National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for rough rotten salvageable

  1. Salvaged castings and methods of salvaging castings with defective cast cooling bumps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert Alan; Schaeffer, Jon Conrad; Lee, Ching-Pang; Abuaf, Nesim; Hasz, Wayne Charles

    2002-01-01

    Castings for gas turbine parts exposed on one side to a high-temperature fluid medium have cast-in bumps on an opposite cooling surface side to enhance heat transfer. Areas on the cooling surface having defectively cast bumps, i.e., missing or partially formed bumps during casting, are coated with a braze alloy and cooling enhancement material to salvage the part.

  2. Biohydrogen production from rotten orange with immobilized mixed culture: Effect of immobilization media for various composition of substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damayanti, Astrilia; Sarto,; Syamsiah, Siti; Sediawan, Wahyudi B.

    2015-12-29

    Enriched–immobilized mixed culture was utilized to produce biohydrogen in mesophilic condition under anaerobic condition using rotten orange as substrate. The process was conducted in batch reactors for 100 hours. Microbial cultures from three different sources were subject to a series of enrichment and immobilized in two different types of media, i.e. calcium alginate (CA, 2%) and mixture of alginate and activated carbon (CAC, 1:1). The performance of immobilized culture in each media was tested for biohydrogen production using four different substrate compositions, namely orange meat (OM), orange meat added with peel (OMP), orange meat added with limonene (OML), and mixture of orange meat and peel added with limonene (OMPL). The results show that, with immobilized culture in CA, the variation of substrate composition gave significant effect on the production of biohydrogen. The highest production of biohydrogen was detected for substrate containing only orange meet, i.e. 2.5%, which was about 3-5 times higher than biohydrogen production from other compositions of substrate. The use of immobilized culture in CAC in general has increased the hydrogen production by 2-7 times depending on the composition of substrate, i.e. 5.4%, 4.8%, 5.1%, and 4.4% for OM, OMP, OML, and OMPL, respectively. The addition of activated carbon has eliminated the effect of inhibitory compounds in the substrate. The major soluble metabolites were acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid.

  3. Does surface roughness amplify wetting?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malijevský, Alexandr

    2014-11-14

    Any solid surface is intrinsically rough on the microscopic scale. In this paper, we study the effect of this roughness on the wetting properties of hydrophilic substrates. Macroscopic arguments, such as those leading to the well-known Wenzel's law, predict that surface roughness should amplify the wetting properties of such adsorbents. We use a fundamental measure density functional theory to demonstrate the opposite effect from roughness for microscopically corrugated surfaces, i.e., wetting is hindered. Based on three independent analyses we show that microscopic surface corrugation increases the wetting temperature or even makes the surface hydrophobic. Since for macroscopically corrugated surfaces the solid texture does indeed amplify wetting there must exist a crossover between two length-scale regimes that are distinguished by opposite response on surface roughening. This demonstrates how deceptive can be efforts to extend the thermodynamical laws beyond their macroscopic territory.

  4. Electrokinetic transport in microchannels with random roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Moran [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kang, Qinjun [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We present a numerical framework to model the electrokinetic transport in microchannels with random roughness. The three-dimensional microstructure of the rough channel is generated by a random generation-growth method with three statistical parameters to control the number density, the total volume fraction, and the anisotropy characteristics of roughness elements. The governing equations for the electrokinetic transport are solved by a high-efficiency lattice Poisson?Boltzmann method in complex geometries. The effects from the geometric characteristics of roughness on the electrokinetic transport in microchannels are therefore modeled and analyzed. For a given total roughness volume fraction, a higher number density leads to a lower fluctuation because of the random factors. The electroosmotic flow rate increases with the roughness number density nearly logarithmically for a given volume fraction of roughness but decreases with the volume fraction for a given roughness number density. When both the volume fraction and the number density of roughness are given, the electroosmotic flow rate is enhanced by the increase of the characteristic length along the external electric field direction but is reduced by that in the direction across the channel. For a given microstructure of the rough microchannel, the electroosmotic flow rate decreases with the Debye length. It is found that the shape resistance of roughness is responsible for the flow rate reduction in the rough channel compared to the smooth channel even for very thin double layers, and hence plays an important role in microchannel electroosmotic flows.

  5. Y-12 old salvage yard scrap metal characterization study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, L.M.; Melton, S.G.; Shaw, S.S.

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of the Y-12 Old Salvage Yard scrap metal Characterization Study is to make conservative estimates of the quantities of total uranium and the wt % {sup 235}U contained in scrap metal. The original project scope included estimates of thorium, but due to the insignificant quantities found in the yards, thorium was excluded from further analysis. Metal in three of the four Y-12 scrap metal yards were characterized. The scrap metal yard east of the PIDAS fence is managed by the Environmental Restoration Program and therefore was not included in this study. For all Y-12 Plant scrap metal shipments, Waste Transportation, Storage, and Disposal (WTSD) personnel must complete a Request for Authorization to Ship Nuclear Materials, UCN-16409, which requires the grams of total uranium, the wt % {sup 235}U, and the grams of {sup 235}U contained in the shipment. This information is necessary to ensure compliance with Department of Transportation regulations, as well as to ensure that the receiving facility is adhering to its operating license. This characterization study was designed to provide a technical basis for determining these necessary radioactive quantities.

  6. Salvage Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases: Prognostic Factors to Consider in Patient Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, Goldie; Zadeh, Gelareh; Gingras-Hill, Geneviève; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Laperriere, Normand J.; Bernstein, Mark; Jiang, Haiyan; Ménard, Cynthia; Chung, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is offered to patients for recurrent brain metastases after prior brain radiation therapy (RT), but few studies have evaluated the efficacy of salvage SRS or factors to consider in selecting patients for this treatment. This study reports overall survival (OS), intracranial progression-free survival (PFS), and local control (LC) after salvage SRS, and factors associated with outcomes. Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective review of patients treated from 2009 to 2011 with salvage SRS after prior brain RT for brain metastases. Survival from salvage SRS and from initial brain metastases diagnosis (IBMD) was calculated. Univariate and multivariable (MVA) analyses included age, performance status, recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class, extracranial disease control, and time from initial RT to salvage SRS. Results: There were 106 patients included in the analysis with a median age of 56.9 years (range 32.5-82 years). A median of 2 metastases were treated per patient (range, 1-12) with a median dose of 21 Gy (range, 12-24) prescribed to the 50% isodose. With a median follow-up of 10.5 months (range, 0.1-68.2), LC was 82.8%, 60.1%, and 46.8% at 6 months, 1 year, and 3 years, respectively. Median PFS was 6.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.9-7.6). Median OS was 11.7 months (95% CI = 8.1-13) from salvage SRS, and 22.1 months from IBMD (95% CI = 18.4-26.8). On MVA, age (P=.01; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.01-1.07), extracranial disease control (P=.004; HR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.27-0.78), and interval from initial RT to salvage SRS of at least 265 days (P=.001; HR = 2.46; 95% CI = 1.47-4.09) were predictive of OS. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that patients can have durable local control and survival after salvage SRS for recurrent brain metastases. In particular, younger patients with controlled extracranial disease and a durable response to initial brain RT are likely to benefit from salvage SRS.

  7. Wetting properties of molecularly rough surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svoboda, Martin; Lísal, Martin; Malijevský, Alexandr

    2015-09-14

    We employ molecular dynamics simulations to study the wettability of nanoscale rough surfaces in systems governed by Lennard-Jones (LJ) interactions. We consider both smooth and molecularly rough planar surfaces. Solid substrates are modeled as a static collection of LJ particles arranged in a face-centered cubic lattice with the (100) surface exposed to the LJ fluid. Molecularly rough solid surfaces are prepared by removing several strips of LJ atoms from the external layers of the substrate, i.e., forming parallel nanogrooves on the surface. We vary the solid-fluid interactions to investigate strongly and weakly wettable surfaces. We determine the wetting properties by measuring the equilibrium droplet profiles that are in turn used to evaluate the contact angles. Macroscopic arguments, such as those leading to Wenzel’s law, suggest that surface roughness always amplifies the wetting properties of a lyophilic surface. However, our results indicate the opposite effect from roughness for microscopically corrugated surfaces, i.e., surface roughness deteriorates the substrate wettability. Adding the roughness to a strongly wettable surface shrinks the surface area wet with the liquid, and it either increases or only marginally affects the contact angle, depending on the degree of liquid adsorption into the nanogrooves. For a weakly wettable surface, the roughness changes the surface character from lyophilic to lyophobic due to a weakening of the solid-fluid interactions by the presence of the nanogrooves and the weaker adsorption of the liquid into the nanogrooves.

  8. Rough surface reconstruction for ultrasonic NDE simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Wonjae; Shi, Fan; Lowe, Michael J. S.; Skelton, Elizabeth A.; Craster, Richard V.

    2014-02-18

    The reflection of ultrasound from rough surfaces is an important topic for the NDE of safety-critical components, such as pressure-containing components in power stations. The specular reflection from a rough surface of a defect is normally lower than it would be from a flat surface, so it is typical to apply a safety factor in order that justification cases for inspection planning are conservative. The study of the statistics of the rough surfaces that might be expected in candidate defects according to materials and loading, and the reflections from them, can be useful to develop arguments for realistic safety factors. This paper presents a study of real rough crack surfaces that are representative of the potential defects in pressure-containing power plant. Two-dimensional (area) values of the height of the roughness have been measured and their statistics analysed. Then a means to reconstruct model cases with similar statistics, so as to enable the creation of multiple realistic realizations of the surfaces, has been investigated, using random field theory. Rough surfaces are reconstructed, based on a real surface, and results for these two-dimensional descriptions of the original surface have been compared with those from the conventional model based on a one-dimensional correlation coefficient function. In addition, ultrasonic reflections from them are simulated using a finite element method.

  9. ETA-NTP005 Electric Vehicle Rough Ride Course Test

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NTP005 Revision 2 Effective December 1, 2004 Electric Vehicle Rough Road Course Test ... Appendix A - Electric Vehicle Rough Road Test Data Sheet 15 Appendix B - Vehicle ...

  10. ETA-HITP05 - HICE Vehicle Rough Road Course Test

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Effective November 1, 2004 "HICE Vehicle Rough Road Course Test" Prepared by Electric ... Appendices Appendix A - HICEV Rough Road Test Data Sheet 9 Appendix B - Vehicle Metrology ...

  11. Surface roughness effects on the solar reflectance of cool asphalt...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Surface roughness effects on the solar reflectance of cool asphalt shingles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Surface roughness effects on the solar ...

  12. Salvage Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) Following In-Field Failure of Initial SBRT for Spinal Metastases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thibault, Isabelle; Campbell, Mikki; Tseng, Chia-Lin; Atenafu, Eshetu G.; Letourneau, Daniel; Yu, Eugene; Cho, B.C. John; Lee, Young K.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Sahgal, Arjun

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: We report our experience in salvaging spinal metastases initially irradiated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), who subsequently progressed with imaging-confirmed local tumor progression, and were re-irradiated with a salvage second SBRT course to the same level. Methods and Materials: From a prospective database, 56 metastatic spinal segments in 40 patients were identified as having been irradiated with a salvage second SBRT course to the same level. In addition, 24 of 56 (42.9%) segments had initially been irradiated with conventional external beam radiation therapy before the first course of SBRT. Local control (LC) was defined as no progression on magnetic resonance imaging at the treated segment, and calculated according to the competing risk model. Overall survival (OS) was evaluated for each patient treated by use of the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median salvage second SBRT total dose and number of fractions was 30 Gy in 4 fractions (range, 20-35 Gy in 2-5 fractions), and for the first course of SBRT was 24 Gy in 2 fractions (range, 20-35 Gy in 1-5 fractions). The median follow-up time after salvage second SBRT was 6.8 months (range, 0.9-39 months), the median OS was 10.0 months, and the 1-year OS rate was 48%. A longer time interval between the first and second SBRT courses predicted for better OS (P=.02). The crude LC was 77% (43/56), the 1-year LC rate was 81%, and the median time to local failure was 3.0 months (range, 2.7-16.7 months). Of the 13 local failures, 85% (11/13) and 46% (6/13) showed progression within the epidural space and paraspinal soft tissues, respectively. Absence of baseline paraspinal disease predicted for better LC (P<.01). No radiation-induced vertebral compression fractures or cases of myelopathy were observed. Conclusion: A second course of spine SBRT, most often with 30 Gy in 4 fractions, for spinal metastases that failed initial SBRT is a feasible and efficacious salvage treatment option.

  13. EA-1177: Salvage/Demolition of 200 West Area, 200 East Area, and 300 Area Steam Plants, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to salvage and demolish the 200 West Area, 200 East Area, and 300 Area steam plants and their associated steam distribution piping...

  14. Physician Beliefs and Practices for Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Showalter, Timothy N.; Ohri, Nitin; Teti, Kristopher G.; Foley, Kathleen A.; Keith, Scott W.; Trabulsi, Edouard J.; Lallas, Costas D.; Dicker, Adam P.; Hoffman-Censits, Jean; Pizzi, Laura T.; Gomella, Leonard G.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Despite results of randomized trials that support adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) after radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer with adverse pathologic features (APF), many clinicians favor selective use of salvage RT. This survey was conducted to evaluate the beliefs and practices of radiation oncologists (RO) and urologists (U) regarding RT after RP. Methods and Materials: We designed a Web-based survey of post-RP RT beliefs and policies. Survey invitations were e-mailed to a list of 926 RO and 591 U. APF were defined as extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, or positive surgical margin. Differences between U and RO in adjuvant RT recommendations were evaluated by comparative statistics. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate factors predictive of adjuvant RT recommendation. Results: Analyzable surveys were completed by 218 RO and 92 U (overallresponse rate, 20%). Adjuvant RT was recommended based on APF by 68% of respondents (78% RO, 44% U, p <0.001). U were less likely than RO to agree that adjuvant RT improves survival and/or biochemical control (p < 0.0001). PSA thresholds for salvage RT were higher among U than RO (p < 0.001). Predicted rates of erectile dysfunction due to RT were higher among U than RO (p <0.001). On multivariate analysis, respondent specialty was the only predictor of adjuvant RT recommendations. Conclusions: U are less likely than RO to recommend adjuvant RT. Future research efforts should focus on defining the toxicities of post-RP RT and on identifying the subgroups of patients who will benefit from adjuvant vs. selective salvage RT.

  15. Upfront Androgen Deprivation Therapy With Salvage Radiation May Improve Biochemical Outcomes in Prostate Cancer Patients With Post-Prostatectomy Rising PSA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Joanne W.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Guzzo, Thomas J.; Wein, Alan J.; Haas, Naomi B.; Both, Stefan; Vapiwala, Neha

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: The addition of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) to definitive external beam radiation therapy (RT) improves outcomes in higher-risk prostate cancer patients. However, the benefit of ADT with salvage RT in post-prostatectomy patients is not clearly established. Our study compares biochemical outcomes in post-prostatectomy patients who received salvage RT with or without concurrent ADT. Methods and Materials: Of nearly 2,000 post-prostatectomy patients, we reviewed the medical records of 191 patients who received salvage RT at University of Pennsylvania between 1987 and 2007. Follow-up data were obtained by chart review and electronic polling of the institutional laboratory database and Social Security Death Index. Biochemical failure after salvage RT was defined as a prostate-specific antigen of 2.0 ng/mL above the post-RT nadir or the initiation of ADT after completion of salvage RT. Results: One hundred twenty-nine patients received salvage RT alone, and 62 patients received combined ADT and salvage RT. Median follow-up was 5.4 years. Patients who received combined ADT and salvage RT were younger, had higher pathologic Gleason scores, and higher rates of seminal vesicle invasion, lymph node involvement, and pelvic nodal irradiation compared with patients who received salvage RT alone. Patients who received combined therapy had improved biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) compared with patients who received RT alone (p = 0.048). For patients with pathologic Gleason scores {<=}7, combined RT and ADT resulted in significantly improved bPFS compared to RT alone (p = 0.013). Conclusions: These results suggest that initiating ADT during salvage RT in the post-prostatectomy setting may improve bPFS compared with salvage RT alone. However, prospective randomized data are necessary to definitively determine whether hormonal manipulation should be used with salvage RT. Furthermore, the optimal nature and duration of ADT and the patient subgroups in

  16. Counterintuitive MCNPX Results for Scintillator Surface Roughness Effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-08-12

    We have reported on our recent MCNPX simulation results of energy deposition for a group of 8 scintillation detectors, coupled with various rough surface patterns. The MCNPX results generally favored the detectors with various rough surface patterns. The observed MCNPX results are not fully explained by this work.

  17. Salvage/Adjuvant Brachytherapy After Ophthalmic Artery Chemosurgery for Intraocular Retinoblastoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, Jasmine H.; Barker, Christopher A.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; McCormick, Beryl; Segal, Kira; Cohen, Gil; Gobin, Y. Pierre; Marr, Brian P.; Brodie, Scott E.; Dunkel, Ira J.; Abramson, David H.

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of brachytherapy after ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC) for retinoblastoma. Methods and Materials: This was a single-arm, retrospective study of 15 eyes in 15 patients treated with OAC followed by brachytherapy at (blinded institution) between May 1, 2006, and December 31, 2012, with a median 19 months' follow-up from plaque insertion. Outcome measurements included patient and ocular survival, visual function, and retinal toxicity measured by electroretinogram (ERG). Results: Brachytherapy was used as adjuvant treatment in 2 eyes and as salvage therapy in 13 eyes of which 12 had localized vitreous seeding. No patients developed metastasis or died of retinoblastoma. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of ocular survival was 79.4% (95% confidence interval 48.7%-92.8%) at 18 months. Three eyes were enucleated, and an additional 6 eyes developed out-of-target volume recurrences, which were controlled with additional treatments. Patients with an ocular complication had a mean interval between last OAC and plaque of 2.5 months (SD 2.3 months), which was statistically less (P=.045) than patients without ocular complication who had a mean interval between last OAC and plaque of 6.5 months (SD 4.4 months). ERG responses from pre- versus postplaque were unchanged or improved in more than half the eyes. Conclusions: Brachytherapy following OAC is effective, even in the presence of vitreous seeding; the majority of eyes maintained stable or improved retinal function following treatment, as assessed by ERG.

  18. The Effects of Metallic Implants on Electroporation Therapies: Feasibility of Irreversible Electroporation for Brachytherapy Salvage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal, Robert E.; Smith, Ryan L.; Kavnoudias, Helen; Rosenfeldt, Franklin Ou, Ruchong; Mclean, Catriona A.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Thomson, Kenneth R.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Electroporation-based therapies deliver brief electric pulses into a targeted volume to destabilize cellular membranes. Nonthermal irreversible electroporation (IRE) provides focal ablation with effects dependent on the electric field distribution, which changes in heterogeneous environments. It should be determined if highly conductive metallic implants in targeted regions, such as radiotherapy brachytherapy seeds in prostate tissue, will alter treatment outcomes. Theoretical and experimental models determine the impact of prostate brachytherapy seeds on IRE treatments. Materials and Methods: This study delivered IRE pulses in nonanimal, as well as in ex vivo and in vivo tissue, with and in the absence of expired radiotherapy seeds. Electrical current was measured and lesion dimensions were examined macroscopically and with magnetic resonance imaging. Finite-element treatment simulations predicted the effects of brachytherapy seeds in the targeted region on electrical current, electric field, and temperature distributions. Results: There was no significant difference in electrical behavior in tissue containing a grid of expired radiotherapy seeds relative to those without seeds for nonanimal, ex vivo, and in vivo experiments (all p > 0.1). Numerical simulations predict no significant alteration of electric field or thermal effects (all p > 0.1). Histology showed cellular necrosis in the region near the electrodes and seeds within the ablation region; however, there were no seeds beyond the ablation margins. Conclusion: This study suggests that electroporation therapies can be implemented in regions containing small metallic implants without significant changes to electrical and thermal effects relative to use in tissue without the implants. This supports the ability to use IRE as a salvage therapy option for brachytherapy.

  19. ETA-HTP05 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Rough Road Course Test

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    "Hybrid Electric Vehicle Rough Road Course Test" Prepared by Electric Transportation ... Appendices Appendix A - Electric Vehicle Rough Road Test Data Sheet 11 Appendix B - ...

  20. ANALYZING SURFACE ROUGHNESS DEPENDENCE OF LINEAR RF LOSSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reece, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael J.; Xu, Chen

    2012-09-01

    Topographic structure on Superconductivity Radio Frequency (SRF) surfaces can contribute additional cavity RF losses describable in terms of surface RF reflectivity and absorption indices of wave scattering theory. At isotropic homogeneous extent, Power Spectrum Density (PSD) of roughness is introduced and quantifies the random surface topographic structure. PSD obtained from different surface treatments of niobium, such Buffered Chemical Polishing (BCP), Electropolishing (EP), Nano-Mechanical Polishing (NMP) and Barrel Centrifugal Polishing (CBP) are compared. A perturbation model is utilized to calculate the additional rough surface RF losses based on PSD statistical analysis. This model will not consider that superconductor becomes normal conducting at fields higher than transition field. One can calculate the RF power dissipation ratio between rough surface and ideal smooth surface within this field range from linear loss mechanisms.

  1. Effect of Grit Blasting on Substrate Roughness and Coating Adhesion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dominic Varacalle; Donna Guillen; Doug Deason; William Rhodaberger; Elliott Sampson

    2006-09-01

    Statistically designed experiments were performed to compare the surface roughnesses produced by grit blasting A36/1020 steel with different abrasives. Grit blast media, blast pressure, and working distance were varied using a Box-type statistical design of experiment (SDE) approach. The surface textures produced by four metal grits (HG16, HG18, HG25, and HG40) and three conventional grits (copper slag, coal slag, and chilled iron) were compared. Substrate roughness was measured using surface profilometry and correlated with operating parameters. The HG16 grit produced the highest surface roughness of all the grits tested. Aluminum and zinc-aluminum coatings were deposited on the grit-blasted substrates using a Twin-Wire Electric Arc (TWEA) process. Bond strength of the coatings was measured with a portable adhesion tester in accordance with ASTM standard D4541. The coatings on substrates roughened with steel grit exhibit superior bond strength to those on substrates prepared with conventional grit. For aluminum coatings sprayed onto surfaces prepared with the HG16 grit, the bond strength was most influenced by current, spray distance, and spray gun pressure (in that order). The highest bond strength for the zinc-aluminum coatings was attained on surfaces prepared using the metal grits.

  2. Roughness Optimization at High Modes for GDP CHx Microshells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theobald, M.; Dumay, B.; Chicanne, C.; Barnouin, J.; Legaie, O.; Baclet, P.

    2004-03-15

    For the ''Megajoule'' Laser (LMJ) facility of the CEA, amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) is the nominal ablator to be used for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. These capsules contain the fusible deuterium-tritium mixture to achieve ignition. Coatings are prepared by glow discharge polymerization (GDP) with trans-2-butene and hydrogen. The films properties have been investigated. Laser fusion targets must have optimized characteristics: a diameter of about 2.4 mm for LMJ targets, a thickness up to 175 {mu}m, a sphericity and a thickness concentricity better than 99% and an outer and an inner roughness lower than 20 nm at high modes. The surface finish of these laser fusion targets must be extremely smooth to minimize hydrodynamic instabilities.Movchan and Demchishin, and later Thornton introduced a structure zone model (SZM) based on both evaporated and sputtered metals. They investigated the influence of base temperature and the sputtering gas pressure on structure and properties of thick polycrystalline coatings of nickel, titanium, tungsten, aluminum oxide. An original cross-sectional analysis by atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows amorphous materials characterization and permits to make an analogy between the amorphous GDP material and the existing model (SZM). The purpose of this work is to understand the relationship between the deposition parameters, the growing structures and the surface roughness.The coating structure as a function of deposition parameters was first studied on plane silicon substrates and then optimized on PAMS shells. By adjusting the coating parameters, the structures are modified, and in some case, the high modes roughness decreases dramatically.

  3. Influence of interface roughness in quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krivas, K. A.; Winge, D. O.; Franckié, M.; Wacker, A.

    2015-09-21

    We use a numerical model based on non-equilibrium Green's functions to investigate the influence of interface roughness (IFR) scattering in terahertz quantum cascade lasers. We confirm that IFR is an important phenomenon that affects both current and gain. The simulations indicate that IFR causes a leakage current that transfers electrons from the upper to the lower laser state. In certain cases, this current can greatly reduce gain. In addition, individual interfaces and their impact on the renormalized single particle energies are studied and shown to give both blue- and red-shifts of the gain spectrum.

  4. Role of Salvage Radiation Therapy for Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma Who Failed Autologous Stem Cell Transplant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goda, Jayant S.; Massey, Christine; Kuruvilla, John; Gospodarowicz, Mary K.; Wells, Woodrow; Hodgson, David C.; Sun, Alexander; Keating, Armand; Crump, Michael; Tsang, Richard W.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To analyze, through chart review, the efficacy of salvage radiation therapy (sRT) for relapsed or progressive Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients who failed autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). Patients and Methods: Among 347 patients with recurrent/refractory HL who received ASCT from 1986-2006, 163 had post-ASCT progression or relapse. Of these, 56 received sRT and form the basis of this report. Median age at sRT was 30 years (range, 17-59 years). Disease was confined to lymph nodes in 27 patients, whereas 24 had both nodal and extranodal disease. Salvage radiation therapy alone was given in 34 patients (61%), and sRT plus chemotherapy was given in 22 (39%). Median interval from ASCT to sRT was 0.8 years (range, 0.1-5.6 years). The median dose was 35 Gy (range, 8-40.3 Gy). The sRT technique was extended-field in 14 patients (25%) and involved-field in 42 (75%). Results: The median follow-up from sRT was 31.3 months (range, 0.2-205.5 months). Overall response rate was 84% (complete response: 36%; partial response: 48%). The median overall survival was 40.8 months (95% confidence interval, 34.2-56.3 months). The 5-year overall survival was 29% (95% confidence interval, 14%-44%). The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 16%; the 2-year local PFS was 65%, whereas the 2-year systemic PFS was 17%. The 1-year PFS was higher in patients in whom all diseased sites were irradiated (49%) compared with those in whom only the symptomatic site was treated (22%, P=.07). Among 20 alive patients, 5 were disease free (at 6.4, 6.8, 7.4, 7.9, and 17.1 years). Conclusion: For patients with HL who fail ASCT, a selective use of RT provides a durable local control rate of 65% at 2 years and should be considered as part of the standard management plan for the palliation of incurable HL. Occasionally irradiation of truly localized disease can lead to long-term survival.

  5. Heat Transfer and Friction-Factor Methods Turbulent Flow Inside Pipes 3d Rough

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-01-21

    Three-dimensional roughened internally enhanced tubes have been shown to be one of the most energy efficient for turbulent, forced convection applications. However, there is only one prediction method presented in the open literature and that is restricted to three-dimensional sand-grain roughness. Other roughness types are being proposed: hemispherical sectors, truncated cones, and full and truncated pyramids. There are no validated heat-transfer and friction-factor prediction methods for these different roughness shapes that can be used inmore » the transition and fully rough region. This program calculates the Nusselt number and friction factor values, for a broad range of three-dimensional roughness types such as hemispherical sectors, truncated cones, and full and truncated pyramids. Users of this program are heat-exchangers designers, enhanced tubing suppliers, and research organizations or academia who are developing or validating prediction methods.« less

  6. Numerical simulations examining the relationship between wall-roughness and fluid flow in rock fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, Dustin; Bromhal, Grant; Karpyn, Zuleima T.

    2010-07-01

    Understanding how fracture wall-roughness affects fluid flow is important when modeling many subsurface transport problems. Computed tomography scanning provides a unique view of rock fractures, allowing the measurement of fracture wall-roughness, without destroying the initial rock sample. For this computational fluid dynamics study, we used several different methods to obtain three-dimensional meshes of a computed tomography scanned fracture in Berea sandstone. These volumetric meshes had different wall-roughnesses, which we characterized using the Joint Roughness Coefficient and the fractal dimension of the fracture profiles. We then related these macroscopic roughness parameters to the effective flow through the fractures, as determined from Navier-Stokes numerical models. Thus, we used our fracture meshes to develop relationships between the observed roughness properties of the fracture geometries and flow parameters that are of importance for modeling flow through fractures in field scale models. Fractures with high Joint Roughness Coefficients and fractal dimensions were shown to exhibit tortuous flow paths, be poorly characterized by the mean geometric aperture, and have a fracture transmissivity 35 times smaller than the smoother modeled fracture flows.

  7. Influence of pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s performance loss due to roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tangler, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of blade geometric parameters such as pitch, twist, and taper on a blade`s sensitivity to leading edge roughness. The approach began with an evaluation of available test data of performance degradation due to roughness effects for several rotors. In addition to airfoil geometry, this evaluation suggested that a rotor`s sensitivity to roughness was also influenced by the blade geometric parameters. Parametric studies were conducted using the PROP computer code with wind-tunnel airfoil characteristics for smooth and rough surface conditions to quantify the performance loss due to roughness for tapered and twisted blades relative to a constant-chord, non-twisted blade at several blade pitch angles. The results indicate that a constant-chord, non-twisted blade pitched toward stall will have the greatest losses due to roughness. The use of twist, taper, and positive blade pitch angles all help reduce the angle-of-attack distribution along the blade for a given wind speed and the associated performance degradation due to roughness. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Enhancement of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernitsas, Michael M.; Raghavan, Kamaldev

    2011-11-01

    Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to increase Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Enhancement is needed in such applications as harnessing of clean and renewable energy from ocean/river currents using the ocean energy converter VIVACE (Vortex Induced Vibration for Aquatic Clean Energy).

  9. Reduction of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernitsas, Michael M; Raghavan, Kamaldev

    2014-04-01

    Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to decrease/suppress Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Suppression is required when fluid-structure interaction becomes destructive as in VIM of flexible cylinders or rigid cylinders on elastic support, such as underwater pipelines, marine risers, tubes in heat exchangers, nuclear fuel rods, cooling towers, SPAR offshore platforms.

  10. Solid Deuterium-Tritium Surface Roughness In A Beryllium Inertial Confinement Fusion Shell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozioziemski, B J; Sater, J D; Moody, J D; Montgomery, D S; Gautier, C

    2006-04-19

    Solid deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel layers for inertial confinement fusion experiments were formed inside of a 2 mm diameter beryllium shell and were characterized using phase-contrast enhanced x-ray imaging. The solid D-T surface roughness is found to be 0.4 {micro}m for modes 7-128 at 1.5 K below the melting temperature. The layer roughness is found to increase with decreasing temperature, in agreement with previous visible light characterization studies. However, phase-contrast enhanced x-ray imaging provides a more robust surface roughness measurement than visible light methods. The new x-ray imaging results demonstrate clearly that the surface roughness decreases with time for solid D-T layers held at 1.5 K below the melting temperature.

  11. Simulation of surface roughness during the formation of thermal spray coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanouff, M.P.

    1996-07-01

    The formation of a thermal spray coating was analyzed to identify methods to reduce the surface roughness of the coating. A new methodology was developed which uses a string of equally spaced node points to define the shape of the coating surface and to track the shape change as the thermal spray mass is deposited. This allows the calculation of arbitrary shapes for the coating surface which may be very complex. The model simulates the stochastic deposition of a large number of thermal spray droplets, where experimental data is used for the mass flux distribution on the target surface. This data shows that when the thermal spray mass impinges on the target surface, a large fraction of it (over-spray) splashes off the target and is re-deposited with a small spray angle, resulting in a large coating roughness. This analysis was used in a parameter study to identify methods for reducing the coating roughness. Effect of the shape of the profile for the pre-roughened substrate was found to be small. Decreasing the droplet size by a factor of 2 decreased the roughness by 13%. Increasing the spray angle for the over-spray by a factor of 2 decreased the roughness by 50%, and decreasing the amount of over- spray by a factor of 2 decreased the roughness by 51%.

  12. SURVEY REPORT FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FIVE TANKS LOCATED NEAR THE OLD SALVAGE YARD AT THE Y-12 NATIONAL SECURITY COMPLEX, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rollow, Kathy

    2012-08-23

    This summary report presents analytical results, radiological survey data, and other data/information for disposition planning of the five tanks located west of the Old Salvage Yard (OSY) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Field personnel from Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) and URS?CH2M Oak Ridge LLC completed data collection in May 2012 per the project-specific plan (PSP) (ORAU 2012). Deviations from the PSP are addressed in the body of this report. Characterization activities included three data collection modes: visual inspection, radiological survey, and volumetric sampling/analysis. This report includes the final validated dataset and updates associated with the Tank 2 residues originally thought to be a biological bloom (e.g., slime mold) but ultimately identified as iron sulfate crystals.

  13. Large-eddy simulations of surface roughness parameter sensitivity to canopy-structure characteristics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maurer, K. D.; Bohrer, G.; Kenny, W. T.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2015-04-30

    Surface roughness parameters, namely the roughness length and displacement height, are an integral input used to model surface fluxes. However, most models assume these parameters to be a fixed property of plant functional type and disregard the governing structural heterogeneity and dynamics. In this study, we use large-eddy simulations to explore, in silico, the effects of canopy-structure characteristics on surface roughness parameters. We performed a virtual experiment to test the sensitivity of resolved surface roughness to four axes of canopy structure: (1) leaf area index, (2) the vertical profile of leaf density, (3) canopy height, and (4) canopy gap fraction.more » We found roughness parameters to be highly variable, but uncovered positive relationships between displacement height and maximum canopy height, aerodynamic canopy height and maximum canopy height and leaf area index, and eddy-penetration depth and gap fraction. We also found negative relationships between aerodynamic canopy height and gap fraction, as well as between eddy-penetration depth and maximum canopy height and leaf area index. We generalized our model results into a virtual "biometric" parameterization that relates roughness length and displacement height to canopy height, leaf area index, and gap fraction. Using a decade of wind and canopy-structure observations in a site in Michigan, we tested the effectiveness of our model-driven biometric parameterization approach in predicting the friction velocity over heterogeneous and disturbed canopies. We compared the accuracy of these predictions with the friction-velocity predictions obtained from the common simple approximation related to canopy height, the values calculated with large-eddy simulations of the explicit canopy structure as measured by airborne and ground-based lidar, two other parameterization approaches that utilize varying canopy-structure inputs, and the annual and decadal means of the surface roughness parameters at

  14. Roughness exponent in two-dimensional percolation, Potts model, and clock model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redinz, Jose Arnaldo; Martins, Marcelo Lobato

    2001-06-01

    We present a numerical study of the self-affine profiles obtained from configurations of the q-state Potts (with q=2,3, and 7) and p=10 clock models as well as from the occupation states for site percolation on the square lattice. The first and second order static phase transitions of the Potts model are located by a sharp change in the value of the roughness exponent {alpha} characterizing those profiles. The low temperature phase of the Potts model corresponds to flat ({alpha}{approx_equal}1) profiles, whereas its high temperature phase is associated with rough ({alpha}{approx_equal}0.5) ones. For the p=10 clock model, in addition to the flat (ferromagnetic) and rough (paramagnetic) profiles, an intermediate rough (0.5{lt}{alpha}{lt}1) phase{emdash}associated with a soft spin-wave one{emdash}is observed. Our results for the transition temperatures in the Potts and clock models are in agreement with the static values, showing that this approach is able to detect the phase transitions in these models directly from the spin configurations, without any reference to thermodynamical potentials, order parameters, or response functions. Finally, we show that the roughness exponent {alpha} is insensitive to geometric critical phenomena.

  15. Rough surface electrical contact resistance considering scale dependent properties and quantum effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Robert L.; Crandall, Erika R.; Bozack, Michael J.

    2015-05-21

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of scale dependent mechanical and electrical properties on electrical contact resistance (ECR) between rough surfaces. This work attempts to build on existing ECR models that neglect potentially important quantum- and size-dependent contact and electrical conduction mechanisms present due to the asperity sizes on typical surfaces. The electrical conductance at small scales can quantize or show a stepping trend as the contact area is varied in the range of the free electron Fermi wavelength squared. This work then evaluates if these effects remain important for the interface between rough surfaces, which may include many small scale contacts of varying sizes. The results suggest that these effects may be significant in some cases, while insignificant for others. It depends on the load and the multiscale structure of the surface roughness.

  16. Evaluating the Influence of Wall-Roughness on Fracture Transmissivity with CT Scanning and Flow Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, Dustin; Bromhal, Grant; McIntyre, Dustin

    2010-01-01

    Combining CT imaging of geomaterials with computational fluid dynamics provides substantial benefits to researchers. With simulations, geometric parameters can be varied in systematic ways that are not possible in the lab. This paper details the conversion of micro-CT images of a physical fracture in Berea sandstone to several tractable finite volume meshes. By computationally varying the level of detail captured from the scans we produced several realistic fracture geometries with different degrees of wall-roughness and various geometric properties. Simulations were performed and it was noted that increasing roughness increased the resistance to fluid flow. Also, as the distance between walls was increased the mean aperture approached the effective aperture.

  17. Effect of surface roughness and polymeric additive on nucleate pool boiling at subatmospheric pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, P.K.; Verma, R.K.; Ramani, M.P.S.; Mahajan, S.P.

    1986-09-01

    This investigation pertains to boiling heat transfer from a submerged flat surface at subatmospheric and atmospheric pressures in the presence of hydroxy ethyl cellulose (HEC) as a polymeric additive in small doses. Boiling was carried out in presence of the additive on smooth and rough aluminium surfaces having effective cavity size within the range as predicted by Hsu model and the pressure was kept in the range of 8 - 100 KN/sq.m (abs). Effects of surface roughness, saturation pressure and polymer concentration on boiling heat transfer were studied and the results were compared with Rohsenow's correlation.

  18. {sup 18}F-Choline Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography–Driven High-Dose Salvage Radiation Therapy in Patients With Biochemical Progression After Radical Prostatectomy: Feasibility Study in 60 Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Angelillo, Rolando M.; Sciuto, Rosa; Ramella, Sara; Papalia, Rocco; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A.; Trodella, Luca E.; Fiore, Michele; Gallucci, Michele; Maini, Carlo L.; Trodella, Lucio

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively review data of a cohort of patients with biochemical progression after radical prostatectomy, treated according to a uniform institutional treatment policy, to evaluate toxicity and feasibility of high-dose salvage radiation therapy (80 Gy). Methods and Materials: Data on 60 patients with biochemical progression after radical prostatectomy between January 2009 and September 2011 were reviewed. The median value of prostate-specific antigen before radiation therapy was 0.9 ng/mL. All patients at time of diagnosis of biochemical recurrence underwent dynamic {sup 18}F-choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), which revealed in all cases a local recurrence. High-dose salvage radiation therapy was delivered up to total dose of 80 Gy to 18F-choline PET/CT-positive area. Toxicity was recorded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, scale. Results: Treatment was generally well tolerated: 54 patients (90%) completed salvage radiation therapy without any interruption. Gastrointestinal grade ≥2 acute toxicity was recorded in 6 patients (10%), whereas no patient experienced a grade ≥2 genitourinary toxicity. No grade 4 acute toxicity events were recorded. Only 1 patient (1.7%) experienced a grade 2 gastrointestinal late toxicity. With a mean follow-up of 31.2 months, 46 of 60 patients (76.6%) were free of recurrence. The 3-year biochemical progression-free survival rate was 72.5%. Conclusions: At early follow-up, {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT-driven high-dose salvage radiation therapy seems to be feasible and well tolerated, with a low rate of toxicity.

  19. Large eddy simulations of surface roughness parameter sensitivity to canopy-structure characteristics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maurer, K. D.; Bohrer, G.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2014-11-27

    Surface roughness parameters are at the core of every model representation of the coupling and interactions between land-surface and atmosphere, and are used in every model of surface fluxes. However, most models assume these parameters to be a fixed property of plant functional type and do not vary them in response to spatial or temporal changes to canopy structure. In part, this is due to the difficulty of reducing the complexity of canopy structure and its spatiotemporal dynamic and heterogeneity to less than a handful of parameters describing its effects of atmosphere–surface interactions. In this study we use large-eddy simulationsmore » to explore, in silico, the effects of canopy structure characteristics on surface roughness parameters. We performed a virtual experiment to test the sensitivity of resolved surface roughness to four axes of canopy structure: (1) leaf area index, (2) the vertical profile of leaf density, (3) canopy height, and (4) canopy gap fraction. We found roughness parameters to be highly variable, but were able to find positive relationships between displacement height and maximum canopy height, aerodynamic canopy height and maximum canopy height and leaf area index, and eddy-penetration depth and gap fraction. We also found negative relationships between aerodynamic canopy height and gap fraction, and between eddy-penetration depth and maximum canopy height and leaf area index. Using a decade of wind and canopy structure observations in a site in Michigan, we tested the effectiveness of our model-resolved parameters in predicting the frictional velocity over heterogeneous and disturbed canopies. We compared it with three other semi-empirical models and with a decade of meteorological observations. We found that parameterizations with fixed representations of roughness performed relatively well. Nonetheless, some empirical approaches that incorporate seasonal and inter-annual changes to the canopy structure performed even better than

  20. Surface roughness and interface width scaling of magnetron sputter deposited Ni/Ti multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maidul Haque, S.; Biswas, A.; Tokas, R. B.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sahoo, N. K.; Bhattacharya, Debarati

    2013-09-14

    Using an indigenously built r.f. magnetron sputtering system, several single layer Ti and Ni films have been deposited at varying deposition conditions. All the samples have been characterized by Grazing Incidence X-ray Reflectivity (GIXR) and Atomic Force Microscopy to estimate their thickness, density, and roughness and a power law dependence of the surface roughness on the film thickness has been established. Subsequently, at optimized deposition condition of Ti and Ni, four Ni/Ti multilayers of 11-layer, 21-layer, 31-layer, and 51-layer having different bilayer thickness have been deposited. The multilayer samples have been characterized by GIXR and neutron reflectivity measurements and the experimental data have been fitted assuming an appropriate sample structure. A power law correlation between the interface width and bilayer thickness has been observed for the multilayer samples, which was explained in the light of alternate roughening/smoothening of multilayers and assuming that at the interface the growth restarts every time.

