National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for rough rotten salvageable

  1. A domestic salvage strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seeley, R.S.

    1995-04-01

    While many developers are looking to international markets, United American Energy Corp.`s strategy of staying in the United States market has helped them carve a niche in the power industry. In the early 1990s UAE focused its energies to revitalizing troubled projects when it became apparent that optimistic projections for electric demand and rates would not materialize. While other companies turned to public offerings and international expansion, UAE invested its energies in helping lenders salvage domestic energy assets that were headed for default. Today, UAE owns and/or manages 11 power producing projects in five states, with aggregate revenues in excess of $100 million. Has parlayed a solid background in the technical and financial aspects of power plant operation into a mandate for rescuing troubled assets.

  2. Salvaging Timber: Frequently Asked Questions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Eric; Foster, C. Darwin

    2005-10-19

    been damaged by a natural disaster, you will need a forester?s help in estimating damage and determining a deductible casualty loss. A forester also can help you market salvage timber and decide the best way to manage undamaged standing timber.... The Texas Forest Service has foresters in most counties who are available to help. Contact information can be found at http://texasforestservice.tamu.edu. As a service to landowners, the Texas Forest Service also maintains a Profes- sional Management...

  3. The cost effectiveness of salvage pilot study report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anonymous

    1971-09-28

    INTRODUCTION Salvage techniques aim to reduce or eliminate the losses caused by an outbreak of fire and by the firefighting operations necessiated by the fire.

  4. Salvaged castings and methods of salvaging castings with defective cast cooling bumps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Schaeffer, Jon Conrad (Greenville, SC); Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Abuaf, Nesim (Lincoln City, OR); Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT)

    2002-01-01

    Castings for gas turbine parts exposed on one side to a high-temperature fluid medium have cast-in bumps on an opposite cooling surface side to enhance heat transfer. Areas on the cooling surface having defectively cast bumps, i.e., missing or partially formed bumps during casting, are coated with a braze alloy and cooling enhancement material to salvage the part.

  5. Salvage HDR Brachytherapy for Recurrent Prostate Cancer After Previous Definitive Radiation Therapy: 5-Year Outcomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Chien Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Scripps Clinic, San Diego, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Scripps Clinic, San Diego, California (United States); Weinberg, Vivian [Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Core, University of California—San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Core, University of California—San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Shinohara, Katsuto [Department of Urology, University of California—San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Urology, University of California—San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Roach, Mack; Nash, Marc; Gottschalk, Alexander; Chang, Albert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California—San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California—San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Hsu, I-Chow, E-mail: IHsu@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California—San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California—San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Evaluate efficacy and toxicity of salvage high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) for locally recurrent prostate cancer after definitive radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 52 consecutively accrued patients undergoing salvage HDRB between 1998 and 2009 for locally recurrent prostate cancer after previous definitive RT. After pathologic confirmation of locally recurrent disease, patients received 36 Gy in 6 fractions. Twenty-four patients received neoadjuvant hormonal therapy before salvage, and no patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Determination of biochemical failure after salvage HDRB was based on the Phoenix definition. Overall survival (OS) and bF distributions were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of biochemical control. Acute and late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities, based on Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 4), were documented. Results: Median follow-up after salvage HDRB was 59.6 months. The 5-year OS estimate was 92% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 80%-97%) with median survival not yet reached. Five-year biochemical control after salvage was 51% (95% CI: 34%-66%). Median PSA nadir postsalvage was 0.1 (range: 0-7.2) reached at a median of 10.2 months after completing HDRB. As for complications, acute and late grade 3 GU toxicities were observed in only 2% and 2%, respectively. No grade 2 or higher acute GI events and 4% grade 2 GI late events were observed. On univariate analysis, disease-free interval after initial definitive RT (P=.07), percent of positive cores at the time of diagnosis (P=.08), interval from first recurrence to salvage HDRB (P=.09), and pre-HDRB prostate-specific antigen (P=.07) were each of borderline significance in predicting biochemical control after salvage HDRB. Conclusions: Prostate HDRB is an effective salvage modality with relatively few long-term toxicities. We provide potential predictors of biochemical control for prostate salvage HDRB.

  6. Y-12 old salvage yard scrap metal characterization study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, L.M.; Melton, S.G.; Shaw, S.S.

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of the Y-12 Old Salvage Yard scrap metal Characterization Study is to make conservative estimates of the quantities of total uranium and the wt % {sup 235}U contained in scrap metal. The original project scope included estimates of thorium, but due to the insignificant quantities found in the yards, thorium was excluded from further analysis. Metal in three of the four Y-12 scrap metal yards were characterized. The scrap metal yard east of the PIDAS fence is managed by the Environmental Restoration Program and therefore was not included in this study. For all Y-12 Plant scrap metal shipments, Waste Transportation, Storage, and Disposal (WTSD) personnel must complete a Request for Authorization to Ship Nuclear Materials, UCN-16409, which requires the grams of total uranium, the wt % {sup 235}U, and the grams of {sup 235}U contained in the shipment. This information is necessary to ensure compliance with Department of Transportation regulations, as well as to ensure that the receiving facility is adhering to its operating license. This characterization study was designed to provide a technical basis for determining these necessary radioactive quantities.

  7. Salvage Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases: Prognostic Factors to Consider in Patient Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, Goldie; Zadeh, Gelareh; Gingras-Hill, Geneviève; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Laperriere, Normand J.; Bernstein, Mark; Jiang, Haiyan; Ménard, Cynthia; Chung, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is offered to patients for recurrent brain metastases after prior brain radiation therapy (RT), but few studies have evaluated the efficacy of salvage SRS or factors to consider in selecting patients for this treatment. This study reports overall survival (OS), intracranial progression-free survival (PFS), and local control (LC) after salvage SRS, and factors associated with outcomes. Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective review of patients treated from 2009 to 2011 with salvage SRS after prior brain RT for brain metastases. Survival from salvage SRS and from initial brain metastases diagnosis (IBMD) was calculated. Univariate and multivariable (MVA) analyses included age, performance status, recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class, extracranial disease control, and time from initial RT to salvage SRS. Results: There were 106 patients included in the analysis with a median age of 56.9 years (range 32.5-82 years). A median of 2 metastases were treated per patient (range, 1-12) with a median dose of 21 Gy (range, 12-24) prescribed to the 50% isodose. With a median follow-up of 10.5 months (range, 0.1-68.2), LC was 82.8%, 60.1%, and 46.8% at 6 months, 1 year, and 3 years, respectively. Median PFS was 6.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.9-7.6). Median OS was 11.7 months (95% CI = 8.1-13) from salvage SRS, and 22.1 months from IBMD (95% CI = 18.4-26.8). On MVA, age (P=.01; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.01-1.07), extracranial disease control (P=.004; HR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.27-0.78), and interval from initial RT to salvage SRS of at least 265 days (P=.001; HR = 2.46; 95% CI = 1.47-4.09) were predictive of OS. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that patients can have durable local control and survival after salvage SRS for recurrent brain metastases. In particular, younger patients with controlled extracranial disease and a durable response to initial brain RT are likely to benefit from salvage SRS.

  8. The Effect of Mountain Pine Beetle Attack and Salvage Harvesting On Streamflows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    The Effect of Mountain Pine Beetle Attack and Salvage Harvesting On Streamflows Special ....................................................................................................................4 FRPA requirements for Water Management in MPB-attacked watersheds ..........5 The Baker Creek. These disturbances have potential effects on water yield (the total amount of water flowing out of a watershed

  9. Electrokinetic transport in microchannels with random roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Moran [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kang, Qinjun [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We present a numerical framework to model the electrokinetic transport in microchannels with random roughness. The three-dimensional microstructure of the rough channel is generated by a random generation-growth method with three statistical parameters to control the number density, the total volume fraction, and the anisotropy characteristics of roughness elements. The governing equations for the electrokinetic transport are solved by a high-efficiency lattice Poisson?Boltzmann method in complex geometries. The effects from the geometric characteristics of roughness on the electrokinetic transport in microchannels are therefore modeled and analyzed. For a given total roughness volume fraction, a higher number density leads to a lower fluctuation because of the random factors. The electroosmotic flow rate increases with the roughness number density nearly logarithmically for a given volume fraction of roughness but decreases with the volume fraction for a given roughness number density. When both the volume fraction and the number density of roughness are given, the electroosmotic flow rate is enhanced by the increase of the characteristic length along the external electric field direction but is reduced by that in the direction across the channel. For a given microstructure of the rough microchannel, the electroosmotic flow rate decreases with the Debye length. It is found that the shape resistance of roughness is responsible for the flow rate reduction in the rough channel compared to the smooth channel even for very thin double layers, and hence plays an important role in microchannel electroosmotic flows.

  10. Concentration of Eigenfunctions in Rough Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Hart F.

    Concentration of Eigenfunctions in Rough Media Hart F. Smith Department of Mathematics University of Washington, Seattle UC Irvine - June 18, 2012 Hart F. Smith Eigenfunctions in Rough Media #12;M = compact L2(M) (p) ( p 2 ) Hart F. Smith Eigenfunctions in Rough Media #12;M = compact manifold with volume

  11. EA-1177: Salvage/Demolition of 200 West Area, 200 East Area, and 300 Area Steam Plants, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to salvage and demolish the 200 West Area, 200 East Area, and 300 Area steam plants and their associated steam distribution piping...

  12. Water Dynamics at Rough Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markus Rosenstihl; Kerstin Kämpf; Felix Klameth; Matthias Sattig; Michael Vogel

    2014-07-21

    We use molecular dynamics computer simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments to investigate the dynamics of water at interfaces of molecular roughness and low mobility. We find that, when approaching such interfaces, the structural relaxation of water, i.e., the $\\alpha$ process, slows down even when specific attractive interactions are absent. This prominent effect is accompanied by a smooth transition from Vogel to Arrhenius temperature dependence and by a growing importance of jump events. Consistently, at protein surfaces, deviations from Arrhenius behavior are weak when free water does not exist. Furthermore, in nanoporous silica, a dynamic crossover of liquid water occurs when a fraction of solid water forms near 225 K and, hence, the liquid dynamics changes from bulk-like to interface-dominated. At sufficiently low temperatures, water exhibits a quasi-universal $\\beta$ process, which is characterized by an activation energy of $E_a\\!=\\!0.5$ eV and involves anisotropic reorientation about large angles. As a consequence of its large amplitude, the faster $\\beta$ process destroys essentially all orientational correlation, rendering observation of a possible slower $\\alpha$ process difficult in standard experiments. Nevertheless, we find indications for the existence of structural relaxation down to a glass transition of interfacial water near 185 K. Hydrated proteins show a highly restricted backbone motion with an amplitude, which decreases upon cooling and vanishes at comparable temperatures, providing evidence for a high relevance of water rearrangements in the hydration shell for secondary protein relaxations.

  13. Physician Beliefs and Practices for Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Showalter, Timothy N.; Ohri, Nitin; Teti, Kristopher G.; Foley, Kathleen A.; Keith, Scott W.; Trabulsi, Edouard J.; Lallas, Costas D.; Dicker, Adam P.; Hoffman-Censits, Jean; Pizzi, Laura T.; Gomella, Leonard G.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Despite results of randomized trials that support adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) after radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer with adverse pathologic features (APF), many clinicians favor selective use of salvage RT. This survey was conducted to evaluate the beliefs and practices of radiation oncologists (RO) and urologists (U) regarding RT after RP. Methods and Materials: We designed a Web-based survey of post-RP RT beliefs and policies. Survey invitations were e-mailed to a list of 926 RO and 591 U. APF were defined as extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, or positive surgical margin. Differences between U and RO in adjuvant RT recommendations were evaluated by comparative statistics. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate factors predictive of adjuvant RT recommendation. Results: Analyzable surveys were completed by 218 RO and 92 U (overallresponse rate, 20%). Adjuvant RT was recommended based on APF by 68% of respondents (78% RO, 44% U, p <0.001). U were less likely than RO to agree that adjuvant RT improves survival and/or biochemical control (p < 0.0001). PSA thresholds for salvage RT were higher among U than RO (p < 0.001). Predicted rates of erectile dysfunction due to RT were higher among U than RO (p <0.001). On multivariate analysis, respondent specialty was the only predictor of adjuvant RT recommendations. Conclusions: U are less likely than RO to recommend adjuvant RT. Future research efforts should focus on defining the toxicities of post-RP RT and on identifying the subgroups of patients who will benefit from adjuvant vs. selective salvage RT.

  14. Rough surface reconstruction for ultrasonic NDE simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Wonjae; Shi, Fan; Lowe, Michael J. S.; Skelton, Elizabeth A.; Craster, Richard V.

    2014-02-18

    The reflection of ultrasound from rough surfaces is an important topic for the NDE of safety-critical components, such as pressure-containing components in power stations. The specular reflection from a rough surface of a defect is normally lower than it would be from a flat surface, so it is typical to apply a safety factor in order that justification cases for inspection planning are conservative. The study of the statistics of the rough surfaces that might be expected in candidate defects according to materials and loading, and the reflections from them, can be useful to develop arguments for realistic safety factors. This paper presents a study of real rough crack surfaces that are representative of the potential defects in pressure-containing power plant. Two-dimensional (area) values of the height of the roughness have been measured and their statistics analysed. Then a means to reconstruct model cases with similar statistics, so as to enable the creation of multiple realistic realizations of the surfaces, has been investigated, using random field theory. Rough surfaces are reconstructed, based on a real surface, and results for these two-dimensional descriptions of the original surface have been compared with those from the conventional model based on a one-dimensional correlation coefficient function. In addition, ultrasonic reflections from them are simulated using a finite element method.

  15. A CONSTRUCTION OF THE ROUGH PATH ABOVE FRACTIONAL ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-03-05

    Appl. 120 (2010) 1444–1472], where the construction of a rough path over B was first introduced. 1. Introduction. Rough paths analysis is a theory introduced by ...

  16. Identification and characterization of a pyridoxal reductase involved in the vitamin B6 salvage pathway in Arabidopsis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daub, Margaret

    Identification and characterization of a pyridoxal reductase involved in the vitamin B6 salvage Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011 Abstract Vitamin B6 (pyridoxal phosphate) is an essen- tial between the six vitamin B6 vitamers. A putative pyridoxal reductase (PLR1) was identified in Arabidopsis

  17. Upfront Androgen Deprivation Therapy With Salvage Radiation May Improve Biochemical Outcomes in Prostate Cancer Patients With Post-Prostatectomy Rising PSA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Joanne W.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Guzzo, Thomas J.; Wein, Alan J.; Haas, Naomi B.; Both, Stefan; Vapiwala, Neha

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: The addition of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) to definitive external beam radiation therapy (RT) improves outcomes in higher-risk prostate cancer patients. However, the benefit of ADT with salvage RT in post-prostatectomy patients is not clearly established. Our study compares biochemical outcomes in post-prostatectomy patients who received salvage RT with or without concurrent ADT. Methods and Materials: Of nearly 2,000 post-prostatectomy patients, we reviewed the medical records of 191 patients who received salvage RT at University of Pennsylvania between 1987 and 2007. Follow-up data were obtained by chart review and electronic polling of the institutional laboratory database and Social Security Death Index. Biochemical failure after salvage RT was defined as a prostate-specific antigen of 2.0 ng/mL above the post-RT nadir or the initiation of ADT after completion of salvage RT. Results: One hundred twenty-nine patients received salvage RT alone, and 62 patients received combined ADT and salvage RT. Median follow-up was 5.4 years. Patients who received combined ADT and salvage RT were younger, had higher pathologic Gleason scores, and higher rates of seminal vesicle invasion, lymph node involvement, and pelvic nodal irradiation compared with patients who received salvage RT alone. Patients who received combined therapy had improved biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) compared with patients who received RT alone (p = 0.048). For patients with pathologic Gleason scores {<=}7, combined RT and ADT resulted in significantly improved bPFS compared to RT alone (p = 0.013). Conclusions: These results suggest that initiating ADT during salvage RT in the post-prostatectomy setting may improve bPFS compared with salvage RT alone. However, prospective randomized data are necessary to definitively determine whether hormonal manipulation should be used with salvage RT. Furthermore, the optimal nature and duration of ADT and the patient subgroups in which ADT could provide the most benefit remain open questions.

  18. Combinatorial Block Copolymer Ordering on Tunable Rough

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni M. M.; Yager K.; Sharma, A.; Karim, A.

    2012-05-01

    Morphology control of block copolymer (BCP) thin films through substrate interaction via controlled roughness parameters is of significant interest for numerous high-tech applications ranging from solar cells to high-density storage media. While effects of substrate surface energy (SE) and roughness (R) on BCP morphology have been individually investigated, their synergistic effects have not been explored in any systematic manner. Interestingly, orientation response of BCP to changes in SE can be similar to what can be accomplished with variations in R. Here we present a novel approach for orienting lamellar BCP films of poly(styrene)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-PMMA) on spin-coated xerogel (a dried gel of silica nanoparticle network) substrate with simultaneously tunable surface energy, {gamma}{sub s} {approx} 29-53 mJ/m{sup 2}, by UVO exposure and roughness, R{sub rms} {approx} 0.5-30 nm, by sol-gel processing steps of regulating the catalyst concentration and sol aging time. As in previous BCP orientation studies on 20 nm diameter monodisperse silica nanoparticle coated surface, we find a similar but broadened oscillatory BCP orientation behavior with film thickness due to the random rather than periodic rough surfaces. We also find that higher random roughness amplitude is not the necessary criteria for obtaining a vertical orientation of BCP lamellae. Rather, a high surface fractal dimension (D{sub f} > 2.4) of the rough substrate in conjunction with an optimal substrate surface energy {gamma}{sub s} 29 mJ/m{sup 2} results in 100% vertically oriented lamellar microdomains. The AFM measured film surface microstructure correlates well with the internal 3D BCP film structure probed by grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and rotational small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). In contrast to tunable self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-coated substrates, the xerogel films are very durable and retain their chemical properties over period of several months. These results also highlight importantly that BCP orientation control for nanotechnology is possible not only on specially prepared patterned substrates but also on industrially viable sol-gel substrates.

  19. Correlating toughness and roughness in ductile fracture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponson, Laurent; Osovski, Shmulik; Bouchaud, Elisabeth; Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Three dimensional calculations of ductile crack growth under mode I plane strain, small scale yielding conditions are carried out using an elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation for a progres- sively cavitating plastic solid with two populations of void nucleating second phase particles. Full field solutions are obtained for three dimensional material microstructures characterized by ran- dom distributions of void nucleating particles. Crack growth resistance curves and fracture surface roughness statistics are calculated using standard procedures. The range of void nucleating particle volume fractions considered give rise to values of toughness, JIC, that vary by a factor of four. For all volume fractions considered, the computed fracture surfaces are self-affine over a size range of about two orders of magnitude with a roughness exponent of 0.54 $\\pm$ 0.03. For small void nucleating particle volume fractions, the mean large particle spacing serves as a single dominant length scale. In this regime, the c...

  20. Correlating toughness and roughness in ductile fracture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laurent Ponson; Ankit Srivastava; Shmulik Osovski; Elisabeth Bouchaud; Viggo Tvergaard; Alan Needleman

    2013-07-16

    Three dimensional calculations of ductile crack growth under mode I plane strain, small scale yielding conditions are carried out using an elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation for a progres- sively cavitating plastic solid with two populations of void nucleating second phase particles. Full field solutions are obtained for three dimensional material microstructures characterized by ran- dom distributions of void nucleating particles. Crack growth resistance curves and fracture surface roughness statistics are calculated using standard procedures. The range of void nucleating particle volume fractions considered give rise to values of toughness, JIC, that vary by a factor of four. For all volume fractions considered, the computed fracture surfaces are self-affine over a size range of about two orders of magnitude with a roughness exponent of 0.54 $\\pm$ 0.03. For small void nucleating particle volume fractions, the mean large particle spacing serves as a single dominant length scale. In this regime, the correlation length of the fracture surface corresponding to the cut-off of the self-affine behavior is found to be linearly related to JIC thus quantitatively correlating toughness and fracture surface roughness.

  1. Distributed Roughness Receptivity in a Flat Plate Boundary Layer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuester, Matthew Scott

    2014-04-18

    the incoming boundary layer. This dissertation describes an experiment specifically designed to study the shielding effect. Three roughness configurations, a deterministic distributed roughness patch, a slanted rectangle, and the combination of the two, were...

  2. A fast direct numerical simulation method for characterising hydraulic roughness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Daniel; MacDonald, Michael; Hutchins, Nicholas; Ooi, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    We describe a fast direct numerical simulation (DNS) method that promises to directly characterise the hydraulic roughness of any given rough surface, from the hydraulically smooth to the fully rough regime. The method circumvents the unfavourable computational cost associated with simulating high-Reynolds-number flows by employing minimal-span channels (Jimenez & Moin 1991). Proof-of-concept simulations demonstrate that flows in minimal-span channels are sufficient for capturing the downward velocity shift, that is, the Hama roughness function, predicted by flows in full-span channels. We consider two sets of simulations, first with modelled roughness imposed by body forces, and second with explicit roughness described by roughness-conforming grids. Owing to the minimal cost, we are able to conduct DNSs with increasing roughness Reynolds numbers while maintaining a fixed blockage ratio, as is typical in full-scale applications. The present method promises a practical, fast and accurate tool for character...

  3. Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy: American Society for Radiation Oncology/American Urological Association Guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valicenti, Richard K., E-mail: Richard.valicenti@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Davis, California (United States); Thompson, Ian [Department of Urology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Albertsen, Peter [Division of Urology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut (United States); Davis, Brian J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Medical School, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Goldenberg, S. Larry [Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Wolf, J. Stuart [Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sartor, Oliver [Department of Medicine and Urology, Tulane Medical School, New Orleans, Louisiana (United States); Klein, Eric [Glickman Urological Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hahn, Carol [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Faraday, Martha M. [Four Oaks, Inc (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this guideline was to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant or salvage therapy. Methods and Materials: A systematic literature review using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications relevant to the use of radiation therapy after prostatectomy. The review yielded 294 articles; these publications were used to create the evidence-based guideline statements. Additional guidance is provided as Clinical Principles when insufficient evidence existed. Results: Guideline statements are provided for patient counseling, use of radiation therapy in the adjuvant and salvage contexts, defining biochemical recurrence, and conducting a restaging evaluation. Conclusions: Physicians should offer adjuvant radiation therapy to patients with adverse pathologic findings at prostatectomy (ie, seminal vesicle invastion, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension) and salvage radiation therapy to patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or local recurrence after prostatectomy in whom there is no evidence of distant metastatic disease. The offer of radiation therapy should be made in the context of a thoughtful discussion of possible short- and long-term side effects of radiation therapy as well as the potential benefits of preventing recurrence. The decision to administer radiation therapy should be made by the patient and the multidisciplinary treatment team with full consideration of the patient's history, values, preferences, quality of life, and functional status. The American Society for Radiation Oncology and American Urological Association websites show this guideline in its entirety, including the full literature review.

  4. Adhesive rough contacts near complete contact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Ciavarella

    2015-05-01

    Recently, there has been some debate over the effect of adhesion on the contact of rough surfaces. Classical asperity theories predict, in agreement with experimental observations, that adhesion is always destroyed by roughness except if the amplitude of the same is extremely small, and the materials are particularly soft. This happens for all fractal dimensions. However, these theories are limited due to the geometrical simplification, which may be particularly strong in conditions near full contact. We introduce therefore a simple model for adhesion, which aims at being rigorous near full contact, where we postulate there are only small isolated gaps between the two bodies. The gaps can be considered as "pressurized cracks" by using Ken Johnson's idea of searching a corrective solution to the full contact solution. The solution is an extension of the adhesive-less solution proposed recently by Xu, Jackson, and Marghitu (XJM model) (2014). This process seems to confirm recent theories using the JKR theory, namely that the effect of adhesion depends critically on the fractal dimension. For D2.5, seems for large enough magnifications that a full fractal roughness completely destroys adhesion. These results are partly paradoxical since strong adhesion is not observed in nature except in special cases. A possible way out of the paradox may be that the conclusion is relevant for the near full contact regime, where the strong role of flaws at the interfaces, and of gaps full of contaminant, trapped air or liquid in pressure, needs to be further explored. If conditions near full contact are not achieved on loading, probably the conclusions of classical asperity theories may be confirmed.

  5. Salvage/Adjuvant Brachytherapy After Ophthalmic Artery Chemosurgery for Intraocular Retinoblastoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, Jasmine H.; Barker, Christopher A.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; McCormick, Beryl; Segal, Kira; Cohen, Gil; Gobin, Y. Pierre; Marr, Brian P.; Brodie, Scott E.; Dunkel, Ira J.; Abramson, David H.

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of brachytherapy after ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC) for retinoblastoma. Methods and Materials: This was a single-arm, retrospective study of 15 eyes in 15 patients treated with OAC followed by brachytherapy at (blinded institution) between May 1, 2006, and December 31, 2012, with a median 19 months' follow-up from plaque insertion. Outcome measurements included patient and ocular survival, visual function, and retinal toxicity measured by electroretinogram (ERG). Results: Brachytherapy was used as adjuvant treatment in 2 eyes and as salvage therapy in 13 eyes of which 12 had localized vitreous seeding. No patients developed metastasis or died of retinoblastoma. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of ocular survival was 79.4% (95% confidence interval 48.7%-92.8%) at 18 months. Three eyes were enucleated, and an additional 6 eyes developed out-of-target volume recurrences, which were controlled with additional treatments. Patients with an ocular complication had a mean interval between last OAC and plaque of 2.5 months (SD 2.3 months), which was statistically less (P=.045) than patients without ocular complication who had a mean interval between last OAC and plaque of 6.5 months (SD 4.4 months). ERG responses from pre- versus postplaque were unchanged or improved in more than half the eyes. Conclusions: Brachytherapy following OAC is effective, even in the presence of vitreous seeding; the majority of eyes maintained stable or improved retinal function following treatment, as assessed by ERG.

  6. Hydrothermal coupling in a rough fracture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neuville, A; Schmittbuhl, J; Neuville, Am\\'{e}lie; Toussaint, Renaud; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Heat exchange during laminar flow is studied at the fracture scale on the basis of the Stokes equation. We used a synthetic aperture model (a self-affine model) that has been shown to be a realistic geometrical description of the fracture morphology. We developed a numerical modelling using a finite difference scheme of the hydrodynamic flow and its coupling with an advection/conduction description of the fluid heat. As a first step, temperature within the surrounding rock is supposed to be constant. Influence of the fracture roughness on the heat flux through the wall, is estimated and a thermalization length is shown to emerge. Implications for the Soultz-sous-For\\^{e}ts geothermal project are discussed.

  7. Wetting, Spreading, and Adsorption on Randomly Rough Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Herminghaus

    2011-11-17

    The wetting properties of solid substrates with customary (i.e., macroscopic) random roughness are considered as a function of the microscopic contact angle of the wetting liquid and its partial pressure in the surrounding gas phase. Analytic expressions are derived which allow for any given lateral correlation function and height distribution of the roughness to calculate the wetting phase diagram, the adsorption isotherms, and to locate the percolation transition in the adsorbed liquid film. Most features turn out to depend only on a few key parameters of the roughness, which can be clearly identified. It is shown that a first order transition in the adsorbed film thickness, which we term 'Wenzel prewetting', occurs generically on typical roughness topographies, but is absent on purely Gaussian roughness. It is thereby shown that even subtle deviations from Gaussian roughness characteristics may be essential for correctly predicting even qualitative aspects of wetting.

  8. Quantity and Fate of Water Salvage as a Result of Saltcedar Control on the Pecos River in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Z.; McDonald, A.K.; Hart, C.; Hatler, W.; Villalobos, J.

    2007-01-01

    of saltcedar control be conducted. For future studies using the paired plot method, it is recommended that both sites be logged for at least 3 years prior to treatment. To reduce the potential for upriver treatment affect on downriver study areas... by saltcedar at night, and that there is no significant water use prior to April or after September. In order to estimate potential water salvage from control of saltcedar, the study site was set up following the EPA (1993) Paired Plot Study Design...

  9. Enhanced Tissue Adhesion by Increased Porosity and Surface Roughness...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Enhanced Tissue Adhesion by Increased Porosity and Surface Roughness of Carbon Based Biomaterials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enhanced Tissue Adhesion by Increased...

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS AND INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR CYLINDRICAL HYDRODYNAMIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnes, Cris W.

    CHARACTERIZATION OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS AND INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR CYLINDRICAL HYDRODYNAMIC AND MIX across a variable density interface, that interface must be well characterized. There exist a number, characterizing, and affecting the surface roughness was driven by Ablative Rayleigh-Taylor work5

  11. Counterintuitive MCNPX Results for Scintillator Surface Roughness Effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-08-12

    We have reported on our recent MCNPX simulation results of energy deposition for a group of 8 scintillation detectors, coupled with various rough surface patterns. The MCNPX results generally favored the detectors with various rough surface patterns. The observed MCNPX results are not fully explained by this work.

  12. Gravitational quantum states of neutrons in a rough waveguide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. E. Meyerovich; V. V. Nesvizhevsky

    2006-03-22

    A theory of gravitational quantum states of ultracold neutrons in waveguides with absorbing/scattering walls is presented. The theory covers recent experiments in which the ultracold neutrons were beamed between a mirror and a rough scatterer/absorber. The analysis is based on a recently developed theory of quantum transport along random rough walls which is modified in order to include leaky (absorbing) interfaces and, more importantly, the low-amplitude high-aperture roughness. The calculations are focused on a regime when the direct transitions into the continuous spectrum above the absorption threshold dominate the depletion of neutrons from the gravitational states and are more efficient than the processes involving the intermediate states. The theoretical results for the neutron count are sensitive to the correlation radius (lateral size) of surface inhomogeneities and to the ratio of the particle energy to the absorption threshold in a weak roughness limit. The main impediment for observation of the higher gravitational states is the "overhang" of the particle wave functions which can be overcome only by use scatterers with strong roughness. In general, the strong roughness with high amplitude is preferable if one wants just to detect the individual gravitational states, while the strong roughness experiments with small amplitude and high aperture are preferable for the quantitative analysis of the data. We also discuss the ways to further improve the accuracy of calculations and to optimize the experimental regime.

  13. Salvage Treatment for Recurrent Intracranial Germinoma After Reduced-Volume Radiotherapy: A Single-Institution Experience and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Yu-Wen [Cancer Center, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Cancer Center, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Pin-I [Cancer Center, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Cancer Center, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wong, Tai-Tong [Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Ho, Donald Ming-Tak [Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Pathology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Kai-Ping [Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Pediatrics, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Guo, Wan-Yuo; Chang, Feng-Chi [Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shiau, Cheng-Yin [Cancer Center, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Cancer Center, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liang, Muh-Lii; Lee, Yi-Yen [Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China) [Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); and others

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Intracranial germinomas (IGs) are highly curable with radiotherapy (RT). However, recurrence still occurs, especially when limited-field RT is applied, and the optimal salvage therapy remains controversial. Methods and Materials: Between January 1989 and December 2010, 14 patients with clinically or pathologically diagnosed recurrent IGs after RT were reviewed at our institution. Of these, 11 received focal-field RT, and the other 3 received whole-brain irradiation, whole-ventricle irradiation, and Gamma Knife radiosurgery as the respective first course of RT. In addition, we identified from the literature 88 patients with recurrent IGs after reduced-volume RT, in whom the details of salvage therapy were recorded. Results: The median time to recurrence was 30.3 months (range, 3.8-134.9 months). One patient did not receive further treatment and was lost during follow-up. Of the patients, 7 underwent salvage with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) plus chemotherapy (CT), 4 with CSI alone, 1 with whole-brain irradiation plus CT, and 1 with Gamma Knife radiosurgery. The median follow-up time was 105.1 months (range, 24.2-180.9 months). Three patients died without evidence of disease progression: two from second malignancies and one from unknown cause. The others remained disease free. The 3-year survival rate after recurrence was 83.3%. A total of 102 patients from our study and the literature review were analyzed to determine the factors affecting prognosis and outcomes. After recurrence, the 5-year survival rates were 71% and 92.9% for all patients and for those receiving salvage CSI, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that initial RT volume, initial RT dose, initial CT, and salvage RT type were significant prognostic predictors of survival. On multivariable analysis, salvage CSI was the most significant factor (p = 0.03). Conclusions: Protracted follow-up is recommended because late recurrence is not uncommon. CSI with or without CT is an effective salvage treatment for recurrence after reduced-volume RT.

