} with {lambda} the radiation wavelength. For relativistic beams this can be comparable or even exceed the transverse size of the beam, which would mean that the image of the beam has very little to do with its transverse profile. It is fortuitous, however, that the incoherent image is formed by adding radiation energy of electrons and results in the transverse formation size being of order of {bar {lambda}}/{theta}{sub a}, with {theta}{sub a} is the aperture angle of the optical system. The COTR image, in contrast, is formed by adding electromagnetic field of electrons, and leads to the formation size {bar {lambda}}{gamma}. In situations when the COTR intensity exceeds that of OTR the COTR imaging makes the diagnostic incapable of measuring the beam profile.

  4. IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) Cost Estimate Summary (Leveraged NDC Case).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, James M.; Prescott, Ryan; Dawson, Jericah M.; Huelskamp, Robert M.

    2014-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a ROM cost estimate for budgetary planning for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 effort, based on leveraging a fully funded, Sandia executed NDC Modernization project. This report provides the ROM cost estimate and describes the methodology, assumptions, and cost model details used to create the ROM cost estimate. ROM Cost Estimate Disclaimer Contained herein is a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate that has been provided to enable initial planning for this proposed project. This ROM cost estimate is submitted to facilitate informal discussions in relation to this project and is NOT intended to commit Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) or its resources. Furthermore, as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), Sandia must be compliant with the Anti-Deficiency Act and operate on a full-cost recovery basis. Therefore, while Sandia, in conjunction with the Sponsor, will use best judgment to execute work and to address the highest risks and most important issues in order to effectively manage within cost constraints, this ROM estimate and any subsequent approved cost estimates are on a 'full-cost recovery' basis. Thus, work can neither commence nor continue unless adequate funding has been accepted and certified by DOE.

  5. Study of biological processes on the US South Atlantic slope and rise. Phase 1: Benthic characterization. Volume 1. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, J.A.; Hecker, B.; Grassle, J.F.; Maciolek-Blake, N.; Brown, B.

    1985-06-01

    Concerns about the potential effects of oil and gas exploration on the U.S. Continental Slope and Rise led to the initiation of a deep-sea characterization study off North Carolina. The program included a seasonal characterization of biological and surficial geological properties at a limited number of slope and rise sites, with special emphasis on areas of high oil industry interest. A five-station transect was established off Cape Lookout in depths of 600 m, 1000 m, 1500 m, 2000 m and 3000 m. A rich and highly diverse benthic infauna was discovered, with a large percentage of the 877 species being new to science. Faunal density was highest on the upper slope (600 m) and lowest on the continental rise (3000 m). Species diversity values were all higher than 6.0, indicating a very diverse fauna, with the highest values at 3000 m. Foraminiferan tests comprised most of the sand fraction. Hydrographic data indicated some intrusion of colder water on the upper slope benthos from deeper water.

  6. Cosmic reionization on computers. Ultraviolet continuum slopes and dust opacities in high redshift galaxies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khakhaleva-Li, Zimu; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2016-03-30

    In this study, we compare the properties of stellar populations of model galaxies from the Cosmic Reionization On Computers (CROC) project with the exiting UV and IR data. Since CROC simulations do not follow cosmic dust directly, we adopt two variants of the dust-follows-metals ansatz to populate model galaxies with dust. Using the dust radiative transfer code Hyperion, we compute synthetic stellar spectra, UV continuum slopes, and IR fluxes for simulated galaxies. We find that the simulation results generally match observational measurements, but, perhaps, not in full detail. The differences seem to indicate that our adopted dust-follows-metals ansatzes are notmore » fully sufficient. While the discrepancies with the exiting data are marginal, the future JWST data will be of much higher precision, rendering highly significant any tentative difference between theory and observations. It is, therefore, likely, that in order to fully utilize the precision of JWST observations, fully dynamical modeling of dust formation, evolution, and destruction may be required.« less

  7. Interpretation of recent seismic data from a frontier hydrocarbon province: western Rough Creek graben, southern Illinois and western Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertagne, A.J.; Pisasale, E.T.; Leising, T.C.

    1986-05-01

    The northern basement fault of the Rough Creek graben is seismically discernible and has surface expression in the Rough Creek fault zone. The southern basement fault is not clearly defined seismically, but can be inferred from shallow faulting and gravity data. This fault is roughly coincident with the Pennyrile fault zone. Extensional faults that formed the rift boundaries were the sites of late-stage compressional and extensional tectonics. Flower structures observed along the graben boundaries probably indicate post-Pennsylvanian wrench faulting. The basement within the graben plunges north-northwest, with the lowest point occurring south of the Rough Creek fault zone. Pre-Knox sediments thicken to approximately 12,000 in this area. The Knox Megagroup thickens toward the Mississippi Embayment, ranging from 4800 ft (southeastern graben area) to more than 7000 ft (west end of graben). Upper Ordovician to Devonian units also display westward thickening. The top of the Meramecian, New Albany, Maquoketa, and the base of the Knox generate continuous, high-amplitude seismic reflections due to large impedance contrasts between clastic and carbonate units. Shallow oil and gas production (Mississippian and Pennsylvanian) is present in this area. However, deep horizons (Knox, Lower Cambrian) remain relatively untested. Potential hydrocarbon traps in the pre-Knox sequence observed on seismic include fault blocks and updip pinch-outs.

  8. Evaluation of WRF predicted near hub-height winds and ramp events over a Pacific Northwest site with complex terrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Qing; Berg, Larry K.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Fast, Jerome D.; Newsom, Rob K.; Stoelinga, Mark; Finley, Cathy

    2013-08-16

    The WRF model version 3.3 is used to simulate near hub-height winds and power ramps utilizing three commonly used planetary boundary-layer (PBL) schemes: Mellor-Yamada-Janji? (MYJ), University of Washington (UW), and Yonsei University (YSU). The predicted winds have small mean biases compared with observations. Power ramps and step changes (changes within an hour) consistently show that the UW scheme performed better in predicting up ramps under stable conditions with higher prediction accuracy and capture rates. Both YSU and UW scheme show good performance predicting up- and down- ramps under unstable conditions with YSU being slightly better for ramp durations longer than an hour. MYJ is the most successful simulating down-ramps under stable conditions. The high wind speed and large shear associated with low-level jets are frequently associated with power ramps, and the biases in predicted low-level jet explain some of the shown differences in ramp predictions among different PBL schemes. Low-level jets were observed as low as ~200 m in altitude over the Columbia Basin Wind Energy Study (CBWES) site, located in an area of complex terrain. The shear, low-level peak wind speeds, as well as the height of maximum wind speed are not well predicted. Model simulations with 3 PBL schemes show the largest variability among them under stable conditions.

  9. Marine carbonate embayment system in an Eolian dune terrain, Permian Upper Minnelusa Formation, Rozet Area, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Achauer, C.W.

    1987-05-01

    The eolian origin for Minnelusa sandstones has been stressed in numerous published articles. However, the dolomites that are interbedded with the eolian sandstones have received little attention. Isopach mapping of one of the dolomite units (Dolomite I) reflects a marine embayment system whose individual embayments range from 1/2 to 1 mi in width and trend primarily in a northwest direction. Consistently the embayment dolomites pinch out against the flanks of reworked, low relief, broad, eolian dune ridges. So far, 108 mi/sup 2/ of the Dolomite I marine embayment system have been mapped, but the overall extent of the system is undoubtedly much greater. Dolomite I is rarely cored, but cores from stratigraphically higher embayment dolomites in the upper Minnelusa show that these dolomites display the following, shoaling-upward sequence: (1) subtidal, sparingly fossiliferous dolomite; (2) intertidal, algal-laminated or brecciated or mud-cracked dolomite; and (3) very thin, supratidal, nodular anhydrite. The embayments, therefore, became the sites of marine sabkhas located between eolian dunes. Two main conclusions emerge from this study: (1) the juxtaposition of eolian sandstones and marine dolomites in a tectonically stable area suggests that eustatic sea level changes and a very arid climate were responsible for the marked environmental and lithologic changes observed in the upper Minnelusa, and (2) arid, coastal, evaporitic sabkhas bordered by eolian dunes are known from a number of modern and ancient cases, but marine carbonate embayments and associated evaporitic sabkhas that penetrate deeply into eolian sandstone terrains are rare.

  10. Quantifying the effect of anode surface roughness on diagnostic x-ray spectra using Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehranian, A.; Ay, M. R.; Alam, N. Riyahi; Zaidi, H.

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: The accurate prediction of x-ray spectra under typical conditions encountered in clinical x-ray examination procedures and the assessment of factors influencing them has been a long-standing goal of the diagnostic radiology and medical physics communities. In this work, the influence of anode surface roughness on diagnostic x-ray spectra is evaluated using MCNP4C-based Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: An image-based modeling method was used to create realistic models from surface-cracked anodes. An in-house computer program was written to model the geometric pattern of cracks and irregularities from digital images of focal track surface in order to define the modeled anodes into MCNP input file. To consider average roughness and mean crack depth into the models, the surface of anodes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and surface profilometry. It was found that the average roughness (R{sub a}) in the most aged tube studied is about 50 {mu}m. The correctness of MCNP4C in simulating diagnostic x-ray spectra was thoroughly verified by calling its Gaussian energy broadening card and comparing the simulated spectra with experimentally measured ones. The assessment of anode roughness involved the comparison of simulated spectra in deteriorated anodes with those simulated in perfectly plain anodes considered as reference. From these comparisons, the variations in output intensity, half value layer (HVL), heel effect, and patient dose were studied. Results: An intensity loss of 4.5% and 16.8% was predicted for anodes aged by 5 and 50 {mu}m deep cracks (50 kVp, 6 deg. target angle, and 2.5 mm Al total filtration). The variations in HVL were not significant as the spectra were not hardened by more than 2.5%; however, the trend for this variation was to increase with roughness. By deploying several point detector tallies along the anode-cathode direction and averaging exposure over them, it was found that for a 6 deg. anode, roughened by 50 {mu}m deep cracks, the reduction in exposure is 14.9% and 13.1% for 70 and 120 kVp tube voltages, respectively. For the evaluation of patient dose, entrance skin radiation dose was calculated for typical chest x-ray examinations. It was shown that as anode roughness increases, patient entrance skin dose decreases averagely by a factor of 15%. Conclusions: It was concluded that the anode surface roughness can have a non-negligible effect on output spectra in aged x-ray imaging tubes and its impact should be carefully considered in diagnostic x-ray imaging modalities.

  11. Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production of Alaska North Slope Oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao Zhu; Jack A. Walker; J. Liang

    2008-12-31

    Due to increasing oil demand, oil companies are moving into arctic environments and deep-water areas for oil production. In these regions of lower temperatures, wax deposits begin to form when the temperature in the wellbore falls below wax appearance temperature (WAT). This condition leads to reduced production rates and larger pressure drops. Wax problems in production wells are very costly due to production down time for removal of wax. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a solution to wax deposition. In order to develop a solution to wax deposition, it is essential to characterize the crude oil and study phase behavior properties. The main objective of this project was to characterize Alaskan North Slope crude oil and study the phase behavior, which was further used to develop a dynamic wax deposition model. This report summarizes the results of the various experimental studies. The subtasks completed during this study include measurement of density, molecular weight, viscosity, pour point, wax appearance temperature, wax content, rate of wax deposition using cold finger, compositional characterization of crude oil and wax obtained from wax content, gas-oil ratio, and phase behavior experiments including constant composition expansion and differential liberation. Also, included in this report is the development of a thermodynamic model to predict wax precipitation. From the experimental study of wax appearance temperature, it was found that wax can start to precipitate at temperatures as high as 40.6 C. The WAT obtained from cross-polar microscopy and viscometry was compared, and it was discovered that WAT from viscometry is overestimated. From the pour point experiment it was found that crude oil can cease to flow at a temperature of 12 C. From the experimental results of wax content, it is evident that the wax content in Alaskan North Slope crude oil can be as high as 28.57%. The highest gas-oil ratio for a live oil sample was observed to be 619.26 SCF/STB. The bubblepoint pressure for live oil samples varied between 1600 psi and 2100 psi. Wax precipitation is one of the most important phenomena in wax deposition and, hence, needs to be modeled. There are various models present in the literature. Won's model, which considers the wax phase as a non-ideal solution, and Pedersen's model, which considers the wax phase as an ideal solution, were compared. Comparison indicated that Pedersen's model gives better results, but the assumption of wax phase as an ideal solution is not realistic. Hence, Won's model was modified to consider different precipitation characteristics of the various constituents in the hydrocarbon fraction. The results obtained from the modified Won's model were compared with existing models, and it was found that predictions from the modified model are encouraging.

  12. Stranski-Krastanow islanding initiated on the stochastic rough surfaces of the epitaxially strained thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarik Ogurtani, Omer; Celik, Aytac; Emre Oren, Ersin

    2014-06-14

    Quantum dots (QD) have discrete energy spectrum, which can be adjusted over a wide range by tuning composition, density, size, lattice strain, and morphology. These features make quantum dots attractive for the design and fabrication of novel electronic, magnetic and photonic devices and other functional materials used in cutting-edge applications. The formation of QD on epitaxially strained thin film surfaces, known as Stranski-Krastanow (SK) islands, has attracted great attention due to their unique electronic properties. Here, we present a systematic dynamical simulation study for the spontaneous evolution of the SK islands on the stochastically rough surfaces (nucleationless growth). During the development of SK islands through the mass accumulation at randomly selected regions of the film via surface drift-diffusion (induced by the capillary and mismatch stresses) with and/or without growth, one also observes the formation of an extremely thin wetting layer having a thickness of a few Angstroms. Above a certain threshold level of the mismatch strain and/or the size of the patch, the formation of multiple islands separated by shallow wetting layers is also observed as metastable states such as doublets even multiplets. These islands are converted into a distinct SK islands after long annealing times by coalescence through the long range surface diffusion. Extensive computer simulation studies demonstrated that after an initial transient regime, there is a strong quadratic relationship between the height of the SK singlet and the intensity of the lattice mismatch strain (in a wide range of stresses up to 8.5?GPa for germanium thin crystalline films), with the exception at those critical points where the morphological (shape change with necking) transition takes place.

  13. Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the S809 airfoil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsay, R.F.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-01

    An S809 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3{times}5 subsonic wind tunnel (3{times}5) under steady flow and stationary model conditions, and also with the model undergoing pitch oscillations. To study the possible extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a standard grit pattern (LEGR) was developed to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, while the angle of attack ranged from {minus}20, to +40 {degrees}. With the model undergoing pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.4 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions were used; {plus_minus} 5.5{degrees} and {plus_minus} 10{degrees}, at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions means the model was in pitch oscillation about the quarter chord. In general, the unsteady maximum lift coefficient was from 4% to 86% higher than the steady state maximum lift coefficient, and variation in the quarter chord pitching moment coefficient magnitude was from {minus}83% to 195% relative to steady state values at high angles of attack. These findings indicate the importance of considering the unsteady flow behavior occurring in wind turbine operation to obtain accurate load estimates.

  14. Assessment of Alaska's North Slope Oil Field Capacity to Sequester CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umekwe, Pascal; Mongrain, Joanna; Ahmadi, Mohabbat; Hanks, Catherine

    2013-03-15

    The capacity of 21 major fields containing more than 95% of the North Slope of Alaska's oil were investigated for CO{sub 2} storage by injecting CO{sub 2} as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agent. These fields meet the criteria for the application of miscible and immiscible CO{sub 2}-EOR methods and contain about 40 billion barrels of oil after primary and secondary recovery. Volumetric calculations from this study indicate that these fields have a static storage capacity of 3 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2}, assuming 100% oil recovery, re-pressurizing the fields to pre-fracturing pressure and applying a 50% capacity reduction to compensate for heterogeneity and for water invasion from the underlying aquifer. A ranking produced from this study, mainly controlled by field size and fracture gradient, identifies Prudhoe, Kuparuk, and West Sak as possessing the largest storage capacities under a 20% safety factor on pressures applied during storage to avoid over-pressurization, fracturing, and gas leakage. Simulation studies were conducted using CO{sub 2} Prophet to determine the amount of oil technically recoverable and CO{sub 2} gas storage possible during this process. Fields were categorized as miscible, partially miscible, and immiscible based on the miscibility of CO{sub 2} with their oil. Seven sample fields were selected across these categories for simulation studies comparing pure CO{sub 2} and water-alternating-gas injection. Results showed that the top two fields in each category for recovery and CO{sub 2} storage were Alpine and Point McIntyre (miscible), Prudhoe and Kuparuk (partially miscible), and West Sak and Lisburne (immiscible). The study concludes that 5 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2} can be stored while recovering 14.2 billion barrels of the remaining oil.

  15. A comparison of cloud properties at a coastal and inland site at the North Slope of Alaska

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 107, NO. D11, 4120, 10.1029/2001JD000819, 2002 A comparison of cloud properties at a coastal and inland site at the North Slope of Alaska J. C. Doran and S. Zhong Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA J. C. Liljegren Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, USA C. Jakob1 European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, England Received 7 May 2001; revised 22 October 2001; accepted 25 October 2001; published 11

  16. Geologic interrelations relative to gas hydrates within the North Slope of Alaska: Task No. 6, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collett, T.S.; Bird, K.J.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Magoon, L.B.

    1988-01-01

    The five primary objectives of the US Geological Survey North Slope Gas Hydrate Project were to: (1) Determine possible geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate; (2) locate and evaluate possible gas-hydrate-bearing reservoirs; (3) estimate the volume of gas within the hydrates; (4) develop a model for gas-hydrate formation; and (5) select a coring site for gas-hydrate sampling and analysis. Our studies of the North Slope of Alaska suggest that the zone in which gas hydrates are stable is controlled primarily by subsurface temperatures and gas chemistry. Other factors, such as pore-pressure variations, pore-fluid salinity, and reservior-rock grain size, appear to have little effect on gas hydrate stability on the North Slope. Data necessary to determine the limits of gas hydrate stability field are difficult to obtain. On the basis of mud-log gas chromatography, core data, and cuttings data, methane is the dominant species of gas in the near-surface (0--1500 m) sediment. Gas hydrates were identified in 34 wells utilizing well-log responses calibrated to the response of an interval in one well where gas hydrates were actually recovered in a core by an oil company. A possible scenario describing the origin of the interred gas hydrates on the North Slope involves the migration of thermogenic solution- and free-gas from deeper reservoirs upward along faults into the overlying sedimentary rocks. We have identified two (dedicated) core-hole sites, the Eileen and the South-End core-holes, at which there is a high probability of recovering a sample of gas hydrate. At the Eileen core-hole site, at least three stratigraphic units may contain gas hydrate. The South-End core-hole site provides an opportunity to study one specific rock unit that appears to contain both gas hydrate and oil. 100 refs., 72 figs., 24 tabs.

  17. Assessment of primary production and optical variability in shelf and slope waters near Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redalje, Donald G.; Lohrenz, Stevern E.

    2001-02-12

    In this project we determined primary production and optical variability in the shelf and slope waters off of Cape Hatteras, N.C. These processes were addressed in conjunction with other Ocean Margins Program investigators, during the Spring Transition period and during Summer. We found that there were significant differences in measured parameters between Spring and Summer, enabling us to develop seasonally specific carbon production and ecosystem models as well as seasonal and regional algorithm improvements for use in remote sensing applications.

  18. Chemical and Microbial Characterization of North Slope Viscous Oils to Assess Viscosity Reduction and Enhanced Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar; Mary Beth Leigh

    2008-12-31

    A large proportion of Alaska North Slope (ANS) oil exists in the form of viscous deposits, which cannot be produced entirely using conventional methods. Microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a promising approach for improving oil recovery for viscous deposits. MEOR can be achieved using either ex situ approaches such as flooding with microbial biosurfactants or injection of exogenous surfactant-producing microbes into the reservoir, or by in situ approaches such as biostimulation of indigenous surfactant-producing microbes in the oil. Experimental work was performed to analyze the potential application of MEOR to the ANS oil fields through both ex situ and in situ approaches. A microbial formulation containing a known biosurfactant-producing strain of Bacillus licheniformis was developed in order to simulate MEOR. Coreflooding experiments were performed to simulate MEOR and quantify the incremental oil recovery. Properties like viscosity, density, and chemical composition of oil were monitored to propose a mechanism for oil recovery. The microbial formulation significantly increased incremental oil recovery, and molecular biological analyses indicated that the strain survived during the shut-in period. The indigenous microflora of ANS heavy oils was investigated to characterize the microbial communities and test for surfactant producers that are potentially useful for biostimulation. Bacteria that reduce the surface tension of aqueous media were isolated from one of the five ANS oils (Milne Point) and from rock oiled by the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), and may prove valuable for ex situ MEOR strategies. The total bacterial community composition of the six different oils was evaluated using molecular genetic tools, which revealed that each oil tested possessed a unique fingerprint indicating a diverse bacterial community and varied assemblages. Collectively we have demonstrated that there is potential for in situ and ex situ MEOR of ANS oils. Future work should focus on lab and field-scale testing of ex situ MEOR using Bacillus licheniformis as well as the biosurfactant-producing strains we have newly isolated from the Milne Point reservoir and the EVOS environment.

  19. Wall-slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds: Effect of flow channel geometry and roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Sanetrnik, Daniel [Dept. of Production Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, nm. T.G. Masaryka 5555, 760 01 Zln, Czech Republic and Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovc (Czech Republic); Paravanova, Gordana [Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovcrnou 3685, 760 01 Zln (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-15

    The paper deals with the rheological behavior of highly filled compounds proceeded via powder injection molding (PIM) and applied in many sectors of industry (automotive, medicine, electronic or military). Online rheometer equipped with slit dies varying in surface roughness and dimensions was applied to investigate the wall-slip as a rheological phenomenon, which can be considered as a parameter indicating the separation of compound components (polymer binder and metallic powder) during high shear rates when injection molded.

  20. High field Q slope and the baking effect: Review of recent experimental results and new data on Nb heat treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Ciovati, G. Myneni, F. Stevie, P. Maheshwari, D. Griffis

    2010-02-01

    The performance of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of bulk Nb at high fields (peak surface magnetic field greater than about 90 mT) is characterized by exponentially increasing rf losses (high-field Q slope), in the absence of field emission, which are often mitigated by low-temperature (100140C, 1248 h) baking. In this contribution, recent experimental results and phenomenological models to explain this effect will be briefly reviewed. New experimental results on the high-field Q slope will be presented for cavities that had been heat treated in a vacuum furnace at high temperature without subsequent chemical etching. These studies are aimed at understanding the role of hydrogen on the high-field Q slope and at the passivation of the Nb surface during heat treatment. Improvement of the cavity performances, particularly of the cavities quality factor, have been obtained following the high-temperature heat treatments, while secondary ion mass spectroscopy surface analysis measurements on Nb samples treated with the cavities revealed significantly lower hydrogen concentration than for samples that followed standard cavity treatments.

  1. On the improvement of photovoltaic action of ZnO/P3HT:PCBM by controlling roughness of window layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geethu, R. Menon, M. R. Rajesh Kartha, C. Sudha Vijayakumar, K. P.

    2014-04-24

    Polymer solar cells with configuration ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/Ag were fabricated using cost effective chemical spray pyrolysis and spin coating techniques. When surface of ZnO layer was modified with a second layer so as to increase the roughness, considerable improvement in cell parameters were observed. Optimum conditions for the required roughness were identified and changes in cell parameters with variation in surface roughness were studied. Major enhancements were observed in the open circuit voltage and in the cell efficiency.

  2. Surface smoothing effect of an amorphous thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition on a surface with nano-sized roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, W. S. Wan, X.; Xu, Y.; Wong, H.; Zhang, J.; Luo, J. K.; Institute of Renewable Energy and Environment Technology, Bolton University, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5 AB

    2014-02-15

    Previously, Lau (one of the authors) pointed out that the deposition of an amorphous thin film by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on a substrate with nano-sized roughness probably has a surface smoothing effect. In this letter, polycrystalline zinc oxide deposited by ALD onto a smooth substrate was used as a substrate with nano-sized roughness. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) were used to demonstrate that an amorphous aluminum oxide thin film deposited by ALD can reduce the surface roughness of a polycrystalline zinc oxide coated substrate.

  3. The component slope linear model for calculating intensive partial molar properties /application to waste glasses and aluminate solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, Jacob G.

    2013-01-11

    Partial molar properties are the changes occurring when the fraction of one component is varied while the fractions of all other component mole fractions change proportionally. They have many practical and theoretical applications in chemical thermodynamics. Partial molar properties of chemical mixtures are difficult to measure because the component mole fractions must sum to one, so a change in fraction of one component must be offset with a change in one or more other components. Given that more than one component fraction is changing at a time, it is difficult to assign a change in measured response to a change in a single component. In this study, the Component Slope Linear Model (CSLM), a model previously published in the statistics literature, is shown to have coefficients that correspond to the intensive partial molar properties. If a measured property is plotted against the mole fraction of a component while keeping the proportions of all other components constant, the slope at any given point on a graph of this curve is the partial molar property for that constituent. Actually plotting this graph has been used to determine partial molar properties for many years. The CSLM directly includes this slope in a model that predicts properties as a function of the component mole fractions. This model is demonstrated by applying it to the constant pressure heat capacity data from the NaOH-NaAl(OH){sub 4}-H{sub 2}O system, a system that simplifies Hanford nuclear waste. The partial molar properties of H{sub 2}O, NaOH, and NaAl(OH){sub 4} are determined. The equivalence of the CSLM and the graphical method is verified by comparing results determined by the two methods. The CSLM model has been previously used to predict the liquidus temperature of spinel crystals precipitated from Hanford waste glass. Those model coefficients are re-interpreted here as the partial molar spinel liquidus temperature of the glass components.

  4. Project test plan for runoff and erosion on fine-soil barrier surfaces and rock-covered side slopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, W.H.; Hoover, K.A.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1990-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company are working together to develop protective barriers to isolate near-surface radioactive waste. The purpose of the barriers is to protect defense wastes at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site from infiltration of precipitation, biointrusion, and surficial erosion for up to 10,000 years without the need for long-term monitoring, maintenance, or institutional control. The barriers will be constructed of layered earth and rock material designed to direct surface and groundwater pathways away from the buried waste. To address soil erosion as it applies to barrier design and long-term stability, a task designed to study this problem has been included in the Protective Barriers Program at PNL. The barrier soil-erosion task will investigate the ability of the soil cover and side slopes to resist the erosional and destabilizing processes from externally applied water. The study will include identification and field testing of the dominant processes contributing to erosion and barrier failure. The effects of rock mulches, vegetation cover on the top fine-grained soil surface, as well as the stability of rock armoring on the side slopes, will be evaluated. Some of the testing will include the effects of animal intrusion on barrier erosion, and these will be coordinated with other animal intrusion studies. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Gas Production From a Cold, Stratigraphically Bounded Hydrate Deposit at the Mount Elbert Site, North Slope, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moridis, G.J.; Silpngarmlert, S.; Reagan, M. T.; Collett, T.S.; Zhang, K.

    2009-09-01

    As part of an effort to identify suitable targets for a planned long-term field test, we investigate by means of numerical simulation the gas production potential from unit D, a stratigraphically bounded (Class 3) permafrost-associated hydrate occurrence penetrated in the ount Elbert well on North Slope, Alaska. This shallow, low-pressure deposit has high porosities, high intrinsic permeabilities and high hydrate saturations. It has a low temperature because of its proximity to the overlying permafrost. The simulation results indicate that vertical ells operating at a constant bottomhole pressure would produce at very low rates for a very long period. Horizontal wells increase gas production by almost two orders of magnitude, but production remains low. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the initial deposit temperature is y the far the most important factor determining production performance (and the most effective criterion for target selection) because it controls the sensible heat available to fuel dissociation.

  6. Review of the margins for ASME code fatigue design curve - effects of surface roughness and material variability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2003-10-03

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. The Code specifies fatigue design curves for structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. Existing fatigue strain-vs.-life ({var_epsilon}-N) data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of pressure vessel and piping steels. This report provides an overview of the existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data for carbon and low-alloy steels and wrought and cast austenitic SSs to define the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on the fatigue lives of the steels. Experimental data are presented on the effects of surface roughness on the fatigue life of these steels in air and LWR environments. Statistical models are presented for estimating the fatigue {var_epsilon}-N curves as a function of the material, loading, and environmental parameters. Two methods for incorporating environmental effects into the ASME Code fatigue evaluations are discussed. Data available in the literature have been reviewed to evaluate the conservatism in the existing ASME Code fatigue evaluations. A critical review of the margins for ASME Code fatigue design curves is presented.