  1. Electrochemical machining process for forming surface roughness elements on a gas turbine shroud

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Johnson, Robert Alan; Wei, Bin; Wang, Hsin-Pang

    2002-01-01

    The back side recessed cooling surface of a shroud defining in part the hot gas path of a turbine is electrochemically machined to provide surface roughness elements and spaces therebetween to increase the heat transfer coefficient. To accomplish this, an electrode with insulating dielectric portions and non-insulating portions is disposed in opposition to the cooling surface. By passing an electrolyte between the cooling surface and electrode and applying an electrical current between the electrode and a shroud, roughness elements and spaces therebetween are formed in the cooling surface in opposition to the insulating and non-insulating portions of the electrode, hence increasing the surface area and heat transfer coefficient of the shroud.

  2. Surface roughness measurements of beta-layered solid deuterium-tritium in toroidal geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffer, J.K.; Foreman, L.R.; Sanchez, J.J.; Mapoles, E.R.; Sheliak, J.D.

    1996-07-01

    New experiments in a NIF-scale toroidal cylinder have resulted in true shadowgraphs of the DT ice surface. The spectral analysis of the images summed over l-modes 2 through 256 reveal that the surface roughness reaches values just below 1.0 {micro}m at temperatures of 19 K and above. Summing only modes l {ge} 10, the partial surface roughness is below 0.7 {micro}m at 19.5 K. These results indicate that native beta-layering will be sufficient to meet the NIF requirements for DT ice surface finish for both Be and CH ablating shells. The toroidal cylinder incorporates a linear heater along the cylindrical axis to test the concept of surface enhancement due to heat assisted beta-layering in DT. Additionally, with the use of this heater it is possible to symmetrize a pure D{sub 2} layer.

  3. Improvement of the electrical contact resistance at rough interfaces using two dimensional materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Jianchen; Pan, Chengbin; Lanza, Mario; Li, Heng; Shen, Panpan; Sun, Hui; Duan, Huiling

    2015-12-07

    Reducing the electronic contact resistance at the interfaces of nanostructured materials is a major goal for many kinds of planar and three dimensional devices. In this work, we develop a method to enhance the electronic transport at rough interfaces by inserting a two dimensional flexible and conductive graphene sheet. We observe that an ultra-thin graphene layer with a thickness of 0.35 nm can remarkably reduce the roughness of a sample in a factor of 40%, avoiding the use of thick coatings, leading to a more homogeneous current flow, and extraordinarily increasing the total current compared to the graphene-free counterpart. Due to its simplicity and performance enhancement, this methodology can be of interest to many interface and device designers.

  4. Tensile cracking of a brittle conformal coating on a rough substrate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reedy, Jr., E. D.

    2016-04-07

    This note examines the effect of interfacial roughness on the initiation and growth of channel cracks in a brittle film. A conformal film with cusp-like surface flaws that replicate the substrate roughness is investigated. This type of surface flaw is relatively severe in the sense that stress diverges as the cusp-tip is approached (i.e., there is a power-law stress singularity). For the geometry and range of film properties considered, the analysis suggests that smoothing the substrate could substantially increase the film’s resistance to the formation of the through-the-thickness cracks that precede channel cracking. Furthermore, smoothing the substrate’s surface has amore » relatively modest effect on the film stress needed to propagate a channel crack.« less

  5. The Effect of Excimer Laser Treatment on the Surface Roughness and Fracture Strength of Alumina Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smoot, J.E.

    1998-05-13

    The microelectronics industry requires alumina substrates with exceptionally smooth surfaces and few surface defects to allow successful deposition of metallic films for reliable electronic performance. Irradiation by a 248-nm wavelength excimer laser beam (KrF) at a fluence of 125 mJ/mm{sup 2} and at various angles of incidence is shown to significantly reduce the surface roughness of alumina substrates. However, irradiation also creates a fine particulate deposit of alumina that only partially adheres to the substrate and impedes deposition of metal films. Annealing in air between 1350 C and 1450 C was found to remove the particles by sintering. As-received material showed surface roughness average (R{sub a}) mean values of 457 nm, which was reduced to 60 nm (mean) following irradiation and 71 nm (mean) following irradiation and annealing at 1350 C. Irradiation also produced a decrease in the number and severity of surface defects. The flexural strength and Weibull modulus were both increased by laser irradiation and thermal treatment. Flexural strength went from an as-received value of 450 MPa to 560 MPa following irradiation/sintering, measured at 10% probability of failure. The Weibull modulus was increased from the as-received value of about 9, to about 13 following irradiation/sintering. It was concluded that irradiation at an angle of incidence of 60{degree} from perpendicular was most effective in producing a low surface roughness.

  6. Cement paste surface roughness analysis using coherence scanning interferometry and confocal microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apedo, K.L.; Munzer, C.; He, H.; Montgomery, P.; Serres, N.; Fond, C.; Feugeas, F.

    2015-02-15

    Scanning electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy have been used for several decades to better understand the microstructure of cementitious materials. Very limited work has been performed to date to study the roughness of cementitious materials by optical microscopy such as coherence scanning interferometry (CSI) and chromatic confocal sensing (CCS). The objective of this paper is to better understand how CSI can be used as a tool to analyze surface roughness and topography of cement pastes. Observations from a series of images acquired using this technique on both polished and unpolished samples are described. The results from CSI are compared with those from a STIL confocal microscopy technique (SCM). Comparison between both optical techniques demonstrates the ability of CSI to measure both polished and unpolished cement pastes. - Highlights: • Coherence scanning interferometry (CSI) was used to analyze cement paste surfaces. • The results from the CSI were compared with those from a confocal microscopy. • 3D roughness parameters were obtained using the window resizing method. • Polished and unpolished cement pastes were studied.

  7. Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery as Salvage Therapy After Failure of Whole-Brain Radiotherapy in Patients With Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, Sunit; Chan, Michael D.; Lovato, James F.; Ellis, Thomas L.; Tatter, Stephen B.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Munley, Michael T.; Guzman, Allan F. de; Shaw, Edward G.; Urbanic, James J.; McMullen, Kevin P.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Radiosurgery has been successfully used in selected cases to avoid repeat whole-brain irradiation (WBI) in patients with multiple brain metastases of most solid tumor histological findings. Few data are available for the use of radiosurgery for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Methods and Materials: Between November 1999 and June 2009, 51 patients with SCLC and previous WBI and new brain metastases were treated with GammaKnife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS). A median dose of 18 Gy (range, 10-24 Gy) was prescribed to the margin of each metastasis. Patients were followed with serial imaging. Patient electronic records were reviewed to determine disease-related factors and clinical outcomes after GKSRS. Local and distant brain failure rates, overall survival, and likelihood of neurologic death were determined based on imaging results. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine survival and local and distant brain control. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to determine strength of association between disease-related factors and survival. Results: Median survival time for the entire cohort was 5.9 months. Local control rates at 1 and 2 years were 57% and 34%, respectively. Distant brain failure rates at 1 and 2 years were 58% and 75%, respectively. Fifty-three percent of patients ultimately died of neurologic death. On multivariate analysis, patients with stable (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.89) or progressive (HR = 6.98) extracranial disease (ECD) had worse overall survival than patients without evidence of ECD (p = 0.00002). Concurrent chemotherapy improved local control (HR = 89; p = 0.006). Conclusions: GKSRS represents a feasible salvage option in patients with SCLC and brain metastases for whom previous WBI has failed. The status of patients' ECD is a dominant factor predictive of overall survival. Local control may be inferior to that seen with other cancer histological results, although the use of concurrent chemotherapy may help to improve

  8. Effects of roughness and temperature on low-energy hydrogen positive and negative ion reflection from silicon and carbon surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, N.; Kato, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Wada, M.; Nishiura, M.; Tsumori, K.; Matsumoto, Y.; Kenmotsu, T.; Okamoto, A.; Kitajima, S.; Sasao, M.; Yamaoka, H.

    2014-02-15

    Angle-resolved energy distribution functions of positive and negative hydrogen ions produced from a rough-finished Si surface under 1 keV proton irradiation have been measured. The corresponding distribution from a crystalline surface and a carbon surface are also measured for comparison. Intensities of positive and negative ions from the rough-finished Si are substantially smaller than those from crystalline Si. The angular distributions of these species are broader for rough surface than the crystalline surface. No significant temperature dependence for positive and negative ion intensities is observed for all samples in the temperature range from 300 to 400 K.

  9. Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the S814 airfoil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janiszewska, J.M.; Ramsay, R.R.; Hoffmann, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Horizontal-axis wind turbine rotors experience unsteady aerodynamics when the rotor is yawed, when rotor blades pass through the support tower wake, and when the wind is gusting. An understanding of this unsteady behavior is necessary to assist in the design of new rotor airfoils. The rotors also experience performance degradation due to surface roughness. These surface irregularities are due to the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and/or the aging process. Wind tunnel studies that examine both the steady and unsteady behavior of airfoils can help define pertinent flow phenomena, and the resultant data can also be used to validate analytical computer codes. An S814 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3 X 5 subsonic wind tunnel (3 X 5) under steady flow with both stationary model conditions and pitch oscillations. To study the extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a leading edge grit roughness pattern (LEGR) was used to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 million, while the angle of attack ranged from -20{degrees} to +40{degrees}. While the model underwent pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions {+-}5.5{degrees} and {+-}10{degrees}, were used; at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions means the model was in pitch oscillation.

  10. Y-12's rough roads smoothed over with 23,000 tons of recycled asphalt |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) 's rough roads smoothed over with 23,000 tons of recycled asphalt Tuesday, December 29, 2015 - 12:00am NNSA Blog Some 23,000 tons of asphalt removed during this summer's UPF site work have been put to use throughout the site. Potholes and gravel roads are now "paved" with the recycled asphalt that has been ground into a material called base course. Unlike gravel, the material tends to rebind into a solid form as it is packed down,

  11. EFFECTS OF GRAPHITE SURFACE ROUGHNESS ON BYPASS FLOW COMPUTATIONS FOR AN HTGR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich Johnson; Yu-Hsin Tung; Hiroyuki Sato

    2011-07-01

    Bypass flow in a prismatic high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) occurs between graphite blocks as they sit side by side in the core. Bypass flow is not intentionally designed to occur in the reactor, but is present because of tolerances in manufacture, imperfect installation and expansion and shrinkage of the blocks from heating and irradiation. It is desired to increase the knowledge of the effects of such flow, which has been estimated to be as much as 20% of the total helium coolant flow. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations can provide estimates of the scale and impacts of bypass flow. Previous CFD calculations have examined the effects of bypass gap width, level and distribution of heat generation and effects of shrinkage. The present contribution examines the effects of graphite surface roughness on the bypass flow for different relative roughness factors on three gap widths. Such calculations should be validated using specific bypass flow measurements. While such experiments are currently underway for the specific reference prismatic HTGR design for the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) program of the U. S. Dept. of Energy, the data are not yet available. To enhance confidence in the present calculations, wall shear stress and heat transfer results for several turbulence models and their associated wall treatments are first compared for flow in a single tube that is representative of a coolant channel in the prismatic HTGR core. The results are compared to published correlations for wall shear stress and Nusselt number in turbulent pipe flow. Turbulence models that perform well are then used to make bypass flow calculations in a symmetric onetwelfth sector of a prismatic block that includes bypass flow. The comparison of shear stress and Nusselt number results with published correlations constitutes a partial validation of the CFD model. Calculations are also compared to ones made previously using a different CFD code. Results indicate that

  12. Single-layer MoS{sub 2} roughness and sliding friction quenching by interaction with atomically flat substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quereda, J.; Castellanos-Gomez, A.; Agrat, N.; Rubio-Bollinger, G.

    2014-08-04

    We experimentally study the surface roughness and the lateral friction force in single-layer MoS{sub 2} crystals deposited on different substrates: SiO{sub 2}, mica, and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). Roughness and sliding friction measurements are performed by atomic force microscopy. We find a strong dependence of the MoS{sub 2} roughness on the underlying substrate material, being h-BN the substrate which better preserves the flatness of the MoS{sub 2} crystal. The lateral friction also lowers as the roughness decreases, and attains its lowest value for MoS{sub 2} flakes on h-BN substrates. However, it is still higher than for the surface of a bulk MoS{sub 2} crystal, which we attribute to the deformation of the flake due to competing tip-to-flake and flake-to-substrate interactions.

  13. Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ting

    2013-08-13

    The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

  14. Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ting

    2011-04-26

    The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

  15. Organic photosensitive cells grown on rough electrode with nano-scale morphology control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Fan; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2011-06-07

    An optoelectronic device and a method for fabricating the optoelectronic device includes a first electrode disposed on a substrate, an exposed surface of the first electrode having a root mean square roughness of at least 30 nm and a height variation of at least 200 nm, the first electrode being transparent. A conformal layer of a first organic semiconductor material is deposited onto the first electrode by organic vapor phase deposition, the first organic semiconductor material being a small molecule material. A layer of a second organic semiconductor material is deposited over the conformal layer. At least some of the layer of the second organic semiconductor material directly contacts the conformal layer. A second electrode is deposited over the layer of the second organic semiconductor material. The first organic semiconductor material is of a donor-type or an acceptor-type relative to the second organic semiconductor material, which is of the other material type.

  16. A study of pitch oscillation and roughness on airfoils used for horizontal axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregorek, G.M.; Hoffmann, M.J.; Ramsay, R.R.; Janiszewska, J.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Under subcontract XF-1-11009-3 the Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed an extensive database of empirical aerodynamic data. These data will assist in the development of analytical models and in the design of new airfoils for wind turbines. To accomplish the main objective, airfoil models were designed, built and wind tunnel tested with and without model leading edge grit roughness (LEGR). LEGR simulates surface irregularities due to the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and/or the aging process. This report is a summary of project project activity for Phase III, which encompasses the time period from September 17, 1 993 to September 6, 1 994.

  17. Surface Roughness Effects on Fluid Transport Through a Natural Rock Fracture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, D.M.; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, D.H.

    2008-04-01

    Fluid flow through rock fractures can be orders of magnitude faster than through the adjacent low-permeability rock. Understanding how fluid moves through these pathways is important for the prediction of sequestered CO2 transport in geologic reservoirs. Reservoir-scale, discrete-fracture simulators use simplified models of flow through fractures to determine transport properties in complex fracture networks. A high level of approximation is required in these reservoir-scale simulations due to the number of fractures within the domain of interest and because of the limited amount of information that can be obtained from geophysical well-logs (Long et al. (1996)). For this study, flow simulations through a CT-scanned fracture were performed to evaluate different fluid transport parameters that are important in geological flow analysis. The ‘roughness’ of the fracture was varied to determine the effect of the bumpy fracture walls on the fluid flow. The permeability and effective aperture were determined for flow under a constant pressure head. The fracture roughness is shown to dramatically reduce the flow through the fracture, and various relations are described.

  18. IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) Cost Estimate Summary (Leveraged NDC Case).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, James M.; Prescott, Ryan; Dawson, Jericah M.; Huelskamp, Robert M.

    2014-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a ROM cost estimate for budgetary planning for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 effort, based on leveraging a fully funded, Sandia executed NDC Modernization project. This report provides the ROM cost estimate and describes the methodology, assumptions, and cost model details used to create the ROM cost estimate. ROM Cost Estimate Disclaimer Contained herein is a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate that has been provided to enable initial planning for this proposed project. This ROM cost estimate is submitted to facilitate informal discussions in relation to this project and is NOT intended to commit Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) or its resources. Furthermore, as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), Sandia must be compliant with the Anti-Deficiency Act and operate on a full-cost recovery basis. Therefore, while Sandia, in conjunction with the Sponsor, will use best judgment to execute work and to address the highest risks and most important issues in order to effectively manage within cost constraints, this ROM estimate and any subsequent approved cost estimates are on a 'full-cost recovery' basis. Thus, work can neither commence nor continue unless adequate funding has been accepted and certified by DOE.

  19. Image Formation by Incoherent and Coherent Transition Radiation from Flat and Rough Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we derive equations for the image formation of transverse profile of a relativistic beam obtained by means of optical transition radiation (OTR) from flat and rough metal surfaces. The motivation behind this study lies in the desire to suppress coherent transition radiation (COTR) observed in experiments at modern free electron lasers. The physical mechanism behind the problem of COTR is that the OTR is predominantly radiated at small angles of order of 1/{gamma} where {gamma} is the relativistic factor of the beam. This means that the transverse formation size of the image is of order of {bar {lambda}}{gamma} where {bar {lambda}} = {lambda}/2{pi} with {lambda} the radiation wavelength. For relativistic beams this can be comparable or even exceed the transverse size of the beam, which would mean that the image of the beam has very little to do with its transverse profile. It is fortuitous, however, that the incoherent image is formed by adding radiation energy of electrons and results in the transverse formation size being of order of {bar {lambda}}/{theta}{sub a}, with {theta}{sub a} is the aperture angle of the optical system. The COTR image, in contrast, is formed by adding electromagnetic field of electrons, and leads to the formation size {bar {lambda}}{gamma}. In situations when the COTR intensity exceeds that of OTR the COTR imaging makes the diagnostic incapable of measuring the beam profile.

  20. Interpretation of recent seismic data from a frontier hydrocarbon province: western Rough Creek graben, southern Illinois and western Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertagne, A.J.; Pisasale, E.T.; Leising, T.C.

    1986-05-01

    The northern basement fault of the Rough Creek graben is seismically discernible and has surface expression in the Rough Creek fault zone. The southern basement fault is not clearly defined seismically, but can be inferred from shallow faulting and gravity data. This fault is roughly coincident with the Pennyrile fault zone. Extensional faults that formed the rift boundaries were the sites of late-stage compressional and extensional tectonics. Flower structures observed along the graben boundaries probably indicate post-Pennsylvanian wrench faulting. The basement within the graben plunges north-northwest, with the lowest point occurring south of the Rough Creek fault zone. Pre-Knox sediments thicken to approximately 12,000 in this area. The Knox Megagroup thickens toward the Mississippi Embayment, ranging from 4800 ft (southeastern graben area) to more than 7000 ft (west end of graben). Upper Ordovician to Devonian units also display westward thickening. The top of the Meramecian, New Albany, Maquoketa, and the base of the Knox generate continuous, high-amplitude seismic reflections due to large impedance contrasts between clastic and carbonate units. Shallow oil and gas production (Mississippian and Pennsylvanian) is present in this area. However, deep horizons (Knox, Lower Cambrian) remain relatively untested. Potential hydrocarbon traps in the pre-Knox sequence observed on seismic include fault blocks and updip pinch-outs.

  1. Quantifying the effect of anode surface roughness on diagnostic x-ray spectra using Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehranian, A.; Ay, M. R.; Alam, N. Riyahi; Zaidi, H.

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: The accurate prediction of x-ray spectra under typical conditions encountered in clinical x-ray examination procedures and the assessment of factors influencing them has been a long-standing goal of the diagnostic radiology and medical physics communities. In this work, the influence of anode surface roughness on diagnostic x-ray spectra is evaluated using MCNP4C-based Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: An image-based modeling method was used to create realistic models from surface-cracked anodes. An in-house computer program was written to model the geometric pattern of cracks and irregularities from digital images of focal track surface in order to define the modeled anodes into MCNP input file. To consider average roughness and mean crack depth into the models, the surface of anodes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and surface profilometry. It was found that the average roughness (R{sub a}) in the most aged tube studied is about 50 {mu}m. The correctness of MCNP4C in simulating diagnostic x-ray spectra was thoroughly verified by calling its Gaussian energy broadening card and comparing the simulated spectra with experimentally measured ones. The assessment of anode roughness involved the comparison of simulated spectra in deteriorated anodes with those simulated in perfectly plain anodes considered as reference. From these comparisons, the variations in output intensity, half value layer (HVL), heel effect, and patient dose were studied. Results: An intensity loss of 4.5% and 16.8% was predicted for anodes aged by 5 and 50 {mu}m deep cracks (50 kVp, 6 deg. target angle, and 2.5 mm Al total filtration). The variations in HVL were not significant as the spectra were not hardened by more than 2.5%; however, the trend for this variation was to increase with roughness. By deploying several point detector tallies along the anode-cathode direction and averaging exposure over them, it was found that for a 6 deg. anode, roughened by 50 {mu}m deep

  2. Regulator Interface Strategies Implemented at the Y-12 National Security Complex Old Salvage Yard Soils Remediation Project, Oak Ridge, TN - 12162

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albrecht, Linda; Wilkerson, Laura; Skinner, Ralph; Birchfield, Joseph W. III

    2012-07-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex housed an area known as the Old Salvage Yard (OSY) that was approximately 7 acres. The OSY was used as an area for the accumulation, processing and storage of scrap metal and equipment from Y-12 operations extending from 1968 until 2009. Areas in the northern sections of OSY also have been used for the storage of used oils containing solvents and the accumulation and recycling or de-heading and crushing of 55-gal metal drums. Scrap metal operations historically involved the accumulation, sorting, storage, public sale or disposal of scrap metal and equipment. Non-containerised storage of scrap metal was routine until 1995 when scrap metal received at OSY was placed in B-24 and B-25 boxes. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), approximately 26,759 cubic meters of scrap metal and debris were removed and disposed at both on and off-site disposal facilities including the on-site, Oak Ridge Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) landfill in 2010 and 2011. This removal action was performed in accordance with a CERCLA Record of Decision (ROD) and a close working relationship with both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). Due to efficiencies and the excellent cooperative relationship forged with EPA Region IV and TDEC for Y-12 ARRA Cleanup Projects, a surplus of funding was available for additional remediation work that was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2011. The underlying OSY soils were targeted for characterization and potential remediation. To expedite these important activities, the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Environmental Management partnered with the regulators during detailed planning sessions through a variety of means to quickly and efficiently characterize and pinpoint areas requiring remediation according to previous ROD commitments. Data Quality Objectives (DQOs

  3. Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the S809 airfoil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsay, R.F.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-01

    An S809 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3{times}5 subsonic wind tunnel (3{times}5) under steady flow and stationary model conditions, and also with the model undergoing pitch oscillations. To study the possible extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a standard grit pattern (LEGR) was developed to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, while the angle of attack ranged from {minus}20, to +40 {degrees}. With the model undergoing pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.4 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions were used; {plus_minus} 5.5{degrees} and {plus_minus} 10{degrees}, at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions means the model was in pitch oscillation about the quarter chord. In general, the unsteady maximum lift coefficient was from 4% to 86% higher than the steady state maximum lift coefficient, and variation in the quarter chord pitching moment coefficient magnitude was from {minus}83% to 195% relative to steady state values at high angles of attack. These findings indicate the importance of considering the unsteady flow behavior occurring in wind turbine operation to obtain accurate load estimates.

  4. Stranski-Krastanow islanding initiated on the stochastic rough surfaces of the epitaxially strained thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarik Ogurtani, Omer; Celik, Aytac; Emre Oren, Ersin

    2014-06-14

    Quantum dots (QD) have discrete energy spectrum, which can be adjusted over a wide range by tuning composition, density, size, lattice strain, and morphology. These features make quantum dots attractive for the design and fabrication of novel electronic, magnetic and photonic devices and other functional materials used in cutting-edge applications. The formation of QD on epitaxially strained thin film surfaces, known as Stranski-Krastanow (SK) islands, has attracted great attention due to their unique electronic properties. Here, we present a systematic dynamical simulation study for the spontaneous evolution of the SK islands on the stochastically rough surfaces (nucleationless growth). During the development of SK islands through the mass accumulation at randomly selected regions of the film via surface drift-diffusion (induced by the capillary and mismatch stresses) with and/or without growth, one also observes the formation of an extremely thin wetting layer having a thickness of a few Angstroms. Above a certain threshold level of the mismatch strain and/or the size of the patch, the formation of multiple islands separated by shallow wetting layers is also observed as metastable states such as doublets even multiplets. These islands are converted into a distinct SK islands after long annealing times by coalescence through the long range surface diffusion. Extensive computer simulation studies demonstrated that after an initial transient regime, there is a strong quadratic relationship between the height of the SK singlet and the intensity of the lattice mismatch strain (in a wide range of stresses up to 8.5?GPa for germanium thin crystalline films), with the exception at those critical points where the morphological (shape change with necking) transition takes place.

  5. Atomic intermixing and interface roughness in short-period InAs/GaSb superlattices for infrared photodetectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashuach, Y.; Lakin, E.; Kaufmann, Y.; Saguy, C.; Zolotoyabko, E.

    2014-09-28

    A set of advanced characterization methods, including high-resolution X-ray diffraction (measurements and simulations), cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy, and high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy is applied to quantify the interface roughness and atomic intermixing (in both cation and anion sub-lattices) in short period (6–7 nm) InAs/GaSb superlattices intended for mid-wavelength (M) and long-wavelength (L) infrared detectors. The undesired atomic intermixing and interface roughness in the L-samples were found to be considerably lower than in the M-samples. In all specimens, anion intermixing is much higher than that in the cation sub-lattice. Possible origins of these findings are discussed.

  6. Wall-slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds: Effect of flow channel geometry and roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Sanetrnik, Daniel [Dept. of Production Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, nm. T.G. Masaryka 5555, 760 01 Zln, Czech Republic and Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovc (Czech Republic); Paravanova, Gordana [Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovcrnou 3685, 760 01 Zln (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-15

    The paper deals with the rheological behavior of highly filled compounds proceeded via powder injection molding (PIM) and applied in many sectors of industry (automotive, medicine, electronic or military). Online rheometer equipped with slit dies varying in surface roughness and dimensions was applied to investigate the wall-slip as a rheological phenomenon, which can be considered as a parameter indicating the separation of compound components (polymer binder and metallic powder) during high shear rates when injection molded.

  7. On the improvement of photovoltaic action of ZnO/P3HT:PCBM by controlling roughness of window layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geethu, R. Menon, M. R. Rajesh Kartha, C. Sudha Vijayakumar, K. P.

    2014-04-24

    Polymer solar cells with configuration ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/Ag were fabricated using cost effective chemical spray pyrolysis and spin coating techniques. When surface of ZnO layer was modified with a second layer so as to increase the roughness, considerable improvement in cell parameters were observed. Optimum conditions for the required roughness were identified and changes in cell parameters with variation in surface roughness were studied. Major enhancements were observed in the open circuit voltage and in the cell efficiency.

  8. Surface smoothing effect of an amorphous thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition on a surface with nano-sized roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, W. S. Wan, X.; Xu, Y.; Wong, H.; Zhang, J.; Luo, J. K.; Institute of Renewable Energy and Environment Technology, Bolton University, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5 AB

    2014-02-15

    Previously, Lau (one of the authors) pointed out that the deposition of an amorphous thin film by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on a substrate with nano-sized roughness probably has a surface smoothing effect. In this letter, polycrystalline zinc oxide deposited by ALD onto a smooth substrate was used as a substrate with nano-sized roughness. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) were used to demonstrate that an amorphous aluminum oxide thin film deposited by ALD can reduce the surface roughness of a polycrystalline zinc oxide coated substrate.

  9. Competing Risk Analysis of Neurologic versus Nonneurologic Death in Patients Undergoing Radiosurgical Salvage After Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy Failure: Who Actually Dies of Their Brain Metastases?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, John T.; Colmer, Hentry G.; White, Lance; Fitzgerald, Nora; Isom, Scott; Bourland, John D.; Laxton, Adrian W.; Tatter, Stephen B.; Chan, Michael D.

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To estimate the hazard for neurologic (central nervous system, CNS) and nonneurologic (non-CNS) death associated with patient, treatment, and systemic disease status in patients receiving stereotactic radiosurgery after whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) failure, using a competing risk model. Patients and Methods: Of 757 patients, 293 experienced recurrence or new metastasis following WBRT. Univariate Cox proportional hazards regression identified covariates for consideration in the multivariate model. Competing risks multivariable regression was performed to estimate the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for both CNS and non-CNS death after adjusting for patient, disease, and treatment factors. The resultant model was converted into an online calculator for ease of clinical use. Results: The cumulative incidence of CNS and non-CNS death at 6 and 12 months was 20.6% and 21.6%, and 34.4% and 35%, respectively. Patients with melanoma histology (relative to breast) (aHR 2.7, 95% CI 1.5-5.0), brainstem location (aHR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.5), and number of metastases (aHR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04-1.2) had increased aHR for CNS death. Progressive systemic disease (aHR 0.55, 95% CI 0.4-0.8) and increasing lowest margin dose (aHR 0.97, 95% CI 0.9-0.99) were protective against CNS death. Patients with lung histology (aHR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.9) and progressive systemic disease (aHR 2.14, 95% CI 1.5-3.0) had increased aHR for non-CNS death. Conclusion: Our nomogram provides individual estimates of neurologic death after salvage stereotactic radiosurgery for patients who have failed prior WBRT, based on histology, neuroanatomical location, age, lowest margin dose, and number of metastases after adjusting for their competing risk of death from other causes.

  10. Analytical studies on the impact of using repeated-rib roughness in LMR (Liquid Metal Reactor) decay heat removal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obot, N.T.; Tessier, J.H.; Pedersen, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    A numerical study was carried out to determine the effects of roughness on the thermal performance of Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) decay heat removal systems for a range of possible design configurations and operating conditions. The ranges covered for relative rib height (e/D/sub h/), relative pitch (p/e) and flow attack angle were 0.026--0.103, 5--20 and 0--90 degrees, successively. The heat flux was varied between 1.1 and 21.5 kW/m/sup 2/ (0.1 and 2.0 kW/ft/sup 2/). Calculations were made for three cases: smooth duct with no ribs, ribs on both the guard vessel and collector wall, and ribs on the collector wall only. The results indicate that significant benefits, amounting to nearly two-fold reductions in guard vessel and collector wall temperatures, can be realized by placing repeated ribs on both the guard vessel and the collector wall. The magnitudes of the reduction in the reactor vessel temperature are considerably smaller. In general, the level of improvement, be it with respect to temperature or heat flux, is only mildly affected by changes in rib height or pitch but exhibits greater sensitivity to the assumed value for the system form loss. When the ribs are placed only on the collector wall, the heat removal capability is substantially reduced.

  11. Local changes of work function near rough features on Cu surfaces operated under high external electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djurabekova, Flyura Ruzibaev, Avaz; Parviainen, Stefan; Holmstrm, Eero; Hakala, Mikko

    2013-12-28

    Metal surfaces operated under high electric fields produce sparks even if they are held in ultra high vacuum. In spite of extensive research on the topic of vacuum arcs, the mystery of vacuum arc origin still remains unresolved. The indications that the sparking rates depend on the material motivate the research on surface response to extremely high external electric fields. In this work by means of density-functional theory calculations we analyze the redistribution of electron density on (100) Cu surfaces due to self-adatoms and in presence of high electric fields from ?1?V/nm up to ?2?V/nm (?1 to ?2 GV/m, respectively). We also calculate the partial charge induced by the external field on a single adatom and a cluster of two adatoms in order to obtain reliable information on charge redistribution on surface atoms, which can serve as a benchmarking quantity for the assessment of the electric field effects on metal surfaces by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, we investigate the modifications of work function around rough surface features, such as step edges and self-adatoms.

  12. Review of the margins for ASME code fatigue design curve - effects of surface roughness and material variability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2003-10-03

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. The Code specifies fatigue design curves for structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. Existing fatigue strain-vs.-life ({var_epsilon}-N) data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of pressure vessel and piping steels. This report provides an overview of the existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data for carbon and low-alloy steels and wrought and cast austenitic SSs to define the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on the fatigue lives of the steels. Experimental data are presented on the effects of surface roughness on the fatigue life of these steels in air and LWR environments. Statistical models are presented for estimating the fatigue {var_epsilon}-N curves as a function of the material, loading, and environmental parameters. Two methods for incorporating environmental effects into the ASME Code fatigue evaluations are discussed. Data available in the literature have been reviewed to evaluate the conservatism in the existing ASME Code fatigue evaluations. A critical review of the margins for ASME Code fatigue design curves is presented.

  13. Salvage Values Determines Reliability of Used Photovoltaics ...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden, Colorado PDF icon pvmrw13ps1energyideasmccabe.pdf More Documents & Publications Revitalizing ...

  14. Experimental study of laser-oxygen cutting of low-carbon steel using fibre and CO{sub 2} lasers under conditions of minimal roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golyshev, A A; Malikov, A G; Orishich, A M; Shulyatyev, V B

    2014-10-31

    The results of an experimental study of laser-oxygen cutting of low-carbon steel using fibre and CO{sub 2} lasers are generalised. The dependence of roughness of the cut surface on the cutting parameters is investigated, and the conditions under which the surface roughness is minimal are formulated. It is shown that for both types of lasers these conditions can be expressed in the same way in terms of the dimensionless variables – the Péclet number Pe and the output power Q of laser radiation per unit thickness of the cut sheet – and take the form of the similarity laws: Pe = const, Q = const. The optimal values of Pe and Q are found. We have derived empirical expressions that relate the laser power and cutting speed with the thickness of the cut sheet under the condition of minimal roughness in the case of cutting by means of radiation from fibre and CO{sub 2} lasers. (laser technologies)

  15. a-Si{sub x}C{sub 1?x}:H thin films with subnanometer surface roughness for biological applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrera-Celis, Jos Reyes-Betanzo, Claudia Itzmoyotl-Toxqui, Adrin; Ordua-Daz, Abdu Prez-Coyotl, Ana

    2015-09-15

    The characterization of a-Si{sub x}C{sub 1?x}:H thin films by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition with high hydrogen dilution for biological applications is addressed. A root mean square roughness less than 1?nm was measured via atomic force microscopy for an area of 25??m{sup 2}. Structural analysis was done using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the middle infrared region. It was found that under the deposition conditions, the formation of SiC bonds is promoted. Electrical dark conductivity measurements were performed to evaluate the effect of high hydrogen dilution and to find the relation between carrier transport properties and the structural arrangement. Conductivities of the order of 10{sup ?7} to 10{sup ?9} S/cm at room temperature for methanesilane gas flow ratio from 0.35 to 0.85 were achieved, respectively. UV-visible spectra were used to obtain the optical band gap and the Tauc parameter. Optical band gap as wide as 3.55?eV was achieved in the regime of high carbon incorporation. Accordingly, deposition under low power density and high hydrogen dilution reduces the roughness, improves the structure of the network, and stabilizes the film properties as a greater percentage of carbon is incorporated. The biofunctionalization of a-Si{sub x}C{sub 1?x}:H surfaces with NH{sub 2}-terminated self-assembled monolayers was obtained through silanization with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. This knowledge opens a window for the inclusion of these a-Si{sub x}C{sub 1?x}:H thin films in devices such as biosensors.

  16. Surface roughness statistics and temperature step stress effects for D-T solid layers equilibrated inside a 2 mm beryllium torus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheliak, J.D.; Hoffer, J.K.

    1998-12-31

    Solid D-T layers are equilibrated inside a 2 mm diameter beryllium toroidal cell at temperatures ranging from 19.0 K to 19.6 K, using the beta-layering process. The experimental runs consists of multiple cycles of rapid- or slow-freezing of the initially liquid D-T charge, followed by a lengthy period of beta-layering equilibration, terminated by melting the layer. The temperature was changed in discrete steps at the end of some equilibration cycles in an attempt to simulate actual ICF target conditions. High-precision images of the D-T solid-vapor interface were analyzed to yield the surface roughness {sigma}{sub mns} as a sum of modal contributions. Results show an overage {sigma}{sub mns} of 1.3 {+-} 0.3 {micro}m for layers equilibrated at 19.0 K and show an inverse dependence of {sigma}{sub mns} on equilibration temperature up to 19.525 K. Inducing sudden temperature perturbations lowered {sigma}{sub mns} to 1.0 {+-} 0.05 {micro}m.

  17. Salvage Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) Following In-Field...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ... of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ...

  18. RECOVERY AND SEPARATION OF LITHIUM VALUES FROM SALVAGE SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansford, D.L.; Raabe, E.W.

    1963-08-20

    Lithium values can be recovered from an aqueous basic solution by reacting the values with a phosphate salt soluble in the solution, forming an aqueous slurry of the resultant aqueous insoluble lithium phosphate, contacting the slurry with an organic cation exchange resin in the acid form until the slurry has been clarified, and thereafter recovering lithium values from the resin. (AEC)

  19. Metallographic autopsies of full-scale ITER prototype cable-in-conduit conductors after full cyclic testing in SULTAN: III. The importance of strand surface roughness in long twist pitch conductors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sanabria, Charlie; Lee, Peter J.; Starch, William; Devred, Arnaud; Larbalestier, David C.

    2016-05-31

    As part of the ITER conductor qualification process, 3 m long Cable-in-Conduit Conductors (CICCs) were tested at the SULTAN facility under conditions simulating ITER operation so as to establish the current sharing temperature, Tcs, as a function of multiple full Lorentz force loading cycles. After a comprehensive evaluation of both the Toroidal Field (TF) and the Central Solenoid (CS) conductors, it was found that Tcs degradation was common in long twist pitch TF conductors while short twist pitch CS conductors showed some Tcs increase. However, one kind of TF conductors containing superconducting strand fabricated by the Bochvar Institute of Inorganicmore » Materials (VNIINM) avoided Tcs degradation despite having long twist pitch. In our earlier metallographic autopsies of long and short twist pitch CS conductors, we observed a substantially greater transverse strand movement under Lorentz force loading for long twist pitch conductors, while short twist pitch conductors had negligible transverse movement. With help from the literature, we concluded that the transverse movement was not the source of Tcs degradation but rather an increase of the compressive strain in the Nb3Sn filaments possibly induced by longitudinal movement of the wires. Like all TF conductors this TF VNIINM conductor showed large transverse motions under Lorentz force loading, but Tcs actually increased, as in all short twist pitch CS conductors. We here propose that the high surface roughness of the VNIINM strand may be responsible for the suppression of the compressive strain enhancement (characteristic of long twist pitch conductors). Furthermore, it appears that increasing strand surface roughness could improve the performance of long twist pitch CICCs.« less

  20. Surface Orbital 'Roughness' in Colossal Magnetoresistive Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    containing a mixed-valence of Mn3+ and Mn4+, known as manganites, represent an ideal system to address the role of the surface, because all the relevant degrees of freedom -...

  1. A Rough Road Leads To The Stars

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    then at 210 minutes before launch the flight unit was mounted into the spacecraft. The ground control unit was placed inside a temperature controlled cabinet, in which the...

  2. Percutaneous fenestration of aortic dissection: Salvage of an ischemic solitary left kidney

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Chung, Jin Wook; Cho, Yoon Koo; Kim, Sun Ho; Ahn, Hyuk; Oh, Byung Hee

    1997-03-15

    The false channel of a type III aortic dissection caused acute renal ischemia by compression of the origin of the left renal artery in a patient with status post-right nephrectomy. To relieve the ischemia and restore renal function, percutaneous balloon fenestration was performed successfully.

  3. Resolving Radiological Classification and Release Issues for Many DOE Solid Wastes and Salvageable Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hochel, R.C.

    1999-06-14

    The cost effective radiological classification and disposal of solid materials with potential volume contamination, in accordance with applicable U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, suffers from an inability to unambiguously distinguish among transuranic waste, low-level waste, and unconditional-release materials. Depending on the classification, disposal costs can vary by a hundred-fold. But in many cases, the issues can be easily resolved by a combination of process information, some simple measurements, and calculational predictions from a computer model for radiation shielding.The proper classification and disposal of many solid wastes requires a measurement regime that is able to show compliance with a variety of institutional and regulatory contamination limits. Although this is not possible for all solid wastes, there are many that do lend themselves to such measures. Several examples are discussed which demonstrate the possibilities, including one which was successfully applied to bulk contamination.The only barriers to such broader uses are the slow-to-change institutional perceptions and procedures. For many issues and materials, the measurement tools are available; they need only be applied.

  4. File:Wind rough example.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    this file. Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. If the file has been modified from...

  5. Surface roughness effects on the solar reflectance of cool asphalt...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The model is then used to compute the reflectance of shingles with a mixture of different colored granules, when the reflectances of the corresponding mono-color shingles are ...

  6. Procedure for estimating fracture energy from fracture surface roughness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williford, Ralph E.

    1989-01-01

    The fracture energy of a material is determined by first measuring the length of a profile of a section through a fractured surface of the material taken on a plane perpendicular to the mean plane of that surface, then determining the fractal dimensionality of the surface. From this, the yield strength of the material, and the Young's Modulus of that material, the fracture energy is calculated.

  7. Hungry fungi seek rough diet, root out environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, J.

    1993-12-01

    The US Navy asked biochemist Stephen Aust to determine whether a common fungus could destroy 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, a highly explosive compound popularly known as TNT. The reason white rot fungus apparently can be used to attack nearly any organic contaminant, lies in the organisms' evolution in response to a nearly infinite variety of trees and lignin. White rot fungus, evolved to degrade wood, and not every tree is the same. Environmental pollutants are very similar. Some environmental pollutants are very insoluble. Aust emphasizes that using white rot fungi in environmental treatment is not an off-the-shelf technology. Applications and remediation techniques in most cases will be site-specific success will require prior, accurate calculation of the fungi's nutrient demands, contaminant types and concentrations, local conditions, and economic considerations. Most work with white rot fungi to date has been at the laboratory scale. Experiments indicated that the fungus can indeed degrade TNT to carbon dioxide.

