Sample records for rough rotten salvable

  1. Controlling rough paths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    original work of Lyons [7] roughness is measured in p-variation norm, instead here we prefer to .... e.g. for cochains A; B of degree 1 and 2 respectively, we have.

  2. 6/18/13 A History Lesson and a Call to Arms -The New York Times movies.nytimes.com/2008/09/12/movies/12secr.html?partner=Rotten Tomatoes&ei=5083&pagewanted=print 1/2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galison, Peter L.

    /09/12/movies/12secr.html?partner=Rotten Tomatoes&ei=5083&pagewanted=print 1/2 This copy is for your personal

  3. Drying Rough Rice in Storage.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorenson, J. W. Jr.; Crane, L. E.

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drying. Rough Rice in Storage Ih AGRf""' TURP YPERIMENT STAT10 I. TEXAS SUMMARY Research was conducted at the Rice-Pasture Experiment Station near Beaumont during 7 crop years (1952-53 through 1958-59) to determine the engineering problems... and the practicability of dry- ing rough rice in storage in Texas. Drying rice in storage means drying rice in the same bin in which it is to be stored. Rough rice, with initial moisture contents of 15.0 to 23.0 percent, was dried at depths of 4 to 10 feet...

  4. Electrokinetic transport in microchannels with random roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Moran [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kang, Qinjun [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a numerical framework to model the electrokinetic transport in microchannels with random roughness. The three-dimensional microstructure of the rough channel is generated by a random generation-growth method with three statistical parameters to control the number density, the total volume fraction, and the anisotropy characteristics of roughness elements. The governing equations for the electrokinetic transport are solved by a high-efficiency lattice Poisson?Boltzmann method in complex geometries. The effects from the geometric characteristics of roughness on the electrokinetic transport in microchannels are therefore modeled and analyzed. For a given total roughness volume fraction, a higher number density leads to a lower fluctuation because of the random factors. The electroosmotic flow rate increases with the roughness number density nearly logarithmically for a given volume fraction of roughness but decreases with the volume fraction for a given roughness number density. When both the volume fraction and the number density of roughness are given, the electroosmotic flow rate is enhanced by the increase of the characteristic length along the external electric field direction but is reduced by that in the direction across the channel. For a given microstructure of the rough microchannel, the electroosmotic flow rate decreases with the Debye length. It is found that the shape resistance of roughness is responsible for the flow rate reduction in the rough channel compared to the smooth channel even for very thin double layers, and hence plays an important role in microchannel electroosmotic flows.

  5. Water Dynamics at Rough Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markus Rosenstihl; Kerstin Kämpf; Felix Klameth; Matthias Sattig; Michael Vogel

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We use molecular dynamics computer simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments to investigate the dynamics of water at interfaces of molecular roughness and low mobility. We find that, when approaching such interfaces, the structural relaxation of water, i.e., the $\\alpha$ process, slows down even when specific attractive interactions are absent. This prominent effect is accompanied by a smooth transition from Vogel to Arrhenius temperature dependence and by a growing importance of jump events. Consistently, at protein surfaces, deviations from Arrhenius behavior are weak when free water does not exist. Furthermore, in nanoporous silica, a dynamic crossover of liquid water occurs when a fraction of solid water forms near 225 K and, hence, the liquid dynamics changes from bulk-like to interface-dominated. At sufficiently low temperatures, water exhibits a quasi-universal $\\beta$ process, which is characterized by an activation energy of $E_a\\!=\\!0.5$ eV and involves anisotropic reorientation about large angles. As a consequence of its large amplitude, the faster $\\beta$ process destroys essentially all orientational correlation, rendering observation of a possible slower $\\alpha$ process difficult in standard experiments. Nevertheless, we find indications for the existence of structural relaxation down to a glass transition of interfacial water near 185 K. Hydrated proteins show a highly restricted backbone motion with an amplitude, which decreases upon cooling and vanishes at comparable temperatures, providing evidence for a high relevance of water rearrangements in the hydration shell for secondary protein relaxations.

  6. Enhanced thermoelectric performance of rough silicon nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong

    LETTERS Enhanced thermoelectric performance of rough silicon nanowires Allon I. Hochbaum1 *, Renkun, such that roughly 15 terawatts of heat is lost to the environment. Thermoelectric modules could potentially convert part of this low-grade waste heat to electricity. Their efficiency depends on the thermoelectric figure

  7. Simplified models for mask roughness induced LER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClinton, Brittany; Naulleau, Patrick

    2011-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The ITRS requires < 1.2nm line-edge roughness (LER) for the 22nm half-pitch node. Currently, we can consistently achieve only about 3nm LER. Further progress requires understanding the principle causes of LER. Much work has already been done on how both the resist and LER on the mask effect the final printed LER. What is poorly understood, however, is the extent to which system-level effects such as mask surface roughness, illumination conditions, and defocus couple to speckle at the image plane, and factor into LER limits. Presently, mask-roughness induced LER is studied via full 2D aerial image modeling and subsequent analysis of the resulting image. This method is time consuming and cumbersome. It is, therefore, the goal of this research to develop a useful 'rule-of-thumb' analytic model for mask roughness induced LER to expedite learning and understanding.

  8. Computer Simulation of Uranyl Uptake by the Rough Lipopolysaccharide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computer Simulation of Uranyl Uptake by the Rough Lipopolysaccharide Membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Computer Simulation of Uranyl Uptake by the Rough Lipopolysaccharide...

  9. Viscoelastic contact mechanics between randomly rough surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michele Scaraggi; Bo N. J. Persson

    2014-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We present exact numerical results for the friction force and the contact area for a viscoelastic solid (rubber) in sliding contact with hard, randomly rough substrates. The rough surfaces are self-affine fractal with roughness over several decades in length scales. We calculate the contribution to the friction from the pulsating deformations induced by the substrate asperities. We also calculate how the area of real contact, $A(v,p) $, depends on the sliding speed $v$ and on the nominal contact pressure $p$, and we show how the contact area for any sliding speed can be obtained from a universal master curve $A(p)$. The numerical results are found to be in good agreement with the predictions of an analytical contact mechanics theory.

  10. ROUGHNESS LENGTHS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, C.

    2012-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface roughness values for the areas surrounding the H, D and N-Area meteorological towers were computed from archived 2010 meteorological data. These 15-minute-averaged data were measured with cup anemometers and bidirectional wind vanes (bivanes) 61 m above the surface. The results of the roughness calculation using the standard deviation of elevation angle {sigma}{sub E}, and applying the simple formula based on tree canopy height, gave consistent estimates for roughness around the H-Area tower in the range of 1.76 to 1.86 m (95% confidence interval) with a mean value of 1.81 m. Application of the {sigma}{sub E} method for the 61-m level at D and N-Areas gave mean values of 1.71 and 1.81 with confidence ranges of 1.62-1.81 and 1.73-1.88 meters, respectively. Roughness results are azimuth dependent, and thus are presented as averages over compass sectors spanning 22.5 degrees. Calculated values were compared to other methods of determining roughness, including the standard deviation of the azimuth direction, {sigma}{sub A}, and standard deviation of the wind speed, {sigma}{sub U}. Additional data was obtained from a sonic anemometer at 61-m on the H-Area tower during a period of a few weeks in 2010. Results from the sonic anemometer support our use of {sigma}{sub E} to calculate roughness. Based on the H-Area tower results, a surface roughness of 1.8 m using is recommended for use in dispersion modeling applications that consider the impacts of a contaminant release to individuals along the Site boundary. The canopy surrounding the H-Area tower is relatively uniform (i.e., little variance in roughness by upwind direction), and data supplied by the U.S. Forest Service at Savannah River show that the canopy height and composition surrounding the H-Area tower is reasonably representative of forested areas throughout the SRS reservation. For dispersion modeling analyses requiring assessments of a co-located worker within the respective operations area, recommended area-specific values range from 0.3 m for E Area to 0.7 m for A Area at the Savannah River National Laboratory. These area-specific values, summarized in Table 4-1, were determined using the Environmental Protection Agency's AERSURFACE computer algorithm.

  11. Influence of surface roughness on superhydrophobicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Yang; U. Tartaglino; B. N. J. Persson

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Superhydrophobic surfaces, with liquid contact angle theta greater than 150 degree, have important practical applications ranging from self-cleaning window glasses, paints, and fabrics to low-friction surfaces. Many biological surfaces, such as the lotus leaf, have hierarchically structured surface roughness which is optimized for superhydrophobicity through natural selection. Here we present a molecular dynamics study of liquid droplets in contact with self-affine fractal surfaces. Our results indicate that the contact angle for nanodroplets depends strongly on the root-mean-square surface roughness amplitude but is nearly independent of the fractal dimension D_f of the surface.

  12. A Rough Logic Formalism for Fuzzy Controllers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Tsau Young

    logic. 1. Introduction In complex systems, such as power systems, control sub­systems are the most of transformations of mathematical models. It starts with a symbolic model that describes the control system in termsA Rough Logic Formalism for Fuzzy Controllers: A Hard and Soft Computing View T.Y. Lin Department

  13. A fast direct numerical simulation method for characterising hydraulic roughness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Daniel; MacDonald, Michael; Hutchins, Nicholas; Ooi, Andrew

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a fast direct numerical simulation (DNS) method that promises to directly characterise the hydraulic roughness of any given rough surface, from the hydraulically smooth to the fully rough regime. The method circumvents the unfavourable computational cost associated with simulating high-Reynolds-number flows by employing minimal-span channels (Jimenez & Moin 1991). Proof-of-concept simulations demonstrate that flows in minimal-span channels are sufficient for capturing the downward velocity shift, that is, the Hama roughness function, predicted by flows in full-span channels. We consider two sets of simulations, first with modelled roughness imposed by body forces, and second with explicit roughness described by roughness-conforming grids. Owing to the minimal cost, we are able to conduct DNSs with increasing roughness Reynolds numbers while maintaining a fixed blockage ratio, as is typical in full-scale applications. The present method promises a practical, fast and accurate tool for character...