  7. Local changes of work function near rough features on Cu surfaces operated under high external electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djurabekova, Flyura Ruzibaev, Avaz; Parviainen, Stefan; Holmstrm, Eero; Hakala, Mikko

    2013-12-28

    Metal surfaces operated under high electric fields produce sparks even if they are held in ultra high vacuum. In spite of extensive research on the topic of vacuum arcs, the mystery of vacuum arc origin still remains unresolved. The indications that the sparking rates depend on the material motivate the research on surface response to extremely high external electric fields. In this work by means of density-functional theory calculations we analyze the redistribution of electron density on (100) Cu surfaces due to self-adatoms and in presence of high electric fields from ?1?V/nm up to ?2?V/nm (?1 to ?2 GV/m, respectively). We also calculate the partial charge induced by the external field on a single adatom and a cluster of two adatoms in order to obtain reliable information on charge redistribution on surface atoms, which can serve as a benchmarking quantity for the assessment of the electric field effects on metal surfaces by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, we investigate the modifications of work function around rough surface features, such as step edges and self-adatoms.

  8. North Slope of Alaska

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Programs Nonproliferation One of the gravest threats the United States and the international community face is the possibility that terrorists or rogue nations will acquire nuclear weapons or other weapons of mass destruction (WMD). NNSA, through its Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (DNN), works closely with a wide range of international partners, key U.S. federal agencies, the U.S. national laboratories, and the private sector to secure, safeguard, and/or dispose of dangerous nuclear

  9. ADVANCED OIL RECOVERY TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVED RECOVERY FROM SLOPE BASIN CLASTIC RESERVOIRS, NASH DRAW BRUSHY CANYON POOL, EDDY COUNTY, NM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark B. Murphy

    2001-10-31

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool (NDP) in southeast New Mexico is one of the nine projects selected in 1995 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for participation in the Class III Reservoir Field Demonstration Program. The goals of the DOE cost-shared Class Program are to: (1) extend economic production, (2) increase ultimate recovery, and (3) broaden information exchange and technology application. Reservoirs in the Class III Program are focused on slope basin and deep-basin clastic depositional types. Production at the NDP is from the Brushy Canyon formation, a low-permeability turbidite reservoir in the Delaware Mountain Group of Permian, Guadalupian age. A major challenge in this marginal-quality reservoir is to distinguish oil-productive pay intervals from water-saturated non-pay intervals. Because initial reservoir pressure is only slightly above bubble-point pressure, rapid oil decline rates and high gas/oil ratios are typically observed in the first year of primary production. Limited surface access, caused by the proximity of underground potash mining and surface playa lakes, prohibits development with conventional drilling. Reservoir characterization results obtained to date at the NDP show that a proposed pilot injection area appears to be compartmentalized. Because reservoir discontinuities will reduce effectiveness of a pressure maintenance project, the pilot area will be reconsidered in a more continuous part of the reservoir if such areas have sufficient reservoir pressure. Most importantly, the advanced characterization results are being used to design extended reach/horizontal wells to tap into predicted ''sweet spots'' that are inaccessible with conventional vertical wells. The activity at the NDP during the past year has included the completion of the NDP Well No.36 deviated/horizontal well and the completion of additional zones in three wells, the design of the NDP No.33 directional/horizontal well, The planning and regulatory approval for the north No.-D seismic survey extension and the continued analysis of data.

  10. C-N-P interactions control climate driven changes in regional patterns of C storage on the North Slope of Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Yueyang; Rocha, Adrian; Rastetter, Edward; Shaver, Gaius; Mishra, U.; Zhuang, Qianlai; Kwiatkowski, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    As climate warms, changes in the carbon (C) balance of arctic tundra will play an important role in the global C balance. The C balance of tundra is tightly coupled to the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles because soil organic matter is the principal source of plant-available nutrients and determines the spatial variation of vegetation biomass across the North Slope of Alaska. Warming will accelerate these nutrient cycles, which should stimulate plant growth.

  11. ARM Climate Research Facilities on the North Slope of Alaska: Field Campaigns in 2007, New Facilities, and the International Polar Year

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate Research Facilities on the North Slope of Alaska: Field Campaigns in 2007, New Facilities, and the International Polar Year Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC): Feb 26 - Mar 14 2007 Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Contributors: Mark Ivey, Bernie Zak, Jeff Zirzow, Sandia National Labs

  12. High field Q-slope and the baking effect: a brief review of recent experimental results and new data on Nb heat treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gianluigi Ciovati, Ganapati Myneni, Fred Stevie, Prateek Maheshwari, Dieter Griffis

    2010-02-01

    The performance of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of bulk Nb at high fields (peak surface magnetic field greater than about 90 mT) is characterized by exponentially increasing rf losses (high-field Q-slope), in the absence of field emission, which are often mitigated by low temperature (100-140 C, 12-48 h) baking. In this contribution, recent experimental results and phenomenological models to explain this effect will be briefly reviewed. New experimental results on the high-field Q-slope will be presented for cavities that had been heat treated in a vacuum furnace at high temperature without subsequent chemical etching. These studies are aimed at understanding the role of hydrogen on the high-field Q-slope and at the passivation of the Nb surface during heat treatment. Improvement of the cavity performances, particularly of the cavities quality factor, have been obtained following the high temperature heat-treatments, while SIMS surface analysis measurements on Nb samples treated with the cavities revealed significantly lower hydrogen concentration than for samples that followed standard cavity treatments.

  13. Spectral analysis of the efficiency of vertical mixing in the deep ocean due to interaction of tidal currents with a ridge running down a continental slope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibragimov, Ranis N.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2014-10-29

    Efficiency of mixing, resulting from the reflection of an internal wave field imposed on the oscillatory background flow with a three-dimensional bottom topography, is investigated using a linear approximation. The radiating wave field is associated with the spectrum of the linear model, which consists of those mode numbers n and slope values α, for which the solution represents the internal waves of frequencies ω = nω0 radiating upwrad of the topography, where ω0 is the fundamental frequency at which internal waves are generated at the topography. The effects of the bottom topography and the earth’s rotation on the spectrum is analyzed analytically and numerically in the vicinity of the critical slope, which is a slope with the same angle to the horizontal as the internal wave characteristic. In this notation, θ is latitude, f is the Coriolis parameter and N is the buoyancy frequency, which is assumed to be a constant, which corresponds to the uniform stratification.

  14. Experimental study of laser-oxygen cutting of low-carbon steel using fibre and CO{sub 2} lasers under conditions of minimal roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golyshev, A A; Malikov, A G; Orishich, A M; Shulyatyev, V B

    2014-10-31

    The results of an experimental study of laser-oxygen cutting of low-carbon steel using fibre and CO{sub 2} lasers are generalised. The dependence of roughness of the cut surface on the cutting parameters is investigated, and the conditions under which the surface roughness is minimal are formulated. It is shown that for both types of lasers these conditions can be expressed in the same way in terms of the dimensionless variables – the Péclet number Pe and the output power Q of laser radiation per unit thickness of the cut sheet – and take the form of the similarity laws: Pe = const, Q = const. The optimal values of Pe and Q are found. We have derived empirical expressions that relate the laser power and cutting speed with the thickness of the cut sheet under the condition of minimal roughness in the case of cutting by means of radiation from fibre and CO{sub 2} lasers. (laser technologies)

  15. The Disruption of Vessel-Spanning Bubbles with Sloped Fins in Flat-Bottom and 2:1 Elliptical-Bottom Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Buchmiller, William C.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Chun, Jaehun; Russell, Renee L.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Mastor, Michael M.

    2010-09-22

    Radioactive sludge was generated in the K-East Basin and K-West Basin fuel storage pools at the Hanford Site while irradiated uranium metal fuel elements from the N Reactor were being stored and packaged. The fuel has been removed from the K Basins, and currently, the sludge resides in the KW Basin in large underwater Engineered Containers. The first phase to the Sludge Treatment Project being led by CH2MHILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is to retrieve and load the sludge into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and transport the sludge to T Plant for interim storage. The STSCs will be stored inside T Plant cells that are equipped with secondary containment and leak-detection systems. The sludge is composed of a variety of particulate materials and water, including a fraction of reactive uranium metal particles that are a source of hydrogen gas. If a situation occurs where the reactive uranium metal particles settle out at the bottom of a container, previous studies have shown that a vessel-spanning gas layer above the uranium metal particles can develop and can push the overlying layer of sludge upward. The major concern, in addition to the general concern associated with the retention and release of a flammable gas such as hydrogen, is that if a vessel-spanning bubble (VSB) forms in an STSC, it may drive the overlying sludge material to the vents at the top of the container. Then it may be released from the container into the cells secondary containment system at T Plant. A previous study demonstrated that sloped walls on vessels, both cylindrical coned-shaped vessels and rectangular vessels with rounded ends, provided an effective approach for disrupting a VSB by creating a release path for gas as a VSB began to rise. Based on the success of sloped-wall vessels, a similar concept is investigated here where a sloped fin is placed inside the vessel to create a release path for gas. A key potential advantage of using a sloped fin compared to a vessel with a sloped wall is that a small fin decreases the volume of a vessel available for sludge storage by a very small fraction compared to a cone-shaped vessel. The purpose of this study is to quantify the capability of sloped fins to disrupt VSBs and to conduct sufficient tests to estimate the performance of fins in full-scale STSCs. Experiments were conducted with a range of fin shapes to determine what slope and width were sufficient to disrupt VSBs. Additional tests were conducted to demonstrate how the fin performance scales with the sludge layer thickness and the sludge strength, density, and vessel diameter based on the gravity yield parameter, which is a dimensionless ratio of the force necessary to yield the sludge to its weight.( ) Further experiments evaluated the difference between vessels with flat and 2:1 elliptical bottoms and a number of different simulants, including the KW container sludge simulant (complete), which was developed to match actual K-Basin sludge. Testing was conducted in 5-in., 10-in., and 23-in.-diameter vessels to quantify how fin performance is impacted by the size of the test vessel. The most significant results for these scale-up tests are the trend in how behavior changes with vessel size and the results from the 23-in. vessel. The key objective in evaluating fin performance is to determine the conditions that minimize the volume of a VSB when disruption occurs because this reduces the potential for material inside the STSC from being released through vents.

  16. VERY BLUE UV-CONTINUUM SLOPE {beta} OF LOW LUMINOSITY z {approx} 7 GALAXIES FROM WFC3/IR: EVIDENCE FOR EXTREMELY LOW METALLICITIES?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Magee, D.; Trenti, M.; Stiavelli, M.; Franx, M.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Labbe, I.

    2010-01-10

    We use the ultra-deep WFC3/IR data over the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and the Early Release Science WFC3/IR data over the CDF-South GOODS field to quantify the broadband spectral properties of candidate star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 7. We determine the UV-continuum slope {beta} in these galaxies, and compare the slopes with galaxies at later times to measure the evolution in {beta}. For luminous L* {sub z=3} galaxies, we measure a mean UV-continuum slope {beta} of -2.0 {+-} 0.2, which is comparable to the {beta} {approx} -2 derived at similar luminosities at z {approx} 5-6. However, for the lower luminosity 0.1L* {sub z=3} galaxies, we measure a mean {beta} of -3.0 {+-} 0.2. This is substantially bluer than is found for similar luminosity galaxies at z {approx} 4, just 800 Myr later, and even at z {approx} 5-6. In principle, the observed {beta} of -3.0 can be matched by a very young, dust-free stellar population, but when nebular emission is included the expected {beta} becomes {>=}-2.7. To produce these very blue {beta}s (i.e., {beta} {approx} -3), extremely low metallicities and mechanisms to reduce the red nebular emission seem to be required. For example, a large escape fraction (i.e., f {sub esc} {approx}> 0.3) could minimize the contribution from this red nebular emission. If this is correct and the escape fraction in faint z {approx} 7 galaxies is {approx}>0.3, it may help to explain how galaxies reionize the universe.

  17. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  18. Study of biological processes on the US South Atlantic slope and rise. Phase 2. Volume 1. Executive summary. Report for November 1985-March 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, J.A.; Hecker, B.; Grassle, J.F.; Brown, B.; Wade, M.

    1987-03-30

    A total of 16 stations were sampled during a 2-year field program designed to characterize the biological, chemical, and sedimentary processes on the slope and rise off North and South Carolina. Box cores were taken along 4 transects at depths of 600-3500 m. The infauna yielded a total of 1202 species, 520 of which were new to science. Annelids were the dominant taxa in terms of density and numbers of species. Species diversity was highest at an 800 m site off Charleston. Higher than normal lead and hydrocarbon inventories suggest enhanced scavenging processes in the area.

  19. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark B. Murphy

    2005-09-30

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico was a cost-shared field demonstration project in the U.S. Department of Energy Class III Program. A major goal of the Class III Program was to stimulate the use of advanced technologies to increase ultimate recovery from slope-basin clastic reservoirs. Advanced characterization techniques were used at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP) project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. The objective of the project was to demonstrate that a development program, which was based on advanced reservoir management methods, could significantly improve oil recovery at the NDP. Initial goals were (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to other oil and gas producers. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geological, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir characterization was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. Contrary to the initial characterization, a new reservoir description evolved that provided sufficient detail regarding the complexity of the Brushy Canyon interval at Nash Draw. This new reservoir description was used as a risk reduction tool to identify 'sweet spots' for a development drilling program as well as to evaluate pressure maintenance strategies. The reservoir characterization, geological modeling, 3-D seismic interpretation, and simulation studies have provided a detailed model of the Brushy Canyon zones. This model was used to predict the success of different reservoir management scenarios and to aid in determining the most favorable combination of targeted drilling, pressure maintenance, well stimulation, and well spacing to improve recovery from this reservoir. An Advanced Log Analysis technique developed from the NDP project has proven useful in defining additional productive zones and refining completion techniques. This program proved to be especially helpful in locating and evaluating potential recompletion intervals, which has resulted in low development costs with only small incremental increases in lifting costs. To develop additional reserves at lower costs, zones behind pipe in existing wells were evaluated using techniques developed for the Brushy Canyon interval. These techniques were used to complete uphole zones in thirteen of the NDP wells. A total of 14 recompletions were done: four during 1999, four during 2000, two during 2001, and four during 2002-2003. These workovers added reserves of 332,304 barrels of oil (BO) and 640,363 MCFG (thousand cubic feet of gas) at an overall weighted average development cost of $1.87 per BOE (barrel of oil equivalent). A pressure maintenance pilot project in a developed area of the field was not conducted because the pilot area was pressure depleted, and the reservoir in that area was found to be compartmentalized and discontinuous. Economic analyses and simulation studies indicated that immiscible injection of lean hydrocarbon gas for pressure maintenance was not warranted at the NDP and would need to be considered for implementation in similar fields very soon after production has started. Simulation studies suggested that the injection of miscible carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) could recover significant quantities of oil at the NDP, but a source of low-cost CO{sub 2} was not available in the area. Results from the project indicated that further development will be under playa lakes and potash areas that were beyond the regions covered by well control and are not accessible with vertical wells. These areas, covered by 3-D seismic surveys that were obtained as part of the project, were accessed with combinations of deviated/horizontal wells. Three directional/horizontal wells have been drilled and completed to develop reserves under surface-restricted areas and potash mines. The third well has not been on production long enough for an accurate assessment but initial results from it are encouraging. Cumulative production from the first two wells through August 31, 2005 was 235,039 BO, 816,592 MCFG and 310,333 barrels of water (BW). Total estimated reserves from all three of the horizontal wells are 878,135 BO and 3.87 BCFG. The ratio of net revenue to cost for the first two wells is approximately 2.9 to 1 for an oil price of $30 per barrel that existed when the wells were drilled. Based on recent pricing trends, a detailed reserve study for the project was performed that assumed an oil price of $40 per barrel and a gas price of $7 per MCFG. These results show that this project has acceptable economics and similar projects can be economically developed as long as oil and gas prices remain over $30 per BOE.

  20. Phase Behavior, Solid Organic Precipitation, and Mobility Characterization Studies in Support of Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery on the Alaska North Slope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    The medium-heavy oil (viscous oil) resources in the Alaska North Slope are estimated at 20 to 25 billion barrels. These oils are viscous, flow sluggishly in the formations, and are difficult to recover. Recovery of this viscous oil requires carefully designed enhanced oil recovery processes. Success of these recovery processes is critically dependent on accurate knowledge of the phase behavior and fluid properties, especially viscosity, of these oils under variety of pressure and temperature conditions. This project focused on predicting phase behavior and viscosity of viscous oils using equations of state and semi-empirical correlations. An experimental study was conducted to quantify the phase behavior and physical properties of viscous oils from the Alaska North Slope oil field. The oil samples were compositionally characterized by the simulated distillation technique. Constant composition expansion and differential liberation tests were conducted on viscous oil samples. Experiment results for phase behavior and reservoir fluid properties were used to tune the Peng-Robinson equation of state and predict the phase behavior accurately. A comprehensive literature search was carried out to compile available compositional viscosity models and their modifications, for application to heavy or viscous oils. With the help of meticulously amassed new medium-heavy oil viscosity data from experiments, a comparative study was conducted to evaluate the potential of various models. The widely used corresponding state viscosity model predictions deteriorate when applied to heavy oil systems. Hence, a semi-empirical approach (the Lindeloff model) was adopted for modeling the viscosity behavior. Based on the analysis, appropriate adjustments have been suggested: the major one is the division of the pressure-viscosity profile into three distinct regions. New modifications have improved the overall fit, including the saturated viscosities at low pressures. However, with the limited amount of geographically diverse data, it is not possible to develop a comprehensive predictive model. Based on the comprehensive phase behavior analysis of Alaska North Slope crude oil, a reservoir simulation study was carried out to evaluate the performance of a gas injection enhanced oil recovery technique for the West Sak reservoir. It was found that a definite increase in viscous oil production can be obtained by selecting the proper injectant gas and by optimizing reservoir operating parameters. A comparative analysis is provided, which helps in the decision-making process.

  1. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Zirczy, Helena H.

    2000-05-24

    The objective of this Class 3 project was to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, was completed this year, and Phase 2 began. The project is focused on East Ford field, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO{sub 2} flood is being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  2. Evaluation of a deposit in the vicinity of the PBU L-106 Site, North Slope, Alaska, for a potential long-term test of gas production from hydrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moridis, G.J.; Reagan, M.T.; Boyle, K.L.; Zhang, K.

    2010-05-01

    As part of the effort to investigate the technical feasibility of gas production from hydrate deposits, a long-term field test (lasting 18-24 months) is under consideration in a project led by the U.S. Department of Energy. We evaluate a candidate deposit involving the C-Unit in the vicinity of the PBU-L106 site in North Slope, Alaska. This deposit is stratigraphically bounded by impermeable shale top and bottom boundaries (Class 3), and is characterized by high intrinsic permeabilities, high porosity, high hydrate saturation, and a hydrostatic pressure distribution. The C-unit deposit is composed of two hydrate-bearing strata separated by a 30-ft-thick shale interlayer, and its temperatrure across its boundaries ranges between 5 and 6.5 C. We investigate by means of numerical simulation involving very fine grids the production potential of these two deposits using both vertical and horizontal wells. We also explore the sensitivity of production to key parameters such as the hydrate saturation, the formation permeability, and the permeability of the bounding shale layers. Finally, we compare the production performance of the C-Unit at the PBU-L106 site to that of the D-Unit accumulation at the Mount Elbert site, a thinner, single-layer Class 3 deposit on the North Slope of Alaska that is shallower, less-pressurized and colder (2.3-2.6 C). The results indicate that production from horizontal wells may be orders of magnitude larger than that from vertical ones. Additionally, production increases with the formation permeability, and with a decreasing permeability of the boundaries. The effect of the hydrate saturation on production is complex and depends on the time frame of production. Because of higher production, the PBU-L106 deposit appears to have an advantage as a candidate for the long-term test.

  3. a-Si{sub x}C{sub 1?x}:H thin films with subnanometer surface roughness for biological applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrera-Celis, Jos Reyes-Betanzo, Claudia Itzmoyotl-Toxqui, Adrin; Ordua-Daz, Abdu Prez-Coyotl, Ana

    2015-09-15

    The characterization of a-Si{sub x}C{sub 1?x}:H thin films by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition with high hydrogen dilution for biological applications is addressed. A root mean square roughness less than 1?nm was measured via atomic force microscopy for an area of 25??m{sup 2}. Structural analysis was done using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the middle infrared region. It was found that under the deposition conditions, the formation of SiC bonds is promoted. Electrical dark conductivity measurements were performed to evaluate the effect of high hydrogen dilution and to find the relation between carrier transport properties and the structural arrangement. Conductivities of the order of 10{sup ?7} to 10{sup ?9} S/cm at room temperature for methanesilane gas flow ratio from 0.35 to 0.85 were achieved, respectively. UV-visible spectra were used to obtain the optical band gap and the Tauc parameter. Optical band gap as wide as 3.55?eV was achieved in the regime of high carbon incorporation. Accordingly, deposition under low power density and high hydrogen dilution reduces the roughness, improves the structure of the network, and stabilizes the film properties as a greater percentage of carbon is incorporated. The biofunctionalization of a-Si{sub x}C{sub 1?x}:H surfaces with NH{sub 2}-terminated self-assembled monolayers was obtained through silanization with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. This knowledge opens a window for the inclusion of these a-Si{sub x}C{sub 1?x}:H thin films in devices such as biosensors.

  4. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector. Technical report twelve: Economic analysis of alternative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    As part of the Altemative Fuels Assessment, the Department of Energy (DOE) is studying the use of derivatives of natural gas, including compressed natural gas and methanol, as altemative transportation fuels. A critical part of this effort is determining potential sources of natural gas and the economics of those sources. Previous studies in this series characterized the economics of unutilized gas within the lower 48 United States, comparing its value for methanol production against its value as a pipelined fuel (US Department of Energy 1991), and analyzed the costs of developing undeveloped nonassociated gas reserves in several countries (US Department of Energy 1992c). This report extends those analyses to include Alaskan North Slope natural gas that either is not being produced or is being reinjected. The report includes the following: A description of discovered and potential (undiscovered) quantities of natural gas on the Alaskan North Slope. A discussion of proposed altemative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas. A comparison of the economics of the proposed alternative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the costs of transporting Alaskan North Slope gas to markets in the lower 48 States as pipeline gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), or methanol. It is not intended to recommend one alternative over another or to evaluate the relative economics or timing of using North Slope gas in new tertiary oil recovery projects. The information is supplied in sufficient detail to allow incorporation of relevant economic relationships (for example, wellhead gas prices and transportation costs) into the Altemative Fuels Trade Model, the analytical framework DOE is using to evaluate various policy options.

  5. Slope Extensions to ASL Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-03-31

    Extensions to the AMPL/solver interface library (http://netlib.sandia.gov/ampl/solvers) to compute bounds on algebraic expressions, plus a test program. use in uncertainty quantification and global optimization algorithms. This software is not primarily for military applications.

  6. Source Characterization and Temporal Variation of Methane Seepage from Thermokarst Lakes on the Alaska North Slope in Response to Arctic Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-09-30

    The goals of this research were to characterize the source, magnitude and temporal variability of methane seepage from thermokarst lakes (TKL) within the Alaska North Slope gas hydrate province, assess the vulnerability of these areas to ongoing and future arctic climate change and determine if gas hydrate dissociation resulting from permafrost melting is contributing to the current lake emissions. Analyses were focused on four main lake locations referred to in this report: Lake Qalluuraq (referred to as Lake Q) and Lake Teshekpuk (both on Alaska�s North Slope) and Lake Killarney and Goldstream Bill Lake (both in Alaska�s interior). From analyses of gases coming from lakes in Alaska, we showed that ecological seeps are common in Alaska and they account for a larger source of atmospheric methane today than geologic subcap seeps. Emissions from the geologic source could increase with potential implications for climate warming feedbacks. Our analyses of TKL sites showing gas ebullition were complemented with geophysical surveys, providing important insight about the distribution of shallow gas in the sediments and the lake bottom manifestation of seepage (e.g., pockmarks). In Lake Q, Chirp data were limited in their capacity to image deeper sediments and did not capture the thaw bulb. The failure to capture the thaw bulb at Lake Q may in part be related to the fact that the present day lake is a remnant of an older, larger, and now-partially drained lake. These suggestions are consistent with our analyses of a dated core of sediment from the lake that shows that a wetland has been present at the site of Lake Q since approximately 12,000 thousand years ago. Chemical analyses of the core indicate that the availability of methane at the site has changed during the past and is correlated with past environmental changes (i.e. temperature and hydrology) in the Arctic. Discovery of methane seeps in Lake Teshekpuk in the northernmost part of the lake during 2009 reconnaissance surveys provided a strong impetus to visit this area in 2010. The seismic methods applied in Lake Teshekpuk were able to image pockmarks, widespread shallow gas in the sediments, and the relationship among different sediment packages on the lake�s bottom, but even boomer seismics did not detect permafrost beneath the northern part of the lake. By characterizing the biogeochemistry of shallow TKL with methane seeps we showed that the radical seasonal shifts in ice cover and temperature. These seasonal environmental differences result in distinct consumption and production processes of biologically-relevant compounds. The combined effects of temperature, ice-volume and other lithological factors linked to seepage from the lake are manifest in the distribution of sedimentary methane in Lake Q during icecovered and ice-free conditions. The biogeochemistry results illustrated very active methanotrophy in TKLs. Substantial effort was subsequently made to characterize the nature of methanotrophic communities in TKLs. We applied stable isotope probing approaches to genetically characterize the methanotrophs most active in utilizing methane in TKLs. Our study is the first to identify methane oxidizing organisms active in arctic TKLs, and revealing that type I methanotrophs and type II methanotrophs are abundant and active in assimilating methane in TKLs. These organisms play an important role in limiting the flux of methane from these sites. Our investigations indicate that as temperatures increase in the Arctic, oxidation rates and active methanotrophic populations will also shift. Whether these changes can offset predicted increases in methanogenesis is an important question underlying models of future methane flux and resultant climate change. Overall our findings indicate that TKLs and their ability to act as both source and sink of methane are exceedingly sensitive to environmental change.

  7. RESOURCE CHARACTERIZATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF NATURAL GAS-HYDRATE AND ASSOCIATED FREE-GAS ACCUMULATIONS IN THE PRUDHOE BAY - KUPARUK RIVER AREA ON THE NORTH SLOPE OF ALASKA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hunter; Shirish Patil; Robert Casavant; Tim Collett

    2003-06-02

    Interim results are presented from the project designed to characterize, quantify, and determine the commercial feasibility of Alaska North Slope (ANS) gas-hydrate and associated free-gas resources in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU), Kuparuk River Unit (KRU), and Milne Point Unit (MPU) areas. This collaborative research will provide practical input to reservoir and economic models, determine the technical feasibility of gas hydrate production, and influence future exploration and field extension of this potential ANS resource. The large magnitude of unconventional in-place gas (40-100 TCF) and conventional ANS gas commercialization evaluation creates industry-DOE alignment to assess this potential resource. This region uniquely combines known gas hydrate presence and existing production infrastructure. Many technical, economical, environmental, and safety issues require resolution before enabling gas hydrate commercial production. Gas hydrate energy resource potential has been studied for nearly three decades. However, this knowledge has not been applied to practical ANS gas hydrate resource development. ANS gas hydrate and associated free gas reservoirs are being studied to determine reservoir extent, stratigraphy, structure, continuity, quality, variability, and geophysical and petrophysical property distribution. Phase 1 will characterize reservoirs, lead to recoverable reserve and commercial potential estimates, and define procedures for gas hydrate drilling, data acquisition, completion, and production. Phases 2 and 3 will integrate well, core, log, and long-term production test data from additional wells, if justified by results from prior phases. The project could lead to future ANS gas hydrate pilot development. This project will help solve technical and economic issues to enable government and industry to make informed decisions regarding future commercialization of unconventional gas-hydrate resources.

  8. Numerical simulation studies of the long-term evolution of a CO2 plume in a saline aquifer with a sloping caprock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, K.; Nordbotten, J.

    2010-12-28

    We have used the TOUGH2-MP/ECO2N code to perform numerical simulation studies of the long-term behavior of CO{sub 2} stored in an aquifer with a sloping caprock. This problem is of great practical interest, and is very challenging due to the importance of multi-scale processes. We find that the mechanism of plume advance is different from what is seen in a forced immiscible displacement, such as gas injection into a water-saturated medium. Instead of pushing the water forward, the plume advances because the vertical pressure gradients within the plume are smaller than hydrostatic, causing the groundwater column to collapse ahead of the plume tip. Increased resistance to vertical flow of aqueous phase in anisotropic media leads to reduced speed of updip plume advancement. Vertical equilibrium models that ignore effects of vertical flow will overpredict the speed of plume advancement. The CO{sub 2} plume becomes thinner as it advances, yet the speed of advancement remains constant over the entire simulation period of up to 400 years, with migration distances of more than 80 km. Our simulations include dissolution of CO{sub 2} into the aqueous phase and associated density increase, and molecular diffusion. However, no convection develops in the aqueous phase because it is suppressed by the relatively coarse (sub-) horizontal gridding required in a regional-scale model. A first crude sub-grid-scale model was developed to represent convective enhancement of CO{sub 2} dissolution. This process is found to greatly reduce the thickness of the CO{sub 2} plume, but, for the parameters used in our simulations, does not affect the speed of plume advancement.

  9. Surface Orbital 'Roughness' in Colossal Magnetoresistive Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    containing a mixed-valence of Mn3+ and Mn4+, known as manganites, represent an ideal system to address the role of the surface, because all the relevant degrees of freedom -...