  8. Rough and Ready Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National Map Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleRoughandReadyBiomassFacility&oldid398020" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating...

  9. Turbulent Flow Inside Pipes with Two-Dimensional Rib Roughness

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-01-24

    A commonly used internal enhancement for single-phase forced-convective turbulent flow applications is tranverse and/or near tranverse ribs. These enhanced surfaces consist of a uniform inside diameter with periodic and discrete disruption of ribs. Enhanced tubes of this type are made by an extrusion process and are used in some condensers and evaporators in refrigeration systems. Tubes of this type fall into an enhancement category called separation and reattachment that has been identified as one ofmore » the most energy efficient. Lacking are prediction methods that are mechanistic based that can be used to calculate the heat-transfer coefficients and friction-factors for tubes with this enhancement type. This program calculates the Nusselt number and friction factor for enhanced tubes with tranverse, rectangular ribs with a spacing exceeding the reattachment length. The input quantities are the enhancement height, spacing, and the width. The Nusselt number and friction factor are calculated for a specific Reynolds number or for a range of Reynolds numbers. Users of the program are heat-exchanger designers, enhanced tubing suppliers, and research organizations or academia who are developing or validating prediction methods. The manufacturers of refrigeration heat exchangers and enhanced tube suppliers are potential users of this software.« less

  10. Impact of Ice Crystal Roughness on Satellite Retrieved Cloud...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P. W. Heck 2 , R. F. Arduini 3 , R. Palikonda 3 , J. K. Ayers 3 , M. M. Khaiyer 3 , P. Yang 4 , Y. Xie 4 3 Science Systems & Applications, Inc. Hampton, VA 1 NASA Langley Research...

  11. Enhanced Tissue Adhesion by Increased Porosity and Surface Roughness...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Org: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Sponsoring Org: SC USDOE - Office of Science (SC) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like ...

  12. Acyl-chain remodeling of dioctanoyl-phosphatidylcholine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant defective in de novo and salvage phosphatidylcholine synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishino, Hideyuki; Eguchi, Hiroki; Takagi, Keiko; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Ohta, Akinori

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: Dioctanoyl-PC (diC8PC) supported growth of a yeast mutant defective in PC synthesis. diC8PC was converted to PC species containing longer acyl residues in the mutant. Both acyl residues of diC8PC were replaced by longer fatty acids in vitro. This system will contribute to the elucidation of the acyl chain remodeling of PC. - Abstract: A yeast strain, in which endogenous phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis is controllable, was constructed by the replacement of the promoter of PCT1, encoding CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, with GAL1 promoter in a double deletion mutant of PEM1 and PEM2, encoding phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase and phospholipid methyltransferase, respectively. This mutant did not grow in the glucose-containing medium, but the addition of dioctanoyl-phosphatidylcholine (diC8PC) supported its growth. Analyses of the metabolism of {sup 13}C-labeled diC8PC ((methyl-{sup 13}C){sub 3}-diC8PC) in this strain using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry revealed that it was converted to PC species containing acyl residues of 16 or 18 carbons at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions. In addition, both acyl residues of (methyl-{sup 13}C){sub 3}-diC8PC were replaced with 16:1 acyl chains in the in vitro reaction using the yeast cell extract in the presence of palmitoleoyl-CoA. These results indicate that PC containing short acyl residues was remodeled to those with acyl chains of physiological length in yeast.

  13. Y-12's rough roads smoothed over with 23,000 tons of recycled...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Read more about it. Dec 29, 2015 at 1:00 am Blog archive April 2016 (12) March 2016 (28) February 2016 (21) January 2016 (21) December 2015 (18) November 2015 (11) October 2015 ...

  14. Y-12's rough roads smoothed over with recycled asphalt | Y-12 National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NNSA's systems administrators keep the computers running For Systems Administrator (SysAdmin) Day, meet some of the men & women keeping NNSA going. Thanks for all you do! Michelle Swinkels, Senior Systems and Network Technologist at NNSA's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory What excites you about your work for NNSA? I'... NNSA innovation fuels space exploration Today, in accordance with a 1971 Presidential proclamation, the United States commemorates the first human setting foot on the

  15. Strain-induced reduction of surface roughness dominated spin relaxation in MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osintsev, Dmitri; Stanojevic, Zlatan; Baumgartner, Oskar; Sverdlov, Viktor; Selberherr, Siegfried

    2013-12-04

    Semiconductor spintronics is a rapidly developing field with large impact on microelectronics. Using spin may help to reduce power consumption and increase computational speed. Silicon is perfectly suited for spin-based applications. It is characterized by a weak spin-orbit interaction which should result in a long spin lifetime. However, recent experiments indicate the lifetime is greatly reduced in gated structures. Thus, understanding the peculiarities of the spin-orbit effects on the subband structure and details of the spin propagation in surface layers and thin silicon films is urgently needed. We investigate the contribution of the spin-orbit interaction to the equivalent valley splitting and calculate the spin relaxation matrix elements by using a perturbative k ⋅p approach. We demonstrate that applying uniaxial stress along the [110] direction may considerably suppress electron spin relaxation in silicon surface layers and thin films.

  16. Effects of Atomic Scale Roughness at Metal/insulator Interfaces on Metal Work Function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ling, Sanliang; Watkins, M. B.; Shlyuger, Alexander L.

    2013-09-26

    We evaluate the performance of different van der Waals (vdW) corrected density functional theory (DFT) methods in predicting the structure of perfect interfaces between the LiF(001), MgO(001), NiO(001) films on the Ag(001) surface and the resulting work function shift of Ag(001). The results demonstrate that including the van der Waals interaction is important for obtaining accurate interface structures and the metal work function shift. The work function shift results from a subtle interplay of several effects strongly affected by even small changes in the interface geometry. This makes the accuracy of theoretical methods insufficient for predicting the shift values better than within 0.2 eV. Most of the existing van der Waals corrected functionals are not particularly suited for studying metal/insulator interfaces. The lack of accurate experimental data on the interface geometries and surface rumpling of insulators hampers the calibration of existing and novel density functionals.

  17. ANALYSIS OF HIGH FIELD NON-LINEAR LOSSES ON SRF SURFACES DUE TO SPECIFIC TOPOGRAPHIC ROUGHNESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Xu,Charles Reece,Michael Kelley

    2012-07-01

    The high-field performance of SRF cavities will eventually be limited by the realization of fundamental material limits, whether it is Hc1 or Hsh, or some derivative thereof, at which the superconductivity is lost. Before reaching this fundamental field limit at the macro level, it must be encountered at localized, perhaps microscopic, sites of field enhancement due to local topography. If such sites are small enough, they may produce thermally stabilized normal-conducting regions which contribute non-linear losses when viewed from the macro resonant field perspective, and thus produce degradation in Q0. We have undertaken a calculation of local surface magnetic field enhancement from specific fine topographic structure by conformal mapping method and numerically. A solution of the resulting normal conducting volume has been derived and the corresponding RF Ohmic loss simulated.

  18. Atomic-Level Measurements of Rough Surfaces | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Every material interacts with the world through its surface, whether it is via the catalyst used to clean the emissions from your car, formation of rust on bridges used in the ...

  19. Diamonds in the rough: a strong case for the inclusion of weak-intensity X-ray diffraction data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jimin; Wing, Richard A.

    2014-05-01

    Here, new evidence is provided to show that the inclusion of weak-intensity, high-resolution X-ray diffraction data helps to improve the quality of experimental phases by imposing proper constraints on electron-density models during noncrystallographic symmetry averaging. Overwhelming evidence exists to show that the inclusion of weak-intensity, high-resolution X-ray diffraction data helps improve the refinement of atomic models by imposing strong constraints on individual and overall temperature B factors and thus the quality of crystal structures. Some researchers consider these data to be of little value and opt to discard them during data processing, particularly at medium and low resolution, at which individual B factors of atomic models cannot be refined. Here, new evidence is provided to show that the inclusion of these data helps to improve the quality of experimental phases by imposing proper constraints on electron-density models during noncrystallographic symmetry (NCS) averaging. Using electron-density correlation coefficients as criteria, the resolution of data has successfully been extended from 3.1 to 2.5 Å resolution with redundancy-independent merging R factors from below 100% to about 310%. It is further demonstrated that phase information can be fully extracted from observed amplitudes through de novo NCS averaging. Averaging starts with uniform density inside double-shelled spherical masks and NCS matrices that are derived from bound heavy-atom clusters at the vertices of cuboctahedrally symmetric protein particles.

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    up to 79% of the total property may be assigned salvage value. Salvage value of a pollution control facility, of which a wind turbine is considered for assessment purposes,...

  1. Special Assessment for Wind Energy Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    *The law states that up to 79% of the total property may be assigned salvage value. Salvage value of a pollution control facility, of which a wind turbine is considered for assessment purposes, is...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to 79% of the total property may be assigned salvage value. Salvage value of a pollution control facility, of which a wind turbine is considered for assessment purposes, is......

  3. Long-term follow-up of {sup 111}In-capromab pendetide (ProstaScint) scan as pretreatment assessment in patients who undergo salvage radiotherapy for rising prostate-specific antigen after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagda, Suneel N. . E-mail: snagda@gmail.com; Mohideen, Najeeb; Lo, Simon S.; Khan, Usman B.S.; Dillehay, Gary; Wagner, Robert; Campbell, Steven; Flanigan, Robert

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term failure patterns in patients who underwent an {sup 111}In-capromab pendetide (ProstaScint) scan as part of their pretreatment assessment for a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level after prostatectomy and subsequently received local radiotherapy (RT) to the prostate bed. Methods: Fifty-eight patients were referred for evaluation of a rising PSA level after radical prostatectomy. All patients had negative findings for metastatic disease after abdominal/pelvis imaging with CT and isotope bone scans. All patients underwent a capromab pendetide scan, and the sites of uptake were noted. All patients were treated with local prostate bed RT (median dose 66.6 Gy). Results: Of the 58 patients, 20 had biochemical failure (post-RT PSA level >0.2 ng/mL or a rise to greater than the nadir PSA), including 6 patients with positive uptake outside the bed (positive elsewhere). The 4-year biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) rates for patients with negative (53%), positive in the prostate bed alone (45%), or positive elsewhere (74%) scan findings did not differ significantly (p = 0.51). The positive predictive value of the capromab pendetide scan in detecting disease outside the bed was 27%. The capromab pendetide scan status had no effect on bRFS. Those with a pre-RT PSA level of <1 ng/mL had improved bRFS (p = 0.003). Conclusion: The capromab pendetide scan has a low positive predictive value in patients with positive elsewhere uptake and the 4-year bRFS was similar to that for those who did not exhibit positive elsewhere uptake. Therefore, patients with a postprostatectomy rising PSA level should considered for local RT on the basis of clinicopathologic factors.

  4. Effect of fins and repeated-rib roughness on the performance characteristics of a reactor vessel air cooling system for LMFBR shutdown heat removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, F.B.; Chawla, T.C.; Pedersen, D.R.; Tessier, J.H.; Webb, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of a totally passive cooling system for shutdown heat removal that rejects heat from the reactor vessel by radiation to the guard vessel and from the guard vessel to a circulating air stream driven by natural convection is a key feature of the US Department of Energy's liquid-metal reactor advanced design study concepts. General Electric refers to the system as the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) and Rockwell International as the Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (RACS). The circulating air stream is contained in the annular passage formed with guard vessel wall and the duct wall surrounding the guard vessel. Specifically, the RVACS/RACS is designed to assure adequate cooling of the reactor vessel under abnormal operational conditions associated with loss of heat removal through the normal heat transport path via the steam generator system or the DRACS, if available. To enhance the heat transfer, longitudinal radial fins or repeated ribs can be attached to the duct wall and/or the guard vessel. The purpose of the present paper is to summarize the status of the analytical work on the development of an optimum design configuration for the RVACS/RACS.

  5. Targeted Review of Site Preparedness for Severe Natural Phenomena...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with enriched uranium. Operations include wet chemistry, oxide conversion reduction, casting, machining and forming, and salvage treatment. These operations do not require forced...

  6. DOE Announces Start of Recovery Act Funded Cleanup Projects at Y-12

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE announces that cleanup of the Old Salvage Yard at the Y-12 National Security Complex has started using funding received from the Recovery Act.

  7. Berkeley Lab Space

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Space Committee Charter Articles Presentations Feedback Contact Us ANNOUNCEMENTS Feb. 13, 2014 Courtesy Salvage Pickup Factsheet To assist the community in disposing of "no longer...

  8. Uranium Processing Facility | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Site Readiness-complete Site Infrastructure and Services-underway Substation Mechanical Electrical Building Process Support Facility Salvage and Accountability Building Main ...

  9. STATES GOVERNMENT S. R. Sapirle~, Manager, Oak Ridge Operations

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Laboratories, Frankford Arsenal, Fhiladelphia 37, Pa. This material will be used in experimental research. It s ex,- petted that all material will be salvaged and returned td your...

  10. Ingenuity by Kalispell crew saves millions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Falls Aluminum Co. in Columbia Falls, Mont., notified BPA of its intention to end operations and maintenance agreements with BPA in advance of salvage operations at the...

  11. Comment on A study of vertical and in-plane electron mobility due to interface roughness scattering at low temperature in InAs-GaSb superlattices [J. Appl. Phys. 114, 053712 (2013)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szmulowicz, F.

    2014-04-14

    The purpose of this comment is to point out that the paper by Safa, Asgari, and Faraone [J. Appl. Phys. 114, 053712 (2013)] (SAF) on electronic transport in superlattices contains a number of errors in physics and execution. By dealing with a finite number of periods and forcing the wave function to be zero at the upper and lower boundaries of the superlattice stack, SAF have turned the system into a quantum well for which the momentum along the growth axis is not a good quantum number, so that the bands in the growth direction are flat and the corresponding carrier velocities and vertical mobilities are zero. A number of other errors allow the authors to get nonzero results and to reach conclusions that qualitatively mirror those of Szmulowicz, Haugan, Elhamri, and Brown [Phys. Rev. B 84, 155307 (2011)].

  12. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 18.2 MT of plutonium using existing facilities at the Savannah River site: alternatives 3A/5A/6A/6B/7A/9A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 18.2 metric tons (nominal) of plutonium using ceramic in a new facility at Savannah River Site (SRS).

  13. CX-011220: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Timber Salvage from Pine Ridge Storm Damage CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 09/17/2013 Location(s): Tennessee Offices(s): Oak Ridge Office

  14. Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Now a new project is salvaging and mining these deteriorating films for fresh-and crucial- ... Yield estimates also help forecast the extent of damage an adversary's missile or a ...

  15. Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    July 2015 Films of the U.S. atmospheric nuclear tests provide breathtaking reminders of the power of nuclear weapons. Now a new project is salvaging and mining these deteriorating films for fresh-and crucial- scientific data about the weapons' yields. To understand why Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory nuclear weapons physicist Greg Spriggs is spearheading, in partnership with Los Alamos, an urgent search-and-rescue mission to salvage several thousand films documenting U.S. atmospheric

  16. Weatherization Installer/Technician Fundamentals 2.0 - Mechanical

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ventilation Rough-In Guidelines | Department of Energy Mechanical Ventilation Rough-In Guidelines Weatherization Installer/Technician Fundamentals 2.0 - Mechanical Ventilation Rough-In Guidelines Mechanical Ventilation Rough-In Guidelines - Complete (25.92 MB) Lesson Plan: Mechanical Ventilation Rough-In Guidelines (125.71 KB) PowerPoint: Mechanical Ventilation Rough-In Guidelines (26.34 MB) More Documents & Publications Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Mechanical Ventilation Energy

  17. Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved ETA...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Effective March 1, 1997 "Electric Vehicle Rough Road Course Test" Prepared by Electric ... Appendices Appendix A - Electric Vehicle Rough Road Test Data Sheet 15 Appendix B - ...

  18. Military MOJO | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Majorly Awesome Military Energy Savers: We Salute You Majorly Awesome Military Energy Savers: We Salute You November 11, 2015 - 12:09pm Addthis A historic hangar at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio was salvaged and restored with window films to reduce solar heat gain, occupancy sensors to control interior lighting, and daylight sensors to maximize energy savings and enhance productivity. A historic hangar at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio was salvaged and

  19. Maker Faire Tour Part 1 | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Majorly Awesome Military Energy Savers: We Salute You Majorly Awesome Military Energy Savers: We Salute You November 11, 2015 - 12:09pm Addthis A historic hangar at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio was salvaged and restored with window films to reduce solar heat gain, occupancy sensors to control interior lighting, and daylight sensors to maximize energy savings and enhance productivity. A historic hangar at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio was salvaged and

  20. Majorly Awesome Military Energy Savers: We Salute You | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Majorly Awesome Military Energy Savers: We Salute You Majorly Awesome Military Energy Savers: We Salute You November 11, 2015 - 12:09pm Addthis A historic hangar at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio was salvaged and restored with window films to reduce solar heat gain, occupancy sensors to control interior lighting, and daylight sensors to maximize energy savings and enhance productivity. A historic hangar at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio was salvaged and

  1. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit 3 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Upper East Fork Popular Creek Operable Unit 3 (UEFPC OU 3) is a source term OU composed of seven sites, and is located in the western portion of the Y-12 Plant. For the most part, the UEFPC OU 3 sites served unrelated purposes and are geographically removed from one another. The seven sites include the following: Building 81-10, the S-2 Site, Salvage Yard oil storage tanks, the Salvage Yard oil/solvent drum storage area, Tank Site 2063-U, the Salvage Yard drum deheader, and the Salvage Yard scrap metal storage area. All of these sites are contaminated with at least one or more hazardous and/or radioactive chemicals. All sites have had some previous investigation under the Y-12 Plant RCRA Program. The work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to each OU 3 site. The potential for release of contaminants to receptors through various media is addressed, and a sampling and analysis plan is presented to obtain objectives for the remedial investigation. Proposed sampling activities are contingent upon the screening level risk assessment, which includes shallow soil sampling, soil borings, monitoring well installation, groundwater sampling, and surface water sampling. Data from the site characterization activities will be used to meet the above objectives. A Field Sampling Investigation Plan, Health and Safety Plan, and Waste Management Plan are also included in this work plan.

  2. RCRA Summary Document for the David Witherspoon 1630 Site, Knoxville, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfeffer, J.

    2008-06-10

    The 48-acre David Witherspoon, Inc. (DWI) 1630 Site operated as an unregulated industrial landfill and scrap yard. The Tennessee Division of Superfund (TDSF) closed the landfill in 1974. During the period of operation, the site received solid and liquid wastes from salvage and industrial operations. The site consists of five separate tracts of land including a small portion located across the Norfolk Southern Railroad track. The landfill occupies approximately 5 acres of the site, and roughly 20 acres of the 48 acres contains surface and buried debris associated with the DWI dismantling business operation. Beginning in 1968, the state of Tennessee licensed DWI to receive scrap metal at the DWI 1630 Site, contaminated with natural uranium and enriched uranium (235U) not exceeding 0.1 percent by weight (TDSF 1990). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has agreed to undertake remedial actions at the DWI 1630 Site as specified under a Consent Order with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) (Consent Order No. 90-3443, April 4, 1991), and as further delineated by a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between DOE and the State of Tennessee (MOU Regarding Implementation of Consent Orders, October 6, 1994). The soil and debris removal at the DWI 1630 Site is being performed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) on behalf of the DOE. Remediation consists of removing contaminated soil and debris from the DWI 1630 site except for the landfill area and repairing the landfill cap. The DWI 1630 remediation waste that is being disposed at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) as defined as waste lot (WL) 146.1 and consists primarily of soils and soil like material, incidental debris and secondary waste generated from the excavation of debris and soil from the DWI 1630 site. The WL 146.1 includes soil, soil like material (e.g., shredded or chipped vegetation, ash), discrete debris items (e.g., equipment, drums, large scrap metal

  3. Paducah Demolition Debris Shipped for Disposition | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... about 1.5 million cubic feet, the volume of a football field roughly three stories tall. ... about 1.5 million cubic feet, the volume of a football field roughly three stories tall. ...

  4. Acyclic Immucillin Phosphonates. Second-Generation Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum Hypoxanthine- Guanine-Xanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazelton, Keith Z.; Ho, Meng-Chaio; Cassera, Maria B.; Clinch, Keith; Crump, Douglas R.; Rosario Jr., Irving; Merino, Emilio F.; Almo, Steve C.; Tyler, Peter C.; Schramm, Vern L.

    2012-06-22

    We found that Plasmodium falciparum is the primary cause of deaths from malaria. It is a purine auxotroph and relies on hypoxanthine salvage from the host purine pool. Purine starvation as an antimalarial target has been validated by inhibition of purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Hypoxanthine depletion kills Plasmodium falciparum in cell culture and in Aotus monkey infections. Hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGXPRT) from P. falciparum is required for hypoxanthine salvage by forming inosine 5'-monophosphate, a branchpoint for all purine nucleotide synthesis in the parasite. We present a class of HGXPRT inhibitors, the acyclic immucillin phosphonates (AIPs), and cell permeable AIP prodrugs. The AIPs are simple, potent, selective, and biologically stable inhibitors. The AIP prodrugs block proliferation of cultured parasites by inhibiting the incorporation of hypoxanthine into the parasite nucleotide pool and validates HGXPRT as a target in malaria.

  5. News about Rare Earths, New or Critical Materials, and Their Uses: |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Critical Materials Institute Rare Earths, New or Critical Materials, and Their Uses: 2016 Rare earth materials: Developing a comprehensive approach could help DOD better manage national security risks in the supply chain, Feb. 11, 2016 New request for information to inform Department of Energy Critical Materials Strategy, Feb. 10, 2016 2015 UK gets federal funds to research coal-based rare earth elements, Dec. 20, 2015 Salvage neodymium magnets from an old hard drive, Dec. 10, 2015 Battery

  6. Material Recycle and Recovery | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Recycle and ... Material Recycle and Recovery Y-12 recycles and recovers enriched uranium from retired weapons and other excess or salvage materials, including some retired fuel elements and nuclear materials from other countries. This mission ensures that excess materials from Y-12 and other parts of the world are processed to a safer form for long-term storage or reuse. Recycled material is used for such things as feedstock for the Naval Reactors Program or for research reactors that produce

  7. Learning from (Near) Disaster

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Learning National Security Science Latest Issue:April 2016 past issues All Issues » submit Learning from (Near) Disaster Weapons designers look to past nuclear accidents to develop safer modern-day explosives. March 22, 2016 Learning from (Near) Disaster In the Palomares incident, three nuclear bombs crashed into the ground and a fourth vanished into the sea. Sailors recovered the fourth weapon two months later in the most expensive U.S. Navy salvage operation in history. The casing is

  8. Optimal thermohydraulic performance of artifically roughened solar air heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, B.N.; Saini, J.S. )

    1991-01-01

    The heat transfer coefficient of solar air heaters can be increased by providing artificial roughness on the bottom of the absorber plate, leading to higher collection efficiency. Inclusion of artificial roughness, however, results in a higher friction factor and consequently a higher pumping power is required. Results show that both the Nusselt number and friction factor increase with increasing relative roughness height and decrease with increasing relative roughness pitch, but not in direct proportions. Optimization of the roughness and flow parameters (p/e, e/D, Re) to maximize heat transfer while keeping friction losses minimum was attempted. It has been found that a particular value of roughness Reynolds number (e{sup +} = e/D {radical}{ovr f/2Re}), always corresponds to optimum thermohydraulic conditions in the range of parameters investigated. On this basis design curves have been developed that give the optimal thermohydraulic performance combination of these parameters.

  9. NNSA missions now powered by California gold...en sunshine |...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Solar commercial operations began on Feb. 17, roughly three months after construction began. "This solar power purchase through Western supports national energy security, the clean ...

  10. Today in Energy - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    electricity natural gas oilpetroleum production states crude oil prices international generation consumption coal ... roughly six weeks following the end of each reporting month. ...

  11. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and the roughness correlation function. Grazing Incidence X-ray Scattering and Diffraction on Thin Films Grazing incidence X-ray scattering or diffraction (GIXS) refers to a...

  12. Survey of U.S. Ancillary Services Markets | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... penetration of variable wind resources and a similarly ... respective Non-spinning Reserves products that are roughly ... Design Related Groups Energy, Power, and Decision Analytics

  13. Oak Ridge Associated Universities

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Floor surfaces are generally rough and . "pitted" and are covered with a thin layer of oil absorbant material and dried oil and grease. Machining equipment and material storage ...

  14. Overview of Carbon Storage Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Roughly one third of the United States' carbon emissions come from power plants and other large point sources, such as industrial facilities. The Carbon Storage Program is focused ...

  15. Winning the Future: Chaninik Wind Group Pursues Innovative Solutions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Their total combined population is fewer than 2,000. With roughly 29% of village residents living below the poverty level and unemployment approaching 50%, these communities ...

  16. WindCat Workboats Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind energy Product: Lancashire-based vessel operators of specific vessels for offshore wind farms. These vessels can transfer personnel in rough seas. Coordinates: 53.86121,...

  17. C

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    storage). high-level radioactive waste, most of which was generated by reprocessing for defense nuclear activities, consists of roughly 90 million gallons of high-level waste ...

  18. ETA-UTP005 - Electric Vehicle Endurance Course Test

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Effective March 23, 2001 "Electric Vehicle Endurance Course Test" Prepared by Electric ... Appendices Appendix A - Electric Vehicle Rough Road Test Data Sheet 15 Appendix B - ...

  19. Microsoft PowerPoint - Liang_JACS-2013.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (175 words) By nanostructuring the previously reported lithium ion conductor Li3PS4, we demonstrated that lithium- ion conductivity at room temperature could be improved roughly...

  20. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    additional nine stations in 2000. The entire network covers approximately 40 square kilometers roughly centered around the SGP CF. This network constitutes a single instrument to...

  1. Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation X. Hong, M. J. Leach, and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The presence of vegetation modulates the evaporation from the soil and enhances the ... rainfall interception, and soil moisture, as well as albedo and aerodynamic roughness. ...

  2. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Approach for Single Amino Acid Polymorphism ... single nucleotide polymorphism roughly every 200 base pairs. ... of a carefully tuned balance of human host and ...

  3. Reduce Pumping Costs through Optimum Pipe Sizing: Industrial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    power required depends on flow rate, pipe size (diameter), overall pipe length, pipe characteristics (surface roughness, material, etc.), and properties of the fluid being pumped. ...

  4. Elk Valley Rancheria, California, Energy Efficiency and Alternative...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    California. Del Norte County is California's northernmost coastal county, located roughly halfway between Portland, Oregon (330 miles north) and San Francisco, California, ...

  5. Elk Valley Rancheria California: Energy Efficiency and Alternative...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    California. Del Norte County is California's northernmost coastal county, located roughly halfway between Portland, Oregon (330 miles north) and San Francisco, California, ...

  6. Apache County, Arizona: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Houck, Arizona Lukachukai, Arizona Many Farms, Arizona McNary, Arizona Nazlini, Arizona Red Mesa, Arizona Rock Point, Arizona Rough Rock, Arizona Round Rock, Arizona Sawmill,...

  7. NREL: Energy Sciences - Solid-State Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Printable Version Solid-State Theory Image showing a roughly spherical red shape that looks like an apple that is floating within a yellow hemispherical shell....

  8. Carter Co. Harding Co. Perkins Co. Dunn Co. Dawson Co. Fallon...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    BICENTENNIAL MEDICINE POLE HILLS BIG STICK ROOSEVELT ROUGH RIDER MONARCH TREE TOP LOOKOUT BUTTE BUCKHORN MEDORA FLAT TOP BUTTE ELAND DEMORES ASH COULEE WHISKEY JOE GAS CITY DAVIS ...

  9. Carter Co. Harding Co. Perkins Co. Dunn Co. Dawson Co. Fallon...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    MEDICINE POLE HILLS BICENTENNIAL ROOSEVELT BIG STICK ROUGH RIDER MONARCH TREE TOP LOOKOUT BUTTE BUCKHORN MEDORA FLAT TOP BUTTE ELAND DEMORES ASH COULEE WHISKEY JOE GAS CITY DAVIS ...

  10. Central Activator Keeps the Circadian Clock Ticking

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    utilizes an operational logic involving a central negative feedback loop that turns genes on and off rhythmically with a period of roughly 24 hours. The positive component of...

  11. Impedance spectroscopy of organic magnetoresistance devices-Effect...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 117; Journal ... POLARONS; RECOMBINATION; ROUGHNESS; SPECTROSCOPY; SURFACES; TRAPS Word Cloud More Like ...

  12. MHK Projects/AW Energy EMEC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AW Energy successfully demonstrated a 1:3 scale prototype device at EMEC (European Marine Energy Center) in both calm and rough winter conditions. Bottom wave velocity measurements...

  13. Lower Sioux Indian Community- 2010 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lower Sioux intends to continue its efforts to develop wind projects on its lands as a continuation of efforts begun roughly 20 years ago.

  14. Department of Energy Awards Hanford River Corridor Contract To...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inc., Bechtel National Inc., CH2M Hill Inc., Eberline Services Inc., and Integrated Logistics Services Inc. The Columbia River Corridor is composed of roughly 210 square miles...

  15. Dynamo-free

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The externally applied electric field tends to drive the equilibrium away from the relaxed, minimum energy state which is roughly described by a flat normalized parallel current ...

  16. First-Of-Its-Kind Search Engine Will Speed Materials Research...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Cell phones, wind turbines, solar panels and a variety of military technologies depend on these roughly fourteen elements (including nine "rare earth" elements). With about 90 ...

  17. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of annealing and interfacial roughness on the performance of bilayer donoracceptor polymer photovoltaic devices," Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 4329 (2010). ALS Science Highlight 218...

  18. Geothermal Energy Growth Continues, Industry Survey Reports ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of these new projects will provide significant economic benefits, according to GEA. "These new projects will result in the infusion of roughly 15 billion in capital ...

  19. New Jersey Township Champions Sustainability | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Caroline Ehrlich describes her New Jersey town as "a very diverse township where the ... population is roughly that of California, Texas, New York and Maryland combined). ...

  20. Offshore Wind Advanced Technology Demonstration Projects | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Technology Demonstration Projects Offshore Wind Advanced Technology Demonstration Projects With roughly 80% of the U.S. electricity demand originating from coastal states, ...

  1. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Why does friction increase with roughness to a point and then start to decrease with increasing roughness? Dear Sir/Madam, Please can you help me to explain an experiment result. My sister who is currently studying her A-level had just done her coursework on friction. Where different rough surfaces variable by the different degree on sand paper in it's energy needed to move a fixed mass upon it. They find from their result that as predicted the friction increases as the 'roughness' increases yet

  2. Newsletter Southern Great Plains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biomass burning, water treatment, waste management ... Increases in atmospheric methane roughly parallel world ... be burned via a flare or used to run electrical generators. ...

  3. Global Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biomass burning, water treatment facilities, waste ... 1800. Increases in atmospheric methane roughly parallel ... be burned via a flare or used to run electrical generators. ...

  4. Center for Energy Nanoscience at USC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Photovoltaics The efficiencies of organic photovoltatic (OPV) cells have increased sharply over recent years, reaching 8%, or roughly half the efficiency of commercial...

  5. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... States) USDOE Office of Human Resources and ... The roughness of a vicinal interface consisted of atomic ... Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt ...

  6. Trim or Replace Impellers on Oversized Pumps: Industrial Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to accommodate gradual increases in pipe surface roughness and fow resistance over time, ... impeller should not be trimmed any smaller than the minimum diameter shown on the curve. ...

  7. Recap and Conclusions to Tc/I in Hanford Flowsheet Presentations

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Recap & Conclusions to TcI in Hanford Flowsheet Presentations Gary Smith Office of Waste Processing (EM-31) November 18, 2010 2 Rough Flowsheet Diagram Tank Farm Evaporator ...

  8. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    barrels. This level approximated the prior week's stockdraw in addition to roughly matching the same year-ago reported stockdraw, although the February stockdraw covering...

  9. Land and Resource Management Issues Relevant to Deploying In...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Utah is home to oil shale resources containing roughly 1.3 trillion barrels of oil equivalent and our nation's richest oil sands resources. If economically feasible and ...

  10. Thermo Scientific Ozone Analyzer Instrument Handbook (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thus, the same concentration number is repeated roughly 4 times at the uniform, monotonic 1-s time base used in the AOS systems. Accompanying instrument outputs include sample ...

  11. Fact #750: October 22, 2012 Electric Vehicle Energy Requirements...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    significantly; however, compared with conventional vehicles, they are very ... By comparison, a conventional vehicle converts roughly 14-26% of the energy from fuel to ...

  12. Natural Gas Fuel Cells: Technology, Advances, and Opportunities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Fuel Cells: Technology, Advantages and Opportunities March 4, 2014 ... Installation and Integration Costs: - At roughly 2.5 to 3 million per 400kw installation ...

  13. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    national forests that are included in USFS inventories, roughly 60 million acres of land. The Clinton Administration issued a previous rule in January 2001, which prohibited...

  14. Energy Department Opens Job Search for Geothermal Technologies...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This abundant resource generates energy around the clock and has the potential to supply more than 100 GWe of electricity - roughly one tenth of America's energy demand. By ...

  15. Patterns of Failure After Concurrent Bevacizumab and Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for Recurrent High-Grade Glioma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, Lauren Q.; Beal, Kathryn; Goenka, Anuj; Karimi, Sasan; Iwamoto, Fabio M.; Yamada, Yoshiya; Zhang, Zhigang; Lassman, Andrew B.; Abrey, Lauren E.; Gutin, Philip H.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Concurrent bevacizumab with hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HSRT) is safe and effective for the treatment of recurrent high-grade gliomas (HGG). The objective of this study was to characterize the patterns of failure after this treatment regimen. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients with recurrent enhancing HGG were previously treated on an institutional review board-approved protocol of concurrent bevacizumab and reirradiation. Patients received 30 Gy in 5 fractions to the recurrent tumor with HSRT. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed every 2 cycles, and bevacizumab was continued until clinical or radiographic tumor progression according to the criteria of Macdonald et al. MRI at the time of progression was fused to the HSRT treatment plan, and the location of recurrence was classified on the basis of volume within the 95% isodose line. Outcomes based on patient characteristics, tumor grade, recurrence pattern, and best response to treatment were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Twenty-two patients experienced either clinical or radiographic progression. Recurrent tumor was enhancing in 15 (71.4%) and nonenhancing in 6 (28.6%) patients. Eleven patients (52.4%) had recurrence within the radiation field, 5 patients (23.8%) had marginal recurrence, and 5 patients had recurrence outside the radiation field. Pattern of enhancement and location of failure did not correlate with overall survival or progression-free survival. Radiographic response was the only variable to significantly correlate with progression-free survival. Conclusions: Despite the promising initial response seen with the addition of HSRT to bevacizumab as salvage treatment for recurrent HGG, approximately half of patients ultimately still experience failure within the radiation field. The rate of local failure with the addition of HSRT seems to be lower than that seen with bevacizumab alone in the salvage setting. Our data underscore the

  16. Postoperative Stereotactic Radiosurgery Without Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases: Potential Role of Preoperative Tumor Size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartford, Alan C.; Paravati, Anthony J.; Spire, William J.; Li, Zhongze; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Fadul, Camilo E.; Erkmen, Kadir; Friedman, Jonathan; Gladstone, David J.; Hug, Eugen B.; Roberts, David W.; Simmons, Nathan E.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy following resection of a brain metastasis increases the probability of disease control at the surgical site. We analyzed our experience with postoperative stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) as an alternative to whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), with an emphasis on identifying factors that might predict intracranial disease control and overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed all patients through December 2008, who, after surgical resection, underwent SRS to the tumor bed, deferring WBRT. Multiple factors were analyzed for time to intracranial recurrence (ICR), whether local recurrence (LR) at the surgical bed or “distant” recurrence (DR) in the brain, for time to WBRT, and for OS. Results: A total of 49 lesions in 47 patients were treated with postoperative SRS. With median follow-up of 9.3 months (range, 1.1-61.4 months), local control rates at the resection cavity were 85.5% at 1 year and 66.9% at 2 years. OS rates at 1 and 2 years were 52.5% and 31.7%, respectively. On univariate analysis (preoperative) tumors larger than 3.0 cm exhibited a significantly shorter time to LR. At a cutoff of 2.0 cm, larger tumors resulted in significantly shorter times not only for LR but also for DR, ICR, and salvage WBRT. While multivariate Cox regressions showed preoperative size to be significant for times to DR, ICR, and WBRT, in similar multivariate analysis for OS, only the graded prognostic assessment proved to be significant. However, the number of intracranial metastases at presentation was not significantly associated with OS nor with other outcome variables. Conclusions: Larger tumor size was associated with shorter time to recurrence and with shorter time to salvage WBRT; however, larger tumors were not associated with decrements in OS, suggesting successful salvage. SRS to the tumor bed without WBRT is an effective treatment for resected brain metastases, achieving local control particularly for tumors up to

  17. Energy Reductions Using Next-Generation Remanufacturing Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sordelet, Daniel; Racek, Ondrej

    2012-02-24

    The goal of this project was to develop a radically new surface coating approach that greatly enhances the performance of thermal spray coatings. Rather than relying on a roughened grit blasted substrate surface for developing a mechanical bond between the coating and substrate, which is the normal practice with conventional thermal spraying, a hybrid approach of combining a focused laser beam to thermally treat the substrate surface in the vicinity of the rapidly approaching thermally-sprayed powder particles was developed. This new surface coating process is targeted primarily at enabling remanufacturing of components used in engines, drive trains and undercarriage systems; thereby providing a substantial global opportunity for increasing the magnitude and breadth of parts that are remanufactured through their life cycle, as opposed to simply being replaced by new components. The projected benefits of a new remanufacturing process that increases the quantity of components that are salvaged and reused compared to being fabricated from raw materials will clearly vary based on the specific industry and range of candidate components that are considered. At the outset of this project two different metal processing routes were considered, castings and forgings, and the prototypical components for each process were liners and crankshafts, respectively. The quantities of parts used in the analysis are based on our internal production of approximately 158,000 diesel engines in 2007. This leads to roughly 1,000,000 liners (assuming a mixture of 6- and 8-cylinder engines) and 158,000 crankshafts. Using energy intensity factors for casting and forgings, respectively, of 4450 and 5970 Btu-hr/lb along with the energy-induced CO2 generation factor of 0.00038 lbs CO2/Btu, energy savings of over 17 trillion BTUs and CO2 reductions of over 6.5 million lbs could potentially be realized by remanufacturing the above mentioned quantities of crankshafts and liners. This project

  18. Prince William Sound disabled tanker towing study. Part 1. Evaluation of existing equipment, personnel and procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The study has been undertaken by the Glosten Associates, Inc., to evaluate the existing capability for emergency towing at Prince William Sound and to examine alternatives that could enhance the escort and assist capabilities for disabled tankers within the waterway from the Alyeska Oil Terminal at the Port of Valdez to the Gulf of Alaska outside Hinchinbrook Entrance. Part 1, reported herein, is an objective evaluation by an experienced salvage towing master of the existing tugs, emergency towing equipment, towing practices, and discussion of alternative tug types.

  19. Federal Energy and Water Management Awards 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Jeffrey DeVore, Stephen Grimes, Gerry Mitchell, Alfonso Sanchez U.S. Air Force Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio In FY 2013 a team of architects and engineers from Wright-Patterson's 88 Air Base Wing Civil Engineering Division successfully salvaged and renovated an underused, historic 53,000 square foot hangar built in 1934, increasing usable laboratory space by 60% while reducing water use by 45% and energy use by about 30%. The new energy efficient building allowed the Air Force Research

  20. Link Alpha S

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    s A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z Filter by alpha... A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z Safety Advisory Committee Safety and Hazardous Waste (Facilities Division) Safety Awards Safety Concerns Safety Culture Improvement Safety Data Sheets (SDS) Safety Walkthrough Management Salary Ranges Salvage (Waste Minimization) Scientific Cluster Support Scientific Networking Division Scientific Programs Seaborg: Glenn Seaborg's Life & Contributions Search lab-wide web

  1. U.S. Department of Energy Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    This activity targets the salvageable and reusability of equipment and entails the removal of diesel generators, air compressors, and related electrical items. The proposed action would take place at DOE/PORTS at Piketon, Ohio. Number and Title of the Categorical Exclusions Applied: PORTS CX: Removal of Excess DOE Material in the X-326, X-330 & X-333 Process Buildings PORTS CX: Utility and Electrical System Optimization 10 CFR 1021, Appendix B to Subpart D: B1.3: Routine maintenance B1.27:

  2. CX-005991: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5991: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-005991: Categorical Exclusion Determination Prairie Village, Kansas Ground Source Heat Pump Relocation CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 05/25/2011 Location(s): Prairie Village, Kansas Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office A prior categorical exclusion was awarded to this ground source heat pump (GSHP) system/project on 9/7/2010. The location of the project has been changed to accommodate salvage of mature trees to a new

  3. recycling

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    6%2A en Y-12's rough roads smoothed over with 23,000 tons of recycled asphalt http:nnsa.energy.govblogy%E2%80%9112%E2%80%99s-rough-roads-smoothed-over-23000-tons-recycled-asph...