  14. Wetting on Random Roughness: the Ubiquity of Wenzel Prewetting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephan Herminghaus

    2012-03-23

    The wetting properties of solid substrates with macroscopic random roughness are considered as a function of the microscopic contact angle of the wetting liquid and its partial pressure in the surrounding gas phase. It is shown that Wenzel prewetting, which has been recently predicted for a rather wide class of roughness pro?les derived from Gaussian random processes by a general distortion procedure, should in fact be ubiquitous and prevail under even much milder conditions. The well-known transition occurring at Wenzel's angle is accompanied by a prewetting transition, at which a jump in the adsorbed liquid volume occurs. This should be present on most surfaces bearing homogeneous, isotropic random roughness.

  15. Influence of surface roughness and waviness upon thermal contact resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yovanovich, M. Michael

    1967-01-01

    This work deals with the phenomenon of thermal resistance between contacting solids. Attention is directed towards contiguous solids possessing both surface roughness and waviness. When two such surfaces are brought together ...

  16. Effect of Surface Roughness on Wind Turbine Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehrmann, Robert Schaefer

    2014-06-25

    Wind farm operators observe production deficits as machines age. Quantifying deterioration on individual components is difficult, but one potential explanation is accumulation of blade surface roughness. Historically, wind turbine airfoils were...

  17. PROPAGATION OF SINGULARITIES FOR ROUGH METRICS HART F. SMITH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Hart F.

    PROPAGATION OF SINGULARITIES FOR ROUGH METRICS HART F. SMITH Abstract. We use a wave packet the Simons Foundation (# 266371 to Hart Smith). 1 #12;2 HART F. SMITH H¨ormander's theorem [9] on propagation

  18. Hypersonic Measurements of Roughness-Induced Transient Growth 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharp, Nicole Susanne

    2014-04-17

    The effects of surface roughness on boundary-layer disturbance growth and laminar-to-turbulent transition are not well understood, especially in hypersonic boundary layers. The transient growth mechanism that produces algebraic growth of stream wise...

  19. Sept 2001 Rough Draft OFFM Policy Letter 02-1.doc | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sept 2001 Rough Draft OFFM Policy Letter 02-1.doc Sept 2001 Rough Draft OFFM Policy Letter 02-1.doc Sept 2001 Rough Draft OFFM Policy Letter 02-1.doc More Documents & Publications...

  20. Role of Salvage Radiation Therapy for Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma Who Failed Autologous Stem Cell Transplant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goda, Jayant S.; Massey, Christine; Kuruvilla, John; Gospodarowicz, Mary K.; Wells, Woodrow; Hodgson, David C.; Sun, Alexander; Keating, Armand; Crump, Michael; Tsang, Richard W.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To analyze, through chart review, the efficacy of salvage radiation therapy (sRT) for relapsed or progressive Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients who failed autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). Patients and Methods: Among 347 patients with recurrent/refractory HL who received ASCT from 1986-2006, 163 had post-ASCT progression or relapse. Of these, 56 received sRT and form the basis of this report. Median age at sRT was 30 years (range, 17-59 years). Disease was confined to lymph nodes in 27 patients, whereas 24 had both nodal and extranodal disease. Salvage radiation therapy alone was given in 34 patients (61%), and sRT plus chemotherapy was given in 22 (39%). Median interval from ASCT to sRT was 0.8 years (range, 0.1-5.6 years). The median dose was 35 Gy (range, 8-40.3 Gy). The sRT technique was extended-field in 14 patients (25%) and involved-field in 42 (75%). Results: The median follow-up from sRT was 31.3 months (range, 0.2-205.5 months). Overall response rate was 84% (complete response: 36%; partial response: 48%). The median overall survival was 40.8 months (95% confidence interval, 34.2-56.3 months). The 5-year overall survival was 29% (95% confidence interval, 14%-44%). The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 16%; the 2-year local PFS was 65%, whereas the 2-year systemic PFS was 17%. The 1-year PFS was higher in patients in whom all diseased sites were irradiated (49%) compared with those in whom only the symptomatic site was treated (22%, P=.07). Among 20 alive patients, 5 were disease free (at 6.4, 6.8, 7.4, 7.9, and 17.1 years). Conclusion: For patients with HL who fail ASCT, a selective use of RT provides a durable local control rate of 65% at 2 years and should be considered as part of the standard management plan for the palliation of incurable HL. Occasionally irradiation of truly localized disease can lead to long-term survival.

  1. Application of Rough Set Theory to Analysis of Hydrocyclone Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owladeghaffari, H; Irannajad, M

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes application of rough set theory, on the analysis of hydrocyclone operation. In this manner, using Self Organizing Map (SOM) as preprocessing step, best crisp granules of data are obtained. Then, using a combining of SOM and rough set theory (RST)-called SORST-, the dominant rules on the information table, obtained from laboratory tests, are extracted. Based on these rules, an approximate estimation on decision attribute is fulfilled. Finally, a brief comparison of this method with the SOM-NFIS system (briefly SONFIS) is highlighted.

  2. E ective boundary conditions for laminar ows over periodic rough boundaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Achdou, Yves

    E#27;ective boundary conditions for laminar #29;ows over periodic rough boundaries Yves Achdou #3 are proposed for a laminar #29;ow over a rough wall with periodic roughness elements. These e#27;ective is such an approach ? In this paper, we wish to answer these questions for laminar #29;ows over periodic rough walls

  3. ORIGINAL PAPER Transient Heat Conduction Between Rough Sliding Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Awtar, Shorya

    , and the results are combined with the height distributions to determine the mean heat flux and the mean normal increases with the square root of the sliding speed and decreases with the 3/4 power of the combined RMSORIGINAL PAPER Transient Heat Conduction Between Rough Sliding Surfaces Yuwei Liu · J. R. Barber

  4. Analysis of the Scattering by an Unbounded Rough Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-11-12

    eling acoustic and electromagnetic wave propagation over outdoor ground and sea surfaces, optical scattering from the ... been intensively examined by researchers in the engineering community. ..... explicit characterization of the norm in H1(?) via Fourier coefficient: ...... rough surfaces, Wave Motion, 24 (1996)

  5. LARGE EDDY SIMULATION OF TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYERS OVER ROUGH BEDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlak, Geno

    that determines the response of the boundary layer is not clear. One method to characterize the irregular nature with different spectral slopes using 2D 10 % loading square waves as basis functions. These square waves can) is then used to simulate the turbulent boundary layer over the rough beds. The LES solver is first validated

  6. Health assessment for Northwest Transformer, Salvage Yard, Everson, Whatcom County, Washington, Region 10. CERCLIS No. WAD980833974. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-14

    The Northwest Transformer Salvage Yard is a National Priorities List (NPL) Site located in Whatcom County, Washington, approximately two miles south of the town of Everson, Washington. Between 1958-1985, the site served as a storage and refurbishing area for electrical transformers, capacitors, and other electrical equipment. An Immediate Removal Action was performed at the site in 1985, and included the excavation and removal of on-site contaminated soils, liquids, and electrical equipment. Subsequent sampling and analysis of on-site and off-site soils and groundwater revealed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and chlorinated dibenzofurans. Identified pathways for the migration of site-associated contaminants include those associated with groundwater, surface water, soil, and bioaccumulation. Potential pathways for human exposure to site contaminants include ingestion of contaminated groundwater, soils, or foodchain entities, inhalation of fugitive dusts, and dermal contact with contaminated groundwater, surface water, soil, or wood from an on-site building. Under current conditions the site poses a potential threat to human health in the event of unauthorized site entry, or the ingestion of contaminated groundwater.

  7. Combinatorial Block Copolymer Ordering on Tunable Rough Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, Manish M.; Yager, Kevin G.; Sharma, Ashutosh; Karim, Alamgir (IIT-India); (Akron); (BNL)

    2012-10-25

    Morphology control of block copolymer (BCP) thin films through substrate interaction via controlled roughness parameters is of significant interest for numerous high-tech applications ranging from solar cells to high-density storage media. While effects of substrate surface energy (SE) and roughness (R) on BCP morphology have been individually investigated, their synergistic effects have not been explored in any systematic manner. Interestingly, orientation response of BCP to changes in SE can be similar to what can be accomplished with variations in R. Here we present a novel approach for orienting lamellar BCP films of poly(styrene)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-PMMA) on spin-coated xerogel (a dried gel of silica nanoparticle network) substrate with simultaneously tunable surface energy, {gamma}{sub s} {approx} 29-53 mJ/m{sup 2}, by UVO exposure and roughness, R{sub rms} {approx} 0.5-30 nm, by sol-gel processing steps of regulating the catalyst concentration and sol aging time. As in previous BCP orientation studies on 20 nm diameter monodisperse silica nanoparticle coated surface, we find a similar but broadened oscillatory BCP orientation behavior with film thickness due to the random rather than periodic rough surfaces. We also find that higher random roughness amplitude is not the necessary criteria for obtaining a vertical orientation of BCP lamellae. Rather, a high surface fractal dimension (D{sub f} > 2.4) of the rough substrate in conjunction with an optimal substrate surface energy {gamma}{sub s} {approx} 29 mJ/m{sup 2} results in 100% vertically oriented lamellar microdomains. The AFM measured film surface microstructure correlates well with the internal 3D BCP film structure probed by grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and rotational small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). In contrast to tunable self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-coated substrates, the xerogel films are very durable and retain their chemical properties over period of several months. These results also highlight importantly that BCP orientation control for nanotechnology is possible not only on specially prepared patterned substrates but also on industrially viable sol-gel substrates.

  8. Heat transfer between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. N. J. Persson; B. Lorenz; A. I. Volokitin

    2009-08-27

    We study the heat transfer between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces. We include both the heat transfer from the area of real contact, and the heat transfer between the surfaces in the noncontact regions. We apply a recently developed contact mechanics theory, which accounts for the hierarchical nature of the contact between solids with roughness on many different length scales. For elastic contact, at the highest (atomic) resolution the area of real contact typically consists of atomic (nanometer) sized regions, and we discuss the implications of this for the heat transfer. For solids with very smooth surfaces, as is typical in many modern engineering applications, the interfacial separation in the non-contact regions will be very small, and for this case we show the importance of the radiative heat transfer associated with the evanescent electromagnetic waves which exist outside of all bodies.

  9. Capillary adhesion between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. N. J. Persson

    2008-05-06

    I study how the contact area and the work of adhesion, between two elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces, depend on the relative humidity. The surfaces are assumed to be hydrophilic, and capillary bridges form at the interface between the solids. For elastically hard solids with relative smooth surfaces, the area of real contact and therefore also the sliding friction, are maximal when there is just enough liquid to fill out the interfacial space between the solids, which typically occurs for $d_{\\rm K} \\approx 3 h_{\\rm rms}$, where $d_{\\rm K}$ is the height of the capillary bridge and $h_{\\rm rms}$ the root-mean-square roughness of the (combined) surface roughness profile. For elastically soft solids, the area of real contact is maximal for very low humidity (i.e., small $d_{\\rm K}$), where the capillary bridges are able to pull the solids into nearly complete contact. In both case, the work of adhesion is maximal (and equal to $2\\gamma {\\rm cos}\\theta$, where $\\gamma$ is the liquid surface tension and $\\theta$ the liquid-solid contact angle) when $d_{\\rm K} >> h_{\\rm rms}$, corresponding to high relative humidity.

  10. Effects of hydraulic roughness on surface textures of gravel-bed rivers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montgomery, David R.

    Effects of hydraulic roughness on surface textures of gravel-bed rivers John M. Buffington1 that bed-surface grain size is responsive to hydraulic roughness caused by bank irregularities, bars condition of low hydraulic roughness. For a given 0bf , channels with progressively greater hydraulic

  11. Independent External Peer Review Report Rough River Dam 18 August 2011 ii

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    #12;Independent External Peer Review Report ­ Rough River Dam 18 August 2011 ii This page intentionally blank. #12;Independent External Peer Review Report ­ Rough River Dam 18 August 2011 iii Table Panel Members B-1 Appendix C ­ Charge for IEPR Panel C-1 List of Figures Figure 1. Rough River Dam 4

  12. Scaling laws governing the roughness of the swash edge line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ed. Bormashenko; A. Musin; R. Grynuov

    2014-02-23

    The physics of swash i.e. a layer of water that washes up on the beach after an incoming wave has broken is complicated and intriguing. It includes perplexed hydrodynamic and sediment transport events. In our paper we address to the roughness of the moving swash boundary at which a beach, water and air meet. We treat the behavior of this boundary as an interfacial phenomenon, without going into details of formation of edge waves and beach cusps, covered broadly in literature. This "crude" approach turns out to be productive and revealing the resemblance of the swash line with a broad diversity of effects arising from the random pinning of moving boundaries.

  13. Scaling laws governing the roughness of the swash edge line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bormashenko, Ed; Grynuov, R

    2014-01-01

    The physics of swash i.e. a layer of water that washes up on the beach after an incoming wave has broken is complicated and intriguing. It includes perplexed hydrodynamic and sediment transport events. In our paper we address to the roughness of the moving swash boundary at which a beach, water and air meet. We treat the behavior of this boundary as an interfacial phenomenon, without going into details of formation of edge waves and beach cusps, covered broadly in literature. This "crude" approach turns out to be productive and revealing the resemblance of the swash line with a broad diversity of effects arising from the random pinning of moving boundaries.

  14. File:Wind rough example.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdistoWhiskey flats 100k.pdf Jump to: navigation, searchWind rough

  15. Fresh Direct: A Rotten Deal By Tom Angotti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Weigang

    and NY Post facilities. Nearby are a Con Edison plant, the city's largest waste water treatment plant, a sludge processing facility, and the city's wholesale produce market. These are all big generators

  16. Semiclassical Theory of Integrable and Rough Andreev Billiards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Ihra; M. Leadbeater; J. L. Vega; K. Richter

    1999-09-08

    We study the effect on the density of states in mesoscopic ballistic billiards to which a superconducting lead is attached. The expression for the density of states is derived in the semiclassical S-matrix formalism shedding insight into the origin of the differences between the semiclassical theory and the corresponding result derived from random matrix models. Applications to a square billiard geometry and billiards with boundary roughness are discussed. The saturation of the quasiparticle excitation spectrum is related to the classical dynamics of the billiard. The influence of weak magnetic fields on the proximity effect in rough Andreev billiards is discussed and an analytical formula is derived. The semiclassical theory provides an interpretation for the suppression of the proximity effect in the presence of magnetic fields as a coherence effect of time reversed trajectories, similar to the weak localisation correction of the magneto-resistance in chaotic mesoscopic systems. The semiclassical theory is shown to be in good agreement with quantum mechanical calculations.

  17. Local contact stress measurements at a rough interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Scheibert; A. Prevost; J. Frelat; P. Rey; G. Debrégeas

    2007-11-07

    An original MEMS-based force sensing device is designed which allows to measure spatially resolved normal and tangential stress fields at the base of an elastomeric film. This device is used for the study of the contact stress between a rough film and a smooth glass sphere under normal load. The measured profiles are compared to Finite Elements Method calculations for a smooth contact with boundary conditions obeying Amontons-Coulomb's friction law. The accuracy of the measurements allows to discriminate between dry and lubricated contact conditions and to evidence load-dependent deviations from Amontons-Coulomb's profiles. These deviations are qualitatively interpreted by taking into account the finite compliance of the micro-contact population.

  18. A rough analytic relation on partial differential equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kato, Tsuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    We introduce some analytic relations on the set of partial differential equations of two variables. It relies on a new comparison method to give rough asymptotic estimates for solutions which obey different partial differential equations. It uses a kind of scale transform called tropical geometry which connects automata with real rational dynamics. Two different solutions can be considered when their defining equations are transformed to the same automata at infinity. We have a systematic way to construct related pairs of different partial differential equations, and also construct some unrelated pairs concretely. These verify that the new relations are non trivial. We also make numerical calculations and compare the results for both related and unrelated pairs of PDEs.

  19. Thermodynamics of sustaining gases in the roughness of submerged superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelesh A. Patankar

    2015-05-22

    Rough surfaces submerged in a liquid can remain almost dry if the liquid does not fully wet the roughness and gases are sustained in roughness grooves. Such partially dry surfaces can help reduce drag or enhance boiling. Gases sustained in roughness grooves would be composed of air and the vapor phase of the liquid itself. The thermodynamics of sustaining vapor was considered in a prior work [Patankar, Soft Matter, 2010, 6:1613]. Here, the thermodynamics of sustaining gases (e.g. air) is considered. Governing equations are presented along with a solution methodology to determine a critical condition to sustain gases. The critical roughness scale to sustain gases is estimated for different degrees of saturation of gases dissolved in the liquid. It is shown that roughness spacings of less than a micron are essential to sustain gases on surfaces submerged in water at atmospheric pressure. This is consistent with prior empirical data.

  20. SURVEY REPORT FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FIVE TANKS LOCATED NEAR THE OLD SALVAGE YARD AT THE Y-12 NATIONAL SECURITY COMPLEX, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rollow, Kathy

    2012-08-23

    This summary report presents analytical results, radiological survey data, and other data/information for disposition planning of the five tanks located west of the Old Salvage Yard (OSY) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Field personnel from Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) and URS?CH2M Oak Ridge LLC completed data collection in May 2012 per the project-specific plan (PSP) (ORAU 2012). Deviations from the PSP are addressed in the body of this report. Characterization activities included three data collection modes: visual inspection, radiological survey, and volumetric sampling/analysis. This report includes the final validated dataset and updates associated with the Tank 2 residues originally thought to be a biological bloom (e.g., slime mold) but ultimately identified as iron sulfate crystals.

  1. Health assessment for Northwest Transformer Salvage Yard National Priorities List (NPL) Site, Whatcom County, Washington, Region 10. CERCLIS No. WAD027315621. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-14

    The Northwest Transformer Salvage Yard is a National Priorities List site located in Whatcom County, Washington, approximately two miles south of the town of Everson, Washington. Between 1958-1985, the site served as a storage and refurbishing area for electrical transformers, capacitors, and other electrical equipment. Subsequent sampling and analysis of on-site and off-site soils and groundwater revealed polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and chlorinated dibenzofurans. Potential pathways for human exposure to site contaminants include ingestion of fugitive dusts, and dermal contact with contaminated ground water, surface water, soil, or wood from an on-site building. Under current conditions the site poses a potential threat to human health in the event of unauthorized site entry, or the ingestion of contaminated ground water.

  2. Surface Roughness of Stainless Steel Bender Mirrors for Focusing Soft X-rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01

    Surface Roughness of Stainless Steel Bender Mirrors forWe have used polished stainless steel as a mirror substratefor smooth polishing. Stainless steel is stronger and can be

  3. Flow rule of dense granular flows down a rough incline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamas Borzsonyi; Robert E. Ecke

    2007-07-09

    We present experimental findings on the flow rule for granular flows on a rough inclined plane using various materials including sand and glass beads of various sizes and four types of copper particles with different shapes. We characterize the materials by measuring $h_s$ (the thickness at which the flow subsides) as a function of the plane inclination $\\theta$ on various surfaces. Measuring the surface velocity $u$ of the flow as a function of flow thickness $h$, we find that for sand and glass beads the Pouliquen flow rule $u/\\sqrt{gh} \\sim \\beta h/h_s$ provides reasonable but not perfect collapse of the $u(h)$ curves measured for various $\\theta$ and mean particle diameter $d$. Improved collapse is obtained for sand and glass beads by using a recently proposed scaling of the form $u/\\sqrt{gh} =\\beta \\cdot h \\tan^2\\theta /h_s\\ \\tan^2\\theta_1$ where $\\theta_1$ is the angle at which the $h_s(\\theta)$ curves diverge. Measuring the slope $\\beta$ for ten different sizes of sand and glass beads, we find a systematic, strong increase of $\\beta$ with the divergence angle $\\theta_1$ of $h_s$. The copper materials with different shapes are not well described by either flow rule with $u \\sim h^{3/2}$.

  4. Lyapunov instability of rough hard-disk fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobus A. van Meel; Harald A. Posch

    2009-04-02

    The dynamical instability of rough hard-disk fluids in two dimensions is characterized through the Lyapunov spectrum and the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, $h_{KS}$, for a wide range of densities and moments of inertia $I$. For small $I$ the spectrum separates into translation-dominated and rotation-dominated parts. With increasing $I$ the rotation-dominated part is gradually filled in at the expense of translation, until such a separation becomes meaningless. At any density, the rate of phase-space mixing, given by $h_{KS}$, becomes less and less effective the more the rotation affects the dynamics. However, the degree of dynamical chaos, measured by the maximum Lyapunov exponent, is only enhanced by the rotational degrees of freedom for high-density gases, but is diminished for lower densities. Surprisingly, no traces of Lyapunov modes were found in the spectrum for larger moments of inertia. The spatial localization of the perturbation vector associated with the maximum exponent however persists for any $I$.

  5. Early Salvage Hormonal Therapy for Biochemical Failure Improved Survival in Prostate Cancer Patients After Neoadjuvant Hormonal Therapy Plus Radiation Therapy-A Secondary Analysis of Irish Clinical Oncology Research Group 97-01

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mydin, Aminudin R., E-mail: aminudinrahman@googlemail.com [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Kuala Lumpur Hospital, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Dunne, Mary T.; Finn, Marie A. [Clinical Trials Resource Unit, St. Luke's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)] [Clinical Trials Resource Unit, St. Luke's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Armstrong, John G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the survival benefit of early vs late salvage hormonal therapy (HT), we performed a secondary analysis on patients who developed recurrence from Irish Clinical Oncology Research Group 97-01, a randomized trial comparing 4 vs 8 months neoadjuvant HT plus radiation therapy (RT) in intermediate- and high-risk prostate adenocarcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 102 patients from the trial who recurred were analyzed at a median follow-up of 8.5 years. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on the timing of salvage HT: 57 patients had prostate-specific antigen (PSA) {<=}10 ng/mL and absent distant metastases (group 1, early), 21 patients had PSA >10 ng/mL and absent distant metastases (group 2, late), and 24 patients had distant metastases (group 3, late). The endpoint analyzed was overall survival (OS) calculated from 2 different time points: date of enrolment in the trial (OS1) and date of initiation of salvage HT (OS2). Survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves and a Cox regression model. Results: The OS1 differed significantly between groups (P<.0005): OS1 at 10 years was 78% in group 1, 42% in group 2, and 29% in group 3. The OS2 also differed significantly between groups (P<.0005): OS2 at 6 years was 70% in group 1, 47% in group 2, and 22% in group 3. Group 1 had the longest median time from end of RT to biochemical failure compared with groups 2 and 3 (3.3, 0.9, and 1.7 years, respectively; P<.0005). Group 1 also had the longest median PSA doubling time compared with groups 2 and 3 (9.9, 3.6, and 2.4 months, respectively; P<.0005). On multivariate analysis, timing of salvage HT, time from end of RT to biochemical failure, and PSA nadir on salvage HT were significant predictors of survival. Conclusion: Early salvage HT based on PSA {<=}10 ng/mL and absent distant metastases improved survival in patients with prostate cancer after failure of initial treatment with neoadjuvant HT plus RT.

  6. Surface roughness and geological mapping at sub-hectometer scale from the High

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cord, Aurélien

    and characterized in terms of roughness. Key words: Geological Processes, Impact Processes, Image Processing, Mars valuable insights into the characterization of and discrimination between these geological processesSurface roughness and geological mapping at sub-hectometer scale from the High Resolution Stereo

  7. Evolution of swelling pressure of cohesive-frictional, rough and elasto-plastic granulates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luding, Stefan

    with cohesive-frictional, rough and elasto-plastic "mi- croscopic" contact properties. The spherical particlesEvolution of swelling pressure of cohesive- frictional, rough and elasto-plastic granulates Stefan as function of pressure for different micro- scopic contact properties. Keywords: granular materials, discrete

  8. Computation of the drag force on a rough sphere close to a wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gérard-Varet, David

    2011-01-01

    We consider the effect of surface roughness on solid-solid contact in a Stokes flow. Various models for the roughness are considered, and a unified methodology is given to derive the corresponding asymptotics of the drag force. In this way, we recover and clarify the various expressions that can be found in the litterature.

  9. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Effects of Surface Roughness on Laminar Separation Bubble over a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhi Jian "ZJ"

    1 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Effects of Surface Roughness on Laminar Engineering and CFD Center, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 Laminar separation bubbles (LSBs) are often of surface roughness on laminar separation and turbulent transition can provide insights into the design

  10. A FETCH DEPENDENT MODEL OF SEA SURFACE ROUGHNESS FOR OFFSHORE WIND POWER UTILISATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    A FETCH DEPENDENT MODEL OF SEA SURFACE ROUGHNESS FOR OFFSHORE WIND POWER UTILISATION Bernhard Lange, Resources, Roughness, Coastal Sea Areas, Waves, Rødsand 1 INTRODUCTION Large offshore wind farms are being wind conditions of offshore sites, since the higher energy yield has to compensate the additional

  11. Roughness Tolerance Studies for the Undulator Beam Pipe Chamber of LCLS-II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bane, K

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effect of wall roughness on the wakefield-induced energy variation in the undulator beam pipe of LCLS-II. We find that a wall roughness equivalent to an rms surface slope of 30 mr increases the total induced energy variation within the bunch (due to the resistive wall wake) by a modest 20%.

  12. Internal wave generation from rough topography D. A. Aguilar and B. R. Sutherlanda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutherland, Bruce

    Internal wave generation from rough topography D. A. Aguilar and B. R. Sutherlanda Department examine internal wave generation above and in the lee of finite-amplitude periodic topography having various degrees of roughness. We show that internal waves are generated not only by flow over the hills

  13. High-order solutions of three-dimensional rough-surface scattering problems at high frequencies.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turc, Catalin

    High-order solutions of three-dimensional rough-surface scattering problems at high frequencies. I-order numerical method for the solution of high- frequency scattering problems from rough surfaces in three dimensions. The method is based on the asymptotic solution of appropriate integral equations in the high-frequency

  14. Lyapunov instability of rough hard-disk fluids Jacobus A. van Meel*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Posch, Harald A.

    Lyapunov instability of rough hard-disk fluids Jacobus A. van Meel* FOM Institute for Atomic The dynamical instability of rough hard-disk fluids in two dimensions is characterized through the Lyapunov, measured by the maximum Lyapunov exponent, is only enhanced by the rotational degrees of freedom for high

  15. Rough Algebras and Automated Deduction Anita Wasilewska 1 and Laurent Vigneron 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rusinowitch, Michaël

    of Boole himself led to the notion which we now call Boolean algebra, but one of the turning pointsRough Algebras and Automated Deduction Anita Wasilewska 1 and Laurent Vigneron 2 1 Department algebras investigated here are particular cases of topological rough algebras introduced in [26]. We

  16. Engineering Gaussian disorder at rough interfaces for light trapping in thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineering Gaussian disorder at rough interfaces for light trapping in thin-film solar cells Piotr A theoretical study of randomly rough interfaces to obtain light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells of thin-film solar cells. © 2012 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 040.5350, 050.1950. Reducing

  17. An approximate model for the adhesive contact of rough viscoelastic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillaume Haiat; Etienne Barthel

    2007-09-05

    Surface roughness is known to easily suppress the adhesion of elastic surfaces. Here a simple model for the contact of \\emph{viscoelastic} rough surfaces with significant levels of adhesion is presented. This approach is derived from our previous model [E. Barthel and G. Haiat {\\em Langmuir}, 18 9362 2002] for the adhesive contact of viscoelastic spheres. For simplicity a simple loading/unloading history (infinitely fast loading and constant pull-out velocity) is assumed. The model provides approximate analytical expressions for the asperity response and exhibits the full viscoelastic adhesive contact phenomenology such as stress relaxation inside the contact zone and creep at the contact edges. Combining this model with a Greenwood-Williamson statistical modeling of rough surfaces, we propose a quantitative assessment of the adhesion to rough viscoelastic surfaces. We show that moderate viscoelasticity efficiently restores adhesion on rough surfaces over a wide dynamic range.

  18. Near-field heat transfer between a nanoparticle and a rough surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svend-Age Biehs; Jean-Jacques Greffet

    2011-03-11

    In this work we focus on the surface roughness correction to the near-field radiative heat transfer between a nanoparticle and a material with a rough surface utilizing a direct perturbation theory up to second order in the surface profile. We discuss the different distance regimes for the local density of states above the rough material and the heat flux analytically and numerically. We show that the heat transfer rate is larger than that corresponding to a flat surface at short distances. At larger distances it can become smaller due to surface polariton scattering by the rough surface. For distances much smaller than the correlation length of the surface profile, we show that the results converge to a proximity approximation, whereas in the opposite limit the rough surface can be replaced by an equivalent surface layer.

  19. Hazard avoidance for high-speed rough-terrain unmanned ground vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spenko, Matthew J. (Matthew Julius), 1976-

    2005-01-01

    High-speed unmanned ground vehicles have important applications in rough-terrain. In these applications unexpected and dangerous situations can occur that require rapid hazard avoidance maneuvers. At high speeds, there is ...

  20. Very high efficiency phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices by using rough indium tin oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Aziz, Hany, E-mail: h2aziz@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-07-07

    The efficiency of organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) is shown to significantly depend on the roughness of the indium tin oxide (ITO) anode. By using rougher ITO, light trapped in the ITO/organic wave-guided mode can be efficiently extracted, and a light outcoupling enhancement as high as 40% is achieved. Moreover, contrary to expectations, the lifetime of OLEDs is not affected by ITO roughness. Finally, an OLED employing rough ITO anode that exhibits a current efficiency of 56?cd/A at the remarkably high brightness of 10{sup 5}?cd/m{sup 2} is obtained. This represents the highest current efficiency at such high brightness to date for an OLED utilizing an ITO anode, without any external light outcoupling techniques. The results demonstrate the significant efficiency benefits of using ITO with higher roughness in OLEDs.

  1. Comprehensive Evaluation Model of Building Energy Efficiency Based on Rough Sets Theory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, L.; Ruan, X.; Huang, J.; Li, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the objectivity of building energy efficiency evaluation, this paper uses a new method to evaluate building energy efficiency on the basis of rough sets theory. The contribution of different subentry evaluation indicators...

  2. Significance of the Casimir force and surface roughness for actuation dynamics of MEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wijnand Broer; George Palasantzas; Jasper Knoester; Vitaly B. Svetovoy

    2013-03-14

    Using the measured optical response and surface roughness topography as inputs, we perform realistic calculations of the combined effect of Casimir and electrostatic forces on the actuation dynamics of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). In contrast with the expectations, roughness can influence MEMS dynamics even at distances between bodies significantly larger than the root-mean-square roughness. This effect is associated with statistically rare high asperities that can be locally close to the point of contact. It is found that, even though surface roughness appears to have a detrimental effect on the availability of stable equilibria, it ensures that those equilibria can be reached more easily than in the case of flat surfaces. Hence our findings play a principal role for the stability of microdevices such as vibration sensors, switches, and other related MEM architectures operating at distances below 100 nm.

  3. Reduction of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernitsas, Michael M; Raghavan, Kamaldev

    2014-04-01

    Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to decrease/suppress Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Suppression is required when fluid-structure interaction becomes destructive as in VIM of flexible cylinders or rigid cylinders on elastic support, such as underwater pipelines, marine risers, tubes in heat exchangers, nuclear fuel rods, cooling towers, SPAR offshore platforms.

  4. Enhancement of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernitsas, Michael M. (Saline, MI); Raghavan, Kamaldev (Houston, TX)

    2011-11-01

    Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to increase Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Enhancement is needed in such applications as harnessing of clean and renewable energy from ocean/river currents using the ocean energy converter VIVACE (Vortex Induced Vibration for Aquatic Clean Energy).