  10. A Rough Road Leads To The Stars

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    then at 210 minutes before launch the flight unit was mounted into the spacecraft. The ground control unit was placed inside a temperature controlled cabinet, in which the...

  11. Failure and Redemption of Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR)/Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) Cloud Screening: Contrasting Algorithm Performance at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Southern Great Plains (SGP) Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Flynn, Connor J.; Koontz, Annette S.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Barnard, James C.

    2013-09-11

    Well-known cloud-screening algorithms, which are designed to remove cloud-contaminated aerosol optical depths (AOD) from AOD measurements, have shown great performance at many middle-to-low latitude sites around the world. However, they may occasionally fail under challenging observational conditions, such as when the sun is low (near the horizon) or when optically thin clouds with small spatial inhomogeneity occur. Such conditions have been observed quite frequently at the high-latitude Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites. A slightly modified cloud-screening version of the standard algorithm is proposed here with a focus on the ARM-supported Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) and Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) data. The modified version uses approximately the same techniques as the standard algorithm, but it additionally examines the magnitude of the slant-path line of sight transmittance and eliminates points when the observed magnitude is below a specified threshold. Substantial improvement of the multi-year (1999-2012) aerosol product (AOD and its Angstrom exponent) is shown for the NSA sites when the modified version is applied. Moreover, this version reproduces the AOD product at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, which was originally generated by the standard cloud-screening algorithms. The proposed minor modification is easy to implement and its application to existing and future cloud-screening algorithms can be particularly beneficial for challenging observational conditions.

  12. North Slope Co. Northwest Arctic Co.

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    BOE Reserve Class ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , ! ! ! ! ! £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , COLVILLE RIVER COLVILLE RIVER 150°50'0"W 150°50'0"W 150°55'0"W 150°55'0"W 151°0'0"W 151°0'0"W 151°5'0"W 151°5'0"W 151°10'0"W 151°10'0"W

  13. North Slope Co. Northwest Arctic Co.

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Reserve Class ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , ! ! ! ! ! £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , COLVILLE RIVER COLVILLE RIVER 150°50'0"W 150°50'0"W 150°55'0"W 150°55'0"W 151°0'0"W 151°0'0"W 151°5'0"W 151°5'0"W 151°10'0"W 151°10'0"W

  14. North Slope Co. Northwest Arctic Co.

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquids Reserve Class ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , ! ! ! ! ! £ , £ , £ , £ , £ , COLVILLE RIVER COLVILLE RIVER 150°50'0"W 150°50'0"W 150°55'0"W 150°55'0"W 151°0'0"W 151°0'0"W 151°5'0"W 151°5'0"W 151°10'0"W 151°10'0"W

  15. ARM - Lesson Plans: North Slope of Alaska

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (PDF, 29.6) Mountains of Erosion (PDF, 39.1K) The Extaordinary Life of the Alaskan Tundra (PDF, 76.7K) The Thermodynamics of Pizza (PDF, 155K) Also available in a PowerPoint...

  16. Hillslope stability and land use (1985). Volume II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sidle, R.C.; Pearce, A.J.; O'Loughlin, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book emphasizes the natural factors affecting slope stability, including soils and geomorphic, hydrologic, vegetative, and seismic factors and provides information on landslide classification, global damage, and analytical methods. The effects of various extensive and intensive land management practices on slope stability are discussed together with methods for prediction, avoidance, and control. Examples of terrain evaluation procedures and land management practices are presented.

  17. PRODUCING SATELLITE-DERIVED IRRADIANCES IN COMPLEX ARID TERRAIN

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the corrected monthly maps (see Fig. 3). 4. DISCUSSION We have presented a robust, straightforward two-step approach to correct irradiance estimated from weather satellites'...

  18. ARM - Field Campaign - Cloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interaction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This range of environmental conditions and cloud properties coupled with a high frequency of events makes this an ideal location for improving our understanding of...

  19. Ultrasensitive directional microphone arrays for military operations in urban terrain.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Neal A.; Peterson, Kenneth Allen; Parker, Eric Paul; Resnick, Paul James; Okandan, Murat; Serkland, Darwin Keith

    2007-11-01

    Acoustic sensing systems are critical elements in detection of sniper events. The microphones developed in this project enable unique sensing systems that benefit significantly from the enhanced sensitivity and extremely compact foot-print. Surface and bulk micromachining technologies developed at Sandia have allowed the design, fabrication and characterization of these unique sensors. We have demonstrated sensitivity that is only available in 1/2 inch to 1 inch studio reference microphones--with our devices that have only 1 to 2mm diameter membranes in a volume less than 1cm{sup 3}.

  20. High-Resolution Aeromagnetic Mapping Of Volcanic Terrain, Yellowstone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    anomalies coincides with the mapped extent of several post-caldera rhyolitic lavas. Linear magnetic anomalies reflect the rectilinear fault systems characteristic of...

  1. Terrain detection and classification using single polarization SAR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chow, James G.; Koch, Mark W.

    2016-01-19

    The various technologies presented herein relate to identifying manmade and/or natural features in a radar image. Two radar images (e.g., single polarization SAR images) can be captured for a common scene. The first image is captured at a first instance and the second image is captured at a second instance, whereby the duration between the captures are of sufficient time such that temporal decorrelation occurs for natural surfaces in the scene, and only manmade surfaces, e.g., a road, produce correlated pixels. A LCCD image comprising the correlated and decorrelated pixels can be generated from the two radar images. A median image can be generated from a plurality of radar images, whereby any features in the median image can be identified. A superpixel operation can be performed on the LCCD image and the median image, thereby enabling a feature(s) in the LCCD image to be classified.

  2. ETA-NTP005 Electric Vehicle Rough Ride Course Test

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved Procedure ETA-NTP005 Revision 2 ... Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved Procedure ETA-NTP005 Revision 2 ...

  3. ETA-HITP05 - HICE Vehicle Rough Road Course Test

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. ... Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved 1 1. Objective The objective of ...

  4. File:Wind rough example.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    this file. Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. If the file has been modified from...

  5. Impact of Ice Crystal Roughness on Satellite Retrieved Cloud...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P. W. Heck 2 , R. F. Arduini 3 , R. Palikonda 3 , J. K. Ayers 3 , M. M. Khaiyer 3 , P. Yang 4 , Y. Xie 4 3 Science Systems & Applications, Inc. Hampton, VA 1 NASA Langley Research...

  6. Turbulent Flow Inside Pipes with Two-Dimensional Rib Roughness

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-01-24

    A commonly used internal enhancement for single-phase forced-convective turbulent flow applications is tranverse and/or near tranverse ribs. These enhanced surfaces consist of a uniform inside diameter with periodic and discrete disruption of ribs. Enhanced tubes of this type are made by an extrusion process and are used in some condensers and evaporators in refrigeration systems. Tubes of this type fall into an enhancement category called separation and reattachment that has been identified as one ofmore » the most energy efficient. Lacking are prediction methods that are mechanistic based that can be used to calculate the heat-transfer coefficients and friction-factors for tubes with this enhancement type. This program calculates the Nusselt number and friction factor for enhanced tubes with tranverse, rectangular ribs with a spacing exceeding the reattachment length. The input quantities are the enhancement height, spacing, and the width. The Nusselt number and friction factor are calculated for a specific Reynolds number or for a range of Reynolds numbers. Users of the program are heat-exchanger designers, enhanced tubing suppliers, and research organizations or academia who are developing or validating prediction methods. The manufacturers of refrigeration heat exchangers and enhanced tube suppliers are potential users of this software.« less

  7. Enhanced Tissue Adhesion by Increased Porosity and Surface Roughness...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Org: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Sponsoring Org: SC USDOE - Office of Science (SC) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like ...

  8. Rough and Ready Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National Map Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleRoughandReadyBiomassFacility&oldid398020" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating...

  9. Procedure for estimating fracture energy from fracture surface roughness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williford, Ralph E.

    1989-01-01

    The fracture energy of a material is determined by first measuring the length of a profile of a section through a fractured surface of the material taken on a plane perpendicular to the mean plane of that surface, then determining the fractal dimensionality of the surface. From this, the yield strength of the material, and the Young's Modulus of that material, the fracture energy is calculated.

  10. Hungry fungi seek rough diet, root out environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, J.

    1993-12-01

    The US Navy asked biochemist Stephen Aust to determine whether a common fungus could destroy 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, a highly explosive compound popularly known as TNT. The reason white rot fungus apparently can be used to attack nearly any organic contaminant, lies in the organisms' evolution in response to a nearly infinite variety of trees and lignin. White rot fungus, evolved to degrade wood, and not every tree is the same. Environmental pollutants are very similar. Some environmental pollutants are very insoluble. Aust emphasizes that using white rot fungi in environmental treatment is not an off-the-shelf technology. Applications and remediation techniques in most cases will be site-specific success will require prior, accurate calculation of the fungi's nutrient demands, contaminant types and concentrations, local conditions, and economic considerations. Most work with white rot fungi to date has been at the laboratory scale. Experiments indicated that the fungus can indeed degrade TNT to carbon dioxide.

  11. Surface roughness effects on the solar reflectance of cool asphalt...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The model is then used to compute the reflectance of shingles with a mixture of different colored granules, when the reflectances of the corresponding mono-color shingles are ...

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the North Slope...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 54 - ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Global Climate Change; Aerosols, Atmospheric Profiling, Cloud Properties, Derived Quantities and Models, Radiometric, Satellite Observations, ...

  13. North Slope of Alaska ARM Climate Research Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... engines or rotating electrical devices, may have trouble restarting once they fall below a threshold temperature. Hazard Levels Insignificant Power outages lasting a few seconds ...

  14. Session Papers North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The lower temperatures at high latitudes also shift more of the radiant energy ... Snowice albedo feedback influences regional and even global radiant energy flows. Snow ...

  15. Conversion economics for Alaska North Slope natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, C.P.; Robertson, E.P.

    1995-07-01

    For the Prudhoe Bay field, this preliminary analysis provides an indication that major gas sales using a gas pipeline/LNG plant scenario, such as Trans Alaska Gas System, or a gas-to-liquids process with the cost parameters assumed, are essentially equivalent and would be viable and profitable to industry and beneficial to the state of Alaska and the federal government. The cases are compared for the Reference oil price case. The reserves would be 12.7 BBO for the base case without major gas sales, 12.3 BBO and 20 Tcf gas for the major gas sales case, and 14.3 BBO for the gas-to-liquids conversion cases. Use of different parameters will significantly alter these results; e.g., the low oil price case would result in the base case for Prudhoe Bay field becoming uneconomic in 2002 with the operating costs and investments as currently estimated.

  16. Sandia Energy - Alaskan North Slope Climate: Hard Data from a...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the automated release of a weather balloon ... which measures the Arctic atmosphere's temperature, humidity, and wind speeds at a rapid succession of altitudes as it rises. The...

  17. Numerical errors in the presence of steep topography: analysis and alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundquist, K A; Chow, F K; Lundquist, J K

    2010-04-15

    It is well known in computational fluid dynamics that grid quality affects the accuracy of numerical solutions. When assessing grid quality, properties such as aspect ratio, orthogonality of coordinate surfaces, and cell volume are considered. Mesoscale atmospheric models generally use terrain-following coordinates with large aspect ratios near the surface. As high resolution numerical simulations are increasingly used to study topographically forced flows, a high degree of non-orthogonality is introduced, especially in the vicinity of steep terrain slopes. Numerical errors associated with the use of terrainfollowing coordinates can adversely effect the accuracy of the solution in steep terrain. Inaccuracies from the coordinate transformation are present in each spatially discretized term of the Navier-Stokes equations, as well as in the conservation equations for scalars. In particular, errors in the computation of horizontal pressure gradients, diffusion, and horizontal advection terms have been noted in the presence of sloping coordinate surfaces and steep topography. In this work we study the effects of these spatial discretization errors on the flow solution for three canonical cases: scalar advection over a mountain, an atmosphere at rest over a hill, and forced advection over a hill. This study is completed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Simulations with terrain-following coordinates are compared to those using a flat coordinate, where terrain is represented with the immersed boundary method. The immersed boundary method is used as a tool which allows us to eliminate the terrain-following coordinate transformation, and quantify numerical errors through a direct comparison of the two solutions. Additionally, the effects of related issues such as the steepness of terrain slope and grid aspect ratio are studied in an effort to gain an understanding of numerical domains where terrain-following coordinates can successfully be used and those domains where the solution would benefit from the use of the immersed boundary method.

  18. Long range hopping mobility platform.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spletzer, Barry Louis; Fischer, Gary John

    2003-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a mesoscale hopping mobility platform (Hopper) to overcome the longstanding problems of mobility and power in small scale unmanned vehicles. The system provides mobility in situations such as negotiating tall obstacles and rough terrain that are prohibitive for other small ground base vehicles. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Administration (DARPA) provided the funding for the hopper project.

  19. Adjusting lidar-derived digital terrain models in coastal marshes based on estimated aboveground biomass density

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Medeiros, Stephen; Hagen, Scott; Weishampel, John; Angelo, James

    2015-03-25

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from airborne lidar are traditionally unreliable in coastal salt marshes due to the inability of the laser to penetrate the dense grasses and reach the underlying soil. To that end, we present a novel processing methodology that uses ASTER Band 2 (visible red), an interferometric SAR (IfSAR) digital surface model, and lidar-derived canopy height to classify biomass density using both a three-class scheme (high, medium and low) and a two-class scheme (high and low). Elevation adjustments associated with these classes using both median and quartile approaches were applied to adjust lidar-derived elevation values closer tomore » true bare earth elevation. The performance of the method was tested on 229 elevation points in the lower Apalachicola River Marsh. The two-class quartile-based adjusted DEM produced the best results, reducing the RMS error in elevation from 0.65 m to 0.40 m, a 38% improvement. The raw mean errors for the lidar DEM and the adjusted DEM were 0.61 ± 0.24 m and 0.32 ± 0.24 m, respectively, thereby reducing the high bias by approximately 49%.« less

  20. Adjusting lidar-derived digital terrain models in coastal marshes based on estimated aboveground biomass density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Medeiros, Stephen; Hagen, Scott; Weishampel, John; Angelo, James

    2015-03-25

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from airborne lidar are traditionally unreliable in coastal salt marshes due to the inability of the laser to penetrate the dense grasses and reach the underlying soil. To that end, we present a novel processing methodology that uses ASTER Band 2 (visible red), an interferometric SAR (IfSAR) digital surface model, and lidar-derived canopy height to classify biomass density using both a three-class scheme (high, medium and low) and a two-class scheme (high and low). Elevation adjustments associated with these classes using both median and quartile approaches were applied to adjust lidar-derived elevation values closer to true bare earth elevation. The performance of the method was tested on 229 elevation points in the lower Apalachicola River Marsh. The two-class quartile-based adjusted DEM produced the best results, reducing the RMS error in elevation from 0.65 m to 0.40 m, a 38% improvement. The raw mean errors for the lidar DEM and the adjusted DEM were 0.61 0.24 m and 0.32 0.24 m, respectively, thereby reducing the high bias by approximately 49%.

  1. Multi-scale Atmospheric Modeling of Green House Gas Dispersion in Complex Terrain. Controlled Release Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costigan, Keeley Rochelle; Sauer, Jeremy A.; Dubey, Manvendra Krishna

    2015-07-10

    This report discusses the ghgas IC project which when applied, allows for an evaluation of LANL's HIGRAD model which can be used to create atmospheric simulations.

  2. Live Webinar on the Funding Opportunity for Wind Forecasting Improvement Project in Complex Terrain

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On April 21, 2014 from 3:00 to 5:00 PM EST the Wind Program will hold a live webinar to provide information to potential applicants for this Funding Opportunity Announcement. There is no cost to...

  3. INVESTIGATION OF A DYNAMIC POWER LINE RATING CONCEPT FOR IMPROVED WIND ENERGY INTEGRATION OVER COMPLEX TERRAIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jake P. Gentle; Kurt S Myers; Tyler B Phillips; Inanc Senocak; Phil Anderson

    2014-08-01

    Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) is a smart grid technology that allows the rating of power line to be based on real-time conductor temperature dependent on local weather conditions. In current practice overhead power lines are generally given a conservative rating based on worst case weather conditions. Using historical weather data collected over a test bed area, we demonstrate there is often additional transmission capacity not being utilized with the current static rating practice. We investigate a new dynamic line rating methodology using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to determine wind conditions along transmission lines at dense intervals. Simulated results are used to determine conductor temperature by calculating the transient thermal response of the conductor under variable environmental conditions. In calculating the conductor temperature, we use both a calculation with steady-state assumption and a transient calculation. Under low wind conditions, steady-state assumption predicts higher conductor temperatures that could lead to curtailments, whereas transient calculations produce conductor temperatures that are significantly lower, implying the availability of additional transmission capacity.

  4. Eight underground designs: underground plans Book No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, M.; Wells, S.G.

    1981-01-01

    Eight different designs are given for earth-sheltered houses. Each design is depicted thoroughly, with floor plans, cross sections, views from the several sides, and some general comments. The plans are intended as a planning tool to be adapted to individual needs, budgets, sites and local ordinances. Each plan expresses a different idea, with terrain varying from flat land to south and north slopes. Conventional and novel construction and design methods are demonstrated.

  5. Geologic development and characteristics of continental margins, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, J.M.; Prior, D.B.; Roberts, H.H.

    1986-09-01

    The continental slope of the Gulf basin covers more than 500,000 km/sup 2/ and consists of smooth and gently sloping surfaces, prominent escarpments, knolls, intraslope basins, and submarine canyons and channels. It is an area of extremely diverse topographic and sedimentologic conditions. The slope extends from the shelf break, roughly at the 200-m isobath, to the upper limit of the continental rise at a depth of 2800 m. The most complex province in the basin, and the one of most interest to the petroleum industry, is the Texas-Louisiana slope, occupying 120,000 km/sup 2/ and in which bottom slopes range from less than 1/sup 0/ to greater than 20/sup 0/ around the knolls and basins. The near-surface geology and topography of the slope is a function of the interplay between episodes of rapid shelf-edge and slope progradation and contemporaneous modification of the depositional sequence by diapirism. Development of discrete depocenters throughout the Neogene results in rapid shelf-edge progradation, often exceeding 15-20 km/m.y. This rapid progradation of the shelf edge leads to development of thick wedges of sediment accumulation on the continental slope. Slope oversteepening, high pore pressures in rapidly deposited soft sediments, and changes in eustatic sea level cause subaqueous slope instabilities such as landslides and debris flows. Large-scale features such as shelf-edge separation scars and landslide-related canyons often result from such processes.

  6. ETA-HTP05 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Rough Road Course Test

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. ... Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved 1 1. Objective The objective of ...

  7. Strain-induced reduction of surface roughness dominated spin relaxation in MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osintsev, Dmitri; Stanojevic, Zlatan; Baumgartner, Oskar; Sverdlov, Viktor; Selberherr, Siegfried

    2013-12-04

    Semiconductor spintronics is a rapidly developing field with large impact on microelectronics. Using spin may help to reduce power consumption and increase computational speed. Silicon is perfectly suited for spin-based applications. It is characterized by a weak spin-orbit interaction which should result in a long spin lifetime. However, recent experiments indicate the lifetime is greatly reduced in gated structures. Thus, understanding the peculiarities of the spin-orbit effects on the subband structure and details of the spin propagation in surface layers and thin silicon films is urgently needed. We investigate the contribution of the spin-orbit interaction to the equivalent valley splitting and calculate the spin relaxation matrix elements by using a perturbative k ⋅p approach. We demonstrate that applying uniaxial stress along the [110] direction may considerably suppress electron spin relaxation in silicon surface layers and thin films.

  8. Y-12's rough roads smoothed over with recycled asphalt | Y-12 National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Security Administration historian receives 2013 Muddy Boot Award Thursday, December 19, 2013 - 3:27pm Y-12 historian Ray Smith was among the recipients at the recent East Tennessee Economic Council annual Muddy Boot Award ceremony. The Muddy Boot Award was created in the 1970s to honor individuals who have gone above the call of duty - like those who served the nation during the Manhattan Project - to make the community, the state of Tennessee and the nation a better place to live and work.

  9. Y-12's rough roads smoothed over with 23,000 tons of recycled...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Read more about it. Dec 29, 2015 at 1:00 am Blog archive April 2016 (12) March 2016 (28) February 2016 (21) January 2016 (21) December 2015 (18) November 2015 (11) October 2015 ...

  10. ANALYSIS OF HIGH FIELD NON-LINEAR LOSSES ON SRF SURFACES DUE TO SPECIFIC TOPOGRAPHIC ROUGHNESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Xu,Charles Reece,Michael Kelley

    2012-07-01

    The high-field performance of SRF cavities will eventually be limited by the realization of fundamental material limits, whether it is Hc1 or Hsh, or some derivative thereof, at which the superconductivity is lost. Before reaching this fundamental field limit at the macro level, it must be encountered at localized, perhaps microscopic, sites of field enhancement due to local topography. If such sites are small enough, they may produce thermally stabilized normal-conducting regions which contribute non-linear losses when viewed from the macro resonant field perspective, and thus produce degradation in Q0. We have undertaken a calculation of local surface magnetic field enhancement from specific fine topographic structure by conformal mapping method and numerically. A solution of the resulting normal conducting volume has been derived and the corresponding RF Ohmic loss simulated.

  11. Sampling Report: Engineering Soil Sampling for the Quarry Northeast Slope. DOE/OR/21548-600.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

  12. A Year of Radiation Measurements at the North Slope of Alaska...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Quarter 2009 ARM and Climate Change Prediction Program Metric Report Citation Details ... Quarter 2009 ARM and Climate Change Prediction Program Metric Report In 2009, the ...

  13. Dynamic Slope Stability Analysis of Mine Tailing Deposits: the Case of Raibl Mine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberto, Meriggi; Marco, Del Fabbro; Erica, Blasone; Erica, Zilli

    2008-07-08

    Over the last few years, many embankments and levees have collapsed during strong earthquakes or floods. In the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region (North-Eastern Italy), the main source of this type of risk is a slag deposit of about 2x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} deriving from galena and lead mining activity until 1991 in the village of Raibl. For the final remedial action plan, several in situ tests were performed: five boreholes equipped with piezometers, four CPTE and some geophysical tests with different approaches (refraction, ReMi and HVSR). Laboratory tests were conducted on the collected samples: geotechnical classification, triaxial compression tests and constant head permeability tests in triaxial cell. Pressure plate tests were also done on unsaturated slag to evaluate the characteristic soil-water curve useful for transient seepage analysis. A seepage analysis was performed in order to obtain the maximum pore water pressures during the intense rainfall event which hit the area on 29th August 2003. The results highlight that the slag low permeability prevents the infiltration of rainwater, which instead seeps easily through the boundary levees built with coarse materials. For this reason pore water pressures inside the deposits are not particularly influenced by rainfall intensity and frequency. Seismic stability analysis was performed with both the pseudo-static method, coupled with Newmark's method, and dynamic methods, using as design earthquake the one registered in Tolmezzo (Udine) on 6{sup th} May 1976. The low reduction of safety factors and the development of very small cumulative displacements show that the stability of embankments is assured even if an earthquake of magnitude 6.4 and a daily rainfall of 141.6 mm occur at the same time.

  14. Some aspects of computer aided decision making for the crisis management of unstable slopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faure, R.M.; Pairault, T.; Pham, M.; Bernardeau-Moreau, A.; Fayolle, G.; Robinson, J.C.; Foucheyrand, G.

    1995-12-31

    The authors present here the developments in their risk management research; software tools based on object oriented techniques, an image and graphics based man-machine interface, a new algorithm which allows the quick construction of a GIS, strong links with analysis software with the possibility of using fuzzy logic reasoning. The case of the threatening landslide at Sechilienne (Isere, France), studied using these tools, is briefly presented. The authors will show that is management is facilitated through the use of networks as in the WASSS project approach.

  15. ARRA additions to the north slope of Alaska. (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Richardson, Scott 1 ; Cherry, Jessica 2 ; Stuefer, Martin 2 ; Zirzow, Jeffrey A. ; Zak, Bernard Daniel ; Ivey, Mark D. ; Verlinde, Johannes 1 + Show Author ...

  16. File:EIA-AK-NorthSlope-BOE.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Samuel H. Limerick; Lucy Luo; Gary Long; David F. Morehouse; Jack Perrin; Robert F. King Related Technologies Oil, Natural Gas Creation Date 2005-09-01 Extent Regional...

  17. File:EIA-AK-NorthSlope-liquids.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Samuel H. Limerick; Lucy Luo; Gary Long; David F. Morehouse; Jack Perrin; Robert F. King Related Technologies Oil, Natural Gas Creation Date 2005-09-01 Extent Regional...

  18. A Year of Radiation Measurements at the North Slope of Alaska...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    For CCPP, the second quarter metrics are reported in Evaluation of Simulated Precipitation in CCSM3: Annual Cycle Performance Metrics at Watershed Scales. For ARM, the metrics will ...

  19. ARM-ACME V: ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements V on the North Slope...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Figure 5. In June, CO2 mixing ratios did change across the entire region by more than a ... There were no flights in September over coastal sites because of the systematic presence ...

  20. Spoil handling and reclamation costs at a contour surface mine in steep slope Appalachian topography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zipper, C.E.; Hall, A.T.; Daniels, W.L.

    1985-12-09

    Accurate overburden handling cost estimation methods are essential to effective pre-mining planning for post-mining landforms and land uses. With the aim of developing such methods, the authors have been monitoring costs at a contour surface mine in Wise County, Virginia since January 1, 1984. Early in the monitoring period, the land was being returned to its Approximate Original Contour (AOC) in a manner common to the Appalachian region since implementation of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA). More recently, mining has been conducted under an experimental variance from the AOC provisions of SMCRA which allowed a near-level bench to be constructed across the upper surface of two mined points and an intervening filled hollow. All mining operations are being recorded by location. The cost of spoil movement is calculated for each block of coal mined between January 1, 1984, and August 1, 1985. Per cubic yard spoil handling and reclamation costs are compared by mining block. The average cost of spoil handling was $1.90 per bank cubic yard; however, these costs varied widely between blocks. The reasons for those variations included the landscape positions of the mining blocks and spoil handling practices. The average reclamation cost was $0.08 per bank cubic yard of spoil placed in the near level bench on the mined point to $0.20 for spoil placed in the hollow fill. 2 references, 4 figures.

  1. Benthic study of the continental slope off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Volume 1. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz, R.J.; Blake, J.A.; Rhoads, D.C.

    1993-03-01

    Because of the potential impact on the environment associated with development and production activities, the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 mandated that a panel of experts, the North Carolina Environmental Sciences Review Panel (NCESRP), be convened. Their purpose was to consider whether the availability of scientific information was adequate for making decisions about oil and gas leasing, exploration, and development off North Carolina. The present study was developed by the Minerals Management Service because of concern raised by the NCESRP (1992) that not more than 5 percent of the unusual benthic community be covered by drill muds and cuttings. The principal task of the study was to determine if the communities extended over an area of the sea floor that was 20 time larger then the area estimated to be covered by drill muds and cuttings. If more than 5 percent of the unusual benthic community were covered by drill muds and cuttings, the NCESRP recommended that a study be carried out to determine the recovery rate of this community.

  2. Project Aids Development of Legacy Oilfield on Alaska’s North Slope

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Building on a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Linc Energy is exploring the potential for accessing significant amounts of oil in the Umiat oilfield, a shallow, low-temperature, light-oil reservoir within Alaska’s National Petroleum Reserve. In the process, they’re shedding light on how this and similar reservoirs could be successfully developed to increase supplies of domestic oil and natural gas.

  3. Expansion of Facilities on the North Slope of Alaska in Time...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Zirzow, Jeffrey Sandia National Laboratories Brower, Walter UIC Science Division ARMNSA Ivanoff, James NSA Whiteman, Doug NSAAAO Sassen, Kenneth University of Alaska...

  4. ARM Quick-looks Database for North Slope Alaska (NSA) sites

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stamnes, Knut [NSA Site Scientist

    From these pages one can monitor parts of the data acquisition process and access daily data visualizations from the different instruments. These data visualizations are produced in near real time automatically and are called Quick-Looks (QLs). The quick-looks contains unofficial data of unknown quality. Once data is released one can obtain the full data-set from any instrument available, and along with that, a statement about the data quality from the ARM archive. The database provides Quick-looks for the Barrow ACRF site (NSA C1), the Atqasuk ACRF site (NSA C2), or the SHEBA ice campaign of 1997 and 1998. As of 12-17-08, the database had more than 528,000 quick-looks available as data figures and data plots. No password is required for Quick-look access. (Specialized Interface)

  5. Geologic development and characteristics of the continental margins, Gulf of Mexico. Research report, 1983-1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, J.M.; Prior, D.B.; Roberts, H.H.