  4. Energy and materials flows in the copper industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, L.L.

    1980-12-01

    The copper industry comprises both the primary copper industry, which produces 99.9%-pure copper from copper ore, and the secondary copper industry, which salvages and recycles copper-containing scrap metal to extract pure copper or copper alloys. The United States uses about 2 million tons of copper annually, 60% of it for electrical applications. Demand is expected to increase less than 4% annually for the next 20 years. The primary copper industry is concentrated in the Southwest; Arizona produced 66% of the 1979 total ore output. Primary production uses about 170 x 10/sup 12/ Btu total energy annually (about 100 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton pure copper produced from ore). Mining and milling use about 60% of the total consumption, because low-grade ore (0.6% copper) is now being mined. Most copper is extracted by smelting sulfide ores, with concomitant production of sulfur dioxide. Clean air regulations will require smelters to reduce sulfur emissions, necessitating smelting process modifications that could also save 20 x 10/sup 12/ Btu (10 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton of copper) in smelting energy. Energy use in secondary copper production averages 20 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton of copper. If all copper products were recycled, instead of the 30% now salvaged, the energy conservation potential would be about one-half the total energy consumption of the primary copper industry.

  5. A comparison of several surface finish measurement methods as applied to ground ceramic and metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, P.J.; Martin, R.L.; Riester, L.

    1996-01-01

    Surface finish is one of the most common measures of surface quality of ground ceramics and metal parts and a wide variety of methods and parameters have been developed to measure it. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the surface roughness parameters obtained on the same two specimens from three different types of measuring instruments: a traditional mechanical stylus system, a non-contact laser scanning system, and the atomic force microscope (two different AFM systems were compared). The same surface-ground silicon nitride and Inconel 625 alloy specimens were used for all measurements in this investigation. Significant differences in arithmetic average roughness, root-mean-square roughness, and peak-to-valley roughness were obtained when comparing data from the various topography measuring instruments. Non-contact methods agreed better with the others on the metal specimen than on the ceramic specimen. Reasons for these differences include the effective dimensions and geometry of the probe with respect to the surface topography; the reflectivity of the surface, and the type of filtering scheme Results of this investigation emphasize the importance of rigorously specifying the manner of surface roughness measurement when either reporting roughness data or when requesting that roughness data be provided.

  6. Benchmarking the x-ray phase contrast imaging for ICF DT ice characterization using roughened surrogates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewald, E; Kozioziemski, B; Moody, J; Koch, J; Mapoles, E; Montesanti, R; Youngblood, K; Letts, S; Nikroo, A; Sater, J; Atherton, J

    2008-06-26

    We use x-ray phase contrast imaging to characterize the inner surface roughness of DT ice layers in capsules planned for future ignition experiments. It is therefore important to quantify how well the x-ray data correlates with the actual ice roughness. We benchmarked the accuracy of our system using surrogates with fabricated roughness characterized with high precision standard techniques. Cylindrical artifacts with azimuthally uniform sinusoidal perturbations with 100 um period and 1 um amplitude demonstrated 0.02 um accuracy limited by the resolution of the imager and the source size of our phase contrast system. Spherical surrogates with random roughness close to that required for the DT ice for a successful ignition experiment were used to correlate the actual surface roughness to that obtained from the x-ray measurements. When comparing average power spectra of individual measurements, the accuracy mode number limits of the x-ray phase contrast system benchmarked against surface characterization performed by Atomic Force Microscopy are 60 and 90 for surrogates smoother and rougher than the required roughness for the ice. These agreement mode number limits are >100 when comparing matching individual measurements. We will discuss the implications for interpreting DT ice roughness data derived from phase-contrast x-ray imaging.

  7. Ultralow loss cavities and waveguides scattering loss cancellation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rakich, Peter T

    2014-01-07

    A waveguide system includes a first waveguide having surface roughness along at least one surface and a second waveguide substantially identical to the first waveguide and having substantially identical surface roughness along a corresponding side. The first and second waveguides are separated from each other by a predermined distance and are configured to receive respective first and second light signals having antisymmetric modes. The predetermined distance between the first and second waveguide tends to cause cancellation of at least far-field polarization radiation emanating from the first and second waveguides and resulting from surface roughness.

  8. Cone Penetrometer Shear Strength Measurements of Sludge Waste in Tanks 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Follett, Jordan R.

    2014-03-06

    This document presents the resulting shear strength profiles for sludge waste in Tanks 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106, as determined with a full-flow cone penetrometer. Full-flow penetrometer measurements indicate shear strength profiles that increase roughly uniformly with depth. For Tank 241-AN-101, the undrained shear strength was calculated to range from 500 Pa near the sludge surface to roughly 3,300 Pa at 15 inches above the tank bottom. For 241-AN-106, the undrained shear strength was calculated to range from 500 Pa near the sludge surface to roughly 5,000 Pa at 15 inches above the tank bottom.

  9. Wind and solar power electric generation to see strong growth...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Solar power use is expected to grow by roughly 30 percent in each of the next two years. Even with such strong growth, the amount of solar energy will remain a very small part of ...

  10. Jefferson Lab plans Celebration of Science Open...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    taking multiple flights of concrete stairs and walking down and back up rough, inclined truck ramps. Due to upgrade construction work, in some areas, visitors will be walking on...

  11. Fall Is a Great Time for Energy Awareness

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Heating and cooling account for roughly 43% of an average home's energy use, so as the weather changes, how you use and save much of the energy for your home will obviously change as well.

  12. Geochemistry and Isotopes of Fluids from Sulphur Springs, Valles...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    >Non-condensible gases consist of roughly 99% CO2 with minor amounts of H2S, H2, and CH4. Empirical gas geothermometry suggests a deep reservoir temperature of 215 to 280C....

  13. NATURAL GAS FROM SHALE: Questions and Answers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The shales were deposited as fine silt and clay particles at the bottom of relatively enclosed bodies of water. At roughly the same time, primitive plants were forming forests on ...

  14. I Unlimited Release UC-70

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... This slight rise of temperature in deeper waters is due to the adiabatic warming effect. ... in 1980. Modelling -- A rough sketch of a global model for biological transfer of ...

  15. United States Government Department of Energy

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... trucks and returned to LOOW for packaging under oil and subsequent shipment to Fernald. ... Floor surfaces are generally rough and "pitted" and are covered with a thin layer of oil ...

  16. OF THE FORMER

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Floor surfaces are generally rough and "pitted" and are covered with a thin layer of oil absorbent material and dried oil and grease. Machining equipment and material storage racks ...

  17. Recent News from the National Labs | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Department's Berkeley and Argonne National Labs have developed a new class of fuel cell catalysts that uses roughly 85 percent less platinum and has more than 30 times the...

  18. Electric And Electromagnetic Outline Of The Mount Somma-Vesuvius...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    again a conductive zone, not only including the whole Somma caldera but also extending towards the Tyrrhenian sea. A roughly N-S-trending narrow fracture system, cutting the...

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Hub settled at 3.076 per MMBtu, up roughly 28 cents over the previous Friday. A trend towards cooler temperatures across some parts of the country, larger-than-expected net...

  20. Overview of Carbon Storage Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Roughly one third of the United States’ carbon emissions come from power plants and other large point sources, such as industrial facilities. The Carbon Storage Program is focused on ensuring the...

  1. Aluminum Surface Texturing by Means of Laser Interference Metallurgy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    laser interferometry produced by two beams of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 10Hz of frequency to clean aluminum surfaces, and meanwhile creating periodic and rough surface...

  2. Workforce Development | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In particle physics, roughly one sixth of those completing Ph.D.s ultimately pursue careers in basic high-energy physics research. The rest find their way to diverse sectors of the ...

  3. Habitat Restoration at the Salmon, Mississippi, Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 1,470-acre Salmon, Mississippi, Site is located in Lamar County, approximately 20 miles southwest of Hattiesburg, in southwestern Mississippi. It is roughly square in shape, and each side is...

  4. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    declines at some market locations. For the week (Wednesday-Wednesday), prices at the Henry Hub fell 21 cents or roughly 6 percent to 3.12 per MMBtu. Price drops at most...

  5. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    between 29 and 77 cents per MMBtu. For the week (Wednesday-Wednesday), prices at the Henry Hub decreased 40 cents or roughly 9 percent to 3.93 per MMBtu. The price of the NYMEX...

  6. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Update until January 2, 2002. Overview: Monday, December 17, 2001 The spot price at the Henry Hub finished the trading week on December 14 at 2.41 per MMBtu, roughly 30 cents or...

  7. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    between 10 and 50 cents per MMBtu. For the week (Wednesday-Wednesday), prices at the Henry Hub increased 19 cents or roughly 5 percent to 4.10 per MMBtu. The price of the NYMEX...

  8. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    November 26, 2001 The spot price at the Henry Hub finished the abbreviated trading week on Wednesday, November 21 at 1.91 per MMBtu, roughly 22 cents or 13 percent over the...

  9. Topographic Features | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the overlying volcanic edifice forms a ring-shaped caldera depression up to several kilometers in diameter. The edges of the underlying magma chamber are roughly marked by a ring...

  10. Caldera Depression | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the overlying volcanic edifice forms a ring-shaped caldera depression up to several kilometers in diameter. The edges of the underlying magma chamber are roughly marked by a ring...

  11. Perspectives from the Board's Technical Staff

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... for Flow Over Forest Canopies", Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 51: 255-268, 1990. Wind speed profile in forested area 6 Wind speed profile in open area Surface Roughness * Surface ...

  12. Relative Biological Effectiveness of HZE Particles for Chromosomal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... The value of n0 which roughly corresponds to the geometric cross sectional area where ... The a, value for a linear fit was found as 0.0410.0051 Gy-1. Table 3 shows results for ...

  13. DOE SSL Postings: March 16, 2015, issue

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    800 lm, roughly equivalent to a 60W incandescent lamp. The first of the new reports, Retail Lamps Study 3.1, focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of...

  14. ARM - Feature Stories and Releases Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Instrumentation to obtain water-specific measurements, such as temperature, salinity, current speed and ocean surface state (e.g., calm or rough) will also be included to help ...

  15. B O N N E V I L L E P O W E R A D M I N I S T R A T I O N

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    February 2011 When nature supplies your fuel, you don't mind a little rough weather But in the Northwest, with its wealth of renewable water and wind power, nature occasionally...

  16. ARM - Evaluation Product - ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cloud microphysical property ensemble data set created by assembling existing ARM cloud ... One purpose of developing such an ensemble data set is to provide a rough estimate of the ...

  17. Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be Fueled by Biomass

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When construction is complete in 2011, Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s biomass steam plant will be fueled by roughly 50,000 tons of waste wood per year.

  18. The Dependence of Nucleation Density on the Bias Voltage in the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We report nucleation densities on Ir(100) surfaces that exceed 1011 cm-2 and remain roughly unchanged in a narrow bias voltage range of 50 V starting at 125 V. At lower and higher ...

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    following the hurricane. Across Texas, roughly 2.5 million households were without electricity immediately after the hurricane, and about 1.6 million remained without power as of...

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    following the hurricane. Across Texas, roughly 2.5 million households were without electricity immediately after the hurricane, and about 1.6 million remained without power as of...

  1. Oak Ridge Associated Llniversities

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Water Samule Analvsis Water samples were rough filtered through Whatman No. 2 filter paper. Remaining suspended solids were removed by filtration through 0.45pm pore size membrane ...

  2. Secretary Moniz's Remarks at the Washington Auto Show -- As Delivered...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    didn't even exist 10 or 20 years ago - jobs at companies like Google, eBay and Tesla." ... to Nissan for about 1.4 billion, and Tesla was roughly half-a-billion dollars of loans. ...

  3. Argonne National Laboratory | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    one of the U.S. Department of Energy's oldest and largest national laboratories for science and engineering research, employs roughly 2,900 employees, including about 1,000...

  4. big data | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    big data big-data.jpg Since the 1980s, the world's capacity to store information has roughly doubled every 40 months. Putting all that information to use through effective ...

  5. Large

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... at the beginning of the discharge, which could damage the detectors. The shutter has a finite opening time of 3 ms. After laser fire is given to the laser, roughly 1.25 ms are ...

  6. Media contact: Release date

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electrical equipment, lighting fixtures, barrels, laboratory equipment and hoods, and high-dose-rate wastes in shielded drums. -more- Page 2 The site is roughly six acres in size. ...

  7. High Efficiency Germanium Immersion Gratings (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scatter should be low based upon the surface roughness. Measurement of the spectral line profile of a COsub 2 laser sets an upper bound on total integrated scatter of 0.5%. ...

  8. FORMERLY UTILIZED SITES REMEDIAL ACTION PROGRAM ELIMINATION REPORT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... April 1944 DuPont placed an order with Pratt to finish rough-turned slugs by centerless grinding for the priority project to provide 48,000 unbonded Hanford slugs. DuPont also ...

  9. New Ultra-High Speed Network Connection for Researchers and Educators...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    New Ultra-High Speed Network Connection for Researchers and Educators is 10 Times Faster ... A 4G cell phone is in roughly the same ballpark of about .01 gbps. The new 100 gbps ...

  10. This Week In Petroleum Summary Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    has published monthly data. The net effect of the income, price, and fuel efficiency impacts as modeled by EIA yields a decline in gasoline consumption of 0.8%, which is roughly...

  11. General Relativistic Radiative Transfer and GeneralRelativistic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    emission where the magnetic field roughly aligns with the line-of-sight in the co-moving frame. The features move back and forth as the accretion flow evolves, but their...

  12. ARM - Instrument - cmh

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is roughly 5 minutes due to the sampling system and it has a maximum dew point depression of about 65C. For more detailed information, see the Chilled Mirror Dew Point...

  13. Secretary Chu Embraces Cooperation, Scientific Progress in Moscow...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Both countries have an aging power distribution network spread over a vast area of land. Roughly two thirds of Russia's transmission lines are more than 25 years old. And, in ...

  14. Dispersion Modeling Project

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... & Stability Class as a function of (y, z) Input MACCs Output Wind data as a function of x, y and z; Measurement at 61m elevation on a site with any roughness other than 3 cm. ...

  15. Informational Materials | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Jack Case A Rough Road Leads To The Stars A discussion of NASA's Gemini and Apollo programs, and Y-12's contributions to those missions. (Size: 4.17 MB) Image of Jack Case...

  16. August 30

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    JeffP, Marjorie, Elizabeth, Larry Introductions: Mike is taking over for Andrei in ATLAS, Lisa is taking over for Joanna in icecube. Cluster StatusUtilization: Full, roughly...

  17. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    How Big Is Your Footprint? An ecological footprint is a way to roughly measure the impact of a person's choices on the environment. When students go online to calculate how...

  18. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (WTI) crude oil increased 1.37 per barrel or roughly 5 percent since last Wednesday to trade yesterday at 31.65 per barrel or 5.46 per MMBtu. Prices: Price decreases of up to...

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (WTI) crude oil increased 1.325 per barrel or roughly 5 percent since last Wednesday to trade yesterday at 29.81 per barrel or 5.14 per MMBtu. Prices: Prices have increased at...

  20. Procuring Solar Energy: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    77 Self-Guided Solar Screening A preliminary solar energy site screening provides a rough estimate of the solar resource, energy production, and cost of a PV system. It also ...

  1. In the OSTI Collections: Fission Theory | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    at least a rough way almost as soon as nuclear fission was discovered in 1938. An atom's ... In particular, if the nucleon travels along the nuclear surface, the attraction can keep ...

  2. Introduction to Tc/I in Hanford Flowsheet

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Introduction to TcI in Hanford Flowsheet Gary Smith Office of Waste Processing (EM-31) November 18, 2010 2 Rough Flowsheet Diagram Tank Farm Evaporator Pretreatment Evaporator IDF ...

  3. Milestone L3:MPO.GTRF.P8.01 Microscale Model for Simulating

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling of fretting wear evolution in rough circular contacts in partial slip, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 49 (2007) 690-703. 8 I. McColl, J. Ding, S....

  4. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    footprint is a way to roughly measure the impact of a person's choices on the environment. When students go online to calculate how many Earths it would take if everyone on...

  5. DOE-STD-1090-2004; Hoisting and Rigging (Formerly Hoisting and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ASME B56.6, Rough Terrain Fork Lift Trucks. ASME B56.7, Industrial Crane Trucks. Special ... ASNT-TC-1A. American Welding Society ANSIAWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code - Steel. Crane ...

  6. DOE-STD-1090-2007; Hoisting and Rigging Standard (Formerly Hoisting...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ANSIITSDF B56.6, Rough Terrain Fork Lift Trucks. ASME B56.7, Industrial Crane Trucks. ... ASNT-TC-1A. American Welding Society ANSIAWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code - Steel. Crane ...

  7. NISACs Response to Request for Information from Brandon Wales

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... 2-2: Shore-Based Operating Costs and Crane Capacity by Port ......Even though Port Fourchon has roughly two thirds of the rig crane capacity 1 of all ...

  8. Technical Assessment of Internal Surface Smoothness and Particle Transmission to the American National Standard ANSI/HPS N13.1-2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Barnett, J. M.

    2015-11-01

    Clause 6.4.4 in the American National Standards Institute / Health Physics Society (ANSI/HPS) N13.1 standard, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances From the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities, addresses the internal smoothness of sample transport lines present between the nozzle and the analyzer (or collector). This paper evaluates the appropriateness of this clause by comparing roughness length of various materials against the required relative roughness, and by conducting computational fluid dynamic modeling. The results indicate that the inclusion of numerical criteria for the relative roughness of pipe by the ANSI Standard N13.1 (Section 6.4.4) is not appropriate. Recommended alternatives would be elimination of the numerical criteria, or modification of the standard to include a variable criteria for relative roughness.

  9. Land and Resource Management Issues Relevant to Deploying In...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Land and Resource Management Issues Relevant to Deploying In-Situ Thermal Technologies Utah is home to oil shale resources containing roughly 1.3 trillion barrels of oil ...

  10. BlueGene/Q Optimization Bob Walkup

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is very low performance per-core > must scale. Rough Comparison : BGQ vs. Intel Sandy-Bridge 1 Node BGQ 4 Nodes BGQ 1 Node Sandy-Bridge power consumption 80 W 320 W 320 W...

  11. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... We have studied five stainless steel electrodes (304L and 316LN) that were polished to approximately 20 nm surface roughness using diamond grit, and evaluated inside a high voltage ...

  12. Nikolski, Alaska, Wind Resource Report

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Nikolski, Alaska Wind Resource Report Report written by: Douglas Vaught, P.E., V3 Energy ... Roughness Class 1.77 (few trees) Power law exponent 0.174 (moderate wind shear) ...

  13. Saving Energy and Money with Appliance and Equipment Standards...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    utility bills between 2009 and 2030. 1 The energy savings from these standards-39.3 quads by 2030-is roughly equivalent to the energy used by all U.S. buildings over one year. ...

  14. Smooth electrode and method of fabricating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Stanton Earl (Northville, NY); Kennerly, Stacey Joy (Albany, NY); Aimi, Marco Francesco (Niskayuna, NY)

    2012-08-14

    A smooth electrode is provided. The smooth electrode includes at least one metal layer having thickness greater than about 1 micron; wherein an average surface roughness of the smooth electrode is less than about 10 nm.

  15. Environment/Health/Safety (EHS)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of reducing waste. Keep the following suggestions in mind the next time you go to the trash can. Use the back of single-sided and continuous feed paper for rough drafts, notes,...

  16. EECBG Success Story: Topeka’s “Green Light Tunnel” Saves Fuel and Time

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Using roughly half of its $1.2 million Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant, Topeka, Kansas installed adaptive traffic signal systems at 22 intersections across the city. Learn more.

  17. AFM report to Coastline Optic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brejnholt, Nicolai F.

    2015-06-26

    This report briefly outlines results from AFM on Coastline plano-plano fused silica substrate serial number 1.0-FS-PL-3356 to establish if high spatial frequency roughness meets requirements.

  18. 2013 DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... pallets (72 supersacks, roughly 5.4 tons dry weight) were shipped to MBI in mid-December ... charge of ammonia and makeup ammonia Scrubber Removes ammonia vapor from vented fluids ...

  19. Federal Water Use Indices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides water use indices as a guide for Federal agencies. Note that each is a rough estimate of water usage at different types of sites. Your site may vary considerably.

  20. ARM - Data Announcements Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    27, 2014 [Data Announcements] MICROARSCL Evaluation Data Released: Harnessing the Power of Radar Doppler Spectra Bookmark and Share Four of the roughly thirty variables provided by MICROARSCL are shown here for a day in Barrow, Alaska. Four of the roughly thirty variables provided by MICROARSCL are shown here for a day in Barrow, Alaska. Since 2004, the ARM Climate Research Facility has collected continuous recordings of profiling radar Doppler spectra. These recorded spectra offer a powerful

  1. Phlegmasia Caerulea Dolens in a Patient With an Inferior Vena Cava Filter: Treatment of Massive Iliocaval Thrombosis Using Local Intravenous Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cookson, Daniel; Caldwell, Stuart

    2012-10-15

    Phlegmasia caerulea dolens (PCD) is a potentially disastrous complication of inferior vena cava filter insertion, and its optimum management has not been clearly established. We present a case report of a patient with pulmonary embolism and acute adrenal haemorrhage who developed PCD secondary to massive iliocaval thrombosis after insertion of a Cook Celect removable filter. Local intravenous catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT), followed by systemic anticoagulation, achieved limb salvage and virtual resolution of symptoms at 3 months without complications. CDT can be a successful primary treatment of filter-associated PCD and can be safe in selected patients with acute nontraumatic haemorrhage. Systemic anticoagulation may subsequently restore complete venous patency and may therefore be a useful approach to postthrombolysis management of residual iliocaval thrombus when filter removal is indicated.

  2. Combined Pharmacomechanical Thrombolysis of Complete Portomesenteric Thrombosis in a Liver Transplant Recipient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenz, Jonathan M. Bennett, Shelby; Patel, Jay; Ha, Thuong G. Van; Funaki, Brian

    2013-01-30

    Treatment options for portomesenteric venous thrombosis range from anticoagulation to surgery, depending on chronicity, severity of symptoms, extent of thrombosis, and the availability of local expertise. For acute and subacute cases, a variety of endovascular options have been described in limited published series and case reports, including thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy. We report what is to our knowledge the first case in which the Trellis pharmacomechanical thrombolysis device was used successfully to treat complete acute thrombosis of the entire superior mesenteric vein and the entire portal vein with extension into all segmental intrahepatic portal branches in a young adult after liver transplantation. This device, coupled with adjunctive techniques using balloon catheters, facilitated complete restoration of flow, resulting in graft salvage and long-term patency.

  3. Landlord project multi-year program plan, fiscal year 1999, WBS 1.5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dallas, M.D.

    1998-09-22

    The MYWP technical baseline describes the work to be accomplished by the Project and the technical standards which govern that work. The mission of Landlord Project is to provide more maintenance replacement of general infrastructure facilities and systems to facilitate the Hanford Site cleanup mission. Also, once an infrastructure facility or system is no longer needed the Landlord Project transitions the facility to final closure/removal through excess, salvage or demolition. Landlord Project activities will be performed in an environmentally sound, safe, economical, prudent, and reliable manner. The Landlord Project consists of the following facilities systems: steam, water, liquid sanitary waste, electrical distribution, telecommunication, sanitary landfill, emergency services, general purpose offices, general purpose shops, general purpose warehouses, environmental supports facilities, roads, railroad, and the site land. The objectives for general infrastructure support are reflected in two specific areas, (1) Core Infrastructure Maintenance, and (2) Infrastructure Risk Mitigation.

  4. Electron beam melting of charge based on titanium sponge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tikhonovsky, A.L.; Tikhonovsky, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    An experience of 0.8 MW consumable box melting furnace operation and theoretical simulation have led to the further development of the FIKO plant under construction on the base of melting of two consumable box-like bullets which move opposite each other and form narrow heated space between melted butt ends. It allows to reduce vaporization, spatter and radiation losses by several times and to reach two times increase in melting rate and 99%(97%) yield for c.p. titanium (alloys) without furnace power add. Future furnace design will provide the optimum protection of vacuum pumps against chlorides, the safety when melting titanium sponge and will permit hot ingots to move to the special furnace for EB surface conditioning. The maximum productivity is to be 18,000 t/year. The furnace can be used for the manufacture of aluminum-, copper-, iron-, nickel-, tungsten-based alloys and others of any charge including salvage.

  5. High-speed photography of the first hydrogen-bomb explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brixner, B.

    1992-09-01

    Obtaining detailed photographs of the early stages of the first hydrogen bomb explosion in 1952 posed a number of problems. First, it was necessary to invent a continuous-access camera which could solve the problem that existing million-picture-per-second cameras were blind most of the time. The solution here was to alter an existing camera design so that two modified cameras could be mounted around a single high-speed rotating mirror. A second problem, acquiring the necessary lenses of precisely specified focal lengths, was solved by obtaining a large number of production lenses from war surplus salvage. A third hurdle to be overcome was to test the new camera at an A-bomb explosion. Finally, it was necessary to solve the almost impossible difficulty of building a safe camera shelter close to a megaton explosion. This paper describes the way these problems were solved. Unfortunately the successful pictures that were taken are sill classified.

  6. High-speed photography of the first hydrogen-bomb explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brixner, B.

    1992-01-01

    Obtaining detailed photographs of the early stages of the first hydrogen bomb explosion in 1952 posed a number of problems. First, it was necessary to invent a continuous-access camera which could solve the problem that existing million-picture-per-second cameras were blind most of the time. The solution here was to alter an existing camera design so that two modified cameras could be mounted around a single high-speed rotating mirror. A second problem, acquiring the necessary lenses of precisely specified focal lengths, was solved by obtaining a large number of production lenses from war surplus salvage. A third hurdle to be overcome was to test the new camera at an A-bomb explosion. Finally, it was necessary to solve the almost impossible difficulty of building a safe camera shelter close to a megaton explosion. This paper describes the way these problems were solved. Unfortunately the successful pictures that were taken are sill classified.

  7. AmeriFlux US-Me6 Metolius Young Pine Burn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, Bev

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Me6 Metolius Young Pine Burn. Site Description - The study site is located east of the Cascade mountains, near Sisters, Central Oregon and is part of the Metolius cluster sites with different age and disturbance classes within the AmeriFlux network. After a severe fire in 1979, the site was salvage logged, was acquired by the US Forest Service land and re-forested in 1990. The dominant overstory vegetation are 20-year old ponderosa pine trees with an average height of 5.2 +/- 1.1 m. The season maximum overstory half-sided LAI was 0.6 m2 m-2 in 2010. Tree density is low, with ca. 162 trees ha-1.

  8. Multifocal Glioblastoma Multiforme: Prognostic Factors and Patterns of Progression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Showalter, Timothy N.; Andrel, Jocelyn; Andrews, David W.; Curran, Walter J.; Daskalakis, Constantine; Werner-Wasik, Maria

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To assess the progression patterns in patients with multifocal glioblastoma multiforme who had undergone whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT), the historical standard, versus three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, and to identify predictive treatment and pretreatment factors. Methods and Materials: The records of 50 patients with multifocal glioblastoma multiforme treated with RT were reviewed. Univariate analyses were performed using survival methods and the Cox proportional hazards regression method. Multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression method. Results: The mean age was 61 years, and 71% had a Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score of {>=}70. Of the 50 patients, 32% underwent WBRT and 68%, three-dimensional conformal RT. Progression was local in all evaluable patients, as determined by imaging in 38 patients and early neurologic progression in 12. The median time to progression (TTP) was 3.1 months, and the median survival time (MST) was 8.1 months. The significant independent predictors of TTP on multivariate analysis were a KPS score <70 (p = 0.001), the extent of surgery (p = 0.040), a radiation dose <60 Gy (p = 0.027), and the lack of chemotherapy (p = 0.001). The significant independent predictors of a reduced MST were a KPS score <70 (p = 0.022) and the absence of salvage surgery (p = 0.011) and salvage chemotherapy (p = 0.003). Conclusion: Local progression was observed in all patients. On multivariate analysis, no significant difference was found in the TTP or MST between three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and WBRT. The KPS was a consistent independent predictor of both TTP and MST. On the basis of the progression pattern, we do not recommend WBRT as a mandatory component of the treatment of multifocal glioblastoma multi0011for.

  9. Long-Term Outcomes of Vestibular Schwannomas Treated With Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy: An Institutional Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapoor, Sumit; Batra, Sachin; Carson, Kathryn; Shuck, John; Kharkar, Siddharth; Gandhi, Rahul; Jackson, Juan; Wemmer, Jan; Terezakis, Stephanie; Shokek, Ori; Kleinberg, Lawrence; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: We assessed clinical outcome and long-term tumor control after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) for unilateral schwannoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1995 and 2007, 496 patients were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy at Johns Hopkins Hospital (Baltimore, MD); 385 patients had radiologic follow-up that met the inclusion criteria. The primary endpoint was treatment failure. Secondary endpoints were radiologic progression and clinical outcome. Logistic regression analysis assessed the association of age, race, tumor side, sex, and pretreatment symptoms. Results: In 11 patients (3%) treatment failed, and they required salvage (microsurgical) treatment. Radiologic progression was observed in 116 patients (30.0%), including 35 patients (9%) in whom the treatment volume more than doubled during the follow-up period, although none required surgical resection. Tumors with baseline volumes of less than 1 cm{sup 3} were 18.02 times more likely to progress than those with tumor volumes of 1 cm{sup 3} or greater (odds ratio, 18.02; 95% confidence interval, 4.25-76.32). Treatment-induced neurologic morbidity included 8 patients (1.6%) with new facial weakness, 12 patients (2.8%) with new trigeminal paresthesias, 4 patients (0.9%) with hydrocephalus (1 communicating and 3 obstructive), and 2 patients (0.5%) with possibly radiation-induced neoplasia. Conclusions: Although the rate of treatment failure is low (3%), careful follow-up shows that radiologic progression occurs frequently. When reporting outcome, the 'no salvage surgery needed' and 'no additional treatment needed' criteria for treatment success need to be complemented by the radiologic data.

  10. Accelerated Radiotherapy, Carbogen, and Nicotinamide (ARCON) in the Treatment of Advanced Bladder Cancer: Mature Results of a Phase II Nonrandomized Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoskin, Peter; Rojas, Ana Ph.D. Saunders, Michele

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: We previously showed that accelerated radiotherapy combined with carbogen and nicotinamide (ARCON) was an effective approach to use in the radical treatment of patients with advanced bladder carcinoma. Interim analysis from this Phase II study showed that it achieved a high level of locoregional control and overall survival (OS) and an acceptable level of adverse events. Methods and Materials: From 1994 to 2000, a total of 105 consecutive patients with high-grade superficial or muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma were given accelerated radiotherapy (50-55 Gy in 4 weeks) with carbogen alone or ARCON. End points of the study were OS, disease-specific, and local regional relapse-free survival, and for late adverse events, urinary (altered urination frequency, incontinence, hematuria, and urgency) and bowel dysfunction (stool frequency and blood loss). Results: At 5 and 10 years, local regional relapse-free survival rates were 44% after ARCON excluding the effect of salvage treatment and 62% after ARCON including the effect of salvage treatment (p = 0.04). Five- and 10-year rates were 35% and 27% for OS and 47% and 46% for disease-specific survival. The highest actuarial rate for Grade 3 or worse late urinary or bowel dysfunction was observed for altered urinary frequency (44% of patients had urinary events every 1 hour or less) and stool frequency of four or more events (26% at 5 years). Conclusions: Historic comparisons with other studies indicate no evidence of an increase in severe or worse adverse events and good permanent control of bladder disease after ARCON radiotherapy.

  11. Alternative Techniques for Treatment of Complex Below-the Knee Arterial Occlusions in Diabetic Patients With Critical Limb Ischemia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gandini, Roberto; Uccioli, Luigi; Spinelli, Alessio; Del Giudice, Costantino Ros, Valerio Da; Volpi, Tommaso; Meloni, Marco; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to describe alternative endovascular (EV) techniques and assess their feasibility and efficacy in minimizing failure rates in limb salvage for the treatment of complex below-the knee (BTK) occlusions that could not be crossed with a conventional antegrade access. Between December 2007 and November 2010, 1,035 patients (557 male) underwent EV treatment for critical limb ischemia in our institution. In 124 (12% [83 male], mean age 68.2 {+-} 0.5 years) patients, transfemoral antegrade revascularization attempt failed, and an alternative approach was used. Follow-up was performed at 1 and 6 months. Results were compared with 56 patients treated between November 2002 and November 2007, in whom conventional technique was unsuccessful and unconventional techniques were not adopted. Technical success was achieved in 119 (96%) patients. The limb-salvage rates were 96.8% and 83% at 1- and 6-month follow-up, respectively. Sixteen (12.9%) and 33 (26.6%) patients underwent reintervention at 1- and 6-month follow-up, respectively. Transcutaneous oxygen tension increased at 1 month (44.7 {+-} 1.1 vs. 15.7 {+-} 0.8 mmHg; p < 0.001) and remained stable at follow-up. Twenty (16.1%) patients required major amputation. Thirteen (10.4%) patients died during follow-up. In our previous experience, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty failure, amputation, and death rates were 10.9, 39.2, and 23.2%, respectively. Alternative techniques allowed a significant decrease of major amputation and death rates (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.02, respectively). The use of alternative techniques seems feasible in case of a failed antegrade BTK revascularization attempt and could minimize failure rates in the treatment of complex occlusions while providing satisfying clinical success rates at 6 months.

  12. Spontaneous emission of Bloch oscillation radiation under the competing influences of microcavity enhancement and inhomogeneous interface degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokolov, V. N.; Iafrate, G. J.

    2014-02-07

    A theory for the spontaneous emission (SE) of terahertz radiation for a Bloch electron traversing a single energy miniband of a superlattice (SL) in a cavity, while undergoing elastic scattering is presented. The Bloch electron is accelerated under the influence of a superimposed external constant electric field and an internal inhomogeneous electric field, while radiating into a microcavity. The analysis of the SE accounts for both the spectral structure of nonharmonic miniband components and the Bloch oscillation degradation effects arising from elastic scattering due to SL interface roughness. The interface roughness effects are decomposed into contributions arising from independent planar and cross-correlated neighboring planar interfaces; parametric numerical estimates show that the cross-correlated contribution to the SE relaxation rate is relatively small, representing less than roughly 10% of the total relaxation rate. It is shown that the degradation effects from SL interface roughness can be more than compensated for by the enhancements derived from microcavity-based tuning of the emission frequency to the cavity density of states peak. The theoretical approach developed herein has general applicability beyond its use for elastic scattering due to interface roughness. As well, the results obtained in this analysis can be useful in the development of SL-based Bloch-oscillator terahertz devices.

  13. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic property of red phosphorus via surface roughening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Weibing; Yue, Jiguang; Hua, Fangxia; Feng, Chang; Bu, Yuyu; Chen, Zhuoyuan

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Photocatalytic RhB degradation of red phosphorus was studied for the first time. • Surface rough can increase the photocatalysis reaction active sites. • Surface rough red phosphorus possesses high photocatalytic performance. • Surface rough red phosphorus has high industrial application value. - Abstract: Red phosphorus with rough surface (SRP) was prepared by catalyst-assisted hydrothermal synthesis using Co{sup 2+} catalyst. The photocatalytic Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation of red phosphorus (RP) and SRP was studied for the first time in this work. Rough surface can enhance the dye adsorption ability of RP. About 75% RhB was absorbed by SRP after 30-min adsorption in 100 ml RhB solution with concentration of 10 mg l{sup −1} in dark. After only 10 min of illumination by visible light, more than 95% RhB was degraded, indicating that SRP has a great application potential in the area of photocatalysis. The photocatalytic RhB degradation properties of RP are much weaker than those of SRP. The increase of the number of the active sites for the photocatalytic reactions, the electron mobility and the lifetime of the photogenerated electrons cause the significant improvement of the photocatalytic performance of SRP based on the experimental results obtained.

  14. Surface and Interface Properties of 1012 Unit Cells Thick Sputter Deposited Epitaxial CeO2Films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Saraf, L. V.; Wang, C. M.; Engelhard, M. H.; Nachimuthu, P.

    2008-01-01

    Ultrathin and continuous epitaxial films with relaxed lattice strain can potentially maintain more of its bulk physical and chemical properties and are useful as buffer layers. We study surface, interface, and microstructural properties of ultrathin (?1012 unit cells thick) epitaxial ceria films grown on single crystal YSZ substrates. The out-of -plane and in-plane lattice parameters indicate relaxation in the continuous film due to misfit dislocations seen by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and substrate roughness of?1-2 unit cells, confirmed by atomic force microscopy and HRTEM. A combination of secondary sputtering, lattice mismatch, substrate roughness, and surface reduction creating secondary phasemorewas likely the cause of surface roughness which should be reduced to a minimum level for effective use of it as buffer layers.less

  15. Development of a Laser-Produced Plasma X-ray source for Phase-Contrast Radiography of DT Ice layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izumi, N; Dewald, E; Kozioziemski, B; Landen, O L; Koch, J A

    2008-07-21

    Refraction enhanced x-ray phase contrast imaging is crucial for characterization of deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layer roughness in optically opaque inertial confinement fusion capsules. To observe the time development of DT ice roughness over {approx} second timescales, we need a bright x-ray source that can produce an image faster than the evolution of the ice surface roughness. A laser produced plasma x-ray source is one of the candidates that can meet this requirement. We performed experiments at the Janus laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and assessed the characteristics of the laser produced plasma x-ray source as a potential backlight for in situ target characterization.

  16. Studies of scattering mechanisms in gate tunable InAs/(Al,Ga)Sb two dimensional electron gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shojaei, B.; McFadden, A.; Schultz, B. D.; Shabani, J.; Palmstrøm, C. J.

    2015-06-01

    A study of scattering mechanisms in gate tunable two dimensional electron gases confined to InAs/(Al,Ga)Sb heterostructures with varying interface roughness and dislocation density is presented. By integrating an insulated gate structure the evolution of the low temperature electron mobility and single-particle lifetime was determined for a previously unexplored density regime, 10{sup 11}–10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2}, in this system. Existing theoretical models were used to analyze the density dependence of the electron mobility and single particle lifetime in InAs quantum wells. Scattering was found to be dominated by charged dislocations and interface roughness. It was demonstrated that the growth of InAs quantum wells on nearly lattice matched GaSb substrate results in fewer dislocations, lower interface roughness, and improved low temperature transport properties compared to growth on lattice mismatched GaAs substrates.

  17. The Pd/Fe Interface in the Epitaxial System Pd/Fe/GaAs(001)- 4 x 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budnik, P.S.; Gordon, R.A.; Crozier, E.D.

    2007-01-18

    Magnetic properties of thin magnetic films are strongly affected by the nature of the interface between magnetic and non-magnetic layers. In spintronic devices the extent to which spins are scattered at an interface depends upon interfacial roughness, alloying, and impurities. We present a polarization-dependent XAFS study of a 1Pd/9Fe/GaAs(001)-(4 x 6) structure grown in situ in the MBE facility at the PNC/XOR, APS. To increase the interfacial roughness, the 1ML Pd was grown on the 9 ML Fe without first sputtering and annealing the Fe. An estimate of interfacial roughness, evidence for formation of Pd islands, their height, and the amount of As floating to the Pd surface from the GaAs are given.

  18. SURFACE PREPARATION OF STEEL SUBSTRATES USING GRIT-BLASTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen; D. J. Varacalle, Jr.; D. Deason; W. Rhodaberger; E. Sampson

    2005-05-01

    The primary purpose of grit blasting for thermal spray applications is to ensure a strong mechanical bond between the substrate and the coating by the enhanced roughening of the substrate material. This study presents statistically designed experiments that were accomplished to investigate the effect of abrasives on roughness for A36/1020 steel. The experiments were conducted using a Box statistical design of experiment (SDE) approach. Three grit blasting parameters and their effect on the resultant substrate roughness were investigated. These include blast media, blast pressure, and working distance. The substrates were characterized for roughness using surface profilometry. These attributes were correlated with the changes in operating parameters. Twin-Wire Electric Arc (TWEA) coatings of aluminum and zinc/aluminum were deposited on the grit-blasted substrates. These coatings were then tested for bond strength. Bond strength studies were conducted utilizing a portable adhesion tester following ASTM standard D4541.

  19. Surface and Interface Properties of 10–12 Unit Cells Thick Sputter Deposited Epitaxial CeO 2 Films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Saraf, L. V.; Wang, C. M.; Engelhard, M. H.; Nachimuthu, P.

    2008-01-01

    Ulmore » trathin and continuous epitaxial films with relaxed lattice strain can potentially maintain more of its bulk physical and chemical properties and are useful as buffer layers. We study surface, interface, and microstructural properties of ultrathin ( ∼ 10–12 unit cells thick) epitaxial ceria films grown on single crystal YSZ substrates. The out-of -plane and in-plane lattice parameters indicate relaxation in the continuous film due to misfit dislocations seen by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and substrate roughness of ∼ 1-2 unit cells, confirmed by atomic force microscopy and HRTEM. A combination of secondary sputtering, lattice mismatch, substrate roughness, and surface reduction creating secondary phase was likely the cause of surface roughness which should be reduced to a minimum level for effective use of it as buffer layers.« less

  20. Carbon nanotube oscillator surface profiling device and method of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Popescu, Adrian; Woods, Lilia M.; Bondarev, Igor V.