  14. Speed Map for Autonomous Rovers over Rough Terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loh, Jonathan Edau

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Grid Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .considered obstacles [27] Grid Map showing Tile Size, Cellspeed map. It also covers grid maps and terrain roughness,

  15. Equivalent roughness height for plane bed under oscillatory flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , the bed roughness height of a flat and fixed bed is given in terms of the Nikuradse roughness height (ks may be several orders of magnitude larger than for a fixed bed. This is probably causedEquivalent roughness height for plane bed under oscillatory flow Beno^it Camenen , Magnus Larson

  16. Extreme ultraviolet mask substrate surface roughness effects on lithography patterning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, Simi; Naulleau, Patrick; Salmassi, Farhad; Mochi, Iacopo; Gullikson, Eric; Goldberg, Kenneth; Anderson, Erik

    2010-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In extreme ultraviolet lithography exposure systems, mask substrate roughness induced scatter contributes to LER at the image plane. In this paper, the impact of mask substrate roughness on image plane speckle is explicitly evaluated. A programmed roughness mask was used to study the correlation between mask roughness metrics and wafer plane aerial image inspection. We find that the roughness measurements by top surface topography profile do not provide complete information on the scatter related speckle that leads to LER at the image plane. We suggest at wavelength characterization by imaging and/or scatter measurements into different frequencies as an alternative for a more comprehensive metrology of the mask substrate/multilayer roughness effects.

  17. Equivalent Roughness Height for Plane Bed under Steady Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    current conditions. In general, owing to dimensional reasons, the bed roughness height of a flat and fixed orders of magnitude larger than for a fixed bed. This is probably caused by the increased energyEquivalent Roughness Height for Plane Bed under Steady Flow Benoît Camenen, Ph.D.1 ; Atilla Bayram

  18. FRACTAL DESCRIPTION OF ROUGH SURFACES FOR HAPTIC DISPLAY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    FRACTAL DESCRIPTION OF ROUGH SURFACES FOR HAPTIC DISPLAY A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT system using fractals. A background on traditional methods for describing surface roughness is given. Fractals are used to characterize one- dimensional surface profiles using two parameters, the amplitude

  19. Rough-Fuzzy MLP: Modular Evolution, Rule Generation, and Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitra, Sushmita

    efficient systems in soft computing paradigm. Recently, the theory of rough sets [2], [3] has emerged, Sushmita Mitra, Senior Member, IEEE, and Pabitra Mitra, Student Member, IEEE Abstract--A methodology Terms--Soft computing, knowledge-based fuzzy networks, rough sets, genetic algorithms, pattern

  20. ORIGINAL PAPER Transient Heat Conduction Between Rough Sliding Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barber, James R.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Transient Heat Conduction Between Rough Sliding Surfaces Yuwei Liu · J. R. Barber+Business Media New York 2014 Abstract When two rough bodies slide against each other, asperities on the opposing contact pressure as functions of the separation between reference planes in the two surfaces. We find

  1. Distributed Roughness Receptivity in a Flat Plate Boundary Layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuester, Matthew Scott

    2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    for the three different unit Reynolds num- ber test conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 3.4 Spanwise uniformity of boundary layer integral quantities at x = 870 mm for low unit Reynolds number test condition... with the distributed roughness configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3.5 Differential pressure across the flat plate leading edge. . . . . . . . . . 25 3.6 Roughness patch (k = 1 mm), before windowing . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 3...

  2. Fuzzy Rough Positive Region based Nearest Neighbour Classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gent, Universiteit

    of the main subjects in machine learning and pattern recognition, with applications in fields like spam theory to improve the FNN classifier. Fuzzy rough set theory was designed to model imperfect knowledgeFuzzy Rough Positive Region based Nearest Neighbour Classification Nele Verbiest, Chris Cornelis

  3. Case Generation Using Rough Sets with Fuzzy Representation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitra, Pabitra

    , granular computing, rough-fuzzy hybridization, soft computing, pattern recognition, data mining. æ 1 for case generation. Fuzzy set theory is used for linguistic representation of patterns, thereby producing a fuzzy granulation of the feature space. Rough set theory is used to obtain dependency rules which model

  4. Measurement of normal contact stiffness of fractal rough surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chongpu Zhai; Sébastien Bevand; Yixiang Gan; Dorian Hanaor; Gwénaëlle Proust; Bruno Guelorget; Delphine Retraint

    2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effects of roughness and fractality on the normal contact stiffness of rough surfaces. Samples of isotropically roughened aluminium surfaces are considered. The roughness and fractal dimension were altered through blasting using different sized particles. Subsequently, surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) was applied to the surfaces in order to modify the surface at the microscale. The surface topology was characterised by interferometry based profilometry. The normal contact stiffness was measured through nanoindentation with a flat tip utilising the partial unloading method. We focus on establishing the relationships between surface stiffness and roughness, combined with the effects of fractal dimension. The experimental results, for a wide range of surfaces, showed that the measured contact stiffness depended very closely on surfaces' root mean squared (RMS) slope and their fractal dimension, with correlation coefficients of around 90\\%, whilst a relatively weak correlation coefficient of 57\\% was found between the contact stiffness and RMS roughness.

  5. Surface forces: Surface roughness in theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsons, Drew F., E-mail: Drew.Parsons@anu.edu.au; Walsh, Rick B.; Craig, Vincent S. J. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)] [Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of incorporating surface roughness into theoretical calculations of surface forces is presented. The model contains two chief elements. First, surface roughness is represented as a probability distribution of surface heights around an average surface height. A roughness-averaged force is determined by taking an average of the classic flat-surface force, weighing all possible separation distances against the probability distributions of surface heights. Second the model adds a repulsive contact force due to the elastic contact of asperities. We derive a simple analytic expression for the contact force. The general impact of roughness is to amplify the long range behaviour of noncontact (DLVO) forces. The impact of the elastic contact force is to provide a repulsive wall which is felt at a separation between surfaces that scales with the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the surfaces. The model therefore provides a means of distinguishing between “true zero,” where the separation between the average centres of each surface is zero, and “apparent zero,” defined by the onset of the repulsive contact wall. A normal distribution may be assumed for the surface probability distribution, characterised by the RMS roughness measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Alternatively the probability distribution may be defined by the histogram of heights measured by AFM. Both methods of treating surface roughness are compared against the classic smooth surface calculation and experimental AFM measurement.

  6. Effect of Surface Roughness on Wind Turbine Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehrmann, Robert Schaefer

    2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    40% for 140 µm roughness, corresponding to a 2.3% loss in annual energy production. Simulated performance loss compares well to measured performance loss on an in-service wind turbine....

  7. Influence of surface roughness and waviness upon thermal contact resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yovanovich, M. Michael

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work deals with the phenomenon of thermal resistance between contacting solids. Attention is directed towards contiguous solids possessing both surface roughness and waviness. When two such surfaces are brought together ...

  8. Hypersonic Measurements of Roughness-Induced Transient Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharp, Nicole Susanne

    2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    but about boundary-layer stability in general. Dr. Rob Downs and Doug Kutz provided valuable assistance and code when I was designing my quasi-random periodic distributed roughness. Jason Monschke’s help has been invaluable, not only for the self- similar... simulations using the periodically-spaced discrete roughness geometry. Jason Monschke has performed the optimal disturbance calculations described in the dissertation using code kindly shared by Dr. Simone Zuccher. Jason is also working on secondary...

  9. The thermal Casimir effect for rough metallic plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Bimonte

    2007-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new theory of thermal Casimir effect, holding for the experimentally important case of metallic surfaces with a roughness having a spatial scale smaller than the skin depth. The theory is based on a simple phenomenological model for a rough conductor, that explicitly takes account of the fact that ohmic conduction in the immediate vicinity of the surface of a conductor is much impeded by surface roughness, if the amplitude of roughness is smaller than the skin depth. As a result of the new model, we find that surface roughness strongly influences the magnitude of the thermal correction to the Casimir force, independently of the plates separation. Our model, while consistent with recent accurate measurements of the Casimir force in the submicron range, leads to a new prediction for the not yet observed thermal correction to the Casimir force at large plates separation. Besides the thermal Casimir problem, our model is relevant for the correct theoretical interpretation of current experiments probing other proximity effects between conductors, like radiative heat transfer and quantum friction.

  10. Structural contribution to the roughness of supersmooth crystal surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butashin, A. V.; Muslimov, A. E., E-mail: amuslimov@mail.ru; Kanevsky, V. M.; Deryabin, A. N.; Pavlov, V. A.; Asadchikov, V. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Technological advances in processing crystals (Si, sapphire {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiC, GaN, LiNbO{sub 3}, SrTiO{sub 3}, etc.) of substrate materials and X-ray optics elements make it possible to obtain supersmooth surfaces with a periodicity characteristic of the crystal structure. These periodic structures are formed by atomically smooth terraces and steps of nano- and subnanometer sizes, respectively. A model surface with such nanostructures is proposed, and the relations between its roughness parameters and the height of atomic steps are determined. The roughness parameters calculated from these relations almost coincide with the experimental atomic force microscopy (AFM) data obtained from 1 Multiplication-Sign 1 and 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 {mu}m areas on the surface of sapphire plates with steps. The minimum roughness parameters for vicinal crystal surfaces, which are due to the structural contribution, are calculated based on the approach proposed. A comparative analysis of the relief and roughness parameters of sapphire plate surfaces with different degrees of polishing is performed. A size effect is established: the relief height distribution changes from stochastic to regular with a decrease in the surface roughness.