    1986-01-01

    The continental slope of the Gulf Basin covers more than 500,000 sq km and consists of smooth and gently sloping surfaces, prominent escarpments, knolls, intraslope basins, and submarine canyons and channels. It is an area of extremely diverse topographic and sedimentologic conditions. The slope extends from the shelf break, roughly at the 200 m isobath, to the upper limit of the continental rise, at a depth of 2800 m. The most-complex province in the basin, and the one of most interest to the petroleum industry, is the Texas-Louisiana slope, occupying 120,000 sq km and in which bottom slopes range from < 1 deg to > 20 deg around the knolls and basins. The near-surface geology and topography of the slope are functions of the interplay between episodes of rapid shelf-edge and slope progradation and contemporaneous modification of the depositional sequence by diapirism. Development of discrete depo-centers throughout the Neogene results in rapid shelf-edge progradation, often in excess of 15-20 km/my. This rapid progradation of the shelf edge leads to development of thick wedges of sediment accumulation on the continental slope. Oversteeping, high pore pressures in rapidly deposited soft sediments and changes in eustatic sea level cause subaqueous slope instabilities such as landsliding and debris flows. Large scale features such as shelf edge separation scars and landslide related canyons often results from such processes.

  6. Conoco's new approach to drill site construction in difficult, remote, swamp and jungle terrain Irian Jaya, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roodriguez, F.H.

    1984-02-01

    In October 1982, Conoco Irian Jaya as operator: and partners: Pertamina, Inpex Bintuni Limited, and Moeco Irian Jaya Company, mobilized construction equipment from Singapore to the KBS ''A'' contract area in Irian Jaya, Indonesia for the purpose of constructing a base camp and drill three exploratory sites. What made this construction effort different from others previously used in Irian Jaya; was that it incorporated several new and unique features, namely: a turnkey approach to construction; that is Conoco providing complete set of specifications and conditions with contractor assuming risks for a lump sum payment; special equipment designed by contractor for Irian Jaya operations; an incentive to co pensate or penalize contractor for helicopter hours flown below or above a predetermined number; structural steel pile platform designs for two swamp locations (Ayot and Aum), as opposed to the more conventional corduroy timber log-plank arrangement; and drilling rig pads designed for specific heli-rig with limited extra space. All work was successfully completed within the time frame stipulated in the contract, that is five months from the time the contractor was notified to begin mobilization of equipment, materials and personnel.

  7. Multi-scale Atmospheric Modeling of Green House Gas Dispersion in Complex Terrain. Atmospheric Methane at Four Corners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costigan, Keeley Rochelle; Dubey, Manvendra Krishna

    2015-07-10

    Atmospheric models are compared in collaboration with LANL and the University of Michigan to understand emissions and the condition of the atmosphere from a model perspective.

  8. Airflow-terrain interactions through a mountain gap, with an example of eolian activity beneath an atmospheric hydraulic jump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaylord, D.R.; Dawson, P.J.

    1987-09-01

    The integration of atmospheric soundings from a fully instrumented aircraft with detailed sedimentary and geomorphic analyses of eolian features in the Ferris dune field of south-central Wyoming lends insight into the manner in which topography interacts with airflow to modify eolian activity. Topographically modified airflow results in zones of airflow deceleration, acceleration, and enhanced atmospheric turbulence, all of which influence the surface morphology and sedimentology. Extreme lateral confluence of prevailing airflow produces accelerated, unidirectional winds. These winds correlate with unusually continuous and elongate parabolic dunes that extend into a mountain gap (Windy Gap). Persistently heightened winds produced at the entrance to Windy Gap have resulted in a concentration of active sand dunes that lack slipfaces. Common development of a strongly amplified atmospheric wave analogous to a hydraulic jump in the gap contributes to the formation of a variety of eolian features that mantle the surface of Windy Gap and the Ferris dune field tail. Heightened, unidirectional winds in this zone promote grain-size segregation, the formation of elongated and aligned sand drifts, climbing and falling dunes, elongate scour streaks, and parabolic dunes that have low-angle (< 20/sup 0/) cross-stratification. Deflation of bedrock and loose sediment has been enhanced in the zone of maximum turbulence beneath the hydraulic jump.

  9. Remotely controlled sensor apparatus for use in dig-face characterization system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Josten, N.E.; Svoboda, J.M.

    1999-05-25

    A remotely controlled sensor platform apparatus useful in a dig-face characterization system is deployed from a mobile delivery device such as standard heavy construction equipment. The sensor apparatus is designed to stabilize sensors against extraneous motions induced by heavy equipment manipulations or other outside influences, and includes a terrain sensing and sensor elevation control system to maintain the sensors in close ground proximity. The deployed sensor apparatus is particularly useful in collecting data in work environments where human access is difficult due to the presence of hazardous conditions, rough terrain, or other circumstances that prevent efficient data collection by conventional methods. Such work environments include hazardous waste sites, unexploded ordnance sites, or construction sites. Data collection in these environments by utilizing the deployed sensor apparatus is desirable in order to protect human health and safety, or to assist in planning daily operations to increase efficiency. 13 figs.

  10. Remotely controlled sensor apparatus for use in dig-face characterization system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Josten, Nicholas E.; Svoboda, John M.

    1999-01-01

    A remotely controlled sensor platform apparatus useful in a dig-face characterization system is deployed from a mobile delivery device such as standard heavy construction equipment. The sensor apparatus is designed to stabilize sensors against extraneous motions induced by heavy equipment manipulations or other outside influences, and includes a terrain sensing and sensor elevation control system to maintain the sensors in close ground proximity. The deployed sensor apparatus is particularly useful in collecting data in work environments where human access is difficult due to the presence of hazardous conditions, rough terrain, or other circumstances that prevent efficient data collection by conventional methods. Such work environments include hazardous waste sites, unexploded ordnance sites, or construction sites. Data collection in these environments by utilizing the deployed sensor apparatus is desirable in order to protect human health and safety, or to assist in planning daily operations to increase efficiency.

  11. ARM - Data Announcements Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New MICROARSCL Evaluation Data Released for Barrow, Alaska Bookmark and Share Four of the roughly 30 variables provided by MICROARSCL are shown here for February 13, 2012, in Barrow, Alaska. Four of the roughly 30 variables provided by MICROARSCL are shown here for February 13, 2012, in Barrow, Alaska. A new evaluation release of 18 months of data from Barrow, Alaska, provides the first KAZR-based Micro-Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (MICROARSCL) data from this North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site.

  12. Diamonds in the rough: a strong case for the inclusion of weak-intensity X-ray diffraction data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jimin; Wing, Richard A.

    2014-05-01

    Here, new evidence is provided to show that the inclusion of weak-intensity, high-resolution X-ray diffraction data helps to improve the quality of experimental phases by imposing proper constraints on electron-density models during noncrystallographic symmetry averaging. Overwhelming evidence exists to show that the inclusion of weak-intensity, high-resolution X-ray diffraction data helps improve the refinement of atomic models by imposing strong constraints on individual and overall temperature B factors and thus the quality of crystal structures. Some researchers consider these data to be of little value and opt to discard them during data processing, particularly at medium and low resolution, at which individual B factors of atomic models cannot be refined. Here, new evidence is provided to show that the inclusion of these data helps to improve the quality of experimental phases by imposing proper constraints on electron-density models during noncrystallographic symmetry (NCS) averaging. Using electron-density correlation coefficients as criteria, the resolution of data has successfully been extended from 3.1 to 2.5 Å resolution with redundancy-independent merging R factors from below 100% to about 310%. It is further demonstrated that phase information can be fully extracted from observed amplitudes through de novo NCS averaging. Averaging starts with uniform density inside double-shelled spherical masks and NCS matrices that are derived from bound heavy-atom clusters at the vertices of cuboctahedrally symmetric protein particles.

  13. Comparison of horizontal load transfer curves for laterally loaded piles from strain gages and slope inclinometer: A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinto, P.L.; Anderson, B.; Townsend, F.C.

    1999-07-01

    Laterally loaded deep foundations are commonly analyzed using the Winkler model with the soil-pile interaction modeled through nonlinear springs in the form of p-y curves. Computer programs such as FloridaPier and COM624P use default p-y curves when performing lateral analyses. These curves are based on input soil properties such as subgrade modulus, friction angle, undrained shear strength, etc. Soil properties must be deduced by laboratory testing or correlation to in situ test results. This is a source of uncertainty. In a few cases, lateral load tests are performed on instrumented piles, and the validity of such assumptions can be assessed. Test piles are commonly instrumented with strain gages and/or inclinometers. P-y curves can be back computed from these data, and the curves obtained with the two methods should agree closely. Results from a field test on a concrete pile are presented and the critical factors for the analysis are discussed. One added difficulty with concrete is its nonlinear behavior particularly near structural failure. The curves obtained are also compared with those developed from the Dilatometer/Cone Pressuremeter Test and the Standard Penetration Test.

  14. Wind Power Curve Modeling Using Statistical Models: An Investigation of Atmospheric Input Variables at a Flat and Complex Terrain Wind Farm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wharton, S.; Bulaevskaya, V.; Irons, Z.; Qualley, G.; Newman, J. F.; Miller, W. O.

    2015-09-28

    The goal of our FY15 project was to explore the use of statistical models and high-resolution atmospheric input data to develop more accurate prediction models for turbine power generation. We modeled power for two operational wind farms in two regions of the country. The first site is a 235 MW wind farm in Northern Oklahoma with 140 GE 1.68 turbines. Our second site is a 38 MW wind farm in the Altamont Pass Region of Northern California with 38 Mitsubishi 1 MW turbines. The farms are very different in topography, climatology, and turbine technology; however, both occupy high wind resource areas in the U.S. and are representative of typical wind farms found in their respective areas.

  15. ANALYSIS OF 3-D URBAN DATABASES WITH RESPECT TO POLLUTION DISPERSION FOR A NUMBER OF EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN CITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. RATTI; ET AL

    2001-03-01

    Models to estimate pollution dispersion and wind flow in cities (both at the city-scale and above) require a parametrical description of the urban canopy. For instance, two key parameters are the aerodynamic roughness length z{sub 0} and the zero-plane displacement height z{sub d}, which are related, amongst others, to the surface drag coefficient, the scale and intensity of turbulence, the depth of the roughness sub-layer and the wind speed profile. The calculation of z{sub 0} and z{sub d}, however, is not straightforward. The classical way to estimate them in open terrain is based on the measurement of wind profile data from a tall mast or, less accurately, on the inference from published roughness values for similar terrain elsewhere (Davenport, 1960; Davenport et al., 2000). Both methods, however, are very difficult to apply to cities, due to the considerable height where wind measurements should be taken (well above the urban canopy) and to the irregularities of urban texture. A promising alternative that has become available in recent years, due to increasing computing resources and the availability of high-resolution 3-D databases in urban areas, is based on the calculation of z{sub 0} and z{sub d} from the analysis and measure of the city geometry (urban morphometry). This method is reviewed for instance in Grimmond and Oke (1999), where values are calculated using different formulas and then compared with the results of field measurements. Urban morphometry opens up a new range of parameters that can easily be calculated in urban areas and used as input for meso-scale and urban dispersion models. This paper reviews a number of them and shows how they could be calculated from urban Digital Elevation Models (DEM) using image-processing techniques. It builds up on the recent work by Ratti et al. 2000, extending the number of case studies cities: London, Toulouse, Berlin, Salt Lake City and Los Angeles.

  16. Constraining UV continuum slopes of active galactic nuclei with cloudy models of broad-line region extreme-ultraviolet emission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moloney, Joshua [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Michael Shull, J., E-mail: joshua.moloney@colorado.edu, E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu [Also at Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK. (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the composition and structure of the broad-line region (BLR) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is important for answering many outstanding questions in supermassive black hole evolution, galaxy evolution, and ionization of the intergalactic medium. We used single-epoch UV spectra from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope to measure EUV emission-line fluxes from four individual AGNs with 0.49 ? z ? 0.64, two AGNs with 0.32 ? z ? 0.40, and a composite of 159 AGNs. With the CLOUDY photoionization code, we calculated emission-line fluxes from BLR clouds with a range of density, hydrogen ionizing flux, and incident continuum spectral indices. The photoionization grids were fit to the observations using single-component and locally optimally emitting cloud (LOC) models. The LOC models provide good fits to the measured fluxes, while the single-component models do not. The UV spectral indices preferred by our LOC models are consistent with those measured from COS spectra. EUV emission lines such as N IV ?765, O II ?833, and O III ?834 originate primarily from gas with electron temperatures between 37,000 K and 55,000 K. This gas is found in BLR clouds with high hydrogen densities (n {sub H} ? 10{sup 12} cm{sup 3}) and hydrogen ionizing photon fluxes (?{sub H} ? 10{sup 22} cm{sup 2} s{sup 1}).

  17. Examination of core samples from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Effects of retrieval and preservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kneafsey, T.J.; Liu, T.J. H.; Winters, W.; Boswell, R.; Hunter, R.; Collett, T.S.

    2011-06-01

    Collecting and preserving undamaged core samples containing gas hydrates from depth is difficult because of the pressure and temperature changes encountered upon retrieval. Hydrate-bearing core samples were collected at the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well in February 2007. Coring was performed while using a custom oil-based drilling mud, and the cores were retrieved by a wireline. The samples were characterized and subsampled at the surface under ambient winter arctic conditions. Samples thought to be hydrate bearing were preserved either by immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN), or by storage under methane pressure at ambient arctic conditions, and later depressurized and immersed in LN. Eleven core samples from hydrate-bearing zones were scanned using x-ray computed tomography to examine core structure and homogeneity. Features observed include radial fractures, spalling-type fractures, and reduced density near the periphery. These features were induced during sample collection, handling, and preservation. Isotopic analysis of the methane from hydrate in an initially LN-preserved core and a pressure-preserved core indicate that secondary hydrate formation occurred throughout the pressurized core, whereas none occurred in the LN-preserved core, however no hydrate was found near the periphery of the LN-preserved core. To replicate some aspects of the preservation methods, natural and laboratory-made saturated porous media samples were frozen in a variety of ways, with radial fractures observed in some LN-frozen sands, and needle-like ice crystals forming in slowly frozen clay-rich sediments. Suggestions for hydrate-bearing core preservation are presented.

  18. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, New Mexico, Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Mark B.

    2002-01-16

    The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate that a development program-based on advanced reservoir management methods-can significantly improve oil recovery at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). The plan included developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals were (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the U.S. oil and gas industry.

  19. Use of Reinforced Lightweight Clay Aggregates for Landslide Stabilisation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herle, Vitezslav

    2008-07-08

    In spring 2006 a large landslide combined with rock fall closed a highway tunnel near Svitavy in NE part of Czech Republic and cut the main highway connecting Bohemia with Moravia regions. Stabilisation work was complicated by steep mountainous terrain and large inflow of surface and underground water. The solution was based on formation of a stabilisation fill made of reinforced free draining aggregates at the toe of the slope with overlying lightweight fill up to 10 m high reinforced with PET geogrid and steel mesh protecting soft easily degrading sandstone against weathering. Extensive monitoring made possible to compare the FEM analysis with real values. The finished work fits very well in the environment and was awarded a special prize in the 2007 transport structures contest.

  20. SECURITY MODELING FOR MARITIME PORT DEFENSE RESOURCE ALLOCATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, S.; Dunn, D.

    2010-09-07

    Redeployment of existing law enforcement resources and optimal use of geographic terrain are examined for countering the threat of a maritime based small-vessel radiological or nuclear attack. The evaluation was based on modeling conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory that involved the development of options for defensive resource allocation that can reduce the risk of a maritime based radiological or nuclear threat. A diverse range of potential attack scenarios has been assessed. As a result of identifying vulnerable pathways, effective countermeasures can be deployed using current resources. The modeling involved the use of the Automated Vulnerability Evaluation for Risks of Terrorism (AVERT{reg_sign}) software to conduct computer based simulation modeling. The models provided estimates for the probability of encountering an adversary based on allocated resources including response boats, patrol boats and helicopters over various environmental conditions including day, night, rough seas and various traffic flow rates.

  1. AmeriFlux US-SO3 Sky Oaks- Young Stand

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Oechel, Walt [San Diego State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SO3 Sky Oaks- Young Stand. Site Description - The Sky Oaks Young site is located near the Sky Oaks Field station, owned and operated by San Diego State University. Chaparral vegetation, associated with a Mediterranean climate, covers nearly half of the rough and rocky terrain. Precipitation is almost exclusively confined to the winter months. During the summer and early fall, hot and dry Santa Ana winds from the northeast bring desert heat to the site. A high intensity natural wildfire occurred in July of 2003. The stand age at the time of the wildfire was 10 years old, following a controlled burn in 1993.

  2. AmeriFlux US-SO2 Sky Oaks- Old Stand

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Oechel, Walt [San Diego State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SO2 Sky Oaks- Old Stand. Site Description - The Sky Oaks Old site is located near the Sky Oaks Field station, owned and operated by San Diego State University. Chaparral vegetation, associated with a Mediterranean climate, covers nearly half of the rough and rocky terrain. Precipitation is almost exclusively confined to the winter months. During the summer and early fall, hot and dry Santa Ana winds from the northeast bring desert heat to the site. A high intensity natural wildfire occurred in July of 2003. The stand age at the time of the wildfire was 80 years old, following an early wildfire poorly characterized. Following the 2003 wildfire, most native chaparral began to regrow from root stocks reaching a height of 1.0 m in 2008.

  3. AmeriFlux US-SO4 Sky Oaks- New Stand

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Oechel, Walt [San Diego State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SO4 Sky Oaks- New Stand. Site Description - The Sky Oaks New site is located near the Sky Oaks Field station, owned and operated by San Diego State University. Chaparral vegetation, associated with a Mediterranean climate, covers nearly half of the rough and rocky terrain. Precipitation is almost exclusively confined to the winter months. During the summer and early fall, hot and dry Santa Ana winds from the northeast bring desert heat to the site. A high intensity natural wildfire occurred in approximately 1905. Physical characteristics prior to the 1905 burn are unknown, including stand age and canopy height. Currently, the Sky Oaks New site is an excellent representation of an old-growth chaparral ecosystem, with a canopy height of 2.3 m and chamise-dominated overstory.

  4. LNG SAFETY RESEARCH: FEM3A MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Havens; Iraj A. Salehi

    2005-05-10

    The objective of this report is to develop the FEM3A model for application to general scenarios involving dispersion problems with obstacles and terrain features of realistic complexity, and for very low wind speed, stable weather conditions as required for LNG vapor dispersion application specified in 49 CFR 193. The dispersion model DEGADIS specified in 49 CFR 193 is limited to application for dispersion over smooth, level terrain free of obstacles (such as buildings, tanks, or dikes). There is a need for a dispersion model that allows consideration of the effects of terrain features and obstacles on the dispersion of LNG vapor clouds. Project milestones are: (1) Simulation of Low-Wind-Speed Stable Atmospheric Milestones Conditions; (2) Verification for Dispersion over Rough Surfaces, With And Without Obstacles; and (3) Adapting the FEM3A Model for General Application. Results for this quarter are work continues to underway to address numerical problems during simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 and 2 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report are complete and steps 3 and 4 are in progress. During this quarter, we have been investigating the effect upon numerical stability of the heat transfer model used to predict the surface-to-cloud heat transfer, which can be important for LNG vapor dispersion. Previously, no consideration has been given to ground cooling as a result of heat transfer to the colder gas cloud in FEM3A. The present effort is directed to describing the ground surface temperature decrease as a function of time.

  5. Geological and Geothermal Investigation of the Lower Wind River Valley, Southwestern Washington Cascade Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berri, Dulcy A.; Korosec, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    The Wind River Valley, on the west slope of the Cascade Range, is a northwest-trending drainage that joins the Columbia River near Carson, Washington. The region has been heavily dissected by fluvial and glacial erosion. Ridges have sharp crests and deep subsidiary valleys typical of a mature topography, with a total relief of as much as 900 m. The region is vegetated by fir and hemlock, as well as dense, brushy ground-cover and undergrowth. The lower 8 km of the valley is privately owned and moderately populated. The upper reaches lies within the Gifford Pinchot National Forest, and include several campgrounds and day parks, the Carson National Fish Hatchery, and the Wind River Ranger Station and Wind River Nursery of the US Forest Service. Logging activity is light due to the rugged terrain, and consequently, most valley slopes are not accessible by vehicle. The realization that a potential for significant geothermal resources exists in the Wind River area was brought about by earlier exploration activities. Geologic mapping and interpretation was needed to facilitate further exploration of the resource by providing a knowledge of possible geologic controls on the geothermal system. This report presents the detailed geology of the lower Wind River valley with emphasis on those factors that bear significantly on development of a geothermal resource.

  6. Compiled Multi-Lab Geochemistry Synoptic Survey (LANL, ORNL, LBNL), Barrow, Alaska; 2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Brent Newman; Heather Throckmorton

    2012-07-18

    To assess the effects of microtopography and depth on ground water geochemistry in arctic polygonal terrain.

  7. Compiled Multi-Lab Geochemistry Synoptic Survey (LANL, ORNL, LBNL), Barrow, Alaska; 2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Brent Newman; Heather Throckmorton

    To assess the effects of microtopography and depth on ground water geochemistry in arctic polygonal terrain.

  8. Gamma-ray burst spectrum with decaying magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Xiaohong; Bai, Jinming [Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 110, 650011 Kunming (China); Li, Zhuo [Department of Astronomy and Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, Xuewen; Zhang, Bin-bin; Mszros, Peter, E-mail: zhaoxh@ynao.ac.cn, E-mail: zhuo.li@pku.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In the internal shock model for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the synchrotron spectrum from the fast cooling electrons in a homogeneous downstream magnetic field (MF) is too soft to produce the low-energy slope of GRB spectra. However, the MF may decay downstream with distance from the shock front. Here we show that the synchrotron spectrum becomes harder if electrons undergo synchrotron and inverse-Compton cooling in a decaying MF. To reconcile this with the typical GRB spectrum with low-energy slope ?F {sub ?}??, the postshock MF decay time must be comparable to the cooling time of the bulk electrons (corresponding to a MF decaying length typically of ?10{sup 5} skin depths); that the inverse-Compton cooling should dominate synchrotron cooling after the MF decay time; and/or that the MF decays with comoving time roughly as B?t {sup 1.5}. An internal shock synchrotron model with a decaying MF can account for the majority of GRBs with low-energy slopes not harder than ?{sup 4/3}.

  9. COLOR DEPENDENCE IN THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF MAIN BELT ASTEROIDS REVISITED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    August, Tyler M.; Wiegert, Paul A.

    2013-06-15

    The size distribution of the asteroid belt is examined with 16956 main belt asteroids detected in data taken from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey in two filters (g' and r'). The cumulative H (absolute magnitude) distribution is examined in both filters, and both match well to simple power laws down to H = 17, with slopes in rough agreement with those reported the literature. This implies that disruptive collisions between asteroids are gravitationally dominated down to at least this size, and probably sub-kilometer scales. The slopes of these distributions appear shallower in the outer belt than the inner belt, and the g' distributions appear slightly steeper than the r'. The slope shallowing in the outer belt may reflect a real compositional difference: the inner asteroid belt has been suggested to consist mostly of stony and/or metallic S-type asteroids, whereas carbonaceous C-types are thought to be more prevalent further from the Sun. No waves are seen in the size distribution above H = 15. Since waves are expected to be produced at the transition from gravitationally-dominated to internal strength-dominated collisions, their absence here may imply that the transition occurs at sub-kilometer scales, much smaller than the H = 17 (diameter {approx} 1.6 km) cutoff of this study.

  10. Upcoming Funding Opportunity for Wind Forecasting Improvement Project in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Complex Terrain | Department of Energy for Wind Forecasting Improvement Project in Complex Terrain Upcoming Funding Opportunity for Wind Forecasting Improvement Project in Complex Terrain February 12, 2014 - 10:47am Addthis On February 11, 2014 the Wind Program announced a Notice of Intent to issue a funding opportunity entitled "Wind Forecasting Improvement Project in Complex Terrain." By researching the physical processes that take place in complex terrain, this funding would

  11. Update from the Director: David Conrad | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Complex Terrain | Department of Energy Wind Forecasting Improvement Project in Complex Terrain Upcoming Funding Opportunity for Wind Forecasting Improvement Project in Complex Terrain February 12, 2014 - 10:47am Addthis On February 11, 2014 the Wind Program announced a Notice of Intent to issue a funding opportunity entitled "Wind Forecasting Improvement Project in Complex Terrain." By researching the physical processes that take place in complex terrain, this funding would improve

  12. Development of Autonomous Magnetometer Rotorcraft For Wide Area Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark D. McKay; Matthew O. Anderson

    2011-08-01

    Large areas across the United States and internationally are potentially contaminated with unexploded ordinance (UXO), with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with (1) near 100% coverage and (2) near 100% detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area assessment is a multi-level one, in which medium - altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry. Subsequent to this wide area assessment targeted surface investigations are performed using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be an effective tool for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 to 3 meters. These altitude requirements mean that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys, resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre. In addition, due to the low altitude there are substantial risks to pilots and equipment. Surface towed arrays provide highresolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. Thus there is a need for other systems, which can be used for effective data collection. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it reduces risk to operators, is lower in initial and Operational and Maintenance (O&M) costs (and can thus potentially be applied to smaller sites) and has the potential of being more effective in terms of detection and possibly characterization (through the use of dynamic acquisition, i.e. survey mission in-flight reprioritization).

  13. The effects of digital elevation model resolution on the calculation and predictions of topographic wetness indices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drover, Damion, Ryan

    2011-12-01

    One of the largest exports in the Southeast U.S. is forest products. Interest in biofuels using forest biomass has increased recently, leading to more research into better forest management BMPs. The USDA Forest Service, along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Georgia and Oregon State University are researching the impacts of intensive forest management for biofuels on water quality and quantity at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Surface runoff of saturated areas, transporting excess nutrients and contaminants, is a potential water quality issue under investigation. Detailed maps of variable source areas and soil characteristics would therefore be helpful prior to treatment. The availability of remotely sensed and computed digital elevation models (DEMs) and spatial analysis tools make it easy to calculate terrain attributes. These terrain attributes can be used in models to predict saturated areas or other attributes in the landscape. With laser altimetry, an area can be flown to produce very high resolution data, and the resulting data can be resampled into any resolution of DEM desired. Additionally, there exist many maps that are in various resolutions of DEM, such as those acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey. Problems arise when using maps derived from different resolution DEMs. For example, saturated areas can be under or overestimated depending on the resolution used. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of DEM resolution on the calculation of topographic wetness indices used to predict variable source areas of saturation, and to find the best resolutions to produce prediction maps of soil attributes like nitrogen, carbon, bulk density and soil texture for low-relief, humid-temperate forested hillslopes. Topographic wetness indices were calculated based on the derived terrain attributes, slope and specific catchment area, from five different DEM resolutions. The DEMs were resampled from LiDAR, which is a laser altimetry remote sensing method, obtained from the USDA Forest Service at Savannah River Site. The specific DEM resolutions were chosen because they are common grid cell sizes (10m, 30m, and 50m) used in mapping for management applications and in research. The finer resolutions (2m and 5m) were chosen for the purpose of determining how finer resolutions performed compared with coarser resolutions at predicting wetness and related soil attributes. The wetness indices were compared across DEMs and with each other in terms of quantile and distribution differences, then in terms of how well they each correlated with measured soil attributes. Spatial and non-spatial analyses were performed, and predictions using regression and geostatistics were examined for efficacy relative to each DEM resolution. Trends in the raw data and analysis results were also revealed.

  14. Landslide hazard mapping with selected dominant factors: A study case of Penang Island, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tay, Lea Tien; Alkhasawneh, Mutasem Sh.; Ngah, Umi Kalthum; Lateh, Habibah

    2015-05-15

    Landslide is one of the destructive natural geohazards in Malaysia. In addition to rainfall as triggering factos for landslide in Malaysia, topographical and geological factors play important role in the landslide susceptibility analysis. Conventional topographic factors such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, plan curvature and profile curvature have been considered as landslide causative factors in many research works. However, other topographic factors such as diagonal length, surface area, surface roughness and rugosity have not been considered, especially for the research work in landslide hazard analysis in Malaysia. This paper presents landslide hazard mapping using Frequency Ratio (FR) and the study area is Penang Island of Malaysia. Frequency ratio approach is a variant of probabilistic method that is based on the observed relationships between the distribution of landslides and each landslide-causative factor. Landslide hazard map of Penang Island is produced by considering twenty-two (22) landslide causative factors. Among these twenty-two (22) factors, fourteen (14) factors are topographic factors. They are elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, plan curvature, profile curvature, general curvature, tangential curvature, longitudinal curvature, cross section curvature, total curvature, diagonal length, surface area, surface roughness and rugosity. These topographic factors are extracted from the digital elevation model of Penang Island. The other eight (8) non-topographic factors considered are land cover, vegetation cover, distance from road, distance from stream, distance from fault line, geology, soil texture and rainfall precipitation. After considering all twenty-two factors for landslide hazard mapping, the analysis is repeated with fourteen dominant factors which are selected from the twenty-two factors. Landslide hazard map was segregated into four categories of risks, i.e. Highly hazardous area, Hazardous area, Moderately hazardous area and Not hazardous area. The maps was assessed using ROC (Rate of Curve) based on the area under the curve method (AUC). The result indicates an increase of accuracy from 77.76% (with all 22 factors) to 79.00% (with 14 dominant factors) in the prediction of landslide occurrence.