  5. Solid Deuterium-Tritium Surface Roughness In A Beryllium Inertial Confinement Fusion Shell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozioziemski, B J; Sater, J D; Moody, J D; Montgomery, D S; Gautier, C

    2006-04-19

    Solid deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel layers for inertial confinement fusion experiments were formed inside of a 2 mm diameter beryllium shell and were characterized using phase-contrast enhanced x-ray imaging. The solid D-T surface roughness is found to be 0.4 {micro}m for modes 7-128 at 1.5 K below the melting temperature. The layer roughness is found to increase with decreasing temperature, in agreement with previous visible light characterization studies. However, phase-contrast enhanced x-ray imaging provides a more robust surface roughness measurement than visible light methods. The new x-ray imaging results demonstrate clearly that the surface roughness decreases with time for solid D-T layers held at 1.5 K below the melting temperature.

  6. hp-finite-elements for simulating electromagnetic fields in optical devices with rough textures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, S; Hammerschmidt, M; Herrmann, S; Pomplun, J; Schmidt, F; Wohlfeil, B; Zschiedrich, L

    2015-01-01

    The finite-element method is a preferred numerical method when electromagnetic fields at high accuracy are to be computed in nano-optics design. Here, we demonstrate a finite-element method using hp-adaptivity on tetrahedral meshes for computation of electromagnetic fields in a device with rough textures. The method allows for efficient computations on meshes with strong variations in element sizes. This enables to use precise geometry resolution of the rough textures. Convergence to highly accurate results is observed.

  7. Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery as Salvage Therapy After Failure of Whole-Brain Radiotherapy in Patients With Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, Sunit; Chan, Michael D.; Lovato, James F.; Ellis, Thomas L.; Tatter, Stephen B.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Munley, Michael T.; Guzman, Allan F. de; Shaw, Edward G.; Urbanic, James J.; McMullen, Kevin P.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Radiosurgery has been successfully used in selected cases to avoid repeat whole-brain irradiation (WBI) in patients with multiple brain metastases of most solid tumor histological findings. Few data are available for the use of radiosurgery for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Methods and Materials: Between November 1999 and June 2009, 51 patients with SCLC and previous WBI and new brain metastases were treated with GammaKnife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS). A median dose of 18 Gy (range, 10-24 Gy) was prescribed to the margin of each metastasis. Patients were followed with serial imaging. Patient electronic records were reviewed to determine disease-related factors and clinical outcomes after GKSRS. Local and distant brain failure rates, overall survival, and likelihood of neurologic death were determined based on imaging results. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine survival and local and distant brain control. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to determine strength of association between disease-related factors and survival. Results: Median survival time for the entire cohort was 5.9 months. Local control rates at 1 and 2 years were 57% and 34%, respectively. Distant brain failure rates at 1 and 2 years were 58% and 75%, respectively. Fifty-three percent of patients ultimately died of neurologic death. On multivariate analysis, patients with stable (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.89) or progressive (HR = 6.98) extracranial disease (ECD) had worse overall survival than patients without evidence of ECD (p = 0.00002). Concurrent chemotherapy improved local control (HR = 89; p = 0.006). Conclusions: GKSRS represents a feasible salvage option in patients with SCLC and brain metastases for whom previous WBI has failed. The status of patients' ECD is a dominant factor predictive of overall survival. Local control may be inferior to that seen with other cancer histological results, although the use of concurrent chemotherapy may help to improve this.

  8. Large-eddy simulations of surface roughness parameter sensitivity to canopy-structure characteristics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maurer, K. D.; Bohrer, G.; Kenny, W. T.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2015-04-30

    Surface roughness parameters, namely the roughness length and displacement height, are an integral input used to model surface fluxes. However, most models assume these parameters to be a fixed property of plant functional type and disregard the governing structural heterogeneity and dynamics. In this study, we use large-eddy simulations to explore, in silico, the effects of canopy-structure characteristics on surface roughness parameters. We performed a virtual experiment to test the sensitivity of resolved surface roughness to four axes of canopy structure: (1) leaf area index, (2) the vertical profile of leaf density, (3) canopy height, and (4) canopy gap fraction.more »We found roughness parameters to be highly variable, but uncovered positive relationships between displacement height and maximum canopy height, aerodynamic canopy height and maximum canopy height and leaf area index, and eddy-penetration depth and gap fraction. We also found negative relationships between aerodynamic canopy height and gap fraction, as well as between eddy-penetration depth and maximum canopy height and leaf area index. We generalized our model results into a virtual "biometric" parameterization that relates roughness length and displacement height to canopy height, leaf area index, and gap fraction. Using a decade of wind and canopy-structure observations in a site in Michigan, we tested the effectiveness of our model-driven biometric parameterization approach in predicting the friction velocity over heterogeneous and disturbed canopies. We compared the accuracy of these predictions with the friction-velocity predictions obtained from the common simple approximation related to canopy height, the values calculated with large-eddy simulations of the explicit canopy structure as measured by airborne and ground-based lidar, two other parameterization approaches that utilize varying canopy-structure inputs, and the annual and decadal means of the surface roughness parameters at the site from meteorological observations. We found that the classical representation of constant roughness parameters (in space and time) as a fraction of canopy height performed relatively well. Nonetheless, of the approaches we tested, most of the empirical approaches that incorporate seasonal and interannual variation of roughness length and displacement height as a function of the dynamics of canopy structure produced more precise and less biased estimates for friction velocity than models with temporally invariable parameters.« less

  9. The friction factor of two-dimensional rough-boundary turbulent soap film flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas Guttenberg; Nigel Goldenfeld

    2009-03-25

    We use momentum transfer arguments to predict the friction factor $f$ in two-dimensional turbulent soap-film flows with rough boundaries (an analogue of three-dimensional pipe flow) as a function of Reynolds number Re and roughness $r$, considering separately the inverse energy cascade and the forward enstrophy cascade. At intermediate Re, we predict a Blasius-like friction factor scaling of $f\\propto\\textrm{Re}^{-1/2}$ in flows dominated by the enstrophy cascade, distinct from the energy cascade scaling of $\\textrm{Re}^{-1/4}$. For large Re, $f \\sim r$ in the enstrophy-dominated case. We use conformal map techniques to perform direct numerical simulations that are in satisfactory agreement with theory, and exhibit data collapse scaling of roughness-induced criticality, previously shown to arise in the 3D pipe data of Nikuradse.

  10. Rough surface electrical contact resistance considering scale dependent properties and quantum effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Robert L.; Crandall, Erika R.; Bozack, Michael J.

    2015-05-21

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of scale dependent mechanical and electrical properties on electrical contact resistance (ECR) between rough surfaces. This work attempts to build on existing ECR models that neglect potentially important quantum- and size-dependent contact and electrical conduction mechanisms present due to the asperity sizes on typical surfaces. The electrical conductance at small scales can quantize or show a stepping trend as the contact area is varied in the range of the free electron Fermi wavelength squared. This work then evaluates if these effects remain important for the interface between rough surfaces, which may include many small scale contacts of varying sizes. The results suggest that these effects may be significant in some cases, while insignificant for others. It depends on the load and the multiscale structure of the surface roughness.

  11. General contact mechanics theory for randomly rough surfaces with application to rubber friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michele Scaraggi; Bo N. J. Persson

    2015-06-23

    We generalize the Persson contact mechanics and rubber friction theory to the case where both surfaces have surface roughness. The solids can be rigid, elastic or viscoelastic, and can be homogeneous or layered. We calculate the contact area, the viscoelastic contribution to the friction force, and the average interfacial separation as a function of the sliding speed and the nominal contact pressure. We illustrate the theory with numerical results for a rubber block sliding on a road surface. We find that with increasing sliding speed, the influence of the roughness on the rubber block decreases, and for typical sliding speeds involved in tire dynamics it can be neglected.

  12. Effect of surface roughness and polymeric additive on nucleate pool boiling at subatmospheric pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, P.K.; Verma, R.K.; Ramani, M.P.S.; Mahajan, S.P.

    1986-09-01

    This investigation pertains to boiling heat transfer from a submerged flat surface at subatmospheric and atmospheric pressures in the presence of hydroxy ethyl cellulose (HEC) as a polymeric additive in small doses. Boiling was carried out in presence of the additive on smooth and rough aluminium surfaces having effective cavity size within the range as predicted by Hsu model and the pressure was kept in the range of 8 - 100 KN/sq.m (abs). Effects of surface roughness, saturation pressure and polymer concentration on boiling heat transfer were studied and the results were compared with Rohsenow's correlation.

  13. Atmospheric Momentum Roughness Applied to Stage-Discharge Relationships in Flood Plains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atmospheric Momentum Roughness Applied to Stage-Discharge Relationships in Flood Plains Jennifer M and discharge relationship for turbulent flows over vegetated flood plains. The model is based on the turbulent sites. The model estimates of the flood flow discharges from a natural site are compared to observed

  14. Numerical method for calculating the apparent eddy current conductivity loss on randomly rough surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagy, Peter B.

    Numerical method for calculating the apparent eddy current conductivity loss on randomly rough Because of their frequency-dependent penetration depth, eddy current measurements are capable of mapping of eddy current conductivity, thereby decreasing the accuracy of the measurements, especially in thermally

  15. A simple numerical model of the apparent loss of eddy current conductivity due to surface roughness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagy, Peter B.

    A simple numerical model of the apparent loss of eddy current conductivity due to surface roughness of eddy current conductivity has been suggested as a possible means to allow the nondestructive evaluation, the path of the eddy current must follow a more tortuous route in the material, which produces a reduction

  16. Importance of thermal effects and sea surface roughness for offshore wind resource assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    Importance of thermal effects and sea surface roughness for offshore wind resource assessment National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark Abstract The economic feasibility of offshore wind power utilisation depends on the favourable wind conditions offshore compared to sites on land, which have to compensate

  17. FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gudmundsson, Jon Steinar

    FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS DETERMINATION DU and Technology, Norway ABSTRACT Pressure drop experiments on natural gas flow at 80 to 120 bar pressure and high of natural gas at typical operating pressures (100-180 bar). At such Reynolds numbers the classical Colebrook

  18. Flow over rough topography. A preliminary study with high resolution topography at Ormen Lange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avlesen, Helge

    Flow over rough topography. A preliminary study with high resolution topography at Ormen Lange not able to march as long in time as desired, due to stability issues. On the given topography for selected horizontal sections, after im- posing a constant velocity flow over the given topography

  19. Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Nonlinear dynamics over rough topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vanneste, Jacques

    Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Nonlinear dynamics over rough topography-dimensional, pe- riodic or random, small-scale topography is investigated using an asymptotic approach. Averaged (or homogenised) evolution equations which account for the flow-topography in- teraction are derived

  20. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING 1 A Simplified Formulation for Rough Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IEEEProof IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING 1 A Simplified Formulation for Rough paper. To download the IEEE Taxonomy, go to http://www.30 ieee.org/documents/taxonomy_v101.pdf.31 I, OH 43210 USA. Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee

  1. Effect of Substrate Roughness on D Spacing Supports Theoretical Resolution of Vapor Pressure Paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagle, John F.

    Effect of Substrate Roughness on D Spacing Supports Theoretical Resolution of Vapor Pressure with and provides experimental support for a recently proposed theoretical resolution of the vapor pressure paradox has been called the vapor pressure paradox (Rand and Parsegian, 1989). Resolving this paradox

  2. Stress Drop during Earthquakes: Effect of Fault Roughness Scaling by Thibault Candela, Franois Renard,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmittbuhl, Jean

    Stress Drop during Earthquakes: Effect of Fault Roughness Scaling by Thibault Candela, François parameter of static stress drop during an earthquake is related to the scaling properties of the fault and focusing on elastic deformation of the topography, which is the dominant mode at large scales, the stress

  3. Hydrothermal coupling in a self-affine rough fracture A. Neuville,* R. Toussaint, and J. Schmittbuhl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmittbuhl, Jean

    - thermics is an intensively developing field. Deep enhanced geothermal systems EGSs are based on the energy the hydraulic flow and subse- quently to enhance the thermal exchange. Fracture roughness might, in the opposite as an ellipse or a poly- hedron. This is the case in most fracture network models used for geothermal 10

  4. Roughly 120 years ago, an incon-spicuous pest took a ride on a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latchininsky, Alexandre

    Roughly 120 years ago, an incon- spicuous pest took a ride on a ship from Europe bound discussed the projects he had avail- able, the horn fly project fit best with my background. Horn Fly First, the cattle use costly energy meant for growth to rid themselves of the flies. Some of the behavioral changes

  5. Hydro-thermal flow in a rough fracture EC Contract SES6-CT-2003-502706

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toussaint, Renaud

    Hydro-thermal flow in a rough fracture EC Contract SES6-CT-2003-502706 PARTICIPANT ORGANIZATION NAME: CNRS Synthetic 2nd year report Related with Work Package............ HYDRO-THERMAL FLOW in the influence of a realistic geometry of the fracture on its hydro-thermal response. Several studies have

  6. Relations in Mathematical Morphology with applications to Graphs and Rough Sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stell, John

    School of Computing, University of Leeds Leeds, LS2 9JT, U.K. jgs@comp.leeds.ac.uk Abstract. Rough sets of morphology for graphs. The structure of the paper is as follows. I begin in Section 2 with a brief review

  7. Light trapping in thin-film solar cells with randomly rough and hybrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Light trapping in thin-film solar cells with randomly rough and hybrid textures Piotr Kowalczewski. M. Smets, and M. Zeman, "Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with improved Lambertian limits in thin film silicon solar cells with 1D and 2D periodic patterns," Opt. Express 20, A224­A

  8. ENGINEERED SUBSTRATES FOR THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS: SCATTERING PROPERTIES OF 1D ROUGHNESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENGINEERED SUBSTRATES FOR THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS: SCATTERING PROPERTIES OF 1D ROUGHNESS S. Del Sorbo, Optical Properties, Substrates, Texturisation, Thin Film Solar Cells 1 MOTIVATION OF THIS WORK The aim of thin film technology is to reduce both the electrical transport losses in the bulk region of a solar

  9. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Thin Films with Rough and Asymmetric Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Thin Films with Rough and Asymmetric Interfaces N.A. Roberts with the use of interfaces and shows that pristine, imperfect and asymmetric interfaces in thin films can interface whose features are of the order of the phonon wavelength. At a constant temperature difference

  10. Gravitational quantum states of neutrons in a rough waveguide A. E. Meyerovich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyerovich, Alex

    of such states is indeed a major experimental challenge. What is more, the measure- ments in this energy range/absorber. The analysis is based on a recently developed theory of quantum transport along random rough walls which and are more efficient than the processes involving the intermediate states. The theoretical results

  11. Effect of surface roughness on magnetic domain wall thickness, domain size, and coercivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    , Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180-3590 G. Palasantzas and J. Th. M. De Hosson Department nm thick deposited on plasma etched Si 100 substrates showed that, by increasing surface rough- ness nearly linearly with film thickness. Such an increase of the thickness fluctuations5 was attributed

  12. Large eddy simulations of surface roughness parameter sensitivity to canopy-structure characteristics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maurer, K. D.; Bohrer, G.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2014-11-27

    Surface roughness parameters are at the core of every model representation of the coupling and interactions between land-surface and atmosphere, and are used in every model of surface fluxes. However, most models assume these parameters to be a fixed property of plant functional type and do not vary them in response to spatial or temporal changes to canopy structure. In part, this is due to the difficulty of reducing the complexity of canopy structure and its spatiotemporal dynamic and heterogeneity to less than a handful of parameters describing its effects of atmosphere–surface interactions. In this study we use large-eddy simulationsmore »to explore, in silico, the effects of canopy structure characteristics on surface roughness parameters. We performed a virtual experiment to test the sensitivity of resolved surface roughness to four axes of canopy structure: (1) leaf area index, (2) the vertical profile of leaf density, (3) canopy height, and (4) canopy gap fraction. We found roughness parameters to be highly variable, but were able to find positive relationships between displacement height and maximum canopy height, aerodynamic canopy height and maximum canopy height and leaf area index, and eddy-penetration depth and gap fraction. We also found negative relationships between aerodynamic canopy height and gap fraction, and between eddy-penetration depth and maximum canopy height and leaf area index. Using a decade of wind and canopy structure observations in a site in Michigan, we tested the effectiveness of our model-resolved parameters in predicting the frictional velocity over heterogeneous and disturbed canopies. We compared it with three other semi-empirical models and with a decade of meteorological observations. We found that parameterizations with fixed representations of roughness performed relatively well. Nonetheless, some empirical approaches that incorporate seasonal and inter-annual changes to the canopy structure performed even better than models with temporally fixed parameters.« less

  13. Wind assessment in complex terrain with the numeric model Aiolos implementation of the influence of roughness changes and stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    to the influence of roughness changes and the thermal stratification. Wind potential assessments of two sites of roughness changes on the terrain surface and thermal stratification of the at- mosphere are taken a neutral thermal stratification situation is assumed. But for a north eu- ropean situation a light stable

  14. Surface roughness and interface width scaling of magnetron sputter deposited Ni/Ti multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maidul Haque, S.; Biswas, A.; Tokas, R. B.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sahoo, N. K.; Bhattacharya, Debarati

    2013-09-14

    Using an indigenously built r.f. magnetron sputtering system, several single layer Ti and Ni films have been deposited at varying deposition conditions. All the samples have been characterized by Grazing Incidence X-ray Reflectivity (GIXR) and Atomic Force Microscopy to estimate their thickness, density, and roughness and a power law dependence of the surface roughness on the film thickness has been established. Subsequently, at optimized deposition condition of Ti and Ni, four Ni/Ti multilayers of 11-layer, 21-layer, 31-layer, and 51-layer having different bilayer thickness have been deposited. The multilayer samples have been characterized by GIXR and neutron reflectivity measurements and the experimental data have been fitted assuming an appropriate sample structure. A power law correlation between the interface width and bilayer thickness has been observed for the multilayer samples, which was explained in the light of alternate roughening/smoothening of multilayers and assuming that at the interface the growth “restarts” every time.

  15. Wetting Transitions of Condensed Droplets on Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Two-Tier Roughness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lv, Cunjing; Zhang, Xiwen; He, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Although realizing wetting transitions of droplets spontaneously on solid rough surfaces is quite challenging, it is becoming a key research topic in many practical applications which require highly efficient removal of liquid. We report wetting transitions of condensed droplets occurring spontaneously on pillared surfaces with two-tier roughness owing to excellent superhydrophobicity. The phenomenon results from further decreased Laplace pressure on the top side of the individual droplet when its size becomes comparable to the scale of the micropillars, which leads to a surprising robust spontaneous wetting transition, from valleys to tops of the pillars. A simple scaling law is derived theoretically, which demonstrates that the critical size of the droplet is determined by the space of the micropillars. For this reason, highly efficient removal of water benefits greatly from smaller micropillar space. Furthermore, three wetting transition modes exist, in which the in situ wetting behaviors are in good agree...

  16. Interfacial Friction in Gas-Liquid Annular Flow: Analogies to Full and Transition Roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, R.C.; Beus, S.G.; Fore, L.B.

    1999-03-01

    New film thickness and pressure gradient data were obtained in a 5.08 by 101.6 mm duct for nitrogen and water in annular flow. Pressures of 3.4 and 17 atm and temperatures of 38 and 93 C were used to vary the gas density and liquid viscosity. These data are used to compute interfacial shear stresses and interfacial friction factors for comparison with several accepted literature correlations. These comparisons are reasonable for small values of the relative film thickness. However, the new data cover conditions not approached by the data used to construct those correlations. By combining the current data with the results of two other comprehensive modern experimental studies, a new correlation for the interfacial friction factor has been developed. This correlation adds elements of transition roughness to Wallis' fully-rough analogy to better predict interfacial friction factors over a wide range of gas Reynolds numbers and liquid film thicknesses.

  17. Electrochemical machining process for forming surface roughness elements on a gas turbine shroud

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Wei, Bin (Mechanicville, NY); Wang, Hsin-Pang (Rexford, NY)

    2002-01-01

    The back side recessed cooling surface of a shroud defining in part the hot gas path of a turbine is electrochemically machined to provide surface roughness elements and spaces therebetween to increase the heat transfer coefficient. To accomplish this, an electrode with insulating dielectric portions and non-insulating portions is disposed in opposition to the cooling surface. By passing an electrolyte between the cooling surface and electrode and applying an electrical current between the electrode and a shroud, roughness elements and spaces therebetween are formed in the cooling surface in opposition to the insulating and non-insulating portions of the electrode, hence increasing the surface area and heat transfer coefficient of the shroud.

  18. Energy production rates in fluid mixtures of inelastic rough hard spheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrés Santos; Gilberto M. Kremer; Vicente Garzó

    2010-07-16

    The aim of this work is to explore the combined effect of polydispersity and roughness on the partial energy production rates and on the total cooling rate of a granular fluid mixture. We consider a mixture of inelastic rough hard spheres of different number densities, masses, diameters, moments of inertia, and mutual coefficients of normal and tangential restitution. Starting from the first equation of the BBGKY hierarchy, the collisional energy production rates associated with the translational and rotational temperatures ($T_i^\\text{tr}$ and $T_i^\\text{rot}$) are expressed in terms of two-body average values. Next, those average values are estimated by assuming a velocity distribution function based on maximum-entropy arguments, allowing us to express the energy production rates and the total cooling rate in terms of the partial temperatures and the parameters of the mixture. Finally, the results are applied to the homogeneous cooling state of a binary mixture and the influence of inelasticity and roughness on the temperature ratios $T_1^\\text{tr}/T_1^\\text{rot}$, $T_2^\\text{tr}/T_1^\\text{tr}$, and $T_2^\\text{rot}/T_1^\\text{rot}$ is analyzed.

  19. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study of Interaction between Model Rough Hydrophobic Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Changsun Eun; Max L. Berkowitz

    2011-06-01

    We study some aspects of hydrophobic interaction between molecular rough and flexible model surfaces. The model we use in this work is based on a model we used previously (Eun, C.; Berkowitz, M. L. J. Phys. Chem. B 2009, 113, 13222-13228), when we studied the interaction between model patches of lipid membranes. Our original model consisted of two graphene plates with attached polar headgroups; the plates were immersed in a water bath. The interaction between such plates can be considered as an example of a hydrophilic interaction. In the present work we modify our previous model by removing the charge from the zwitterionic headgroups. As a result of this procedure, the plate character changes; it becomes hydrophobic. By separating the total interaction (or potential of mean force, PMF) between plates into the direct and the water-mediated interactions we observe that the latter changes from repulsive to attractive, clearly emphasizing the important role of water as a medium. We also investigate the effect of roughness and flexibility of the headgroups on the interaction between plates and observe that roughness enhances the character of the hydrophobic interaction. The presence of a dewetting transition in a confined space between charge-removed plates confirms that the interaction between plates is strongly hydrophobic. In addition, we notice that there is a shallow local minimum in the PMF in case of charge-removed plates. We find that this minimum is associated with the configurational changes that flexible headgroups undergo, as the two plates are brought together.

  20. The Effect of Excimer Laser Treatment on the Surface Roughness and Fracture Strength of Alumina Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smoot, J.E.

    1998-05-13

    The microelectronics industry requires alumina substrates with exceptionally smooth surfaces and few surface defects to allow successful deposition of metallic films for reliable electronic performance. Irradiation by a 248-nm wavelength excimer laser beam (KrF) at a fluence of 125 mJ/mm{sup 2} and at various angles of incidence is shown to significantly reduce the surface roughness of alumina substrates. However, irradiation also creates a fine particulate deposit of alumina that only partially adheres to the substrate and impedes deposition of metal films. Annealing in air between 1350 C and 1450 C was found to remove the particles by sintering. As-received material showed surface roughness average (R{sub a}) mean values of 457 nm, which was reduced to 60 nm (mean) following irradiation and 71 nm (mean) following irradiation and annealing at 1350 C. Irradiation also produced a decrease in the number and severity of surface defects. The flexural strength and Weibull modulus were both increased by laser irradiation and thermal treatment. Flexural strength went from an as-received value of 450 MPa to 560 MPa following irradiation/sintering, measured at 10% probability of failure. The Weibull modulus was increased from the as-received value of about 9, to about 13 following irradiation/sintering. It was concluded that irradiation at an angle of incidence of 60{degree} from perpendicular was most effective in producing a low surface roughness.

  1. Lamellar Diblock Copolymers on Rough Substrates: Self-consistent Field Theory Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xingkun Man; Jiuzhou Tang; Pan Zhou; Dadong Yan; David Andelman

    2015-08-18

    We present numerical calculations of lamellar phases of di-block copolymers (BCP) confined between two surfaces, where the top surface is flat and the bottom one is corrugated. The corrugated substrate is assumed to have a single $q$-mode of lateral undulations with a wavenumber q_s and amplitude R. We focus on the effects of substrate roughness, parameterized by the dimensionless quantity, q_sR, on the relative stability between parallel and perpendicular orientations of the lamellar phase. The competition between film confinement, energy cost of elastic deformation and gain in surface energy induces a parallel-to-perpendicular transition of the BCP lamellae. Employing self-consistent field theory (SCFT), we study the critical substrate roughness value corresponding to this transition. The critical value increases as function of the surface preference towards one of the two BCP components, and as function of film thickness. But, it decreases with increasing values of the Flory-Huggins parameter. Our findings are equivalent to stating that the critical value decreases as the BCP molecular weight or the natural BCP periodicity increases. We further show that the rough substrate can overcome the formation of parallel lamellae in cases where the top surface has a preference towards one of the two BCP components. Our results are in good agreement with previous experiments, and highlight the physical conditions behind the perpendicular orientation of lamellar phases, as is desired in nanolithography and other industrial applications.

  2. Effect of the porosity on the fracture surface roughness of sintered materials: From anisotropic to isotropic self-affine scaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tristan Cambonie; Jonathan Bares; Lamine Hattali; Daniel Bonamy; Véronique Lazarus; Harold Auradou

    2015-01-16

    To unravel how the microstructure affects the fracture surface roughness in heterogeneous brittle solids like rocks or ceramics, we characterized the roughness statistics of post-mortem fracture surfaces in home-made materials of adjustable microstructure length-scale and porosity, obtained by sintering monodisperse polystyrene beads. Beyond the characteristic size of disorder, the roughness profiles are found to exhibit self-affine scaling features evolving with porosity. Starting from a null value and increasing the porosity, we quantitatively modify the self-affine scaling properties from anisotropic (at low porosity) to isotropic (for porosity larger than 10 %).

  3. Single-layer MoS{sub 2} roughness and sliding friction quenching by interaction with atomically flat substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quereda, J.; Castellanos-Gomez, A.; Agraït, N.; Rubio-Bollinger, G.

    2014-08-04

    We experimentally study the surface roughness and the lateral friction force in single-layer MoS{sub 2} crystals deposited on different substrates: SiO{sub 2}, mica, and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). Roughness and sliding friction measurements are performed by atomic force microscopy. We find a strong dependence of the MoS{sub 2} roughness on the underlying substrate material, being h-BN the substrate which better preserves the flatness of the MoS{sub 2} crystal. The lateral friction also lowers as the roughness decreases, and attains its lowest value for MoS{sub 2} flakes on h-BN substrates. However, it is still higher than for the surface of a bulk MoS{sub 2} crystal, which we attribute to the deformation of the flake due to competing tip-to-flake and flake-to-substrate interactions.

  4. Rough contact mechanics for graded bulk rheology: The role of small-scale wavelengths on rubber friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michele Scaraggi; Davide Comingio

    2015-10-13

    We present a numerical model for the prediction of the rough contact mechanics of a viscoelastic block, with graded rheology, in steady sliding contact with a randomly rough rigid surface. In particular, we derive the effective surface response of a stepwise or continuously-graded block in the Fourier domain, which is then embedded in a Fourier-based residuals molecular dynamic formulation of the contact mechanics. Finally we discuss on the role of small-scale wavelengths on rubber friction and contact area, and we demonstrate that the rough contact mechanics exhibits effective interface properties which converge to asymptotes upon increase of the small-scale roughness content, when a realistic rheology of the confinement is taken into account.

  5. MEMS-based contact stress field measurements at a rough elastomeric layer: local test of Amontons' friction law in static

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adda-Bedia, Mokhtar

    MEMS-based contact stress field measurements at a rough elastomeric layer: local test of Amontons/Universit´e Paris 6, Paris, France Abstract. We present the results of recent friction experiments in which a MEMS

  6. Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the S814 airfoil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janiszewska, J.M.; Ramsay, R.R.; Hoffmann, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Horizontal-axis wind turbine rotors experience unsteady aerodynamics when the rotor is yawed, when rotor blades pass through the support tower wake, and when the wind is gusting. An understanding of this unsteady behavior is necessary to assist in the design of new rotor airfoils. The rotors also experience performance degradation due to surface roughness. These surface irregularities are due to the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and/or the aging process. Wind tunnel studies that examine both the steady and unsteady behavior of airfoils can help define pertinent flow phenomena, and the resultant data can also be used to validate analytical computer codes. An S814 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3 X 5 subsonic wind tunnel (3 X 5) under steady flow with both stationary model conditions and pitch oscillations. To study the extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a leading edge grit roughness pattern (LEGR) was used to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 million, while the angle of attack ranged from -20{degrees} to +40{degrees}. While the model underwent pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions {+-}5.5{degrees} and {+-}10{degrees}, were used; at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions means the model was in pitch oscillation.

  7. EFFECTS OF GRAPHITE SURFACE ROUGHNESS ON BYPASS FLOW COMPUTATIONS FOR AN HTGR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich Johnson; Yu-Hsin Tung; Hiroyuki Sato

    2011-07-01

    Bypass flow in a prismatic high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) occurs between graphite blocks as they sit side by side in the core. Bypass flow is not intentionally designed to occur in the reactor, but is present because of tolerances in manufacture, imperfect installation and expansion and shrinkage of the blocks from heating and irradiation. It is desired to increase the knowledge of the effects of such flow, which has been estimated to be as much as 20% of the total helium coolant flow. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations can provide estimates of the scale and impacts of bypass flow. Previous CFD calculations have examined the effects of bypass gap width, level and distribution of heat generation and effects of shrinkage. The present contribution examines the effects of graphite surface roughness on the bypass flow for different relative roughness factors on three gap widths. Such calculations should be validated using specific bypass flow measurements. While such experiments are currently underway for the specific reference prismatic HTGR design for the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) program of the U. S. Dept. of Energy, the data are not yet available. To enhance confidence in the present calculations, wall shear stress and heat transfer results for several turbulence models and their associated wall treatments are first compared for flow in a single tube that is representative of a coolant channel in the prismatic HTGR core. The results are compared to published correlations for wall shear stress and Nusselt number in turbulent pipe flow. Turbulence models that perform well are then used to make bypass flow calculations in a symmetric onetwelfth sector of a prismatic block that includes bypass flow. The comparison of shear stress and Nusselt number results with published correlations constitutes a partial validation of the CFD model. Calculations are also compared to ones made previously using a different CFD code. Results indicate that increasing surface roughness increases the maximum fuel and helium temperatures as do increases in gap width. However, maximum coolant temperature variation due to increased gap width is not changed by surface roughness.

  8. Force and torque acting on particles in a transitionally rough open channel flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan-Braun, Clemens; Uhlmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation of open channel flow over a geometrically rough wall has been performed at a bulk Reynolds number of approximately 2900. The wall consisted of a layer of spheres in a square arrangement. Two cases have been considered. In the first case the spheres are small (with diameter equivalent to 10.7 wall units) and the limit of the hydraulically smooth flow regime is approached. In the second case the spheres are more than three times larger (49.3 wall units) and the flow is in the transitionally rough flow regime. Special emphasis is given on the characterisation of the force and torque acting on a particle due to the turbulent flow. It is found that in both cases the mean drag, lift and spanwise torque are to a large extent produced at the top region of the particle surface. The intensity of the particle force fluctuations is significantly larger in the large-sphere case, while the trend differs for the fluctuations of the individual components of the torque. A simplified model is used t...