  11. Inhomogeneous Cooling of the Rough Granular Gas in Two Dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudhir N. Pathak; Dibyendu Das; R. Rajesh

    2014-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the inhomogeneous clustered regime of a freely cooling granular gas of rough particles in two dimensions using large-scale event driven simulations and scaling arguments. During collisions, rough particles dissipate energy in both the normal and tangential directions of collision. In the inhomogeneous regime, translational kinetic energy and the rotational energy decay with time $t$ as power-laws $t^{-\\theta_T}$ and $t^{-\\theta_R}$. We numerically determine $\\theta_T \\approx 1$ and $\\theta_R \\approx 1.6$, independent of the coefficients of restitution. The inhomogeneous regime of the granular gas has been argued to be describable by the ballistic aggregation problem, where particles coalesce on contact. Using scaling arguments, we predict $\\theta_T=1$ and $\\theta_R=1$ for ballistic aggregation, $\\theta_R$ being different from that obtained for the rough granular gas. Simulations of ballistic aggregation with rotational degrees of freedom are consistent with these exponents.

  12. Journal of Differential Equations Ramification of rough paths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Dec 1, 2009 ... B-series. The stack of iterated integrals of a path is embedded in a larger al- gebraic structure ... iterated integrals [18,19] which is at the base of Lyons theory of rough paths [20]. Lyons theory ...... ?|b| ? g(|b|)(rs), see e.g. [5, p.

  13. A CONSTRUCTION OF THE ROUGH PATH ABOVE FRACTIONAL ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    fractional Brownian motion B with any Hurst parameter H ? (0,1), by means ... Rough paths analysis is a theory introduced by Terry Lyons in the pioneering ... functions with finite p-variation with p > 1, or by Hölder continuous functions of order ...

  14. Technical Briefs A Compact Model for Spherical Rough

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    of rough spheres includes two problems, i the bulk compression and ii deformation of asperities. Different index as a criterion for plastic flow of mi- crocontacts. They reported that the load has little effect on the deformation regime. Based on the plasticity index, they concluded that except for especially smooth surfaces

  15. Studies of the 3D surface roughness height

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avisane, Anita; Rudzitis, Janis; Kumermanis, Maris [Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Riga Technical University, Ezermalas str. 6k, Riga (Latvia)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Nowadays nano-coatings occupy more and more significant place in technology. Innovative, functional coatings acquire new aspects from the point of view of modern technologies, considering the aggregate of physical properties that can be achieved manipulating in the production process with the properties of coatings’ surfaces on micro- and nano-level. Nano-coatings are applied on machine parts, friction surfaces, contacting parts, corrosion surfaces, transparent conducting films (TCF), etc. The equipment available at present for the production of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) coatings with highest quality is based on expensive indium tin oxide (ITO) material; therefore cheaper alternatives are being searched for. One such offered alternative is zink oxide (ZnO) nano-coatings. Evaluating the TCF physical and mechanical properties and in view of the new ISO standard (EN ISO 25178) on the introduction of surface texture (3D surface roughness) in the engineering calculations, it is necessary to examine the height of 3D surface roughness, which is one of the most significant roughness parameters. The given paper studies the average values of 3D surface roughness height and the most often applied distribution laws are as follows: the normal distribution and Rayleigh distribution. The 3D surface is simulated by a normal random field.

  16. Large deviations for rough paths of fractional Brownian motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millet, Annie

    limit theorem. Stochastic modeling deals basically with rough path controls. Indeed, the ground-breaking It^o's theory on stochastic differential equations is based on Brownian motion, which has almost surely nowhere differentiable sam- ple paths but only -H¨older continuous ones, with ]0, 1 2 [. Note

  17. Hypersonic Measurements of Roughness-Induced Transient Growth 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharp, Nicole Susanne

    2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    streaks may play a key role in roughness-induced transition but has not previously been deliberately observed in hypersonic flow. To make such measurements, the present work studies the boundary layer of a 5° half-angle smooth cone paired with a slightly...

  18. Discussion of ``Atmospheric Momentum Roughness Applied to Stage-Discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the Darcy-Weisbach equation and conventional log law and derive an alternative log law equation to calculate discussion. Concerning the resistance equations, if their Eq. 2 holds, the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f equation and the selection of appropriate roughness param- eters. They discuss the merits of different

  19. Calculating Very Rough Market Share Using the Canadian Business Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael

    Calculating Very Rough Market Share Using the Canadian Business Database If you cannot find market market share using the company information provided in the Canadian Business Database (CBD), an online - it should be considered a last resort for this information. STEP 1: ACCESS THE CANADIAN BUSINESS DATABASE 1a

  20. The effect of roughness on aerosol deposition in tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chavez, Mario Cesar

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental measurements of simulated roughness within tubes and the subsequent aerosol penetration performance through these tubes were conducted for a aerosol particle size range of 5 nm to 20 nm and a flow rate range of 28 L/min to 169.9 L...

  1. BAYESIAN METHOD FOR SEGMENTATION OF SAR IMAGES IN ROUGH TERRAIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Carl von Ossietzky Universität

    BAYESIAN METHOD FOR SEGMENTATION OF SAR IMAGES IN ROUGH TERRAIN Marco Caparrini1 , Klaus Seidel1 are the basis for radiometric correction. Considering SAR images, the huge amount of processing for geographic and geometric calibration and registration that is needed prior to analysis is well established. Nonetheless

  2. Dropwise condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces with two-tier roughness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chuan-Hua

    Dropwise condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces with two-tier roughness Chuan-Hua Chen,a Qingjun condensation. Superhydrophobicity appears ideal to promote continued dropwise condensation which requires rapid. This letter reports continuous dropwise condensation on a superhydrophobic surface with short carbon nanotubes

  3. Heat transfer between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. N. J. Persson; B. Lorenz; A. I. Volokitin

    2009-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the heat transfer between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces. We include both the heat transfer from the area of real contact, and the heat transfer between the surfaces in the noncontact regions. We apply a recently developed contact mechanics theory, which accounts for the hierarchical nature of the contact between solids with roughness on many different length scales. For elastic contact, at the highest (atomic) resolution the area of real contact typically consists of atomic (nanometer) sized regions, and we discuss the implications of this for the heat transfer. For solids with very smooth surfaces, as is typical in many modern engineering applications, the interfacial separation in the non-contact regions will be very small, and for this case we show the importance of the radiative heat transfer associated with the evanescent electromagnetic waves which exist outside of all bodies.

  4. Separate effects of surface roughness, wettability, and porosity on the boiling critical heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Hanley, Harry

    The separate effects of surface wettability, porosity, and roughness on the critical heat flux (CHF) of water were examined using engineered surfaces. Values explored were 0, 5, 10, and 15??m for Rz (roughness), <5°, ?75°, ...

  5. ROUGH THIN PAVEMENT THICKNESS ESTIMATION BY GPR N. Pinel, L. Liu, C. Bourlier, Y. Wang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ROUGH THIN PAVEMENT THICKNESS ESTIMATION BY GPR N. Pinel, L. Liu, C. Bourlier, Y. Wang IREENA pavements consider flat interfaces for simpli- fication. In this paper, the roughness of the surfaces is taken into account. First, the amplitudes of the first two echoes from the rough thin pavement

  6. Effects of hydraulic roughness on surface textures of gravel-bed rivers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of hydraulic roughness on surface textures of gravel-bed rivers John M. Buffington1 that bed-surface grain size is responsive to hydraulic roughness caused by bank irregularities, bars condition of low hydraulic roughness. For a given 0bf , channels with progressively greater hydraulic

  7. Independent External Peer Review Report Rough River Dam 18 August 2011 ii

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    #12;Independent External Peer Review Report ­ Rough River Dam 18 August 2011 ii This page intentionally blank. #12;Independent External Peer Review Report ­ Rough River Dam 18 August 2011 iii Table Panel Members B-1 Appendix C ­ Charge for IEPR Panel C-1 List of Figures Figure 1. Rough River Dam 4

  8. Graphene thickness dependent adhesion force and its correlation to surface roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pourzand, Hoorad [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Tabib-Azar, Massood, E-mail: azar.m@utah.edu [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Biomedical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, adhesion force of graphene layers on 300?nm silicon oxide is studied. A simple model for measuring adhesion force for a flat surface with sub-nanometer roughness was developed and is shown that small surface roughness decreases adhesion force while large roughness results in an effectively larger adhesion forces. We also show that surface roughness over scales comparable to the tip radius increase by nearly a factor of two, the effective adhesion force measured by the atomic force microscopy. Thus, we demonstrate that surface roughness is an important parameter that should be taken into account in analyzing the adhesion force measurement results.