    2011-11-15

    The proposed device is based on a carbon nanotube oscillator consisting of a finite length outer stationary nanotube and a finite length inner oscillating nanotube. Its main function is to measure changes in the characteristics of the motion of the carbon nanotube oscillating near a sample surface, and profile the roughness of this surface. The device operates in a non-contact mode, thus it can be virtually non-wear and non-fatigued system. It is an alternative to the existing atomic force microscope (AFM) tips used to scan surfaces to determine their roughness.

  1. High current density electropolishing in the preparation of highly smooth substrate tapes for coated conductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kreiskott, Sascha; Matias, Vladimir; Arendt, Paul N.; Foltyn, Stephen R.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.

    2009-03-31

    A continuous process of forming a highly smooth surface on a metallic tape by passing a metallic tape having an initial roughness through an acid bath contained within a polishing section of an electropolishing unit over a pre-selected period of time, and, passing a mean surface current density of at least 0.18 amperes per square centimeter through the metallic tape during the period of time the metallic tape is in the acid bath whereby the roughness of the metallic tape is reduced. Such a highly smooth metallic tape can serve as a base substrate in subsequent formation of a superconductive coated conductor.

  2. Effect of deposition temperature on the structural and optical properties of CdSe thin films synthesised by chemical bath deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammed, Mudhafer Ali

    2013-12-16

    Cadmium selenide thin films were synthesized on glass substrates using chemical bath technique (CBD) at temperatures 320K, 330K, 340K,and 350K. The polycrystalline nature of the material was confirmed by X-ray diffraction technique and various structural parameters such as lattice parameters, grain size, dislocation density, and micro strain. The root mean square (RMS) roughness was obtained by using atomic force microscopy(AFM), which indicated a decreasing average roughness with the decrease of the bath temperature. Optical properties were carried out by UV-Visible transmittance spectra, and the band gap energy was determined.

  3. ARM - Data Announcements Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New MICROARSCL Evaluation Data Released for Barrow, Alaska Bookmark and Share Four of the roughly 30 variables provided by MICROARSCL are shown here for February 13, 2012, in Barrow, Alaska. Four of the roughly 30 variables provided by MICROARSCL are shown here for February 13, 2012, in Barrow, Alaska. A new evaluation release of 18 months of data from Barrow, Alaska, provides the first KAZR-based Micro-Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (MICROARSCL) data from this North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site.

  4. Storage Trends and Summaries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summaries Storage Trends and Summaries Total Bytes Utilized The growth in NERSC's storage systems amounts to roughly 1.7x per year. Total Bytes Utilized Number of Files Stored The growth in the number of files stored is less than the growth in the number of bytes stored as the average file size has increased over time. The average file size as of August 2003 is about 30 MB. The median file size is closer to 1 MB. Number of Files Monthly I/O The growth rate of I/O is roughly the same as the

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF NEUTRON-IRRADIATION AT LOW TEMPERATURES ON THE DIELECTRIC PARAMETERS OF 3C-SiC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.A.A. Engelbrecht; G. Deyzel; E. Minnaar; W.E. Goosen; I. J. van Rooyen

    2014-04-01

    3C-SiC wafers were irradiated with neutrons of various fluences and at low (200 - 400 ?C) irradiation temperatures. Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) reflectance spectra were obtained for the samples, and the spectra used to extract the dielectric parameters for each specimen, using statistical curve-fitting procedures. Analysis of all data revealed trends in reflectance peak heights as well as in the dielectric parameters. The surface roughness of the irradiated samples was measured by atomic force spectroscopy (AFM) and certain trends could be ascribed to surface roughness.

  6. Graphene induced remote surface scattering in graphene/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiwen; Li, Dan; Wang, Bobo; Liu, Bin; Chen, Famin; Jin, Guangri; Lu, Yanwu

    2014-10-20

    The mobilities of single-layer graphene combined with AlGaN/GaN heterostructures on two-dimensional electron gases in graphene/AlGaN/GaN double heterojunction are calculated. The impact of electron density in single-layer graphene is also studied. Remote surface roughness (RSR) and remote interfacial charge (RIC) scatterings are introduced into this heterostructure. The mobilities limited by RSR and RIC are an order of magnitude higher than that of interface roughness and misfit dislocation. This study contributes to designing structures for generation of higher electron mobility in graphene/AlGaN/GaN double heterojunction.

  7. Breakthrough Prize Honors Neutrino Research | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Breakthrough Prize Honors Neutrino Research The Daya Bay and Ling Ao nuclear power reactors, pictured here behind Bob McKeown, are located roughly 55 kilometers from Hong Kong. The Daya Bay and Ling Ao nuclear power reactors, pictured here behind Bob McKeown, are located roughly 55 kilometers from Hong Kong. Breakthrough Prize Honors Neutrino Research He missed the 'glitzy Oscars for science,' but that's OK with Bob McKeown. McKeown is the Governor's Distinguished CEBAF Professor in William

  8. FK866-induced NAMPT inhibition activates AMPK and downregulates mTOR signaling in hepatocarcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuster, Susanne; Penke, Melanie; Gorski, Theresa; Gebhardt, Rolf; Weiss, Thomas S.; Kiess, Wieland; Garten, Antje

    2015-03-06

    Background: Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is the key enzyme of the NAD salvage pathway starting from nicotinamide. Cancer cells have an increased demand for NAD due to their high proliferation and DNA repair rate. Consequently, NAMPT is considered as a putative target for anti-cancer therapies. There is evidence that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) become dysregulated during the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we investigated the effects of NAMPT inhibition by its specific inhibitor FK866 on the viability of hepatocarcinoma cells and analyzed the effects of FK866 on the nutrient sensor AMPK and mTOR complex1 (mTORC1) signaling. Results: FK866 markedly decreased NAMPT activity and NAD content in hepatocarcinoma cells (Huh7 cells, Hep3B cells) and led to delayed ATP reduction which was associated with increased cell death. These effects could be abrogated by administration of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), the enzyme product of NAMPT. Our results demonstrated a dysregulation of the AMPK/mTOR pathway in hepatocarcinoma cells compared to non-cancerous hepatocytes with a higher expression of mTOR and a lower AMPKα activation in hepatocarcinoma cells. We found that NAMPT inhibition by FK866 significantly activated AMPKα and inhibited the activation of mTOR and its downstream targets p70S6 kinase and 4E-BP1 in hepatocarcinoma cells. Non-cancerous hepatocytes were less sensitive to FK866 and did not show changes in AMPK/mTOR signaling after FK866 treatment. Conclusion: Taken together, these findings reveal an important role of the NAMPT-mediated NAD salvage pathway in the energy homeostasis of hepatocarcinoma cells and suggest NAMPT inhibition as a potential treatment option for HCC. - Highlights: • FK866 increases cell death in p53-deficient hepatocarcinoma cells. • AMPK/mTOR signaling is dysregulated in hepatocarcinoma cells. • FK866-induced NAMPT inhibition activates AMPK

  9. Banking on Solar: New Opportunities for Lending (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    The U.S. solar industry is a $13.7 billion market with roughly 450,000 systems in place. Bank and credit union lending for solar system deployment represents a valuable new opportunity for lenders to expand their consumer and commercial customer relationships, bring on new relationships and open a new asset class category.

  10. Refined BCF-type boundary conditions for mesoscale surface step dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhao, Renjie; Ackerman, David M.; Evans, James W.

    2015-06-24

    Deposition on a vicinal surface with alternating rough and smooth steps is described by a solid-on-solid model with anisotropic interactions. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of the model reveal step pairing in the absence of any additional step attachment barriers. We explore the description of this behavior within an analytic Burton-Cabrera-Frank (BCF)-type step dynamics treatment. Without attachment barriers, conventional kinetic coefficients for the rough and smooth steps are identical, as are the predicted step velocities for a vicinal surface with equal terrace widths. However, we determine refined kinetic coefficients from a two-dimensional discrete deposition-diffusion equation formalism which accounts for stepmore » structure. These coefficients are generally higher for rough steps than for smooth steps, reflecting a higher propensity for capture of diffusing terrace adatoms due to a higher kink density. Such refined coefficients also depend on the local environment of the step and can even become negative (corresponding to net detachment despite an excess adatom density) for a smooth step in close proximity to a rough step. Incorporation of these refined kinetic coefficients into a BCF-type step dynamics treatment recovers quantitatively the mesoscale step-pairing behavior observed in the KMC simulations.« less

  11. Practical substrate and apparatus for static and continuous monitoring by surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1987-01-01

    A substrate for use in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is disclosed, comprising a support, preferably flexible, coated with roughness-imparting microbodies and a metallized overcoating. Also disclosed is apparatus for using the aforesaid substrate in continuous and static SERS trace analyses, especially of organic compounds.

  12. Method and device for reducing overpenetration at the start of plasma arc welds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, John M.; Lehmann, John M.; Ryan, Patrick M.

    1998-01-01

    A shim for improving plasma arc weld quality has ends tapered at about 25.degree. and notches at each end roughly centered over the corner between the tapered ends and main body of the shim. The improved shim allows lower starting plasma arc heat input and reduces the occurrence of sagging, or overpenetration, of the weld.

  13. Q&A: Kristen Psaki of WeatherizeDC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Roughly 20 percent of carbon emissions come from inefficient homes. The DC Project says it has found a way to mitigate emissions and create jobs, a winning combination. WeatherizeDC is the non-profit’s effort to use a community engagement model to help DC residents find green jobs and live a more energy efficient lifestyle.

  14. Method and device for reducing overpenetration at the start of plasma arc welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanders, J.M.; Lehmann, J.M.; Ryan, P.M.

    2000-03-14

    A shim for improving plasma arc weld quality has ends tapered at about 25{degree} and notches at each end roughly centered over the corner between the tapered ends and main body of the shim. The improved shim allows lower starting plasma arc heat input and reduces the occurrence of sagging, or overpenetration, of the weld.

  15. Method to estimate the vertical dispersion parameter in a 10 Km range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaoen, L.; Xinyuan, J.; Jinte, Y.

    1983-12-01

    Based on the Monin-Batchelor Similarity Theory and the concept of effective roughness length, this paper presented an empirical vertical dispersion model in a 10 kilometer range. It could be used under a flat and homogeneous, as well as complex, topographical condition.

  16. Project Reports for Southern Ute Indian Tribe- 2014 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The proposed project is a roughly 800-kilowatt (kW) photovoltaic (PV) system that will interconnect to the grid and provide solar energy to 10 tribal buildings on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation through an agreement with the local electric cooperative, La Plata Electric Association.

  17. Microsoft Word - RNP answers.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    373,000 MWh of spill at Coulee and 234,000 MWh at Chief Joseph for a total of roughly 607,000 MWh of spill. Does all that sound close to being right? On the wind side, I see...

  18. Parameters of lossy cavity resonators calculated by the finite element method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groiss, S.; Bardi, I.; Biro, O.; Preis, K.; Richter, K.R.

    1996-05-01

    The calculation of the resonance frequency and quality factor of closed or aperture coupled cavity resonators with volume and wall losses by an edge finite element method is discussed. An efficient solver is developed to solve the complex nonlinear eigenvalue problem. The effect of the roughness of the walls on the quality factor is taken approximately into account.

  19. Root region airfoil for wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tangler, James L.; Somers, Dan M.

    1995-01-01

    A thick airfoil for the root region of the blade of a wind turbine. The airfoil has a thickness in a range from 24%-26% and a Reynolds number in a range from 1,000,000 to 1,800,000. The airfoil has a maximum lift coefficient of 1.4-1.6 that has minimum sensitivity to roughness effects.

  20. Deep Borehole Disposal Remediation Costs for Off-Normal Outcomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finger, John T.; Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-08-17

    This memo describes rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates for a set of off-normal (accident) scenarios, as defined for two waste package emplacement method options for deep borehole disposal: drill-string and wireline. It summarizes the different scenarios and the assumptions made for each, with respect to fishing, decontamination, remediation, etc.

  1. Low-Cost Energy Efficiency Goes Block-to-Block

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An innovative pilot program in Minneapolis, Minnesota, focuses on rallying whole communities around energy efficiency, one neighborhood at a time. Through the program, area residents cash in on a home energy-efficiency upgrade that saves them roughly $130 on their annual energy bill.

  2. Long range hopping mobility platform.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spletzer, Barry Louis; Fischer, Gary John

    2003-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a mesoscale hopping mobility platform (Hopper) to overcome the longstanding problems of mobility and power in small scale unmanned vehicles. The system provides mobility in situations such as negotiating tall obstacles and rough terrain that are prohibitive for other small ground base vehicles. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Administration (DARPA) provided the funding for the hopper project.

  3. Engineering report single-shell tank farms interim measures to limit infiltration through the vadose zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HAASS, C.C.

    1999-10-14

    Identifies, evaluates and recommends interim measures for reducing or eliminating water sources and preferential pathways within the vadose zone of the single-shell tank farms. Features studied: surface water infiltration and leaking water lines that provide recharge moisture, and wells that could provide pathways for contaminant migration. An extensive data base, maps, recommended mitigations, and rough order of magnitude costs are included.

  4. Growth mechanism and optical properties of Ti thin films deposited onto fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einollahzadeh-Samadi, Motahareh; Dariani, Reza S.

    2015-03-15

    In this work, a detailed study of the influence of the thickness on the morphological and optical properties of titanium (Ti) thin films deposited onto rough fluorine-doped tin oxide glass by d.c. magnetron sputtering is carried out. The films were characterized by several methods for composition, crystallinity, morphology, and optical properties. Regardless of the deposition time, all the studied Ti films of 400, 1500, 2000, and 2500?nm in thickness were single crystalline in the ?-Ti phase and also very similar to each other with respect to composition. Using the atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique, the authors analyzed the roughness evolution of the Ti films characteristics as a function of the film thickness. By applying the dynamic scaling theory to the AFM images, a steady growth roughness exponent ??=?0.72??0.02 and a dynamic growth roughness exponent ??=?0.22??0.02 were determined. The value of ? and ? are consistent with nonlinear growth model incorporating random deposition with surface diffusion. Finally, measuring the reflection spectra of the samples by a spectrophotometer in the spectral range of 3001100?nm allowed us to investigate the optical properties. The authors observed the increments of the reflection of Ti films with thickness, which by employing the effective medium approximation theory showed an increase in thickness followed by an increase in the volume fraction of metal.

  5. Moab Project Exceeds 5 Years of Operations Without Lost-Time Injury, Illness

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    GRAND JUNCTION, Colo. – It has been more than five years since workers on the Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Utah had a lost-time injury or illness. This represents roughly 2.2 million hours of safe work.

  6. Nanostructures having high performance thermoelectric properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Peidong; Majumdar, Arunava; Hochbaum, Allon I; Chen, Renkun; Delgado, Raul Diaz

    2014-05-20

    The invention provides for a nanostructure, or an array of such nanostructures, each comprising a rough surface, and a doped or undoped semiconductor. The nanostructure is an one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructure, such a nanowire, or a two-dimensional (2-D) nanostructure. The nanostructure can be placed between two electrodes and used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

  7. Recent results of high p(T) physics at the CDF II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsuno, Soushi; /Okayama U.

    2005-02-01

    The Tevatron Run II program has been in progress since 2001. The CDF experiment has accumulated roughly five times as much data as did Run I, with much improved detectors. Preliminary results from the CDF experiment are presented. The authors focus on recent high p{sub T} physics results in the Tevatron Run II program.

  8. Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-5-2014_High-Temperature, High-Pressure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The targeted DVS should have a dynamic viscosity of roughly 20 mPa*s at 533 K and 241 MPa, while the HOVS should have a dynamic viscosity of 1,000 mPa*s at 473 K and 10.34 MPa. The ...

  9. Nanostructures having high performance thermoelectric properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong; Majumdar, Arunava; Hochbaum, Allon I.; Chen, Renkun; Delgado, Raul Diaz

    2015-12-22

    The invention provides for a nanostructure, or an array of such nanostructures, each comprising a rough surface, and a doped or undoped semiconductor. The nanostructure is an one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructure, such a nanowire, or a two-dimensional (2-D) nanostructure. The nanostructure can be placed between two electrodes and used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

  10. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Haiti; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Haiti, an independent nation that occupies the western portion of the island of Hispaniola in the northern Caribbean Sea. Haiti’s utility rates are roughly $0.35 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), above the Caribbean regional average of $0.33 USD/kWh.

  11. Leadership

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Minh Le is the Director of the Solar Energy Technologies Office within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), where he helps to manage and balance a roughly $1B multi-year portfolio of research, development, demonstration, and deployment programs to achieve the goals of the SunShot Initiative.

  12. A Fisheye Lens for Many Point PDV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frogget, B.

    2011-11-01

    The features of the fisheye lens are illustrated, including a design with reflector prisms. The fisheye fiber map and the beam footprint are shown. Fisheye rough-angle metrology was done and results presented. Next steps are given, including a smaller top fisheye lens element, longer reflector prisms with better mounting, and different fiber arrangements.

  13. Refined BCF-type boundary conditions for mesoscale surface step dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Renjie; Ackerman, David M.; Evans, James W.

    2015-06-24

    Deposition on a vicinal surface with alternating rough and smooth steps is described by a solid-on-solid model with anisotropic interactions. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of the model reveal step pairing in the absence of any additional step attachment barriers. We explore the description of this behavior within an analytic Burton-Cabrera-Frank (BCF)-type step dynamics treatment. Without attachment barriers, conventional kinetic coefficients for the rough and smooth steps are identical, as are the predicted step velocities for a vicinal surface with equal terrace widths. However, we determine refined kinetic coefficients from a two-dimensional discrete deposition-diffusion equation formalism which accounts for step structure. These coefficients are generally higher for rough steps than for smooth steps, reflecting a higher propensity for capture of diffusing terrace adatoms due to a higher kink density. Such refined coefficients also depend on the local environment of the step and can even become negative (corresponding to net detachment despite an excess adatom density) for a smooth step in close proximity to a rough step. Incorporation of these refined kinetic coefficients into a BCF-type step dynamics treatment recovers quantitatively the mesoscale step-pairing behavior observed in the KMC simulations.

  14. Recovery of EUVL substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vernon, S.P.; Baker, S.L.

    1995-01-19

    Mo/Si multilayers, were removed from superpolished zerodur and fused silica substrates with a dry etching process that, under suitable processing conditions, produces negligible change in either the substrate surface figure or surface roughness. Full recovery of the initial normal incidence extreme ultra-violet (EUV) reflectance response has been demonstrated on reprocessed substrates.

  15. Nanocomposite films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlin, David; , Ophus, Colin; Evoy, Stephane; Radmilovic, Velimir; Mohammadi, Reza; Westra, Ken; Nelson-Fitzpatrick, Nathaniel; Lee, Zonghoon

    2010-07-20

    A thin-film composition of nanocrystal molybdenum in an amorphous metallic matrix may be formed by co-sputtering Mo with aluminum or nickel. NEMS cantilevers may be formed from the film. The films exhibit high nanoindentation hardness and a reduction in roughness and intrinsic stress, while maintaining resistivity in the metallic range.

  16. CALUTRON PLANT ARRANGEMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waite, L.O.

    1959-06-01

    A description is given of an arrangement for calutrons in which the tanks and magnets are placed alternately in a race track'' figure. Pump connections are through the floor to the pumps below where roughing and finishing headers are provided. The arrangement provides more efficient and exonomical operaton, economy of construction, and saving of space. (T.R.H.)

  17. Modern Radiation Therapy for Extranodal Lymphomas: Field and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yahalom, Joachim; Illidge, Tim; Specht, Lena; Hoppe, Richard T.; Li, Ye-Xiong; Tsang, Richard; Wirth, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Extranodal lymphomas (ENLs) comprise about a third of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Radiation therapy (RT) is frequently used as either primary therapy (particularly for indolent ENL), consolidation after systemic therapy, salvage treatment, or palliation. The wide range of presentations of ENL, involving any organ in the body and the spectrum of histological sub-types, poses a challenge both for routine clinical care and for the conduct of prospective and retrospective studies. This has led to uncertainty and lack of consistency in RT approaches between centers and clinicians. Thus far there is a lack of guidelines for the use of RT in the management of ENL. This report presents an effort by the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) to harmonize and standardize the principles of treatment of ENL, and to address the technical challenges of simulation, volume definition and treatment planning for the most frequently involved organs. Specifically, detailed recommendations for RT volumes are provided. We have applied the same modern principles of involved site radiation therapy as previously developed and published as guidelines for Hodgkin lymphoma and nodal NHL. We have adopted RT volume definitions based on the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), as has been widely adopted by the field of radiation oncology for solid tumors. Organ-specific recommendations take into account histological subtype, anatomy, the treatment intent, and other treatment modalities that may be have been used before RT.

  18. Geothermal Well Site Restoration and Plug and Abandonment of Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rinehart, Ben N.

    1994-08-01

    A report is presented on the final phase of an energy research program conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) involving two geothermal well sites in the State of Louisiana-the Gladys McCall site and the Willis Hulin site. The research program was intended to improve geothermal technology and to determine the efficacy of producing electricity commercially from geopressured resource sites. The final phase of the program consisted of plug and abandonment (P&A) of the wells and restoration of the well sites. Restoration involved (a) initial soil and water sampling and analysis; (b) removal and disposal of well pads, concrete, utility poles, and trash; (c) plugging of monitor and freshwater wells; and (d) site leveling and general cleanup. Restoration of the McCall site required removal of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), which was costly and time-consuming. Exhibits are included that provide copies of work permits and authorizations, P&A reports and procedures, daily workover and current conditions report, and cost and salvage reports. Site locations, grid maps, and photographs are provided.

  19. Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe Guidelines on Endovascular Treatment in Aortoiliac Arterial Disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossi, Michele; Iezzi, Roberto

    2013-11-06

    PurposeThese guidelines are intended for use in assessing the standard for technical success and safety in aorto-iliac percutaneous endovascular interventions.MethodsAny recommendation contained in the text comes from the highest level and extension of literature review available to date.ResultsThe success of endovascular procedures is strictly related to an accurate planning based mainly on CT- or MR-angiography. TASC II A through C lesions have an endovascular-first option Pre-procedure ASA antiplatelet therapy is advisable in all cases. The application of stents improves the immediate hemodynamic and most likely long-term clinical results. Cumulative mean complication rate is 7.51% according to the most relevant literature. Most of the complications can be managed by means of percutaneous techniques.ConclusionThe design and quality of devices, as well as the easy and accuracy of performing these procedures, have improved over the last decades, leading to the preferential treatment of aorto-iliac steno-obstructive disease via endovascular means, often as first-line therapy, with high technical success rate and low morbidity. This is mirrored by the decreasing number of patients undergoing surgical grafts over the last years with patency, limb salvage, and survival rates equivalent to open reconstruction.

  20. Critical importance of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway for Trypanosoma cruzi growth in the mammalian host cell cytoplasm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hashimoto, Muneaki; Morales, Jorge; Fukai, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Shigeo; Takamiya, Shinzaburo; Tsubouchi, Akiko; Inoue, Syou; Inoue, Masayuki; Kita, Kiyoshi; Harada, Shigeharu; Tanaka, Akiko; Aoki, Takashi; Nara, Takeshi

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We established Trypanosoma cruzi lacking the gene for carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Disruption of the cpsII gene significantly reduced the growth of epimastigotes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In particular, the CPSII-null mutant severely retarded intracellular growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The de novo pyrimidine pathway is critical for the parasite growth in the host cell. -- Abstract: The intracellular parasitic protist Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease in Latin America. In general, pyrimidine nucleotides are supplied by both de novo biosynthesis and salvage pathways. While epimastigotes-an insect form-possess both activities, amastigotes-an intracellular replicating form of T. cruzi-are unable to mediate the uptake of pyrimidine. However, the requirement of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis for parasite growth and survival has not yet been elucidated. Carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase II (CPSII) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the de novo biosynthetic pathway, and increased CPSII activity is associated with the rapid proliferation of tumor cells. In the present study, we showed that disruption of the T. cruzicpsII gene significantly reduced parasite growth. In particular, the growth of amastigotes lacking the cpsII gene was severely suppressed. Thus, the de novo pyrimidine pathway is important for proliferation of T. cruzi in the host cell cytoplasm and represents a promising target for chemotherapy against Chagas disease.

  1. Trans-Americas leads the way into municipal textile recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridgley, H.

    1998-08-01

    Most textile waste in the US still goes to the landfill--an estimated 6.6 million tons each year. But thanks to the efforts of textile recycles--such as Trans-Americas Textile Recycling CO. (Brooklyn, NY)--another 1.25 million tons gets salvaged for reuse overseas or as a feedstock for the wiping and fiber industries, according to the Council for Textile Recycling. In an era where global population levels are increasing the demand for textile waste from the Western world and municipalities are struggling to reach their waste diversion goals, boosting textile recovery rates makes sense. And it`s a waste that can be easily incorporated into existing municipal curbside or drop-off recycling programs. Since 1942, when the company first opened its doors in Brooklyn, NY, it purchased textile discards from charities. While those discards still make up the majority of Trans-Americas` supply, in the last two years, the company also began purchasing post-consumer material from municipalities. Textiles are definitely going to be an increasingly important part of recycling, as states look to meet their mandates.

  2. Characterization Report for the David Witherspoon Screen Art Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phyllis C. Weaver

    2011-01-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office (ORO) of Environmental Management (EM) requested the technical assistance of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) to characterize a tract of land associated with the David Witherspoon, Incorporated (DWI) Volunteer Equipment and Supply Company (VESC). This tract of land (hereinafter referred to as Screen Arts) is located in the Vestal Community in the 2000-block of Maryville Pike in south Knoxville, Tennessee, as shown in Figure A-1. This tract of land has been used primarily to store salvaged equipment and materials for resale, recycle, or for disposal in the former landfill once operated by DWI. The DWI Site industrial landfill and metal recycling business had been permitted by the Tennessee Division of Radiological Health to accept low-level radiologically contaminated metals. DWI received materials and equipment associated with operations from DOE sites, including those in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. It is likely that items stored at Screen Arts may have contained some residual radiological materials.

  3. Status of inventory, recycling, and storage of hazardous waste in Kazakstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yermekbayeva, L.

    1996-12-31

    Conditions associated with toxic and radioactive waste in the Republic of Kazakstan are discussed. At present, more than 19 billion tons of various wastes, including toxic, radioactive, and other hazardous waste, have accumulated in the country, and about 1 billion tons of waste are generated each year. Ecological legislation for toxic waste storage is being examined. However, the definition and classification of waste inventories are not finalized. Furthermore, the country does not have sites for salvaging, rendering harmless, or disposing of these wastes. Kazakstan also has problems with radioactive waste that are complicated by the activity at the Semipalatinsk nuclear testing site. Here, nuclear explosions occurred because of economic and other reasons. In ecologically challenged regions, high levels of pollutants from chemical, toxic, industrial, and radioactive wastes and pesticides cause many diseases. These complex problems may be resolved by establishing a Governmental body to manage industrial and consumer waste, including toxic and radioactive waste, and also by developing legal and other regulations. 3 tabs.

  4. Life-cycle cost comparisons of advanced storage batteries and fuel cells for utility, stand-alone, and electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a comparison of battery and fuel cell economics for ten different technologies. To develop an equitable economic comparison, the technologies were evaluated on a life-cycle cost (LCC) basis. The LCC comparison involved normalizing source estimates to a standard set of assumptions and preparing a lifetime cost scenario for each technology, including the initial capital cost, replacement costs, operating and maintenance (O M) costs, auxiliary energy costs, costs due to system inefficiencies, the cost of energy stored, and salvage costs or credits. By considering all the costs associated with each technology over its respective lifetime, the technology that is most economical to operate over any given period of time can be determined. An analysis of this type indicates whether paying a high initial capital cost for a technology with low O M costs is more or less economical on a lifetime basis than purchasing a technology with a low initial capital cost and high O M costs. It is important to realize that while minimizing cost is important, the customer will not always purchase the least expensive technology. The customer may identify benefits associated with a more expensive option that make it the more attractive over all (e.g., reduced construction lead times, modularity, environmental benefits, spinning reserve, etc.). The LCC estimates presented in this report represent three end-use applications: utility load-leveling, stand-alone power systems, and electric vehicles.

  5. Techno-Economic Analysis of PEV Battery Second Use: Repurposed-Battery Selling Price and Commercial and Industrial End-User Value

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.; Williams, B.; Ferry, M.; Eyer, J.

    2012-06-01

    Accelerated market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles and deployment of grid-connected energy storage are restricted by the high cost of lithium-ion batteries. Research, development, and manufacturing are underway to lower material costs, enhance process efficiencies, and increase production volumes. A fraction of the battery cost may be recovered after vehicular service by reusing the battery where it may have sufficient performance for other energy-storage applications. By extracting post-vehicle additional services and revenue from the battery, the total lifetime value of the battery is increased. The overall cost of energy-storage solutions for both primary (automotive) and secondary (grid) customer could be decreased. This techno-economic analysis of battery second use considers effects of battery degradation in both automotive and grid service, repurposing costs, balance-of-system costs, the value of aggregated energy-storage to commercial and industrial end users, and competitive technology. Batteries from plug-in electric vehicles can economically be used to serve the power quality and reliability needs of commercial and industrial end users. However, the value to the automotive battery owner is small (e.g., $20-$100/kWh) as declining future battery costs and other factors strongly affect salvage value. Repurposed automotive battery prices may range from $38/kWh to $132/kWh.

  6. Measurement and image processing evaluation of surface modifications of dental implants G4 pure titanium created by different techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulutsuz, A. G.; Demircioglu, P. Bogrekci, I.; Durakbasa, M. N.

    2015-03-30

    Foreign substances and organic tissue interaction placed into the jaw in order to eliminate tooth loss involves a highly complex process. Many biological reactions take place as well as the biomechanical forces that influence this formation. Osseointegration denotes to the direct structural and functional association between the living bone and the load-bearing artificial implant's surface. Taking into consideration of the requirements in the manufacturing processes of the implants, surface characterizations with high precise measurement techniques are investigated and thus long-term success of dental implant is emphasized on the importance of these processes in this study. In this research, the detailed surface characterization was performed to identify the dependence of the manufacturing techniques on the surface properties by using the image processing methods and using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for morphological properties in 3D and Taylor Hobson stylus profilometer for roughness properties in 2D. Three implant surfaces fabricated by different manufacturing techniques were inspected, and a machined surface was included into the study as a reference specimen. The results indicated that different surface treatments were strongly influenced surface morphology. Thus 2D and 3D precise inspection techniques were highlighted on the importance for surface characterization. Different image analyses techniques such as Dark-light technique were used to verify the surface measurement results. The computational phase was performed using image processing toolbox in Matlab with precise evaluation of the roughness for the implant surfaces. The relationship between the number of black and white pixels and surface roughness is presented. FFT image processing and analyses results explicitly imply that the technique is useful in the determination of surface roughness. The results showed that the number of black pixels in the image increases with increase in surface

  7. Dry Deposition Velocity Estimation for the Savannah River Site: Part 1 – Parametric Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, Bruce A.

    2012-01-16

    Values for the dry deposition velocity of airborne particles were estimated with the GENII Version 2.10 computer code for the Savannah River site using assumptions about surface roughness parameters and particle size and density. Use of the GENII code is recommended by the U.S. Department of Energy for this purpose. Meteorological conditions evaluated include atmospheric stability classes D, E, and F and wind speeds of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 m/s. Local surface roughness values ranging from 0.03 to 2 meters were evaluated. Particles with mass mean diameters of 1, 5, and 10 microns and densities of 1, 3, and 5 g/cm3 were evaluated.

  8. Dry Deposition Velocity Estimation for the Savannah River Site: Part 2 -- Parametric and Site-Specific Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Cook, Kary M.

    2013-09-12

    Values for the dry deposition velocity of airborne particles were estimated with the GENII Version 2.10.1 computer code for the Savannah River site using assumptions about surface roughness parameters and particle size and density. Use of the GENII code is recommended by the U.S. Department of Energy for this purpose. Meteorological conditions evaluated include atmospheric stability classes D, E, and F and wind speeds of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 m/s. Local surface roughness values ranging from 0.03 to 2 meters were evaluated. Particles with mass mean diameters of 1, 5, and 10 microns and densities of 1, 3, 4, and 5 g/cm3 were evaluated. Site specific meteorology was used to predict deposition velocity for Savannah River conditions for a range of distances from 670 to 11,500 meters.

  9. Characterization of zirconia- and niobia-silica mixture coatings produced by ion-beam sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melninkaitis, Andrius; Tolenis, Tomas; Mazule, Lina; Mirauskas, Julius; Sirutkaitis, Valdas; Mangote, Benoit; Fu Xinghai; Zerrad, Myriam; Gallais, Laurent; Commandre, Mireille; Kicas, Simonas; Drazdys, Ramutis

    2011-03-20

    ZrO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-SiO{sub 2} mixture coatings as well as those of pure zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}), niobia (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}), and silica (SiO{sub 2}) deposited by ion-beam sputtering were investigated. Refractive-index dispersions, bandgaps, and volumetric fractions of materials in mixed coatings were analyzed from spectrophotometric data. Optical scattering, surface roughness, nanostructure, and optical resistance were also studied. Zirconia-silica mixtures experience the transition from crystalline to amorphous phase by increasing the content of SiO{sub 2}. This also results in reduced surface roughness. All niobia and silica coatings and their mixtures were amorphous. The obtained laser-induced damage thresholds in the subpicosecond range also correlates with respect to the silica content in both zirconia- and niobia-silica mixtures.

  10. Electrochemical Polishing Applications and EIS of a Novel Choline Chloride-Based Ionic Liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wixtrom, Alex I.; Buhler, Jessica E.; Reece, Charles E.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M.

    2013-06-01

    Minimal surface roughness is a critical feature for high-field superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities used to engineer particle accelerators. Current methods for polishing Niobium cavities typically utilize solutions containing a mixture of concentrated sulfuric and hydrofluoric acid. Polishing processes such as these are effective, yet there are many hazards and costs associated with the use (and safe disposal) of the concentrated acid solutions. An alternative method for electrochemical polishing of the cavities was explored using a novel ionic liquid solution containing choline chloride. Potentiostatic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to analyze the ionic polishing solution. Final surface roughness of the Nb was found to be comparable to that of the acid-polishing method, as assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). This indicates that ionic liquid-based electrochemical polishing of Nb is a viable replacement for acid-based methods for preparation of SRF cavities.

  11. Topographic power spectral density study of the effect of surface treatment processes on niobium for superconducting radio frequency accelerator cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Reece, Hui Tian, Michael Kelley, Chen Xu

    2012-04-01

    Microroughness is viewed as a critical issue for attaining optimum performance of superconducting radio frequency accelerator cavities. The principal surface smoothing methods are buffered chemical polish (BCP) and electropolish (EP). The resulting topography is characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The power spectral density (PSD) of AFM data provides a more thorough description of the topography than a single-value roughness measurement. In this work, one dimensional average PSD functions derived from topography of BCP and EP with different controlled starting conditions and durations have been fitted with a combination of power law, K correlation, and shifted Gaussian models to extract characteristic parameters at different spatial harmonic scales. While the simplest characterizations of these data are not new, the systematic tracking of scale-specific roughness as a function of processing is new and offers feedback for tighter process prescriptions more knowledgably targeted at beneficial niobium topography for superconducting radio frequency applications.

  12. Exclusive pi^0 electroproduction at W > 2 GeV with CLAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedlinskiy, I.; Kubarovsky, V.; Niccolai, S.; Stoler, P.; Adhikari, K.P.; Anderson, M.D.; Pereira, S. Anefalos; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N.A.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Biselli, A.S.; Boiarinov, S.; Bono, J.; Briscoe, W.J.; Brooks, W.K.; Burkert, V.D.; Carman, D.S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P.L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fleming, J.A.; Forest, T.A.; Garillon, B.; Garcon, M.; Gavalian, G.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Giovanetti, K.L.; Girod, F.X.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R.W.; Griffioen, K.A.; Guegan, B.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Ireland, D.G.; Ishkhanov, B.S.; Isupov, E.L.; Jenkins, D.; Jo, H.S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F.J.; Koirala, S.; Kuhn, S.E.; Kuleshov, S.V.; Lenisa, P.; Levine, W.I.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H.Y.; MacGregor, I.J.D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R.A.; Moody, C.I.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A.I.; Pappalardo, L.L.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, E.; Phelps, W.; Phillips, J.J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J.W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Procureur, S.; Puckett, A.J.R.; Raue, B.A.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B.G.; Rizzo, A.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabati, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R.A.; Seder, E.; Senderovich, I.; Sharabian, Y.G.; Simonyan, A.; Smith, G.D.; Sober, D.I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S.S.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tang, W.; Tian, Ye; Ungaro, M.; Vlassov, A.V.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N.K.; Watts, D.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L.B.; Yurov, M.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z.W.; Zonta, I.

    2014-08-01

    Exclusive neutral-pion electroproduction (ep-->e'p'pi0) was measured at Jefferson Lab with a 5.75-GeV electron beam and the CLAS detector. Differential cross sections d4sigma/dtdQ2dxBdphipi and structure functions sigmaT+epsilonsigmaL,sigmaTT and ?LT as functions of t were obtained over a wide range of Q2 and xB. The data are compared with Regge and handbag theoretical calculations. Analyses in both frameworks find that a large dominance of transverse processes is necessary to explain the experimental results. For the Regge analysis it is found that the inclusion of vector meson rescattering processes is necessary to bring the magnitude of the calculated and measured structure functions into rough agreement. In the handbag framework, there are two independent calculations, both of which appear to roughly explain the magnitude of the structure functions in terms of transversity generalized parton distributions.

  13. Chemical method for producing smooth surfaces on silicon wafers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad

    2003-01-01

    An improved method for producing optically smooth surfaces in silicon wafers during wet chemical etching involves a pre-treatment rinse of the wafers before etching and a post-etching rinse. The pre-treatment with an organic solvent provides a well-wetted surface that ensures uniform mass transfer during etching, which results in optically smooth surfaces. The post-etching treatment with an acetic acid solution stops the etching instantly, preventing any uneven etching that leads to surface roughness. This method can be used to etch silicon surfaces to a depth of 200 .mu.m or more, while the finished surfaces have a surface roughness of only 15-50 .ANG. (RMS).

  14. Microturbulence studies of pulsed poloidal current drive discharges in the reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmody, D. Pueschel, M. J.; Anderson, J. K.; Terry, P. W.

    2015-01-15

    Experimental discharges with pulsed poloidal current drive (PPCD) in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed field pinch are investigated using a semi-analytic equilibrium model in the gyrokinetic turbulence code GENE. PPCD cases, with plasma currents of 500 kA and 200 kA, exhibit a density-gradient-driven trapped electron mode (TEM) and an ion temperature gradient mode, respectively. Relative to expectations of tokamak core plasmas, the critical gradients for the onset of these instabilities are found to be greater by roughly a factor of the aspect ratio. A significant upshift in the nonlinear TEM transport threshold, previously found for tokamaks, is confirmed in nonlinear reversed field pinch simulations and is roughly three times the threshold for linear instability. The simulated heat fluxes can be brought in agreement with measured diffusivities by introducing a small, resonant magnetic perturbation, thus modeling the residual fluctuations from tearing modes. These fluctuations significantly enhance transport.

  15. Development of practical ceramic composite components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, R.W.; Berneburg, P.L.; Kerkar, A.V.

    1991-10-01

    Approaches to welding cups and engine valves applications using composites of carbon-based matrices with and without fibers and ceramic coatings are illustrated. The metal inert gas (MIG) cup trials showed that a CVD Si3N4 coating on an appropriate substrate outperformed any monolithic material in minimizing splatter adherence and erosion. CVD gave a faceted crystalline polycrystalline Si3N4 and hence a fairly rough coating. For a roughly estimated CVD coating cost of 25 cents per cup, coated carbon-based cups would be far cheaper than monolithic Si3N4 cups, yet would perform better. A carbon-based fiber composite shows promising potential for valve applications. In contrast to Si3N4, it offers about one-third lower density for possible further performance improvement for gasoline engines and for reducing costs of valve springs. 2 refs.

  16. Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of thin-film silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jellison, G.E. Jr.; Modine, F.A.; Doshi, P.; Rohatgi, A.

    1997-05-01

    We have measured and analyzed the optical characteristics of a series of silicon nitride thin films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on silicon substrates for photovoltaic applications. Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements were made by using a two-channel spectroscopic polarization modulator ellipsometer that measures N, S, and C data simultaneously. The data were fit to a model consisting of air / roughness / SiN / crystalline silicon. The roughness was modeled using the Bruggeman effective medium approximation, assuming 50% SiN, 50% voids. The optical functions of the SiN film were parameterized using a model by Jellison and Modine. All the {Chi}{sup 2} are near 1, demonstrating that this model works extremely well for all SiN films. The measured dielectric functions were used to make optimized SiN antireflection coatings for crystalline silicon solar cells.

  17. Spreading of oil spilled under ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yapa, P.D.; Chowdhury, T. )

    1990-12-01

    A new set of equations is presented to describe the process of oil spreading under ice in clam waters. These equations consider the gravity (buoyancy)-inertia phase, the gravity (buoyancy)-viscous phase, and the termination of spreading during the buoyancy-surface-tension phase. The derivation considers both the constant discharge mode and the constant volume mode. Therefore, a complete description of the spreading phenomena from the time of initial spill to the termination of spreading is presented. Laboratory experiments were conducted using both real ice covers in a cold room and artificial ice covers. The experiments included different ice-cover roughnesses from smooth to rough, oils of different viscosities, and a variety of discharge conditions. The experimental data show close agreement with the theory. These equations can be used during cleanup or environmental impact assessment to estimate the area of an oil slick with respect to time.