  15. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 18.2 MT of plutonium using existing facilities at the Savannah River site: alternatives 3A/5A/6A/6B/7A/9A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 18.2 metric tons (nominal) of plutonium using ceramic in a new facility at Savannah River Site (SRS).

  16. Comment on A study of vertical and in-plane electron mobility due to interface roughness scattering at low temperature in InAs-GaSb superlattices [J. Appl. Phys. 114, 053712 (2013)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szmulowicz, F.

    2014-04-14

    The purpose of this comment is to point out that the paper by Safa, Asgari, and Faraone [J. Appl. Phys. 114, 053712 (2013)] (SAF) on electronic transport in superlattices contains a number of errors in physics and execution. By dealing with a finite number of periods and forcing the wave function to be zero at the upper and lower boundaries of the superlattice stack, SAF have turned the system into a quantum well for which the momentum along the growth axis is not a good quantum number, so that the bands in the growth direction are flat and the corresponding carrier velocities and vertical mobilities are zero. A number of other errors allow the authors to get nonzero results and to reach conclusions that qualitatively mirror those of Szmulowicz, Haugan, Elhamri, and Brown [Phys. Rev. B 84, 155307 (2011)].

  17. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low-Dip Slope and Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California, Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schamel, S.

    2001-01-09

    The objective of this project is not just to produce oil from the Pru Fee property, but rather to test which operational strategies best optimize total oil recovery at economically acceptable rates of production and production costs.

  18. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low-Dip Slope and Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California, Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schamel, Steven; Deo, Milind; Deets, Mike

    2002-02-21

    The objective of the project is not just to commercially produce oil from the Pru Fee property, but rather to test which operational strategies best optimize total oil recovery at economically acceptable rates of production volumes and costs.

  19. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Basin Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California, Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schamel, Steven; Deo, Milind; Deets, Mike; Olsen, Keven

    2000-04-20

    During the initial phase of the project a multifaceted feasibility study was carried out to examine whether the pilot project could be justified technically and economically at this site. This study included: (1) Recompletion of 9 shut-in wells and drilling of a additional producer and a new temperature observation well. A core was taken from the reservoir interval in the new producer, Pru-101. The wells were produced by conventional cyclic steaming over a period of 15 months to establish a production baseline for the site, (2) Characterization of the stratigraphy and petrophysical properties of the Monarch Sand reservoir using existing well logs and analyses on samples in the core taken from Pru-101. The resulting data were used to develop a geostatistical model of the reservoir at the Pru Fee property and a specific reservoir simulator for the pilot test site on the property, and (3) Use of the reservoir simulator to test various steamflood and cyclic steaming production options leading to design of a production strategy for the pilot steamflood based on a four pattern, 9-spot array covering 8 ac near the center of the 40 ac Pru Fee property. The array chosen required drilling additional producers and injectors to supplement the existing wells recompleted in the initial phase of the project.

  20. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Basin Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Schamel

    1998-02-27

    A previously idle portion of the Midway-Sunset field, the ARCO Western Energy Pru Fee property, is being brought back into commercial production through tight integration of geologic characterization, geostatistical modeling, reservoir simulation, and petroleum engineering. This property, shut-in over a decade ago as economically marginal using conventional cyclic steaming methods, has a 200-300 foot thick oil column in the Monarch Sand. However, the sand lacks effective steam barriers and has a thick water-saturation zone above the oil-water contact. These factors require an innovative approach to steam flood production design that will balance optimal total oil production against economically viable steam-oil ratios and production rates. The methods used in the Class III demonstration are accessible to most operators in the Midway-Sunset field and could be used to revitalize properties with declining production of heavy oils throughout the region. In January 1997 the project entered its second and main phase with the purpose of demonstrating whether steamflood can be a more effective mode of production of the heavy, viscous oils from the Monarch Sand reservoir than the more conventional cyclic steaming. The objective is not just to produce the pilot site within the Pru Fee property south of Taft, but to test which production parameters optimize total oil recovery at economically acceptable rates of production and production costs.

  1. Advanced oil recovery technologies for improved recovery from slope basin clastic reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-22

    Objective is to demonstrate that a development program based on advanced reservoir management methods can significantly improve oil recovery and to transfer this technology to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin. The demonstration plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing the performance of the control area with an area developed using advanced management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that a development drilling program and pressure maintenance program, based on advanced reservoir management methods, can significantly improve oil recovery compared with existing technology applications, and (2) to transfer the advanced technologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elswhere in the US oil and gas industry. This is the first quarterly progress report on the project; results to date are summarized.

  2. Advanced oil recovery technologies for improved recovery from slope basin clastic reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, New Mexico. Annual report, September 25, 1995--September 24, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, M.B.

    1997-08-01

    The basic driver for this project is the low recovery observed in Delaware reservoirs, such as the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). This low recovery is caused by low reservoir energy, less than optimum permeabilities and porosities, and inadequate reservoir characterization and reservoir management strategies which are typical of projects operated by independent producers. Rapid oil decline rates and high gas/oil ratios are typically observed in the first year of primary production. Based on the production characteristics that have been observed in similar Delaware fields, pressure maintenance is a likely requirement at the Nash Pool. Three basic constraints to producing the Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Reservoir are: (1) limited areal and interwell geologic knowledge, (2) lack of an engineering tool to evaluate the various producing strategies, and (3) limited surface access prohibiting development with conventional drilling. The limited surface access is caused by the proximity of underground potash mining and surface playa lakes. The objectives of this project are: (1) to demonstrate that a development drilling program and pressure maintenance program, based on advanced reservoir management methods, can significantly improve oil recovery compared with existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers, especially in the Permian Basin.

  3. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, west Texas (Delaware Basin). Annual progress report, March 31, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutton, S.P.; Hovorka, S.D.; Cole, A.G.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based field development. Reservoirs in the Delaware Mountain Group have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Detailed correlations of the Ramsey sandstone reservoirs in Geraldine Ford field suggest that lateral sandstone continuity is less than interpreted by previous studies. The degree of lateral heterogeneity in the reservoir sandstones suggests that they were deposited by eolian-derived turbidites. According to the eolian-derived turbidite model, sand dunes migrated across the exposed shelf to the shelf break during sea-level lowstands and provided well sorted sand for turbidity currents or grain flows into the deep basin.

  4. Wave transmission over submerged breakwaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, N.; Wurjanto, A. )

    1989-09-01

    Monochromatic wave reflection and transmission over a submerged impermeable breakwater is predicted numerically by slightly modifying the numerical model developed previously for predicting wave reflection and run-up on rough or smooth impermeable slopes. The slight modification is related to the landward boundary condition required for the transmitted wave propagating landward. In addition to the conservation equations of mass and momentum used to compute the flow field, an equation of energy is derived to estimate the rate of energy dissipation due to wave breaking. The computed reflection and transmission coefficients are shown to be in agreement with available small-scale test data. The numerical model also predicts the spatial variation of the energy dissipation, the mean water level difference, and the time-averaged volume flux per unit width, although available measurements are not sufficient for evaluating the capabilities and limitations of the numerical model for predicting these quantities.

  5. CIRCE2/DEKGEN2

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-09-28

    CIRCE2 is a computer code for modeling the optical performance of three-dimensional dish-type and trough-type solar energy concentrators (possibly made up of several separate reflecting surfaces or "facets" of various curvatures and projected shapes). Statistical methods are used to evaluate the directional distribution of reflected rays from any given point on the conventrator. Given concentrator and receiver geometries, sunshape (angular distribution of incident rays from the sun), and concentrator imperfections such as surface roughness andmore » random deviation in slope, the code predicts the flux spatio-angular distribution and total power incident upon the flat or volumetric receiver. Great freedom exists in the variety of concentrator and receiver configurations that can be modeled. Additionally, provisions for shading, blocking, and receiver aperturing are included. DEKGEN2 is a preprocessor designed to facilitate input of sun models and concentrator geometry and surface imperfections.« less

  6. Vegetation Description, Rare Plant Inventory, and Vegetation Monitoring for Craig Mountain, Idaho.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancuso, Michael; Moseley, Robert

    1994-12-01

    The Craig Mountain Wildlife Mitigation Area was purchased by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as partial mitigation for wildlife losses incurred with the inundation of Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork Clearwater River. Upon completion of the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) process, it is proposed that title to mitigation lands will be given to the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG). Craig Mountain is located at the northern end of the Hells Canyon Ecosystem. It encompasses the plateau and steep canyon slopes extending from the confluence of the Snake and Salmon rivers, northward to near Waha, south of Lewiston, Idaho. The forested summit of Craig Mountain is characterized by gently rolling terrain. The highlands dramatically break into the canyons of the Snake and Salmon rivers at approximately the 4,700 foot contour. The highly dissected canyons are dominated by grassland slopes containing a mosaic of shrubfield, riparian, and woodland habitats. During the 1993 and 1994 field seasons, wildlife, habitat/vegetation, timber, and other resources were systematically inventoried at Craig Mountain to provide Fish and Game managers with information needed to draft an ecologically-based management plan. The results of the habitat/vegetation portion of the inventory are contained in this report. The responsibilities for the Craig Mountain project included: (1) vegetation data collection, and vegetation classification, to help produce a GIS-generated Craig Mountain vegetation map, (2) to determine the distribution and abundance of rare plants populations and make recommendations concerning their management, and (3) to establish a vegetation monitoring program to evaluate the effects of Fish and Game management actions, and to assess progress towards meeting habitat mitigation goals.

  7. Tandem mobile robot system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.

    2003-01-01

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  8. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... The evaluation is carried out at two locations with very different terrain characteristics. One site is located in an area of complex terrain within the State Line Wind Energy ...

  9. Funding Opportunity Announcement: Recovery Act … Energy Efficiency and

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    in Complex Terrain | Department of Energy Funding Opportunity Announcement for Wind Forecasting Improvement Project in Complex Terrain Funding Opportunity Announcement for Wind Forecasting Improvement Project in Complex Terrain April 4, 2014 - 9:47am Addthis On April 4, 2014 the U.S. Department of Energy announced a $2.5 million funding opportunity entitled "Wind Forecasting Improvement Project in Complex Terrain." By researching the physical processes that take place in complex

  10. Grain alignment in starless cores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, T. J.; Bagley, M.; Krejny, M.; Andersson, B.-G.; Bastien, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present near-IR polarimetry data of background stars shining through a selection of starless cores taken in the K band, probing visual extinctions up to A{sub V}∼48. We find that P{sub K}/τ{sub K} continues to decline with increasing A{sub V} with a power law slope of roughly −0.5. Examination of published submillimeter (submm) polarimetry of starless cores suggests that by A{sub V}≳20 the slope for P versus τ becomes ∼−1, indicating no grain alignment at greater optical depths. Combining these two data sets, we find good evidence that, in the absence of a central illuminating source, the dust grains in dense molecular cloud cores with no internal radiation source cease to become aligned with the local magnetic field at optical depths greater than A{sub V}∼20. A simple model relating the alignment efficiency to the optical depth into the cloud reproduces the observations well.

  11. Anisotropic Hc2 , thermodynamic and transport measurements, and pressure dependence of Tc in K2Cr3As3 single crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kong, Tai; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2015-01-30

    We present a detailed study of single crystalline K2Cr3As3 and analyze its thermodynamic and transport properties, anisotropic Hc2(T), and initial pressure dependence of Tc. In zero field, the temperature-dependent resistivity is metallic. Deviation from a linear temperature dependence is evident below 100 K and a T3 dependence is roughly followed from just above Tc (~10K) to ~40K. Anisotropic Hc2(T) data were measured up to 140 kOe with field applied along and perpendicular to the rodlike crystals. For the applied field perpendicular to the rod, Hc2(T) is linear with a slope ~–70 kOe/K. For field applied along the rod, the slopemore » is about –120 kOe/K below 70 kOe. Above 70 kOe, the magnitude of the slope decreases to ~–70 kOe/K. The electronic specific heat coefficient γ, just above Tc, is 73 mJ/mol K2; the Debye temperature ΘD is 220 K. As a result, the specific heat jump at the superconducting transition ΔC~2.2γTc. Finally, for hydrostatic pressures up to ~7 kbar, Tc decreases under pressure linearly at a rate of –0.034K/kbar.« less

  12. Hybrid eolian dunes of William River Dune field, northern Saskatchewan, Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carson, M.A.; MacLean, P.A.

    1985-02-01

    A series of northwest-southeast aligned, large-scale (up to 30 m high) eolian dunes, occurring in a confined (600 km/sup 2/) desert area in northern Saskatchewan, Canada, was examined in the field. Observations were made of dune morphology and internal structure, and patterns of sand movement on the dunes were analyzed in relation to wind events during the summer of 1981. Present cross-sectional profiles exhibit steeper northeast slopes, the lower segment of which are intermittently covered by psammophilous grasses. Dune structure is dominated by northeast-dipping accretion laminae. Three /sup 14/C dates from organic material cropping out on the lower southwest slopes reveal that the dunes have migrated as transverse bed forms at rates of roughly 0.5 m/yr during the last few hundred years. However, a progressive increase in height, bulk, and symmetry along the dune axis from northwest to southeast, suggests an along-dune component of sand transport. This view is supported by (1) field measurements of airflow and along-dune sand transport patterns on 2 dunes, and (2) the present-day wind regime (1963-78). Dominated by north-northeast to northeast winds from January to June and by west-southwest winds from July to December, the resultant potential sand transport vector is toward the southeast, virtually identical to the dune axis.

  13. The T-REX valley wind intercomparison project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidli, J; Billings, B J; Burton, R; Chow, F K; De Wekker, S; Doyle, J D; Grubisic, V; Holt, T R; Jiang, Q; Lundquist, K A; Ross, A N; Sheridan, P; Vosper, S; Whiteman, C D; Wyszogrodzki, A A; Zaengl, G; Zhong, S

    2008-08-07

    An accurate simulation of the evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer is very important, as the evolution of the boundary layer sets the stage for many weather phenomena, such as deep convection. Over mountain areas the evolution of the boundary layer is particularly complex, due to the nonlinear interaction between boundary layer turbulence and thermally-induced mesoscale wind systems, such as the slope and valley winds. As the horizontal resolution of operational forecasts progresses to finer and finer resolution, more and more of the thermally-induced mesoscale wind systems can be explicitly resolved, and it is very timely to document the current state-of-the-art of mesoscale models at simulating the coupled evolution of the mountain boundary layer and the valley wind system. In this paper we present an intercomparison of valley wind simulations for an idealized valley-plain configuration using eight state-of-the-art mesoscale models with a grid spacing of 1 km. Different sets of three-dimensional simulations are used to explore the effects of varying model dynamical cores and physical parameterizations. This intercomparison project was conducted as part of the Terrain-induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX; Grubisic et al., 2008).

  14. Role of surface characteristics in urban meteorology and air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sailor, D.J.

    1993-08-01

    Urbanization results in a landscape with significantly modified surface characteristics. The lower values of reflectivity to solar radiation, surface moisture availability, and vegetative cover, along with the higher values of anthropogenic heat release and surface roughness combine to result higher air temperatures in urban areas relative to their rural counterparts. Through their role in the surface energy balance and surface exchange processes, these surface characteristics are capable of modifying the local meteorology. The impacts on wind speeds, air temperatures, and mixing heights are of particular importance, as they have significant implications in terms of urban energy use and air quality. This research presents several major improvements to the meteorological modeling methodology for highly heterogeneous terrain. A land-use data-base is implemented to provide accurate specification of surface characteristic variability in simulations of the Los Angeles Basin. Several vegetation parameterizations are developed and implemented, and a method for including anthropogenic heat release into the model physics is presented. These modeling advancements are then used in a series of three-dimensional simulations which were developed to investigate the potential meteorological impact of several mitigation strategies. Results indicate that application of moderate tree-planting and urban-lightening programs in Los Angeles may produce summertime air temperature reductions on the order of 4{degree}C with a concomitant reduction in air pollution. The analysis also reveals several mechanisms whereby the application of these mitigation strategies may potentially increase pollutant concentrations. The pollution and energy use consequences are discussed in detail.

  15. Genie Pro

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-05-15

    Genie Pro is a general purpose, interactive, adaptive tool for automatically labeling regions and finding objects in large amounts of image data. Genie Pro uses supervised learning techniques to search for spatio-spectral algorithms that are best able to match exaple labels provided by a user during a training session. After Genie Pro has discovered a useful algorithm, this algorith can then be applied to other similar types of image data, to label regions and objectsmore » similar to those provided during the training session. Genie Pro was originally developed for analyzing multispectral satellite data, but it works equally well with panchromatic (grayscale) and hyperspectral satellite data, aerial imagery, and various kinds of medical imagery. AS a rough guideline, Genie Pro can work with any imagery where the scene being imaged is all approximately at a constant distance fromt he imaging device, and so the scale of imagery is fixed. Applications for Genie Pro include: Crop and terrain type mapping, Road and river network mapping, Broad area search for vehicles and buildings, and Cancer identification in histological images.« less

  16. Automation and optimization of the design parameters in tactical military pipeline systems. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frick, R.M.

    1988-12-01

    Tactical military petroleum pipeline systems will play a vital role in any future conflict due to an increased consumption of petroleum products by our combined Armed Forces. The tactical pipeline must be rapidly constructed and highly mobile to keep pace with the constantly changing battle zone. Currently, the design of these pipeline system is time consuming and inefficient, which may cause shortages of fuel and pipeline components at the front lines. Therefore, a need for a computer program that will both automate and optimize the pipeline design process is quite apparent. These design needs are satisfied by developing a software package using Advance Basic (IBM DOS) programming language and made to run on an IBM-compatible personal computer. The program affords the user the options of either finding the optimum pump station locations for a proposed pipeline or calculating the maximum operating pressures for an existing pipeline. By automating the design procedure, a field engineer can vary the pipeline length, diameter, roughness, viscosity, gravity, flow rate, pump station pressure, or terrain profile and see how it affects the other parameters in just a few seconds. The design process was optimized by implementing a weighting scheme based on the volume percent of each fuel in the pipeline at any given time.

  17. Weather pattern climatology of the Great Plains and the related wind regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barchet, W.R.

    1982-11-01

    The meteorology of the Great Plains can be described as a constant progression of air masses, fronts and cyclonic storm systems. Each of these meteorological conditions can be characterized by identifiable isobaric and related weather parameter patterns. Nine such patterns have been defined to type the weather patterns in the Great Plains. Time series of weather pattern types were produced for 62 stations on the Great Plains. Statistical analyses of these time series produced annual and seasonal frequencies of occurrence of the weather pattern types. Maps of the annual and seasonal frequency of occurrence of weather pattern type are presented for the Great Plains. Persistence and alternation frequencies match what is expected for traveling temperate latitude cyclones, anticyclones and fronts. The wind regime for stations at which the anemometer height and location was constant (and known) for a minimum of three consecutive years was stratified by weather pattern type. Statistical analyses were made to show the response of the wind to the large-scale distribution of air pressure associated with a weather pattern type. The response of the wind to the weather pattern is a site-specific result of the interaction of the large-scale meteorology with local terrain, surface roughness and atmospheric stability. Mean wind speed discriminates between pairs of weather pattern types with better than 75% confidence for more than two-thirds of the possible pairs of weather pattern types.

  18. Spatial disaggregation of satellite-derived irradiance using a high-resolution digital elevation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz-Arias, Jose A.; Tovar-Pescador, Joaquin; Cebecauer, Tomas; Suri, Marcel

    2010-09-15

    Downscaling of the Meteosat-derived solar radiation ({proportional_to}5 km grid resolution) is based on decomposing the global irradiance and correcting the systematic bias of its components using the elevation and horizon shadowing that are derived from the SRTM-3 digital elevation model (3 arc sec resolution). The procedure first applies the elevation correction based on the difference between coarse and high spatial resolution. Global irradiance is split into direct, diffuse circumsolar and diffuse isotropic components using statistical models, and then corrections due to terrain shading and sky-view fraction are applied. The effect of reflected irradiance is analysed only in the theoretical section. The method was applied in the eastern Andalusia, Spain, and the validation was carried out for 22 days on April, July and December 2006 comparing 15-min estimates of the satellite-derived solar irradiance and observations from nine ground stations. Overall, the corrections of the satellite estimates in the studied region strongly reduced the mean bias of the estimates for clear and cloudy days from roughly 2.3% to 0.4%. (author)

  19. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SPECTROSCOPICALLY CONFIRMED GALAXIES AT z {>=} 6. I. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE REST-FRAME UV CONTINUUM AND Ly{alpha} EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Linhua; Mechtley, Matthew; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Egami, Eiichi; Fan Xiaohui; Dave, Romeel; Finlator, Kristian; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Ouchi, Masami; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro

    2013-08-01

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope near-IR and Spitzer mid-IR observations of a large sample of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies at z {>=} 6. The sample consists of 51 Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z {approx_equal} 5.7, 6.5, and 7.0, and 16 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at 5.9 {<=} z {<=} 6.5. The near-IR images were mostly obtained with WFC3 in the F125W and F160W bands, and the mid-IR images were obtained with IRAC in the 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m bands. Our galaxies also have deep optical imaging data from Subaru Suprime-Cam. We utilize the multi-band data and secure redshifts to derive their rest-frame UV properties. These galaxies have steep UV-continuum slopes roughly between {beta} {approx_equal} -1.5 and -3.5, with an average value of {beta} {approx_equal} -2.3, slightly steeper than the slopes of LBGs in previous studies. The slope shows little dependence on UV-continuum luminosity except for a few of the brightest galaxies. We find a statistically significant excess of galaxies with slopes around {beta} {approx_equal} -3, suggesting the existence of very young stellar populations with extremely low metallicity and dust content. Our galaxies have moderately strong rest-frame Ly{alpha} equivalent width (EW) in a range of {approx}10 to {approx}200 A. The star formation rates are also moderate, from a few to a few tens of solar masses per year. The LAEs and LBGs in this sample share many common properties, implying that LAEs represent a subset of LBGs with strong Ly{alpha} emission. Finally, the comparison of the UV luminosity functions between LAEs and LBGs suggests that there exists a substantial population of faint galaxies with weak Ly{alpha} emission (EW < 20 A) that could be the dominant contribution to the total ionizing flux at z {>=} 6.

  20. Feasibility Study for an Autonomous UAV -Magnetometer System -- Final Report on SERDP SEED 1509:2206

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roelof Versteeg; Mark McKay; Matt Anderson; Ross Johnson; Bob Selfridge; Jay Bennett

    2007-09-01

    Large areas across the United States are potentially contaminated with UXO, with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with 1) near 100 % coverage and 2) near 100 % detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area scanning is a multi-level one, in which medium altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry followed by surface investigations using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be effective for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 3 meters. These altitude requirements means that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys (resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre). Surface towed arrays provide high resolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. Thus, other systems are needed allowing for effective data collection. An UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it would be safer for the operators, cheaper in initial and O&M costs, and more effective in terms of site characterization. However, while UAV data acquisition from fixed wing platforms for large (> 200 feet) stand off distances is relatively straight forward, a host of challenges exist for low stand-off distance (~ 6 feet) UAV geophysical data acquisition. The objective of SERDP SEED 1509:2006 was to identify the primary challenges associated with a low stand off distance autonomous UAV magnetometer platform and to investigate whether these challenges can be resolved successfully such that a successful UAV magnetometer platform can be constructed. The primary challenges which were identified and investigated include: 1. The feasibility of assembling a payload package which integrates magnetometers, accurate positioning systems (DGPS, height above ground measurement), obstacle avoidance systems, power infrastructure, communications and data storage as well as auxiliary flight controls 2. The availability of commercial UAV platforms with autonomous flight capability which can accommodate this payload package 3. The feasibility of integrating obstacle avoidance controls in UAV platform control 4. The feasibility of collecting high quality magnetic data in the vicinity of an UAV.

  1. Performance of a new wind updating system for a prognostic meteorological model in the environs of Mexico City

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.D.

    1993-12-31

    Los Alamos National Laboratory and Institute Mexicano del Petroleo are completely a joint study of options for improving air quality in Mexico City. The US Department of Energy supported the efforts of the Los Alamos investigators, while PEMEX supported the efforts of the Mexican researchers. One of the first steps in the process was to develop an understanding of the existing air quality situation. In this context we have modified a three-dimensional, prognostic, higher order turbulence model for atmospheric circulation (HOTMAC) to treat domains which include an urbanized area. This sophisticated meteorological model is required because of the complexity of the terrain and the relative paucity of meteorological data. Mexico City lies at an elevation of approximately 7500 feet above sea level in a ``U`` shaped basin which opens to the north. The city occupies a major part of the southwest portion of the basin. Upper level winds are provided by rawinsondes at the airport, while low-level winds are measured at several sites within the city. Many of the sites have obstructed upwind fetches for a variety of directions. During the wintertime when the worst air quality episodes occur, the winds are frequently light, and out of the northeast at lower levels, while above 1000 meters above the surface they are usually from the southwest. This means the winds are light within the city, but significant slope winds develop which influence the behavior of the pollutants. Frequently, the winds in the basin change as a seabreeze penetrates the basin from the northeast. The seabreeze produces a much different wind regime after its arrival in the late afternoon or early evening. This makes it important to update the winds in a realistic fashion.

  2. FWP-FEW0085-01104-0097 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... anomalous conditions such as plant kills and linear species modifications caused by subtle hidden faults, modifications of the terrain due to pipeline work or encroachment. ...

  3. sc0013735-psi | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from erosion, stream sedimentation, or other surface activities that require mitigation. ... Digital terrain mapping from manned aircraft is routinely done using scanned laser range ...

  4. Low Temperature Direct Use Space Heating Geothermal Facilities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Geothermal Facilities Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... "format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":"ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN","limit":8...

  5. Colorado: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"TERRAIN","zoom":6,"types":"ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBR...

  6. Wyoming: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wyoming: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"TERRAIN","zoom":6,"types":"ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRI...

  7. Map of Solar Energy Companies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Energy Companies Jump to: navigation, search Add a new Company Loading map... "format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":"ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN","lim...

  8. Tectonic setting of the Coso geothermal reservoir | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    eastern California Optimum development of this reservoir requires an understanding of the fracture hydrology of the Coso Mountains crystalline terrain and its hydrologic connection...

  9. Conceptual Model At Coso Geothermal Area (1990) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis To develop an understanding of the fracture hydrology of the Coso Mountains crystalline terrain and its hydrologic connection...

  10. El Salvador: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    El Salvador: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"TERRAIN","zoom":5,"types":"ROADMAP","SATELLITE","H...

  11. Map of Solar Power Plants | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Map of Solar Power Plants Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... "format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":"ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN","limit":2500,"offse...

  12. Spain: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Spain: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"TERRAIN","zoom":5,"types":"ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID"...

  13. Microsoft PowerPoint - poster-08-03-10.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of multiple linear regression with the topographic information, including elevation, sky view factor, and terrain configuration factor, as independent variables. Parameterization...

  14. MHK Projects/Stouts Pass | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    e":"ROADMAP","zoom":5,"types":"ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN","geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"500px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":""...

  15. MHK Projects/Linwood Bend | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    e":"ROADMAP","zoom":5,"types":"ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN","geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"500px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":""...

  16. MHK Projects/Tiger Island | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    e":"ROADMAP","zoom":5,"types":"ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN","geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"500px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":""...

  17. MHK Projects/Matthews Bend | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    e":"ROADMAP","zoom":5,"types":"ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN","geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"500px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":""...

  18. MHK Projects/Cypress Point | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    e":"ROADMAP","zoom":5,"types":"ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN","geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"500px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":""...

  19. MHK Projects/Seatricity Orkney | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    e":"ROADMAP","zoom":5,"types":"ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN","geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"500px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":""...

  20. ARM - Instrument - ruc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the atmosphere is resolved on isentropic surfaces (defined by constant virtual potential temperature) except for layers near the ground where terrain-following (sigma) coordinates...

  1. Hydrogen | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogen Jump to: navigation, search Hydrogen Companies Loading map... "format":"googlemaps3","type":"SATELLITE","types":"ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN","limit":1000,"o...

  2. Submit a Public Comment on The Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e)...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Related Articles Upcoming Funding Opportunity for Wind Forecasting Improvement Project in Complex Terrain Funding Opportunity Announcement for Wind Forecasting Improvement Project in ...