  9. Semiclassical Theory of Integrable and Rough Andreev Billiards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Ihra; M. Leadbeater; J. L. Vega; K. Richter

    1999-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effect on the density of states in mesoscopic ballistic billiards to which a superconducting lead is attached. The expression for the density of states is derived in the semiclassical S-matrix formalism shedding insight into the origin of the differences between the semiclassical theory and the corresponding result derived from random matrix models. Applications to a square billiard geometry and billiards with boundary roughness are discussed. The saturation of the quasiparticle excitation spectrum is related to the classical dynamics of the billiard. The influence of weak magnetic fields on the proximity effect in rough Andreev billiards is discussed and an analytical formula is derived. The semiclassical theory provides an interpretation for the suppression of the proximity effect in the presence of magnetic fields as a coherence effect of time reversed trajectories, similar to the weak localisation correction of the magneto-resistance in chaotic mesoscopic systems. The semiclassical theory is shown to be in good agreement with quantum mechanical calculations.

  10. Local contact stress measurements at a rough interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Scheibert; A. Prevost; J. Frelat; P. Rey; G. Debrégeas

    2007-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An original MEMS-based force sensing device is designed which allows to measure spatially resolved normal and tangential stress fields at the base of an elastomeric film. This device is used for the study of the contact stress between a rough film and a smooth glass sphere under normal load. The measured profiles are compared to Finite Elements Method calculations for a smooth contact with boundary conditions obeying Amontons-Coulomb's friction law. The accuracy of the measurements allows to discriminate between dry and lubricated contact conditions and to evidence load-dependent deviations from Amontons-Coulomb's profiles. These deviations are qualitatively interpreted by taking into account the finite compliance of the micro-contact population.

  11. Thermodynamics of sustaining gases in the roughness of submerged superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelesh A. Patankar

    2015-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Rough surfaces submerged in a liquid can remain almost dry if the liquid does not fully wet the roughness and gases are sustained in roughness grooves. Such partially dry surfaces can help reduce drag or enhance boiling. Gases sustained in roughness grooves would be composed of air and the vapor phase of the liquid itself. The thermodynamics of sustaining vapor was considered in a prior work [Patankar, Soft Matter, 2010, 6:1613]. Here, the thermodynamics of sustaining gases (e.g. air) is considered. Governing equations are presented along with a solution methodology to determine a critical condition to sustain gases. The critical roughness scale to sustain gases is estimated for different degrees of saturation of gases dissolved in the liquid. It is shown that roughness spacings of less than a micron are essential to sustain gases on surfaces submerged in water at atmospheric pressure. This is consistent with prior empirical data.

  12. Nanoscale Surface and Interface Mechanics of Elastic-Plastic Media with Smooth, Patterned, and Rough Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Xi

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    patterning, rough surface topography, interfacial adhesion,media with fractal surface topographies. J. Tribol. 123,representative of the 3D surface topography. A 2D profile of

  13. Lyapunov instability of rough hard-disk fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobus A. van Meel; Harald A. Posch

    2009-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamical instability of rough hard-disk fluids in two dimensions is characterized through the Lyapunov spectrum and the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, $h_{KS}$, for a wide range of densities and moments of inertia $I$. For small $I$ the spectrum separates into translation-dominated and rotation-dominated parts. With increasing $I$ the rotation-dominated part is gradually filled in at the expense of translation, until such a separation becomes meaningless. At any density, the rate of phase-space mixing, given by $h_{KS}$, becomes less and less effective the more the rotation affects the dynamics. However, the degree of dynamical chaos, measured by the maximum Lyapunov exponent, is only enhanced by the rotational degrees of freedom for high-density gases, but is diminished for lower densities. Surprisingly, no traces of Lyapunov modes were found in the spectrum for larger moments of inertia. The spatial localization of the perturbation vector associated with the maximum exponent however persists for any $I$.

  14. Introduction to the Special Issue on Rough Sets and Soft Computing.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Tsau Young

    of information systems. From the outset, rough set theory has been a methodology of database mining or knowledge, neighborhood systems, neural network, and soft computing. In real world applications, we see papers in Introduction to the Special Issue on Rough Sets and Soft Computing. T. Y. Lin Department

  15. Roughness Tolerance Studies for the Undulator Beam Pipe Chamber of LCLS-II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bane, K

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effect of wall roughness on the wakefield-induced energy variation in the undulator beam pipe of LCLS-II. We find that a wall roughness equivalent to an rms surface slope of 30 mr increases the total induced energy variation within the bunch (due to the resistive wall wake) by a modest 20%.

  16. EFFECT OF CONTACT VISCOSITY AND ROUGHNESS ON INTERFACE STIFFNESS AND WAVE PROPAGATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    EFFECT OF CONTACT VISCOSITY AND ROUGHNESS ON INTERFACE STIFFNESS AND WAVE PROPAGATION Anil Misra1 and asperity properties compete in determining the stiffness behavior, and consequently, the wave propagation widely used to investigate plane wave propagation through contacts between two rough solids [see

  17. Surface roughness and geological mapping at sub-hectometer scale from the High

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cord, Aurélien

    and characterized in terms of roughness. Key words: Geological Processes, Impact Processes, Image Processing, Mars valuable insights into the characterization of and discrimination between these geological processesSurface roughness and geological mapping at sub-hectometer scale from the High Resolution Stereo

  18. A FETCH DEPENDENT MODEL OF SEA SURFACE ROUGHNESS FOR OFFSHORE WIND POWER UTILISATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    , Resources, Roughness, Coastal Sea Areas, Waves, Rødsand 1 INTRODUCTION Large offshore wind farms are beingA FETCH DEPENDENT MODEL OF SEA SURFACE ROUGHNESS FOR OFFSHORE WIND POWER UTILISATION Bernhard Lange wind conditions of offshore sites, since the higher energy yield has to compensate the additional

  19. Dependence of friction on roughness, velocity, and temperature Martin Dub,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Martin

    - faces were discovered long ago by Da Vinci, Amonton, and Coulomb. They found that friction is i, and friction at the macroscopic level is now well understood, for both dry rough 3 and lubricated surfaces 4Dependence of friction on roughness, velocity, and temperature Yi Sang,1 Martin Dubé,2 and Martin

  20. Lyapunov instability of rough hard-disk fluids Jacobus A. van Meel*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Posch, Harald A.

    Lyapunov instability of rough hard-disk fluids Jacobus A. van Meel* FOM Institute for Atomic The dynamical instability of rough hard-disk fluids in two dimensions is characterized through the Lyapunov, measured by the maximum Lyapunov exponent, is only enhanced by the rotational degrees of freedom for high

  1. Near-field heat transfer between a nanoparticle and a rough surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svend-Age Biehs; Jean-Jacques Greffet

    2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we focus on the surface roughness correction to the near-field radiative heat transfer between a nanoparticle and a material with a rough surface utilizing a direct perturbation theory up to second order in the surface profile. We discuss the different distance regimes for the local density of states above the rough material and the heat flux analytically and numerically. We show that the heat transfer rate is larger than that corresponding to a flat surface at short distances. At larger distances it can become smaller due to surface polariton scattering by the rough surface. For distances much smaller than the correlation length of the surface profile, we show that the results converge to a proximity approximation, whereas in the opposite limit the rough surface can be replaced by an equivalent surface layer.

  2. The effect of ice crystal surface roughness on the retrieval of ice cloud microphysical and optical properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Yu

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of the surface roughness of ice crystals is not routinely accounted for in current cloud retrieval algorithms that are based on pre-computed lookup libraries. In this study, we investigate the effect of ice crystal surface roughness...

  3. Reduction of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernitsas, Michael M; Raghavan, Kamaldev

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to decrease/suppress Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Suppression is required when fluid-structure interaction becomes destructive as in VIM of flexible cylinders or rigid cylinders on elastic support, such as underwater pipelines, marine risers, tubes in heat exchangers, nuclear fuel rods, cooling towers, SPAR offshore platforms.

  4. Boundary-Layer Receptivity to Three-Dimensional Roughness Arrays on a Swept-Wing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Lauren Elizabeth

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    is required. This study uses detailed hotwire boundary-layer velocity scans to quantify the relationship between roughness height and initial disturbance amplitude. Naphthalene flow visualization provides insight into how transition changes as a result...

  5. Thermoelectric characteristic of the rough InN/GaN core-shell nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Chao-Wei; Wu, Yuh-Renn, E-mail: yrwu@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis to model the thermoelectric (TE) effects of the rough InN/GaN core-shell nanowires (NWs) with wire diameter ranging from 25?nm to 100?nm is proposed. The elastic continuum model is employed to calculate the phonon dispersion relation curves and the related phonon group velocity. Within the framework of Boltzmann transport equations and relaxation time approximation, the electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, electronic thermal conductivity, and the lattice thermal conductivity is obtained. Simulation results indicate that TE properties of the rough InN/GaN core-shell NWs are strongly affected by the surface roughness and the diameter of NWs. The optimized condition of the proposed rough InN/GaN core-shell TE NWs is studied in this paper and the highest ZT obtained in the calculation is 0.8598 at 300?K and 1.713 at 1000?K.

  6. A construction of the rough path above fractional Brownian motion using Volterra’s representation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nualart, David; Tindel, Samy

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This note is devoted to construct a rough path above a multidimensional fractional Brownian motion B with any Hurst parameter H?(0,?1), by means of its representation as a Volterra Gaussian process. This approach yields ...

  7. Enhancement of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernitsas, Michael M. (Saline, MI); Raghavan, Kamaldev (Houston, TX)

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to increase Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Enhancement is needed in such applications as harnessing of clean and renewable energy from ocean/river currents using the ocean energy converter VIVACE (Vortex Induced Vibration for Aquatic Clean Energy).