  9. Steady state in a gas of inelastic rough spheres heated by a uniform stochastic force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francisco Vega Reyes; Andrés Santos

    2015-11-04

    We study here the steady state attained in a granular gas of inelastic rough spheres that is subject to a spatially uniform random volume force. The stochastic force has the form of the so-called white noise and acts by adding impulse to the particle translational velocities. We work out an analytical solution of the corresponding velocity distribution function from a Sonine polynomial expansion that displays energy non-equipartition between the translational and rotational modes, translational and rotational kurtoses, and translational-rotational velocity correlations. By comparison with a numerical solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation (by means of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method) we show that our analytical solution provides a good description that is quantitatively very accurate in certain ranges of inelasticity and roughness. We also find three important features that make the forced granular gas steady state very different from the homogeneous cooling state (attained by an unforced granular gas). First, the marginal velocity distributions are always close to a Maxwellian. Second, there is a continuous transition to the purely smooth limit (where the effects of particle rotations are ignored). And third, the angular translational-rotational velocity correlations show a preference for a quasiperpendicular mutual orientation (which is called "lifted-tennis-ball" behavior).

  10. Improved detection of rough defects for ultrasonic NDE inspections based on finite element modeling of elastic wave scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pettit, J. R. [Rolls-Royce Nuclear, PO BOX 2000, Derby, UK, DE21 7XX and Research Centre for NDE, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Walker, A. [Rolls-Royce Nuclear, PO BOX 2000, Derby DE21 7XX (United Kingdom); Lowe, M. J. S. [Research Centre for NDE, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-18

    Defects which posses rough surfaces greatly affect ultrasonic wave scattering behaviour, often reducing the magnitude of reflected signals. Ultrasonic inspections rely upon this response for detecting and sizing flaws. For safety critical components reliable characterisation is crucial. Therefore, providing an accurate means to predict reductions in signal amplitude is essential. An extension of Kirchhoff theory has formed the basis for the UK power industry inspection justifications. However, it is widely recognised that these predictions are pessimistic owing to analytical approximations. A numerical full field modelling approach does not fall victim to such limitations. Here, a Finite Element model is used to aid in setting a non-conservative reporting threshold during the inspection of a large pressure vessel forging that might contain embedded rough defects. The ultrasonic response from multiple rough surfaces defined by the same statistical class is calculated for normal incident compression waves. The approach is validated by comparing coherent scattering with predictions made by Kirchhoff theory. At lower levels of roughness excellent agreement is observed, whilst higher values confirm the pessimism of Kirchhoff theory. Furthermore, the mean amplitude in the specular direction is calculated. This represents the information obtained during an inspection, indicating that reductions due to increasing roughness are significantly less than the coherent component currently being used.

  11. Water-waves modes trapped in a canal by a body with the rough surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Cardone; T. Durante; S. A. Nazarov

    2009-10-06

    The problem about a body in a three dimensional infinite channel is considered in the framework of the theory of linear water-waves. The body has a rough surface characterized by a small parameter $\\epsilon>0$ while the distance of the body to the water surface is also of order $\\epsilon$. Under a certain symmetry assumption, the accumulation effect for trapped mode frequencies is established, namely, it is proved that, for any given $d>0$ and integer $N>0$, there exists $\\epsilon(d,N)>0$ such that the problem has at least $N$ eigenvalues in the interval $(0,d)$ of the continuous spectrum in the case $\\epsilon\\in(0,\\epsilon(d,N)) $. The corresponding eigenfunctions decay exponentially at infinity, have finite energy, and imply trapped modes.

  12. Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ting (Ventura, CA)

    2011-04-26

    The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

  13. The apparent roughness of a sand surface blown by wind from an analytical model of saltation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Pähtz; Jasper F. Kok; Hans J. Herrmann

    2015-03-16

    We present an analytical model of aeolian sand transport. The model quantifies the momentum transfer from the wind to the transported sand by providing expressions for the thickness of the saltation layer and the apparent surface roughness. These expressions are derived from basic physical principles and a small number of assumptions. The model further predicts the sand transport rate (mass flux) and the impact threshold (the smallest value of the wind shear velocity at which saltation can be sustained). We show that, in contrast to previous studies, the present model's predictions are in very good agreement with a range of experiments, as well as with numerical simulations of aeolian saltation. Because of its physical basis, we anticipate that our model will find application in studies of aeolian sand transport on both Earth and Mars.

  14. Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ting

    2013-08-13

    The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

  15. Adhesion between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces: comparison of analytical theory with molecular dynamics simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Mulakaluri; B. N. J. Persson

    2011-12-22

    The adhesive contact between elastic solids with randomly rough, self affine fractal surfaces is studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The interfacial binding energy obtained from the simulations of nominally flat and curved surfaces is compared with the predictions of the contact mechanics theory by Persson. Theoretical and simulation results agree rather well, and most of the differences observed can be attributed to finite size effects and to the long-range nature of the interaction between the atoms in the block and the substrate in the MD model, as compared to the analytical theory which is for an infinite system with interfacial contact interaction. For curved surfaces (JKR-type of problem) the effective interfacial energy exhibit a weak hysteresis which may be due to the influence of local irreversible detachment processes in the vicinity of the opening crack tip during pull-off.

  16. A study of pitch oscillation and roughness on airfoils used for horizontal axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregorek, G.M.; Hoffmann, M.J.; Ramsay, R.R.; Janiszewska, J.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Under subcontract XF-1-11009-3 the Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed an extensive database of empirical aerodynamic data. These data will assist in the development of analytical models and in the design of new airfoils for wind turbines. To accomplish the main objective, airfoil models were designed, built and wind tunnel tested with and without model leading edge grit roughness (LEGR). LEGR simulates surface irregularities due to the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and/or the aging process. This report is a summary of project project activity for Phase III, which encompasses the time period from September 17, 1 993 to September 6, 1 994.

  17. Detailed comparative study and a mechanistic model of resuspension of spherical particles from rough and smooth surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shnapp, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Resuspension of solid particles by a tornado-like vortex from surfaces of different roughness is studied using a three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV) method. By utilizing the three-dimensional information on particle positions, velocities and accelerations before, during and after the resuspension (lift-off) event, we demonstrate that the resuspension efficiency is significantly higher from the rough surface, and propose a mechanistic model of this peculiar effect. The results indicate that for all Reynolds numbers tested, the resuspension rate, as well as particle velocities and accelerations, are higher over the rough surface, as compared to the smooth counterpart. The results and the model can help to improve modeling and analysis of resuspension rates in engineering and environmental applications.

  18. Roughness of the SiC/SiO{sub 2} vicinal interface and atomic structure of the transition layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Peizhi; Li, Guoliang; Duscher, Gerd, E-mail: gduscher@utk.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Sharma, Yogesh K.; Ahyi, Ayayi C.; Isaacs-Smith, Tamara; Williams, John R.; Dhar, Sarit [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The SiC/SiO{sub 2} interface is generally considered to be the cause for the reduced electron mobility of SiC power devices. Previous studies have shown a correlation between the mobility and the transition layer width at the SiC/SiO{sub 2} interface. The authors investigated this interface with atomic resolution Z-contrast imaging and electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and discovered that this transition region was due to the roughness of the vicinal interface. The roughness of a vicinal interface consisted of atomic steps and facets deviating from the ideal off-axis cut plane. The authors conclude that this roughness is limiting the mobility in the channels of SiC MOSFETs.

  19. Incentives and nutrition for rotten kids: intrahousehold food allocation in the Philippines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dubois, Pierre; Ligon, Ethan A.

    2011-01-01

    rural poor: a study of Philippine farm households. Boulder:food allocation in the Philippines Pierre Dubois and EthanFOOD ALLOCATION IN THE PHILIPPINES PIERRE DUBOIS AND ETHAN

  20. Positional cloning and characterization of the Rotten Ear (Rte) gene in Zea mays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tabi, Ma Zara Emilia Marañon

    2011-01-01

    with EcoRI and SalI, with Cold Fusion technology (System+2x35S cut with XhoI using Cold Fusion technology (SystemXhoI and XbaI cut sites using Cold Fusion technology (System

  1. Incentives & Nutrition For Rotten Kids: The Quantity & Quality Of Food Allocated Within Philippine Households

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dubois, Pierre; Ligon, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    rural poor: a study of Philippine farm households. Boulder:and food allocation in the Philippines. Unpublished Manu-planning in the rural Philippines. Journal of Southeast

  2. Bipedal Robotic Walking on Flat-Ground, Up-Slope and Rough Terrain with Human-Inspired Hybrid Zero Dynamics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nadubettu Yadukumar, Shishir 1986-

    2012-12-10

    The thesis shows how to achieve bipedal robotic walking on flat-ground, up-slope and rough terrain by using Human-Inspired control. We begin by considering human walking data and find outputs (or virtual constraints) that, when calculated from...

  3. Lattice Boltzmann simulations in microfluidics: probing the no-slip boundary condition in hydrophobic, rough, and surface nanobubble laden microchannels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jens Harting; Christian Kunert; Jari Hyväluoma

    2009-10-19

    In this contribution we review recent efforts on investigations of the effect of (apparent) boundary slip by utilizing lattice Boltzmann simulations. We demonstrate the applicability of the method to treat fundamental questions in microfluidics by investigating fluid flow in hydrophobic and rough microchannels as well as over surfaces covered by nano- or microscale gas bubbles.

  4. Interpretation of recent seismic data from a frontier hydrocarbon province: western Rough Creek graben, southern Illinois and western Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertagne, A.J.; Pisasale, E.T.; Leising, T.C.

    1986-05-01

    The northern basement fault of the Rough Creek graben is seismically discernible and has surface expression in the Rough Creek fault zone. The southern basement fault is not clearly defined seismically, but can be inferred from shallow faulting and gravity data. This fault is roughly coincident with the Pennyrile fault zone. Extensional faults that formed the rift boundaries were the sites of late-stage compressional and extensional tectonics. Flower structures observed along the graben boundaries probably indicate post-Pennsylvanian wrench faulting. The basement within the graben plunges north-northwest, with the lowest point occurring south of the Rough Creek fault zone. Pre-Knox sediments thicken to approximately 12,000 in this area. The Knox Megagroup thickens toward the Mississippi Embayment, ranging from 4800 ft (southeastern graben area) to more than 7000 ft (west end of graben). Upper Ordovician to Devonian units also display westward thickening. The top of the Meramecian, New Albany, Maquoketa, and the base of the Knox generate continuous, high-amplitude seismic reflections due to large impedance contrasts between clastic and carbonate units. Shallow oil and gas production (Mississippian and Pennsylvanian) is present in this area. However, deep horizons (Knox, Lower Cambrian) remain relatively untested. Potential hydrocarbon traps in the pre-Knox sequence observed on seismic include fault blocks and updip pinch-outs.

  5. Effect of edge roughness on electronic transport in graphene nanoribbon channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Matthew

    Effect of edge roughness on electronic transport in graphene nanoribbon channel metal-oxide-semiconductor on transport in graphene nanoribbon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors MOSFETs are reported of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2839330 Graphene has recently generated considerable interest as a semiconductor

  6. High-order solutions of three-dimensional rough-surface scattering problems at high-frequencies.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turc, Catalin

    High-order solutions of three-dimensional rough-surface scattering problems at high-frequencies. II with the capability of delivering very accurate results from low to high frequencies at a cost that is independent and polarizations. Submitted to: Waves Random Media #12;High-order high-frequency scattering solutions 2 1

  7. September 15, 2003 / Vol. 28, No. 18 / OPTICS LETTERS 1665 Heat treatment for reduction of surface roughness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avrutsky, Ivan

    September 15, 2003 / Vol. 28, No. 18 / OPTICS LETTERS 1665 Heat treatment for reduction of surface postdevelopment heat treatment of the photoresist polymer used in the preparation of holographic gratings has been the postdevelopment heat treatment to reduce the surface roughness, the setup shown in Fig. 1 was used. The diffracted

  8. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 28, NO. 5, PAGES 811-814, MARCH 1, 2001 Parameterizing Tidal Dissipation over Rough

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayne, Steven

    of barotropic tidal energy. The first line of evidence comes from observations of mix- ing in the abyssal Brazil ocean, the energy flux carried by internal waves generated over rough topog- raphy dominates the energy issues. The first is whether including a parameterization for internal wave energy-flux in a model

  9. Image Formation by Incoherent and Coherent Transition Radiation from Flat and Rough Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we derive equations for the image formation of transverse profile of a relativistic beam obtained by means of optical transition radiation (OTR) from flat and rough metal surfaces. The motivation behind this study lies in the desire to suppress coherent transition radiation (COTR) observed in experiments at modern free electron lasers. The physical mechanism behind the problem of COTR is that the OTR is predominantly radiated at small angles of order of 1/{gamma} where {gamma} is the relativistic factor of the beam. This means that the transverse formation size of the image is of order of {bar {lambda}}{gamma} where {bar {lambda}} = {lambda}/2{pi} with {lambda} the radiation wavelength. For relativistic beams this can be comparable or even exceed the transverse size of the beam, which would mean that the image of the beam has very little to do with its transverse profile. It is fortuitous, however, that the incoherent image is formed by adding radiation energy of electrons and results in the transverse formation size being of order of {bar {lambda}}/{theta}{sub a}, with {theta}{sub a} is the aperture angle of the optical system. The COTR image, in contrast, is formed by adding electromagnetic field of electrons, and leads to the formation size {bar {lambda}}{gamma}. In situations when the COTR intensity exceeds that of OTR the COTR imaging makes the diagnostic incapable of measuring the beam profile.

  10. IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) Cost Estimate Summary (Leveraged NDC Case).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, James M.; Prescott, Ryan; Dawson, Jericah M.; Huelskamp, Robert M.

    2014-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a ROM cost estimate for budgetary planning for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 effort, based on leveraging a fully funded, Sandia executed NDC Modernization project. This report provides the ROM cost estimate and describes the methodology, assumptions, and cost model details used to create the ROM cost estimate. ROM Cost Estimate Disclaimer Contained herein is a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate that has been provided to enable initial planning for this proposed project. This ROM cost estimate is submitted to facilitate informal discussions in relation to this project and is NOT intended to commit Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) or its resources. Furthermore, as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), Sandia must be compliant with the Anti-Deficiency Act and operate on a full-cost recovery basis. Therefore, while Sandia, in conjunction with the Sponsor, will use best judgment to execute work and to address the highest risks and most important issues in order to effectively manage within cost constraints, this ROM estimate and any subsequent approved cost estimates are on a 'full-cost recovery' basis. Thus, work can neither commence nor continue unless adequate funding has been accepted and certified by DOE.

  11. Light trapping and electrical transport in thin-film solar cells with randomly rough Piotr Kowalczewski, Angelo Bozzola, Marco Liscidini, and Lucio Claudio Andreani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Light trapping and electrical transport in thin-film solar cells with randomly rough textures Piotr solar cells J. Appl. Phys. 105, 094511 (2009); 10.1063/1.3108689 Local versus global absorption in thin-film in thin-film solar cells with randomly rough textures Piotr Kowalczewski,a) Angelo Bozzola, Marco

  12. Stranski-Krastanow islanding initiated on the stochastic rough surfaces of the epitaxially strained thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarik Ogurtani, Omer; Celik, Aytac; Emre Oren, Ersin

    2014-06-14

    Quantum dots (QD) have discrete energy spectrum, which can be adjusted over a wide range by tuning composition, density, size, lattice strain, and morphology. These features make quantum dots attractive for the design and fabrication of novel electronic, magnetic and photonic devices and other functional materials used in cutting-edge applications. The formation of QD on epitaxially strained thin film surfaces, known as Stranski-Krastanow (SK) islands, has attracted great attention due to their unique electronic properties. Here, we present a systematic dynamical simulation study for the spontaneous evolution of the SK islands on the stochastically rough surfaces (nucleationless growth). During the development of SK islands through the mass accumulation at randomly selected regions of the film via surface drift-diffusion (induced by the capillary and mismatch stresses) with and/or without growth, one also observes the formation of an extremely thin wetting layer having a thickness of a few Angstroms. Above a certain threshold level of the mismatch strain and/or the size of the patch, the formation of multiple islands separated by shallow wetting layers is also observed as metastable states such as doublets even multiplets. These islands are converted into a distinct SK islands after long annealing times by coalescence through the long range surface diffusion. Extensive computer simulation studies demonstrated that after an initial transient regime, there is a strong quadratic relationship between the height of the SK singlet and the intensity of the lattice mismatch strain (in a wide range of stresses up to 8.5?GPa for germanium thin crystalline films), with the exception at those critical points where the morphological (shape change with necking) transition takes place.

  13. Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the S809 airfoil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsay, R.F.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-01

    An S809 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3{times}5 subsonic wind tunnel (3{times}5) under steady flow and stationary model conditions, and also with the model undergoing pitch oscillations. To study the possible extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a standard grit pattern (LEGR) was developed to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, while the angle of attack ranged from {minus}20, to +40 {degrees}. With the model undergoing pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.4 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions were used; {plus_minus} 5.5{degrees} and {plus_minus} 10{degrees}, at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions means the model was in pitch oscillation about the quarter chord. In general, the unsteady maximum lift coefficient was from 4% to 86% higher than the steady state maximum lift coefficient, and variation in the quarter chord pitching moment coefficient magnitude was from {minus}83% to 195% relative to steady state values at high angles of attack. These findings indicate the importance of considering the unsteady flow behavior occurring in wind turbine operation to obtain accurate load estimates.

  14. Wall-slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds: Effect of flow channel geometry and roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Sanetrnik, Daniel [Dept. of Production Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, nám. T.G. Masaryka 5555, 760 01 Zlín, Czech Republic and Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovc (Czech Republic); Paravanova, Gordana [Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovcírnou 3685, 760 01 Zlín (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-15

    The paper deals with the rheological behavior of highly filled compounds proceeded via powder injection molding (PIM) and applied in many sectors of industry (automotive, medicine, electronic or military). Online rheometer equipped with slit dies varying in surface roughness and dimensions was applied to investigate the wall-slip as a rheological phenomenon, which can be considered as a parameter indicating the separation of compound components (polymer binder and metallic powder) during high shear rates when injection molded.

  15. Surface smoothing effect of an amorphous thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition on a surface with nano-sized roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, W. S. Wan, X.; Xu, Y.; Wong, H.; Zhang, J.; Luo, J. K.; Institute of Renewable Energy and Environment Technology, Bolton University, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5 AB

    2014-02-15

    Previously, Lau (one of the authors) pointed out that the deposition of an amorphous thin film by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on a substrate with nano-sized roughness probably has a surface smoothing effect. In this letter, polycrystalline zinc oxide deposited by ALD onto a smooth substrate was used as a substrate with nano-sized roughness. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) were used to demonstrate that an amorphous aluminum oxide thin film deposited by ALD can reduce the surface roughness of a polycrystalline zinc oxide coated substrate.

  16. Experimental and Computational Study of the Effect of the System Size on Rough Surfaces Formed by Sedimenting Particles in Quasi-Two-Dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. V. McCloud; U. Cardak; M. L. Kurnaz

    2004-08-22

    The roughness exponent of surfaces obtained by dispersing silica spheres into a quasi-two-dimensional cell is examined using experimental and computational methods. The cell consists of two glass plates separated by a gap, which is comparable in size to the diameter of the beads. We have studied the effect of changing the gap between the plates to a limit of about twice the diameter of the beads. If the conventional scaling analysis is performed, the roughness exponent is found to be robust against changes in the gap between the plates. The surfaces formed have two roughness exponents in two length scales, which have a crossover length about 1 cm.; however, the computational results do not show the same crossover behavior. The single exponent obtained from the simulations stays between the two roughness exponents obtained in the experiments.

  17. Suitability of salvaged timber in structural design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, James Brandon

    2012-01-01

    Increased demand for timber construction in the United States has placed a strain on the American timber reserve. At the same time, the annual demolition of thousands of buildings and wood structures results in thousands ...

  18. In Brief . .. Stingray Records, Clam Salvage,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the heaviest of the species taken by any legal means (archery, spear, gig, handline, trotline, etc.) other than

  19. Experimental study of laser-oxygen cutting of low-carbon steel using fibre and CO{sub 2} lasers under conditions of minimal roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golyshev, A A; Malikov, A G; Orishich, A M; Shulyatyev, V B [S.A. Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-31

    The results of an experimental study of laser-oxygen cutting of low-carbon steel using fibre and CO{sub 2} lasers are generalised. The dependence of roughness of the cut surface on the cutting parameters is investigated, and the conditions under which the surface roughness is minimal are formulated. It is shown that for both types of lasers these conditions can be expressed in the same way in terms of the dimensionless variables – the Péclet number Pe and the output power Q of laser radiation per unit thickness of the cut sheet – and take the form of the similarity laws: Pe = const, Q = const. The optimal values of Pe and Q are found. We have derived empirical expressions that relate the laser power and cutting speed with the thickness of the cut sheet under the condition of minimal roughness in the case of cutting by means of radiation from fibre and CO{sub 2} lasers. (laser technologies)

  20. COMPARISON OF SEA SURFACE ROUGHNESS MODELS FOR OFFSHORE WIND POWER UTILISATION Bernhard Lange(1), Jrgen Hjstrup(2), Sren Larsen(2), Rebecca Barthelmie(2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    COMPARISON OF SEA SURFACE ROUGHNESS MODELS FOR OFFSHORE WIND POWER UTILISATION Bernhard Lange(1 Large offshore wind farms are being built in several countries in Europe. The economic viability of such projects depends on the favourable wind conditions of offshore sites, since the higher energy yield has

  1. 44 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS PACKAGING MANUFACTURING, VOL. 24, NO. 1, JANUARY 2001 Rough Set Theory: A Data Mining Tool for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    Theory: A Data Mining Tool for Semiconductor Manufacturing Andrew Kusiak, Member, IEEE Abstract of data. Data mining has emerged as a discipline that contributes tools for data analysis, discovery and other aspects of data mining are introduced. The rough set theory offers a viable approach

  2. Suppression of thermal conductivity in graphene nanoribbons with rough edges Alexander V. Savin,1,2 Yuri S. Kivshar,2 and Bambi Hu3,4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Moscow 119991, Russia 2Nonlinear Physics Center, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian, the thermal properties of graphene are also of both fundamental and practical im- portance. SeveralSuppression of thermal conductivity in graphene nanoribbons with rough edges Alexander V. Savin,1

  3. Review of the margins for ASME code fatigue design curve - effects of surface roughness and material variability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2003-10-03

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. The Code specifies fatigue design curves for structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. Existing fatigue strain-vs.-life ({var_epsilon}-N) data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of pressure vessel and piping steels. This report provides an overview of the existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data for carbon and low-alloy steels and wrought and cast austenitic SSs to define the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on the fatigue lives of the steels. Experimental data are presented on the effects of surface roughness on the fatigue life of these steels in air and LWR environments. Statistical models are presented for estimating the fatigue {var_epsilon}-N curves as a function of the material, loading, and environmental parameters. Two methods for incorporating environmental effects into the ASME Code fatigue evaluations are discussed. Data available in the literature have been reviewed to evaluate the conservatism in the existing ASME Code fatigue evaluations. A critical review of the margins for ASME Code fatigue design curves is presented.

  4. Controlling rough paths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-03-05

    and observe that all the terms are in OCd. 2?I; V. #2. ? so that QAZ d. 2?I; V. #2. ? is in the domain of L; then. jjLQjjd;I p. 1. 2d ? 2. ½jjRZjjZ;I jjWjjg;I jjZ0jjN;I jjXjjg;I ...

  5. Salvaging Timber: Landowner Do's and Don'ts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    $462 million. Private, non-industrial forest landowners hold some 65 percent of this forestland A forester will help you make management decisions regarding your timber, such as whether or not to harvest receive the most attention. Do not waste recovery efforts on pulpwood logs. DO ­ Make a sale attractive Do

  6. Salvaging Timber: What should I do with my damaged timber? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Eric; Foster, C. Darwin

    2005-10-31

    preparation costs. Wind-damaged trees may not qualify as sawtimber because of the internal damage they suf- fered. Estimating in Damage Landowners should get help from professional foresters to determine the value of damaged tim- ber. However, if you... representative may be able to obtain this information for you. Determine the value of tim- ber lost as Timber value = acreage x timber value per acre Determining timber value per acre requires a tim- ber inventory. Wind storms tend to blow down trees...

  7. Roughly 15,000 patents a month are issued by the US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO).1 By law, these are supposed to cover only "novel" and "nonobvious" inventions, but an average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    1347 Roughly 15,000 patents a month are issued by the US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO).1 By law­20 hours of patent examiner time,2 and a substantial proportion of the few patents later fully evaluated the issuance of many ques- tionable patents. Responding to such concerns, the Supreme Court recently made

  8. Geometric frequency shift for electric dipole searches with trapped spin-1/2 particles in general fields and measurement cells of arbitrary shape with smooth or rough walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Steyerl; C. Kaufman; G. Müller; R. Golub

    2015-05-13

    The important role of geometric phases in searches for a permanent electric dipole moment of the neutron, using Ramsey separated oscillatory field nuclear magnetic resonance, was first investigated by Pendlebury $\\textit{et al.}$ [Phys. Rev. A $\\mathbf{70}$, 032102 (2004)]. Their analysis was based on the Bloch equations. In subsequent work using the spin density matrix Lamoreaux and Golub [Phys. Rev. A $\\mathbf{71}$, 032104 (2005)] showed the usual relation between the frequency shifts and the correlation functions of the fields seen by trapped particles in general fields (Redfield theory). More recently we presented a solution of the Schr\\"odinger equation for spin-$1/2$ particles in circular cylindrical traps with smooth walls and exposed to arbitrary fields [Steyerl $\\textit{et al.}$, Phys.Rev. A $\\mathbf{89}$, 052129 (2014)]. Here we extend this work to show how the Redfield theory follows directly from the Schr\\"odinger equation solution and include wall roughness, cylindrical trap geometry with arbitrary cross section, and field perturbations that do not, in the frame of the moving particles, average to zero in time and which, therefore, do not satisfy the prerequisites of the statistical approach based on the spin-density matrix. We show by direct, detailed, calculation the agreement of the results from the Schr\\"odinger equation with the Redfield theory for the cases of a rectangular cell with specular walls and of a circular cell with diffuse reflecting walls.

  9. A Unifying Framework to Quantify the Effects of Substrate Interactions, Stiffness, and Roughness on the Dynamics of Thin Supported Polymer Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Z. Hanakata; Beatriz A. Pazmiño Betancourt; Jack F. Douglas; Francis W. Starr

    2015-02-10

    Changes in the dynamics of supported polymer films in comparison to bulk materials involve a complex convolution of effects, such as substrate interactions, roughness and compliance, in addition to film thickness. We consider molecular dynamics simulations of substrate-supported, coarse-grained polymer films where these parameters are tuned separately to determine how each of these variables influence the molecular dynamics of thin polymer films. We find that all these variables significantly influence the film dynamics, leading to a seemingly intractable degree of complexity in describing these changes. However, by considering how these constraining variables influence string-like collective motion within the film, we show that all our observations can be understood in a unified and quantitative way. More specifically, the string model for glass-forming liquids implies that the changes in the structural relaxation of these films are governed by the changes in the average length of string-like cooperative motions and this model is confirmed under all conditions considered in our simulations. Ultimately, these changes are parameterized in terms of just the activation enthalpy and entropy for molecular organization, which have predictable dependences on substrate properties and film thickness, offering a promising approach for the rational design of film properties.

  10. Pressure-dependent transition from atoms to nanoparticles in magnetron sputtering: Effect on WSi{sub 2} film roughness and stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou Lan; Wang Yiping; Zhou Hua; Li Minghao; Headrick, Randall L.; MacArthur, Kimberly; Shi Bing; Conley, Ray; Macrander, Albert T. [Department of Physics and Materials Science Program, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405 (United States); Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    We report on the transition between two regimes from several-atom clusters to much larger nanoparticles in Ar magnetron sputter deposition of WSi{sub 2}, and the effect of nanoparticles on the properties of amorphous thin films and multilayers. Sputter deposition of thin films is monitored by in situ x-ray scattering, including x-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering. The results show an abrupt transition at an Ar background pressure P{sub c}; the transition is associated with the threshold for energetic particle thermalization, which is known to scale as the product of the Ar pressure and the working distance between the magnetron source and the substrate surface. Below P{sub c} smooth films are produced while above P{sub c} roughness increases abruptly, consistent with a model in which particles aggregate in the deposition flux before reaching the growth surface. The results from WSi{sub 2} films are correlated with in situ measurement of stress in WSi{sub 2}/Si multilayers, which exhibits a corresponding transition from compressive to tensile stress at P{sub c}. The tensile stress is attributed to coalescence of nanoparticles and the elimination of nanovoids.

  11. Pavement roughness on expansive clays 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velasco, Manuel O

    1980-01-01

    available weather station data over 20 years. b The roadway sections within this area are located in two different counties. IQ O'I CC O O 0 O CA O c I I- I/I I/I 0 0 0 0 0 /Q Ql 0 0 Z I/I C/I I/I IO 3: Z Z E tJJ Ql 0 O 0 I/I 0 CL m IQ QI... L Qt O V '?C Ct J N ~K 0 Vl ' /U 3 Ct I/I O Ct V E IU UD l- CU O V I CZI IU J O V N tV E Qt IJ- 0 3: C I/I O IU V E tll 5- N CU CJ X N tt- IL 0 Vl ' CU I/I O IU ' V E IU l- Cl N IU C J D N tt- U 0 I/I CJ I/I O...

  12. Controlled Rough Paths on Manifolds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semko, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    23] L. C. Young, An inequality of H¨older type connectedI. An extension of an inequality of L. C. Young, Math. Res.now that p Inequality (see [23]) along with an

  13. Drying Rough Rice in Storage. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorenson, J. W. Jr.; Crane, L. E.

    1960-01-01

    feet columna erating schedule is drying at a rate fast enou 7.2 8 1.80 to prevent mold development. Another importa : 10 3.00 consideration is simplicity of operating instrr : 9.0 8 2.50 tions requiring a minimumjof supervision of i ( 10 4....25 drying operation. Other desirable features in : 10.8 6 1.80 fan operating schedule are maximum drying eE : 8 3.25 ciency and use of minimum air flow rates. . 'Based on data presented by C. K. Shedd (2). The direction of air movement through ri a...

  14. Fundamental Mechanisms of Interface Roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall L. Headrick

    2009-01-06

    Publication quality results were obtained for several experiments and materials systems including: (i) Patterning and smoothening of sapphire surfaces by energetic Ar+ ions. Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS) experiments were performed in the system at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) X21 beamline. Ar+ ions in the energy range from 300 eV to 1000 eV were used to produce ripples on the surfaces of single-crystal sapphire. It was found that the ripple wavelength varies strongly with the angle of incidence of the ions, which increase significantly as the angle from normal is varied from 55° to 35°. A smooth region was found for ion incidence less than 35° away from normal incidence. In this region a strong smoothening mechanism with strength proportional to the second derivative of the height of the surface was found to be responsible for the effect. The discovery of this phase transition between stable and unstable regimes as the angle of incidence is varied has also stimulated new work by other groups in the field. (ii) Growth of Ge quantum dots on Si(100) and (111). We discovered the formation of quantum wires on 4° misoriented Si(111) using real-time GISAXS during the deposition of Ge. The results represent the first time-resolved GISAXS study of Ge quantum dot formation. (iii) Sputter deposition of amorphous thin films and multilayers composed of WSi2 and Si. Our in-situ GISAXS experiments reveal fundamental roughening and smoothing phenomena on surfaces during film deposition. The main results of this work is that the WSi2 layers actually become smoother during deposition due to the smoothening effect of energetic particles in the sputter deposition process.

  15. Mask Roughness Induced LER in EUV Lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClinton, Brittany

    2011-01-01

    focus…………………………………… Alt-PSM……………………………………………………………… 5.2.122-nm……………………….. 5.2.2 Alt-PSM vs. Lines and Spaces at 22-Simplified LER, alt-psm……………………………… Simulated LER, 22nm alt-

  16. A Rough Road Leads To The Stars

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries PrintA New SolarA Present . .A Review ofA

  17. Resolving Radiological Classification and Release Issues for Many DOE Solid Wastes and Salvageable Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hochel, R.C.