  3. Comparison of caprock pore networks which potentially will be impacted by carbon sequestration projects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCray, John; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis; Mouzakis, Katherine; Heath, Jason E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Rother, Gernot

    2010-12-01

    Injection of CO2 into underground rock formations can reduce atmospheric CO2 emissions. Caprocks present above potential storage formations are the main structural trap inhibiting CO2 from leaking into overlying aquifers or back to the Earth's surface. Dissolution and precipitation of caprock minerals resulting from reaction with CO2 may alter the pore network where many pores are of the micrometer to nanometer scale, thus altering the structural trapping potential of the caprock. However, the distribution, geometry and volume of pores at these scales are poorly characterized. In order to evaluate the overall risk of leakage of CO2 from storage formations, a first critical step is understanding the distribution and shape of pores in a variety of different caprocks. As the caprock is often comprised of mudstones, we analyzed samples from several mudstone formations with small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging to compare the pore networks. Mudstones were chosen from current or potential sites for carbon sequestration projects including the Marine Tuscaloosa Group, the Lower Tuscaloosa Group, the upper and lower shale members of the Kirtland Formation, and the Pennsylvanian Gothic shale. Expandable clay contents ranged from 10% to approximately 40% in the Gothic shale and Kirtland Formation, respectively. During SANS, neutrons effectively scatter from interfaces between materials with differing scattering length density (i.e., minerals and pores). The intensity of scattered neutrons, I(Q), where Q is the scattering vector, gives information about the volume and arrangement of pores in the sample. The slope of the scattering data when plotted as log I(Q) vs. log Q provides information about the fractality or geometry of the pore network. On such plots slopes from -2 to -3 represent mass fractals while slopes from -3 to -4 represent surface fractals. Scattering data showed surface fractal dimensions for the Kirtland formation and one sample from the Tuscaloosa formation close to 3, indicating very rough surfaces. In contrast, scattering data for the Gothic shale formation exhibited mass fractal behavior. In one sample of the Tuscaloosa formation the data are described by a surface fractal at low Q (larger pores) and a mass fractal at high Q (smaller pores), indicating two pore populations contributing to the scattering behavior. These small angle neutron scattering results, combined with high-resolution TEM imaging, provided a means for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the differences in pore networks between these various mudstones.

  4. ARM - Datastreams - 60noaacrn

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scientifically relevant. Measurement Variable Precipitation precipitation Surface skin temperature sfcirtemp Atmospheric temperature temperature Locations North Slope...

  5. Reactivation of an idle lease to increase heavy oil recovery through application of conventional steam drive technology in a low dip slope and basin reservoir in the Midway-Sunset field, San Jaoquin Basin, California. Annual report, June 13, 1995--June 13, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, M.; Jenkins, C.; Sprinkel, D.; Swain, R.; Wydrinski, R.; Schamel, S.

    1998-09-01

    This project reactivates ARCO`s idle Pru Fee lease in the Midway-Sunset field, California and conducts a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery demonstration aided by an integration of modern reservoir characterization and simulation methods. Cyclic steaming is being used to reestablish baseline production within the reservoir characterization phase of the project. During the demonstration phase scheduled to begin in January 1997, a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery will be initiated to test the incremental value of this method as an alternative to cyclic steaming. Other economically marginal Class III reservoirs having similar producibility problems will benefit from insight gained in this project. The objectives of the project are: (1) to return the shut-in portion of the reservoir to optimal commercial production; (2) to accurately describe the reservoir and recovery process; and (3) to convey the details of this activity to the domestic petroleum industry, especially to other producers in California, through an aggressive technology transfer program.

  6. In-situ Creep Testing Capability Development for Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. G. Kim; J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; K. G. Condie; B. H. Sencer

    2010-08-01

    Creep is the slow, time-dependent strain that occurs in a material under a constant strees (or load) at high temperature. High temperature is a relative term, dependent on the materials being evaluated. A typical creep curve is shown in Figure 1-1. In a creep test, a constant load is applied to a tensile specimen maintained at a constant temperature. Strain is then measured over a period of time. The slope of the curve, identified in the figure below, is the strain rate of the test during Stage II or the creep rate of the material. Primary creep, Stage I, is a period of decreasing creep rate due to work hardening of the material. Primary creep is a period of primarily transient creep. During this period, deformation takes place and the resistance to creep increases until Stage II, Secondary creep. Stage II creep is a period with a roughly constant creep rate. Stage II is referred to as steady-state creep because a balance is achieved between the work hardening and annealing (thermal softening) processes. Tertiary creep, Stage III, occurs when there is a reduction in cross sectional area due to necking or effective reduction in area due to internal void formation; that is, the creep rate increases due to necking of the specimen and the associated increase in local stress.

  7. The interstellar medium and star formation in edge-on galaxies. II. NGC 4157, 4565, and 5907

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yim, Kijeong; Wong, Tony; Xue, Rui; Rand, Richard J.; Rosolowsky, Erik; Hulst, J. M. van der; Benjamin, Robert; Murphy, Eric J.

    2014-12-01

    We present a study of the vertical structure of the gaseous and stellar disks in a sample of edge-on galaxies (NGC 4157, 4565, and 5907) using BIMA/CARMA {sup 12}COJ=1→0, VLA Hi, and Spitzer 3.6 μm data. In order to take into account projection effects when we measure the disk thickness as a function of radius, we first obtain the inclination by modeling the radio data. Using the measurement of the disk thicknesses and the derived radial profiles of gas and stars, we estimate the corresponding volume densities and vertical velocity dispersions. Both stellar and gas disks have smoothly varying scale heights and velocity dispersions, contrary to assumptions of previous studies. Using the velocity dispersions, we find that the gravitational instability parameter Q follows a fairly uniform profile with radius and is ⩾1 across the star-forming disk. The star formation law has a slope that is significantly different from those found in more face-on galaxy studies, both in deprojected and pixel-by-pixel plots. Midplane gas pressure based on the varying scale heights and velocity dispersions appears to roughly hold a power-law correlation with the midplane volume density ratio.

  8. Fractal Studies on Titanium-Silica Aerogels using SMARTer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Putra, E. Giri Rachman; Ikram, A.; Bharoto; Santoso, E. [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, BATAN, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 (Indonesia); Fang, T. Chiar; Ibrahim, N. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Mohamed, A. Aziz [Materials Technology Group, Industrial Technology Division Agensi Nuklear Malaysia, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)

    2008-03-17

    Power-law scattering approximation has been employed to reveal the fractal structures of solid-state titanium-silica aerogel samples. All small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements were performed using 36 meters SANS BATAN spectrometer (SMARTer) at the neutron scattering laboratory (NSL) in Serpong, Indonesia. The mass fractal dimension of titanium-silica aerogels at low scattering vector q range increases from -1.4 to -1.92 with the decrease of acid concentrations during sol-gel process. These results are attributed to the titanium-silica aerogels that are growing to more polymeric and branched structures. At high scattering vector q range the Porod slope of -3.9 significantly down to -2.24 as the roughness of particle surfaces becomes higher. The cross over between these two regimes decreases from 0.4 to 0.16 nm{sup -1} with the increase of acid concentrations indicating also that the titanium-silica aerogels are growing.

  9. Peru onshore-deepwater basins should have large potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuniga-Rivero, F.; Keeling, J.A.; Hay-Roe, H.

    1998-10-19

    Perupetro`s recent announcement that 13 offshore exploration blocks of nearly 1 million acres each will be offered for bids in the fourth quarter of 1998 has reawakened interest in this extensive, largely unexplored area. The new government policy, combined with the results of modern, deep-probing seismic surveys, has already led to a stepped-up search for oil and gas that will probably escalate. Most of Peru`s ten coastal basins are entirely offshore, but at both ends of the 1,500-mile coastline the sedimentary basins stretch from onshore across the continental shelf and down the continental slope. Two of these basin areas, both in the north, have commercial production. The third, straddling the country`s southern border, has never been drilled either on land or offshore. The Peruvian sectors of these three basins total roughly 50,000 sq miles in area, 75% offshore. All have major oil and gas potential. They are described individually in this article, an update in the ongoing studies last reported at the 1998 Offshore Technology Conference and in the first article of this series.

  10. Alaska Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, and Permitting Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall

    2006-03-31

    This is the final technical report for Project 15446, covering the grant period of October 2002 through March 2006. This project connects three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for an advanced information technology infrastructure to better support resource development and resource conservation. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells. The broad goal of this grant is to increase domestic production from Alaska's known producing fields through the implementation of preferred upstream management practices. (PUMP). Internet publication of extensive and detailed geotechnical data is the first task, improving the permitting process is the second task, and building an advanced geographical information system to offer continuing support and public access of the first two goals is the third task. Excellent progress has been made on all three tasks; the technical objectives as defined by the approved grant sub-tasks have been met. The end date for the grant was March 31, 2006.

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: Pathfinder Airborne ISR Systems: Areas of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Expertise: Missions Missions Change Detection Change Detection Facilities and Border Protection Facilities and Border Protection Crevasse Detection Crevasse Detection Environmental Monitoring Environmental Monitoring Space Missions Space Missions High-Resolution Terrain Elevation Mapping High-Resolution Terrain Elevation Mapping Maritime/Littoral Maritime/Littoral Vehicle and Dismount Tracking Vehicle and Dismount Tracking Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Targeting Reconnaissance,

  12. Hurricane Katrina Wind Investigation Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desjarlais, A. O.

    2007-08-15

    This investigation of roof damage caused by Hurricane Katrina is a joint effort of the Roofing Industry Committee on Weather Issues, Inc. (RICOWI) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory/U.S. Department of Energy (ORNL/DOE). The Wind Investigation Program (WIP) was initiated in 1996. Hurricane damage that met the criteria of a major windstorm event did not materialize until Hurricanes Charley and Ivan occurred in August 2004. Hurricane Katrina presented a third opportunity for a wind damage investigation in August 29, 2005. The major objectives of the WIP are as follows: (1) to investigate the field performance of roofing assemblies after major wind events; (2) to factually describe roofing assembly performance and modes of failure; and (3) to formally report results of the investigations and damage modes for substantial wind speeds The goal of the WIP is to perform unbiased, detailed investigations by credible personnel from the roofing industry, the insurance industry, and academia. Data from these investigations will, it is hoped, lead to overall improvement in roofing products, systems, roofing application, and durability and a reduction in losses, which may lead to lower overall costs to the public. This report documents the results of an extensive and well-planned investigative effort. The following program changes were implemented as a result of the lessons learned during the Hurricane Charley and Ivan investigations: (1) A logistics team was deployed to damage areas immediately following landfall; (2) Aerial surveillance--imperative to target wind damage areas--was conducted; (3) Investigation teams were in place within 8 days; (4) Teams collected more detailed data; and (5) Teams took improved photographs and completed more detailed photo logs. Participating associations reviewed the results and lessons learned from the previous investigations and many have taken the following actions: (1) Moved forward with recommendations for new installation procedures; (2) Updated and improved application guidelines and manuals from associations and manufacturers; (3) Launched certified product installer programs; and (4) Submitted building code changes to improve product installation. Estimated wind speeds at the damage locations came from simulated hurricane models prepared by Applied Research Associates of Raleigh, North Carolina. A dynamic hurricane wind field model was calibrated to actual wind speeds measured at 12 inland and offshore stations. The maximum estimated peak gust wind speeds in Katrina were in the 120-130 mph range. Hurricane Katrina made landfall near Grand Isle, Louisiana, and traveled almost due north across the city of New Orleans. Hurricane winds hammered the coastline from Houma, Louisiana, to Pensacola, Florida. The severe flooding problems in New Orleans made it almost impossible for the investigating teams to function inside the city. Thus the WIP investigations were all conducted in areas east of the city. The six teams covered the coastal areas from Bay Saint Louis, Mississippi, on the west to Pascagoula, Mississippi, on the east. Six teams involving a total of 25 persons documented damage to both low slope and steep slope roofing systems. The teams collected specific information on each building examined, including type of structure (use or occupancy), wall construction, roof type, roof slope, building dimensions, roof deck, insulation, construction, and method of roof attachment. In addition, the teams noted terrain exposure and the estimated wind speeds at the building site from the Katrina wind speed map. With each team member assigned a specific duty, they described the damage in detail and illustrated important features with numerous color photos. Where possible, the points of damage initiation were identified and damage propagation described. Because the wind speeds in Katrina at landfall, where the investigations took place, were less than code-specified design speeds, one would expect roof damage to be minimal. One team speculated that damage to all roofs in the area they examined was les

  13. GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOW LIGHT CURVES FROM A LORENTZ-BOOSTED SIMULATION FRAME AND THE SHAPE OF THE JET BREAK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Eerten, Hendrik; MacFadyen, Andrew

    2013-04-20

    The early stages of decelerating gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow jets have been notoriously difficult to resolve numerically using two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations even at very high resolution, due to the extreme thinness of the blast wave and high outflow Lorentz factors. However, these resolution issues can be avoided by performing the simulations in a boosted frame, which makes it possible to calculate afterglow light curves from numerically computed flows in sufficient detail to accurately quantify the shape of the jet break and the post-break steepening of the light curve. Here, we study afterglow jet breaks for jets with opening angles of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 radians decelerating in a surrounding medium of constant density, observed at various angles ranging from on-axis to the edge of the jet. A single set of scale-invariant functions describing the time evolution of afterglow synchrotron spectral break frequencies and peak flux, depending only on jet opening angle and observer angle, are all that is needed to reconstruct light curves for arbitrary explosion energy, circumburst density and synchrotron particle distribution power law slope p. These functions are presented in the paper. Their time evolutions change directly following the jet break, although an earlier reported temporary post-break steepening of the cooling break is found to have been resolution-induced. We compare synthetic light curves to fit functions using sharp power law breaks as well as smooth power law transitions. We confirm our earlier finding that the measured jet break time is very sensitive to the angle of the observer and can be postponed significantly. We find that the difference in temporal indices across the jet break is larger than theoretically anticipated and is about -(0.5 + 0.5p) below the cooling break and about -(0.25 + 0.5p) above the cooling break, both leading to post-break slopes of roughly about 0.25 - 1.3p, although different observer angles, jet opening angles and heuristic descriptions of the break introduce a wide range of temporal indices. Nevertheless, the post-break slope from our constant density interstellar medium simulations is sufficiently steep to be hard to reconcile with post-break slopes measured for the Swift sample, suggesting that Swift GRBs mostly do not explode in a homogeneous medium or that the jet breaks are hidden from view by additional physics such as prolonged energy injection or viewing angle effects. A comparison between different smooth power law fit functions shows that although smooth power law transitions of the type introduced by Harrison et al. often provide better fits, smooth power law transitions of the type introduced by Beuermann et al. or even sharp power law fits are easier to interpret in terms of the underlying model. Light curves and spectral break and peak flux evolution functions will be made publicly available online at http://cosmo.nyu.edu/afterglowlibrary.

  14. Wind Energy Resource Assessment of the Caribbean and Central America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DL Elliott; CI Aspliden; GL Gower; CG Holladay, MN Schwartz

    1987-04-01

    A wind energy resource assessment of the Caribbean and Central America has identified many areas with good to outstanding wind resource potential for wind turbine applications. Annual average wind resource maps and summary tables have been developed for 35 island/country areas throughout the Caribbean and Central America region. The wind resource maps highlight the locations of major resource areas and provide estimates of the wind energy resource potential for typical well-exposed sites in these areas. The average energy in the wind flowing in the layer near the ground is expressed as a wind power class: the greater the average wind energy, the higher the wind power class. The summary tables that are included with each of the 35 island/country wind energy maps provide information on the frequency distribution of the wind speeds (expressed as estimates of the Weibull shape factor, k) and seasonal variations in the wind resource for the major wind resource areas identified on the maps. A new wind power class legend has been developed for relating the wind power classes to values of mean wind power density, mean wind speed, and Weibull k. Guidelines are presented on how to adjust these values to various heights above ground for different roughness and terrain characteristics. Information evaluated in preparing the assessment included existing meteorological data from airports and other weather stations, and from ships and buoys in offshore and coastal areas. In addition, new data from recent measurement sites established for wind energy siting studies were obtained for a few areas of the Caribbean. Other types of information evaluated in the assessment were climatological data and maps on winds aloft, surface pressure, air flow, and topography. The various data were screened and evaluated for their usefulness in preparing the wind resource assessment. Much of the surface data from airports and other land-based weather stations were determined to be from sheltered sites and were thus not very useful in assessing the wind resource at locations that are well exposed to the winds. Ship data were determined to be the most useful for estimating the large-scale wind flow and assessing the spatial distribution of the wind resource throughout the region. Techniques were developed for analyzing and correcting ship wind data and extrapolating these data to coastal and inland areas by considering terrain influences on the large-scale wind flow. In areas where extrapolation of ship wind data was not entirely feasible, such as interior areas of Central America, other techniques were developed for estimating the wind flow and distribution of the wind resource. Through the application of the various innovative techniques developed for assessing the wind resource throughout the Caribbean and Central America region, many areas with potentially good to outstanding wind resource were identified that had not been previously recognized. In areas where existing site data were available from exposed locations, the measured wind resource was compared with the estimated wind resource that was derived using the assessment techniques. In most cases, there was good agreement between the measured wind resource and the estimated wind resource. This assessment project supported activities being pursued by the U.S. Committee for Renewable Energy Commerce and Trade (CORECT), the U.S. government's interagency program to assist in overseas marketing and promote renewable energy exports. An overall goal of the program is to improve U.S. competitiveness in the world renewable energy market. The Caribbean and Central America assessment, which is the first of several possible follow-on international wind energy resource assessments, provides valuable information needed by the U.S. wind energy industry to identify suitable wind resource areas and concentrate their efforts on these areas.

  15. The factory and the beehive. II. Activity and rotation in Praesepe and the Hyades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas, S. T.; Ageros, M. A.; Bowsher, E. C.; Lemonias, J. J.; Fierroz, D. F.; Covey, K. R.; Bochanski, J. J.; Cargile, P. A.; Kraus, A.; Law, N. M.; Arce, H. G.; Kundert, A.

    2014-11-10

    Open clusters are collections of stars with a single, well-determined age, and can be used to investigate the connections between angular-momentum evolution and magnetic activity over a star's lifetime. We present the results of a comparative study of the relationship between stellar rotation and activity in two benchmark open clusters: Praesepe and the Hyades. As they have the same age and roughly solar metallicity, these clusters serve as an ideal laboratory for testing the agreement between theoretical and empirical rotation-activity relations at ?600 Myr. We have compiled a sample of 720 spectramore than half of which are new observationsfor 516 high-confidence members of Praesepe; we have also obtained 139 new spectra for 130 high-confidence Hyads. We have also collected rotation periods (P {sub rot}) for 135 Praesepe members and 87 Hyads. To compare H? emission, an indicator of chromospheric activity, as a function of color, mass, and Rossby number R{sub o} , we first calculate an expanded set of ? values, with which we can obtain the H? to bolometric luminosity ratio, L {sub H?}/L {sub bol}, even when spectra are not flux-calibrated and/or stars lack reliable distances. Our ? values cover a broader range of stellar masses and colors (roughly equivalent to spectral types from K0 to M9), and exhibit better agreement between independent calculations, than existing values. Unlike previous authors, we find no difference between the two clusters in their H? equivalent width or L {sub H?}/L {sub bol} distributions, and therefore take the merged H? and P {sub rot} data to be representative of 600 Myr old stars. Our analysis shows that H? activity in these stars is saturated for R{sub o}?0.11{sub ?0.03}{sup +0.02}. Above that value activity declines as a power-law with slope ?=?0.73{sub ?0.12}{sup +0.16}, before dropping off rapidly at R{sub o} ? 0.4. These data provide a useful anchor for calibrating the age-activity-rotation relation beyond 600 Myr.

  16. Recharge Data Package for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste 2001 Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MJ Fayer; EM Murphy; JL Downs; FO Khan; CW Lindenmeier; BN Bjornstad

    2000-01-18

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are currently stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method of disposing of the portion that is classified as immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) is to vitrify the waste and place the product in near-surface, shallow-land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is known as the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment (PA) Activity, hereafter called the ILAW PA project. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface-water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require predictions of contaminant migration from the facility. To make such predictions will require estimates of the fluxes of water moving through the sediments within the vadose zone around and beneath the disposal facility. These fluxes, loosely called recharge rates, are the primary mechanism for transporting contaminants to the groundwater. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assists LMHC in their performance assessment activities. One of the PNNL tasks is to provide estimates of recharge rates for current conditions and long-term scenarios involving the shallow-land disposal of ILAW. Specifically, recharge estimates are needed for a filly functional surface cover; the cover sideslope, and the immediately surrounding terrain. In addition, recharge estimates are needed for degraded cover conditions. The temporal scope of the analysis is 10,000 years, but could be longer if some contaminant peaks occur after 10,000 years. The elements of this report compose the Recharge Data Package, which provides estimates of recharge rates for the scenarios being considered in the 2001 PA. Table S.1 identifies the surface features and time periods evaluated. The most important feature, the surface cover, is expected to be the modified RCRA Subtitle C design. This design uses a 1-m-thick silt loam layer above sand and gravel filter layers to create a capillary break. A 0.15-m-thick asphalt layer underlies the filter layers to function as a backup barrier and to promote lateral drainage. Cover sideslopes are expected to be constructed with 1V:10H slopes using sandy gravel. The recharge estimates for each scenario were derived from lysimeter and tracer data collected by the ILAW PA and other projects and from modeling analyses.

  17. Microsoft Word - GRJ 2008-final.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... The rock is durable and in excellent condition. There is no evidence of slope instability, and very little plant encroachment is occurring on the side slopes (PL-1). Runoff drains ...

  18. DOI-BLM-NV-CO10-2011-0501-EA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    All cut and fill slopes should be constructed to the least percent slope practical. 11. Trash will be retained in portable trash cages and hauled to an authorized disposal site for...

  19. rifle.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... The top slope and side slopes were capped with a bedding layer and riprap (large diameter rock) to protect against wind and water erosion. The cell design promotes rapid runoff of ...

  20. Methane Hydrate Production Technologies to be Tested on Alaska's North

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Slope | Department of Energy Methane Hydrate Production Technologies to be Tested on Alaska's North Slope Methane Hydrate Production Technologies to be Tested on Alaska's North Slope October 24, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy, the Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation, and ConocoPhillips will work together to test innovative technologies for producing methane gas from hydrate deposits on the Alaska North Slope. The collaborative testing will

  1. ARM - Datastreams - aoscpcf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dilution slope unitless dilutionslope Dilution flow valve position unitless dilutionvalveposition ( time ) Flow read sccm flowread ( time ) Flow setpoint sccm ...

  2. EA-1193: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site

  3. EA-1193: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site

  4. ARM - Instrument - rwp

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    relevant. Atmospheric turbulence Backscattered radiation Horizontal wind Radar Doppler Radar reflectivity Vertical velocity Virtual temperature Locations North Slope...

  5. ARM - Education Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM's Contribution to North Slope Science Standards Bookmark and Share While on the North Slope in November 2002, ARM Education staff Carrie Talus and Laura Marsh held a meeting with the North Slope Borough School District's Science Committee, headed by Jodi Picou, in order to discuss adding the subject of climate change to the North Slope science standards. This science committee is working to update and improve the current science standards so that they better match the state and national

  6. Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

    2008-12-31

    The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface is adequately frozen for tundra travel each year has declined. Operators are not allowed to explore in undeveloped areas until the tundra is sufficiently frozen and adequate snow cover is present. Spring breakup then forces rapid evacuation of the area prior to snowmelt. Using the best available methods, exploration in remote arctic areas can take up to three years to identify a commercial discovery, and then years to build the infrastructure to develop and produce. This makes new exploration costly. It also increases the costs of maintaining field infrastructure, pipeline inspections, and environmental restoration efforts. New technologies are needed, or oil and gas resources may never be developed outside limited exploration stepouts from existing infrastructure. Industry has identified certain low-impact technologies suitable for operations, and has made improvements to reduce the footprint and impact on the environment. Additional improvements are needed for exploration and economic field development and end-of-field restoration. One operator-Anadarko Petroleum Corporation-built a prototype platform for drilling wells in the Arctic that is elevated, modular, and mobile. The system was tested while drilling one of the first hydrate exploration wells in Alaska during 2003-2004. This technology was identified as a potentially enabling technology by the ongoing Joint Industry Program (JIP) Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program. The EFD is headed by Texas A&M University and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), and is co-funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EFD participants believe that the platform concept could have far-reaching applications in the Arctic as a drilling and production platform, as originally intended, and as a possible staging area. The overall objective of this project was to document various potential applications, locations, and conceptual designs for the inland platform serving oil and gas operations on the Alaska North Slope. The University of Alaska Fairbanks assisted the HARC/TerraPlatforms team with the characterization of potential resource areas, geotechnical conditions associated with continuous permafrost terrain, and the potential end-user evaluation process. The team discussed the various potential applications with industry, governmental agencies, and environmental organizations. The benefits and concerns associated with industry's use of the technology were identified. In this discussion process, meetings were held with five operating companies (22 people), including asset team leaders, drilling managers, HSE managers, and production and completion managers. Three other operating companies and two service companies were contacted by phone to discuss the project. A questionnaire was distributed and responses were provided, which will be included in the report. Meetings were also held with State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources officials and U.S. Bureau of Land Management regulators. The companies met with included ConcoPhillips, Chevron, Pioneer Natural Resources, Fairweather E&P, BP America, and the Alaska Oil and Gas Association.

  7. THE RELATION BETWEEN MID-PLANE PRESSURE AND MOLECULAR HYDROGEN IN GALAXIES: ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldmann, Robert; Hernandez, Jose; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2012-12-20

    Molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) is the primary component of the reservoirs of cold, dense gas that fuel star formation in our Galaxy. While the H{sub 2} abundance is ultimately regulated by physical processes operating on small scales in the interstellar medium (ISM), observations have revealed a tight correlation between the ratio of molecular to atomic hydrogen in nearby spiral galaxies and the pressure in the mid-plane of their disks. This empirical relation has been used to predict H{sub 2} abundances in galaxies with potentially very different ISM conditions, such as metal-deficient galaxies at high redshifts. Here, we test the validity of this approach by studying the dependence of the pressure-H{sub 2} relation on environmental parameters of the ISM. To this end, we follow the formation and destruction of H{sub 2} explicitly in a suite of hydrodynamical simulations of galaxies with different ISM parameters. We find that a pressure-H{sub 2} relation arises naturally in our simulations for a variety of dust-to-gas ratios or strengths of the interstellar radiation field in the ISM. Fixing the dust-to-gas ratio and the UV radiation field to values measured in the solar neighborhood results in fair agreement with the relation observed in nearby galaxies with roughly solar metallicity. However, the parameters (slope and normalization) of the pressure-H{sub 2} relation vary in a systematical way with ISM properties. A particularly strong trend is the decrease of the normalization of the relation with a lowering of the dust-to-gas ratio of the ISM. We show how this trend and other properties of the pressure-H{sub 2} relation arise from the atomic-to-molecular phase transition in the ISM caused by a combination of H{sub 2} formation, destruction, and shielding mechanisms.

  8. STAR FORMATION IN NUCLEAR RINGS OF BARRED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Woong-Tae E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2013-06-01

    Nuclear rings in barred galaxies are sites of active star formation. We use hydrodynamic simulations to study the temporal and spatial behavior of star formation occurring in nuclear rings of barred galaxies where radial gas inflows are triggered solely by a bar potential. The star formation recipes include a density threshold, an efficiency, conversion of gas to star particles, and delayed momentum feedback via supernova explosions. We find that the star formation rate (SFR) in a nuclear ring is roughly equal to the mass inflow rate to the ring, while it has a weak dependence on the total gas mass in the ring. The SFR typically exhibits a strong primary burst followed by weak secondary bursts before declining to very small values. The primary burst is associated with the rapid gas infall to the ring due to the bar growth, while the secondary bursts are caused by re-infall of the ejected gas from the primary burst. While star formation in observed rings persists episodically over a few Gyr, the duration of active star formation in our models lasts for only about half of the bar growth time, suggesting that the bar potential alone is unlikely to be responsible for gas supply to the rings. When the SFR is low, most star formation occurs at the contact points between the ring and the dust lanes, leading to an azimuthal age gradient of young star clusters. When the SFR is large, on the other hand, star formation is randomly distributed over the whole circumference of the ring, resulting in no apparent azimuthal age gradient. Since the ring shrinks in size with time, star clusters also exhibit a radial age gradient, with younger clusters found closer to the ring. The cluster mass function is well described by a power law, with a slope depending on the SFR. Giant gas clouds in the rings have supersonic internal velocity dispersions and are gravitationally bound.

  9. T

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... The large building oontaininc tho traok And roooiving dook vm3 11 .?.'.,, longby .' Yr & * wido and contained the rough turner. Except for the vioinity of o rough turner dcscribod ...

  10. HICEV America: Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle (HICEV...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... the HICEV America Rough Road Test (ETA- HITP-005) including (1) driving through ... Vehicles should be capable of completing the HEV America Rough Road Test (ETA-HITP-005) ...

  11. CX-100158 Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Forecast Improvement in Complex Terrain near the Columbia River Gorge Award Number: DE-EE0006898 CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 12/23/2014 Location(s): CO Office(s): Golden Field Office

  12. Des Plaines Landfill Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    mW 0.0038 GW Commercial Online Date 2004 Heat Rate (BTUkWh) 12916.67 References EPA Web Site1 Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"TERRAIN...

  13. RCWMD Badlands Landfill Gas Project Biomass Facility | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    mW 1.0e-3 GW Commercial Online Date 2001 Heat Rate (BTUkWh) 12916.67 References EPA Web Site1 Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"TERRAIN...