  8. Dual frequency microwave radiometer measurements of soil moisture for bare and vegetated rough surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Siu Lim

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DUAL FREQUENCY MICROWAVE RADIOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF SOIL MOISTURE FOR BARE AND VEGETATED ROUGH SURFACES A Thesis by SIU LIM LEE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A(M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1974 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering DUAL FREQUENCY MICROWAVE RADIOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF' SOIL MOISTURE FOR BARE AND VEGETATED ROUGH SURFACES A Thesis by SIU LIM LEE Approved as to style and content by: (C rman...

  9. Stochastic modeling of random roughness in shock scattering problems: theory and simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Guang; Su, Chau-Hsing; Karniadakis, George E.

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Random rougness is omnipresent in engineering applications and may often affect performance in unexpected way. Here, we employ synergistically stochastic simulations and second-order stochastic perturbation analysis to study supersonic flow past a wedge with random rough surface. The roughness (of length $d$) starting at the wedge apex is modeled as stochastic process (with zero mean and correlation length $A$) obtained from a new stochastic differential equation. A multi-element probabilistic collocation method (ME-PCM) based on {\\em sparse grids} is employed to solve the stochastic Euler equations while a WENO scheme is used to discretize the equations in two spatial dimensions. The perturbation analysis is used to verify the stochastic simulations and to provide insight for small values of $A$, where stochastic simulations become prohibitively expensive. % We show that the random roughness enhances the lift and drag forces on the wedge beyond the rough region, and this enhancement is proportional to $(d/A)^2$. The effects become more pronounced as the Mach number increases. These results can be used in designing smart rough skins for airfoils for maxiumum lift enhancement at a minimum drag penalty.

  10. The friction factor of two-dimensional rough-boundary turbulent soap film flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas Guttenberg; Nigel Goldenfeld

    2009-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We use momentum transfer arguments to predict the friction factor $f$ in two-dimensional turbulent soap-film flows with rough boundaries (an analogue of three-dimensional pipe flow) as a function of Reynolds number Re and roughness $r$, considering separately the inverse energy cascade and the forward enstrophy cascade. At intermediate Re, we predict a Blasius-like friction factor scaling of $f\\propto\\textrm{Re}^{-1/2}$ in flows dominated by the enstrophy cascade, distinct from the energy cascade scaling of $\\textrm{Re}^{-1/4}$. For large Re, $f \\sim r$ in the enstrophy-dominated case. We use conformal map techniques to perform direct numerical simulations that are in satisfactory agreement with theory, and exhibit data collapse scaling of roughness-induced criticality, previously shown to arise in the 3D pipe data of Nikuradse.

  11. Multiscale characterization method for line edge roughness based on redundant second generation wavelet transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Fei; Zhao Xuezeng [School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Li Ning [Shanghai Second Polytechnic University, Shanghai 201209 (China)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a multiscale characterization method for line edge roughness (LER) based on redundant second generation wavelet transform. This method involves decomposing LER characteristics into independent bands with different spatial frequency components at different scales, and analyzing the reconstructed signals to work out the roughness exponent, the spatial frequency distribution characteristics, as well as the rms value. The effect of noise can be predicted using detailed signals in the minimum space of scale. This method was applied to numerical profiles for validation. Results show that according to the line edge profiles with similar amplitudes, the roughness exponent R can effectively reflect the degree of irregularity of LER and intuitively provide information on LER spatial frequency distribution.

  12. Validity of the thin mask approximation in extreme ultraviolet mask roughness simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naulleau, Patrick; George, Simi

    2011-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In the case of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, modeling has shown that reflector phase roughness on the lithographic mask is a significant concern due to the image plan speckle it causes and the resulting line-edge roughness on imaged features. Modeling results have recently been used to determine the requirements for future production worthy masks yielding the extremely stringent specification of 50 pm rms roughness. Owing to the scale of the problem in terms of memory requirements, past modeling results have all been based on the thin mask approximation. EUV masks, however, are inherently three dimensional in nature and thus the question arises as to the validity of the thin mask approximation. Here we directly compare image plane speckle calculation results using the fast two dimensional thin mask model to rigorous finite-difference time-domain results and find the two methods to be comparable.

  13. Surface roughness of stainless-steel mirrors for focusing soft x rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; Irick, Steve C.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Salmassi, Farhad; Warwick, Tony; Metz, James P.; Tonnessen, Thomas W

    2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used polished stainless steel as a mirror substrate to provide focusing of soft x rays in grazing-incidence reflection. The critical issue of the quality of the steel surface,polished and coated with gold, is discussed in detail. A comparison is made to a polished,gold-coated, electroless nickel surface, which provides a smoother finish. We used the surface height distributions, measured with an interferometric microscope and complemented by atomic-force microscope measurements, to compute power spectral densities and then to evaluate the surface roughness. The effects of roughness in reducing the specular reflectivity were verified by soft-x-ray measurements.

  14. Development of a Hybrid Powered 2D Biped Walking Machine Designed for Rough Terrain Locomotion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Bryce C.

    2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    has built a three legged 2D biped walking machine to be used as a test stand for studying rough terrain walking. The specific aim of this research is to investigate how biped walkers can best maintain walking stability when acted upon by small...

  15. Numerical method for calculating the apparent eddy current conductivity loss on randomly rough surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagy, Peter B.

    Numerical method for calculating the apparent eddy current conductivity loss on randomly rough Because of their frequency-dependent penetration depth, eddy current measurements are capable of mapping of eddy current conductivity, thereby decreasing the accuracy of the measurements, especially in thermally

  16. A simple numerical model of the apparent loss of eddy current conductivity due to surface roughness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagy, Peter B.

    A simple numerical model of the apparent loss of eddy current conductivity due to surface roughness of eddy current conductivity has been suggested as a possible means to allow the nondestructive evaluation, the path of the eddy current must follow a more tortuous route in the material, which produces a reduction

  17. Geometrical and transport properties of single fractures: influence of the roughness of the fracture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and more particularly in the design and safety of nuclear power plants or cryotechnic rocket engines, where space is found to be crucially function of the failure mechanism (brittle, quasi brittle or plastic influencing the structure of the void space. Studies devoted to the characterization of the surface roughness

  18. Optimization of Hard Material Roughing by means of a Stability , M. Zatarain2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Self-excited vibrations limit the productivity of aluminium and steel roughing. During aluminium they are associated to the structure of the machine tool (low frequency). For aluminium, the dynamic characterisation the usual one applied in light alloys. The proposed model is verified experimentally in a practical case

  19. Hydro-thermal flow in a rough fracture EC Contract SES6-CT-2003-502706

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmittbuhl, Jean

    Hydro-thermal flow in a rough fracture EC Contract SES6-CT-2003-502706 PARTICIPANT ORGANIZATION NAME: CNRS Synthetic 2nd year report Related with Work Package............ HYDRO-THERMAL FLOW in the influence of a realistic geometry of the fracture on its hydro-thermal response. Several studies have

  20. Tsunami generated by a granular collapse down a rough inclined S. Viroulet1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    epl draft Tsunami generated by a granular collapse down a rough inclined plane S. Viroulet1 , A Jersey 08544, USA PACS 47.57.Gc ­ Granular flow, complex fluids PACS 92.10.hl ­ Tsunamis PACS 45.70.Ht wave and the evolution of its amplitude during the propagation. The experiments show that whereas

  1. Measurement of friction noise versus contact area of rough surfaces weakly loaded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    contact area. The friction-induced vibration is generated by the sliding of two rough surfaces. The normal load is low leading to a weak contact. The normal load and the sliding velocity are maintained constant], friction noises can be classified in two types depending on the contact pressure. When the contact pressure

  2. Sensitivity of Swept-Wing, Boundary-Layer Transition to Spanwise-Periodic Discrete Roughness Elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, David Edward

    2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Micron-sized, spanwise-periodic, discrete roughness elements (DREs) were applied to and tested on a 30° swept-wing model in order to study their effects on boundary-layer transition in flight where stationary crossflow waves are the dominant...

  3. Atmospheric Momentum Roughness Applied to Stage-Discharge Relationships in Flood Plains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to Manning's formula. The Task Force on Friction Factors in Open Channel 1963 found that Manning's formula's formula in heavily vegetated or urbanized areas is particularly problematic Task Force on Friction Factors is the relationship among wind speed, friction velocity, and the surface roughness that was developed from Prandtl

  4. Importance of thermal effects and sea surface roughness for offshore wind resource assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    sites. The first large offshore wind farms are currently being built in several countries in EuropeImportance of thermal effects and sea surface roughness for offshore wind resource assessment National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark Abstract The economic feasibility of offshore wind power utilisation

  5. ROUGH SURFACES OF TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOYS FOR IMPLANTS AND PROSTHESES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ROUGH SURFACES OF TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOYS FOR IMPLANTS AND PROSTHESES 1 E. Conforto, 2 B. Abstract Titanium and titanium alloys for dental implants and hip prostheses were surface-treated and and the stability of the implant. The microstructure of titanium and titanium alloys submitted to these treatments

  6. Rough-Fuzzy C-Medoids Algorithm and Selection of Bio-Basis for Amino Acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pal, Sankar Kumar

    of protein data sets. Index Terms--Pattern recognition, data mining, c-medoids algorithm, fuzzy sets, rough Pradipta Maji and Sankar K. Pal, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--In most pattern recognition algorithms, amino acids pattern recognition algorithms to analyze these biological subsequences is that they cannot recognize

  7. Soft data mining, computational theory of perceptions, and rough-fuzzy approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pal, Sankar Kumar

    is described from pattern recognition point of view along with the relevance of soft computing. Key features of the computational theory of perceptions and its significance in pattern recognition and knowledge dis- covery, and its modeling through rough-fuzzy integration are discussed. Merits of fuzzy granular computation