    1999-06-14

    The cost effective radiological classification and disposal of solid materials with potential volume contamination, in accordance with applicable U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, suffers from an inability to unambiguously distinguish among transuranic waste, low-level waste, and unconditional-release materials. Depending on the classification, disposal costs can vary by a hundred-fold. But in many cases, the issues can be easily resolved by a combination of process information, some simple measurements, and calculational predictions from a computer model for radiation shielding.The proper classification and disposal of many solid wastes requires a measurement regime that is able to show compliance with a variety of institutional and regulatory contamination limits. Although this is not possible for all solid wastes, there are many that do lend themselves to such measures. Several examples are discussed which demonstrate the possibilities, including one which was successfully applied to bulk contamination.The only barriers to such broader uses are the slow-to-change institutional perceptions and procedures. For many issues and materials, the measurement tools are available; they need only be applied.

  18. House Work: Domesticity, Belonging, and Salvage in the Art of Jess, 1955-1991

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDowell, Tara

    2013-01-01

    Hal Foster’s writings on Pop Art, including The First Pophead-scratching, inclusion in Pop Art exhibitions due to theart movements (“Comix-Pop-Think-Art” and the “Beat bicycle-

  19. Effect of Roughness Geometry on Wetting and Dewetting of Rough PDMS Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Susan

    was studied as model for print surfaces used in additive manufacturing and printed electronics. A smooth PDMS on decline for over a decade,9 printing has evolved and has become a manufacturing technology for flexible are keys to a successful implementation of ink printing in manufacturing. Arias et al.4 showed that balance

  20. Hydrogen Sulfide in Drinking Water: Causes and Treatment Alternatives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFarland, Mark L.; Provin, Tony

    1999-06-15

    If drinking water has a nuisance "rotten egg odor, it contains hydrogen sulfide. This leaflet discusses how hydrogen sulfide is formed and how the problem can be corrected....

  1. Mineral Requirements of Sheep. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1918-01-01

    If drinking water has a nuisance "rotten egg odor, it contains hydrogen sulfide. This leaflet discusses how hydrogen sulfide is formed and how the problem can be corrected....

  2. Adhesion between weakly rough beads F. Restagno* and J. Crassous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud 11, Université de

    granular media, and they are encountered as well in geophys- ics problems, in soil mechanics, and in the industrial process- ing of powders. In the field of soil mechanics, cohesive ef- fects are usually taken

  3. On the rough folding landscape of green fluorescent protein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrews, Benjamin Thomas

    2008-01-01

    W. A. (2004). The protein folding 'speed limit'. CurrentG. (1997). Theory of protein folding: the energy landscapeenergy landscape of protein folding: a synthesis. Proteins

  4. EARTHQUAKE RUPTURES ON ROUGH FAULTS Eric M. Dunham1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunham, Eric M.

    .): Multiscale and Multiphysics Processes in Geomechanics, SSGG, pp. 145­148. springerlink.com c Springer

  5. Elastic–Plastic Spherical Contact Modeling Including Roughness Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, L.; Etsion, I.; Talke, F. E.

    2010-01-01

    A multilevel model for elastic–plastic contact between ajunction growth of an elastic–plastic spherical contact. J.nite element based elastic–plastic model for the contact of

  6. Minimalistic control of biped walking in rough terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iida, Fumiya

    Toward our comprehensive understanding of legged locomotion in animals and machines, the compass gait model has been intensively studied for a systematic investigation of complex biped locomotion dynamics. While most of ...

  7. NEAR-FIELD IMAGING OF INFINITE ROUGH SURFACES 1 ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-09-03

    cal exploration (e.g., oil and gas exploration), and medical imaging (e.g., breast cancer detection). ... The method can be naturally extended to solve the trans-.

  8. Analysis of the scattering by an unbounded rough surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-11-10

    Jun 7, 2012 ... outdoor ground and sea surfaces, optical scattering from the surface of materials in near-field optics or nano-optics, and detection of underwater ... ined by researchers in the engineering community. .... A simple calculation yields an explicit characterization of the norm in ...... Wave Motion 1996; 24:421–433.

  9. Immersive Planar Display using Roughly Aligned Projectors Ramesh Raskar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuchs, Henry

    ://www.cs.unc.edu/~raskar/Planar/ Abstract When a projector is oblique with respect to a planar dis- playsurface, it creates keystoning is not perpendicular to the display screen, the resultant image is keystoned and ap- pears distorted (Fig 1). We rectangular images (b) Oblique projectors create keystoned images. positioned in large display systems, after

  10. Modeling rough energy landscapes in defected condensed matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monasterio Velásquez, Paul Rene

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a computational and theoretical investigation of the behavior of defected condensed matter and its evolution over long time scales. The thesis provides original contributions to the methodology used ...

  11. What rough beast? Synthetic Biology and the Future of Biosecurity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohr, Scott C.

    Synthetic biology seeks to create modular biological parts that can be assembled into useful devices, allowing the modification of biological systems with greater reliability, at lower cost, with greater speed, and by a ...

  12. Pressure Drop of Fully Developed, Laminar Flow in Rough Microtubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    in fabrication methods in microelectromechanical systems MEMS have generated significant interest in the area Mem. ASME e-mail: majid@mhtlab.uwaterloo.ca M. M. Yovanovich Distinguished Professor Emeritus Fellow ASME J. R. Culham1 Associate Professor Mem. ASME Microelectronics Heat Transfer Laboratory, Department

  13. On the rough folding landscape of green fluorescent protein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrews, Benjamin Thomas

    2008-01-01

    H. (2008). Understanding protein folding: small proteins inmultiple pathways of protein folding. Chem Biol 2, 255-60.Polymer principles and protein folding. Protein Sci 8, 1166-

  14. Dropwise condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces with two-tier roughness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chuan-Hua

    . This letter reports continuous dropwise condensation on a superhydrophobic surface with short carbon nanotubes, mimicking that on the surface of lotus leaves,11 was prepared by depositing carbon nanotubes CNTs of chromium Cr, 100 nm and then nickel Ni, 20 nm as catalyst, and CNTs were grown by plasma enhanced chemical

  15. Classical Control Using H 1 Methods Rough Draft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helton, J. William

    : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 17 3 Frequency domain performance requirements 19 3.1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 19 3.1.1 The closed loop system S : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 19 3.1.2 Frequency domain performance : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 32 3.4.4 Disturbance rejection : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 33 3.4.5 More on tracking error

  16. To our roughly 6,800 new and continuing international

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Boiler Out! The Boiler Out! Volunteer Program provides interna- tional students with opportu- nities. Currently, the Boiler Out! cohort repre- sents the diversity of Pur- due's student body, consist- ing of more than 100 stu- dents and representing 19 countries! To learn more about Boiler Out!, view

  17. NEAR-FIELD IMAGING OF INFINITE ROUGH SURFACES 1 ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-09-03

    mine the scattered field from the incident field and the differential equation ... design an efficient computational method for solving the surface scattering problem ... propagation of acoustic waves or the transverse magnetic polarization of ...... the periodicity of the solutions, we modified a simple mesh generator in MATLAB by.

  18. Procedure for estimating fracture energy from fracture surface roughness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williford, Ralph E. (Kennewick, WA)

    1989-01-01

    The fracture energy of a material is determined by first measuring the length of a profile of a section through a fractured surface of the material taken on a plane perpendicular to the mean plane of that surface, then determining the fractal dimensionality of the surface. From this, the yield strength of the material, and the Young's Modulus of that material, the fracture energy is calculated.

  19. Performance-Based Rough Terrain Navigation for Nonholonomic Mobile Robots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Lynne E.

    , performance issues (e.g., robot safety, or geometric, time-based, and physics- based criteria) are adequately, such as robot safety, or geometric, time-based, and physics-based criteria. However, where uncertainties exist that by incorporating criterion-optimizing design in each module and organizing them in a behavior-based architecture

  20. Rough Rock, Arizona: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk, NewMichigan: EnergyRocklinRohmRoshniRotokawa Geothermal

  1. Rough and Ready Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk, NewMichigan: EnergyRocklinRohmRoshniRotokawa Geothermaland Ready

  2. Surface Orbital 'Roughness' in Colossal Magnetoresistive Oxide | Advanced

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With Livermore National LabSupplierNSTPhoton Source More

  3. Enhanced Tissue Adhesion by Increased Porosity and Surface Roughness of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) | SciTech(Journal(Patent) |(Journal Article) | SciTechCarbon Based

  4. Impact of Ice Crystal Roughness on Satellite Retrieved Cloud Properties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLAN FOR THE SITE- SPECIFIC SAVINGS PORTFOLIOImpactIce

  5. 6/18/13 A History Lesson and a Call to Arms -The New York Times movies.nytimes.com/2008/09/12/movies/12secr.html?partner=Rotten Tomatoes&ei=5083&pagewanted=print 1/2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galison, Peter L.

    6/18/13 A History Lesson and a Call to Arms - The New York Times movies.nytimes.com/2008 Village. Running time: 1 hour 20 minutes. This film is not rated. Copyright 2013 The New York Times

  6. Salvage of blood urea nitrogen in sheep is highly dependent on plasma urea concentration and the efficiency of capture within the digestive tract1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bequette, Brian J.

    of urea N to the GIT. We used an i.v. urea infusion model in sheep to elevate the urea entry rate, DM basis) diet and assigned to 4 rates of i.v. urea infusion (0, 3.8, 7.5, or 11.3 g of urea N/d; 10 ([15 N2]urea infusion over 80 h), and plasma AA were determined. Urea infusion increased apparent total

  7. E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Environment, Health, & Safety Division

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Switchgear Bldg. 37 Utilities Service 40 Electronics Development Lab 41 Magnetic Measurements Lab 42 Salvage

  8. Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 03/8/2001 E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Switchgear Bldg. 37 Utilities Service 40 Electronics Development Lab 41 Magnetic Measurements Lab 42 Salvage

  9. Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 06/12/2000 E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Switchgear Bldg. 37 Utilities Service 40 Electronics Development Lab 41 Magnetic Measurements Lab 42 Salvage

  10. T. HEnsgN: Reproduction in transient and stable habitats AvnrtasI-p Dare oN BRyopHyrE BIoLoGy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herben, Tomas

    platycurtic (i.e. with heavy tails) spatial distribution of spores, with an important proportion of spores specificsubstrates,such as rotten logs, tree trunks, leaves,arable land, animal excrements, dried pond bottoms

  11. Urbanism of disassembly : strategies for Alang's shipbreaking industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barve, Aditya S. (Aditya Shankar)

    2013-01-01

    Waste is an integral part of our contemporary civilization based on consumption and material culture. From an empty soda can to the spent nuclear fuel rod, we define waste as the matter without immediate use: rotten, broken, ...

  12. 68 Scientific American January 2000 Snowball Earth Our human ancestors had it rough. Saber-toothed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiners, Peter W.

    , in a time period known as the Neoproterozoic, an ice age pre- vailed with such intensity that even from its cryogenic slumber, the volcanoes slowly manufacture an escape from the chill: carbon dioxide- els. The heat-trapping capacity of carbon dioxide--a green- house gas--warms the planet and begins

  13. Nanoscale Surface and Interface Mechanics of Elastic-Plastic Media with Smooth, Patterned, and Rough Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Xi

    2011-01-01

    dislocation and crystal plasticity predictions. Philos. Mag.gradient theory of crystal plasticity. J. Mech. Phys. Solids1999. Strain gradient crystal plasticity: Size-dependent

  14. Surface Energy, Elasticity and the Homogenization of Rough P.Mohammadi1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Liping

    distribution and subsequently different physical, mechanical and chemical properties. These differences temperature, electromagnetic properties among 1 Corresponding author: psharma@uh.edu 1 #12;others al., 2001; Hurley et al., 2001; Villain et al., 2002; Sun and Zhang, 2003; Workum and Pablo, 2003

  15. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL NETWORKS, VOL. 9, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 1998 1203 Rough Fuzzy MLP: Knowledge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitra, Sushmita

    Statistical Institute, Calcutta 700035, India. He is now with the Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute Statistical Institute, Calcutta 700035, India. Publisher Item Identifier S 1045-9227(98)08346-5. Generally of Technology, Kanpur 208016, India. S. Mitra and S. K. Pal are with the Machine Intelligence Unit, Indian

  16. Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 Finding transition pathways: throwing ropes over rough

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandler, David

    Dynamics in Condensed Phase Simulations, edited by B. J. Berne, G. Ciccotti and D. F. Coker (World Scienti. As such, , the unit step function that is when , is a natural and simple de nition of the population

  17. Kinetics modeling and 3-dimensional simulation of surface roughness during plasma etching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Wei, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    The control of feature profiles in directional plasma etching processes is crucial as critical dimension, line-edge roughening, and other artifacts affect device performance and process yields. A profile simulator is ...

  18. Effective thermal conductivity of rough spherical packed beds Majid Bahrami *, M. Michael Yovanovich, J. Richard Culham

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    exchangers, heat storage sys- tems, the breeder blanket about fusion reactors [1], and insulators and asperities slope. The present model is compared with experimental data with the sphere diameter of 19.05, 25 to volume. This property is useful in applications such as catalytic reactors, heat recovery processes, heat

  19. Rheological study of polymer flow past rough surfaces with slip boundary conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anoosheh Niavarani; Nikolai V. Priezjev

    2008-08-11

    The slip phenomena in thin polymer films confined by either flat or periodically corrugated surfaces are investigated by molecular dynamics and continuum simulations. For atomically flat surfaces and weak wall-fluid interactions, the shear rate dependence of the slip length has a distinct local minimum which is followed by a rapid increase at higher shear rates. For corrugated surfaces with wavelength larger than the radius of gyration of polymer chains, the effective slip length decays monotonically with increasing corrugation amplitude. At small amplitudes, this decay is reproduced accurately by the numerical solution of the Stokes equation with constant and rate-dependent local slip length. When the corrugation wavelength is comparable to the radius of gyration, the continuum predictions overestimate the effective slip length obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. The analysis of the conformational properties indicates that polymer chains tend to stretch in the direction of shear flow above the crests of the wavy surface.

  20. Asperity-scale surface mechanics - Implications to adhesive contacts and microscale deformation behavior of rough surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Huaming

    2012-01-01

    Wear of Ball Bearings by Lubricant Debris,” Wear, 233–235,of Rolling Bearings by Lubricant Borne Particles,” J. Eng.by fluid (boundary lubricant). Figure 7.1(b) depicts the

  1. The roughness of stylolites: Implications of 3D high resolution topography measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    diagenesis and metamorphism that develop after their initiation. In this Letter we show the first 3D high

  2. Nanoscale Surface and Interface Mechanics of Elastic-Plastic Media with Smooth, Patterned, and Rough Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Xi

    2011-01-01

    the elastic and plastic properties of the softer material Eof the elastic and plastic properties of the soft surfaceon the elastic and plastic properties of the soft surface (

  3. Asperity-scale surface mechanics - Implications to adhesive contacts and microscale deformation behavior of rough surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Huaming

    2012-01-01

    modes. Elastic-plastic properties, material hardening, and? , and elastic-plastic material properties of the half-gap), and elastic-plastic material properties of the half-

  4. The Effect of Asperity Flattening During Cyclic Normal Loading of a Rough Spherical Contact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Longqiu; Ovcharenko, Andrey; Etsion, Izhak; Talke, Frank

    2010-01-01

    and material properties on elastic-plastic sphericalplastic holder with a dimple glued to its end The mechanical properties

  5. Contact Mechanics Modeling of Homogeneous and Layered Elastic-Plastic Media: Surface Roughness and Adhesion Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Zhichao

    2012-01-01

    substrate elastic-plastic properties also play an importantof elastic-plastic material properties. The indentationand elastic-plastic materials properties by curve fitting

  6. Near-Field Imaging of Infinite Rough Surfaces in Dielectric Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao, G. and Li, P.

    2014-05-01

    May 15, 2014 ... c 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics ... inhomogeneity, such as geometry and material property, from the measured scattered ...

  7. Global Distribution of Ice Cloud Particle Shape and Roughness from PARASOL Satellite Measurements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Benjamin

    2013-07-29

    The energy balance of the Earth is regulated in part by ice clouds, which both reflect shortwave solar radiation and absorb infrared radiation from the Earth. These clouds appear frequently worldwide, with up to 70% coverage in tropical regions...

  8. Improved Global Bathymetry, Global Sea Floor Roughness, and Deep Ocean Mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Joseph J

    2008-01-01

    Significant dissipation of tidal energy in the deep ocean2001), Estimates of M-2 tidal energy dissipation from TOPEX/Significant dissipation of tidal energy in the deep ocean

  9. Improved global bathymetry, global sea floor roughness, and deep ocean mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Joseph Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Significant dissipation of tidal energy in the deep ocean2001), Estimates of M-2 tidal energy dissipation from TOPEX/Significant dissipation of tidal energy in the deep ocean

  10. 1 Introduction CPU speed has doubled roughly every 18 months, while

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Bruce

    [9]. Each type of DRAM i.e., SDRAM, DDR SDRAM etc., has different behaviors and architectures, including SDRAM, DDR, DDR2, DRDRAM and FB-DIMM,with the capability to easily vary their parameters. It also

  11. Efficient integral equation based algorithms for parasitic extraction of interconnects with smooth or rough surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Zhenhai, 1970-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes a few efficient parasitic extraction algorithms based on integral equation methods. It has two parts. Part one describes the algorithms used in FastImp, a program for accurate analysis of wide-band ...

  12. Strain-induced reduction of surface roughness dominated spin relaxation in MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osintsev, Dmitri; Stanojevic, Zlatan; Baumgartner, Oskar; Sverdlov, Viktor; Selberherr, Siegfried

    2013-12-04

    Semiconductor spintronics is a rapidly developing field with large impact on microelectronics. Using spin may help to reduce power consumption and increase computational speed. Silicon is perfectly suited for spin-based applications. It is characterized by a weak spin-orbit interaction which should result in a long spin lifetime. However, recent experiments indicate the lifetime is greatly reduced in gated structures. Thus, understanding the peculiarities of the spin-orbit effects on the subband structure and details of the spin propagation in surface layers and thin silicon films is urgently needed. We investigate the contribution of the spin-orbit interaction to the equivalent valley splitting and calculate the spin relaxation matrix elements by using a perturbative k ?p approach. We demonstrate that applying uniaxial stress along the [110] direction may considerably suppress electron spin relaxation in silicon surface layers and thin films.

  13. Spin Currents in Rough Graphene Nanoribbons: Universal Fluctuations and Spin Injection Michael Wimmer,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tománek, David

    also been suggested as a good candidate for spin-based quantum computing and spintronics [3-polarized [11], making zigzag GNRs attractive for spintronics [12]. In addition, edge states are expected be used as spin injectors or detectors in graphene spintronics. We start with a description

  14. Parallelized Distributed Embedded Control System for 2D Walking Robot for Studying Rough Terrain Locomotion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strunk, Gavin

    2010-12-10

    , parallelized, embedded control system was developed to provide the control structure for the Jaywalker. This system was chosen for its ability to execute simultaneous tasks efficiently. The two level control system provides a first level to implement a higher...

  15. Rapid granular flows on a rough incline: phase diagram, gas transition, and effects of air drag

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamas Borzsonyi; Robert E. Ecke

    2006-11-16

    We report experiments on the overall phase diagram of granular flows on an incline with emphasis on high inclination angles where the mean layer velocity approaches the terminal velocity of a single particle free falling in air. The granular flow was characterized by measurements of the surface velocity, the average layer height, and the mean density of the layer as functions of the hopper opening, the plane inclination angle and the downstream distance x of the flow. At high inclination angles the flow does not reach an x-invariant steady state over the length of the inclined plane. For low volume flow rates, a transition was detected between dense and very dilute (gas) flow regimes. We show using a vacuum flow channel that air did not qualitatively change the phase diagram and did not quantitatively modify mean flow velocities of the granular layer except for small changes in the very dilute gas-like phase.

  16. Rough-terrain mobile robot planning and control with application to planetary exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iagnemma, Karl David

    2001-01-01

    Future planetary exploration missions will require mobile robots to perform difficult tasks in highly challenging terrain, with limited human supervision. Current motion planning and control algorithms are not well suited ...

  17. Development of a Hybrid Powered 2D Biped Walking Machine Designed for Rough Terrain Locomotion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Bryce C.

    2010-07-28

    Biped robots hold promise as terrestrial explorers because they require a single discrete foothold to place their next step. However, biped robots are multi-input multi-output dynamically unstable machines. This makes ...

  18. A High Reynolds Number Turbulent Boundary Layer with Regular `Braille-Type' Roughness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marusic, Ivan

    high Reynolds number wind-tunnel facility at New Mexico State University (NMSU) was fitted-mail: montyjp@unimelb.edu.au J.J. Allen Department of Mechanical Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las

  19. Sensitivity of Swept-Wing, Boundary-Layer Transition to Spanwise-Periodic Discrete Roughness Elements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, David Edward

    2014-12-12

    ) was unexpectedly farther aft than the polished. Transport unit Reynolds numbers were achieved using a Cessna O-2A Skymaster. Infrared thermography, coupled with a post-processing code, was used to globally extract a quantitative boundary-layer transition location...

  20. Light trapping and electrical transport in thin-film solar cells with randomly rough textures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yet, the central problem of thin-film photovoltaics is to capture and absorb sunlight in a thin active for photovoltaic applica- tions as intrinsically broadband scatterers. In this work, we use rigorous electro

  1. Algebra and Geometry of Rough Logic Controllers T. Y. Lin 1 tylin@cs.susu.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Tsau Young

    and valida­ tion (the so called tuning). In CC, verification and validation is trivial, because system models and Computer Science University of California Berkeley, California 94720 2 Electric Power Research Institute of mathematical models that are based on experts' observations of real world control systems. These mathematical

  2. Surface geosciences (Hydrologyhydrogeology) Fracture roughness and thermal exchange: A case study at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmittbuhl, Jean

    -affine. Une application au cas d'e´tude du re´servoir de ge´othermie profonde a` Soultz-sous-Fore^ts, France

  3. Surface roughness over the northern half of the Greenland Ice Sheet from airborne laser altimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Veen, Cornelis J.; Ahn, Y.; Csatho, B. M.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; Krabill, William B.

    2009-06-05

    radioactivity from atmospheric thermonuclear testing. The five cores contain a 66-year period of overlap from 1928 to 1994 (the most recent complete year of accumula- tion). Annual accumulation rates for each of the cores are shown in Figure 2. 2.3. Validation...

  4. Asperity-scale surface mechanics - Implications to adhesive contacts and microscale deformation behavior of rough surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Huaming

    2012-01-01

    K. , 2005a, “A Mechanics Approach to Static Friction of7 polishing A quasi-static mechanics analysis of three-Chapter 7 A quasi-static mechanics analysis of three-

  5. Contact Mechanics Modeling of Homogeneous and Layered Elastic-Plastic Media: Surface Roughness and Adhesion Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Zhichao

    2012-01-01

    H. , 2003. Fracture mechanics analysis of thin coatingsK.L. , 1985. Contact Mechanics, Cambridge University Press,J. , Chaboche, J. L. , 1994. Mechanics of Solid Materials.

  6. Surface roughness effects on the solar reflectance of cool asphalt shingles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Roofing Materials,” Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells,measurements,” Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, 89(4):common colorants,” Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, 89(

  7. Analysis, design, and control of an omnidirectional mobile robot in rough terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Udengaard, Martin Richard

    2008-01-01

    An omnidirectional mobile robot is able, kinematically, to move in any direction regardless of current pose. To date, nearly all designs and analyses of omnidirectional mobile robots have considered the case of motion on ...

  8. Diamonds From the Rough: Improving Drawing, Painting, and Singing via Crowdsourcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    , write, or sign their name; the limitation may be due to disease (e.g., Parkinson's) or simply due) employed genetic algorithms and tournament selection to iteratively aggregate and im- prove the quality

  9. Depth And Surface Roughness Control On Laser Micromachined Polyimide For Direct-Write Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Craig B.

    control is not met by conventional patterning techniques.1 A key advantage of laser micromachining over other conventional patterning or etching techniques is the ability to remove materials ranging from processing. Typical applications include drilling through vias,2 ink jet printer nozzle drilling,3

  10. Separation of surface and volume effects in scattering from heterogeneous rough surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,19 the differential method,20 or a hybrid method that combines a surface integral method with the Fourier-element method,16 the finite-difference- time-domain approach,17 the boundary integral method,18 is to provide an understanding and derivation of the splitting rule on the basis of analytical calculations

  11. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Direct Simulation of Surface Roughness Effects with RANS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhi Jian "ZJ"

    of land-based gas turbines operate in a particularly harsh environment. All surfaces such as blades, vanes, which hastens further material degradation. In order to estimate the service life of turbine blades, pitting, and spallation of thermal-barrier coatings depend on the environment from which the air

  12. Contact Mechanics Modeling of Homogeneous and Layered Elastic-Plastic Media: Surface Roughness and Adhesion Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Zhichao

    2012-01-01

    Greenwood, J.A. , 1997. Adhesion of elastic spheres. Proc.to the Maugis model of adhesion between elastic spheres. J.determination of interfacial adhesion properties by wedge

  13. Asperity-scale surface mechanics - Implications to adhesive contacts and microscale deformation behavior of rough surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Huaming

    2012-01-01

    tip-sample wear under adhesive contact,” Tribol. Int. , 33,Kramer, E. J. , 1996, “Adhesive contact of cylindrical lensof an Elastic–Plastic Adhesive Spherical Microcontact,” J.

  14. Contact Mechanics Modeling of Homogeneous and Layered Elastic-Plastic Media: Surface Roughness and Adhesion Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Zhichao

    2012-01-01

    adhesion in microelectromechanical systems. ASME J. Tribol.microtribology for microelectromechanical systems. Wear 200,forces in microelectromechanical systems: mechanisms,

  15. Nanoscale Surface and Interface Mechanics of Elastic-Plastic Media with Smooth, Patterned, and Rough Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Xi

    2011-01-01

    fractal analysis microelectromechanical systems. J. Tribol.adhesion in microelectromechanical systems. Journal ofof sidewall adhesion in microelectromechanical systems. J.

  16. Asperity-scale surface mechanics - Implications to adhesive contacts and microscale deformation behavior of rough surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Huaming

    2012-01-01

    Microtribology for Microelectromechanical Systems,” Wear,forces in microelectromechanical systems: mechanisms,Analysis Microelectromechanical Systems,” ASME J. Tribol. ,

  17. Nanoscale Surface and Interface Mechanics of Elastic-Plastic Media with Smooth, Patterned, and Rough Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Xi

    2011-01-01

    fractal analysis microelectromechanical systems. J. Tribol.surface adhesion in microelectromechanical systems. Journalof sidewall adhesion in microelectromechanical systems. J.

  18. Asperity-scale surface mechanics - Implications to adhesive contacts and microscale deformation behavior of rough surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Huaming

    2012-01-01

    Microtribology for Microelectromechanical Systems,” Wear,forces in microelectromechanical systems: mechanisms,A Fractal Analysis Microelectromechanical Systems,” ASME J.

  19. Contact Mechanics Modeling of Homogeneous and Layered Elastic-Plastic Media: Surface Roughness and Adhesion Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Zhichao

    2012-01-01

    surface adhesion in microelectromechanical systems. ASME J.microtribology for microelectromechanical systems. Wear 200,forces in microelectromechanical systems: mechanisms,

  20. Near-Field Imaging of Infinite Rough Surfaces in Dielectric Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao, G. and Li, P.

    2014-05-01

    2162–2187], where a more sophisticated transmission problem needs to be .... of the inverse surface scattering problem for both reflection and transmission.

  1. ForPeerReview Wheat canopy structure and surface roughness effects on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    and Ocean Salinity Mission 2010 Special Issue paper Keywords: Remote sensing, Microwave radiometry Abstract--The capability of multi-angle observations of the Soil moisture and Ocean Salinity22 (SMOS and Ocean Salinity (SMOS)43 Page 2 of 28Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

  2. Tsunami generated by a granular collapse down a rough inclined plane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viroulet, Sylvain; Kimmoun, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In this Letter, we experimentally investigate the collapse of initially dry granular media into water and the subsequent impulse waves. We systematically characterize the influence of the slope angle and the granular material on the initial amplitude of the generated leading wave and the evolution of its amplitude during the propagation. The experiments show that whereas the evolution of the leading wave during the propagation is well predicted by a solution of the linearized Korteweg-de Vries equation, the generation of the wave is more complicated to describe. Our results suggest that the internal properties of the granular media and the interplay with the surrounding fluid are important parameters for the generation of waves at low velocity impacts. Moreover, the amplitude of the leading wave reaches a maximum value at large slope angle. The runout distance of the collapse is also shown to be smaller in the presence of water than under totally dry conditions. This study provides a first insight into tsunam...

  3. Pilot study of horizontal roughing filtration in northern Ghana as pretreatment for highly turbid dugout water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Losleben, Tamar

    2008-01-01

    In Northern Region Ghana (NRG), highly turbid rainwater runoff and intermittent streams are collected in earthen dams called dugouts. These dams serve as many communities' main source of drinking and domestic water despite ...

  4. Surface roughness and size effects in quantized films A. E. Meyerovich and I. V. Ponomarev

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyerovich, Alex

    Department of Physics, University of Rhode Island, 2 Lippitt Rd., Kingston, Rhode Island 02881-0817 Received- cation, ultrathin-film manufacturing, ultraclean and high- vacuum systems, etc., requires better for transport in ultrathin and/or clean systems in which the particle mean free path is comparable to the sys

  5. Stratified rough sets and vagueness Thomas Bittner and John G. Stell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stell, John

    of Leipzig thomas.bittner@ifomis.uni-leipzig.de¡ School of Computing, University of Leeds jgs@comp.leeds the various kinds of road into the same equivalence class. To this equiv- alence class we give the label `road equiva- lence relation which taking the labels of the more detailed pixels amalgamates them to a single

  6. Rough-surface gravity current flows W.D. Peters 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Wayne D.

    , University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada 2 Department of Mechanical

  7. Effect of thermal pole tip protrusion and disk roughness on slider disk contacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jianfeng; Kiely, James D.; Hsia, Yiao-Tee; Talke, Frank E.

    2009-01-01

    A, Weng R, Li F (2004) Pole-tip protrusion effect on high1b, the protrusion of the pole tip is shown due to the J.can occur, resulting in pole tip damage and wear of the

  8. Author's personal copy Application of rough set and decision tree for characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munakata, Toshinori

    theory; Decision tree; Earthquake prediction; Machine learning 1. Introduction Identifying to be used in predicting premonitory factors for earthquake. In recent years, researchers have identified a machine learning approach to characterizing premonitory factors of earthquake. The characteristic

  9. Boundary-Layer Receptivity to Three-Dimensional Roughness Arrays on a Swept-Wing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Lauren Elizabeth

    2012-02-14

    instabilities to occur, which in turn ultimately lead to transition. Computational methods that model the primary and secondary instability growth can accurately model disturbance evolution as long as appropriate initial conditions are supplied. Additionally...

  10. Y-12's rough roads smoothed over with recycled asphalt | Y-12 National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDidDevelopmentatabout Who Works for NIF &Y-12 wastes not and

  11. Y-12's rough roads smoothed over with 23,000 tons of recycled asphalt |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReport forRetirementAdministrationWayne| National

  12. Atomic-Level Measurements of Rough Surfaces | U.S. DOE Office of Science

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLosThe 26thI D- 6 0 4 2 rzNewsOffice of(SC) Atomic-Level

  13. The effect of ice crystal surface roughness on the retrieval of ice cloud microphysical and optical properties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Yu

    2007-09-17

    ?µm). The discrete ordinates radiative transfer (DISORT) model is used to compute the radiances for a set of optical thicknesses, particle effective sizes, viewing and illumination angles, and cloud temperatures. A parameterization of cloud bi...