  18. Laser Polishing: Green Path to Improved Accelerator Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, Michael

    2015-10-06

    We pursued three paths toward reducing the initial cost and operating expense of particle accelerators. First, we investigated laser surface melting as an alternative to the present cavity processing approach using noxious chemicals. We successfully demonstrated a process that can be scaled up and defined the path to do so. Second, we sought to develop tailored laser pulsing as a way to simulate the thermal fatigue environment responsible for damaging accelerator components. Though the first three steps along the path were successfully accomplished, the final segment depended on collaborators with unique facilities, whose program was terminated. The third segment aimed to acquire a fundamental understanding of the widely used chemical process that yields the rough surfaces smoothed by laser melting. We found that the roughness is an inherent and unavoidable outcome that limits the performance of components processed thusly.

  19. Fuel cell manifold sealing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grevstad, Paul E.; Johnson, Carl K.; Mientek, Anthony P.

    1980-01-01

    A manifold-to-stack seal and sealing method for fuel cell stacks. This seal system solves the problem of maintaining a low leak rate manifold seal as the fuel cell stack undergoes compressive creep. The seal system eliminates the problem of the manifold-to-stack seal sliding against the rough stack surface as the stack becomes shorter because of cell creep, which relative motion destroys the seal. The seal system described herein utilizes a polymer seal frame firmly clamped between the manifold and the stack such that the seal frame moves with the stack. Thus, as the stack creeps, the seal frame creeps with it, and there is no sliding at the rough, tough to seal, stack-to-seal frame interface. Here the sliding is on a smooth easy to seal location between the seal frame and the manifold.

  20. Method for producing a fuel cell manifold seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grevstad, Paul E.; Johnson, Carl K.; Mientek, Anthony P.

    1982-01-01

    A manifold-to-stack seal and sealing method for fuel cell stacks. This seal system solves the problem of maintaining a low leak rate manifold seal as the fuel cell stack undergoes compressive creep. The seal system eliminates the problem of the manifold-to-stack seal sliding against the rough stack surface as the stack becomes shorter because of cell creep, which relative motion destroys the seal. The seal system described herein utilizes a polymer seal frame firmly clamped between the manifold and the stack such that the seal frame moves with the stack. Thus, as the stack creeps, the seal frame creeps with it, and there is no sliding at the rough, tough to seal, stack-to-seal frame interface. Here the sliding is on a smooth easy to seal location between the seal frame and the manifold.

  1. Composition, morphology and mechanical properties of sputtered TiAlN coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budi, Esmar; Razali, M. Mohd.; Nizam, A. R. Md.

    2014-03-24

    TiAlN coating was deposited on the tungsten carbide cutting tool by using DC magnetron sputtering system to study the influence of substrate bias and nitrogen flow rate on the composition, morphology and mechanical properties. The negatively substrate bias and nitrogen flow rate was varied from about ?79 to ?221 V and 30 sccm to 72 sccm, respectively. The coating composition and roughness were characterized by using SEM/EDX and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), respectively. The dynamic ultra micro hardness tester was used to measure the mechanical properties. The coating hardness increases to about 10-12 GPa with an increase of the negatively substrate bias up to ? 200 V and it tend to decrease with an increase in nitrogen flow rate up to 70 sccm. The increase of hardness follows the increase of Ti and N content and rms coating roughness.

  2. Surface Quality of Ti-6%Al-4%V ELI When Machined Using CVD-Carbide Tools at High Cutting Speed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gusri, A. I.; Che Hassan, C. H.; Jaharah, A. G.; Yasir, A.; Zaid, Y.; Yanuar, B.

    2011-01-17

    Machining of Ti-6Al-4V ELI becomes more interested topic due to extremely weight-to-strength ratio and resistance to corrosion at elevated temperature. Quality of machined surface is presented by surface roughness, surface texture and damages of microstructure of titanium alloys. The turning parameters evaluated are cutting speed of 55-95 m/min, feed rate of 0.15-0.35 mm/rev, depth of cut of 0.10-0.20 mm and tool grade of CVD carbide tools. The results show the trend lines of surface roughness value are higher at the initial machining and the surface texture profile has a strong correlation with the feed rate. At the machining condition of cutting speed of 95 m/min, feed rate of 0.35 mm/rev and depth of cut of 0.10 mm produced the with layer with thickness of 2.0 {mu}m.

  3. Modeling laser-induced periodic surface structures: Finite-difference time-domain feedback simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skolski, J. Z. P. Vincenc Obona, J.; Römer, G. R. B. E.; Huis in 't Veld, A. J.

    2014-03-14

    A model predicting the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs) is presented. That is, the finite-difference time domain method is used to study the interaction of electromagnetic fields with rough surfaces. In this approach, the rough surface is modified by “ablation after each laser pulse,” according to the absorbed energy profile, in order to account for inter-pulse feedback mechanisms. LIPSSs with a periodicity significantly smaller than the laser wavelength are found to “grow” either parallel or orthogonal to the laser polarization. The change in orientation and periodicity follow from the model. LIPSSs with a periodicity larger than the wavelength of the laser radiation and complex superimposed LIPSS patterns are also predicted by the model.

  4. Signal processing method and system for noise removal and signal extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fu, Chi Yung; Petrich, Loren

    2009-04-14

    A signal processing method and system combining smooth level wavelet pre-processing together with artificial neural networks all in the wavelet domain for signal denoising and extraction. Upon receiving a signal corrupted with noise, an n-level decomposition of the signal is performed using a discrete wavelet transform to produce a smooth component and a rough component for each decomposition level. The n.sup.th level smooth component is then inputted into a corresponding neural network pre-trained to filter out noise in that component by pattern recognition in the wavelet domain. Additional rough components, beginning at the highest level, may also be retained and inputted into corresponding neural networks pre-trained to filter out noise in those components also by pattern recognition in the wavelet domain. In any case, an inverse discrete wavelet transform is performed on the combined output from all the neural networks to recover a clean signal back in the time domain.

  5. Field studies of the potential for wind transport of plutonium- contaminated soils at sites in Areas 6 and 11, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lancaster, N.; Bamford, R.; Metzger, S.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes and documents a series of field experiments carried out in Areas 6 and 11 of the Nevada Test Site in June and July 1994 to determine parameters of boundary layer winds, surface characteristics, and vegetation cover that can be used to predict dust emissions from the affected sites. Aerodynamic roughness of natural sites is determined largely by the lateral cover of the larger and more permanent roughness elements (shrubs). These provide a complete protection of the surface from wind erosion. Studies using a field-portable wind tunnel demonstrated that natural surfaces in the investigated areas of the Nevada Test Site are stable except at very high wind speeds (probably higher than normally occur, except perhaps in dust devils). However, disturbance of silty-clay surfaces by excavation devices and vehicles reduces the entrainment threshold by approximately 50% and makes these areas potentially very susceptible to wind erosion and transport of sediments.

  6. Impact of growth and annealing conditions on the parameters of Ge/Si(001) relaxed layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yurasov, D. V.; Bobrov, A. I.; Daniltsev, V. M.; Novikov, A. V.; Pavlov, D. A.; Skorokhodov, E. V.; Shaleev, M. V.; Yunin, P. A.

    2015-11-15

    Influence of the Ge layer thickness and annealing conditions on the parameters of relaxed Ge/Si(001) layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy via two-stage growth is investigated. The dependences of the threading dislocation density and surface roughness on the Ge layer thickness, annealing temperature and time, and the presence of a hydrogen atmosphere are obtained. As a result of optimization of the growth and annealing conditions, relaxed Ge/Si(001) layers which are thinner than 1 μm with a low threading dislocation density on the order of 10{sup 7} cm{sup –2} and a root mean square roughness of less than 1 nm are obtained.

  7. Fractal dimensions of niobium oxide films probed by protons and lithium ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pehlivan, Esat; Niklasson, Gunnar A.

    2006-09-01

    Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to determine fractal surface dimensions of sputter deposited niobium pentoxide films. Peak currents were determined by CV measurements. Power spectral densities obtained from AFM measurements of the films were used for calculating length scale dependent root mean square roughness. In order to compare the effect of Li and H ion intercalation at the fractal surfaces, LiClO{sub 4} based as well as propionic acid electrolytes were used. The CV measurements gave a fractal dimension of 2.36 when the films were intercalated by Li ions and 1.70 when the films were intercalated by protons. AFM measurements showed that the former value corresponds to the fractal surface roughness of the films, while the latter value is close to the dimensionality of the distribution of hillocks on the surface. We conclude that the protons are preferentially intercalated at such sites.

  8. Sandia National Labs: PCNSC: Heavy Ion Backscattering Spectrometry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heavy Ion Backscattering Spectrometry (HIBS) IBA Table (HTML) | IBA Table (135KB GIF) | IBA Table (1.2MB PDF) | IBA Table (33MB TIF) | Heavy Ion Backscattering Spectrometry (HIBS) | Virtual Lab Tour (6MB) Description of Technique: HIBS is used to detect ultra-trace levels of heavy impurities on the surface of a Si wafer. HIBS has advantages over TXRF, including: Improved sensitivity for most elements Quantifying composition without standards Measurement on rough surfaces. HIBS is accomplished by

  9. NREL: Innovation Impact - Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Menu Home Home Solar Solar Wind Wind Analysis Analysis Bioenergy Bioenergy Buildings Buildings Transportation Transportation Manufacturing Manufacturing Energy Systems Integration Energy Systems Integration Improved transportation technologies are essential for reducing U.S. petroleum dependence. Close The United States consumes roughly 19 million barrels of petroleum per day, but replacing petroleum-based liquid fuels is difficult because of their high energy density, which helps

  10. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Solar PV Recycling Identified as Untapped

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Business Opportunity Solar PV Recycling Identified as Untapped Business Opportunity June 27, 2016 A new report, End-of-Life Management: Solar Photovoltaic Panels, highlights that recycling or repurposing solar PV panels at the end of their roughly 30-year lifetime can unlock a large stock of raw materials and other valuable components. The report, co-authored by NREL, the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) and the International Energy Agency's Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme

  11. News Item

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemically Amplified Molecular Photoresist for High-Resolution Lithography Schematic of photo-catalyzed cross-linking in resist by addition of low and high concentrations of cross-linker. CD-SEM images of negative resists with and without cross-linker. The new resist shows both higher resolution and lower edge roughness. Scientific Achievement Users from Intel collaborated with staff from the Molecular Foundry and the ALS to create a new approach to photoresist that achieves both high-resolution

  12. Laboratory Evidence for Stochastic Plasma-Wave Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austin, D. R.; Hole, M. J.; Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, Iver H.; Dallaqua, R.

    2007-11-16

    The first laboratory confirmation of stochastic growth theory is reported. Floating potential fluctuations are measured in a vacuum arc centrifuge using a Langmuir probe. Statistical analysis of the energy density reveals a lognormal distribution over roughly 2 orders of magnitude, with a high-field nonlinear cutoff whose spatial dependence is consistent with the predicted eigenmode profile. These results are consistent with stochastic growth and nonlinear saturation of a spatially extended eigenmode, the first evidence for stochastic growth of an extended structure.

  13. Fermilab | Science | Particle Physics | Benefits of Particle Physics |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Workforce Workforce Development In this Section: thumb Medicine thumb Homeland Security thumb Industry thumb Computing thumb Sciences thumb Workforce Development thumb A Growing List Training scientists Particle physics has a profound influence on the workforce. Basic science is a magnet that attracts inquisitive and capable students. In particle physics, roughly one sixth of those completing PhDs ultimately pursue careers in basic high-energy physics research. The rest find their way to

  14. Fermilab | Tritium at Fermilab | Tritium in Surface Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Water Fermilab map Fermilab has conducted an environmental monitoring program on site for roughly 40 years. In November of 2005, for the first time, we detected low levels of tritium in Indian Creek, one of three creeks that travel through the Fermilab site. Low but measurable levels of tritium continue to be detected in Indian Creek. All tritium levels found on site are well below any federal health and environmental standards. The Department of Energy standard for surface water is

  15. Matt Compton | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Massachusetts on Track with Weatherization Boost Massachusetts on Track with Weatherization Boost January 12, 2010 - 3:07pm Addthis As the state of Massachusetts advances toward its goal of weatherizing approximately 17,000 homes over three years, thousands of residents across the Bay State have already felt the impact of its expanded program. Massachusetts has hired 35 energy auditors, roughly 140 weatherization workers and about 30 administrators to keep up with the surge in weatherization

  16. Wind Energy Integration: Slides

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    information about integrating wind energy into the electricity grid. Wind Energy Integration Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL 25907 Wind energy currently contributes significant power to energy portfolios around the world. *U.S. Department of Energy. (August 2015). 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report. Wind Energy Integration In 2014, Denmark led the way with wind power supplying roughly 39% of the country's electricity demand. Ireland, Portugal, and Spain provided more than 20% of their

  17. Reversible CO-binding to the Active Site of Nitrogenase | Stanford

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Reversible CO-binding to the Active Site of Nitrogenase Tuesday, March 31, 2015 All living organisms depend on the availability of nitrogen for incorporation into the basic biological building blocks such as amino acids and DNA. Globally the largest reservoir for nitrogen is the atmosphere, with an N2 content of roughly 78%. However, as a highly unreactive gas, most organisms are unable to directly utilize dinitrogen due to the severe energy barrier required

  18. Cryogenic systems for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slack, D.S.; Nelson, R.L.; Chronis, W.C.

    1985-08-01

    This paper includes an in-depth discussion of the design, fabrication, and operation of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) cryogenic system located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Each subsystem discussed to present a basic composite of the entire facility. The following subsystems are included: 500kW nitrogen reliquefier, subcoolers, and distribution system; 15kW helium refrigerator/liquefier and distribution system; helium recovery and storage system; rough vacuum and high vacuum systems.

  19. Genes and Mechanisms for Improving Cellulosic Ethanol Production in E. Coli

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Energy Innovation Portal Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Genes and Mechanisms for Improving Cellulosic Ethanol Production in E. Coli University of Colorado Contact CU About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication CU2104B (Engineered Microbe Tolerance) Marketing Summary_2.pdf (194 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Cellulosic biomass accounts for roughly 75% of all plant material, and can be used to produce biofuels. Sources of

  20. NNSA Contributions to the IAEA | National Nuclear Security Administration |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    (NNSA) Fact Sheets NNSA Contributions to the IAEA September 14, 2010 The United States contributes roughly 25 percent of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) regular budget annually through the U.S. Department of State. For 2009, the U.S. contribution to the IAEA regular budget was approximately $103 million of a total budget of about $412 million. This covers the core functions of the Agency, including international safeguards inspections, promoting nuclear safety and security,

  1. Wetting state on hydrophilic and hydrophobic micro-textured surfaces: Thermodynamic analysis and X-ray visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Dong In; Kwak, Ho Jae; Doh, Seung Woo; Park, Hyun Sun Kiyofumi, Moriyama; Kang, Hie Chan; Ahn, Ho Seon; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2015-04-27

    In this study, the wetting state on hydrophobic and hydrophilic micro-textured surfaces was investigated. High spatial resolution synchrotron X-ray radiography was used to overcome the limitations in visualization in previous research and clearly visualize the wetting state for each droplet under quantified surface conditions. Based on thermodynamic characteristics, a theoretical model for wetting state depending on the chemical composition (intrinsic contact angle) and geometrical morphology (roughness ratio) of the surfaces was developed.

  2. Next generation grinding spindle for cost-effective manufacture of advanced ceramic components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovach, J.A.; Laurich, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Finish grinding of advanced structural ceramics has generally been considered an extremely slow and costly process. Recently, however, results from the High-Speed, Low-Damage (HSLD) program have clearly demonstrated that numerous finish-process performance benefits can be realized by grinding silicon nitride at high wheel speeds. A new, single-step, roughing-process capable of producing high-quality silicon nitride parts at high material removal rates while dramatically reducing finishing costs has been developed.

  3. Corrosive wear principles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, W.J. )

    1993-07-01

    Several laboratory and in situ studies have conducted to better understand the contributions of corrosion and wear to the wastage process. Hardness is an unreliable guide to performance under wet sliding conditions. Heat-treated alloy steels and cast irons are inferior to stainless steels (SS) in such circumstances. The surface roughness of SS gets smoother during corrosive wear testing, while alloy steels get rougher. This observation substantiated the reputation for improved slideability of stainless alloys over alloy steels.

  4. Major Projects with Quick Starts & Jobs Creation Office of Clean Coal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Major Projects with Quick Starts & Jobs Creation Office of Clean Coal Summary of Projects and Job Creation The following table outlines the near-term possibilities for projects that capture and sequester carbon from coal-based systems. The potential jobs associated with these activities are listed along with likely construction and operation dates. Since the funding is primarily for construction and associated activities, a rough estimate of 30 job years per $1 million dollars expended was

  5. U.S. Pellet Industry Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corrie I. Nichol; Jacob J. Jacobsen; Richard D. Boardman

    2011-06-01

    This report is a survey of the U.S. Pellet Industry, its current capacity, economic drivers, and projected demand for biomass pellets to meet future energy consumption needs. Energy consumption in the US is projected to require an ever increasing portion of renewable energy sources including biofuels, among which are wood, and agrictulrual biomass. Goals set by federal agencies will drive an ever increasing demand for biomass. The EIA projections estimate that renewable energy produced by 2035 will be roughly 10% of all US energy consumption. Further analysis of the biofuels consumption in the US shows that of the renewable energy sources excluding biofuels, nearly 30% are wood or biomass waste. This equates to roughly 2% of the total energy consumption in the US coming from biomass in 2009, and the projections for 2035 show a strong increase in this amount. As of 2009, biomass energy production equates to roughly 2-2.5 quadrillion Btu. The EIA projections also show coal as providing 21% of energy consumed. If biomass is blended at 20% to co-fire coal plants, this will result in an additional 4 quadrillion Btu of biomass consumption. The EISA goals aim to produce 16 billion gal/year of cellulosic biofuels, and the US military has set goals for biofuels production. The Air Force has proposed to replace 50% of its domestic fuel requirements with alternative fuels from renewable sources by 2016. The Navy has likewise set a goal to provide 50% of its energy requirements from alternative sources. The Department of Energy has set similarly ambitious goals. The DOE goal is to replace 40% of 2004 gasoline use with biofuels. This equates to roughly 60 billion gal/year, of which, 45 billion gal/year would be produced from lignocellulosic resources. This would require 530 million dry tons of herbaceous and woody lignocellulosic biomass per year.

  6. AVTA: Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Specifications and Test Procedures |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Specifications and Test Procedures AVTA: Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Specifications and Test Procedures NEVAmerica Technical Specifications (135.99 KB) NEVAmerica Test Sequence (66.19 KB) ETA-NTP002 Implementation of SAE Standard J1666 May 93 - Electric Vehicle Acceleration, Gradeability, and Deceleration Test Procedure (334.01 KB) ETA-NTP004 Electric Vehicle Constant Speed Range Test (138.66 KB) ETA-NTP005 Electric Vehicle Rough Road

  7. An Update on Advanced Battery Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Battery Manufacturing An Update on Advanced Battery Manufacturing October 16, 2012 - 9:41am Addthis Dan Leistikow Dan Leistikow Former Director, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? The advanced battery market is expanding dramatically in the U.S. and around the world -- from $5 billion in 2010 to nearly $50 billion in 2020, an average annual growth rate of roughly 25 percent. The Department of Energy, with strong bipartisan support, awarded $2 billion in grants to 29

  8. Geothermal Technologies Office FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance () | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect : Geothermal Technologies Office FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Geothermal Technologies Office FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance The Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) accelerates deployment of clean, domestic geothermal energy by supporting innovative technologies that reduce the cost and risks of development. This abundant resource generates energy around the clock and has the potential to supply more than 100 GWe of electricity-roughly one-tenth

  9. In the OSTI Collections: Metamaterials | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scientific and Technical Information Metamaterials Negative refractive index Varying the response to terahertz light Other devices Solving technical problems References Research Organizations Reports available from OSTI's Information Bridge Additional reference Any material's physical properties are determined by what types of atoms it is made of and how those atoms are arranged. In ordinary solid materials, the atoms are arranged in basic, roughly nanometer-size units of a few atoms each,

  10. ARM - Measurement - Surface condition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    condition ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Surface condition State of the surface, including vegetation, land use, surface type, roughness, and such; often provided in model output. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list

  11. Application Performance Variability on Hopper

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Application Performance Variability on Hopper Application Performance Variability on Hopper Introduction The Hopper system is a Cray XE6 system with roughly 6300 compute nodes. In normal day to day operations, Hopper can be running hundreds of individual applications at any given time. Some users have reported application runtime variability, in some cases as large as 30-40%. Non-uniform runtimes makes it more difficult for scientists to measure the performance of their codes and to estimate the

  12. Diamond turning of thermoplastic polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, E.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Single point diamond turning studies were made using a series of thermoplastic polymers with different glass transition temperatures. Variations in surface morphology and surface roughness were observed as a function of cutting speed. Lower glass transition temperatures facilitate smoother surface cuts and better surface finish. This can be attributed to the frictional heating that occurs during machining. Because of the very low glass transition temperatures in polymeric compared to inorganic glasses, the precision machining response can be very speed sensitive.

  13. US Low-Temperature EGS Resource Potential Estimate

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Katherine Young

    2016-06-30

    Shapefile of shallow, low-temperature EGS resources for the United States, and accompanying paper (submitted to GRC 2016) describing the methodology and analysis. These data are part of a very rough estimate created for use in the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technology Office's Vision Study. They are not a robust estimate of low-temperature EGS resources in the U.S, and should be used accordingly.

  14. A model for residual stress evolution in air-plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nair, B. G.; Singh, J. P.; Grimsditch, M.

    2000-02-28

    Ruby fluorescence spectroscopy indicates that residual stress in air-plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings is a function of the local interface geometry. The stress profile of a simulated rough interface characterized by ``peaks'' and ``valleys'' was modeled with a finite-element approach that accounted for thermal mismatch, oxide scale growth, and top coat sintering. Dependence of the stress profile on interface geometry and microstructure was investigated, and the results were compared with measured stresses.

  15. Rugged calorimeter with a fast rise time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMurtry, W.M.; Dolce, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    An intrinsic 1-mil-thick gold foil calorimeter has been developed which rises to 95% of the energy deposited in less than 2 microseconds. This calorimeter is very rugged, and can withstand rough handling without damage. The time constant is long, in the millisecond range, because of its unique construction. Use of this calorimeter has produced 100% data recovery, and agreement with true deposition to less than 10%.

  16. Renewable Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Renewable Energy The WIPP Site Holds Promise as an Ideal Source of Renewable Energy Encompassing 16 square miles of open Chihuahuan desert with abundant sunshine and minimal surface roughness, the WIPP site is ideal for either solar- or wind-generated electricity production, demonstration or testing. In fact, WIPP is striving to take advantage of its abundance of sunshine and wind. The Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management has created what is being called the Energy Park

  17. Accelerating Geothermal Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    Geothermal research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is advancing geothermal technologies to increase renewable power production. Continuous and not dependent on weather, the geothermal resource has the potential to jump to more than 500 gigawatts in electricity production, which is equivalent to roughly half of the current U.S. capacity. Enhanced geothermal systems have a broad regional distribution in the United States, allowing the potential for development in many locations across the country.

  18. Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1990-03-01

    Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO[sub x] concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

  19. Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1990-03-01

    Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO{sub x} concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

  20. Geothermal Technologies Office FY 2016 Budget At-A-Glance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) accelerates the deployment of clean, domestic geothermal energy by supporting innovative technologies that reduce the cost and risks of development. This abundant resource generates energy around the clock and has the potential to supply more than 100 GWe of electricity-roughly one-tenth of America's energy demand. By optimizing the value stream for electricity production and cascaded uses, GTO aims to make geothermal energy a fully cost- competitive, widely

  1. Southern Ute Indian Tribe Solar Project Achieves Milestone | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Southern Ute Indian Tribe Solar Project Achieves Milestone Southern Ute Indian Tribe Solar Project Achieves Milestone January 11, 2016 - 10:30am Addthis Southern Ute Indian Tribe Solar Project Achieves Milestone The Southern Ute Indian Tribe has achieved a major milestone toward developing a roughly 1-megawatt solar photovoltaic (PV) system that will generate energy equivalent to a 15% offset of the total energy usage at about 10 tribally owned buildings on the Southern Ute Indian

  2. Statement of Steven Chu Secretary of Energy before the Committee on Science

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Technology | Department of Energy Science and Technology Statement of Steven Chu Secretary of Energy before the Committee on Science and Technology March 17, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis Chairman Gordon, Ranking Member Hall, and Members of the Committee, thank you for the opportunity to appear before you today to talk about new directions for energy research and development at the Department of Energy. Today, we import roughly 60 percent of our oil, draining resources from our economy and

  3. Tommy Rueckert

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Having run many marathons, Tommy Rueckert, Technical Project Officer for the SunShot Initiative, has also persevered to see the concentrating solar power (CSP) industry through some pretty rough times. Tommy has been working with DOE's CSP program since before it was the CSP program. When he started in April 1994, it was called solar thermal electric and was combined with biomass power and photovoltaics.

  4. Trace collection for simulation driven co-design of exascale platforms and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    codes | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Trace collection for simulation driven co-design of exascale platforms and codes PI Name: David Evensky PI Email: evensky@sandia.gov Institution: Sandia National Laboratories Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 5 Million Year: 2011 Research Domain: Computer Science A key problem facing application developers is that the exascale machines which they are targeting will not be available for roughly another seven years. Developers

  5. Van Andel Research Institute, Los Alamos National Laboratory to develop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    detailed computational model to study lung cancer Computational model to study lung cancer Van Andel Research Institute, Los Alamos National Laboratory to develop detailed computational model to study lung cancer Scientists are developing a new tool to better study one of the deadliest types of lung cancer. September 14, 2015 Even the most carefully crafted science projects starts with a rough brainstorm session. This whiteboard is from an early Los Alamos National Laboratory and Van Andel

  6. Laboratory Testing of Aerosol for Enclosure Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrington, C.; Modera, M.

    2012-05-01

    Space conditioning energy use can be significantly reduced by addressing uncontrolled infiltration and exfiltration through the envelope of a building. A process for improving the air tightness of a building envelope by sealing shell leaks with an aerosol sealing technology is presented. Both retrofit and new construction applications are possible through applying this process either in attics and crawlspaces or during rough-in stage.

  7. Airfoils for wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tangler, James L.; Somers, Dan M.

    1996-01-01

    Airfoils for the blade of a wind turbine wherein each airfoil is characterized by a thickness in a range from 16%-24% and a maximum lift coefficient designed to be largely insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoils include a family of airfoils for a blade 15 to 25 meters in length, a family of airfoils for a blade 1 to 5 meters in length, and a family of airfoils for a blade 5 to 10 meters in length.

  8. Airfoils for wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tangler, J.L.; Somers, D.M.

    1996-10-08

    Airfoils are disclosed for the blade of a wind turbine wherein each airfoil is characterized by a thickness in a range from 16%-24% and a maximum lift coefficient designed to be largely insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoils include a family of airfoils for a blade 15 to 25 meters in length, a family of airfoils for a blade 1 to 5 meters in length, and a family of airfoils for a blade 5 to 10 meters in length. 10 figs.

  9. Root region airfoil for wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tangler, J.L.; Somers, D.M.

    1995-05-23

    A thick airfoil is described for the root region of the blade of a wind turbine. The airfoil has a thickness in a range from 24%--26% and a Reynolds number in a range from 1,000,000 to 1,800,000. The airfoil has a maximum lift coefficient of 1.4--1.6 that has minimum sensitivity to roughness effects. 3 Figs.

  10. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    , 2016 [Facility News] Research Balloon Lost in Alaska Bookmark and Share A tethered balloon used for atmospheric measurements was being prepared July 27 at Oliktok Point, Alaska, when an unexpected gust of wind lifted the balloon and severed its tether cord. The balloon rose and drifted north across the Beaufort Sea, dropping to the sea roughly 60 km north of Oliktok. The balloon, which carried Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility equipment worth approximately

  11. Road to Fuel Savings: Ford, Magna Partnership Help Vehicles Shed the Pounds

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Ford, Magna Partnership Help Vehicles Shed the Pounds Road to Fuel Savings: Ford, Magna Partnership Help Vehicles Shed the Pounds August 20, 2014 - 1:08pm Addthis Pictured here is Ford's Lightweight Concept vehicle, a prototype that is nearly 25 percent lighter than an equivalent conventional vehicle. Using a mix of advanced materials, Ford -- in partnership with Magna International -- shaved about 800 pounds off the baseline vehicle, making a midsize sedan roughly the

  12. Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Mechanical Ventilation | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Mechanical Ventilation Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Mechanical Ventilation Mechanical Ventilation - Complete (22.2 MB) Lesson Plan: Mechanical Ventilation (222.33 KB) PowerPoint: Mechanical Ventilation (22.61 MB) More Documents & Publications Weatherization Installer/Technician Fundamentals 2.0 - Mechanical Ventilation Rough-In Guidelines Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Blower Door Basics Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Mobile Home

  13. 2014 Annual Report, Geothermal Technologies Office

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2015-03-01

    In 2014, the Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) made significant gains—increased budgets, new projects, key technology successes, and new staff. The Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 budget is at $55 million—roughly a 20% increase over FY 2014, and a strong vote of confidence in what the sector is doing to advance economically competitive renewable energy. GTO also remains committed to a balanced portfolio, which includes new hydrothermal development, EGS, and targeted opportunities in the low-temperature sector.

  14. Geothermal Technologies Office FY 2016 Budget At-A-Glance | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 6 Budget At-A-Glance Geothermal Technologies Office FY 2016 Budget At-A-Glance The Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) accelerates the deployment of clean, domestic geothermal energy by supporting innovative technologies that reduce the cost and risks of development. This abundant resource generates energy around the clock and has the potential to supply more than 100 GWe of electricity-roughly one-tenth of America's energy demand. By optimizing the value stream for electricity

  15. Geothermal Technologies Office FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy About Us » Geothermal Technologies Office FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance Geothermal Technologies Office FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance The Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) accelerates deployment of clean, domestic geothermal energy by supporting innovative technologies that reduce the cost and risks of development. This abundant resource generates energy around the clock and has the potential to supply more than 100 GWe of electricity-roughly one-tenth of America's energy demand. By

  16. JLab's YouTube Channel Attracts 100,000 Subscribers | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    JLab's YouTube Channel Attracts 100,000 Subscribers JLab's YouTube Channel Attracts 100,000 Subscribers In roughly six years, Jefferson Lab's YouTube channel has attracted 100,000 subscribers and has been viewed more than 30 million times. To celebrate this milestone, achieved on Feb. 8, Science Education posted an episode of Frostbite Theater, titled 100,000 Subscribers! (And some liquid nitrogen!). To mark the event, Frostbite Theater hosts Steve Gagnon, Science Education administrator, and

  17. Fast Ignition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fast ignition Fast Ignition Researchers Study Fast Ignition University of California at San Diego researchers participate in experiments on the Titan laser at LLNL's Jupiter Laser Facility to study fast ignition. The approach being taken by the National Ignition Facility to achieve thermonuclear ignition and burn is called the "central hot spot" scenario. This technique relies on simultaneous compression and ignition of a spherical fuel capsule in an implosion, roughly like in a diesel

  18. Cascadia Analysis | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PENNEL BUFFALO LITTLE KNIFE FRYBURG MONDAK PLEVNA LOOKOUT BUTTE E ELKHORN RANCH DICKINSON CADY CREEK MEDICINE POLE HILLS BICENTENNIAL ROOSEVELT BIG STICK ROUGH RIDER MONARCH TREE TOP LOOKOUT BUTTE BUCKHORN MEDORA FLAT TOP BUTTE ELAND DEMORES ASH COULEE WHISKEY JOE GAS CITY DAVIS CREEK WINDY RIDGE POKER JIM PLEVNA S KNUTSON STATE LINE BELL BEAR CREEK ELKHORN RANCH N PIERRE CREEK LONE BUTTE ZENITH MANNING SQUAW GAP AMOR STADIUM HEART S HILINE ASH MARY GAYLORD BULL CREEK HALEY SHORT PINE HILLS W

  19. Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.9 Low-Income Housing

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 Weatherization Population Facts - Roughly 25% of Federally eligible households move in and out of poverty "classification" each year. - The average income of Federally eligible households in FY 2005 was $16,264, based on RECS and Bureau of the Census' Current Population Survey (CPS) data. - States target the neediest, especially the elderly, persons with disabilities, and families with children. - Since the inception of the Weatherization Assistance Program in 1976, over 6.3 million

  20. About the Uniform Methods Project | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Initiatives & Projects » Uniform Methods Project » About the Uniform Methods Project About the Uniform Methods Project The Uniform Methods Project is developing measurement and verification protocols for determining energy savings for commonly implemented program measures. This work is being done through collaboration with energy efficiency program administrators, stakeholders, and EM&V consultants-including the firms that perform roughly 70% of the energy efficiency evaluations in

  1. Newsletter Jan draft 010512.pub

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Green Holidays Fuel Cell Lights Up Festivities at Secretary Chu's Holiday Party For the first time ever, DOE's annual holiday party featured lights powered by a clean, efficient fuel cell. The portable fuel cell, made by Trulite, generates roughly 150 watts of power and is a clean energy solution for recharging laptops, cell phones, and other everyday low-energy demand appliances. The use of a clean, renewable technology at DOE's headquarters was appreciated by DOE employees. "It's great to

  2. Overview of Various Socioeconomic Categories - Ann Sullivan | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Overview of Carbon Storage Research Overview of Carbon Storage Research The Carbon Storage Program is focused on ensuring the safe and permanent storage and/or utilization of CO2 captured from point sources. The Carbon Storage Program is focused on ensuring the safe and permanent storage and/or utilization of CO2 captured from point sources. Roughly one third of the United States' carbon emissions come from power plants and other large point sources, such as industrial facilities. The Carbon

  3. Inquiring Minds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Theory at Fermilab Roughly half of our understanding of the physical world comes from direct experiment, while the other half comes from the systematic, logical fomulation of the laws of nature known as theoretical physics. Our modern machines, from the radio and microwave oven to supercomputers and the Tevatron, rely upon the established theories of nature--the laws of electrodynamics, quantum physics and relativity--and their profound and arcane mathematics. Lattice Computer Farm Fermilab's

  4. ln 01-222-16.qxp_la02_02-20-04

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    driving force Sandia spent roughly $983 million on goods and ser- vices in fiscal year 2015, up nearly $21 million from the previous year, and New Mexico businesses received more than $381 million, or 39 percent of the total, according to the Labs' latest economic impact report. US small businesses received more than 52 percent of the available dollars, about $519 million in Sandia con- tracts, with the New Mexico share totaling $259 million, or 68 percent of the small business total. Compared

  5. THE WHITE HOUSE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency Action Plan Today, President Barack Obama and President Hu Jintao announced the launch of a new U.S.-China Energy Efficiency Action Plan to strengthen the economy, improve energy security and combat climate change by reducing energy waste in both countries. The United States and China consume over 40 percent of global energy resources, costing businesses and households in the two countries roughly $1.5 trillion per year. Working together to improve energy efficiency in

  6. Southwestern_Power_Administration

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Southern Ute Indian Tribe Solar Project Achieves Milestone Southern Ute Indian Tribe Solar Project Achieves Milestone January 11, 2016 - 10:30am Addthis Southern Ute Indian Tribe Solar Project Achieves Milestone The Southern Ute Indian Tribe has achieved a major milestone toward developing a roughly 1-megawatt solar photovoltaic (PV) system that will generate energy equivalent to a 15% offset of the total energy usage at about 10 tribally owned buildings on the Southern Ute Indian

  7. Carter Co. Harding Co. Perkins Co. Dunn Co. Dawson Co. Fallon Co.

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    PENNEL BUFFALO LITTLE KNIFE FRYBURG MONDAK PLEVNA LOOKOUT BUTTE E ELKHORN RANCH DICKINSON CADY CREEK MEDICINE POLE HILLS BICENTENNIAL ROOSEVELT BIG STICK ROUGH RIDER MONARCH TREE TOP LOOKOUT BUTTE BUCKHORN MEDORA FLAT TOP BUTTE ELAND DEMORES ASH COULEE WHISKEY JOE GAS CITY DAVIS CREEK WINDY RIDGE POKER JIM PLEVNA S KNUTSON STATE LINE BELL BEAR CREEK ELKHORN RANCH N PIERRE CREEK LONE BUTTE ZENITH MANNING SQUAW GAP AMOR STADIUM HEART S HILINE ASH MARY GAYLORD BULL CREEK HALEY SHORT PINE HILLS W

  8. Upcoming Funding Opportunity to Advance Low-Impact Hydropower Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    | Department of Energy 18, EERE's Water Power Program announced a Notice of Intent to issue a funding opportunity titled "Research and Development of Innovative Technologies for Low Impact Hydropower Development." This funding will support the research and development of new innovations in hydropower drivetrain and civil works technologies for low-impact hydropower development. While hydropower already supplies roughly 7% of America's electricity, and is the leading source of

  9. An Update on Radiative Transfer Model Development at Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Battery Manufacturing An Update on Advanced Battery Manufacturing October 16, 2012 - 9:41am Addthis Dan Leistikow Dan Leistikow Former Director, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? The advanced battery market is expanding dramatically in the U.S. and around the world -- from $5 billion in 2010 to nearly $50 billion in 2020, an average annual growth rate of roughly 25 percent. The Department of Energy, with strong bipartisan support, awarded $2 billion in grants to 29

  10. False negative rate and other performance measures of a sponge-wipe surface sampling method for low contaminant concentrations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einfeld, Wayne; Krauter, Paula A.; Boucher, Raymond M.; Tezak, Mathew; Amidan, Brett G.; Piepel, Greg F.

    2011-05-01

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces is known to vary due to sampling methodology, techniques, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. A series of tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge-wipe method. Specific factors evaluated were the effects of contaminant concentrations and surface materials on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD) - and the uncertainties of these quantities. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show a roughly linear dependence of surface roughness on RE, where the smoothest surfaces have the highest mean RE values. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3 x 10{sup -3} to 1.86 CFU/cm{sup 2}). The FNR data were consistent with RE data, showing a trend of smoother surfaces resulting in higher REs and lower FNRs. Stainless steel generally had the lowest mean FNR (0.123) and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD{sub 90} varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm{sup 2} on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. Selecting sampling locations on the basis of surface roughness and using roughness to interpret spore recovery data can improve sampling. Further, FNR values, calculated as a function of concentration and surface material, can be used pre-sampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance, and post-sampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

  11. Slow Neutron Velocity Spectrometer Transmission Studies Of Pu

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Havens, W. W. Jr.; Melkonian, E.; Rainwater, L. J.; Levin, M.

    1951-05-28

    The slow neutron transmission of several samples of Pu has been investigated with the Columbia Neutron Velocity Spectrometer. Data are presented in two groups, those covering the energy region from 0 to 6 ev, and those covering the region above 6 ev. Below 6 ev the resolution was relatively good, and a detailed study of the cross section variation was made. Work above 6 ev consisted of merely locating levels and obtaining a rough idea of their strengths.

  12. Criterion buys Akzo`s naphtha reforming catalysts business

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotman, D.

    1993-12-08

    In a move that further consolidates the refinery catalysts market, Criterion Catalyst (Houston) has bought Akzo`s reforming business for an undisclosed price. The acquisition gives Criterion-a joint venture between Shell and American Cyanamid-roughly 35% of the $50-million/year worldwide reforming market. Akzo says it is quitting the business to focus on larger refinery catalysts applications in hydroprocessing and fluid cracking catalysts.

  13. Diagnosis and therapy for a recalcitrant parylene coater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, J.M.; Rowen, J.T.

    1987-07-01

    An in-house built parylene coater produced coatings whose thicknesses varied 50% at the 1-..mu..m level, whose surfaces were rough and flapjacklike, and whose cross sections looked like foam. This paper details the product response to various equipment and operational changes. The systematic analysis showed that a balance of vacuum pressure and pyrolysis temperature is needed to produce good-quality coatings.

  14. Rapid Production of Methane Hydrates | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rapid Production of Methane Hydrates NETL Develops a Method for Rapidly Producing Methane Hydrates Natural gas, which is predominantly methane, is recognized as clean burning and an important bridge fuel to a future where renewable energy sources are more common. Natural gas currently accounts for nearly a quarter of the U.S. energy supply, and that share is expected to remain roughly constant over the next several decades. Energy demand during this time period is expected to continue growing,

  15. Small Fusion Could Be Huge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Deployment | Department of Energy Catalyst Finding Could Lead to Big Breakthrough for Fuel Cell Deployment Small Catalyst Finding Could Lead to Big Breakthrough for Fuel Cell Deployment April 29, 2014 - 3:02pm Addthis Researchers from the Energy Department's Berkeley and Argonne National Labs have developed a new class of fuel cell catalysts that uses roughly 85 percent less platinum and has more than 30 times the catalytic activity than conventional catalysts. The graphic above highlights

  16. Summer 2010 Internship Projects | Center for Energy Efficient Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Internship Projects Name Mentor Advisor Major Project Title Kenechukwu Akametalu Matthew Laurent Umesh Mishra Electrical and Computer Engineering Characterizing the Performance of InGaN-Based Solar Cells vs. Solar Flux Ali A. Al-Heji Robert M. Farrell James S. Speck Chemical Engineering Effect of Surface Roughness on the External Quantum Efficiency of InGaN-Based Solar Cells Garrett Brinkley Kristen Murphy Galen Stucky Biochemistry PH 9.5 Affect on Bacteriophage Binding to ZNO to Ultimately

  17. Water as a thermoacoustic working fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    This short report, addressed only to the thermoacoustic cognoscenti, discusses thermodynamic and transport properties of water with emphasis on water's virtues as a thermoacoustic working fluid. Short-stack-approximation calculations are presented, showing that water is a good working fluid. A very rough design for a sound source using water is also presented as a starting point for discussing the merits and difficulties of this technology. 4 figs.