  8. Class-dependent rough-fuzzy granular space, dispersion index and classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pal, Sankar Kumar

    granular computing Soft computing Pattern recognition Remote sensing a b s t r a c t A new rough-fuzzy model for pattern classification based on granular computing is described in the present article. In this model, we propose the formulation of class-dependent granules in fuzzy environment. Fuzzy membership

  9. FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gudmundsson, Jon Steinar

    FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS DETERMINATION DU and Technology, Norway ABSTRACT Pressure drop experiments on natural gas flow at 80 to 120 bar pressure and high of natural gas at typical operating pressures (100-180 bar). At such Reynolds numbers the classical Colebrook

  10. An FDTD Method for Analysis of Scattering from Rough FluidFluid Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, John B.

    results are presented for fluid­fluid cases modeling water­sediment inter­ faces. Two different roughness speeds in shallow­water sediment bottoms are relatively slow, a fluid­ fluid model is a reasonable to the interface, and a correc­ tion for the numerical dispersion inherent to the FDTD algorithm. Numeri­ cal

  11. Equivalent roughness height for plane bed under oscillatory flow Benoi^t Camenen a,*, Magnus Larson b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    of a flat and fixed bed is given in terms of the Nikuradse roughness height (ks). For flat beds larger than for a fixed bed. This is probably caused by the increased energy dissipation in the sheetEquivalent roughness height for plane bed under oscillatory flow Benoi^t Camenen a,*, Magnus Larson

  12. 486 IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, VOL. 17, NO. 7, JULY 2007 Estimation of Roughness-Induced Power Absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Leung

    it to predict the roughness effect on power loss. Index Terms--Power absorption, power spectral density (PSD significant additional power loss that can be detrimental for insertion loss limited designs. We recently interconnect surfaces and use it to estimate corresponding roughness-induced power loss. The 2-D PSD

  13. The effect of ice crystal surface roughness on the retrieval of ice cloud microphysical and optical properties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Yu

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    on the retrieval of ice cloud effective particle size, optical thickness and cloud-top temperature. Three particle surface conditions, smooth, moderately rough and deeply rough, are considered in the visible and near-infrared channels (0.65 and 3.75 Ã...

  14. Electrochemical machining process for forming surface roughness elements on a gas turbine shroud

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Wei, Bin (Mechanicville, NY); Wang, Hsin-Pang (Rexford, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The back side recessed cooling surface of a shroud defining in part the hot gas path of a turbine is electrochemically machined to provide surface roughness elements and spaces therebetween to increase the heat transfer coefficient. To accomplish this, an electrode with insulating dielectric portions and non-insulating portions is disposed in opposition to the cooling surface. By passing an electrolyte between the cooling surface and electrode and applying an electrical current between the electrode and a shroud, roughness elements and spaces therebetween are formed in the cooling surface in opposition to the insulating and non-insulating portions of the electrode, hence increasing the surface area and heat transfer coefficient of the shroud.

  15. Energy production rates in fluid mixtures of inelastic rough hard spheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrés Santos; Gilberto M. Kremer; Vicente Garzó

    2010-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this work is to explore the combined effect of polydispersity and roughness on the partial energy production rates and on the total cooling rate of a granular fluid mixture. We consider a mixture of inelastic rough hard spheres of different number densities, masses, diameters, moments of inertia, and mutual coefficients of normal and tangential restitution. Starting from the first equation of the BBGKY hierarchy, the collisional energy production rates associated with the translational and rotational temperatures ($T_i^\\text{tr}$ and $T_i^\\text{rot}$) are expressed in terms of two-body average values. Next, those average values are estimated by assuming a velocity distribution function based on maximum-entropy arguments, allowing us to express the energy production rates and the total cooling rate in terms of the partial temperatures and the parameters of the mixture. Finally, the results are applied to the homogeneous cooling state of a binary mixture and the influence of inelasticity and roughness on the temperature ratios $T_1^\\text{tr}/T_1^\\text{rot}$, $T_2^\\text{tr}/T_1^\\text{tr}$, and $T_2^\\text{rot}/T_1^\\text{rot}$ is analyzed.

  16. Effect of the porosity on the fracture surface roughness of sintered materials: From anisotropic to isotropic self-affine scaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tristan Cambonie; Jonathan Bares; Lamine Hattali; Daniel Bonamy; Véronique Lazarus; Harold Auradou

    2015-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    To unravel how the microstructure affects the fracture surface roughness in heterogeneous brittle solids like rocks or ceramics, we characterized the roughness statistics of post-mortem fracture surfaces in home-made materials of adjustable microstructure length-scale and porosity, obtained by sintering monodisperse polystyrene beads. Beyond the characteristic size of disorder, the roughness profiles are found to exhibit self-affine scaling features evolving with porosity. Starting from a null value and increasing the porosity, we quantitatively modify the self-affine scaling properties from anisotropic (at low porosity) to isotropic (for porosity larger than 10 %).

  17. Single-layer MoS{sub 2} roughness and sliding friction quenching by interaction with atomically flat substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quereda, J. [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid E-28049 (Spain); Castellanos-Gomez, A. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Agraït, N. [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid E-28049 (Spain); Instituto Madrileño de Estudios Avanzados en Nanociencia, IMDEA-Nanociencia, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Rubio-Bollinger, G., E-mail: gabino.rubio@uam.es [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid E-28049 (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We experimentally study the surface roughness and the lateral friction force in single-layer MoS{sub 2} crystals deposited on different substrates: SiO{sub 2}, mica, and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). Roughness and sliding friction measurements are performed by atomic force microscopy. We find a strong dependence of the MoS{sub 2} roughness on the underlying substrate material, being h-BN the substrate which better preserves the flatness of the MoS{sub 2} crystal. The lateral friction also lowers as the roughness decreases, and attains its lowest value for MoS{sub 2} flakes on h-BN substrates. However, it is still higher than for the surface of a bulk MoS{sub 2} crystal, which we attribute to the deformation of the flake due to competing tip-to-flake and flake-to-substrate interactions.

  18. A New Multi-Gaussian Auto-Correlation Function for the Modeling of Realistic Shot Peened Random Rough Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, W. [Honeywell Aerospace, 111 S. 34th Street, M/S 503-118 Phoenix, AZ 85034 (United States); Blodgett, M. [Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/MLLP), 2230 10th Street, Suite 1, Dayton, OH 45433 (United States)

    2006-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Shot peening is the primary surface treatment used to create a uniform, consistent, and reliable sub-surface compressive residual stress layer in aero engine components. A by-product of the shot peening process is random surface roughness that can affect the measurements of the resulting residual stresses and therefore impede their NDE assessment. High frequency eddy current conductivity measurements have the potential to assess these residual stresses in Ni-base super alloys. However, the effect of random surface roughness is expected to become significant in the desired measurement frequency range of 10 to 100 MHz. In this paper, a new Multi-Gaussian (MG) auto-correlation function is proposed for modeling the resulting pseudo-random rough profiles. Its use in the calculation of the Apparent Eddy Current Conductivity (AECC) loss due to surface roughness is demonstrated. The numerical results presented need to be validated with experimental measurements.

  19. Turbulent Friction in Rough Pipes and the Energy Spectrum of the Phenomenological Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Gioia; Pinaki Chakraborty

    2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The classical experiments on turbulent friction in rough pipes were performed by J. Nikuradse in the 1930's. Seventy years later, they continue to defy theory. Here we model Nikuradse's experiments using the phenomenological theory of Kolmog\\'orov, a theory that is widely thought to be applicable only to highly idealized flows. Our results include both the empirical scalings of Blasius and Strickler, and are otherwise in minute qualitative agreement with the experiments; they suggest that the phenomenological theory may be relevant to other flows of practical interest; and they unveil the existence of close ties between two milestones of experimental and theoretical turbulence.

  20. Investigation of wall friction in noncircular ducts with a rough liner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tyler, John Charles

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    section Density Viscosity Dimensions L5/Q L/Q m/L& m/LQ 1. The friction factors, Reynolds numbers, and. abso- lute roughnesses for fluid flow in ducts having a glass fiber liner have been calculated and plotted in the form of characteristic... distributed, it is essential that the wall friction phenomena associated with the particular duct design be understood. When fluid is passed through a duct, a static pressure drop occurs due to the friction forces which act between the fluid. particles...

  1. Ant Colony Optimization of Rough Set for HV Bushings Fault Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mpanza, J L

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most transformer failures are attributed to bushings failures. Hence it is necessary to monitor the condition of bushings. In this paper three methods are developed to monitor the condition of oil filled bushing. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP), Radial basis function (RBF) and Rough Set (RS) models are developed and combined through majority voting to form a committee. The MLP performs better that the RBF and the RS is terms of classification accuracy. The RBF is the fasted to train. The committee performs better than the individual models. The diversity of models is measured to evaluate their similarity when used in the committee.

  2. Organic photosensitive cells grown on rough electrode with nano-scale morphology control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Fan (Piscataway, NJ); Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An optoelectronic device and a method for fabricating the optoelectronic device includes a first electrode disposed on a substrate, an exposed surface of the first electrode having a root mean square roughness of at least 30 nm and a height variation of at least 200 nm, the first electrode being transparent. A conformal layer of a first organic semiconductor material is deposited onto the first electrode by organic vapor phase deposition, the first organic semiconductor material being a small molecule material. A layer of a second organic semiconductor material is deposited over the conformal layer. At least some of the layer of the second organic semiconductor material directly contacts the conformal layer. A second electrode is deposited over the layer of the second organic semiconductor material. The first organic semiconductor material is of a donor-type or an acceptor-type relative to the second organic semiconductor material, which is of the other material type.