  14. Rio Bravo Fresno Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    mW 0.0243 GW Commercial Online Date 1988 Heat Rate (BTUkWh) 18456.1 References EPA Web Site1 Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"TERRAIN...

  15. Predicting and Utilizing the Vehicle's Past and Futuer Road Grade

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Predicted road grade may be used to estimate the power required to propel the vehicle through the upcoming terrain so that the engine controller can deliver the necessary power.

  16. United States Army; Fort Gordon, Georgia, Range Control Operations

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    10 2.3 SRNS Interface Management Office, page 10 2.4 ... page 24 5.1.12 Sanitary Waste Disposal, page 24 5.1.13 ... Terrain Flight (Contour, Low-level, and Nap of the Earth), ...

  17. Applied Studies and Technology Stakeholder Outreach: Helping Native Students Heal the Land

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On a late June afternoon on the high desert east of Tuba City, Arizona, members of a Navajo family scoot along the sand riding all-terrain vehicles, rounding up their horses under a ceramic-blue...

  18. Microsoft Word - Cover Page - Exhibit 13

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    50- 55mm), camera elevation, direction of view, and horizontal angle of view were noted. Step 2: Model Creation A. Base Map & Terrain Model A digital base map is created of ...

  19. CX-001380: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Idaho National Laboratory - Off-Road All Terrain Vehicle Use in Support of Engineering SurveysCX(s) Applied: B3.1Date: 03/31/2010Location(s): IdahoOffice(s): Idaho Operations Office, Nuclear Energy

  20. Estimating the Wind Resource in Uttarakhand: Comparison of Dynamic Downscaling with Doppler Lidar Wind Measurements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Previous estimates of the wind resources in Uttarakhand, India, suggest minimal wind resources in this region. To explore whether or not the complex terrain in fact provides localized regions of...

  1. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 1970) Modifications Eliminate Turbine Rough Operation (+338,722) Vibration Monitoring Equipment (RFP) BUILDING STRONG Generator Rewind and Turbine Runner, ...

  2. sc0013735-psi | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    735-psi High Performance Airborne Laser Scanner for Routine Mapping of Terrain from Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) Last Reviewed 11/27/2015 DE-SC0013735 Goal This project will develop a conceptual design for an unmanned aerial system-based laser scanner for aerial mapping that preserves the performance of larger systems flown on manned aircraft, but is small enough to be deployed on midsize unmanned aerial systems. This will enable more economical digital terrain mapping than manned systems.

  3. fe0013998-UWashington | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Characterizing the Response of the Cascadia Margin Gas Hydrate Reservoir to Bottom Water Warming Along the Upper Continental Slope Last Reviewed 11/24/2015 DE-FE0013998 Goal The project goal is to investigate the response of the Washington margin gas hydrate system to the contemporary warming of bottom water along the upper continental slope. Performer University of Washington - Seattle, Washington Background The up-slope limit of hydrate stability represents one of the most climate-sensitive

  4. mccoy_ARM_STM_09_cmbe_v3_final.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Detailed description of the data and the algorithms: http:science.arm.govwgcpmscmbestestimate.html SGP - ARM Southern Great Plains Site, NSA - North Slope of Alaska, TWP...

  5. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    designed from the analysis of field observations, reproduces the effect of local topography (landform category, the slope angle and aspect and flow accumulation), weather...

  6. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the Doppler spectra. Over the North Slope of Alaska, researchers used cloud radar Doppler velocity spectra, lidar backscattering coefficients and depolarization ratios, and...

  7. Flow Processes in the Dry Regime: The Effect on Capillary Barrier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    consist of two layers of granular materials designed so that the contrast in material hydraulic properties and sloping interface retains infiltrating water in the upper layer. ...

  8. CHARACTERIZING SUBDAILY FLOW REGIMES: IMPLICATIONS OF HYDROLOGIC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... with watershed characteris- tics such as drainage area, slope and land use. ... Daily flow statis- tics of natural streams showed considerably more variation than those ...

  9. fe0022898-usgs | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    characterize gas hydrate production test sites on the Alaska North Slope. Performer U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) - Denver, CO Background This Interagency Agreement is intended to...

  10. turner_poster.rhubc.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    E. Mlawer, J. Delamere, V. Payne Atmospheric & Environmental Research, Inc. D. Turner U. ... Bands Campaign (RHUBC) - PIs: Turner and Mlawer * RHUBC-I, North Slope of ...

  11. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices for Selected Crude Streams (Dollars per Barrel) Year Month Alaska North Slope California Kern River California Midway- Sunset Heavy ...

  12. 06555_Polymers | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Background Alaska's North Slope contains a very large unconventional oil resource-over 20 billion barrels of heavyviscous oil. Conventional wisdom argues that thermal recovery ...

  13. Barrow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Barrow & Atqasuk Visitor Guide April 2015 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility North Slope of AlaskaAdjacent Arctic Ocean (ACRFNSAAAO) Informal ...

  14. Duplex Rules June 2010 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Duplex Rules June 2010 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility North Slope of AlaskaAdjacent Arctic Ocean (ACRFNSAAAO) Duplex Rules Who can stay in the ...

  15. A comparison of cloud properties at a coastal and inland site at the North

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Slope of Alaska (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES A comparison of cloud properties at a coastal and inland site at the North Slope of Alaska « Prev Next » Title: A comparison of cloud properties at a coastal and inland site at the North Slope of Alaska In this study, we have examined differences in cloud liquid water paths (LWPs) at a coastal (Barrow) and an inland (Atqasuk) location on the North Slope of Alaska using microwave radiometer (MWR) data collected by the U.S. Department of Energy's

  16. The Pittsburgh Federal Executive Board Honors NETL with Eight...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    his Integrated Geospatial Tools for Search and Rescue (IGT4SAR). The mobility model of IGT4SAR considers the influence of slope, land cover, hydrology, and the...

  17. Microsoft Word - IceMountainFinal.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photo courtesy of Moose Larson What the term "algific talus slope" also leaves undescribed are their unusual, seemingly misplaced ecosystems, which survive by a trick of nature. ...

  18. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    PADD 5 (West Coast): Alaska (North Slope and Other Mainland), Arizona, California, Hawaii, ... or refines liquid hydrocarbons from oil and gas field gases, or recovers liquefied ...

  19. Section 93

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fairbanks, Alaska Introduction Radiative energy is a major component of the surface energy balance in the Arctic. The North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Atmospheric Radiation...

  20. Microsoft Word - RHUBC_OpsPlan.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    forecasts for the Barrow region, output from the CIMSS Regional Assimilation System (CRAS) model for the North Slope region, and a specialized climatology forecast system...

  1. Hydrothermal Exploration Data Gap Analysis Update

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... geothermal plants (with 10-km radius) Urban areas Slopes >30% Preliminary Demand ...agencies * Remote sensing vendors * Mining companies * OilGas companies http:...

  2. Recharge Data Package for the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    possible barrier side slopes; and the surrounding soil) and four specific time periods (pre-Hanford; Hanford operations; surface barrier design life; post-barrier design life). ...

  3. ARM - VAP Process - kazrarscl

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are those considered scientifically relevant. Cloud base height Cloud top height Radar Doppler Radar polarization Radar reflectivity Vertical velocity Locations North Slope...

  4. Environmental Remediation program completes legacy mercury cleanup...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stories Legacy slope-side cleanup Environmental Remediation program completes legacy mercury cleanup near Smith's Marketplace Los Alamos National Laboratory performed a ...

  5. Optical Metrology Lab Receives New Funding for Upgrades

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Profiler (DLTP) is a new surface slope measuring instrument demonstrating state-of-the-art 80 nano radians (rms) performance in measurements with a 1280 spherical optic. The...

  6. Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production of Alaska North Slope Oils Due to increasing oil demand, oil companies are moving into arctic environments and ...

  7. Microsoft Word - ARESE&.21

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... and (ii) the slope of cloud reflectance versus transmission. ... into a vertical velocity 9 distribution at each height. ... Observatory (BAO) tower measurements (Cess et al., ...

  8. ARM - Instrument - noaacrn

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    those considered scientifically relevant. Atmospheric temperature Precipitation Surface skin temperature Locations North Slope Alaska NSA X1 Browse Data External Data (satellites...

  9. ARM - Publications Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    research, and scientists have an important resource in the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) facilities of the ARM Climate Research Facility. The ARM Facility is being...

  10. doe sc arm 15 058-BAECCMoisseev

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Atmospheric Administration, the Federal Aviation Administration, and the North Slope Borough of the state of Alaska. The exercise scenario involved a simulated small aircraft crash ...

  11. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12, 2015 [Facility News] Seeing the Silver Lining: Challenges and Champions of Arctic Cloud Studies on Alaska's North Slope Bookmark and Share Unmanned Aircraft at Oliktok Point The AMF3 is the newest of the ARM mobile facilities and will be stationed on the North Slope for an extended period. The AMF3 is the newest of the ARM mobile facilities and will be stationed on the North Slope for an extended period. Welcome to the North Slope of Alaska, home to polar bears, caribou, arctic foxes,

  12. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the radiative quantity (radiance or flux) to the total single scattering albedo is a linear function of this quantity; its slope and intercept are wavelength-independent....

  13. An overview of the ASCOT program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doran, J.C.

    1993-09-01

    ASCOT (Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain) is a multi-laboratory U.S. Department of Energy research program studying the properties of atmospheric boundary layers over non-uniform terrain and the interactions among various scales of motion that influence those properties. Within this context, one of the principal goals of the ASCOT program is to provide information necessary for an accurate description of transport and diffusion processes for atmosphere pollutants that may be released in regions of complex terrain. Three examples from past ASCOT research relevant to this goal are presented. Current and proposed research in the Front Range region of Colorado in the vicinity of the Rocky Flats Plant is also described.

  14. Drainage Algorithm for Geospatial Knowledge

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-08-15

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a prototype stream extraction algorithm that semi-automatically extracts and characterizes streams using a variety of multisensor imagery and digital terrain elevation data (DTED) data. The system is currently optimized for three types of single-band imagery: radar, visible, and thermal. Method of Solution: DRAGON: (1) classifies pixels into clumps of water objects based on the classification of water pixels by spectral signatures and neighborhood relationships, (2) uses themore » morphology operations (erosion and dilation) to separate out large lakes (or embayment), isolated lakes, ponds, wide rivers and narrow rivers, and (3) translates the river objects into vector objects. In detail, the process can be broken down into the following steps. A. Water pixels are initially identified using on the extend range and slope values (if an optional DEM file is available). B. Erode to the distance that defines a large water body and then dilate back. The resulting mask can be used to identify large lake and embayment objects that are then removed from the image. Since this operation be time consuming it is only performed if a simple test (i.e. a large box can be found somewhere in the image that contains only water pixels) that indicates a large water body is present. C. All water pixels are ‘clumped’ (in Imagine terminology clumping is when pixels of a common classification that touch are connected) and clumps which do not contain pure water pixels (e.g. dark cloud shadows) are removed D. The resulting true water pixels are clumped and water objects which are too small (e.g. ponds) or isolated lakes (i.e. isolated objects with a small compactness ratio) are removed. Note that at this point lakes have been identified has a byproduct of the filtering process and can be output has vector layers if needed. E. At this point only river pixels are left in the image. To separate out wide rivers all objects in the image are eroded by the half width of narrow rivers. This causes all narrow rivers to be removed and leaves only the core of wide rivers. This core is dilated out by the same distance to create a mask that is used with the original river image to separate out rivers into two separate images of narrow rivers and wide rivers F. If in the image that contains wide rivers there are small isolated short (less than 300 meters if NGA criteria is used) segments these segments are transferred to the narrow river file in order to be treated has parts of single line rivers G. The narrow river file is optionally dilated and eroded. This ‘closing’ has the effect of removing small islands, filling small gaps, and smoothing the outline H. The user also has the option of ‘closing’ objects in the wide river file. However, this depends on the degree to which the user wants to remove small islands in the large rivers. I. To make the translation from raster to single vector easier the objects in the narrow river image are reduced to a single center line (i.e. thinned) with binary morphology operations.« less

  15. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SPECTROSCOPICALLY CONFIRMED GALAXIES AT z {>=} 6. II. MORPHOLOGY OF THE REST-FRAME UV CONTINUUM AND Ly{alpha} EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Linhua; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Cohen, Seth H.; Mechtley, Matthew; Egami, Eiichi; Fan Xiaohui; Dave, Romeel; Finlator, Kristian; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Ouchi, Masami; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro

    2013-08-20

    We present a detailed structural and morphological study of a large sample of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies at z {>=} 6 using deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) near-IR broad-band images and Subaru Telescope optical narrow-band images. The galaxy sample consists of 51 Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z {approx_equal} 5.7, 6.5, and 7.0, and 16 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at 5.9 {<=} z {<=} 6.5. These galaxies exhibit a wide range of rest-frame UV continuum morphology in the HST images, from compact features to multiple component systems. The fraction of merging/interacting galaxies reaches 40%-50% at the brightest end of M{sub 1500} {<=} -20.5 mag. The intrinsic half-light radii r{sub hl,in}, after correcting for point-spread function (PSF) broadening, are roughly between r{sub hl,in} {approx_equal} 0.''05 (0.3 kpc) and 0.''3 (1.7 kpc) at M{sub 1500} {<=} -19.5 mag. The median r{sub hl,in} value is 0.''16 ({approx}0.9 kpc). This is consistent with the sizes of bright LAEs and LBGs at z {>=} 6 found in previous studies. In addition, more luminous galaxies tend to be larger and exhibit a weak size-luminosity relation, r{sub hl,in}{proportional_to}L {sup 0.14} at M{sub 1500} {<=} -19.5 mag. The slope of 0.14 is significantly flatter than those in fainter LBG samples. We discuss the morphology of z {>=} 6 galaxies with nonparametric methods, including the concentration, asymmetry, and smoothness system and the Gini and M{sub 20} parameters, and demonstrate their validity through simulations. We search for extended Ly{alpha} emission halos around LAEs at z {approx_equal} 5.7 and 6.5 by stacking a number of narrow-band images. We do not find evidence of extended Ly{alpha} halos predicted by cosmological simulations. Such halos, if they exist, could be weaker than predicted. Finally, we investigate positional misalignment between the UV continuum and Ly{alpha} emissions in LAEs. While the two positions are generally consistent, several merging galaxies show significant positional differences. This is likely caused by a disturbed interstellar medium distribution due to merging activity.

  16. Over 150 years of long-term fertilization alters spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liang, Yuting; Wu, Liyou; Clark, Ian M.; Xue, Kai; Yang, Yunfeng; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; McGrath, Steve; Storkey, Jonathan; et al

    2015-04-07

    Spatial scaling is a critical issue in ecology, but how anthropogenic activities like fertilization affect spatial scaling is poorly understood, especially for microbial communities. Here, we determined the effects of long-term fertilization on the spatial scaling of microbial functional diversity and its relationships to plant diversity in the 150-year-old Park Grass Experiment, the oldest continuous grassland experiment in the world. Nested samples were taken from plots with contrasting inorganic fertilization regimes, and community DNAs were analyzed using the GeoChip-based functional gene array. The slopes of microbial gene-area relationships (GARs) and plant species-area relationships (SARs) were estimated in a plot receivingmore » nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) and a control plot without fertilization. Our results indicated that long-term inorganic fertilization significantly increased both microbial GARs and plant SARs. Microbial spatial turnover rates (i.e., z values) were less than 0.1 and were significantly higher in the fertilized plot (0.0583) than in the control plot (0.0449) (P < 0.0001). The z values also varied significantly with different functional genes involved in carbon (C), N, P, and sulfur (S) cycling and with various phylogenetic groups (archaea, bacteria, and fungi). Similarly, the plant SARs increased significantly (P < 0.0001), from 0.225 in the control plot to 0.419 in the fertilized plot. Soil fertilization, plant diversity, and spatial distance had roughly equal contributions in shaping the microbial functional community structure, while soil geochemical variables contributed less. Results indicated that long-term agricultural practice could alter the spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity. Determining the spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity and its response to human activities is important but challenging in microbial ecology. Most studies to date are based on different sites that may not be truly comparable or on short-term perturbations, and hence, the results observed could represent transient responses. This study examined the spatial patterns of microbial communities in response to different fertilization regimes at the Rothamsted Research Experimental Station, which has become an invaluable resource for ecologists, environmentalists, and soil scientists. The current study is the first showing that long-term fertilization has dramatic impacts on the spatial scaling of microbial communities. In addition, by identifying the spatial patterns in response to long-term fertilization and their underlying mechanisms, the study makes fundamental contributions to predictive understanding of microbial biogeography.« less

  17. Over 150 years of long-term fertilization alters spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Yuting; Wu, Liyou; Clark, Ian M.; Xue, Kai; Yang, Yunfeng; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; McGrath, Steve; Storkey, Jonathan; Hirsch, Penny R.; Sun, Bo; Zhou, Jizhong

    2015-04-07

    Spatial scaling is a critical issue in ecology, but how anthropogenic activities like fertilization affect spatial scaling is poorly understood, especially for microbial communities. Here, we determined the effects of long-term fertilization on the spatial scaling of microbial functional diversity and its relationships to plant diversity in the 150-year-old Park Grass Experiment, the oldest continuous grassland experiment in the world. Nested samples were taken from plots with contrasting inorganic fertilization regimes, and community DNAs were analyzed using the GeoChip-based functional gene array. The slopes of microbial gene-area relationships (GARs) and plant species-area relationships (SARs) were estimated in a plot receiving nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) and a control plot without fertilization. Our results indicated that long-term inorganic fertilization significantly increased both microbial GARs and plant SARs. Microbial spatial turnover rates (i.e., z values) were less than 0.1 and were significantly higher in the fertilized plot (0.0583) than in the control plot (0.0449) (P < 0.0001). The z values also varied significantly with different functional genes involved in carbon (C), N, P, and sulfur (S) cycling and with various phylogenetic groups (archaea, bacteria, and fungi). Similarly, the plant SARs increased significantly (P < 0.0001), from 0.225 in the control plot to 0.419 in the fertilized plot. Soil fertilization, plant diversity, and spatial distance had roughly equal contributions in shaping the microbial functional community structure, while soil geochemical variables contributed less. Results indicated that long-term agricultural practice could alter the spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity. Determining the spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity and its response to human activities is important but challenging in microbial ecology. Most studies to date are based on different sites that may not be truly comparable or on short-term perturbations, and hence, the results observed could represent transient responses. This study examined the spatial patterns of microbial communities in response to different fertilization regimes at the Rothamsted Research Experimental Station, which has become an invaluable resource for ecologists, environmentalists, and soil scientists. The current study is the first showing that long-term fertilization has dramatic impacts on the spatial scaling of microbial communities. In addition, by identifying the spatial patterns in response to long-term fertilization and their underlying mechanisms, the study makes fundamental contributions to predictive understanding of microbial biogeography.

  18. Investigation of scanning tunneling spectra on iron-based superconductor FeSe0.5Te0.5(in Chinese)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Du, Z. -Y.; Fang, D. -L.; Wang, Z. -Y.; Du, G.; Yang, X.; Yang, H.; Gu, G.; -H, Wen H.

    2015-05-05

    FeSe0.5Te0.5 single crystals with superconducting critical temperature of 13.5 K are investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) measureflents in detail. STM image on the top surface shows an atomically resolved square lattice consisted by white and dark spots with a constant of about 3.73± 0.03 Å which is consistent with the lattice constant 3.78 Å. The Se and Te atoms with a height difference of about 0.35 Å are successfully identified since the sizes of the two kinds of atoms are different. The tunneling spectra show very large zero-bias conductance value and asymmetric coherent peaks in the superconducting state. Accordingmore » to the positions of coherence peaks, we determine the superconducting gap 2Δ = 5.5 meV, and the reduced gap 2Δ/kBTc = 4.9 is larger than the value predicted by the weak-coupling BCS theory. The zero-bias conductance at 1.7 K only have a decrease of about 40% compared with the normal state conductance, which may originate from some scattering and broadening mechanism in the material. This broadening effect will also make the superconducting gap determined by the distance between the coherence peaks larger than the exact gap value. The asymmetric structure of the tunneling spectra near the superconducting gap is induced by the hump on the background. This hump appears at temperature more than twice the superconducting critical temperature. This kind of hump has also been observed in other iron pnictides and needs further investigation. A possible bosonic mode outside the coherence peak with a mode energy Ω of about 5.5 meV is observed in some tunneling spectra, and the ratio between the mode energy and superconducting transition temperature Ω/kBTc ≈ 4.7 is roughly consistent with the universal ratio 4.3 in iron-based superconductors. The high-energy background of the spectra beyond the superconducting gaps shows a V-shape feature. The slopes of the differential conductance spectra at high energy are very different in the areas of Te-atom cluster and Se-atom cluster, and the difference extends to the energy of more than 300 meV. The differential conductance mapping has very little information about the quasi-particle interference of the superconducting state, which may result from the other strong scattering mechanism in the sample.« less

  19. Measurement of Thin-film Coating Hardness in the Presence of Contamination

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Roughness: Implications for Tribology | Argonne National Laboratory Measurement of Thin-film Coating Hardness in the Presence of Contamination and Roughness: Implications for Tribology Title Measurement of Thin-film Coating Hardness in the Presence of Contamination and Roughness: Implications for Tribology Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2016 Authors Demas, N, Lorenzo-Martin, C, Ajayi, OO, Erck, RA, Shareef, I Journal Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A Start

  20. Characterization of Biocompatible Parylene-C Coatings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The ever growing demands for more functionalities andor higher efficiency and throughput ... is conformably following the rough contour of the microchannels, which is clearly ...

  1. Center for Energy Nanoscience at USC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Photovoltaics The efficiencies of organic photovoltatic (OPV) cells have increased sharply over recent years, reaching 8%, or roughly half the efficiency of commercial...

  2. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Why does friction increase with roughness to a point and then start to decrease with increasing roughness? Dear Sir/Madam, Please can you help me to explain an experiment result. My sister who is currently studying her A-level had just done her coursework on friction. Where different rough surfaces variable by the different degree on sand paper in it's energy needed to move a fixed mass upon it. They find from their result that as predicted the friction increases as the 'roughness' increases yet

  3. Energy Department to Fund R&D to Advance Low-Impact Hydropower...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    While hydropower already supplies roughly 7% of America's electricity and is the leading ... prefabricated structures, water impoundment structures, and water conveyance systems. ...

  4. Microsoft PowerPoint - Liang_JACS-2013.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (175 words) By nanostructuring the previously reported lithium ion conductor Li3PS4, we demonstrated that lithium- ion conductivity at room temperature could be improved roughly...

  5. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    additional nine stations in 2000. The entire network covers approximately 40 square kilometers roughly centered around the SGP CF. This network constitutes a single instrument to...

  6. Fact #750: October 22, 2012 Electric Vehicle Energy Requirements...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    significantly; however, compared with conventional vehicles, they are very ... By comparison, a conventional vehicle converts roughly 14-26% of the energy from fuel to ...

  7. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    barrels. This level approximated the prior week's stockdraw in addition to roughly matching the same year-ago reported stockdraw, although the February stockdraw covering...

  8. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellul...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... While dedicated energy crops like switchgrass may ultimately ... fertilization practices, harvesting and storage practices, ... to MESP is roughly linear with the enzyme loading ...

  9. Impedance spectroscopy of organic magnetoresistance devices-Effect...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 117; Journal ... POLARONS; RECOMBINATION; ROUGHNESS; SPECTROSCOPY; SURFACES; TRAPS Word Cloud More Like ...

  10. Statement on Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation and Naval Reactors...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Domestic Uranium Enrichment and Nuclear Detonation and Proliferation Detection projects. ... The R&D Proliferation Detection budget cuts of roughly 33M will cause NNSA to miss all ...

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    national forests that are included in USFS inventories, roughly 60 million acres of land. The Clinton Administration issued a previous rule in January 2001, which prohibited...

  12. Carter Co. Harding Co. Perkins Co. Dunn Co. Dawson Co. Fallon...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    BICENTENNIAL MEDICINE POLE HILLS BIG STICK ROOSEVELT ROUGH RIDER MONARCH TREE TOP LOOKOUT BUTTE BUCKHORN MEDORA FLAT TOP BUTTE ELAND DEMORES ASH COULEE WHISKEY JOE GAS CITY DAVIS ...

  13. Carter Co. Harding Co. Perkins Co. Dunn Co. Dawson Co. Fallon...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    MEDICINE POLE HILLS BICENTENNIAL ROOSEVELT BIG STICK ROUGH RIDER MONARCH TREE TOP LOOKOUT BUTTE BUCKHORN MEDORA FLAT TOP BUTTE ELAND DEMORES ASH COULEE WHISKEY JOE GAS CITY DAVIS ...

  14. Apache County, Arizona: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Houck, Arizona Lukachukai, Arizona Many Farms, Arizona McNary, Arizona Nazlini, Arizona Red Mesa, Arizona Rock Point, Arizona Rough Rock, Arizona Round Rock, Arizona Sawmill,...

  15. NREL: Energy Sciences - Solid-State Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Printable Version Solid-State Theory Image showing a roughly spherical red shape that looks like an apple that is floating within a yellow hemispherical shell....

  16. Lower Sioux Indian Community- 2010 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lower Sioux intends to continue its efforts to develop wind projects on its lands as a continuation of efforts begun roughly 20 years ago.

  17. Winning the Future: Chaninik Wind Group Pursues Innovative Solutions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Their total combined population is fewer than 2,000. With roughly 29% of village residents living below the poverty level and unemployment approaching 50%, these communities ...

  18. Department of Energy Awards Hanford River Corridor Contract To...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inc., Bechtel National Inc., CH2M Hill Inc., Eberline Services Inc., and Integrated Logistics Services Inc. The Columbia River Corridor is composed of roughly 210 square miles...

  19. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Casting at the Foundry in Romania Turbine component engineering and manufacturing - December 2011 BUILDING STRONG Runner Hub Rough Machining, Romania Foundry BUILDING STRONG ...

  20. WindCat Workboats Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind energy Product: Lancashire-based vessel operators of specific vessels for offshore wind farms. These vessels can transfer personnel in rough seas. Coordinates: 53.86121,...

  1. Recap and Conclusions to Tc/I in Hanford Flowsheet Presentations

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Recap & Conclusions to TcI in Hanford Flowsheet Presentations Gary Smith Office of Waste Processing (EM-31) November 18, 2010 2 Rough Flowsheet Diagram Tank Farm Evaporator ...

  2. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of annealing and interfacial roughness on the performance of bilayer donoracceptor polymer photovoltaic devices," Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 4329 (2010). ALS Science Highlight 218...

  3. Chapter 8: Advancing Clean Transportation and Vehicle Systems...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... This is primarily owing to their low temperature operation (roughly 80C), which allows for ... Additionally, biogas from sources such as wastewater treatment plants and landfills is ...

  4. MHK Projects/AW Energy EMEC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AW Energy successfully demonstrated a 1:3 scale prototype device at EMEC (European Marine Energy Center) in both calm and rough winter conditions. Bottom wave velocity measurements...

  5. EERE Success Story-Dow Partners with ORNL to Commercialize Advanced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Drafty buildings are a thermostat's worst enemy. Leaks around windows and a multitude of ... envelope, and is effective on rough openings where windows and doors are installed. ...

  6. Dynamo-free

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The externally applied electric field tends to drive the equilibrium away from the relaxed, minimum energy state which is roughly described by a flat normalized parallel current ...

  7. federal energy management prog | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in saving energy. Thanks in part to the technical assistance provided by FEMP, the energy intensity of Federal facilities has decreased by roughly 45% since 1975. FEMP also...

  8. Central Activator Keeps the Circadian Clock Ticking

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    utilizes an operational logic involving a central negative feedback loop that turns genes on and off rhythmically with a period of roughly 24 hours. The positive component of...

  9. The effect of a small creek valley on drainage flows in the Rocky Flats region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porch, W.

    1996-12-31

    Regional scale circulation and mountain-plain interactions and effects on boundary layer development are important for understanding the fate of an atmospheric release from Rocky Flats, Colorado. Numerical modeling of Front Range topographic effects near Rocky Flats have shown that though the Front Range dominates large scale flow features, small-scale terrain features near Rocky Flats are important to local transport during nighttime drainage flow conditions. Rocky Flats has been the focus of interest for the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program.

  10. recycling

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    6%2A en Y-12's rough roads smoothed over with 23,000 tons of recycled asphalt http:nnsa.energy.govblogy%E2%80%9112%E2%80%99s-rough-roads-smoothed-over-23000-tons-recycled-asph...

  11. Mobility platform coupling device and method for coupling mobility platforms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.; Buttz, James H.

    2002-01-01

    A coupling device for connecting a first mobility platform to a second mobility platform in tandem. An example mobility platform is a robot. The coupling device has a loose link mode for normal steering conditions and a locking position, tight link mode for navigation across difficult terrain and across obstacles, for traversing chasms, and for navigating with a reduced footprint in tight steering conditions.