  14. LRO observations of morphology and surface roughness of volcanic cones and lobate lava flows in the Marius Hills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glotch, Timothy D.

    of the cones are found in local groupings or alignments. The wide range of volcanic features, from broad low and Head, 1977; Weitz and Head, 1999]. As such, the Marius Hills represent a significant episode of lunar.5 Ga) [McCauley, 1967a; Whitford-Stark and Head, 1977; Heather and Dunkin, 2002; Heather et al., 2003

  15. 46 (2009-6) Effect of Surface Roughness on Emittance Spectra of Metal-coated Silicon Microcavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasagi, Nobuhide

    to the electromagnetic resonance mode. When InGaAsSb PV cell is assumed, theoretical conversion efficiency becomes 31-372 infrared heat lamp sample & sample holder vacuum chamber IR spectrometer silver-coated mirror sapphire window lock-in amplifiervacuum pumping system data logger radiation oval mirror RP TMP radiation

  16. Relationships between deformation and microstructure evolution and minimizing surface roughness after BCP processing in RRR Nb cavitites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.R. Bieler; D. Baars; K.T. Hartwig; C. Compton; T.L. Grimm

    2009-05-26

    Two strategies for improving the surface finish of niobium sheet used in superconducting radio frequency cavities were examined, using slices of single (or large-grain) material from an ingot, and equal channel angle extrusion (ECAE) preprocessing of ingot material to achieve a uniform and small grain size prior to subsequent rolling. The effect of these two processing paths on final microstructure, texture, and surface finish are discussed.

  17. Investigation of Flying-Height Stability of Thermal Fly-Height Control Sliders in Lubricant or Solid Contact with Roughness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Jinglin; Bogy, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Gonzaga, L. , Man, Y.J. : Lubricant-sur?ng recording and itsSlider dynamics in the lubricant-contact regime. IEEE Trans.Height Control Sliders in Lubricant or Solid Contact with

  18. Rough interfaces, accurate predictions: The necessity of capillary modes in a minimal model of nanoscale hydrophobic solvation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suriyanarayanan Vaikuntanathan; Grant M Rotskoff; Alexander Hudson; Phillip Geissler

    2015-10-26

    Modern theories of the hydrophobic effect highlight its dependence on length scale, emphasizing in particular the importance of interfaces that emerge in the vicinity of sizable hydrophobes. We recently showed that a faithful treatment of such nanoscale interfaces requires careful attention to the statistics of capillary waves, with significant quantitative implications for the calculation of solvation thermodynamics. Here we show that a coarse-grained lattice model in the spirit of those pioneered by Chandler and coworkers, when informed by this understanding, can capture a broad range of hydrophobic behaviors with striking accuracy. Specifically, we calculate probability distributions for microscopic density fluctuations that agree very well with results of atomistic simulations, even many standard deviations from the mean, and even for probe volumes in highly heterogeneous environments. This accuracy is achieved without adjustment of free parameters, as the model is fully specified by well-known properties of liquid water. As illustrative examples of its utility, we characterize the free energy profile for a solute crossing the air-water interface, and compute the thermodynamic cost of evacuating the space between extended nanoscale surfaces. Together, these calculations suggest that a highly reduced model for aqueous solvation can serve as the basis for efficient multiscale modeling of spatial organization driven by hydrophobic and interfacial forces.

  19. Journal of Prashanth Thogaru for spring 2007 I prepared a rough draft for my mathematical autobiography. I learned LATEX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohlenkamp, Martin J.

    autobiography. I learned LATEX basics in this week through the online tutorial. Then I started writing small articles using LATEX . I prepared my final mathematical autobiography and journal using LATEX . 2 Week 2

  20. Surface roughness evolution on experimentally simulated faults Franois Renard a,b,*, Karen Mair b,c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mair, Karen

    by triangular brittle fractures that fragment the salt surface and efficiently generate a breccia or gougeKenzie,1999; Liu-Zeng et al., 2010). They represent kinematic indicators to infer large scale tectonic

  1. Studies into the Effects of Surface Roughness on Spatial Eddy-Current Data from Nickel-Based Engine Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, M.J.; Nakagawa, N.; Wendt, S.E. [Center for NDE, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3042 (United States); Hentscher, S.R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3042 (United States); Nelson, D.L.; Buhr, K.T.; Kilbugh, B.A. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3042 (United States); Raithel, D.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3042 (United States)

    2005-04-09

    Eddy-current scans have been carried out on two Inconel-718 specimens following the application of various levels of shot peening and heat treatments. The conventional analysis of roughened or shot peened surfaces looks at multi-frequency impedance measurements and interprets the data as a change in conductivity or liftoff. An approach involving the statistical analysis of scanned eddy-current impedance data is suggested as an alternative that may provide a more sensitive way of determining the treatment history of a component. It is possible that an analysis of these statistical distributions in spatial eddy-current data could be used to determine the level of remaining residual stress in engine components.

  2. In-flight Receptivity Experiments on a 30-degree Swept-wing using Micron-sized Discrete Roughness Elements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Andrew L.

    2010-01-16

    One of the last remaining challenges preventing the laminarization of sweptwings is the control of unstable crossflow vortices. In low-disturbance environments the transition from laminar to turbulent flow on the swept-wing ...

  3. Experimental investigation of effects of surface roughness, wettability and boiling-time on steady state and transient CHF for nanofluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Vivek Inder

    2012-01-01

    Critical Heat Flux (CHF) is one of the primary design constraints in a nuclear reactor. Increasing the CHF of water can enhance the safety margins of the current fleet of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) and/or increase their ...

  4. Wavy and rough cracks in silicon Robert D. Deegan, Shilpa Chheda, Lisa Patel, M. Marder, and Harry L. Swinney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­crystal silicon is heated to 378 °C and lowered into a 20 °C water bath at speeds of 0.2--5 cm/s. The thermal due to frac­ ture is an increasing problem. The manufacturing of micro­ electromechanical that the anisotropic surface energy of silicon would prevent the wavy fracture mode or at least make the oscillations

  5. Wavy and rough cracks in silicon Robert D. Deegan, Shilpa Chheda, Lisa Patel, M. Marder, and Harry L. Swinney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deegan, Robert

    -crystal silicon is heated to 378 °C and lowered into a 20 °C water bath at speeds of 0.2­5 cm/s. The thermal due to frac- ture is an increasing problem. The manufacturing of micro- electromechanical energy of silicon would prevent the wavy fracture mode or at least make the oscillations jagged. Instead

  6. "Orobiomes" Mountain Biomes "Orobiomes" in relation to sea level biomes. Very roughly, the sea level biomes become

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richerson, Peter J.

    by the mountain, the air cools and dumps its moisture, often maximally at elevations around 2,000 m (~6,000ft. This creates a cool misty climate that produces dwarf forests. Because the relative humidity is always near 100%, plants can transpire little and hence a

  7. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Impact of surface roughness and soil texture on mineral dust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    radiation, ocean biogeochemistry, and human health, it is necessary to accurately represent its emission used preferential source approach in global models. Idealized experiments with prescribed wind speeds

  8. Thermal annealing in hydrogen for 3-D profile transformation on silicon-on-insulator and sidewall roughness reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, MCM; Wu, Ming C

    2006-01-01

    How- JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO.JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 2,JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 2,

  9. Effects of the roughness of a fracture on thermal exchange EC Contract SES6-CT-2003-502706

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toussaint, Renaud

    added with stochastical fractures (like in Soultz-sous-Forêts, France, e.g. Gentier et al., 2006; Rachez of Soultz-sous- Forêts). Then we aim at bringing out what hydraulic information we need to have an idea

  10. rise in elevation is the rough equivalent of a 150-mile journey away from the equator--so

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    zone, the alpine zone, covers only 3 percent of Earth's landmass, yet perhaps 10,000 plant species live in our party labor upward with heavy boots and trekking poles, and sleep in all-weather tents, he lopes of a month-long expedition, push- ing through the central Andes. The mountains are home to an astonishing

  11. Thermal annealing in hydrogen for 3-D profile transformation on silicon-on-insulator and sidewall roughness reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, MCM; Wu, Ming C

    2006-01-01

    m). How- JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15,JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 2,versus JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15,

  12. Impact of surface roughness of Au core in Au/Pd coreeshell nanoparticles toward formic acid oxidation e Experiment and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Fuqiang

    on hollow Au. Au/Pd coreeshell nanoparticles with smooth Au surface by adding Na2SO3 demonstrated highly concentrations of Na2SO3 solution. It was found that the higher concentration of Na2SO3 that was used and decrease the catalytic abilities. The Au/Pd NPs synthesized using 0 M Na2SO3 (denoted as 0 M-Au/Pd NPs

  13. Development of the Robotic Touch foot Sensor for 2D walking Robot, for Studying Rough Terrain Locomotion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hunwoo

    2012-08-31

    SENSOR ………..14 2.1 Making coil flat and spiral…………………………………………….....14 2.2 Current generator..……………………………………………………….17 2.3 Passive low pass filter….……..…………………………………………19 2.4 Analog to Digital conversion with a sampling clock generator…………19 2....5 Power management and avoiding redundancy with multiplexers……….21 2.6 Microprocessor to read ADC …………………………………………...23 2.7 Test beds for developed sensors…………………………………………23 3. Trouble shoots……………………………………………………………………25 3.1 Interference among coils...

  14. Interval Set Clustering of Web Users using Modified Kohonen Self-Organizing Maps based on the Properties of Rough Sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Interval Set Clustering of Web Users using Modified Kohonen Self-Organizing Maps based, 121 35 Prague 2, Czech Republic Abstract Web usage mining involves application of data mining techniques to discover usage patterns from the web data. Clustering is one of the important functions in web

  15. Importance of thermal effects and sea surface roughness for wind resource and wind shear at offshore sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    for Wind Energy Research Institute of Physics, University of Oldenburg, Germany Bernhard.Lange@uni-oldenburg.de # Department of Wind Energy Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark $EVWUDFW The economic feasibility measured at 10-m height is extrapolated to 50-m height and the power production of a wind turbine

  16. Polycrystal modelling of fatigue: pre-hardening and surface roughness effects on damage initiation for 304L stainless steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    initiation for 304L stainless steel IJFat 45 2012 48-60 A. Le Pécheura,b, c , F. Curtitb , M. Clavela , J Sens Ecuelles, 77250 Moret- sur-Loing, France Abstract The 304L stainless steel is a major component, polycrystal modelling, surface conditions, 304L stainless steel. 1. Introduction hal-00771339,version1-8Jan

  17. www.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications and Marketing, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    sulfide may make treatment desirable. Hydrogen sulfide gas in drinking water can originate from several1 www.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications and Marketing, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences gas that gives water a distinctive sulfur or "rotten egg" smell and taste, which may be especially

  18. Young, L., Dodell-Feder, D., & Saxe, R. (2010). What gets the attention of the temporo-parietal junction? An fMRI investigation of attention and theory of mind.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxe, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    junction? An fMRI investigation of attention and theory of mind. Neuropsychologia, 48(9), 2658-2664. (1 - Christine thinks the milk has gone bad and curdled. 32 - Wayne thinks the toilet paper is triple-ply. 33 - Ken believes he can power his new house with solar energy. 34 - Eric believes that rotten peaches

  19. An MILP approach to Multi-location, Multi-Period Equipment ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-06-24

    Jun 24, 2013 ... to consider both the purchase and salvage of the equipment, since equipment ..... Since A comes from the power set of E ? , the compatibility ...

  20. Targeted Review of Site Preparedness for Severe Natural Phenomena...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with enriched uranium. Operations include wet chemistry, oxide conversion reduction, casting, machining and forming, and salvage treatment. These operations do not require forced...

  1. Rehabilitation of HLB infected trees when they reach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    Rehabilitation of HLB infected trees when they reach economically unsustainable production Bob, 2012 #12;Objective 1. Salvage and Rehabilitate HLB Trees to Avoid Replanting 2. Rebalance the Shoot

  2. Ingenuity by Kalispell crew saves millions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Falls Aluminum Co. in Columbia Falls, Mont., notified BPA of its intention to end operations and maintenance agreements with BPA in advance of salvage operations at the...

  3. Saona artillery: implications for inter-island trade and shipboard armaments in the first half of the sixteenth century 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Samuel Peter

    1994-01-01

    salvaged two of the sites by removing a number of cannons and swivel guns. This study examines the salvaged Saona artillery collection, and includes a history of the Mona Passage in the early sixteenth century, as well as an examination of wrought...

  4. News Report2014 Annual A highlight of 2014 was the startup of construction for the new

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research Forest News Report2014 Annual A highlight of 2014 was the startup of construction,884 Patch cut 0.4 345 Salvage - Commercial thinning 1.7 199 Roads/utilities 3.2 2,522 BC Hydro RW salvage

  5. Report2013 Annual STAFF CHANGES AND INTERNSHIPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research Forest News MARCH 2014 Report2013 Annual STAFF CHANGES AND INTERNSHIPS 2014 saw the first - - Salvage - 60 Commercial thinning 4.9 1,010 Roads/utilities 7.0 3,284 BC Hydro RW salvage - 3,701 Total 48

  6. A comparison of local phosphorescence detection and fluid dynamic gauging methods for studying the removal of cohesive fouling layers: effect of layer roughness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Patrick W.; Schöler, Martin; Föste, Henning; Helbig, Manuel; Augustin, Wolfgang; Chew,Y.M. John; Scholl, Stephan; Majschak, Jens-Peter; Wilson,D. Ian

    diameter f [-] Darcy friction factor h [mm] Nozzle-layer separation ho [mm] Nozzle-substrate separation I* [-] Normalised phosphorescent intensity Is [arb.] Phosphorescent intensity Iso [arb.] Initial phosphorescent intensity mf [g s -1] Mass... flow rate ms [g] Mass of soil mso [g] Initial mass of soil po [Pa] Ambient pressure in FDG tank p1 [Pa] Pressure downstream of FDG nozzle ?pH [Pa] Hydrostatic pressure difference rc [-] Weibull process characteristic rate Re [-] Reynolds...

  7. 1964 IEEE TRA;YSACTIONS ON ANTEN~YASAND PROPAGA4TIO;V 605 V. L. Blake, "Reflection of radio wavesfrom a rough sea,"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balmain, Keith G.

    , 1960. [14] W.J. Pierson, G. Keumann and R. W. James, "Observing and [Vashington, D. C., Yo. 603; 1958. Forecasting Ocean Waves,"Hydrographic Office Publication, [lj] C. Cox andJV. Munk, "Statistics of the sea

  8. Journal of Coastal Research 24 2B 3950 West Palm Beach, Florida March 2008 Observations of Bed Roughness of a Coral Reef

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlak, Geno

    and distribution both play an important role in wave energy dissipation mechanisms. In this paper, we investigate, and by breaking. Wave energy can also be scattered and reflected through interactions with bathymetry of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology University of Hawaii at Manoa Manoa, HI 96822, U.S.A. vascobn

  9. Enhancing phonon transmission across a Si/Ge interface by atomic roughness: First-principles study with the Green's function method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, Zhiting

    Knowledge on phonon transmittance as a function of phonon frequency and incidence angle at interfaces is vital for multiscale modeling of heat transport in nanostructured materials. Although thermal conductivity reduction ...

  10. Finding Computed Diamonds in a Virtual Rough: Screening and Evaluation of Conformations and Energetics from Drug Discovery to Computational Enzyme Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Scott Arne

    2012-01-01

    through the Globus Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI). †Globus as the Grid security and service infrastructure, theGlobus as the Grid security and service infrastructure, the

  11. Finding Computed Diamonds in a Virtual Rough: Screening and Evaluation of Conformations and Energetics from Drug Discovery to Computational Enzyme Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Scott Arne

    2012-01-01

    Int_Tables_number loop_ _symmetry_equiv_pos_site_id _symmetry_equiv_pos_as_xyz 1 x,y,z 2 1/2-x,1/2+y,1/2-z 3 -x,-position in file ifstream::pos_type current_position; //

  12. Finding Computed Diamonds in a Virtual Rough: Screening and Evaluation of Conformations and Energetics from Drug Discovery to Computational Enzyme Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Scott Arne

    2012-01-01

    K. N. Houk, Computational Design of New Protein Catalysts.and N. Winssinger, Design, synthesis, and biologicaland D.G.I. Kingston, Design, synthesis and biological

  13. Volume XVIII, No. 1 A publication of the U.S. Army Installation Management Agency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    /February 2006 U.S. Army Installation Management Agency In this issue: Base Realignment and Closure #12;Public Don't throw valuable building materials in the landfill! New guidance for salvaging is here 23

  14. INDELIBLY DAVIS:  A Quarter-Century of UC Davis Stories...and Backstories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vanderhoef, Larry N

    2015-01-01

    Chuck Young went through the roof when Bob Grey and I at anthe keys, he salvaged from the roof a special weather vanefailing, its moss-damaged roof deteriorating, and its steep

  15. Protection Switching for Optical Bursts Using Segmentation and Deflection Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Senior Member, IEEE, Kotikalapudi Sriram, Fellow, IEEE, and Nada Golmie, Member, IEEE Abstract-- Burst be salvaged using this approach. D. Griffith, K. Sriram, and N. Golmie are with the National Institute

  16. CX-011220: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Timber Salvage from Pine Ridge Storm Damage CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 09/17/2013 Location(s): Tennessee Offices(s): Oak Ridge Office

  17. Remote monitoring of tamarisk defoliation and evapotranspiration following saltcedar leaf beetle attack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    (Diorhabda elongata) was released as a tamarisk biocontrol agent. Although initial releases have been and assessment of potential water salvage resulting from biocontrol of tamarisk. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  18. VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE AND STATE UNIVERSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zallen, Richard

    , and deals with immediate salvage and preservation issues (e.g. moving animals and plants, covering books down hazardous equipment or operations. Below is a list detailing any additional duties and the person

  19. An Archaeological Survey for the Eastham State Prison Farm A-1 and 7-1 Well Locations in Houston County Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, William

    2015-07-29

    Appraisal of the Archeological Resources of Livingston Reservoir, Polk, San Jacinto, Trinity, and Walker Counties, Texas. Report submitted to the National Park Service by the Texas Archeological Salvage Project, The University of Texas at Austin...

  20. 17862 Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2013, 15, 17862--17872 This journal is c the Owner Societies 2013 Cite this: Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys.,2013,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    , if a hydrophobic surface is engineered to have mesoscale roughness, or if a mesoscopically rough surface is coated

  1. LRB Steven Shapin: Rough Trade http://www.lrb.co.uk/v25/n05/print/shap01_.html 1 of 12 2/4/2008 11:32 AM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapin, Steven

    a provisional patent and, after formally offering it to any government agency that funded the research ­ which wish, but eventually you may proceed to a full (or utility) patent, where property rights are wrapped of experiments at the Royal Society, reckoned that he had made a mechanical discovery of enormous significance

  2. Comment on "Surface roughness effect on ultracold neutron interaction with a wall and implications for computer simulations" A. Steyerl et.al., arxiv: 0911.4115v1 [1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Serebrov; A. Fomin; V. Varlamov

    2010-01-19

    In above mentioned article [1] assumptions of possible systematic errors of our experiment on measuring of the neutron lifetime [2] have been made. In the given comment we are obliged to explain, that assumptions made in [1] are erroneous. They are caused by an inattentive reading of our work [2] and by the improper understanding the methods used in our work [2]. Simulation of experiment [2] carried out in [1] seems to be imperfect and doesn't describe the experimental results. Therefore it is impossible to do any conclusions from such simulation.

  3. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 18.2 MT of plutonium using existing facilities at the Savannah River site: alternatives 3A/5A/6A/6B/7A/9A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 18.2 metric tons (nominal) of plutonium using ceramic in a new facility at Savannah River Site (SRS).

  4. Read about the Brownian Motion.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    internal surfaces of lungs, may effectively be three-dimensional structures. We can therefore think of roughness as an increase in dimension: a rough curve has

  5. Transitional relief housing for tsunami victims of Tamil Nadu, India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Shauna

    2006-01-01

    In the wake of the recent tsunami that swept across Asia, there is a dire need to salvage and rebuild the lives and livelihoods that were swept away. The aim of this thesis project is to design and model a transitional ...

  6. PUBLICATIONS IN REFEREED JOURNALS Aubin M., Faddegon, B. and Pouliot J., Clinical Electron Beam Verification with an a-Si Electronic Portal Imaging Device, Submitted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pouliot, Jean

    in inverse planned HDR prostate brachytherapy for dose escalation of DIL defined by combined MRI., and Hsu I.C., Inverse Planning for the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)- Based Intracavitary Brachytherapy III M., Hsu I-C., High Dose Rate (HDR) Brachytherapy Salvage for Local Prostate Recurrence After

  7. Safety Assurance and Rescue Communication Systems in High-Stress Environments -A Mining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    , tsunamis, hurricanes, tornadoes, fires, floods/flash floods in urban areas; salvage, search and rescue, volcanic eruptions, plane crashes, high-rise building collapses, and nuclear facility mal- functions in US, underground mining accidents in China, tremors of the tsunami and earth- quakes in Asia and south

  8. In defense of the gypsy lawyer: an analysis of doxastic justification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mittag, Daniel Marlin

    1998-01-01

    accounts and non-causal accounts. In the second chapter I will explicate the central issues involved in providing an adequate causal account of the basing relation. I will consider various attempts to salvage causal accounts in light of Keith Lehrer...

  9. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, t. 327, SCrie II 6, p. 207-213, 1999 MCcanique des fluides/F/ujd mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wesfreid, José Eduardo

    the chemical reactor with accurate control of the residence time, which is an important parameter regarding nuclear fuel, which consists in salvaging the re-usable elements. These separation operations are carried-Taylor-Poiseuille flow. The experimental reactor (figure 1) is composed of an outer stationary cylinder of transparent

  10. Introduction to Fish Health Management 1 Ruth Francis-Floyd2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    CIR921 Introduction to Fish Health Management 1 Ruth Francis-Floyd2 1. This document is CIR921, one Is Fish Health Management? Fish health management is a term used in aquaculture to describe management practices which are designed to prevent fish disease. Once fish get sick it can be difficult to salvage them

  11. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit 3 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Upper East Fork Popular Creek Operable Unit 3 (UEFPC OU 3) is a source term OU composed of seven sites, and is located in the western portion of the Y-12 Plant. For the most part, the UEFPC OU 3 sites served unrelated purposes and are geographically removed from one another. The seven sites include the following: Building 81-10, the S-2 Site, Salvage Yard oil storage tanks, the Salvage Yard oil/solvent drum storage area, Tank Site 2063-U, the Salvage Yard drum deheader, and the Salvage Yard scrap metal storage area. All of these sites are contaminated with at least one or more hazardous and/or radioactive chemicals. All sites have had some previous investigation under the Y-12 Plant RCRA Program. The work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to each OU 3 site. The potential for release of contaminants to receptors through various media is addressed, and a sampling and analysis plan is presented to obtain objectives for the remedial investigation. Proposed sampling activities are contingent upon the screening level risk assessment, which includes shallow soil sampling, soil borings, monitoring well installation, groundwater sampling, and surface water sampling. Data from the site characterization activities will be used to meet the above objectives. A Field Sampling Investigation Plan, Health and Safety Plan, and Waste Management Plan are also included in this work plan.

  12. The activities of the Institute in 2006 have

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Ralph R.

    of Bangor) - Salvage of Historic Wrecks Michael Harakis (Department for Transport) - Litigation or Arbitration? A Roadmap to Dispute Resolution Måns Jacobsson (Director of the International Oil Pollution Funds) - The International Regime on Liability and Compensation for ship-source Oil Pollution damage: The Legal and Political

  13. Koch Institute Corners of Main/Vassar Streets and Main/Ames Streets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leiserson, Charles E.

    Brownfield redevelopment Storm water filtration system Reflective roof material which will reduce the heat island effect Heat recovery methods incorporated into HVAC systems VAV system and right sizing of HVAC energy A construction waste management plan that recycles and salvages waste Project Managers

  14. Who farted? Hydrogen sulphide transport from Bardarbunga to Scandinavia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grahn, Håkan; Brännström, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    On September 9 2014 several incidences of foul smell (rotten eggs) were reported on the coast of Norway (in particular in the vicinity of Molde) and then on September 10 in the interior parts of county V\\"asterbotten, Sweden. One of the theories that were put forward was that the foul smell was due to degassing of the Bardarbunga volcano on Iceland. Using satellite images (GOME-1,-2) of the sulphur dioxide, SO_2, contents in the atmosphere surrounding Iceland to estimate flux of SO_2 from the volcano and an atmospheric transport model, PELLO, we vindicate this theory: we argue that the cause for the foul smell was hydrogen sulphide originating from Bardarbunga. The model concentrations are also compared to SO_2 concentration measurements from Muonio, Finland.

  15. Bibliography and Literature Database, Ecology of the Southern California Bight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, L

    1989-01-01

    waddensea; ecosystem Influence of oil shale on intertidalorganisms: Effect of oil shale surface roughness on

  16. Algorithms for Noisy Problems in Gas Transmission Pipeline Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    trillion standard cubic feet of natural gas per year, representing roughly a third of worldwide consumption

  17. Modeling of Turn-milling Process This paper presents an analytical approach for modeling of turn-milling which is a promising

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    milling machine, obtained surface roughness data and compared it with those obtained by conventional

  18. Antimicrobial Behavior of Novel Surfaces Generated by Electrophoretic Deposition and Breakdown Anodization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores, Jessamine Quijano

    2013-01-01

    coating, respectively. The effects of the different roughness scales were reflected especially by the roll-

  19. Energy Reductions Using Next-Generation Remanufacturing Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sordelet, Daniel; Racek, Ondrej

    2012-02-24

    The goal of this project was to develop a radically new surface coating approach that greatly enhances the performance of thermal spray coatings. Rather than relying on a roughened grit blasted substrate surface for developing a mechanical bond between the coating and substrate, which is the normal practice with conventional thermal spraying, a hybrid approach of combining a focused laser beam to thermally treat the substrate surface in the vicinity of the rapidly approaching thermally-sprayed powder particles was developed. This new surface coating process is targeted primarily at enabling remanufacturing of components used in engines, drive trains and undercarriage systems; thereby providing a substantial global opportunity for increasing the magnitude and breadth of parts that are remanufactured through their life cycle, as opposed to simply being replaced by new components. The projected benefits of a new remanufacturing process that increases the quantity of components that are salvaged and reused compared to being fabricated from raw materials will clearly vary based on the specific industry and range of candidate components that are considered. At the outset of this project two different metal processing routes were considered, castings and forgings, and the prototypical components for each process were liners and crankshafts, respectively. The quantities of parts used in the analysis are based on our internal production of approximately 158,000 diesel engines in 2007. This leads to roughly 1,000,000 liners (assuming a mixture of 6- and 8-cylinder engines) and 158,000 crankshafts. Using energy intensity factors for casting and forgings, respectively, of 4450 and 5970 Btu-hr/lb along with the energy-induced CO2 generation factor of 0.00038 lbs CO2/Btu, energy savings of over 17 trillion BTUs and CO2 reductions of over 6.5 million lbs could potentially be realized by remanufacturing the above mentioned quantities of crankshafts and liners. This project supported the Industrial Technologies Program's initiative titled 'Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge.' To contribute to this Grand Challenge, we. pursued an innovative processing approach for the next generation of thermal spray coatings to capture substantial energy savings and green house gas emission reductions through the remanufacturing of steel and aluminum-based components. The primary goal was to develop a new thermal spray coating process that yields significantly enhanced bond strength. To reach the goal of higher coating bond strength, a laser was coupled with a traditional twin-wire arc (TWA) spray gun to treat the component surface (i.e., heat or partially melt) during deposition. Both ferrous and aluminum-based substrates and coating alloys were examined to determine what materials are more suitable for the laser-assisted twin-wire arc coating technique. Coating adhesion was measured by static tensile and dynamic fatigue techniques, and the results helped to guide the identification of appropriate remanufacturing opportunities that will now be viable due to the increased bond strength of the laser-assisted twin-wire arc coatings. The feasibility of the laser-assisted TWA (LATWA) process was successfully demonstrated in this current effort. Critical processing parameters were identified, and when these were properly controlled, a strong, diffusion bond was developed between the substrate and the deposited coating. Consequently, bond strengths were nearly doubled over those typically obtained using conventional grit-blast TWA coatings. Note, however, that successful LATWA processing was limited to ferrous substrates coated with steel coatings (e.g., 1020 and 1080 steel). With Al-based substrates, it was not possible to avoid melting a thin layer of the substrate during spraying, and this layer re-solidified to form a band of intermetallic phases at the substrate/coating interface, which significantly diminished the coating adhesion. The capability to significantly increase the bond strength with ferrous substrates and coatings may open new reman

  20. Economic Calculations for the ASHRAE Handbook 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    ESL-TR-93/04-07 Economic Calculations for the ASHRAE Handbook Jeff S. Haberl Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Texas A&M University College Station, TX 77843-3123 For any proposed capital investment, the capital and interest costs, salvage costs... Office, Washington, D.C. BIBLIOGRAPHY ASTM. 1985. Definition of terms relating to building economics. ASTM Standard E933-S5. ASTM, Philadelphia. Kurtz, M. 1984. Handbook of engineering economics: A guide for engineers, technicians, scientists and managers...

  1. Ris-R-1257(EN) Isolated Systems with Wind Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2 State of the Art - Technology 8 2.1 State of the Art 8 2.2 Categorised Power Systems 13 3 State costs 23 Investment costs 23 Running costs 24 O&M costs 24 Retrofit & salvage costs 24 Extraordinary project costs 24 5.5.2 Cost of Energy, COE 25 5.5.3 Value of Energy, VOE 25 Primary power supply 25

  2. Modeling and control of thin film surface morphology: application to thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianqiao

    2012-01-01

    modeling of ? -Si : H solar cells with rough interfaces:of a p-i-n thin-film solar cell with front transparent con-amorphous-silicon-based P-I-N solar cells deposited on rough

  3. Title of Document: PLASMA-SURFACE INTERACTIONS OF MODEL POLYMERS FOR ADVANCED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    roughness introduction. Use of low energy density processes suppressed the roughness growth by ion and thirst for knowledge continue to inspire me today. #12;iii Acknowledgements I would like to begin

  4. Design of robotic quadruped legs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenzie, Jacob Elijah

    2012-01-01

    Prized for their performance on prepared surfaces, wheeled vehicles are often limited in mobility by rough and unstructured terrain. Conversely, systems that rely on legs have shown promising rough terrain performance but ...

  5. X-ray and Neutron Scattering Studies of Magnetic Domain Dynamics and Spin Structures /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, San-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Stanley. X-ray and neutron scattering from rough surfaces.1988. [3] R. Pynn. Neutron scattering by rough surfaces at39] V. F. Sears. Neutron scattering lengths and cross

  6. Synchrotron X-ray Scattering Studies of Rapidly Evolving Nanoscale Interfacial Systems /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Yeling

    2013-01-01

    Stanley. X-ray and neutron scattering from rough surfaces.Stanley. X-ray and neutron scattering from rough surfaces.grazing incidence x-ray and neutron scattering from ordered

  7. Heavy-Ion Irradiation of Thulium(III) Oxide Targets Prepared by Polymer-Assisted Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia, Mitch A.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy-Ion Irradiation of Thulium(III) Oxide Targets PreparedRMS) roughness prior to irradiation is 1.1 nm for a ~250roughness of 2.0 nm after irradiation was measured by atomic

  8. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 10): Northwest Transformer, Whatcom County, Washington (First remedial action), September 1989. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-09-15

    The Northwest Transformer site (NWT), a 1.6-acre former salvage yard, is approximately 2 miles south of Everson in Whatcom County, Washington. The site is in a rural area and is bordered by low-density residential areas to the north and east, and farmland to the south. The NWT site was used for transformer storage and salvage. Storage and salvage operations were conducted in an onsite barn where PCB-contaminated dielectric fluid was drained from the transformers before dismantling. Transformer casings and associated parts were incinerated onsite, and some of the recovered oil was burned to heat the barn. Spillage and leakage of PCB-laden oil on the ground appeared to have occurred frequently, and some oil apparently was dumped directly into a seepage pit onsite, contaminating soil and possibly ground water. This operable unit includes investigations of ground water and the onsite barn to determine whether either is sufficiently contaminated to merit a subsequent operable unit. The primary contaminant of concern affecting the soil is PCB. The selected remedial action for this are site included.