  3. Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ting (Ventura, CA)

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

  4. Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ting

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

  5. Water-waves modes trapped in a canal by a body with the rough surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Cardone; T. Durante; S. A. Nazarov

    2009-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem about a body in a three dimensional infinite channel is considered in the framework of the theory of linear water-waves. The body has a rough surface characterized by a small parameter $\\epsilon>0$ while the distance of the body to the water surface is also of order $\\epsilon$. Under a certain symmetry assumption, the accumulation effect for trapped mode frequencies is established, namely, it is proved that, for any given $d>0$ and integer $N>0$, there exists $\\epsilon(d,N)>0$ such that the problem has at least $N$ eigenvalues in the interval $(0,d)$ of the continuous spectrum in the case $\\epsilon\\in(0,\\epsilon(d,N)) $. The corresponding eigenfunctions decay exponentially at infinity, have finite energy, and imply trapped modes.

  6. Surface Roughness of Stainless Steel Bender Mirrors for FocusingSoft X-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; Irick, Steve C.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Salmassi,Farhad; Warwick, Tony; Metz, James P.; Tonnessen, Thomas W.

    2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used polished stainless steel as a mirror substrate to provide focusing of soft x-rays in grazing incidence reflection. The substrate is bent to an elliptical shape with large curvature and high stresses in the substrate require a strong elastic material. Conventional material choices of silicon or of glass will not withstand the stress required. The use of steel allows the substrates to be polished and installed flat, using screws in tapped holes. The ultra-high-vacuum bender mechanism is motorized and computer controlled. These mirrors are used to deliver focused beams of soft x-rays onto the surface of a sample for experiments at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). They provide an illumination field that can be as small as the mirror demagnification allows, for localized study, and can be enlarged, under computer control,for survey measurements over areas of the surface up to several millimeters. The critical issue of the quality of the steel surface, polished and coated with gold, which limits the minimum achievable focused spot size is discussed in detail. Comparison is made to a polished, gold coated, electroless nickel surface, which provides a smoother finish. Surface measurements are presented as power spectral densities, as a function of spatial frequency. The surface height distributions measured with an interferometric microscope, and complemented by atomic force microscope measurements, are used to compute power spectral densities and then to evaluate the surface roughness. The effects of roughness in reducing the specular reflectivity are verified by soft x-ray measurements.

  7. Roughness of the SiC/SiO{sub 2} vicinal interface and atomic structure of the transition layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Peizhi; Li, Guoliang; Duscher, Gerd, E-mail: gduscher@utk.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Sharma, Yogesh K.; Ahyi, Ayayi C.; Isaacs-Smith, Tamara; Williams, John R.; Dhar, Sarit [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The SiC/SiO{sub 2} interface is generally considered to be the cause for the reduced electron mobility of SiC power devices. Previous studies have shown a correlation between the mobility and the transition layer width at the SiC/SiO{sub 2} interface. The authors investigated this interface with atomic resolution Z-contrast imaging and electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and discovered that this transition region was due to the roughness of the vicinal interface. The roughness of a vicinal interface consisted of atomic steps and facets deviating from the ideal off-axis cut plane. The authors conclude that this roughness is limiting the mobility in the channels of SiC MOSFETs.

  8. Detailed comparative study and a mechanistic model of resuspension of spherical particles from rough and smooth surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shnapp, Ron

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Resuspension of solid particles by a tornado-like vortex from surfaces of different roughness is studied using a three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV) method. By utilizing the three-dimensional information on particle positions, velocities and accelerations before, during and after the resuspension (lift-off) event, we demonstrate that the resuspension efficiency is significantly higher from the rough surface, and propose a mechanistic model of this peculiar effect. The results indicate that for all Reynolds numbers tested, the resuspension rate, as well as particle velocities and accelerations, are higher over the rough surface, as compared to the smooth counterpart. The results and the model can help to improve modeling and analysis of resuspension rates in engineering and environmental applications.

  9. The impact of new short season rice varieties on drying and storage of rough rice in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhagia, Gobind Shewakram

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE IMPACT OF NEW SHORT SEASON RICE VARIETIES ON DRYING AND STORAGE OF ROUGH RICE IN TEXAS A Thesis by GOBIND SHEWAKRAM BHAGIA Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1967 Ma)or Sub/ect: Agricultural Economics THE IMPACT OF NEW SHORT SEASON RICE VARIETIES ON DRYING AND STORAGE OF ROUGH RICE IN TEXAS A Thesis by GOBIND SHEWAKIUiM BHAGIA Approved as to style and oontent by...

  10. Tailoring interlayer coupling and coercivity in Co/Mn/Co trilayers by controlling the interface roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Bin; Wu, Chii-Bin; Kuch, Wolfgang, E-mail: kuch@physik.fu-berlin.de [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Epitaxial Co/Mn/Co trilayers with a wedged Mn layer were grown on Cu(001) and studied by magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements. The bottom Co film as well as the Mn film exhibits a layer-by-layer growth mode, which allows to modify both interface roughnesses on the atomic scale by tuning the thicknesses of the films to achieve a certain filling of their topmost atomic layers. The onset of antiferromagnetic order in the Mn layer at room temperature was found at thicknesses of 4.1 (4.8) and 3.4 (4.0) atomic monolayers (ML) for a filled (half-filled) topmost atomic layer of the bottom Co film in Mn/Co bilayers and Co/Mn/Co trilayers, respectively. Magnetization loops with only one step were found for a trilayer with half-filled topmost atomic layer of the bottom Co film, while loops with two separate steps have been observed in trilayers with an integer number of atomic layers in the bottom Co film. The coercivity of the top Co film shows an oscillation with 1 ML period as a function of the Mn thickness above 10 ML, which is interpreted as the influence of the atomic-scale control of the interface roughness on the interface exchange coupling between the antiferromagnetic Mn and the top ferromagnetic (FM) Co layer. The strength of the magnetic interlayer coupling between the top and bottom Co layers through the Mn layer for an integer number of atomic layers in the bottom Co layer, deduced from minor-loop measurements, exhibits an oscillation with a period of 2 ML Mn thickness, indicative of direct exchange coupling through the antiferromagnetic Mn layer. In addition, a long-period interlayer coupling of the two FM layers with antiparallel coupling maxima at Mn thicknesses of 2.5, 8.2, and 13.7 ML is observed and attributed to indirect exchange coupling of the Rudermann-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida type.

  11. In-flight Receptivity Experiments on a 30-degree Swept-wing using Micron-sized Discrete Roughness Elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Andrew L.

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    and operated at a chord Reynolds number of 6.5 to 7.5 million. Spanwise-periodic, micronsized discrete roughness elements were applied at the leading edge of the swept-wing in order to excite the most unstable crossflow wavelength and promote early boundary...

  12. Impact of surface roughness of Au core in Au/Pd coreeshell nanoparticles toward formic acid oxidation e Experiment and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Fuqiang

    Impact of surface roughness of Au core in Au/Pd coreeshell nanoparticles toward formic acid h t s Unique Au/Pd coreeshell nanoparticles were synthesized via a galvanic replacement of Cu by Pd on hollow Au. Au/Pd coreeshell nanoparticles with smooth Au surface by adding Na2SO3 demonstrated highly

  13. The Effect of Inner Surface Roughness on Friction Factor in Horizontal Micro-A. J. Ghajar1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    The Effect of Inner Surface Roughness on Friction Factor in Horizontal Micro- tubes A. J. Ghajar1 1 blood vessels, a sound understanding of fluid flow in micro- scale channels and tubes is required of the transition region. II. LITERATURE REVIEW To fully understand the flow phenomenon inside of micro-tubes

  14. Modeling, system identication, and control for dynamic locomotion of the LittleDog robot on rough terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levashov, Michael Yurievich

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I present a framework for achieving a stable bounding gait on the LittleDog robot over rough terrain. The framework relies on an accurate planar model of the dynamics, which I assembled from a model of the ...

  15. Polycrystal modelling of fatigue: pre-hardening and surface roughness effects on damage initiation for 304L stainless steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of residual heat removal circuits of pressurized water reactors (PWR).The main purpose of this study surface (pre- hardening gradient, residual stresses and scratches), at the scale of the microstructure properties (roughness, residual stress and pre-hardening) and to the microstructure of the material

  16. 1216 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 57, NO. 5, MAY 2009 Wave Propagation in a Randomly Rough

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Leung

    and the power loss. The derived result is expressed in terms of a double Sommerfeld integral. The double propagation and power loss are illustrated as a function of roughness characteristics and waveguide thickness thickness, the waveguide model shows signif- icantly different power loss as compared to the plane

  17. Linear Algebra Research Project Rough Draft Nick Davis Camera Transformations in OpenGL ES 2.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marzuola, Jeremy

    Linear Algebra Research Project Rough Draft Nick Davis Camera Transformations in OpenGL ES 2.0 Since the advent of the analog computer the power of visual display has played an integral part graphical output, including components designed solely for calculating graphics (Graphics Processing Units

  18. Bipedal Robotic Walking on Flat-Ground, Up-Slope and Rough Terrain with Human-Inspired Hybrid Zero Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nadubettu Yadukumar, Shishir 1986-

    2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The thesis shows how to achieve bipedal robotic walking on flat-ground, up-slope and rough terrain by using Human-Inspired control. We begin by considering human walking data and find outputs (or virtual constraints) that, when calculated from...