  18. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MiniBooNE Ray Stefanski Fermilab August 29, 2010 7th International Workshop on Neutrino Beams and Instrumentation An overview of backgrounds & systematic effects; concentrating on interaction cross-section measurements Rough Outline a.) detector configuration b.)sources of systematic uncertainty b1.) flux b2.) x-sections b3.) reconstruction c.) MiniBooNE measurement d.) future August 29, 2010 7th International Workshop on Neutrino Beams and Instrumentation 2 per POT per POT second per pulses

  19. FBIS report. Science and technology: Central Eurasia, October 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-30

    ;Partial Contents: Presidential Decree on State Committee for Military-Technical Policy; Formulation and Implementation of State Scientific- Technical Policy Section V. Legislative Provisions; Ukrainian Academy of Sciences President on S&T Crisis; Missile Technologies Control Regime (MTCR) in Russia, United States and Ukraine; Yerevan Airport Reconstruction Benefits International Flights; Dynamics of 3-D Expansion of Vapor in Pulsed Laser Evaporation; Russian Nuclear Contact With Iran Opposed; Russian Nuclear Industry Experiences Rough Times, Tough Future; Russian Oil Company LUKoyl Restructures.

  20. Microdevice having interior cavity with high aspect ratio surface features and associated methods of manufacture and use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morales, Alfredo M.

    2002-01-01

    A microdevice having interior cavity with high aspect ratio features and ultrasmooth surfaces, and associated method of manufacture and use is described. An LIGA-produced shaped bit is used to contour polish the surface of a sacrificial mandrel. The contoured sacrificial mandrel is subsequently coated with a structural material and the mandrel removed to produce microdevices having micrometer-sized surface features and sub-micrometer RMS surface roughness.

  1. Method for surface treatment of a cadmium zinc telluride crystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, Ralph; Burger, Arnold; Chen, Kuo-Tong; Chang, Henry

    1999-01-01

    A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal that reduces surface roughness (increases surface planarity) and provides an oxide coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve resolution. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of lactic acid and bromine in ethylene glycol, following the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, oxidizing the CZT crystal surface.

  2. Method for surface treatment of a cadmium zinc telluride crystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, R.; Burger, A.; Chen, K.T.; Chang, H.

    1999-08-03

    A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal is disclosed that reduces surface roughness (increases surface planarity) and provides an oxide coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve resolution. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of lactic acid and bromine in ethylene glycol, following the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, oxidizing the CZT crystal surface. 3 figs.

  3. The phase topology of a special case of Goryachev integrability in rigid body dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryabov, P. E.

    2014-07-31

    The phase topology of a special case of Goryachev integrability in the problem of motion of a rigid body in a fluid is investigated using the method of Boolean functions, which was developed by Kharlamov for algebraically separated systems. The bifurcation diagram of the moment map is found and the Fomenko invariant, which classifies the systems up to rough Liouville equivalence, is specified. Bibliography: 15 titles. (paper)

  4. Wind Gains ground, hitting 33 GW of installed capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-15

    The U.S. currently has 33 GW of installed wind capacity. Wind continues to gain ground, accounting for 42 percent of new capacity additions in the US in 2008.Globally, there are now 146 GW of wind capacity with an impressive and sustained growth trajectory that promises to dominate new generation capacities in many developing countries. The U.S., however, lags many European countries, with wind providing roughly 2 percent of electricity generation.

  5. Precision translator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reedy, R.P.; Crawford, D.W.

    1982-03-09

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  6. In the OSTI Collections: Fission Theory | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scientific and Technical Information Fission Theory How do atoms split Interest in the details Macroscopic-microscopic approaches Microscopic approaches Improved theory and design References Additional References Research Organizations Reports available from OSTI's Information Bridge How do atoms split? The main influences on the splitting of atoms were understood in at least a rough way almost as soon as nuclear fission was discovered in 1938. An atom's nucleus is composed of two kinds of

  7. Modifying mixing and instability growth through the adjustment of initial conditions in a high-energy-density counter-propagating shear experiment on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merritt, E. C. Doss, F. W.; Loomis, E. N.; Flippo, K. A.; Kline, J. L.

    2015-06-15

    Counter-propagating shear experiments conducted at the OMEGA Laser Facility have been evaluating the effect of target initial conditions, specifically the characteristics of a tracer foil located at the shear boundary, on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability evolution and experiment transition toward nonlinearity and turbulence in the high-energy-density (HED) regime. Experiments are focused on both identifying and uncoupling the dependence of the model initial turbulent length scale in variable-density turbulence models of k-ϵ type on competing physical instability seed lengths as well as developing a path toward fully developed turbulent HED experiments. We present results from a series of experiments controllably and independently varying two initial types of scale lengths in the experiment: the thickness and surface roughness (surface perturbation scale spectrum) of a tracer layer at the shear interface. We show that decreasing the layer thickness and increasing the surface roughness both have the ability to increase the relative mixing in the system, and thus theoretically decrease the time required to begin transitioning to turbulence in the system. We also show that we can connect a change in observed mix width growth due to increased foil surface roughness to an analytically predicted change in model initial turbulent scale lengths.

  8. Experimental study of crack initiation and propagation in high- and gigacycle fatigue in titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannikov, Mikhail E-mail: oborin@icmm.ru Oborin, Vladimir E-mail: oborin@icmm.ru Naimark, Oleg E-mail: oborin@icmm.ru

    2014-11-14

    Fatigue (high- and gigacycle) crack initiation and its propagation in titanium alloys with coarse and fine grain structure are studied by fractography analysis of fracture surface. Fractured specimens were analyzed by interferometer microscope and SEM to improve methods of monitoring of damage accumulation during fatigue test and to verify the models for fatigue crack kinetics. Fatigue strength was estimated for high cycle fatigue regime using the Luong method [1] by “in-situ” infrared scanning of the sample surface for the step-wise loading history for different grain size metals. Fine grain alloys demonstrated higher fatigue resistance for both high cycle fatigue and gigacycle fatigue regimes. Fracture surface analysis for plane and cylindrical samples was carried out using optical and electronic microscopy method. High resolution profilometry (interferometer-profiler New View 5010) data of fracture surface roughness allowed us to estimate scale invariance (the Hurst exponent) and to establish the existence of two characteristic areas of damage localization (different values of the Hurst exponent). Area 1 with diameter ∼300 μm has the pronounced roughness and is associated with damage localization hotspot. Area 2 shows less amplitude roughness, occupies the rest fracture surface and considered as the trace of the fatigue crack path corresponding to the Paris kinetics.

  9. Electrolysis byproduct D2O provides a third way to mitigate CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenewerk, William Ernest

    2009-09-01

    Rapid atomic power deployment may be possible without using fast breeder reactors or making undue demands on uranium resource. Using by-product D2O and thorium-U233 in CANDU and RBMK piles may circumvent need for either fast breeder reactors or seawater uranium. Atmospheric CO2 is presently increasing 2.25%/year in proportion to 2.25%/year exponential fossil fuel consumption increase. Roughly 1/3 anthropologic CO2 is removed by various CO2 sinks. CO2 removal is modelled as being proportional to 45-year-earlier CO2 amount above 280 ppm-C Water electrolysis produces roughly 0.1 kg-D20/kWe-y. Material balance assumes each electrolysis stage increases D2O bottoms concentration times 3. Except for first two electrolysis stages, all water from hydrogen consumption is returned to electrolysis. The unique characteristic of this process is the ability to economically burn all deuterium-enriched H2 in vehicles. Condensate from vehicles returns to appropriate electrolysis stage. Fuel cell condensate originally from reformed natural gas may augment second-sage feed. Atomic power expansion is 5%/year, giving 55000 GWe by 2100. World primary energy increases 2.25%/y, exceeding 4000 EJ/y by 2100. CO2 maximum is roughly 600 ppm-C around year 2085. CO2 declines back below 300 ppm-C by 2145 if the 45-year-delay seawater sink remains effective.

  10. The SEMATECH Berkeley MET pushing EUV development beyond 22-nm half pitch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naulleau, P.; Anderson, C. N.; Backlea-an, L.-M.; Chan, D.; Denham, P.; George, S.; Goldberg, K. A.; Hoef, B.; Jones, G.; Koh, C.; La Fontaine, B.; McClinton, B.; Miyakawa, R.; Montgomery, W.; Rekawa, S.; Wallow, T.

    2010-03-18

    Microfield exposure tools (METs) play a crucial role in the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) resists and masks, One of these tools is the SEMATECH Berkeley 0.3 numerical aperture (NA) MET, Using conventional illumination this tool is limited to approximately 22-nm half pitch resolution. However, resolution enhancement techniques have been used to push the patterning capabilities of this tool to half pitches of 18 nm and below, This resolution was achieved in a new imageable hard mask which also supports contact printing down to 22 nm with conventional illumination. Along with resolution, line-edge roughness is another crucial hurdle facing EUV resists, Much of the resist LER, however, can be attributed to the mask. We have shown that intenssionally aggressive mask cleaning on an older generation mask causes correlated LER in photoresist to increase from 3.4 nm to 4,0 nm, We have also shown that new generation EUV masks (100 pm of substrate roughness) can achieve correlated LER values of 1.1 nm, a 3x improvement over the correlated LER of older generation EUV masks (230 pm of substrate roughness), Finally, a 0.5-NA MET has been proposed that will address the needs of EUV development at the 16-nm node and beyond, The tool will support an ultimate resolution of 8 nm half-pitch and generalized printing using conventional illumination down to 12 nm half pitch.

  11. Could crop height affect the wind resource at agriculturally productive wind farm sites?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2015-11-07

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length in a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. As a result, these considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.

  12. Superhydrophobic durable coating based on UV-photoreactive silica nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nahum, T.; Dodiuk, H.; Dotan, A.; Kenig, S.; Lellouche, J. P.

    2015-05-22

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with contact angle (CA) >150 and sliding angle (SA) <10 have been aroused curiosity over the years due to their various applications. Superhydrophobicity can be obtained tailoring the chemistry and the roughness of the surface, mimicking the Lotus flower. Most superhydrophobic surfaces based on secondary bonding lose their roughness in harsh conditions and are unsuitable for practical applications. Photoreactive SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) based on benzophenone (BP) can be a very effective tool for formation of reactive species that function as a molecular bridge by covalent bonding between the NP and any polymer matrix with C-C and C-H bonds. The present work focused on thermoset radiation curing urethane acrylate. Upon UV irradiation reactive excited nπ* triplet benzophenone species are formed and react through hydrogen abstraction to form ketyl radicals which interact with a radicals from the UV irradiated polymer matrix to yield covalent bonding. Roughness was achieved by dipping the substrate in SiO{sub 2}@BPs NPs dispersion followed by irradiation. Fluoroalkylsilane was used to obtain hydrophobic top layer. AFM nano manipulation was used to verify the immobilization of NPs. Evaluation of durability was made using air flow at 300 km/hr. Preliminary results indicate the formation of super hydrophobic surfaces (CA>150 and SA<10) with improved stability.

  13. Process for sensing defects on a smooth cylindrical interior surface in tubing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutton, G. Wayne

    1987-11-17

    The cylindrical interior surface of small diameter metal tubing is optically inspected to determine surface roughness by passing a slightly divergent light beam to illuminate the entire interior surface of the tubing. Impingement of the input light beam components on any rough spots on the interior surface generates forward and backward scattered radiation components. The forward scattered components can be measured by blocking direct and specular radiation components exiting the tubing while allowing the forward scattered radiation to travel past the blocking location. Collecting optics are employed to converge the forward scattered radiation onto a photodetector generating a signal indicative of surface roughness. In the back scattered mode, back scattered radiation exiting the tubing through the entrance opening is reflected 90.degree. by a beam splitter towards collecting optics and a photodetector. Alternatively, back scattered radiation can be transmitted through a fiber optic bundle towards the collecting optics. The input light beam can be supplied through a white light fiber optic bundle mounted coaxial with the first bundle.

  14. Process for sensing defects on a smooth cylindrical interior surface in tubing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutton, G.W.

    1987-11-17

    The cylindrical interior surface of small diameter metal tubing is optically inspected to determine surface roughness by passing a slightly divergent light beam to illuminate the entire interior surface of the tubing. Impingement of the input light beam components on any rough spots on the interior surface generates forward and backward scattered radiation components. The forward scattered components can be measured by blocking direct and specular radiation components exiting the tubing while allowing the forward scattered radiation to travel past the blocking location. Collecting optics are employed to converge the forward scattered radiation onto a photodetector generating a signal indicative of surface roughness. In the back scattered mode, back scattered radiation exiting the tubing through the entrance opening is reflected 90[degree] by a beam splitter towards collecting optics and a photodetector. Alternatively, back scattered radiation can be transmitted through a fiber optic bundle towards the collecting optics. The input light beam can be supplied through a white light fiber optic bundle mounted coaxial with the first bundle. 6 figs.

  15. Process and apparatus for sensing defects on a smooth cylindrical surface in tubing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutton, G.W.

    1985-08-05

    The cylindrical interior surface of small diameter metal tubing is optically inspected to determine surface roughness by passing a slightly divergent light beam to illuminate the entire interior surface of the tubing. Impingement of the input light beam components on any rough spots on the interior surface generates forward and backward scattered radiation components. The forward scattered components can be measured by blocking direct and specular radiation components exiting the tubing while allowing the forward scattered radiation to travel past the blocking location. Collecting optics are employed to converge the forward scattered radiation onto a photodetector generating a signal indicative of surface roughness. In the back scattered mode, back scattered radiation exiting the tubing through the entrance opening is reflected 90/sup 0/ by a beam splitter towards collecting optics and a photodetector. Alternatively, back scattered radiation can be transmitted through a fiber optic bundle towards the collecting optics. The input light beam can be supplied through a white light fiber optic bundle mounted coaxial with the first bundle.

  16. Modifying mixing and instability growth through the adjustment of initial conditions in a high-energy-density counter-propagating shear experiment on OMEGA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Merritt, E. C.; Doss, F. W.; Loomis, E. N.; Flippo, K. A.; Kline, J. L.

    2015-06-24

    Counter-propagating shear experiments conducted at the OMEGA Laser Facility have been evaluating the effect of target initial conditions, specifically the characteristics of a tracer foil located at the shear boundary, on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability evolution and experiment transition toward nonlinearity and turbulence in the high-energy-density (HED) regime. Experiments are focused on both identifying and uncoupling the dependence of the model initial turbulent length scale in variable-density turbulence models of k-ϵ type on competing physical instability seed lengths as well as developing a path toward fully developed turbulent HED experiments. We present results from a series of experiments controllably and independently varyingmore » two initial types of scale lengths in the experiment: the thickness and surface roughness (surface perturbation scale spectrum) of a tracer layer at the shear interface. We show that decreasing the layer thickness and increasing the surface roughness both have the ability to increase the relative mixing in the system, and thus theoretically decrease the time required to begin transitioning to turbulence in the system. In addition, we also show that we can connect a change in observed mix width growth due to increased foil surface roughness to an analytically predicted change in model initial turbulent scale lengths.« less

  17. Outcomes in Patients Treated With Mastectomy for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owen, Dawn; Tyldesley, Scott; Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit of the British Columbia Cancer Agency and University of British Columbia, Vancouver and Victoria, British Columbia ; Alexander, Cheryl; Speers, Caroline; Truong, Pauline; Nichol, Alan; Wai, Elaine S.; Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit of the British Columbia Cancer Agency and University of British Columbia, Vancouver and Victoria, British Columbia

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To examine, in a large, population-based cohort of women, the risk factors for recurrence after mastectomy for pure ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and to identify which patients may benefit from postmastectomy radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Data were analyzed for 637 subjects with pure DCIS, diagnosed between January 1990 and December 1999, treated initially with mastectomy. Locoregional relapse (LRR), breast cancer-specific survival, and overall survival were described using the Kaplan-Meier method. Reported risk factors for LRR (age, margins, size, Van Nuys Prognostic Index, grade, necrosis, and histologic subtype) were analyzed by univariate (log-rank) and multivariate (Cox modeling) methods. Results: Median follow-up was 12.0 years. Characteristics of the cohort were median age 55 years, 8.6% aged ?40 years, 30.5% tumors >4 cm, 42.5% grade 3 histology, 37.7% multifocal disease, and 4.9% positive margins. At 10 years, LRR was 1.0%, breast cancer-specific survival was 98.0%, and overall survival was 90.3%. All recurrences (n=12) involved ipsilateral chest wall disease, with the majority being invasive disease (11 of 12). None of the 12 patients with recurrence died of breast cancer; all were successfully salvaged (median follow-up of 4.4 years). Ten-year LRR was higher with age ?40 years (7.5% vs 1.5%; P=.003). Conclusion: Mastectomy provides excellent locoregional control for DCIS. Routine use of postmastectomy radiation therapy is not justified. Young age (?40 years) predicts slightly higher LRR, but possibly owing to the small number of cases with multiple risk factors for relapse, a subgroup with a high risk of LRR (ie, approximately 15%) was not identified.

  18. Development of a Markerless Genetic Exchange System in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and Its Use in Generating a Strain with Increased Transformation Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Kimberly L.; Bender, Kelly S.; Wall, Judy D.

    2009-07-21

    In recent years, the genetic manipulation of the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough has seen enormous progress. In spite of this progress, the current marker exchange deletion method does not allow for easy selection of multiple sequential gene deletions in a single strain because of the limited number of selectable markers available in D. vulgaris. To broaden the repertoire of genetic tools for manipulation, an in-frame, markerless deletion system has been developed. The counterselectable marker that makes this deletion system possible is the pyrimidine salvage enzyme, uracil phosphoribosyltransferase, encoded by upp. In wild-type D. vulgaris, growth was shown to be inhibited by the toxic pyrimidine analog 5-fluorouracil (5-FU); whereas, a mutant bearing a deletion of the upp gene was resistant to 5-FU. When a plasmid containing the wild-type upp gene expressed constitutively from the aph(3')-II promoter (promoter for the kanamycin resistance gene in Tn5) was introduced into the upp deletion strain, sensitivity to 5-FU was restored. This observation allowed us to develop a two-step integration and excision strategy for the deletion of genes of interest. Since this inframe deletion strategy does not retain an antibiotic cassette, multiple deletions can be generated in a single strain without the accumulation of genes conferring antibiotic resistances. We used this strategy to generate a deletion strain lacking the endonuclease (hsdR, DVU1703) of a type I restriction-modification system, that we designated JW7035. The transformation efficiency of the JW7035 strain was found to be 100 to 1000 times greater than that of the wild-type strain when stable plasmids were introduced via electroporation.

  19. Decision Analysis of Stereotactic Radiation Surgery Versus Stereotactic Radiation Surgery and Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy for 1 to 3 Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lester-Coll, Nataniel H.; Dosoretz, Arie P.; Yu, James B.

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: Although whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is effective for controlling intracranial disease, it is also associated with neurocognitive side effects. It is unclear whether a theoretically improved quality of life after stereotactic radiation surgery (SRS) alone relative to that after SRS with adjuvant WBRT would justify the omission of WBRT, given the higher risk of intracranial failure. This study compares SRS alone with SRS and WBRT, to evaluate the theoretical benefits of intracranial tumor control with adjuvant WBRT against its possible side effects, using quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) as a primary endpoint. Methods and Materials: A Markov decision analysis model was used to compare QALE in a cohort of patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases and Karnofsky performance status of at least 70. Patients were treated with SRS alone or with SRS immediately followed by WBRT. Patients treated with SRS alone underwent surveillance magnetic resonance imaging and received salvage WBRT if they developed intracranial relapse. All patients whose cancer relapsed after WBRT underwent simulation as dying of intracranial progression. Model parameters were estimated from published literature. Results: Treatment with SRS yielded 6.2 quality-adjusted life months (QALMs). The addition of initial WBRT reduced QALE by 1.2 QALMs. On one-way sensitivity analysis, the model was sensitive only to a single parameter, the utility associated with the state of no evidence of disease after SRS alone. At values greater than 0.51, SRS alone was preferred. Conclusions: In general, SRS alone is suggested to have improved quality of life in patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases compared to SRS and immediate WBRT. Our results suggest that immediate treatment with WBRT after SRS can be reserved for patients who would have a poor performance status regardless of treatment. These findings are stable under a wide range of assumptions.

  20. Techno-economic analysis of renewable energy source options for a district heating project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghafghazi, S.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Melin, Staffan

    2009-09-01

    With the increased interest in exploiting renewable energy sources for district heating applications, the economic comparison of viable options has been considered as an important step in making a sound decision. In this paper, the economic performance of several energy options for a district heating system in Vancouver, British Columbia, is studied. The considered district heating system includes a 10 MW peaking/ backup natural gas boiler to provide about 40% of the annual energy requirement and a 2.5 MW base-load system. The energy options for the base-load system include: wood pellet, sewer heat, and geothermal heat. Present values of initial and operating costs of each system were calculated over 25-year service life of the systems, considering depreciation and salvage as a negative cost item. It was shown that the wood pellet heat producing technologies provided less expensive energy followed by the sewer heat recovery, geothermal and natural gas systems. Among wood pellet technologies, the grate burner was a less expensive option than powder and gasifier technologies. It was found that using natural gas as a fuel source for the peaking/backup system accounted for more than 40% of the heat production cost for the considered district heating center. This is mainly due to the high natural gas prices which cause high operating costs over the service life of the district heating system. Variations in several economic inputs did not change the ranking of the technology options in the sensitivity analysis. However, it was found that the results were more sensitive to changes in operating costs of the system than changes in initial investment. It is economical to utilize wood pellet boilers to provide the base-load energy requirement of district heating systems Moreover, the current business approach to use natural gas systems for peaking and backup in district heating systems could increase the cost of heat production significantly.

  1. The US Geological Survey-Bureau of Land Management cultural resources program in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, 1977-1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, E.S. Jr.; Gal, R.

    1989-01-01

    Utilization of northern Alaska's riches long predates the recent oil exploration program in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). Though the earliest known archaeological site in the reserve dates back only 7600 yr, most archaeologists believe human groups first occupied the area at least 4000 yr earlier. The as-yet-undiscovered physical remains left behind by these first inhabitants of the area, as well as the known and unknown traces of the peoples who succeeded them through time, constitute the cultural resources of the NPRA. First among the laws protecting cultural resources is the Antiquities Act of 1906, which provides for the establishment of national monuments by Presidential proclamation, sets up a permit system for the scientific investigation of cultural resources on Federal land, and details penalities for unauthorized disturbance of archaeological remains. The Archaeological and Historic Preservation Act of 1974, which extended the earlier Reservoir Salvage Act of 1960, authorizes funds for the preservation of historical and archaeological data that otherwise might be lost through any Federal construction project or federally licensed or assisted activity or program. The National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 established the National Register of Historic Places and a National Advisory Council to assist all Federal agencies in evaluating the effects of their actions on properties included, or eligible for inclusion, in the National Register. Finally, Executive Order 11593 of May 13, 1971, requires all Federal agencies to inventory cultural resources on lands they manage or affect in order to determine eligibility for the National Register, and to use due caution in regard to those resources until the inventory, evaluation, and nomination processes are completed. The oil exploration program in the NPRA is subject to this body of law for cultural resource protection.

  2. Berkeley Lab to Help Build Straw Bale Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worsham, S.A.; Van Mechelen, G.

    1998-12-01

    The Shorebird Environmental Learning Center (SELC) is a new straw bale building that will showcase current and future technologies and techniques that will reduce the environmental impacts of building construction and operations. The building will also serve as a living laboratory to test systems and monitor their performance. The project will be the model for a building process that stops using our precious resources and reduces waste pollution. The rice straw that will be used for the bale construction is generally waste material that is typically burned--millions of tons of it a year--especially in California's San Joaquin Valley. Buildings have significant impacts on the overall environment. Building operations, including lighting, heating, and cooling, consume about 30% of the energy used in the United States. Building construction and the processes into making building materials consume an additional 8% of total energy. Construction also accounts for 39% of wood consumed in the U S, while 25% of solid waste volume is construction and demolition (C &D) debris. The SELC will incorporate a variety of materials and techniques that will address these and other issues, while providing a model of environmentally considered design for Bay Area residents and builders. Environmental considerations include energy use in construction and operations, selection of materials, waste minimization, and indoor air quality. We have developed five major environmental goals for this project: (1) Minimize energy use in construction and operations; (2) Employ material sources that are renewable, salvaged, recycled, and/or recyclable; (3) Increase building lifespan with durable materials and designs that permit flexibility and modification with minimal demolition; (4) Reduce and strive to eliminate construction debris; and (5) Avoid products that create toxic pollutants and make a healthy indoor environment.

  3. Ames Laboratory annual site environmental report, calendar year 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-04-01

    This report summarizes the environmental status of Ames Laboratory for calendar year 1996. It includes descriptions of the Laboratory site, its mission, the status of its compliance with applicable environmental regulations, its planning and activities to maintain compliance, and a comprehensive review of its environmental protection, surveillance and monitoring programs. Ames Laboratory is located on the campus of Iowa State University (ISU) and occupies twelve buildings owned by the Department of Energy (DOE). The Laboratory also leases space in ISU owned buildings. Laboratory activities involve less than ten percent of the total chemical use and approximately one percent of the radioisotope use on the ISU campus. In 1996, the Office of Assurance and Assessment merged with the Environment, Safety and Health Group forming the Environment, Safety, Health and Assurance (ESH and A) office. In 1996, the Laboratory accumulated and disposed of wastes under US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued generator numbers. Ames Laboratory submitted a Proposed Site Treatment Plan to EPA in December 1995. This plan complied with the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA). It was approved by EPA in January 1996. The consent agreement/consent order was issued in February 1996. Pollution awareness, waste minimization and recycling programs, implemented in 1990 and updated in 1994, continued through 1996. Included in these efforts were a waste white paper and green computer paper recycling program. Ames Laboratory also continued to recycle salvageable metal and used oil, and it recovered freon for recycling. All of the chemical and nearly all of the radiological legacy wastes were properly disposed by the end of 1996. Additional radiological legacy waste will be properly disposed during 1997.

  4. One Year Clinical Outcomes of Renal Artery Stenting: The Results of ODORI Registry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sapoval, M.; Tamari, I.; Goffette, P.; Downes, M.; Senechal, Q.; Fanelli, F.; Reimer, P.; Negaiwi, Z.; Cassin, P. De; Heye, S.; Korobov, V.; Tsetis, D.; Abada, H.

    2010-06-15

    The safety, efficacy and long term clinical benefits of renal artery revascularization by stenting are still a matter of debate. The aim of our study was to define the safety and efficacy of renal artery stenting with the Tsunami peripheral stent (Terumo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). The ODORI was a prospective, multicentre registry which enrolled 251 consecutive patients, (276 renal arteries) in 36 centres across Europe. The primary endpoint was acute procedural success defined as <30% residual stenosis after stent placement. Secondary endpoints included major adverse events, blood pressure control, serum creatinine level, and target lesion revascularization (TLR) at 6 and 12 months. Patients were 70 {+-} 10 years old, 59% were male, 33% had diabetes, and 96% hypertension. The main indications for renal stent implantation were hypertension in 83% and renal salvage in 39%. Direct stent implantation was performed in 76% of the cases. Acute success rate was 100% with residual stenosis of 2.5 {+-} 5.4%. Systolic/diastolic blood pressure decreased from a mean of 171/89 at baseline to 142/78 mmHg at 6 months (p < 0.0001 vs. baseline), and 141/80 mmHg at 12 months (p < 0.0001 vs. baseline). Mean serum creatinine concentration did not change significantly in the total population. However, there was significant improvement in the highest tercile (from 283 {mu}mol/l at baseline to 205 and 209 {mu}mol/l at 6 and 12 months respectively). At 12-months, rates of restenosis and TLR were 6.6 and 0.8% respectively. The 12 month cumulative rate of all major clinical adverse events was 6.4% while the rate of device or procedure related events was 2.4%. In hypertensive patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis Tsunami peripheral balloon-expandable stent provides a safe revascularization strategy, with a potential beneficial impact on hypertension control and renal function in the highest risk patients.

  5. Endovascular Treatment of Active Splenic Bleeding After Colonoscopy: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corcillo, Antonella; Aellen, Steve Zingg, Tobias; Bize, Pierre; Demartines, Nicolas; Denys, Alban

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Colonoscopy is reported to be a safe procedure that is routinely performed for the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal diseases. Splenic rupture is considered to be a rare complication with high mortality and morbidity that requires immediate diagnosis and management. Nonoperative management (NOM), surgical treatment (ST), and, more recently, proximal splenic artery embolization (PSAE) have been proposed as treatment options. The goal of this study was to assess whether PSAE is safe even in high-grade ruptures. Methods: We report two rare cases of post colonoscopy splenic rupture. A systematic review of the literature from 2002 to 2010 (first reported case of PSAE) was performed and the three types of treatment compared. Results: All patients reviewed (77 of 77) presented with intraperitoneal hemorrhage due to isolated splenic trauma. Splenic rupture was high-grade in most patients when grading was possible. Six of 77 patients (7.8 %) were treated with PSAE, including the 2 cases reported herein. Fifty-seven patients (74 %) underwent ST. NOM was attempted first in 25 patients with a high failure rate (11 of 25 [44 %]) and requiring a salvage procedure, such as PSAE or ST. Previous surgery (31 of 59 patients), adhesions (10 of 13), diagnostic colonoscopies (49 of 71), previous biopsies or polypectomies (31 of 57) and female sex (56 of 77) were identified as risk factors. In contrast, splenomegaly (0 of 77 patients), medications that increase the risk of bleeding (13 of 30) and difficult colonoscopies (16 of 51) were not identified as risk factors. PSAE was safe and effective even in elderly patients with comorbidities and those taking medications that increase the risk of bleeding, and the length of the hospital stay was similar to that after ST. Conclusion: We propose a treatment algorithm based on clinical and radiological criteria. Because of the high failure rate after NOM, PSAE should be the treatment of choice to manage grade I through IV splenic

  6. Proton Beam Therapy Versus Conformal Photon Radiation Therapy for Childhood Craniopharyngioma: Multi-institutional Analysis of Outcomes, Cyst Dynamics, and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, Andrew J.; Greenfield, Brad; Mahajan, Anita; Paulino, Arnold C.; Okcu, M. Fatih; Allen, Pamela K.; Chintagumpala, Murali; Kahalley, Lisa S.; McAleer, Mary F.; McGovern, Susan L.; Whitehead, William E.; Grosshans, David R.

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: We compared proton beam therapy (PBT) with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for pediatric craniopharyngioma in terms of disease control, cyst dynamics, and toxicity. Methods and Materials: We reviewed records from 52 children treated with PBT (n=21) or IMRT (n=31) at 2 institutions from 1996-2012. Endpoints were overall survival (OS), disease control, cyst dynamics, and toxicity. Results: At 59.6 months' median follow-up (PBT 33 mo vs IMRT 106 mo; P<.001), the 3-year outcomes were 96% for OS, 95% for nodular failure-free survival and 76% for cystic failure-free survival. Neither OS nor disease control differed between treatment groups (OS P=.742; nodular failure-free survival P=.546; cystic failure-free survival P=.994). During therapy, 40% of patients had cyst growth (20% requiring intervention); immediately after therapy, 17 patients (33%) had cyst growth (transient in 14), more commonly in the IMRT group (42% vs 19% PBT; P=.082); and 27% experienced late cyst growth (32% IMRT, 19% PBT; P=.353), with intervention required in 40%. Toxicity did not differ between groups. On multivariate analysis, cyst growth was related to visual and hypothalamic toxicity (P=.009 and .04, respectively). Patients given radiation as salvage therapy (for recurrence) rather than adjuvant therapy had higher rates of visual and endocrine (P=.017 and .024, respectively) dysfunction. Conclusions: Survival and disease-control outcomes were equivalent for PBT and IMRT. Cyst growth is common, unpredictable, and should be followed during and after therapy, because it contributes to late toxicity. Delaying radiation therapy until recurrence may result in worse visual and endocrine function.

  7. Clinical Outcome Following Infra-Inguinal Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasy for Critical Limb Ischemia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsagas, Miltiadis I.; Rivera, Marco A.; Tran, Tan; Mitchell, Adam; Robless, Peter; Davies, Alun H.; Geroulakos, George

    2003-06-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and durability of infra-inguinal PTA in patients with CLI, in terms of clinical outcome. Design:Retrospective study of 50 consecutive patients with CLI that were exclusively treated by infra-inguinal PTA. Methods: The indications for intervention were rest pain in seven (14%) patients,non-healing ulcers in 27 (54%), and gangrenous lesions in 16 (32%).Thirty-three (66%) of these patients presented with a single arterial lesion, and the remaining 17 (34%) with multilevel arterial lesions.Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess survival, patency,limb-salvage rates, and amputation-free survival. Results: A total of 67 endovascular procedures were performed and 59 (88.1%) of them were considered to be technically successful. The median follow-up period was 12 months (interquartilerange: 17 months). The 30-day mortality was 4%, while the cumulative survival rates at 12, 24, and 36 months were 73%, 67%, and 59%,respectively. The cumulative primary patency rates at 12 and 24 months were 63% and 52%, respectively, and remained unchanged thereafter.The estimated secondary patency rate was 72% at 36 months. There was only one below-knee amputation in the patients that were treated exclusively with infra-inguinal PTA. The cumulative amputation-free survival at the same period was estimated at 60%. Conclusions: Infra-inguinal PTA had a good early and late outcome in this series of patients with a limited life expectancy.These results are comparable to historical results of surgical revascularization in the treatment of CLI. There is need for a randomized study to determine the primary optimal interventional approach for patients with CLI.

  8. Single-Institution Experience in the Treatment of Primary Mediastinal B Cell Lymphoma Treated With Immunochemotherapy in the Setting of Response Assessment by {sup 18}Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Ahmed, Mohamed Amin; Costelloe, Colleen; Wogan, Christine F.; Reed, Valerie; Romaguera, Jorge E.; Neelapu, Sattva; Oki, Yasuhiro; Fayad, Luis; Hagemeister, Frederick B.; Nastoupil, Loretta; Turturro, Francesco; Fowler, Nathan; Fanale, Michelle A.; and others

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Excellent outcomes obtained after infusional dose-adjusted etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, and rituximab (R-EPOCH) alone have led some to question the role of consolidative radiation therapy (RT) in the treatment of primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBL). We reviewed the outcomes in patients treated with 1 of 3 rituximab-containing regimens (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone [R-CHOP]; hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone [R-HCVAD], or R-EPOCH) with or without RT. We also evaluated the ability of positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET-CT) to identify patients at risk of relapse. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified 97 patients with diagnoses of stage I/II PMBCL treated at our institution between 2001 and 2013. The clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes, and toxicity were assessed. We analyzed whether postchemotherapy PET-CT could identify patients at risk for progressive disease according to a 5 point scale (5PS) Deauville score assigned. Results: Among 97 patients (median follow-up time, 57 months), the 5-year overall survival rate was 99%. Of patients treated with R-CHOP, 99% received RT; R-HCVAD, 82%; and R-EPOCH, 36%. Of 68 patients with evaluable end-of-chemotherapy PET-CT scans, 62% had a positive scan (avidity above that of the mediastinal blood pool [Deauville 5PS = 3]), but only 9 patients experienced relapse (n=1) or progressive disease (n=8), all with a 5PS of 4 to 5. Of the 25 patients who received R-EPOCH, 4 experienced progression, all with 5PS of 4 to 5; salvage therapy (RT and autologous stem cell transplantation) was successful in all cases. Conclusion: Combined modality immunochemotherapy and RT is well tolerated and effective for treatment of PMBCL. A postchemotherapy 5PS of 4 to 5, rather than 3 to 5, can identify patients at high risk of progression who should be considered for therapy beyond

  9. Celiac Node Failure Patterns After Definitive Chemoradiation for Esophageal Cancer in the Modern Era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amini, Arya; Xiao Lianchun; Allen, Pamela K.; Suzuki, Akihiro; Hayashi, Yuki; Liao, Zhongxing; Hofstetter, Wayne; Crane, Christopher; Komaki, Ritsuko; Bhutani, Manoop S.; Lee, Jeffrey H.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Welsh, James

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: The celiac lymph node axis acts as a gateway for metastatic systemic spread. The need for prophylactic celiac nodal coverage in chemoradiation therapy for esophageal cancer is controversial. Given the improved ability to evaluate lymph node status before treatment via positron emission tomography (PET) and endoscopic ultrasound, we hypothesized that prophylactic celiac node irradiation may not be needed for patients with localized esophageal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the radiation treatment volumes for 131 patients who underwent definitive chemoradiation for esophageal cancer. Patients with celiac lymph node involvement at baseline were excluded. Median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy. The location of all celiac node failures was compared with the radiation treatment plan to determine whether the failures occurred within or outside the radiation treatment field. Results: At a median follow-up time of 52.6 months (95% CI 46.1-56.7 months), 6 of 60 patients (10%) without celiac node coverage had celiac nodal failure; in 5 of these patients, the failures represented the first site of recurrence. Of the 71 patients who had celiac coverage, only 5 patients (7%) had celiac region relapse. In multivariate analyses, having a pretreatment-to-post-treatment change in standardized uptake value on PET >52% (odds ratio [OR] 0.198, p = 0.0327) and having failure in the clinical target volume (OR 10.72, p = 0.001) were associated with risk of celiac region relapse. Of those without celiac coverage, the 6 patients that later developed celiac failure had a worse median overall survival time compared with the other 54 patients who did not fail (median overall survival time: 16.5 months vs. 31.5 months, p = 0.041). Acute and late toxicities were similar in both groups. Conclusions: Although celiac lymph node failures occur in approximately 1 of 10 patients, the lack of effective salvage treatments and subsequent low morbidity may justify prophylactic treatment

  10. The reapplication of energetic materials as boiler fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, S.G.; Sclippa, G.C.; Ross, J.R.

    1997-02-01

    Decommissioning of weapons stockpiles, off-specification production, and upgrading of weapons systems results in a large amount of energetic materials (EM) such as rocket propellant and primary explosives that need to be recycled or disposed of each year. Presently, large quantities of EM are disposed of in a process known as open-burn/open-detonation (OB/OD), which not only wastes their energy content, but may release large quantities of hazardous material into the environment. Here the authors investigate the combustion properties of several types of EM to determine the feasibility of reapplication of these materials as boiler fuels, a process that could salvage the energy content of the EM as well as mitigate any potential adverse environmental impact. Reapplication requires pretreatment of the fuels to make them safe to handle and to feed. Double-base nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin, trinitrotoluene (TNT), nitroguanidine, and a rocket propellant binder primarily composed of polybutidiene impregnated with aluminum flakes have been burned in a 100-kW downfired flow reactor. Most of these fuels have high levels of fuel-bound nitrogen, much of it bound in the form of nitrate groups, resulting in high NO{sub x} emissions during combustion. The authors have measured fuel-bound nitrate conversion efficiencies to NO{sub x} of up to 80%, suggesting that the nitrate groups do not follow the typical path of fuel nitrogen through HCN leading to NO{sub x}, but rather form NO{sub x} directly. They show that staged combustion is effective in reducing NO{sub x} concentrations in the postcombustion gases by nearly a factor of 3. In the rocket binder, measured aluminum particle temperatures in excess of 1700{degrees}C create high levels of thermal NO{sub x}, and also generate concern that molten aluminum particles could potentially damage boiler equipment. Judicious selection of the firing method is thus required for aluminum-containing materials.

  11. Feasibility of methods and systems for reducng LNG tanker fire hazards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    In this program concepts for reducing fire hazards that may result from LNG tanker collisions are identified and their technical feasibility evaluated. Concepts considered include modifications to the shipborne LNG containers so that in the event of a container rupture less of the contents would spill and/or the contents would spill at a reduced rate. Changes in the cargo itself, including making the LNG into a gel, solidifying it, converting it to methanol, and adding flame suppressants are also evaluated. The relative effectiveness and the costs of implementing these methods in terms of increased cost of gas at the receiving terminal, are explained. The vulnerability of an LNG tanker and its crew to the thermal effects of a large pool fire caused by a collision spill is estimated and methods of protecting the crew are considered. It is shown that the protection of ship and crew so that further deterioration of a damaged ship might be ameliorated, would require the design and installation of extraordinary insulation systems and life support assistance for the crew. Methods of salvaging or disposing of cargo from a damaged and disabled ship are evaluated, and it is concluded that if the cargo cannot be transferred to another (empty) LNG tanker because of lack of availability, then the burning of the cargo at a location somewhat distant from the disabled tanker appears to be a promising approach. Finally, the likelihood of the vapors from a spill being ignited due to the frictional impact of the colliding ships was examined. It is found that the heating of metal sufficient to ignite flammable vapors would occur during a collision, but it is questionable whether flammable vapor and air will, in fact, come in contact with the hot metal surfaces.