  9. Two Paths to Transforming Markets through Public Sector Energy Efficiency: Bottom Up versus Top Down

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Coleman, Philip; Fridley, David; Harris, Jeffrey; Villasenor Franco, Edgar

    2006-01-01

    public sector energy spending reached roughly US$10 billion and that figure has been rising as total built space

  10. Thermodynamics of combined-cycle electric power plants Harvey S. Leffa)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Th, respectively.3 Perhaps fortuitously, gnca is a rough guide to the efficien- cies of many existing

  11. Supporting Solar Power in Renewables Portfolio Standards: Experience from the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    and Data on spot market SREC prices can be used to roughly estimate the cost of complying with solar

  12. Wind Power Development in the United States: Current Progress, Future Trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan H

    2009-01-01

    to lower the cost of offshore wind power, and incrementallyinstalled offshore. From 2018 to 2030, roughly 16 GW of wind

  13. Experimental Evaluation of Installed Cooking Exhaust Fan Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Brett C.

    2011-01-01

    pump  at  roughly  12  mL  min -­??1 .  The  precise  flow  rate  was  measured  using  a  volumetric  

  14. Nigeria: Mapping the Shari`a Restorationist Movement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lubeck, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    for access to oil and natural gas rents. Roughly equallyrent-seeking and criminally negligent politicians. The "oil

  15. To appear in the ACM SIGGRAPH 2007 conference proceedings Digital Bas-Relief from 3D Scenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -controlled milling machine to produce (d) a physical bas relief sculpture carved in limestone, roughly 15" tall

  16. PsychologicalReview Copyright1996bytheAmericanPsychologicalAssociation,Inc. 1996,Vol.103,No.1,56-115 0033-295X/96[$3.00

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plaut, David C.

    , THROWN, or _OUGH in COUGH, ROUGH, BOUGH,THOUGH,THROUGH).Nonetheless, in the face of this complexity

  17. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    2011-01-01

    current global installed solar PV capacity (40 GW). Data aresolar, or roughly half of current global wind installed capacity (

  18. Tailoring the frictional properties of granular media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sonia Utermann; Philipp Aurin; Markus Benderoth; Cornelius Fischer; Matthias Schröter

    2011-08-04

    A method of modifying the roughness of soda-lime glass spheres is presented, with the purpose of tuning inter-particle friction. The effect of chemical etching on the surface topography and the bulk frictional properties of grains is systematically investigated. The surface roughness of the grains is measured using white light interferometry and characterised by the lateral and vertical roughness length scales. The underwater angle of repose is measured to characterise the bulk frictional behaviour. We observe that the co-efficient of friction depends on the vertical roughness length scale. We also demonstrate a bulk surface roughness measurement using a carbonated soft drink.

  19. Sustaining dry surfaces under water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul R. Jones; Xiuqing Hao; Eduardo R. Cruz-Chu; Konrad Rykaczewski; Krishanu Nandy; Thomas M. Schutzius; Kripa K. Varanasi; Constantine M. Megaridis; Jens H. Walther; Petros Koumoutsakos; Horacio D. Espinosa; Neelesh A. Patankar

    2014-09-29

    Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water. In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys - thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical predictions are consistent with molecular dynamics simulations and experiments.

  20. Postoperative Stereotactic Radiosurgery Without Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases: Potential Role of Preoperative Tumor Size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartford, Alan C.; Paravati, Anthony J.; Spire, William J.; Li, Zhongze; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Fadul, Camilo E.; Erkmen, Kadir; Friedman, Jonathan; Gladstone, David J.; Hug, Eugen B.; Roberts, David W.; Simmons, Nathan E.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy following resection of a brain metastasis increases the probability of disease control at the surgical site. We analyzed our experience with postoperative stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) as an alternative to whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), with an emphasis on identifying factors that might predict intracranial disease control and overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed all patients through December 2008, who, after surgical resection, underwent SRS to the tumor bed, deferring WBRT. Multiple factors were analyzed for time to intracranial recurrence (ICR), whether local recurrence (LR) at the surgical bed or “distant” recurrence (DR) in the brain, for time to WBRT, and for OS. Results: A total of 49 lesions in 47 patients were treated with postoperative SRS. With median follow-up of 9.3 months (range, 1.1-61.4 months), local control rates at the resection cavity were 85.5% at 1 year and 66.9% at 2 years. OS rates at 1 and 2 years were 52.5% and 31.7%, respectively. On univariate analysis (preoperative) tumors larger than 3.0 cm exhibited a significantly shorter time to LR. At a cutoff of 2.0 cm, larger tumors resulted in significantly shorter times not only for LR but also for DR, ICR, and salvage WBRT. While multivariate Cox regressions showed preoperative size to be significant for times to DR, ICR, and WBRT, in similar multivariate analysis for OS, only the graded prognostic assessment proved to be significant. However, the number of intracranial metastases at presentation was not significantly associated with OS nor with other outcome variables. Conclusions: Larger tumor size was associated with shorter time to recurrence and with shorter time to salvage WBRT; however, larger tumors were not associated with decrements in OS, suggesting successful salvage. SRS to the tumor bed without WBRT is an effective treatment for resected brain metastases, achieving local control particularly for tumors up to 3.0 cm diameter.

  1. Patterns of Failure After Concurrent Bevacizumab and Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for Recurrent High-Grade Glioma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, Lauren Q.; Beal, Kathryn; Goenka, Anuj; Karimi, Sasan; Iwamoto, Fabio M.; Yamada, Yoshiya; Zhang, Zhigang; Lassman, Andrew B.; Abrey, Lauren E.; Gutin, Philip H.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Concurrent bevacizumab with hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HSRT) is safe and effective for the treatment of recurrent high-grade gliomas (HGG). The objective of this study was to characterize the patterns of failure after this treatment regimen. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients with recurrent enhancing HGG were previously treated on an institutional review board-approved protocol of concurrent bevacizumab and reirradiation. Patients received 30 Gy in 5 fractions to the recurrent tumor with HSRT. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed every 2 cycles, and bevacizumab was continued until clinical or radiographic tumor progression according to the criteria of Macdonald et al. MRI at the time of progression was fused to the HSRT treatment plan, and the location of recurrence was classified on the basis of volume within the 95% isodose line. Outcomes based on patient characteristics, tumor grade, recurrence pattern, and best response to treatment were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Twenty-two patients experienced either clinical or radiographic progression. Recurrent tumor was enhancing in 15 (71.4%) and nonenhancing in 6 (28.6%) patients. Eleven patients (52.4%) had recurrence within the radiation field, 5 patients (23.8%) had marginal recurrence, and 5 patients had recurrence outside the radiation field. Pattern of enhancement and location of failure did not correlate with overall survival or progression-free survival. Radiographic response was the only variable to significantly correlate with progression-free survival. Conclusions: Despite the promising initial response seen with the addition of HSRT to bevacizumab as salvage treatment for recurrent HGG, approximately half of patients ultimately still experience failure within the radiation field. The rate of local failure with the addition of HSRT seems to be lower than that seen with bevacizumab alone in the salvage setting. Our data underscore the radioresistance of HGG and the need for better salvage treatments.

  2. Supersonic turbulent boundary layers with periodic mechanical non-equilibrium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ekoto, Isaac Wesley

    2007-04-25

    is essential. Turbulence reduction has applications for reentry vehicles. On their undersurface they have a heat shield that is composed of uniformly shaped materials (e.g. tiles, ablative materiel, etc.). Shape selection that can reduce turbulent heat... of the literature reveals roughness elements with sharp leading edges have not been explored. Much could be revealed by an investigation into a these type of roughness elements. The thought is that the blunt shaped roughness elements used in the past (e.g. square...

  3. Nigeria: Mapping the Shari`a Restorationist Movement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lubeck, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    oil and natural gas represent at least 37-40 percent of Nigeria'soil and natural gas rents. Roughly equally divided between Christian and Muslim believers, Nigeria

  4. Gun Violence and Gun Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Mark; Litman, Harry

    2009-01-01

    35 with a substantial criminal record. In the United States,roughly 90% of adult murderers have adult criminal records (juvenile criminal records are generally not available). More

  5. Experiments measuring particle deposition from fully developed turbulent flow in ventilation ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-01-01

    of Particles in Vertical Ducts with Smooth and RoughDeposition in Ventilation Ducts, Ph. D. Dissertation,Applicability to Ventilation Ducts in Commercial Buildings,

  6. Determining Pad-Wafer Contact using Dual Emission Laser Induced Fluorescence Caprice Gray1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Robert D.

    energy required to break and re-order the chemical bonds on the glass substrate surface so thickness, asperity layer compressibility, surface roughness measurements and polishing pad rebound

  7. Uniform Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    randomly and equally likely a point in that interval), the uniform distribution ... Roughly speaking, this means that from any distribution we can create the uniform.

  8. ARM - Blog Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is a very large conference with roughly 20,000 attendees covering all aspects of geophysics-clouds, aerosols, atmospheric electricity, other planets, earthquakes, volcanoes,...

  9. Center for Energy Nanoscience at USC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Photovoltaic Materials and Devices image The efficiencies of organic photovoltatic (OPV) cells have increased sharply over recent years, reaching 8%, or roughly half the...

  10. THE EFFECT OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION ON THE ACCURACY OF PYRHELIOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, D.

    2012-01-01

    circumsolar region. Let e be one solar radius (=1/4°), and esolar spectrum into eight intervals of roughly equal energy content, and one

  11. SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAM: CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01

    solar spectrum into eight intervals of roughly equal energy content, and onefor utilizing solar energy. One project involves thedetail one possible con- figuration for a solar power plant

  12. Permanent-Magnet Adjustable-Speed Motors John S . Hsu (Htsui...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    roughness for machine tool drives depends on motor torque quality. For propulsion and vehicle motors, quietness and smoothness are strongly required. The severity of torque...

  13. Recap and Conclusions to Tc/I in Hanford Flowsheet Presentations

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Recap & Conclusions to TcI in Hanford Flowsheet Presentations Gary Smith Office of Waste Processing (EM-31) November 18, 2010 2 Rough Flowsheet Diagram Tank Farm Evaporator...

  14. A Miocene Island-Arc Volcanic Seamount- The Takashibiyama Formation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    lavas are moderately to intensely brecciated with rugged rough surfaces and ramp structures similar to subaerial block lava. Volcaniclastic flow deposits commonly include...

  15. DISCLAIMER

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the pollutants away from their source and by turbulent air motion that results from solar heating of the earth's surface and air movement over rough terrain and surfaces....

  16. PHYSICAL CHANGES IN THE PORE STRUCTURE OF COAL WITH CHEMICAL PROCESSING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris Jr, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Physical Properties of Extracted Coals A. B. Introduction.IV. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRACTED COALS A. Introductionthe molecular sieve properties of coal to determine a rough

  17. Measuring and moderating the water resource impact of biofuel production and trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fingerman, Kevin Robert

    2012-01-01

    properties  of  the  tailings  ponds  at  the  Syncrude  are  then  sent  to  a  tailing  pond.  Roughly  two  tons  then  ends  up  in   tailing  ponds  from  which  it  

  18. Master EM Project Definition Rating Index - Environmental Restoration...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    cost estimate and schedule changes incorporated. A5 Life Cycle Cost The project Life Cycle Costs (LCC) have been rough-order-of-magnitude estimated, including relevant...

  19. Master EM Project Definition Rating Index - Facility Disposition...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    cost estimate and schedule changes incorporated. A5 Life Cycle Cost The project Life Cycle Costs (LCC) have been rough-order-of-magnitude estimated, including relevant...

  20. Impact of the manufacturing phase on the life cycle of machined products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diaz, Nancy; Helu, Moneer; Ninomiya, Kevin; Dornfeld, David

    2012-01-01

    Parallel-Axis Gear Pairs, J. Mechanical Design, 129: 58-68.the drivetrain design, the RMS surface roughness of the gear

  1. Modeling the comfort effects of short-wave solar radiation indoors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Hoyt, Tyler; Zhou, Xin; Huang, Li; Zhang, Hui; Schiavon, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    giving reasonable predictions of solar effects on MRT, andsolar gain produced an increase of roughly one PMV scale unit. The SolarCal PMV prediction

  2. Estimated global ocean wind power potential from QuikSCAT observations, accounting for turbine characteristics and siting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capps, Scott B; Zender, Charles S

    2010-01-01

    CO 2 reductions via offshore wind power matched to inherentsurface roughness for offshore wind resource assessment, J.data to evaluate the offshore wind power resource of

  3. COMPUTER DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    green, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    the trade off between power cost and capital cost. TABLE 2 Aminimized but the plant capital cost and the refrigerationoff between plant capital cost and operating cost. Roughly

  4. Cost of Power Interruptions to Electricity Consumers in the United States (U.S.)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Eto, Joseph H.

    2006-01-01

    Index (SAIFI). SAIDI and SAIFI describe the duration andsupply system. We used SAIDI and SAIFI data to quantify thedeviation for both SAIDI and SAIFI were roughly halved when

  5. The synergistic effect of micro-topography and biochemical culture environment to promote angiogenesis and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Shang

    2015-01-01

    Culture Substrates: Topography, Roughness, and Elasticity.discontinuous—edge surface topographies influence osteoblastM, Murphy CJ. Nanoscale topography of the basement membrane

  6. Nanotechnology in Cancer Treatment and Detection Richard Acosta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

    Nanotechnology in Cancer Treatment and Detection Richard Acosta #12;Motivation ·Ineffectiveness or roughly 100 times smaller than most human cells Cancer Nanotechnology research is interdisciplinary

  7. Energy Department Invests Nearly $8 Million to Develop Next-Generation...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    (College Park, Maryland) will receive roughly 600,000 to develop a compact thermoelastic cooling (TEC) system with high efficiency, low environmental impact, and a small carbon...

  8. Center for Energy Nanoscience at USC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Photovoltaics The efficiencies of organic photovoltatic (OPV) cells have increased sharply over recent years, reaching 8%, or roughly half the efficiency of commercial...

  9. Assessing the Impacts of Reduced Noise Operations of Wind Turbines on Neighbor Annoyance: A Preliminary Analysis in Vinalhaven, Maine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoen, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Administration (NOAA) buoy in Penobscot Bay roughly tenleaves on the trees). NOAA buoy number F01: West Penobscotdataset. Table 1: Turbine, Buoy, and Respondent Descriptive

  10. Reconstruction of limnology and microbialite formation conditions from carbonate clumped isotope thermometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    effect) that suggest inflowing water is slightly denserthan ambient lake water. All observed groundwater inflowsyears 2004–2010. Surface waters reach roughly 20°C during

  11. Water Challenges for Geologic Carbon Capture and Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newmark, Robin L.; Friedmann, Samuel J.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    constrained energy system. Water is already an integralSubstantial amounts of water are used in energy resourceU.S. , roughly equivalent to water withdrawals for irrigated

  12. Ultra-lightweight telescope with MEMS adaptive optic for distortion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on the deployable mirrors. To meet this challenge, MEMS micromirrors must meet stringent criteria on their performance in terms of flatness, roughness and resolution of position....

  13. Mergers and Mass Assembly of Dark Matter Halos in a Lambda Cold Dark Matter Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fakhouri, Onsi Joe

    2010-01-01

    2005] provides a database for the evolution of roughly 2 ×database of the Millennium simulation [Springel et al. , 2005], which follows the evolution

  14. List of publications of A. Eremenko

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Publications of Alexandre Eremenko. Another list is given in my Google Scholar Profile. Here the order is roughly chronological, all recent papers are available ...

  15. Life-cycle Environmental Inventory of Passenger Transportation in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chester, Mikhail V

    2008-01-01

    implications for global energy consumption, U.S. energyimplications for  global energy consumption, U.S.  energy roughly 5% of global primary energy consumption annually.

  16. Artificial Soiling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pigments found in soils throughout the United States roughly following the USDA soil taxonomy 11. Ensuring a repeatable test formulation was straightforward when using...

  17. Department of Energy Awards Hanford River Corridor Contract To...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inc., Bechtel National Inc., CH2M Hill Inc., Eberline Services Inc., and Integrated Logistics Services Inc. The Columbia River Corridor is composed of roughly 210 square miles...

  18. Brown Bag Teaching Seminar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    When the department chooses a new Head (roughly, every five years), ... c) Certification and licensure examinations d) External accreditation reports e) ...

  19. The PennsylvaniaStateUniversity HUB-RobesonAddition and Renovation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -In · Pour Slab On Deck at Level 1 & 2 · Plumbing in MB018 · Electric Panel and Switchgear Rough in MB018 · 2

  20. Study of Factors Governing Oil–Water Separation Process Using TiO[subscript 2] Films Prepared by Spray Deposition of Nanoparticle Dispersions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gondal, Mohammed A.

    Surfaces which possess extraordinary water attraction or repellency depend on surface energy, surface chemistry, and nano- and microscale surface roughness. Synergistic superhydrophilic-underwater superoleophobic surfaces ...

  1. GROUND RULES for MA 154 FALL 2001 0 CLASS PERIOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Past exams (available in the Boiler Copy Center,. PMU 157, as well as online) are a source of additional review problems and can also give students a rough.

  2. Direct Measurement of the Nanoscale Mechanical Properties of NiTi Shape Memory Gordon A. Shaw1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crone, Wendy C.

    .035 µm with Nitinol (roughly 49.5 atomic % Ni). Subsequent to annealing, the 10 and 1.7 µm films were

  3. California's Greenhouse Gas Policies: Local Solutions to a Global Problem?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushnell, Jim B; Peterman, Carla Joy; Wolfram, Catherine D

    2007-01-01

    of roughly 70 TWh of hydro energy in neighboring regions ofall of this additional hydro energy would be available forcarbon nuclear, hydro, and renewable energy sources. If we

  4. Project Reports for Lower Sioux Indian Community- 2010 Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Lower Sioux intends to continue its efforts to develop wind projects on its lands as a continuation of efforts begun roughly 20 years ago.

  5. Scalable Routes to Efficient Thermoelectric Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feser, Joseph Patrick

    2010-01-01

    P. D. Yang, "Enhanced thermoelectric performance of roughHigh efficiency thermoelectric materials consisting ofG. Chen, and Z. F. Ren, "High-thermoelectric performance of

  6. Site inspection addendum. Fort Meade feasibility study and remedial investigation/site inspection Fort George G. Meade, Maryland. Revision 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This Site Inspection Addendum Report has been prepared to address the Site Inspection portion of the Feasibility Study (FS) and Remedial Investigation/Site Inspection (RI/SI) activities at Fort George G. Meade. It has been prepared under Delivery Order No. 009 and a Change Order dated July 15, 1993, for the U.S. Army Environmental Center (USAEC), formerly known as the U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA). This report fulfills the requirements of deliverable ELIN A004 under Delivery Order 0009 of the Total Environmental Program Support (TEPS) contract DAAAl5-91-D-00l6. The purpose of this Site Inspection Addendum (SIA) report is to report the findings of Arthur D. Little`s SIA investigation. The overall purpose of an SI is to evaluate if chemical releases or potential contamination has occurred at suspected sites and to determine if further investigation is warranted. This study is an addendum to a previous SI and addresses data gaps remaining from or identified in that document. Six sites at Fort George G. Meade (FGGM) are included in the SIA: DPDO Salvage Yard and Transform Storage Area; DPDO Salvage Yard and Transformer Storage Area; Fire Training Area; Helicopter Hangar Area; Inactive Landfill No. 2, Ordnance Demolition Area Soldiers Lake.

  7. Practical Considerations in the Re-Irradiation of Recurrent and Second Primary Head-and-Neck Cancer: Who, Why, How, and How Much?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M., E-mail: allen.chen@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Phillips, Theodore L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Lee, Nancy Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Despite progress in surgical and reconstructive techniques, as well as advances in radiotherapy delivery methods, a significant proportion of patients irradiated for head-and-neck cancer develop locoregional recurrence. These patients are also at high risk of developing new second primary cancers of the head and neck. Because of the heterogeneity of this population with respect to disease-related and patient-related factors, such as previous treatment, tumor recurrence site, disease extent, and performance status, the optimal treatment of locoregionally recurrent or second primary cancers of the head and neck remains to be defined. Although surgical resection typically constitutes the mainstay of treatment, effective salvage therapy is often precluded by anatomic inaccessibility and the risk of perioperative complications. Although chemotherapy alone has traditionally been considered an alternative to surgery, the response rates have been poor, with nearly all patients dying of disease progression within months. Similarly, salvage therapy using re-irradiation has historically been avoided because of concerns regarding toxicity. Although the results of more recent studies using contemporary treatment techniques and conformal delivery methods have been somewhat more promising, the role of re-irradiation after previous full-course radiotherapy is still considered investigational by many. Numerous questions remain unanswered, and practical guidelines for clinical decision-making are sparse.

  8. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 10): Northwest Transformer-Mission Pole, Whatcom County, WA. (First remedial action), (Amendment), September 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The 1.6-acre Northwest Transformer - Mission Pole site, is former transformer storage and salvage facility, is 2 miles south of Everson in Whatcom County, Washington. The site is bordered by low-density residential areas to the north and east, and farmland to the south. Storage and salvage operations were conducted in an onsite barn where PCB-contaminated dielectric fluid was drained from the transformers prior to dismantling. A 1989 Record of Decision (ROD) addressed remediation through excavation, consolidation, and onsite treatment using in-situ vitrification. The ROD amends the 1989 ROD and provides a change in the remedy for soil due to excessive cost. The primary contaminant of concern affecting the soil is PCB, an organic. The selected amended remedial action for the ROD includes incincerating approximately 70 cubic yards of soil contaminated with PCBs at levels greater than or equal to 50 mg/kg at a TSCA-approved facility and landfilling approximately 1,500 cubic yards of soil contaminated with PCBs at levels greater than or equal to 1 mg/kg and less than 50 mg/kg offsite at a TSCA-approved facility.

  9. Improve International Interns' Summer Research Experience By Allie George

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Laurence J.

    of our discoveries, and we are all very excited to continue to bring new components of our work to light. After a rough plan had been laid out, we piled into a pick-up truck for our first of many long, rough-up truck, we found ourselves atop a cloud-covered mountain, outside of a small shack overlooking barbed

  10. ANALYTIC CRITERIA FOR THE MECHANICAL AND THERMAL STABILITY OF MAGNETIC STARS WITH FINITE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    pressure changes with the mass density as roughly 4/3 , and the Joule heating rate goes as roughly for dynamical, secular, and pulsational stability, but the Joule heating rate directly affects the secularANALYTIC CRITERIA FOR THE MECHANICAL AND THERMAL STABILITY OF MAGNETIC STARS WITH FINITE ELECTRICAL

  11. Transport Theory for Acoustic Waves with Reflection and Transmission at Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bal, Guillaume

    Transport Theory for Acoustic Waves with Reflection and Transmission at Interfaces Guillaume Bal systematically transport theoretic boundary conditions for acoustic wave reflection and transmission from a rough to energy transport in the high frequency limit and cal­ culate, in addition, the effect of the random rough

  12. Journal of Venu M Kotha for Fall 2006 1 Week 1, September 7 14 (The Mathematical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohlenkamp, Martin J.

    Journal of Venu M Kotha for Fall 2006 1 Week 1, September 7 ­ 14 (The Mathematical Autobiography a rough draft of my math autobiography in MS-WORD.After I was done with the rough draft, I typed.Martin and corrected my autobiography. I have gone through the logic of the python code many times to understand each

  13. On the True Y. CHARLES LI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Charles

    --for example, air and water. Fluid flows are clas- sified into two categories: laminar flow and turbulent flow. Laminar flow is smooth and mild, while turbulence is rough and violent. Because of the rough nature differential equations [12]. Fluid dynamicists believe that Navier-Stokes equations accurately describe

  14. A numerical study on the effects of 2d structured sinusoidal elements on fluid flow and heat transfer at microscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    , the effect of structured roughness elements on incompress- ible laminar fluid flow is analyzedA numerical study on the effects of 2d structured sinusoidal elements on fluid flow and heat flow Structured roughness elements Laminar flow a b s t r a c t Better understanding of laminar flow

  15. MSE 326: X-ray Science and Techniques Course Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMorrow, 2nd Edition. We will be roughly following the textbook, but in some cases, very roughly-ray fundamentals, methods and techniques. This is a huge topic and we will not cover everything! The goal the groundwork for future research in this area that you may undertake as a graduate student, or are perhaps

  16. 2.3 / S.-J. Lee 26 IDRC 03

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanicki, Jerzy

    of this method is its ability to model bulk absorption events, thin film coatings, and rough surfaces while silica aerogel layer [8]. Several models have also been proposed for modeling organic light advantage of this method is its ability to model bulk absorption events, thin film coatings, and rough

  17. Biogeosciences, 4, 269282, 2007 www.biogeosciences.net/4/269/2007/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crimaldi, John P.

    roughness, active siphon pumping, and the ability to filter a phytoplankton surrogate from the flow. Measurements were made for two crossflow velocities, four clam pumping rates, and two siphon heights themselves, whose geometric roughness and siphonal currents can alter the flow. In the present study, we

  18. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. (2011)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2011-01-01

    when the aperture roughness affects the hydraulic properties of the Draix fractured bedrock both the aver- age opening and the fracture roughness. The hydraulic properties are notably highly, the aperture of open fractures and the thickness of veins, in order to estimate the hydraulic behaviour

  19. High-order numerical solutions in frequency-independent computational times for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reitich, Fernando

    High-order numerical solutions in frequency-independent computational times for scattering method ([O. Bruno, A. Sei and M. Caponi, High-order high-frequency solutions of rough surface scattering-dimensional rough- surface scattering problems at high frequencies. I: the scalar case, Waves Random Complex Media

  20. Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit AIAA 2006-0025 January 9-12, 2006, Reno, Nevada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhi Jian "ZJ"

    by the 2-D roughness-resolved simulations were compared with experimental data. 1. INTRODUCTION Gas-turbine limits, and the duration of service. Some examples of roughness that can form on turbine material of thermal-barrier coatings depend on the environment from which the air is ingested, the engine operating

  1. RIPPLED DEPOSITS PART IV --RIPPLED DEPOSITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gudmundsson, Jon Steinar

    . The conditions existing at the interface between a deposit surface and a flowing fluid will therefore fluids. It results in changes in the flow and pressure drop character istics of tubes subjected of deposit roughness are much more uncertain. Deposition on a clean surface, with commercial roughness say

  2. PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE This article was downloaded by: [Rochester Institute of Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    , micromachining, laser drilling, etc., results in a high value of relative roughness (defined as the wall surface, and heat transfer. Next, the effect of roughness on fluid flow is reviewed in terms of eddy generation INTRODUCTION Laminar fluid flow of incompressible fluids is amenable to analytical treatment of frictional

  3. High-resolution photometric optical monitoring for thin-film deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avrutsky, Ivan

    . The measured values Rmin and Rmax are related to the root mean square rms value of the surface rough- ness- tion, makes it possible to estimate the surface rough- ness rms value and the optical losses thick- ness serving as an unknown

  4. 350 Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 104 (1991)350-363 ElsevierSciencePublishers B.V.,Amsterdam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicollet, Christian

    1991-01-01

    islands and on the central Southwest Indian Ridge. In addition, very low cr~d(T)(to --17.4), high(87Sr/S6 Deccan Traps in India. Alkalic dikes in southwestern Madagascar have a rough analogue (roughly 190 Myr) in what is now southern Africa and the Deccan Traps episode in Greater India (about 65

  5. Local Refinement for Stereo Regularization Carl Olsson, Johannes Ulen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lunds Universitet

    .g. planes). While these methods are very efficient in generating a rough surface estimate, via either fusion (or near submodular) making fusion moves easier to solve optimally using standard methods like Roof duality [9]. While these methods are very efficient in generating a rough surface estimate the end result

  6. J. Fluid Mech. (2010), vol. 648, pp. 435469. c Cambridge University Press 2010 doi:10.1017/S0022112009992758

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaqfeh, Eric

    2010-01-01

    disturbance of fixed frequency being triggered via blowing and suction upstream of the roughness element behaves as disturbance amplifier with a limited bandwidth capable of filtering a range of frequencies0022112009992758 435 Disturbance evolution in a Mach 4.8 boundary layer with two-dimensional roughness

  7. SUBMITTED FOR PUBLICATION TO: IEEE COMPUTER, 2002, JANUARY 28, 2002 1 Interval Set Clustering of Web Users with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Web Users with Rough K-means Pawan Lingras Chad West Abstract Data collection and analysis in web mining faces certain unique challenges. Due to a variety of reasons inherent in web browsing and web techniques in web mining need to accommodate such data. Fuzzy and rough sets provide the ability to deal

  8. Benchmarking the x-ray phase contrast imaging for ICF DT ice characterization using roughened surrogates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewald, E; Kozioziemski, B; Moody, J; Koch, J; Mapoles, E; Montesanti, R; Youngblood, K; Letts, S; Nikroo, A; Sater, J; Atherton, J

    2008-06-26

    We use x-ray phase contrast imaging to characterize the inner surface roughness of DT ice layers in capsules planned for future ignition experiments. It is therefore important to quantify how well the x-ray data correlates with the actual ice roughness. We benchmarked the accuracy of our system using surrogates with fabricated roughness characterized with high precision standard techniques. Cylindrical artifacts with azimuthally uniform sinusoidal perturbations with 100 um period and 1 um amplitude demonstrated 0.02 um accuracy limited by the resolution of the imager and the source size of our phase contrast system. Spherical surrogates with random roughness close to that required for the DT ice for a successful ignition experiment were used to correlate the actual surface roughness to that obtained from the x-ray measurements. When comparing average power spectra of individual measurements, the accuracy mode number limits of the x-ray phase contrast system benchmarked against surface characterization performed by Atomic Force Microscopy are 60 and 90 for surrogates smoother and rougher than the required roughness for the ice. These agreement mode number limits are >100 when comparing matching individual measurements. We will discuss the implications for interpreting DT ice roughness data derived from phase-contrast x-ray imaging.

  9. COOPERATIVE LAND REUSE PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    1999-07-30

    The objective of this study was to determine what financial return, if any, DOE would realize if they invest solely in removal of the asbestos from these three Hanford steam plants and the associated large bore distribution piping at the site. Once the asbestos was removed the strategy was to bring in companies that specialize in salvage and material re-use and have them remove, at no cost to DOE, the plants and the associated large bore piping. The salvage companies we contacted had said that if they didn't have to remove asbestos, they may be able to realize enough value from these plants to offset their demolition and/or dismantling cost. The results were not what we expected but they do offer DOE some favorable financial alternatives to their present approach. The study concluded that there was very little salvage and/or re-use value remaining in the steam plant material that could be used to offset the demolition and/or dismantling cost. The notable exception to this is the removal of the 24 inch steam piping that runs from 200E to 200W areas (see IDM executive summary under Dismantling cost). It is estimated that the re-use value of the 24-inch piping would more than pay for the dismantling cost of this piping. On a more favorable note, it does appear as though the cost of conventional demolition can be reduced by a factor of 3 to 5 if the asbestos is removed first and the demolition is performed using competitive and commercial practices. Both estimates in this study are similar except that IDM did not include floor slab removal nor remove the same quantity of piping. This is why we are using a range of 3 to 5 as a reduction factor. The IDM estimate (using union labor) for demolition after removal of asbestos was approximately $1.5M versus $10.0M for accomplishing the work using Hanford practices and rates.