  12. CX-100307 Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wind Forecasting Improvement Project In Complex Terrain Near The Columbia River Gorge Award Number: DE-EE0006898 CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1 Wind Energy Technologies Office Date: 07/15/2015 Location(s): CO Office(s): Golden Field Office

  13. CX-100311 Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NREL- Wind Forecast Improvement Project in Complex Terrain (WFIP2) - NREL Tracking No. 15-020 Award Number: DE-AC36-08GO28308 CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B3.1 National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Date: 07/13/15 Location(s): OR Office(s): Golden Field Office

  14. AmeriFlux US-Brw Barrow

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Oechel, Walt [San Diego State University; Zona, Donatella [San Diego State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Brw Barrow. Site Description - The local landscape surrounding the Barrow site has a history absent of any disturbances. The terrain was not heavily glaciated during the last period of glaciation. The vegetation is mature in an unmanaged and undisturbed Arctic tundra.

  15. Route profile analysis system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullenhoff, Donald J.; Wilson, Stephen W.

    1986-01-01

    A system for recording terrain profile information is disclosed. The system accurately senses incremental distances traveled by a vehicle along with vehicle inclination, recording both with elapsed time. The incremental distances can subsequently be differentiated with respect to time to obtain acceleration. The acceleration can then be used by the computer to correct the sensed inclination.

  16. Tandem robot control system and method for controlling mobile robots in tandem

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayward, David R.; Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.

    2002-01-01

    A control system for controlling mobile robots provides a way to control mobile robots, connected in tandem with coupling devices, to navigate across difficult terrain or in closed spaces. The mobile robots can be controlled cooperatively as a coupled system in linked mode or controlled individually as separate robots.

  17. CX-100307 Categorical Exclusion Determination07

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wind Forecasting Improvement Project In Complex Terrain Near The Columbia River Gorge Award Number: DE-EE0006898 CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1 Wind Energy Technologies Office Date: 07/15/2015 Location(s): CO Office(s): Golden Field Office

  18. Weather Research and Forecasting Model with the Immersed Boundary Method

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-05-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model with the immersed boundary method is an extension of the open-source WRF Model available for wwww.wrf-model.org. The new code modifies the gridding procedure and boundary conditions in the WRF model to improve WRF's ability to simutate the atmosphere in environments with steep terrain and additionally at high-resolutions.

  19. Route profile analysis system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullenhoff, D.J.; Wilson, S.W.

    1982-07-29

    A system for recording terrain profile information is disclosed. The system accurately senses incremental distances traveled by a vehicle along with vehicle inclination, recording both with elapsed time. The incremental distances can subsequently be differentiated with respect to time to obtain acceleration. The computer acceleration can then be used to correct the sensed inclination.

  20. Control algorithms for autonomous robot navigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgensen, C.C.

    1985-09-20

    This paper examines control algorithm requirements for autonomous robot navigation outside laboratory environments. Three aspects of navigation are considered: navigation control in explored terrain, environment interactions with robot sensors, and navigation control in unanticipated situations. Major navigation methods are presented and relevance of traditional human learning theory is discussed. A new navigation technique linking graph theory and incidental learning is introduced.

  1. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Phillips; Dan Moos; Don Clarke; John Nguyen; Kwasi Tagbor; Roy Koerner; Scott Walker

    1997-04-10

    This project is intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  2. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management, Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott; Phillips, Chris; Nguyen, John; Moos, Dan; Tagbor, Kwasi

    2001-08-07

    This project was intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs, transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  3. Using a Neural Network to Determine the Hatch Status of the AERI at the ARM

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    North Slope of Alaska Site (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Using a Neural Network to Determine the Hatch Status of the AERI at the ARM North Slope of Alaska Site Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Using a Neural Network to Determine the Hatch Status of the AERI at the ARM North Slope of Alaska Site The fore-optics of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) are protected by an automated hatch to prevent precipitation from fouling the instrument's scene mirror

  4. Using a Neural Network to Determine the Hatch Status of the AERI at the ARM

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    North Slope of Alaska Site (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Using a Neural Network to Determine the Hatch Status of the AERI at the ARM North Slope of Alaska Site Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Using a Neural Network to Determine the Hatch Status of the AERI at the ARM North Slope of Alaska Site × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is

  5. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4, 2006 [Facility News] Arctic Research on Senator's Screen Bookmark and Share Senator Ted Stevens (R-Alaska) recently visited the North Slope of Alaska site in Barrow. In late October, U.S. Senator Ted Stevens (R-Alaska), his staff, and executive staff from the Arctic Slope Regional Corporation (ASRC) visited the ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site in Barrow. Site operations staff showed the visitors around the site's instrument shelter and explained how scientists use data from the site for

  6. Benchmarking the x-ray phase contrast imaging for ICF DT ice characterization using roughened surrogates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewald, E; Kozioziemski, B; Moody, J; Koch, J; Mapoles, E; Montesanti, R; Youngblood, K; Letts, S; Nikroo, A; Sater, J; Atherton, J

    2008-06-26

    We use x-ray phase contrast imaging to characterize the inner surface roughness of DT ice layers in capsules planned for future ignition experiments. It is therefore important to quantify how well the x-ray data correlates with the actual ice roughness. We benchmarked the accuracy of our system using surrogates with fabricated roughness characterized with high precision standard techniques. Cylindrical artifacts with azimuthally uniform sinusoidal perturbations with 100 um period and 1 um amplitude demonstrated 0.02 um accuracy limited by the resolution of the imager and the source size of our phase contrast system. Spherical surrogates with random roughness close to that required for the DT ice for a successful ignition experiment were used to correlate the actual surface roughness to that obtained from the x-ray measurements. When comparing average power spectra of individual measurements, the accuracy mode number limits of the x-ray phase contrast system benchmarked against surface characterization performed by Atomic Force Microscopy are 60 and 90 for surrogates smoother and rougher than the required roughness for the ice. These agreement mode number limits are >100 when comparing matching individual measurements. We will discuss the implications for interpreting DT ice roughness data derived from phase-contrast x-ray imaging.

  7. A comparison of several surface finish measurement methods as applied to ground ceramic and metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, P.J.; Martin, R.L.; Riester, L.

    1996-01-01

    Surface finish is one of the most common measures of surface quality of ground ceramics and metal parts and a wide variety of methods and parameters have been developed to measure it. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the surface roughness parameters obtained on the same two specimens from three different types of measuring instruments: a traditional mechanical stylus system, a non-contact laser scanning system, and the atomic force microscope (two different AFM systems were compared). The same surface-ground silicon nitride and Inconel 625 alloy specimens were used for all measurements in this investigation. Significant differences in arithmetic average roughness, root-mean-square roughness, and peak-to-valley roughness were obtained when comparing data from the various topography measuring instruments. Non-contact methods agreed better with the others on the metal specimen than on the ceramic specimen. Reasons for these differences include the effective dimensions and geometry of the probe with respect to the surface topography; the reflectivity of the surface, and the type of filtering scheme Results of this investigation emphasize the importance of rigorously specifying the manner of surface roughness measurement when either reporting roughness data or when requesting that roughness data be provided.

  8. Ultralow loss cavities and waveguides scattering loss cancellation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rakich, Peter T

    2014-01-07

    A waveguide system includes a first waveguide having surface roughness along at least one surface and a second waveguide substantially identical to the first waveguide and having substantially identical surface roughness along a corresponding side. The first and second waveguides are separated from each other by a predermined distance and are configured to receive respective first and second light signals having antisymmetric modes. The predetermined distance between the first and second waveguide tends to cause cancellation of at least far-field polarization radiation emanating from the first and second waveguides and resulting from surface roughness.

  9. A Lapping Technique for Metallic, Alpha-Phase, Plutonium: Achieving and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Measuring Nano-Meter Roughness and Sub-Micron Flatness (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: A Lapping Technique for Metallic, Alpha-Phase, Plutonium: Achieving and Measuring Nano-Meter Roughness and Sub-Micron Flatness Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Lapping Technique for Metallic, Alpha-Phase, Plutonium: Achieving and Measuring Nano-Meter Roughness and Sub-Micron Flatness Authors: Wall, M A ; Blobaum, K J Publication Date: 2014-03-31 OSTI Identifier: 1136178

  10. Cone Penetrometer Shear Strength Measurements of Sludge Waste in Tanks 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Follett, Jordan R.

    2014-03-06

    This document presents the resulting shear strength profiles for sludge waste in Tanks 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106, as determined with a full-flow cone penetrometer. Full-flow penetrometer measurements indicate shear strength profiles that increase roughly uniformly with depth. For Tank 241-AN-101, the undrained shear strength was calculated to range from 500 Pa near the sludge surface to roughly 3,300 Pa at 15 inches above the tank bottom. For 241-AN-106, the undrained shear strength was calculated to range from 500 Pa near the sludge surface to roughly 5,000 Pa at 15 inches above the tank bottom.

  11. Microsoft Word - FCT 2008-final.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... The apron outfall, midway along the northeast side slope, is not yet affected by grass encroachment. Grass in the rock drains may actually assist in dissipating the energy of site ...

  12. 2015 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Vegetation encroachment continues on the top and side slopes of the disposal cell. Encroachment is a natural process operating at this location and will be allowed to continue in ...

  13. SXR Continuum Radiation Transmitted Through Metallic Filters...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... SXR emission in multiple energy ranges and using the intensity profiles and their ratios to determine the "slope" of the SXR continuum radiation constrained solely by T e (R, t). ...

  14. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... relatively short, we can synchronize the e-beam with the laser at the slope region of the intensity envelope, and the amplitude of each energy modulation period will be different. ...

  15. Carderock Tow Tank 2 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The wave absorber spans the full width of the basin at the end opposite the wavemaker dome, the absorbers are a discontinuous 12 degree slope type made up of 12 permeable layers...

  16. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Forcing Over the Beaufort Sea and North Slope of Alaska Key, E.L.(a), Minnett, P.J.(a), Evans, R.H.(a), and Papakyriakou, T.N.(b), University of Miami, RSMAS (a), University of...

  17. Microsoft Word - NAD 2008-final.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... wells were secure and in good condition. 13.3.1.2 Transects To ensure a thorough and efficient inspection, the site is divided into four transects: (1) the riprap-covered top slope ...

  18. Numerical simulation experiments on the long-term evolution of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the long-term evolution of a CO2 plume under a sloping caprock Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Numerical simulation experiments on the long-term evolution of a CO2 plume ...

  19. Lodging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the east, where sunsets turn the western slopes a vibrant red. We hope you enjoy your stay in the Land of Enchantment. There are several hotels in and around Los Alamos ready to...

  20. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Crude Oil Prices Table 18. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I PAD District II U.S. Average Less AK North Slope ...

  1. Flux and Photon Spectral Index Distributions of Fermi-LAT Blazars...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    by a broken power law of slopes -2.37 +- 0.13 ... DOE Contract Number: AC02-76SF00515 Resource Type: Journal ... Email address: Content: Close Send Cite: MLA Format Close ...

  2. ARM - Campaign Instrument - ircc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Download Data North Slope Alaska, 2012.07.16 - 2014.07.31 IR Cloud Camera Feasibility Study Download Data Southern Great Plains, 2010.12.06 - 2010.12.13 Primary...

  3. Using a Neural Network to Determine the Hatch Status of the AERI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Using a Neural Network to Determine the Hatch Status of the AERI at the ARM North Slope of Alaska Site The fore-optics of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer ...

  4. Microsoft Word - FOI 2014-00551.Final with enclosures.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Barbara O'Neill Grant County Public Works 124 Enterprise Street, SE Ephrata, Washington ... United States to Grant County for the roads in Hanford ReachWahluke SlopeSaddle Mtns." ...

  5. Figure 6. Projected Production for the Low Development Rate of Technically

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Recoverable Oil 6. Projected Production for the Low Development Rate of Technically Recoverable Oil Estimated at 5 Percent, Mean, and 95 Percent Probabilities for the ANWR Coastal Plain of the Alaska North Slope fig6.jpg (41132

  6. Tracking multiple generation and suppression of secondary electrons on periodic triangular surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S.; Wang, J. G.; Zhu, M.; Peng, J. C.; Xie, J. L.; Wu, X. L.; Guo, L. T.; Chang, C.; Xiong, Z. F.; Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 10084

    2013-12-15

    To research the dynamic course of multipactor suppression on the periodically patterned surface, tens of electron collision processes are tracked by numerical calculation. The influences of microwave frequency, amplitude of RF electric field, slope angle, the local field enhancement, and the tilted incident electric field on the multipactor suppression are studied by tracking multi-generation electrons' trajectories, hopping and flight time, collision energy, and secondary emission yield. Meanwhile, the dynamic processes of secondary electrons on the periodic surface are analyzed by particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The PIC results are consistent with the analytical results in which the electrons fly reciprocatingly between the slopes and impact on the slopes; the methods of increasing the slope angle, enlarging the RF field, and lowering the frequency in a certain range are helpful to enhance the multipactor suppression steadily and persistently.

  7. 05663_AlaskaHeavyOil | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DE-NT0005663 Goal The goal of this project is to improve recovery of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) heavy oil resources in the Ugnu formation by improving our understanding of the ...

  8. Quarterly Technical Progress Report *** SAMPLE *...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... drive signal due to the change in the sign of the slope ... The entire laser optical system was mounted inside a safety interlocked box to meet the Class 1 laser requirements for ...

  9. A comparison of model short-range forecasts and the ARM Microbase...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the text) at three sites: the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Tropical West Pacific (TWP) and the Southern Great Plains (SGP) and compare these observations to model forecast data. ...

  10. ARM - Campaign Instrument - pdlidar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Download Data North Slope Alaska, 2004.09.01 - 2004.10.21 Remote Cloud Sensing (RCS) Field Evaluation Download Data Southern Great Plains, 1994.04.01 - 1994.05.31...

  11. ARM - Campaign Instrument - citation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Download Data North Slope Alaska, 2004.09.27 - 2004.10.21 Remote Cloud Sensing (RCS) Field Evaluation Download Data Southern Great Plains, 1994.04.01 - 1994.05.31...

  12. ARM - 2006 ARM Science Team Meeting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the 2004 North Slope of Alaska Winter Radiometric Experiment 11:00 am - 11:15 am Dave Turner: Clouds with Low Liquid Water Path: An Update from CLOWD Research Reports from the AWG...

  13. Metrology for Industry for use in the Manufacture of Grazing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Deflectometry (SRD) and whether shearing methods had the sensitivity to be able to separate errors in the test equipment from slope error in the unit under test (UUT), or mirror. ...

  14. ARM - Campaign Instrument - mwr-etl

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - ETL (MWR-ETL) Instrument Categories Atmospheric Profiling Campaigns Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP Download Data North Slope Alaska, 2004.03.09 - 2004.04.09 Fall 1997...

  15. Cr/sup 3 +/-doped colquiriite solid state laser material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, S.A.; Chase, L.L.; Newkirk, H.W.; Krupke, W.F.

    1988-03-31

    Chromium doped colquiriite, LiCaAlF/sub 6/:Cr/sup 3 +/, is useful as a tunable laser crystal that has a high intrinsic slope efficiency, comparable to or exceeding that of alexandrite, the current leading performer of vibronic sideband Cr/sup 3 +/ lasers. The laser output is tunable from at least 720 nm to 840 nm with a measured slope efficiency of about 60% in a Kr laser pumped laser configuration. The intrinsic slope efficiency (in the limit of large output coupling) may approach the quantum defect limited value of 83%. The high slope efficiency implies that excited state absorption (ESA) is negligible. The potential for efficiency and the tuning range of this material satisfy the requirements for a pump laser for a high density storage medium incorporating Nd/sup 3 +/ or Tm/sup 3 +/ for use in a multimegajoule single shot fusion research facility. 4 figs.

  16. Unique environmental remediation project on steep canyon successfully...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and soil from the parking lot of a busy shopping center. July 29, 2015 A telescoping crane hoists a spider excavator over Los Alamos Canyon before placing it on the canyon slope...

  17. Microsoft Word - Rapid Reflective Facet Characterization Using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... VSHOT uses a laser, reflected off the facet, and a target to characterize the location of the reflected vector. From this, the surface slope at each selected location can be ...

  18. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Filter by Author Turner, DD (1) Zwink, AB (1) Save Results Save this search to My Library ... Slope of Alaska Site Zwink, AB ; Turner, DD The fore-optics of the Atmospheric Emitted ...

  19. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (AERIs) were operated at the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) Ice Camp from November 1997 until June 1998 and at the North Slope of AlaskaAdjacent Arctic...

  20. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Clear Sky, Longwave, Radiative Transfer at the North Slope of Alaska CART Site: A Mini QME Delamere, J.S.(a), Clough, S.A.(a), Mlawer, E.J.(a), Shephard, M.W.(a), and Stamnes,...

  1. Watersheds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and canyons on LANL property or falls in the Santa Fe National Forest and runs down the slopes and canyons. LANL protects surface runoff through sediment and stormwater controls....

  2. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 This Set-Aside Area was one of the original habitat reserves and was selected to represent oak-hickory forest communities found on transitional mesic slopes that merge with...

  3. Recommended Best Practices for Characterizing Engineering Properties...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... and 3. the Langmuir theory can be applied to each layer. ... The slope A and the y- intercept I of the data line are used ... Neutron transmission imaging methods allow investigations ...

  4. Comparison summary (key metrics and multiples)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... Early Concern Over Slope Instability 10 (from McIver,1982) Cause Turbidity Currents Act as ... Documented Gas Release from the Seafloor 38 Sea surface Seafloor 100m ocean shear? 800m ...

  5. Development of laser-excited molecular luminescence spectrometric methods for polynuclear atomatic hydrocarbons in environmental samples. Progress report, September 1, 1979-April 1, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winefordner, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Fluorescence and phosphorescence of several PAH's were studied for use in chemical analysis. Data are given for lifetime, heavy atom effect, maxima, spectral slopes, limit of detection, and RSD. 12 tables. (DLC)

  6. Sunrooms and Sunspaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of auxiliary heat, they provide space to grow plants, and they are pleasant living areas. ... If its primary function will be heating, a sunspace with sloped glazing, few plants, ...

  7. Cover crops for erosion control in bioenergy hardwood plantations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with complete competition control. Small berms were built to direct runoff to a sediment fence installed at the down slope ends of each plot. Soil erosion is measured by...

  8. BPA-2012-01929-FOIA Request

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    need for BMFs is addressed on a site specific basis by the erosion and sediment control lead and is dependant on soil, type of construction, slope, wind, weather and potential...

  9. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab to perform slope-side cleanup near Smith's Marketplace May 1, 2015 Reducing historical footprint through environmental cleanup LOS ALAMOS, N.M., May 1, 2015- Los Alamos ...

  10. SOLVENT-BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES TO DEVELOP WEST...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SOLVENT-BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES TO DEVELOP WEST SAK ALASKA NORTH SLOPE HEAVY OIL RESOURCES Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SOLVENT-BASED ENHANCED OIL ...

  11. ARM - Feature Stories and Releases Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the G--1 carried out airborne measurements over Alaska's North Slope flying so-called tundra flights just 500 feet above ground in rectangle-shaped flight patterns. Most tundra...

  12. Figure 8. Technically Recoverable and Commercially Developable...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    for the ANWR 1002 Area of the Alaska North Slope fig8.jpg (38547 bytes) Source: United States Geological Survey, "Economics of Undiscovered Oil in the 1002 Area of the Arctic ...

  13. Watersheds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and canyons on LANL property or falls in the Santa Fe National Forest and runs down the slopes and canyons. LANL protects surface runoff through sediment and stormwater controls.

  14. ARM - NSA Atqasuk Facility-Inactive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Slope of Alaska site, was installed the summer of 1999 off of a road near the Atqasuk Airport and operated through 2010. Located approximately 70 miles south of Barrow, Atqasuk is...

  15. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... In the halo model framework, bias is scale dependent with a change of slope at the ... We use N-body simulations to quantify both the amount of cosmic variance and systematic ...

  16. 1663_24_WEB-FINAL.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1663 May 2015 1663 May 2015 13 ON THE SLOPES OF PICO DE ORIZABA, the highest peak in Mexico and third highest in North America, lies the newest addition to the astronomical...

  17. Arctic Clouds Infrared Imaging Field Campaign Report (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a passive thermal imaging system, was deployed at the North Slope of Alaska site in Barrow, Alaska, from July 2012 to July 2014 for measuring spatial-temporal cloud statistics. ...

  18. ARM - XDC Data Viewers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    allows the user to view thumbnails for entire day or loop through the images in an animation. NSA AVHRR satellite Images: Hourly AVHRR images covering the North Slope of Alaska....

  19. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    North Slope of Alaska (NSA) is home to one of the ARM Program's outdoor research sites. The NSA site has locations in the towns of Barrow and Atqasuk. These areas are important...

  20. tuba.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Runoff water flows down the 25-percent side slopes into the surrounding rock apron. The cell location and design were selected to minimize the potential for erosion from wind or ...

  1. Maybell, Colorado, Disposal Site Fact Sheet

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... over compacted tailings), (2) a frost protection layer, (3) a bedding layer, and (4) a layer of rock (riprap) on the top and side slopes to protect against wind and water erosion. ...

  2. Lakeview, Oregon, Processing and Disposal Sites Fact Sheet

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... a soilrock matrix layer on the top and rock (riprap) on the side slopes to protect against wind and water erosion. The top of the disposal cell supports native brush and grasses. ...

  3. maybell.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... This final rock layer protects the cell against wind and water erosion and discourages cell intrusion. Maximum cell surface grades are 3 percent on the top slope and 20 percent on ...

  4. Linear relationship between water wetting behavior and microscopic interactions of super-hydrophilic surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jian; Guo, Pan; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 ; Wang, Chunlei; Shi, Guosheng Fang, Haiping

    2013-12-21

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show a fine linear relationship between surface energies and microscopic Lennard-Jones parameters of super-hydrophilic surfaces. The linear slope of the super-hydrophilic surfaces is consistent with the linear slope of the super-hydrophobic, hydrophobic, and hydrophilic surfaces where stable water droplets can stand, indicating that there is a universal linear behavior of the surface energies with the water-surface van der Waals interaction that extends from the super-hydrophobic to super-hydrophilic surfaces. Moreover, we find that the linear relationship exists for various substrate types, and the linear slopes of these different types of substrates are dependent on the surface atom density, i.e., higher surface atom densities correspond to larger linear slopes. These results enrich our understanding of water behavior on solid surfaces, especially the water wetting behaviors on uncharged super-hydrophilic metal surfaces.

  5. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ISDAC weather patterns Hans Verlinde and Chad Bahrmann NSA Site Scientist Team Upper-level trough in Aleutians - Bering Strait area Upper-level jet south of Alaska - North Slope in...

  6. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climatology of the North Slope of Alaska and the Adjacent Arctic Ocean C. Marty, R. Storvold, and X. Xiong Geophysical Institute University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska K. H. Stamnes Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, New Jersey B. D. Zak Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico Introduction Recent climate modeling results point to the Arctic as a region that is particularly sensitive to global climate change (e.g., IPCC 1997). The North Slope of Alaska-Adjacent Arctic Ocean

  7. Fact Sheet U.S. Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. Department of Energy North Slope of alaska The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility established climate research sites on the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), to provide data about cloud and radiative processes in cold environments and high latitudes. It is widely believed the polar regions are more affected by changing climate associated with global warming than any other area in the world. Comprehensive measurements from ARM's

  8. Metrology for Industry for use in the Manufacture of Grazing Incidence Beam

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Line Mirrors (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Metrology for Industry for use in the Manufacture of Grazing Incidence Beam Line Mirrors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Metrology for Industry for use in the Manufacture of Grazing Incidence Beam Line Mirrors The goal of this SBIR was to determine the slope sensitivity of Specular Reflection Deflectometry (SRD) and whether shearing methods had the sensitivity to be able to separate errors in the test equipment from slope error in

  9. Correlated-Intensity velocimeter for Arbitrary Reflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhehui; Luo, Shengnian; Barnes, Cris W.; Paul, Stephen F.

    2008-11-11

    A velocimetry apparatus and method comprising splitting incoming reflected laser light and directing the laser light into first and second arms, filtering the laser light with passband filters in the first and second arms, one having a positive passband slope and the other having a negative passband slope, and detecting the filtered laser light via light intensity detectors following the passband filters in the first and second arms

  10. fe0025387-Petrotechnical-Resources | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Support for Methane Hydrate Research on the Alaska North Slope Last Reviewed 1/15/2016 DE-FE0025387 Goal The objective of this contract between the Department of Energy (DOE) and Petrotechnical Resources of Alaska (PRA) is to provide specific planning, analytical, arctic engineering, and environmental services associated with the potential drilling of methane hydrate stratigraphic test well(s) and a long-term methane hydrate production test well on the North Slope of Alaska. Performer

  11. Methane Hydrate Field Studies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Field Studies Methane Hydrate Field Studies Arctic/Alaska North Slope Field Studies Since 2001, DOE has conducted field trials of exploration and production technology in the Alaska North Slope. Although Alaska methane hydrate resources are smaller than marine deposits and currently lack outlets to commercial markets, Alaska provides an excellent laboratory to study E&P technology. The research also has implications for various Alaska resources, including potential gas hydrate resources for

  12. DE-FC26-06NT42962-P1 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P1 Phase 1 - Characterization and Qualification of the Methane Hydrate Resource Potential Associated with the Barrow Gas Fields DE-FC26-06NT42962 Project Goal The goal of this project is to characterize and quantify the postulated gas hydrate resource associated with the Barrow Gas Fields - three producing fields located in a permafrost region near Barrow, the North Slope's biggest population center and economic hub. Map of the North Slope Borough showing the location of its eight major

  13. DE-FE0010180 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gas Hydrate Dynamics on the Alaskan Beaufort Continental Slope: Modeling and Field Characterization Last Reviewed 11/27/2015 DE-FE0010180/DE-FE0005806 Goal The goal of this research is to assess the contemporary state of the upper continental slope along U.S. coastal margins to determine if gas hydrates are in equilibrium with present-day climate conditions Performers Southern Methodist University (SMU) - Dallas, TX Oregon State University (OSU) - Corvallis, OR US Geological Survey (USGS) -

  14. DE-NT0005683 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    North Slope Decision Support for Water Resource Planning and Management Last Reviewed 6/26/2013 DE-NT0005683 Goal The goal of this project is to develop a general scientific, engineering, and technological support system for water resources planning and management related to oil and gas development on the North Slope of Alaska. Such a system will aid in developing solutions to economic, environmental, and cultural concerns. Performers University of Alaska Fairbanks Systems, Fairbanks, AK

  15. Environmental Remediation program completes legacy mercury cleanup near

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Smith's Marketplace Stories » Legacy slope-side cleanup Environmental Remediation program completes legacy mercury cleanup near Smith's Marketplace Los Alamos National Laboratory performed a high-angle canyon-side cleanup on U.S. Department of Energy property just south of Smith's Marketplace. May 1, 2015 A telescoping crane hoists a spider excavator over Los Alamos Canyon before placing it on the canyon slope to excavate historically contaminated soil. In ongoing efforts to reduce the

  16. ARM Southern Great Plains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    With the rapid changes in the arctic environment, the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) has become a focal point for atmospheric and ecological research. Since 1997, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility has gathered climate data at its NSA site in Barrow, the northernmost city in the United States located on the edge of the Arctic Ocean. The ARM Facility established multiple climate research sites on the North Slope to provide data about Arctic clouds and

  17. artic_ene_office | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Arctic Energy Office image showing Alaska landscape Alaska North Slope Resources Alaska Unconventional Resources Challenges/Shortages Program Factsheet Alaska's fossil energy resources will likely play a greater role in meeting the nation's energy needs in the future. Alaska holds about one-fifth of America's remaining proved oil reserves, large accumulations of associated natural gas awaiting a means to reach a market, and over half of the nation's coal resources. When stranded North Slope

  18. 01240_NStransportation | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alaska North Slope Oil and Gas Transportation Support System Last Reviewed 6/3/2014 DE-FE0001240 Goal The primary objectives of this project are to develop analysis and management tools related to Arctic transportation networks (e.g., ice and snow road networks) that are critical to North Slope, Alaska oil and gas development. Performers Geo-Watersheds Scientific, Fairbanks, AK 99708 University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 Background

  19. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    October 15, 2005 [Facility News] Room to Share-New Guest Facility Ready for Users at North Slope of Alaska Bookmark and Share In September, installation was completed on the new Guest Instrument Facility in Barrow to provide additional space and ease crowded conditions. To alleviate crowded conditions at its research facilities on the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site in Barrow, ARM operations staff recently completed the installation of a new Guest Instrument Facility. Similar to the platform at

  20. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: New Tradition Homes, Vancouver, WA

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Tradition Homes of Vancouver, Washington, partnered with Building America to design homes that achieved HERS scores of 65 or less. The homes were designed with ducts in conditioned space and incorporated moisture management techniques for durability in the damp Northwest climate. For homes built with crawlspaces, New Tradition employs extensive grading so that the ground slopes away from the home on all sides. Below grade, a sloped trench is dug diagonally across the crawlspace that exits to a