  12. Symptomatic Outcomes in Relation to Tumor Expansion After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for Vestibular Schwannomas: Single-Institutional Long-Term Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aoyama, Hidefumi; Department of Radiology, Division of Radiation Oncology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata ; Onodera, Shunsuke; Takeichi, Norihito; Onimaru, Rikiya; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Sawamura, Yutaka; Shirato, Hiroki

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: The effect of transient tumor expansion after conventionally fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) on the symptomatic outcomes is not well-known. Methods and Materials: This study enrolled 201 consecutive patients who received SRT for vestibular schwannoma. A conventional fractionation schedule was applied in 194 patients (97%), and 142 (71%) received a total dose of 50 Gy. The median follow-up time was 72 months. Results: The maximum diameter was 9 mm or less in 13 patients, 10-19 mm in 79 patients, 20-29 mm in 87 patients, and 30 mm or greater in 22 patients. At presentation, tumor size of 20 mm or greater was significantly associated with loss of serviceable hearing and trigeminal neuropathy. After SRT, tumor expansion was observed in 42 patients (21%). By tumor size, tumor expansion was observed in 0%, 11.4%, 25.6%, and 50% of patients with tumors of 9 mm or less, 10-19 mm, 20-29 mm, and 30 mm or greater, respectively, in diameter. The tumor expansion was significantly associated with an increased risk of hydrocephalus requiring shunt placement (P=.004), loss of serviceable hearing (P=.0064), and worsening of facial (P<.0001) and trigeminal nerve (P<.0001) functions. Spontaneous tumor shrinkage was observed in 29 of those 42 patients, mostly within 2 years after the expansion, and the majority of the worsened symptoms except for hearing resolved once the tumor had shrunk. As a result, salvage surgical resection for symptomatic relief was required in only 5% of patients. Conclusions: Fractionated SRT could be safely applied even for medium- to large-sized ({>=}20 mm) tumors. However, greater knowledge of the risks and consequences, including transient symptomatic worsening, and the time span of expansion will be required for the follow-up of patients after SRT to avoid unnecessary surgical intervention.

  13. Sub-discretized surface model with application to contact mechanics in multi-body simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, S; Williams, J

    2008-02-28

    The mechanics of contact between rough and imperfectly spherical adhesive powder grains are often complicated by a variety of factors, including several which vary over sub-grain length scales. These include several traction factors that vary spatially over the surface of the individual grains, including high energy electron and acceptor sites (electrostatic), hydrophobic and hydrophilic sites (electrostatic and capillary), surface energy (general adhesion), geometry (van der Waals and mechanical), and elasto-plastic deformation (mechanical). For mechanical deformation and reaction, coupled motions, such as twisting with bending and sliding, as well as surface roughness add an asymmetry to the contact force which invalidates assumptions for popular models of contact, such as the Hertzian and its derivatives, for the non-adhesive case, and the JKR and DMT models for adhesive contacts. Though several contact laws have been offered to ameliorate these drawbacks, they are often constrained to particular loading paths (most often normal loading) and are relatively complicated for computational implementation. This paper offers a simple and general computational method for augmenting contact law predictions in multi-body simulations through characterization of the contact surfaces using a hierarchically-defined surface sub-discretization. For the case of adhesive contact between powder grains in low stress regimes, this technique can allow a variety of existing contact laws to be resolved across scales, allowing for moments and torques about the contact area as well as normal and tangential tractions to be resolved. This is especially useful for multi-body simulation applications where the modeler desires statistical distributions and calibration for parameters in contact laws commonly used for resolving near-surface contact mechanics. The approach is verified against analytical results for the case of rough, elastic spheres.

  14. Atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of the morphology and chemistry of a PdCl{sub 2}/SnCl{sub 2} electroless plating catalysis system adsorbed onto shape memory alloy particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvain, J.F.; Fouassier, O.; Lescaux, S.

    2004-11-01

    A study of the different stages of the electroless deposition of copper on micronic NiTi shape memory alloy particles activated by one-step and two-step methods has been conducted from both a chemical and a morphological point of view. The combination of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging has allowed detection of the distribution of the formed compounds and depth quantification and estimation of the surface topographic parameters. For the two-step method, at the sensitization of the early stages, it is observed by AFM that Sn is absorbed in form of clusters that tend to completely cover the surface and form a continuous film. XPS analysis have shown that Sn and Pd are first absorbed in form of oxide (SnO{sub 2} and PdO) and hydroxide [Sn(OH){sub 4}]. After the entire sensitization step, the NiTi substrate is covered with Sn-based compounds. After the sensitization and the activation steps the powder roughness increases. Behavior of the Sn and Pd growth for the one-step method does not follow the behavior found for the two-step method. Indeed, XPS analysis shows a three-dimensional (3D) growth of Pd clusters on top of a mixture of metallic tin, oxide (SnO) and hydroxide [Sn(OH){sub 2}]. These Pd clusters are covered with a thin layer of Pd-oxide contamination induced by the electroless process. The mean roughness for the one-step and two-step processes are equivalent. After copper deposition, the decrease of mean roughness is attributed to a filling of surface valleys, observed after the Sn-Pd coating step.

  15. Test results of NREL 10M, special-purpose family of thin airfoils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starcher, K.L.; Nelson, V.C.; Wei, Jun

    1996-12-31

    Two 25 kW Carter Wind Systems were tested to determine performance differences between production blades and rotors with NREL Special Purpose Thin Airfoils. Blade design, mold preparation, blade production, and testing were conducted. Design tools were created for computer modeling of the blade. The blades had the same twist, taper, and length as production blades. Flap natural frequency was adjusted to be as similar as possible between rotors, as was blade mass, blade center of gravity and rotor moment of inertia. Data collected were; wind speed at hub height, blade root flap & edgewise loads, main shaft torque, azimuth position, teeter angle, yaw angle and electrical power. These data were collected at 128 Hertz for data sets of eight seconds. This data set was then written to hard disk and the cycle repeated resulting in a file containing five and one half minutes of data. A data run consisted of; preflight checkout/warm-up of equipment, preflight calibration/verification of all sensors on both turbines, collection of five files of data (about thirty minutes of data), post flight calibration/verification of sensors. During this high speed data collection period there were a total of twenty-four data runs collected. Data were collected for wind speeds in the range about 7, 10 and 13 m/s. A data matrix was filled for clean, medium and heavy surface roughness. Baseline power curves, parametric pitch variation runs to establish testing pitch settings, high speed data collection runs with and without applied surface roughness were completed and analyzed. Data were compared using simple arithmetic mean, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis, rainflow counting algorithms and wavelet analysis. The NREL airfoils showed much less sensitivity to surface roughness. There were minimal root bending load differences. Annual energy production during long term operation is being determined. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Two modes of surface roughening during plasma etching of silicon: Role of ionized etch products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakazaki, Nobuya Tsuda, Hirotaka; Takao, Yoshinori; Eriguchi, Koji; Ono, Kouichi

    2014-12-14

    Atomic- or nanometer-scale surface roughening has been investigated during Si etching in inductively coupled Cl{sub 2} plasmas, as a function of rf bias power or ion incident energy E{sub i}, by varying feed gas flow rate, wafer stage temperature, and etching time. The experiments revealed two modes of surface roughening which occur depending on E{sub i}: one is the roughening mode at low E{sub i} < 200–300 eV, where the root-mean-square (rms) roughness of etched surfaces increases with increasing E{sub i}, exhibiting an almost linear increase with time during etching (t < 20 min). The other is the smoothing mode at higher E{sub i}, where the rms surface roughness decreases substantially with E{sub i} down to a low level < 0.4 nm, exhibiting a quasi-steady state after some increase at the initial stage (t < 1 min). Correspondingly, two different behaviors depending on E{sub i} were also observed in the etch rate versus √(E{sub i}) curve, and in the evolution of the power spectral density distribution of surfaces. Such changes from the roughening to smoothing modes with increasing E{sub i} were found to correspond to changes in the predominant ion flux from feed gas ions Cl{sub x}{sup +} to ionized etch products SiCl{sub x}{sup +} caused by the increased etch rates at increased E{sub i}, in view of the results of several plasma diagnostics. Possible mechanisms for the formation and evolution of surface roughness during plasma etching are discussed with the help of Monte Carlo simulations of the surface feature evolution and classical molecular dynamics simulations of etch fundamentals, including stochastic roughening and effects of ion reflection and etch inhibitors.

  17. A NOVEL CO{sub 2} SEPARATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Copeland

    2000-08-01

    Because of concern over global climate change, new systems are needed that produce electricity from fossil fuels and emit less CO{sub 2}. The fundamental problem with current systems which recover and concentrate CO{sub 2} from flue gases is the need to separate dilute CO{sub 2} and pressurize it to roughly 35 atm for storage or sequestration. This is an energy intensive process that can reduce plant efficiency by 9-37% and double the cost of electricity. There are two fundamental reasons for the current high costs of power consumption, CO{sub 2} removal, and concentration systems: (1) most disposal, storage and sequestering systems require high pressure CO{sub 2} (at roughly 35 atm). Thus, assuming 90% removal of the CO{sub 2} from a typical atmospheric pressure flue gas that contains 10% CO{sub 2}, the CO{sub 2} is essentially being compressed from 0.01 atm to 35 atm (a pressure ratio of 3,500). This is a very energy intensive process. (2) The absorption-based (amine) separation processes that are used to remove the CO{sub 2} from the flue gas and compress it to 1 atm consume approximately 10 times as much energy as the theoretical work of compression because they are heat driven cycles working over a very low temperature difference. Thus, to avoid the problems of current systems, we need a power cycle in which the CO{sub 2} produced by the oxidation of the fuel is not diluted with a large excess of nitrogen, a power cycle which would allow us to eliminate the very inefficient thermally driven absorption/desorption step. In addition, we would want the CO{sub 2} to be naturally available at high pressure (approximately 3 to 6 atmospheres), which would allow us to greatly reduce the compression ratio between generation and storage (from roughly 3,500 to approximately 8).

  18. Towards III-V solar cells on Si: Improvement in the crystalline quality of Ge-on-Si virtual substrates through low porosity porous silicon buffer layer and annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calabrese, Gabriele; Baricordi, Stefano; Bernardoni, Paolo; Fin, Samuele; Guidi, Vincenzo; Vincenzi, Donato

    2014-09-26

    A comparison between the crystalline quality of Ge grown on bulk Si and on a low porosity porous Si (pSi) buffer layer using low energy plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition is reported. Omega/2Theta coupled scans around the Ge and Si (004) diffraction peaks show a reduction of the Ge full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of 22.4% in presence of the pSi buffer layer, indicating it is effective in improving the epilayer crystalline quality. At the same time atomic force microscopy analysis shows an increase in root means square roughness for Ge grown on pSi from 38.5 nm to 48.0 nm, as a consequence of the larger surface roughness of pSi compared to bulk Si. The effect of 20 minutes vacuum annealing at 580C is also investigated. The annealing leads to a FWHM reduction of 23% for Ge grown on Si and of 36.5% for Ge on pSi, resulting in a FWHM of 101 arcsec in the latter case. At the same time, the RMS roughness is reduced of 8.8% and of 46.5% for Ge grown on bulk Si and on pSi, respectively. The biggest improvement in the crystalline quality of Ge grown on pSi with respect to Ge grown on bulk Si observed after annealing is a consequence of the simultaneous reorganization of the Ge epilayer and the buffer layer driven by energy minimization. A low porosity buffer layer can thus be used for the growth of low defect density Ge on Si virtual substrates for the successive integration of III-V multijunction solar cells on Si. The suggested approach is simple and fast thus allowing for high throughput-, moreover is cost effective and fully compatible with subsequent wafer processing. Finally it does not introduce new chemicals in the solar cell fabrication process and can be scaled to large area silicon wafers.

  19. ANALYSIS OF 3-D URBAN DATABASES WITH RESPECT TO POLLUTION DISPERSION FOR A NUMBER OF EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN CITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. RATTI; ET AL

    2001-03-01

    Models to estimate pollution dispersion and wind flow in cities (both at the city-scale and above) require a parametrical description of the urban canopy. For instance, two key parameters are the aerodynamic roughness length z{sub 0} and the zero-plane displacement height z{sub d}, which are related, amongst others, to the surface drag coefficient, the scale and intensity of turbulence, the depth of the roughness sub-layer and the wind speed profile. The calculation of z{sub 0} and z{sub d}, however, is not straightforward. The classical way to estimate them in open terrain is based on the measurement of wind profile data from a tall mast or, less accurately, on the inference from published roughness values for similar terrain elsewhere (Davenport, 1960; Davenport et al., 2000). Both methods, however, are very difficult to apply to cities, due to the considerable height where wind measurements should be taken (well above the urban canopy) and to the irregularities of urban texture. A promising alternative that has become available in recent years, due to increasing computing resources and the availability of high-resolution 3-D databases in urban areas, is based on the calculation of z{sub 0} and z{sub d} from the analysis and measure of the city geometry (urban morphometry). This method is reviewed for instance in Grimmond and Oke (1999), where values are calculated using different formulas and then compared with the results of field measurements. Urban morphometry opens up a new range of parameters that can easily be calculated in urban areas and used as input for meso-scale and urban dispersion models. This paper reviews a number of them and shows how they could be calculated from urban Digital Elevation Models (DEM) using image-processing techniques. It builds up on the recent work by Ratti et al. 2000, extending the number of case studies cities: London, Toulouse, Berlin, Salt Lake City and Los Angeles.

  20. Could crop height affect the wind resource at agriculturally productive wind farm sites?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2015-11-07

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length inmore » a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. As a result, these considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.« less

  1. Surface modification induced phase transformation and structure variation on the rapidly solidified recast layer of titanium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Ming-Hung; Haung, Chiung-Fang; Shyu, Shih-Shiun; Chou, Yen-Ru; Lin, Ming-Hong; Peng, Pei-Wen; and others

    2015-08-15

    In this study, neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate (Nd:YVO{sub 4}) as a laser source with different scanning speeds was used on biomedical Ti surface. The microstructural and biological properties of laser-modified samples were investigated by means of optical microscope, electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, surface roughness instrument, contact angle and cell cytotoxicity assay. After laser modification, the rough volcano-like recast layer with micro-/nanoporous structure and wave-like recast layer with nanoporous structure were generated on the surfaces of laser-modified samples, respectively. It was also found out that, an α → (α + rutile-TiO{sub 2}) phase transition occurred on the recast layers of laser-modified samples. The Ti surface becomes hydrophilic at a high speed laser scanning. Moreover, the cell cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that laser-modified samples did not influence the cell adhesion and proliferation behaviors of osteoblast (MG-63) cell. The laser with 50 mm/s scanning speed induced formation of rough volcano-like recast layer accompanied with micro-/nanoporous structure, which can promote cell adhesion and proliferation of MG-63 cell on Ti surface. The results indicated that the laser treatment was a potential technology to enhance the biocompatibility for titanium. - Highlights: • Laser induced the formation of recast layer with micro-/nanoporous structure on Ti. • An α → (α + rutile-TiO{sub 2}) phase transition was observed within the recast layer. • The Ti surface becomes hydrophilic at a high speed laser scanning. • Laser-modified samples exhibit good biocompatibility to osteoblast (MG-63) cell.

  2. Evolution of the electrical and structural properties during the growth of Al doped ZnO films by remote plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volintiru, I.; Creatore, M.; Kniknie, B. J.; Spee, C. I. M. A.; Sanden, M. C. M. van de

    2007-08-15

    Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were deposited by means of remote plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from oxygen/diethylzinc/trimethylaluminum mixtures. The electrical, structural (crystallinity and morphology), and chemical properties of the deposited films were investigated using Hall, four point probe, x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), electron recoil detection (ERD), Rutherford backscattering (RBS), and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), respectively. We found that the working pressure plays an important role in controlling the sheet resistance R{sub s} and roughness development during film growth. At 1.5 mbar the AZO films are highly conductive (R{sub s}<6 {omega}/{open_square} for a film thickness above 1200 nm) and very rough (>4% of the film thickness), however, they are characterized by a large sheet resistance gradient with increasing film thickness. By decreasing the pressure from 1.5 to 0.38 mbar, the gradient is significantly reduced and the films become smoother, but the sheet resistance increases (R{sub s}{approx_equal}100 {omega}/{open_square} for a film thickness of 1000 nm). The sheet resistance gradient and the surface roughness development correlate with the grain size evolution, as determined from the AFM and SEM analyses, indicating the transition from pyramid-like at 1.5 mbar to pillar-like growth mode at 0.38 mbar. The change in plasma chemistry/growth precursors caused by the variation in pressure leads to different concentration and activation efficiency of Al dopant in the zinc oxide films. On the basis of the experimental evidence, a valid route for further improving the conductivity of the AZO film is found, i.e., increasing the grain size at the initial stage of film growth.

  3. The Effects of Oxy-firing Conditions on Gas-phase Mercury Oxidation by Chlorine and Bromine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buitrago, Paula; Silcox, Geoffrey

    2010-06-30

    Bench-scale experiments were conducted in a quartz-lined, natural gas-fired reactor with the combustion air replaced with a blend of 27 mole percent oxygen, with the balance carbon dioxide. Quench rates of 210 and 440 K/s were tested. In the absence of sulfur dioxide, the oxy-firing environment caused a remarkable increase in oxidation of mercury by chlorine. At 400 ppm chlorine (as HCl equivalent), air-firing results in roughly 5 percent oxidation. At the same conditions with oxy-firing, oxidation levels are roughly 80 percent. Oxidation levels with bromine at 25 and 50 ppm (as HBr equivalent) ranged from 80 to 95 percent and were roughly the same for oxy- and air-firing conditions. Kinetic calculations of levels of oxidation at air- and oxy-conditions captured the essential features of the experimental results but have not revealed a mechanistic basis for the oxidative benefits of oxy-firing conditions. Mixtures of 25 ppm bromine and 100 and 400 ppm chlorine gave more than 90 percent oxidation. At all conditions, the effects of quench rate were not significant. The presence of 500 ppm SO2 caused a dramatic decline in the levels of oxidation at all oxy-fired conditions examined. This effect suggests that SO2 may be preventing oxidation in the gas phase or preventing oxidation in the wetconditioning system that was used in quantifying oxidized and elemental mercury concentrations. Similar effects of SO2 have been noted with air-firing. The addition of sodium thiosulfate to the hydroxide impingers that are part of wet conditioning systems may prevent liquid-phase oxidation from occurring.

  4. U.S. Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    KentucKy 2014 EIA reports and publications Kentucky accounts for roughly one-tenth of total U.S. coal production and about one-fifth of production east of the Mississippi River. Kentucky has more coal mines than any other state; almost one-third of all U.S. coal mines are located in the state. Kentucky had two oil refineries with a combined operating capacity of about 245,000 barrels per day in 2013. KentucKy energy highlights: State-Level Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2000-2011 *

  5. Method of preparing thin porous sheets of ceramic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swarr, Thomas E.; Nickols, Richard C.; Krasij, Myron

    1987-03-24

    A method of forming thin porous sheets of ceramic material for use as electrodes or other components in a molten carbonate fuel cell is disclosed. The method involves spray drying a slurry of fine ceramic particles in liquid carrier to produce generally spherical agglomerates of high porosity and a rough surface texture. The ceramic particles may include the electrode catalyst and the agglomerates can be calcined to improve mechanical strength. After slurrying with suitable volatile material and binder tape casting is used to form sheets that are sufficiently strong for further processing and handling in the assembly of a high temperature fuel cell.

  6. Surface roughening of superalloys by high pressure pure waterjet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    A high pressure waterjet has been used to study the surface roughening of superalloys as preparation for thermal spraying. Designed experiments for Mar-M 509 and Rene 80 were carried out for the effects of jet pressure and mass of water delivered per unit area. Comparisons were made of several superalloys in terms of erosion, surface roughness and topology. The mechanism of jet erosion of Rene 80 was studied in relation to its metallurgical microstructure. An MCrAlY coating by shrouded plasma spray was made over a waterjet prepared surface with excellent bonding and having an ideally clean interface.

  7. Arkansas' Anemometer Loan Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernando Vego

    2012-10-11

    The measurement campaign had one year duration from 04/01/2011 to 03/31/2012 and was taken at 20m and 34m with NRG instrumentation. The data was analyzed weekly to check inconsistencies and validity and processed using Excel, Flexpro and Windographer standard Edition Version 2.04. The site analyzed is located in the Waldron, Arkansas in Scott County. It is an open site for most of the direction sectors with immediate roughness class of 1.5. It has seasonally directional winds, of which the most energetic come from the southern direction. The vertical wind profile shows moderate wind shear that varies by season as well.

  8. Natural Gas Basics (Brochure), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Gas Basics Natural gas powers about 150,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 22 million vehicles worldwide. 1 Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are a good choice for high-mileage fleets- such as buses, taxis, and refuse vehicles-that are centrally fueled or operate within a lim- ited area or along a route with natural gas fueling stations. The advantages of natural gas as an alternative fuel include its domestic availability, estab- lished distribution network, relatively low cost, and emis-

  9. Featured Announcements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    August 2013 All Users Now Enabled on Edison Phase 2 August 30, 2013 by Francesca Verdier All user accounts have been enabled on the second phase of Edison, a Cray XC30 with 5,200 compute nodes and roughly twice the sustained system performance of Hopper. The user environment on Edison phase 2 is the same as that on Edison phase 1, Of particular note is that the default programming environment uses the Intel compilers and the PGI compilers are not available. While most of the applications that

  10. Importance of Low Permeability Natural Gas Reservoirs (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Production from low-permeability reservoirs, including shale gas and tight gas, has become a major source of domestic natural gas supply. In 2008, low-permeability reservoirs accounted for about 40% of natural gas production and about 35% of natural gas consumption in the United States. Permeability is a measure of the rate at which liquids and gases can move through rock. Low-permeability natural gas reservoirs encompass the shale, sandstone, and carbonate formations whose natural permeability is roughly 0.1 millidarcies or below. (Permeability is measured in darcies.)

  11. The Dark Energy Survey: Prospects for resolved stellar populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossetto, Bruno M.; Santiago, Basílio X.; Girardi, Léo; Camargo, Julio I. B.; Balbinot, Eduardo; da Costa, Luiz N.; Yanny, Brian; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Makler, Martin; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Pellegrini, Paulo S.; Ramos, Beatriz; de Simoni, Fernando; Armstrong, R.; Bertin, E.; Desai, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lin, H.; Mohr, J. J.; Tucker, D. L.

    2011-05-06

    Wide angle and deep surveys, regardless of their primary purpose, always sample a large number of stars in the Galaxy and in its satellite system. We here make a forecast of the expected stellar sample resulting from the Dark Energy Survey and the perspectives that it will open for studies of Galactic structure and resolved stellar populations in general. An estimated 1.2 x 108 stars will be sampled in DES grizY filters in the southern equatorial hemisphere. This roughly corresponds to 20% of all DES sources. Most of these stars belong to the stellar thick disk and halo of the Galaxy.

  12. THE DARK ENERGY SURVEY: PROSPECTS FOR RESOLVED STELLAR POPULATIONS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rossetto, Bruno M.; Santiago, Baslio X.; Girardi, Lo; Camargo, Julio I. B.; Balbinot, Eduardo; da Costa, Luiz N.; Yanny, Brian; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Makler, Martin; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; et al

    2011-06-01

    Wide angle and deep surveys, regardless of their primary purpose, always sample a large number of stars in the Galaxy and in its satellite system. We here make a forecast of the expected stellar sample resulting from the Dark Energy Survey and the perspectives that it will open for studies of Galactic structure and resolved stellar populations in general. An estimated 1.2 x 108 stars will be sampled in DES grizY filters in the southern equatorial hemisphere. This roughly corresponds to 20% of all DES sources. Most of these stars belong to the stellar thick disk and halo of themoreGalaxy.less

  13. Wake fields effects for the eRHIC project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedotov A. V.; Belomestnykh, S.; Kayran, D.; Litvinenko, V.; Ptitsyn, V.

    2012-05-20

    An Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) with a high peak electron bunch current is proposed for the Electron-Ion collider (eRHIC) project at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The present design is based on the multi-pass electron beam transport in existing tunnel of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). As a result of a high peak current and a very long beam transport, consideration of various collective beam dynamics effects becomes important. Here we summarize effects of the coherent synchrotron radiation, resistive wall, accelerating cavities and wall roughness on the resulting energy spread and energy loss for several scenarios of the eRHIC project.

  14. The Shifting Landscape of Ratepayer-Funded Energy Efficiency in the U.S. |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy The Shifting Landscape of Ratepayer-Funded Energy Efficiency in the U.S. The Shifting Landscape of Ratepayer-Funded Energy Efficiency in the U.S. Over the last two decades, utility ratepayer funding for energy efficiency programs has seen both booms and busts. Currently, roughly 35 states implement some set of ratepayer-funded electric and/or natural gas energy efficiency programs, with a total U.S. budget of $3.1 billion in 2008 (CEE 2008).1 The top 10 states account

  15. Microcutting characteristics on the single crystal diamond tool with edge radius using molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jeong-Du; Moon, Chan-Hong

    1995-12-31

    Ultraprecision metal cutting (UPMC) technology which makes possible submicrometer form accuracy and manometer roughness is developed to reach the 1nm nominal (undeformed) thickness of cut. At this thickness level, a few of atom`s layers should be considered. In this paper using the Molecuar Dynamics simulation, the phenomena of microcutting with a subnanometer chip thickness, the cutting mechanism for tool edge configuration to consider the sharp edge and round edge tool, the cut material and cutting speed are evaluated. Cutting mechanism of subnanometer depth of cut is evaluated.

  16. Pulsed laser deposition of AlMgB14 thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britson, Jason Curtis

    2008-11-18

    Hard, wear-resistant coatings of thin film borides based on AlMgB14 have the potential to be applied industrially to improve the tool life of cutting tools and pump vanes and may account for several million dollars in savings as a result of reduced wear on these parts. Past work with this material has shown that it can have a hardness of up to 45GPa and be fabricated into thin films with a similar hardness using pulsed laser deposition. These films have already been shown to be promising for industrial applications. Cutting tools coated with AlMgB14 used to mill titanium alloys have been shown to substantially reduce the wear on the cutting tool and extend its cutting life. However, little research into the thin film fabrication process using pulsed laser deposition to make AlMgB14 has been conducted. In this work, research was conducted into methods to optimize the deposition parameters for the AlMgB14 films. Processing methods to eliminate large particles on the surface of the AlMgB14 films, produce films that were at least 1m thick, reduce the surface roughness of the films, and improve the adhesion of the thin films were investigated. Use of a femtosecond laser source rather than a nanosecond laser source was found to be effective in eliminating large particles considered detrimental to wear reduction properties from the films. Films produced with the femtosecond laser were also found to be deposited at a rate 100 times faster than those produced with the nanosecond laser. However, films produced with the femtosecond laser developed a relatively high RMS surface roughness around 55nm. Attempts to decrease the surface roughness were largely unsuccessful. Neither increasing the surface temperature of the substrate during deposition nor using a double pulse to ablate the material was found to be extremely successful to reduce the surface roughness. Finally, the adhesion of the thin films to M2 tool steel

  17. Direct measure of quantum correlation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Chang-shui [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Zhao, Haiqing [School of Science, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China)

    2011-12-15

    The quantumness of the correlation known as quantum correlation is usually measured by quantum discord. So far various quantum discords can be roughly understood as indirect measure by some special discrepancy of two quantities. We present a direct measure of quantum correlation by revealing the difference between the structures of classically and quantum correlated states. Our measure explicitly includes the contributions of the inseparability and local nonorthogonality of the eigenvectors of a density matrix. Besides its relatively easy computability, our measure can provide a unified understanding of quantum correlation of all the present versions.

  18. Theoretical model of the polarization Coulomb field scattering in strained AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luan, Chongbiao; Lin, Zhaojun Zhao, Jingtao; Wang, Yutang; Lv, Yuanjie; Chen, Hong; Wang, Zhanguo

    2014-07-28

    The theoretical model of the polarization Coulomb field scattering (PCF) caused by the polarization charge density variation at the AlGaN/AlN interface in strained AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors has been developed. And the theoretical values for the electron drift mobility, which were calculated using the Matthiessen's rule that includes PCF, piezoelectric scattering, polar optical-phonon scattering, and interface roughness scattering, are in good agreement with our experimental values. Therefore, the theoretical model for PCF has been confirmed.

  19. DOE-STD-1090-2004; Hoisting and Rigging (Formerly Hoisting and Rigging Manual)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 FORKLIFT TRUCKS 10-i Chapter 10 Forklift Trucks This chapter specifies operation, inspection, testing, and maintenance requirements for forklift trucks powered by internal-combustion engines or electric motors and implements the requirements of ASME B56.1 ("Safety Standard for powered Industrial Trucks - Low Lift and High lift Trucks") and B56.6 ("Rough Terrain Fork Lift Trucks"), and ANSI/UL 558 ("Internal-Combustion-Engine-Powered Industrial Trucks") and 583

  20. DOE-STD-1090-2007; Hoisting and Rigging Standard (Formerly Hoisting and Rigging Manual)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 FORKLIFT TRUCKS 10-i This chapter specifies operation, inspection, testing, and maintenance requirements for forklift trucks powered by internal-combustion engines or electric motors and implements the requirements of ANSI/ITSDF B56.1 ("Safety Standard for powered Industrial Trucks - Low Lift and High lift Trucks") and ANSI/ITSDF B56.6 ("Rough Terrain Fork Lift Trucks"), and ANSI/UL 558 ("Internal-Combustion- Engine-Powered Industrial Trucks") and ANSI/UL 583

  1. Solvothermal synthesis and surface chemistry to control the size and morphology of nanoquartz

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sochalski-Kolbus, Lindsay M.; Wang, Hsiu-Wen; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Lawrence M. Anovitz; Wesolowski, David J.; Whitfield, Pamela S.

    2015-09-29

    In this paper, we report a solvothermal synthesis method that allows the crystallization of quartz to occur at a relatively low temperature of 300°C in the form of isolated nanosized euhedral crystals. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small area electron diffraction (SAED) were used to confirm the phases present and their particle sizes, morphologies, and crystallinity of the products. In conclusion, the results show that it is possible to control the size and morphology of the nanoquartz from rough nanospheres to nanorods using fluoride, which templates the nanocrystals and moderates growth.

  2. Bismuth nano-droplets for group-V based molecular-beam droplet epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, C.; Zeng, Z. Q.; Hirono, Y.; Morgan, T. A.; Hu, X.; Salamo, G. J.; Fan, D. S.; Wu, J.; Yu, S. Q.; Wang, Zh. M.

    2011-12-12

    Self-assembly of bismuth droplets at nanoscale on GaAs(100) surface using molecular beam epitaxy was demonstrated. Fine control of density and size was achieved by varying growth temperature and total bismuth deposition. Droplet density was tuned by roughly 3 orders of magnitude, and the density-temperature dependence was found to be consistent with classical nucleation theory. These results may extend the flexibility of droplet epitaxy by serving as templates for group V based droplet epitaxy, which is in contrast to conventional group III based droplet epitaxy and may encourage nanostructure formation of bismuth-containing materials.

  3. Philips Lumileds Is Exploring the Use of Silicon Substrates to Lower the Cost of LEDs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, Philips Lumileds is exploring the use of nitride epitaxy on 150mm silicon substrates to produce low-cost, warm-white, high-performance general-illumination LEDs. Most LEDs are made with C-plane sapphire substrates, but silicon—at roughly half a penny per square millimeter—is much cheaper, and it's also easier to obtain. Philips Lumileds is attempting to adapt the use of silicon to the manufacture of LEDs, drawing upon the knowledge base and depreciated equipment of the computer industry, which has been using silicon substrates for decades.

  4. Battle energy business report, third quarter, FY 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lang, K.S.

    1994-08-01

    In June, the House passed the Interior Appropriations bill, which contains some of DOE`s budget requests. The Senate approved a similar bill during the last week in July. The July 4 issue of Inside Energy reports the Senate bill {open_quotes}would provide $743.7 million for energy efficiency programs, roughly $53.4 million over the current appropriation of $690.4 million. DOE had sought $976.8 million and the House voted $824.6.{close_quotes} The two bills will now go into conference to resolve their differences.

  5. Breakthroughs in photonics 2013: X-ray optics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Soufli, Regina

    2014-04-01

    Here, this review discusses the latest advances in extreme ultraviolet/X-ray optics development, which are motivated by the availability and demands of new X-ray sources and scientific and industrial applications. Among the breakthroughs highlighted are the following: i) fabrication, metrology, and mounting technologies for large-area optical substrates with improved figure, roughness, and focusing properties; ii) multilayer coatings with especially optimized layer properties, achieving improved reflectance, stability, and out-of-band suppression; and iii) nanodiffractive optics with improved efficiency and resolution.

  6. Cubature on Wiener Space: Pathwise Convergence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayer, Christian Friz, Peter K.

    2013-04-15

    Cubature on Wiener space (Lyons and Victoir in Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 460(2041):169-198, 2004) provides a powerful alternative to Monte Carlo simulation for the integration of certain functionals on Wiener space. More specifically, and in the language of mathematical finance, cubature allows for fast computation of European option prices in generic diffusion models.We give a random walk interpretation of cubature and similar (e.g. the Ninomiya-Victoir) weak approximation schemes. By using rough path analysis, we are able to establish weak convergence for general path-dependent option prices.

  7. Epitaxial growth of high quality WO3 thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leng, X.; Pereiro, J.; Strle, J.; Bollinger, A. T.; Bozovic, I.

    2015-09-09

    We have grown epitaxial WO3 films on various single-crystal substrates using radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. While pronounced surface roughness is observed in films grown on LaSrAlO4 substrates, films grown on YAlO3 substrates show atomically flat surfaces, as demonstrated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The crystalline structure has been confirmed to be monoclinic by symmetric and skew-symmetric XRD. Furthermore, the dependence of the growth modes and the surface morphology on the lattice mismatch is discussed.

  8. A second-generation cosmic axion experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagmann, C.; Stoeffl, W.; van Bibber, K.

    1995-05-01

    An experiment is described to detect dark matter axions trapped in the halo of our galaxy. Galactic axions are converted into microwave photons via the Primakoff effect in a static background field provided by a superconducting magnet. The photons are collected in a high Q microwave cavity and detected by a low noise receiver. The axion mass range accessible by this experiment is 1.3 {minus} 13 {mu}eV. The expected sensitivity will be roughly 50 times greater than achieved by previous experiments in this mass range. The assembly of the detector is well under any at LLNL and data taking will start in mid-1995.

  9. Formation of carbon deposits from coal in an arc plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, B.; Tian, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, S.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Xie, K.

    2007-07-01

    The issue of deposited carbon (DC) on a reactor wall during the production of acetylene by the coal/arc plasma process is a potential obstacle for the industrialization process. The formation mechanism of DC is very difficult to reveal because the high complexity of coal and the volatile matter. Combining with quenching technique, the methane, liquid petroleum gas and benzene were employed as the model materials to roughly act as the light gas, chain and aromatic subcomponents of volatile matter, and then the reasonable formation mechanism of DC was subtly speculated accordingly.

  10. Fundamental experiments in velocimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briggs, Matthew Ellsworth; Hull, Larry; Shinas, Michael

    2009-01-01

    One can understand what velocimetry does and does not measure by understanding a few fundamental experiments. Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) is an interferometer that will produce fringe shifts when the length of one of the legs changes, so we might expect the fringes to change whenever the distance from the probe to the target changes. However, by making PDV measurements of tilted moving surfaces, we have shown that fringe shifts from diffuse surfaces are actually measured only from the changes caused by the component of velocity along the beam. This is an important simplification in the interpretation of PDV results, arising because surface roughness randomizes the scattered phases.

  11. ARPA-E FY2010 Annual Report Highlights Transformational Projects Since

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agency's Establishment | Department of Energy FY2010 Annual Report Highlights Transformational Projects Since Agency's Establishment ARPA-E FY2010 Annual Report Highlights Transformational Projects Since Agency's Establishment June 22, 2011 - 10:30am Addthis Liisa O'Neill Liisa O'Neill Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What does this mean for me? ARPA-E has funded 121 projects -- in amounts ranging from roughly $400,000 to $9 million, with an average award value of $3

  12. Reduction of magnetic damping constant of FeCo films by rare-earth Gd doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Xiaobin; Xi, Li Li, Yue; Han, Xuemeng; Li, Dong; Wang, Zhen; Zuo, Yalu

    2014-08-18

    Magnetic damping constant (α) is one of the key parameters to determine the critical current density of spin-transfer-torque devices and the switching time of magnetization for ultra-high-frequency devices. In this work, Gd doped FeCo films were fabricated to investigate α based on the ferromagnetic resonance technique. Gd doping not only can efficiently decrease the magnetic inhomogeneity and the extrinsic part of α but also the Landé g-factor and intrinsic part of α. The obtained α was roughly proportional to (g-2){sup 2} and the magnetic anisotropic constant, indicating that the decreased spin-orbit interaction decreases α by Gd doping.

  13. In the OSTI Collections: Nanotechnology | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scientific and Technical Information Nanotechnology Consider how far it is from New York to Los Angeles. Now compare that distance to the length of the "l" in "Angeles". That's roughly how one meter compares to one nanometer. A nanometer-one billionth of a meter-is a very small distance almost any way you look at it. One nanometer is about six times the width of a carbon atom. Distances of tens of nanometers are barely significant in much present-day technology, in which

  14. Superconducting nanowire single photon detector on diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atikian, Haig A.; Burek, Michael J.; Choy, Jennifer T.; Lon?ar, Marko; Eftekharian, Amin; Jafari Salim, A.; Hamed Majedi, A.

    2014-03-24

    Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors are fabricated directly on diamond substrates and their optical and electrical properties are characterized. Dark count performance and photon count rates are measured at varying temperatures for 1310?nm and 632?nm photons. A multi-step diamond surface polishing procedure is reported, involving iterative reactive ion etching and mechanical polishing to create a suitable diamond surface for the deposition and patterning of thin film superconducting layers. Using this approach, diamond substrates with less than 300?pm Root Mean Square surface roughness are obtained.

  15. The Role of Nanodiamonds in the Polishing Zone During Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeGroote, J.E.; Marino, A.E.; WIlson, J.P.; Bishop, A.L.; Jacobs, S.D.

    2008-01-07

    In this work we discuss the role that nanodiamond abrasives play in magnetorheological finishing. We hypothesize that, as the nanodiamond MR fluid is introduced to the magnetic field, the micron sized spherical carbonyl iron (CI) particles are pulled down towards the rotating wheel, leaving a thin layer of nanodiamonds at the surface of the stiffened MR fluid ribbon. Our experimental results shown here support this hypothesis. We also show that surface roughness values inside MRF spots show a strong correlation with the near surface mechanical properties of the glass substrates and with drag force.

  16. Methods and energy storage devices utilizing electrolytes having surface-smoothing additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L; Chen, Xilin; Ding, Fei

    2015-11-12

    Electrodeposition and energy storage devices utilizing an electrolyte having a surface-smoothing additive can result in self-healing, instead of self-amplification, of initial protuberant tips that give rise to roughness and/or dendrite formation on the substrate and anode surface. For electrodeposition of a first metal (M1) on a substrate or anode from one or more cations of M1 in an electrolyte solution, the electrolyte solution is characterized by a surface-smoothing additive containing cations of a second metal (M2), wherein cations of M2 have an effective electrochemical reduction potential in the solution lower than that of the cations of M1.

  17. Argonne Physics Division - ATLAS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The ATLAS Program Advisory Committee (PAC) Since ATLAS is a National User Facility and available for experiments to anyone in the world, all experiments to be performed at ATLAS must be reviewed and approved by the ATLAS PAC. The PAC consists of 5-7 internationally recognized nuclear physicists, most of whom come from outside Argonne. The PAC members are appointed by the Scientific Director of ATLAS and typically serve for a term of two years. The PAC normally meets twice per year. At roughly

  18. FERC sees huge potential for demand response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-04-15

    The FERC study concludes that U.S. peak demand can be reduced by as much as 188 GW -- roughly 20 percent -- under the most aggressive scenario. More moderate -- and realistic -- scenarios produce smaller but still significant reductions in peak demand. The FERC report is quick to point out that these are estimates of the potential, not projections of what could actually be achieved. The main varieties of demand response programs include interruptible tariffs, direct load control (DLC), and a number of pricing schemes.

  19. Robust surface electronic properties of topological insulators: Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plucinski, L.; Herdt, A.; Mussler, G.; Krumrain, J.; Gruetzmacher, D.; Suga, S.; Schneider, C. M.

    2011-05-30

    The surface electronic properties of the important topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} are shown to be robust under an extended surface preparation procedure, which includes exposure to atmosphere and subsequent cleaning and recrystallization by an optimized in situ sputter-anneal procedure under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Clear Dirac-cone features are displayed in high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectra from the resulting samples, indicating remarkable insensitivity of the topological surface state to cleaning-induced surface roughness.

  20. Recovery of Mo/Si multilayer coated optical substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, S.L.; Vernon, S.P.; Stearns, D.G.

    1997-12-16

    Mo/Si multilayers are removed from superpolished ZERODUR and fused silica substrates with a dry etching process that, under suitable processing conditions, produces negligible change in either the substrate surface figure or surface roughness. The two step dry etching process removes SiO{sub 2} overlayer with a fluroine-containing gas and then moves molybdenum and silicon multilayers with a chlorine-containing gas. Full recovery of the initial normal incidence extreme ultra-violet (EUV) reflectance response has been demonstrated on reprocessed substrates. 5 figs.