  10. High Occurrence of Aberrant Lymph Node Spread on Magnetic Resonance Lymphography in Prostate Cancer Patients With a Biochemical Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meijer, Hanneke J.M., E-mail: H.Meijer@rther.umcn.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lin, Emile N. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Debats, Oscar A. [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Witjes, J. Alfred [Department of Urology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Span, Paul N.; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Barentsz, Jelle O. [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the pattern of lymph node spread in prostate cancer patients with a biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy, eligible for salvage radiotherapy; and to determine whether the clinical target volume (CTV) for elective pelvic irradiation in the primary setting can be applied in the salvage setting for patients with (a high risk of) lymph node metastases. Methods and Materials: The charts of 47 prostate cancer patients with PSA recurrence after prostatectomy who had positive lymph nodes on magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) were reviewed. Positive lymph nodes were assigned to a lymph node region according to the guidelines of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) for delineation of the CTV for pelvic irradiation (RTOG-CTV). We defined four lymph node regions for positive nodes outside this RTOG-CTV: the para-aortal, proximal common iliac, pararectal, and paravesical regions. They were referred to as aberrant lymph node regions. For each patient, clinical and pathologic features were recorded, and their association with aberrant lymph drainage was investigated. The distribution of positive lymph nodes was analyzed separately for patients with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <1.0 ng/mL. Results: MRL detected positive aberrant lymph nodes in 37 patients (79%). In 20 patients (43%) a positive lymph node was found in the pararectal region. Higher PSA at the time of MRL was associated with the presence of positive lymph nodes in the para-aortic region (2.49 vs. 0.82 ng/mL; p = 0.007) and in the proximal common iliac region (1.95 vs. 0.59 ng/mL; p = 0.009). There were 18 patients with a PSA <1.0 ng/mL. Ten of these patients (61%) had at least one aberrant positive lymph node. Conclusion: Seventy-nine percent of the PSA-recurrent patients had at least one aberrant positive lymph node. Application of the standard RTOG-CTV for pelvic irradiation in the salvage setting therefore seems to be inappropriate.

  11. Near approximations via general ordered topological spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Abo-Elhamayel

    2014-12-27

    Rough set theory is a new mathematical approach to imperfect knowledge. The notion of rough sets is generalized by using an arbitrary binary relation on attribute values in information systems, instead of the trivial equality relation. The topology induced by binary relations is used to generalize the basic rough set concepts. This paper studies near approximation via general ordered topological approximation spaces which may be viewed as a generalization of the study of near approximation from the topological view. The basic concepts of some increasing (decreasing) near approximations, increasing (decreasing) near boundary regions and increasing (decreasing) near accuracy were introduced and sufficiently illustrated. Moreover, proved results, implications and add examples.

  12. How to check quantum mechanics independently (Reply to arXiv:1505.04293)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuri I. Ozhigov

    2015-06-17

    This is the reply to the paper of Andrei Khrennikov arXiv:1505.04293 in which he expresses dissatisfaction with that the rough data in quantum experiments is not easily available and compares it with the open rough data in genetics. I try to explain why quantum experiments rough data is closed and why it differs radically from the biological. I also tried to answer the more thorny issue: is it possible to check quantum mechanics independently of other humans, e.g. trusting nobody.

  13. Transport Control of Eyring-Fluids along a Transversely-Corrugated Nanoannulus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu Guang Hua

    2008-09-07

    The volume flow rates of Eyring-fluids inside the wavy-rough nanoannulus were obtained analytically (up to the second order) by using the verified model and boundary perturbation method. Our results show that the wavy-roughness could enhance the flow rate especially for smaller forcing due to the larger surface-to-volume ratio and slip-velocity effect. Meanwhile, the phase shift between the outer and inner walls of nanoannuli could tune the transport of Eyring-fluids either forward or backward when the wavy-roughness of a nanoannulus is larger enough. Our results could be applied to the flow control in nanofluidics as well as biofluidics.

  14. A multiscale Molecular Dynamics approach to Contact Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Yang; U. Tartaglino; B. N. J. Persson

    2006-01-05

    The friction and adhesion between elastic bodies are strongly influenced by the roughness of the surfaces in contact. Here we develop a multiscale molecular dynamics approach to contact mechanics, which can be used also when the surfaces have roughness on many different length-scales, e.g., for self affine fractal surfaces. As an illustration we consider the contact between randomly rough surfaces, and show that the contact area varies linearly with the load for small load. We also analyze the contact morphology and the pressure distribution at different magnification, both with and without adhesion. The calculations are compared with analytical contact mechanics models based on continuum mechanics.

  15. Cone Penetrometer Shear Strength Measurements of Sludge Waste in Tanks 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Follett, Jordan R.

    2014-03-06

    This document presents the resulting shear strength profiles for sludge waste in Tanks 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106, as determined with a full-flow cone penetrometer. Full-flow penetrometer measurements indicate shear strength profiles that increase roughly uniformly with depth. For Tank 241-AN-101, the undrained shear strength was calculated to range from 500 Pa near the sludge surface to roughly 3,300 Pa at 15 inches above the tank bottom. For 241-AN-106, the undrained shear strength was calculated to range from 500 Pa near the sludge surface to roughly 5,000 Pa at 15 inches above the tank bottom.

  16. An investigation of the depolarization of backscattered electromagnetic waves using a lidar polarimeter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilhelmi, Gary Joe

    1973-01-01

    . P. James for their guidance and assistance throughout this study. The efforts of Dr. J. L. Stone and Dr. L. E. Fite in procuring the vacuum equipment is greatly appreciated. Also, sincere thanks are due Dr. K. J. McCree for use of the Spectral...-2 Values of Q' for Rough Surfaces 91 V-3 C-1 C-2 Values of Volume Reflection Coefficients for Rough Surfaces Turbid Water Data Rough Surface Data 140 141 LIST OF FIGURFS Figure ~pa e II-1 Scattering geometry for the surface scatter...

  17. Combined Pharmacomechanical Thrombolysis of Complete Portomesenteric Thrombosis in a Liver Transplant Recipient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenz, Jonathan M. Bennett, Shelby; Patel, Jay; Ha, Thuong G. Van; Funaki, Brian

    2013-01-30

    Treatment options for portomesenteric venous thrombosis range from anticoagulation to surgery, depending on chronicity, severity of symptoms, extent of thrombosis, and the availability of local expertise. For acute and subacute cases, a variety of endovascular options have been described in limited published series and case reports, including thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy. We report what is to our knowledge the first case in which the Trellis pharmacomechanical thrombolysis device was used successfully to treat complete acute thrombosis of the entire superior mesenteric vein and the entire portal vein with extension into all segmental intrahepatic portal branches in a young adult after liver transplantation. This device, coupled with adjunctive techniques using balloon catheters, facilitated complete restoration of flow, resulting in graft salvage and long-term patency.

  18. Successful Thrombolysis and Spasmolysis of Acute Leg Ischemia after Accidental Intra-arterial Injection of Dissolved Flunitrazepam Tablets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radeleff, B., E-mail: Boris_radeleff@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Stampfl, U.; Sommer, C.-M.; Bellemann, N. [University of Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Hyhlik-Duerr, A. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany); Weber, M.-A. [University of Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Boeckler, D. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany); Kauczor, H.-U. [University of Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    A 37-year-old man with known intravenous drug abuse presented in the surgical ambulatory care unit with acute leg ischemia after accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets into the right femoral artery. A combination of anticoagulation, vasodilatation, and local selective and superselective thrombolysis with urokinase was performed to salvage the leg. As a result of the severe ischemia-induced pain, the patient had to be monitored over the complete therapy period on the intensive care unit with permanent administration of intravenous fluid and analgetics. We describe the presenting symptoms and the interventional technique, and we discuss the recent literature regarding the management of accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets.

  19. High-speed photography of the first hydrogen-bomb explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brixner, B.

    1992-09-01

    Obtaining detailed photographs of the early stages of the first hydrogen bomb explosion in 1952 posed a number of problems. First, it was necessary to invent a continuous-access camera which could solve the problem that existing million-picture-per-second cameras were blind most of the time. The solution here was to alter an existing camera design so that two modified cameras could be mounted around a single high-speed rotating mirror. A second problem, acquiring the necessary lenses of precisely specified focal lengths, was solved by obtaining a large number of production lenses from war surplus salvage. A third hurdle to be overcome was to test the new camera at an A-bomb explosion. Finally, it was necessary to solve the almost impossible difficulty of building a safe camera shelter close to a megaton explosion. This paper describes the way these problems were solved. Unfortunately the successful pictures that were taken are sill classified.

  20. High-speed photography of the first hydrogen-bomb explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brixner, B.

    1992-01-01

    Obtaining detailed photographs of the early stages of the first hydrogen bomb explosion in 1952 posed a number of problems. First, it was necessary to invent a continuous-access camera which could solve the problem that existing million-picture-per-second cameras were blind most of the time. The solution here was to alter an existing camera design so that two modified cameras could be mounted around a single high-speed rotating mirror. A second problem, acquiring the necessary lenses of precisely specified focal lengths, was solved by obtaining a large number of production lenses from war surplus salvage. A third hurdle to be overcome was to test the new camera at an A-bomb explosion. Finally, it was necessary to solve the almost impossible difficulty of building a safe camera shelter close to a megaton explosion. This paper describes the way these problems were solved. Unfortunately the successful pictures that were taken are sill classified.

  1. Multifocal Glioblastoma Multiforme: Prognostic Factors and Patterns of Progression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Showalter, Timothy N.; Andrel, Jocelyn; Andrews, David W.; Curran, Walter J.; Daskalakis, Constantine; Werner-Wasik, Maria

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To assess the progression patterns in patients with multifocal glioblastoma multiforme who had undergone whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT), the historical standard, versus three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, and to identify predictive treatment and pretreatment factors. Methods and Materials: The records of 50 patients with multifocal glioblastoma multiforme treated with RT were reviewed. Univariate analyses were performed using survival methods and the Cox proportional hazards regression method. Multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression method. Results: The mean age was 61 years, and 71% had a Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score of {>=}70. Of the 50 patients, 32% underwent WBRT and 68%, three-dimensional conformal RT. Progression was local in all evaluable patients, as determined by imaging in 38 patients and early neurologic progression in 12. The median time to progression (TTP) was 3.1 months, and the median survival time (MST) was 8.1 months. The significant independent predictors of TTP on multivariate analysis were a KPS score <70 (p = 0.001), the extent of surgery (p = 0.040), a radiation dose <60 Gy (p = 0.027), and the lack of chemotherapy (p = 0.001). The significant independent predictors of a reduced MST were a KPS score <70 (p = 0.022) and the absence of salvage surgery (p = 0.011) and salvage chemotherapy (p = 0.003). Conclusion: Local progression was observed in all patients. On multivariate analysis, no significant difference was found in the TTP or MST between three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and WBRT. The KPS was a consistent independent predictor of both TTP and MST. On the basis of the progression pattern, we do not recommend WBRT as a mandatory component of the treatment of multifocal glioblastoma multi0011for.

  2. Concurrent Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Bevacizumab in Recurrent Malignant Gliomas: A Prospective Trial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabrera, Alvin R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Cuneo, Kyle C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Desjardins, Annick [Department of Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Sampson, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); McSherry, Frances; Herndon, James E. [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Peters, Katherine B. [Department of Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Allen, Karen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Hoang, Jenny K. [Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Chang, Zheng; Craciunescu, Oana [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Vredenburgh, James J.; Friedman, Henry S. [Department of Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kirkpatrick, John P., E-mail: john.kirkpatrick@dm.duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: Virtually all patients with malignant glioma (MG) eventually recur. This study evaluates the safety of concurrent stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and bevacizumab (BVZ), an antiangiogenic agent, in treatment of recurrent MG. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with recurrent MG, treated at initial diagnosis with surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy/temozolomide and then at least 1 salvage chemotherapy regimen, were enrolled in this prospective trial. Lesions <3 cm in diameter were treated in a single fraction, whereas those 3 to 5 cm in diameter received 5 5-Gy fractions. BVZ was administered immediately before SRS and 2 weeks later. Neurocognitive testing (Mini-Mental Status Exam, Trail Making Test A/B), Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain (FACT-Br) quality-of-life assessment, physical exam, and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) were performed immediately before SRS and 1 week and 2 months following completion of SRS. The primary endpoint was central nervous system (CNS) toxicity. Secondary endpoints included survival, quality of life, microvascular properties as measured by DCE-MRI, steroid usage, and performance status. Results: One grade 3 (severe headache) and 2 grade 2 CNS toxicities were observed. No patients experienced grade 4 to 5 toxicity or intracranial hemorrhage. Neurocognition, quality of life, and Karnofsky performance status did not change significantly with treatment. DCE-MRI results suggest a significant decline in tumor perfusion and permeability 1 week after SRS and further decline by 2 months. Conclusions: Treatment of recurrent MG with concurrent SRS and BVZ was not associated with excessive toxicity in this prospective trial. A randomized trial of concurrent SRS/BVZ versus conventional salvage therapy is needed to establish the efficacy of this approach.

  3. Alternative Techniques for Treatment of Complex Below-the Knee Arterial Occlusions in Diabetic Patients With Critical Limb Ischemia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gandini, Roberto; Uccioli, Luigi; Spinelli, Alessio; Del Giudice, Costantino Ros, Valerio Da; Volpi, Tommaso; Meloni, Marco; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to describe alternative endovascular (EV) techniques and assess their feasibility and efficacy in minimizing failure rates in limb salvage for the treatment of complex below-the knee (BTK) occlusions that could not be crossed with a conventional antegrade access. Between December 2007 and November 2010, 1,035 patients (557 male) underwent EV treatment for critical limb ischemia in our institution. In 124 (12% [83 male], mean age 68.2 {+-} 0.5 years) patients, transfemoral antegrade revascularization attempt failed, and an alternative approach was used. Follow-up was performed at 1 and 6 months. Results were compared with 56 patients treated between November 2002 and November 2007, in whom conventional technique was unsuccessful and unconventional techniques were not adopted. Technical success was achieved in 119 (96%) patients. The limb-salvage rates were 96.8% and 83% at 1- and 6-month follow-up, respectively. Sixteen (12.9%) and 33 (26.6%) patients underwent reintervention at 1- and 6-month follow-up, respectively. Transcutaneous oxygen tension increased at 1 month (44.7 {+-} 1.1 vs. 15.7 {+-} 0.8 mmHg; p < 0.001) and remained stable at follow-up. Twenty (16.1%) patients required major amputation. Thirteen (10.4%) patients died during follow-up. In our previous experience, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty failure, amputation, and death rates were 10.9, 39.2, and 23.2%, respectively. Alternative techniques allowed a significant decrease of major amputation and death rates (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.02, respectively). The use of alternative techniques seems feasible in case of a failed antegrade BTK revascularization attempt and could minimize failure rates in the treatment of complex occlusions while providing satisfying clinical success rates at 6 months.

  4. Long-Term Outcomes of Vestibular Schwannomas Treated With Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy: An Institutional Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapoor, Sumit; Batra, Sachin [Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Carson, Kathryn [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Shuck, John; Kharkar, Siddharth; Gandhi, Rahul [Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Jackson, Juan; Wemmer, Jan; Terezakis, Stephanie; Shokek, Ori; Kleinberg, Lawrence [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rigamonti, Daniele, E-mail: dr@jhmi.edu [Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: We assessed clinical outcome and long-term tumor control after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) for unilateral schwannoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1995 and 2007, 496 patients were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy at Johns Hopkins Hospital (Baltimore, MD); 385 patients had radiologic follow-up that met the inclusion criteria. The primary endpoint was treatment failure. Secondary endpoints were radiologic progression and clinical outcome. Logistic regression analysis assessed the association of age, race, tumor side, sex, and pretreatment symptoms. Results: In 11 patients (3%) treatment failed, and they required salvage (microsurgical) treatment. Radiologic progression was observed in 116 patients (30.0%), including 35 patients (9%) in whom the treatment volume more than doubled during the follow-up period, although none required surgical resection. Tumors with baseline volumes of less than 1 cm{sup 3} were 18.02 times more likely to progress than those with tumor volumes of 1 cm{sup 3} or greater (odds ratio, 18.02; 95% confidence interval, 4.25-76.32). Treatment-induced neurologic morbidity included 8 patients (1.6%) with new facial weakness, 12 patients (2.8%) with new trigeminal paresthesias, 4 patients (0.9%) with hydrocephalus (1 communicating and 3 obstructive), and 2 patients (0.5%) with possibly radiation-induced neoplasia. Conclusions: Although the rate of treatment failure is low (3%), careful follow-up shows that radiologic progression occurs frequently. When reporting outcome, the 'no salvage surgery needed' and 'no additional treatment needed' criteria for treatment success need to be complemented by the radiologic data.

  5. The characterization of human [gamma]D-crystallin mutants and their differential interactions with the lens chaperone [alpha]B-crystallin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreau, Kate L. (Kate Lauren)

    2011-01-01

    Cataract, the leading cause of blindness worldwide, is the opacification of the eye lens. In.age-related cataract, as well as roughly one half of congenital cataract cases, aggregation or precipitation of crystallin proteins ...

  6. Statement of Steven Chu Secretary of Energy Before the Committee...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    we face because of the ways we use energy. Today, we import roughly 60 percent of our oil, draining resources from our economy and leaving it vulnerable to supply disruptions....

  7. ENERGY CONSERVATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT: CONFLICT OR COMPLEMENT?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schipper, L.

    2011-01-01

    and electric vehicles brought about a great energy saving asenergy and materials required to cut electric heating use roughly in half is about balanced by a few years' cumulative savings

  8. Magnetotellurics At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Hermance...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the (Unocal) Mammoth-1 well at Casa Diablo. This low resistivity region is unusually deep, extending into the pre-caldera basement to the northwest, and is roughly aligned with...

  9. Jefferson Lab Plans Open House for May 19 | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    taking multiple flights of concrete stairs and walking down and back up rough, inclined truck ramps. In some areas, visitors will be walking on compacted gravel or dirt surfaces...

  10. Jefferson Lab plans ‘Celebration of Science’ Open...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    taking multiple flights of concrete stairs and walking down and back up rough, inclined truck ramps. Due to upgrade construction work, in some areas, visitors will be walking on...

  11. IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 20, NO. 23, DECEMBER 1, 2008 1905 A Magnetically Actuated Resonant Mass Sensor With

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alaca, B. Erdem

    of the resonating structure and the diffraction grating by electroplating of Ni, which also brings about motion. The typical surface roughness associated with the electroplating of Ni as the moving reflector

  12. The Road Through Paris: Secretary Moniz's Remarks at the Tim...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    will need to install roughly 800 to 1000 gigawatts of additional nuclear and renewable electricity generation capacity to meet its 2030 coal. For reference, the entire U.S....

  13. Effects and applications of capillary condensation in ultrathin nanoparticle assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gemici, Zekeriyya

    2010-01-01

    The electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique can be used to make uniform, conformal multi-stack nanoparticle thin films from aqueous solution, with precise thickness and roughness control over each stack. Much ...

  14. Indexing spatio-temporal trajectories with efficient polynomial approximations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, J F; Ravishankar, C V

    2007-01-01

    we only count index construction costs, completely ignoringAs with offline index construction, SETI costs roughly halfSETI incurs I/O cost for index construction lower than the

  15. Screen and slotted liner horizontal completion: : correcting for wellbore pressure drop in the inflow performance relationships (IPR) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agbongiator, Eddie Osarenmwida

    2002-01-01

    Error (P.E.) correlation. The correlation, which was simplified using the Table Curve program, is a function of horizontal well length, viscosity, well diameter, wellbore roughness, and production rate. The validation of two commonly used...

  16. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID 1 Cognitive Radio Network for the Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Robert Caiming

    and providers. Roughly speaking, the smart grid will: 1) reduce blackouts; 2) promote renewable energy usage; 3) give families more control over their energy diet. The motivation of this paper is to address items 2

  17. Essays on the functioning of housing and labor markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Christopher John

    2014-01-01

    The first chapter consists of my job-market paper. The foreclosure rate of sub-prime mortgages increased markedly across 2003-2007 borrower cohorts-sub-prime mortgages originated in 2006- 2007 were roughly three times more ...

  18. Sample Annual and Monthly Energy Consumption Reports for Zachry Engineering Center 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Staff, Energy Systems Laboratory

    1993-01-01

    ENERGY STAR is the national symbol for energy efficiency and environmental performance recognized by roughly 70% of the American people. In September 2006, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) extend the brand to industrial plants...

  19. ORIGINAL RESEARCH In Search of the Perfect Phenotype: An Analysis of Linkage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Studies of Reading and Reading-Related Processes Thomas Skiba · Nicole Landi · Richard Wagner · Elena L to challenges associated with the mastery of reading. The prevalence estimates of SRD are roughly 5­10% (Elliott

  20. Slow Dynamics Experiments in Solids with Nonlinear Mesoscopic Elasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Loren W. Byers and Thomas J. Shankland EES-4, Los Alamos Seismic Research Center, Los Alamos. The samples were isolated from the environment by placing them in a rough vacuum or a double insulated, sealed

  1. Nano-engineering the boiling surface for optimal heat transfer rate and critical heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, Bren Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The effects on pool boiling characteristics such as critical heat flux and the heat transfer coefficient of different surface characteristics such as surface wettability, roughness, morphology, and porosity are not well ...

  2. Numerical and experimental investigations of the head/disk interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duwensee, Maik

    2007-01-01

    Dynamics and the E?ect of Lubricant. ASME J. Trib. , 126:Dynamics and the E?ect of Lubricant. ASME J. Trib. , 126:roughness, and the disk lubricant. An experimental setup was

  3. J. Fluid Mech. (2014), vol. 745, pp. 592620. c Cambridge University Press 2014 doi:10.1017/jfm.2014.76

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huppert, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    , University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UH, UK 3School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New South in Algeria, CO2 is injected roughly 2 km into a porous sandstone layer containing ambient salt water, forming

  4. EECBG Success Story: Topeka’s “Green Light Tunnel” Saves Fuel and Time

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Using roughly half of its $1.2 million Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant, Topeka, Kansas installed adaptive traffic signal systems at 22 intersections across the city. Learn more.

  5. Headcut retreat resulting from plunge pool erosion in a 3D landscape evolution model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores Cervantes, Javier Homero, 1977-

    2004-01-01

    Headcut retreat produced by plunge pools is represented using existing concepts about this type of erosion. The model estimates retreat rates, given flow, height of the headcut, upstream slope and Manning's roughness, and ...

  6. Smooth electrode and method of fabricating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Stanton Earl (Northville, NY); Kennerly, Stacey Joy (Albany, NY); Aimi, Marco Francesco (Niskayuna, NY)

    2012-08-14

    A smooth electrode is provided. The smooth electrode includes at least one metal layer having thickness greater than about 1 micron; wherein an average surface roughness of the smooth electrode is less than about 10 nm.

  7. Compressed Air 101: Getting Compressed Air to Work 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, J. J.; Bessey, E. G.

    2003-01-01

    "Air compressors are a significant industrial energy user. Based on a survey (conducted by Oregon State University and the Bonneville Power Administration) of energy audit reports from 125 plants, air compressors account for roughly 10% of total...

  8. Laminar Flow Forced Convection Heat Transfer Behavior of Phase Change Material Fluid in Straight and Staggered Pin Microchannels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kondle, Satyanarayana

    2011-10-21

    the geometry shape, solid and fluid materials used, and surface roughness, among others. Many configurations of microchannels have been studied with various materials and compared for their effectiveness in heat removal. However, there is little research done...

  9. Towards a transdisciplinary approach to rural electrification planning for universal access in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borofsky, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Around 30% of India's roughly 1.2 billion people lack access to electricity, largely in rural areas. National and state rural electrification efforts are predominantly focused on grid extension, but interest in off-grid ...

  10. A Historical Perspective on Crime in Twentieth-Century Mexico City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piccato, Pablo

    2003-01-01

    Mexico City. The public-health costs of drug addiction, the wages of corruption, andMexico. The twentieth century became the century of corruptionMexico City: Botas, 1970). For a very rough estimate of the profits from corruption,

  11. Polaritonics : an intermediate regime between electronics and photonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, David W. (David Wayne), 1970-

    2005-01-01

    This thesis contains the foundational work behind the field of polaritonics. Corresponding to a frequency range from roughly 100 gigahertz up to 10 terahertz, polaritonics bridges the gap between electronics and photonics. ...

  12. Introduction to Tc/I in Hanford Flowsheet

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Introduction to TcI in Hanford Flowsheet Gary Smith Office of Waste Processing (EM-31) November 18, 2010 2 Rough Flowsheet Diagram Tank Farm Evaporator Pretreatment Evaporator IDF...

  13. Vehicular fuel composition and atmospheric emissions in South China: Hong Kong, Macau, Guangzhou, and Zhuhai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, W. Y; Chan, L. Y; Blake, D. R; Chu, K. W

    2006-01-01

    of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on Santiago air quality,cluded that roughly 5% of the LPG that was sold in Santiago,The leakage of unburned LPG was found to be a major source

  14. New Guidance Helps LM Manage Institutional Controls | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    required by regulatory agencies and DOE, but not always the same ones at the same time. LMS-S07617ICTSFINAL.png LM manages a variety of ICs Administrative controls (roughly 300)...

  15. Laminar Flow Control Flight Experiment Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tucker, Aaron 1975-

    2012-11-29

    Demonstration of spanwise-periodic discrete roughness element laminar flow control (DRE LFC) technology at operationally relevant flight regimes requires extremely stable flow conditions in flight. A balance must be struck ...

  16. NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE | VOL 3 | OCTOBER 2013 | www.nature.com/natureclimatechange 867 news & views

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saleska, Scott

    for roughly 60% of global primary production, Earth system models (ESMs) increasingly use mechanistic | The stabilization of plant carbon into soil carbon as represented in Earth system models. Left: A classical model

  17. Evaluation of thermal evaporation conditions used in coating aluminum on near-field fiber-optic probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollars, Christopher W.; Dunn, Robert C.

    1998-01-01

    The effects that the thermal evaporation conditions have on the roughness of aluminum-coated near-field fiber-optic probes were investigated using the high-resolution capabilities of atomic force microscopy. The coating ...

  18. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    redshifts are estimated accurately with an uncertainty of less than 0.022. The contamination rate of member galaxies is found to be roughly 20%, and the completeness of member...

  19. Shanghai Daily wangyong@shanghaidaily.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    high carbon footprint. Note that high-density New York City's carbon emissions per capita are roughly city has yet met all of the challenges of 21st cen- tury -- low-carbon energy, public health

  20. Am I Anonymous?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coleman, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    on Internet Relay Chat (IRC)—the central nervous system ofon average about five hours a day on IRC, roughly followingsix to twelve IRC channels at once, seven days a week.

  1. Survey and evaluation of techniques to augment convective heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergles A. E.

    1965-01-01

    This report presents a survey and evaluation of the numerous techniques which have been shown to augment convective heat transfer. These techniques are: surface promoters, including roughness and treatment; displaced ...

  2. Tactile mapping of harsh, constrained environments, with an application to oil wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzini, Francesco, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    This work develops a practical approach to explore rough environments when time is critical. The harsh environmental conditions prevent the use of range, force/torque or tactile sensors. A representative case is the mapping ...

  3. Mesoscale coupled ocean-atmosphere interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Hyodae

    2007-01-01

    coastal ocean to strong offshore winds: With application toand R. L. Smith, 1995: Offshore wind forcing in the Gulf ofwind stress maximum and CCS SST front located roughly 200 km further offshore

  4. The role of staphylococcus epidermidis in cutaneous defense

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cogen, Anna Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Keratinocytes were stimulation with PSM" (a) or PSM! (b).abundance was increased by roughly 1.5 fold by PSM" and 2.5fold by PSM!. Figure 6.7. S. epidermidis WT induced TLR2 to

  5. Mesoscale Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Hyodae

    2007-01-01

    coastal ocean to strong offshore winds: With application toand R. L. Smith, 1995: Offshore wind forcing in the Gulf ofwind stress maximum and CCS SST front located roughly 200 km further offshore

  6. THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS VOLUME 59, NUMBER 8 15 OCTOBER 1973 Optical pumping of molecules II. Relaxation studies *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    -up of excess population in the weakly absorbing sublevels. Be- cause of the multiplicity of radiative decay. These experiments may be roughly divided into two classes: (1) structural studies, in which radiofrequency

  7. Function and acuity of the rat vibrissa system during texture discrimination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morita, Takeshi

    2008-01-01

    cortex underlying texture discrimination. PLoS Biol 5, e305.of vibrissal tactile discrimination in the rat. J NeurosciMice can learn roughness discrimination with vibrissae in a

  8. Leaching and standing water characteristics of bottom ash and composted manure blends 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathis, James Gregory

    2001-01-01

    Coal burning electrical generating facilities produce roughly 91 million metric tons of ash byproducts annually. Typically, this ash is retained at the power plant sites, adding to the cost of managing wastes at the plants. Another waste material...

  9. Improving parameterization of scalar transport through vegetation in a coupled ecosystem-atmosphere model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Link, Percy Anne

    2008-01-01

    Several regional-scale ecosystem models currently parameterize subcanopy scalar transport using a rough-wall boundary eddy diffusivity formulation. This formulation predicts unreasonably high soil evaporation beneath tall, ...

  10. Tactile sensing using elastomeric sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Xiaodan (Xiaodan Stella)

    2012-01-01

    GelSight, namely, elastomeric sensor, is a novel tactile sensor to get the 3D information of contacting surfaces. Using GelSight, some tactile properties, such as softness and roughness, could be gained through image ...

  11. Sensing animal group behavior and bio-clutter in the ocean over continental shelf scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Jagannathan

    2011-01-01

    Fish populations often comprise the largest biomass in a productive marine ecosystem. They typically play an essential role in inter-trophic energy transport, and serve as a mainstay for human consumption comprising roughly ...

  12. Engineering Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties in Zigzag Graphene Nanoribbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineering Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties in Zigzag Graphene Nanoribbons Hossein Karamitaheri1 graphene nanoribbons in the presence of extended line defects, substrate impurities and edge roughness of highly efficient nanostructured graphene nanoribbon based thermoelectric devices. PACS numbers: 72.80.Vp

  13. Normal form approach for dispersive equations with low-regularity data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oh, Seungly

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, we examine applications of the normal form technique to nonlinear dispersive equations with rough initial data. Working within the framework of Bourgain spaces, the normal form method often produces ...

  14. Federal Water Use Indices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides water use indices as a guide for Federal agencies. Note that each is a rough estimate of water usage at different types of sites. Your site may vary considerably.

  15. Quantifying internal friction in unfolded and intrinsically disordered proteins with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    Quantifying internal friction in unfolded and intrinsically disordered proteins with single reflects the "roughness" of the energy land- scape, plays an important role for proteins by modulating spectroscopy, and microfluidic mixing to determine the reconfiguration times of unfolded proteins

  16. World Congress on Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization June 1 -5, 2009, Lisbon, Portugal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    framework includes frontal crash energy absorption, restraint system design and fuel economy. Preliminary, have been developed, optimized and implemented to prevent or mitigate accident severity. An additional design, restraint systems 3. Introduction The World Health Organization (WHO) attributes roughly 1

  17. Radiation and dissipation of internal waves generated by geostrophic motions impinging on small-scale topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikurashin, Maxim (Maxim Anatolevich)

    2009-01-01

    Observations and inverse models suggest that small-scale turbulent mixing is enhanced in the Southern Ocean in regions above rough topography. The enhancement extends 1 km above the topography suggesting that mixing is ...

  18. WEAK APPROXIMATION OF FRACTIONAL SDES: THE DONSKER ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-07-23

    Jun 6, 2010 ... introduction. Indeed, in the latter reference, the .... Electronic Communications in Probability .... structure of weakly controlled process introduced in [10]. ...... [13] T. Lyons and Z. Qian (2002): System control and rough paths.

  19. Design methods for cost-effective teams of mobile robots in uncertain terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michaluk, Nathaniel

    2014-01-01

    Conducting planetary exploration missions with mobile robots is expensive, with costs ranging from hundreds of millions to billions of dollars. Developing reliable robots to work remotely on rough, uncertain terrain is ...

  20. Terramechanical analysis of rover wheel mobility over simulated Martian terrain at various slip conditions and vertical loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puszko, Gregory D

    2013-01-01

    Unmanned Mars rovers are presented with the unique challenge of requiring autonomous driving control over rough, adverse territory. A software package, dubbed Artemis, was developed in order to model the expected forces ...