  19. Lattice Boltzmann simulations in microfluidics: probing the no-slip boundary condition in hydrophobic, rough, and surface nanobubble laden microchannels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jens Harting; Christian Kunert; Jari Hyväluoma

    2009-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In this contribution we review recent efforts on investigations of the effect of (apparent) boundary slip by utilizing lattice Boltzmann simulations. We demonstrate the applicability of the method to treat fundamental questions in microfluidics by investigating fluid flow in hydrophobic and rough microchannels as well as over surfaces covered by nano- or microscale gas bubbles.

  20. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 28, NO. 5, PAGES 811-814, MARCH 1, 2001 Parameterizing Tidal Dissipation over Rough

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayne, Steven

    of barotropic tidal energy. The first line of evidence comes from observations of mix- ing in the abyssal Brazil ocean, the energy flux carried by internal waves generated over rough topog- raphy dominates the energy issues. The first is whether including a parameterization for internal wave energy-flux in a model

  1. IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) Cost Estimate Summary (Leveraged NDC Case).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, James M.; Prescott, Ryan; Dawson, Jericah M.; Huelskamp, Robert M.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a ROM cost estimate for budgetary planning for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 effort, based on leveraging a fully funded, Sandia executed NDC Modernization project. This report provides the ROM cost estimate and describes the methodology, assumptions, and cost model details used to create the ROM cost estimate. ROM Cost Estimate Disclaimer Contained herein is a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate that has been provided to enable initial planning for this proposed project. This ROM cost estimate is submitted to facilitate informal discussions in relation to this project and is NOT intended to commit Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) or its resources. Furthermore, as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), Sandia must be compliant with the Anti-Deficiency Act and operate on a full-cost recovery basis. Therefore, while Sandia, in conjunction with the Sponsor, will use best judgment to execute work and to address the highest risks and most important issues in order to effectively manage within cost constraints, this ROM estimate and any subsequent approved cost estimates are on a 'full-cost recovery' basis. Thus, work can neither commence nor continue unless adequate funding has been accepted and certified by DOE.

  2. Systematic analysis of Persson's contact mechanics theory of randomly rough elastic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf B. Dapp; Nikolay Prodanov; Martin H. Müser

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We systematically check explicit and implicit assumptions of Persson's contact mechanics theory. It casts the evolution of the pressure distribution ${\\rm Pr}(p)$ with increasing resolution of surface roughness as a diffusive process, in which resolution plays the role of time. The tested key assumptions of the theory are: (a) the diffusion coefficient is independent of pressure $p$, (b) the diffusion process is drift-free at any value of $p$, (c) the point $p=0$ acts as an absorbing barrier, i.e., once a point falls out of contact, it never reenters again, (d) the Fourier component of the elastic energy is only populated if the appropriate wave vector is resolved, and (e) it no longer changes when even smaller wavelengths are resolved. Using high-resolution numerical simulations, we quantify deviations from these approximations and find quite significant discrepancies in some cases. For example, the drift becomes substantial for small values of $p$, which typically represent points in real space close to a contact line. On the other hand, there is a significant flux of points reentering contact. These and other identified deviations cancel each other to a large degree, resulting in an overall excellent description for contact area, contact geometry, and gap distribution functions. Similar fortuitous error cancellations cannot be guaranteed under different circumstances, for instance when investigating rubber friction. The results of the simulations may provide guidelines for a systematic improvement of the theory.

  3. Colloid deposition on non-ideal porous media: The influences of collector shape and roughness on the single-collector efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saiers, James

    Colloid deposition on non-ideal porous media: The influences of collector shape and roughness on the single-collector efficiency James E. Saiers School of Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven changes in mineral-grain shape and surface roughness influence the single-collector contact efficiency (h

  4. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 40, NO. 7, JULY 2002 1605 Surface Roughness Characterizations of Sea Ice and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    , surface roughness data from airborne laser altimeter transects correlate well with MISR-derived estimates of surface roughness. In Antarctica, ablation-related blue-ice areas, which are difficult to distinguish from bare ice exposed by crevasses, are easily detected using multiangular data. These unusual ablation

  5. Atomic intermixing and interface roughness in short-period InAs/GaSb superlattices for infrared photodetectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashuach, Y.; Lakin, E.; Kaufmann, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Saguy, C. [Solid State Institute, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Zolotoyabko, E., E-mail: zloto@tx.technion.ac.il [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Solid State Institute, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A set of advanced characterization methods, including high-resolution X-ray diffraction (measurements and simulations), cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy, and high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy is applied to quantify the interface roughness and atomic intermixing (in both cation and anion sub-lattices) in short period (6–7?nm) InAs/GaSb superlattices intended for mid-wavelength (M) and long-wavelength (L) infrared detectors. The undesired atomic intermixing and interface roughness in the L-samples were found to be considerably lower than in the M-samples. In all specimens, anion intermixing is much higher than that in the cation sub-lattice. Possible origins of these findings are discussed.

  6. An experimental investigation of silicon wafer surface roughness and its effect on the full strength of plated metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spiers, G.D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plated silicon wafers with surface roughness ranging from 0.4 to 130 microinches were subjected to tensile pull strength tests. Electroless Ni/electroless Cu/electroplated Cu and electroless Ni/electroplated Cu were the two types of plate contacts tested. It was found that smoother surfaces had higher pull strength than rougher, chemically etched surfaces. The presence of the electroless Cu layer was found to be important to adhesion. The mode of fracture of the contact as it left the silicon was studied, and it was found that in almost all cases separation was due to fracture of the bulk silicon phase. The correlation between surface roughness and mode of contact failure is presented and interpreted.

  7. Development of the Robotic Touch foot Sensor for 2D walking Robot, for Studying Rough Terrain Locomotion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hunwoo

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of the Robotic Touch foot Sensor for 2D walking Robot, for Studying Rough Terrain Locomotion By HUNWOO LEE Submitted to the graduate degree program in Mechanical Engineering and the Graduate Faculty of the University of Kansas... ________________________________ Professor Robert Umholtz Date Defended: June 5, 2012 ii The Thesis Committee for HUNWOO LEE certifies that this is the approved version of the following thesis: Development of the Robotic Touch Foot Sensor for 2D Walking Robot...

  8. Separate effects of surface roughness, wettability and porosity on boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux and optimization of boiling surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Hanley, Harrison Fagan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The separate effects of surface wettability, porosity, and roughness on critical heat flux (CHF) and heat transfer coefficient (HTC) were examined using carefully-engineered surfaces. All test surfaces were prepared on ...

  9. Leukemia Prediction from Gene Expression Data---A Rough Set Approach Jianwen Fang, Jerzy W. Grzymala-Busse, Information and Telecommunication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kansas, University of

    . Grzymala-Busse, Information and Telecommunication Technology Center, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS Data---A Rough Set Approach Jianwen Fang1,2 and Jerzy W. Grzymala-Busse1,3 1Bioinformatics Core

  10. The role of an interface on Ni film removal and surface roughness after irradiation by femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Ryan D. [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Torralva, Ben [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Yalisove, Steven M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We have observed thin film removal from glass substrates after the irradiation of Ni films with femtosecond laser pulses in air. It was found that the material removal threshold and laser-induced morphology are dependent on film thickness. With decreasing thickness, material removal transitions from intra-film separation to removal at the Ni-glass interface. The Gaussian energy distribution of the laser pulse allows for intra-film separation in the annular region of the crater and interface separation in the center. We propose a model to explain these data as well as the observed increased surface roughness in the interfacial removal regions.

  11. Positional cloning and characterization of the Rotten Ear (Rte) gene in Zea mays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tabi, Ma Zara Emilia Marañon

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with EcoRI and SalI, with Cold Fusion technology (System+2x35S cut with XhoI using Cold Fusion technology (SystemXhoI and XbaI cut sites using Cold Fusion technology (System

  12. Roughness analysis applied to niobium thin films grown on MgO(001) surfaces for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. B. Beringer, W. M. Roach, C. Clavero, C. E. Reece, R. A. Lukaszew

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes surface studies to address roughness issues inherent to thin film coatings deposited onto superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. This is particularly relevant for multilayered thin film coatings that are being considered as a possible scheme to overcome technical issues and to surpass the fundamental limit of ?50??MV/m accelerating gradient achievable with bulk niobium. In 2006, a model by Gurevich [ Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 012511 (2006)] was proposed to overcome this limit that involves coating superconducting layers separated by insulating ones onto the inner walls of the cavities. Thus, we have undertaken a systematic effort to understand the dynamic evolution of the Nb surface under specific deposition thin film conditions onto an insulating surface in order to explore the feasibility of the proposed model. We examine and compare the morphology from two distinct Nb/MgO series, each with its own epitaxial registry, at very low growth rates and closely examine the dynamical scaling of the surface features during growth. Further, we apply analysis techniques such as power spectral density to the specific problem of thin film growth and roughness evolution to qualify the set of deposition conditions that lead to successful SRF coatings.

  13. Association of coal metamorphism and hydrothermal mineralization in Rough Creek fault zone and Fluorspar District, Western Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Fiene, F.L.; Trinkle, E.J.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ambient coal rank (metamorphism) of the Carboniferous coals in the Western Kentucky coalfield ranges from high volatile A bituminous (vitrinite maximum reflectance up to 0.75% R/sub max/) in the Webster syncline (Webster and southern Union Counties) to high volatile C bituminous (0.45 to 0.60% R/sub max/) over most of the remainder of the area. Anomalous patterns of metamorphism, however, have been noted in coals recovered from cores and mines in fault blocks of the Rough Creek fault zone and Fluorspar District. Coals in Gil-30 borehole (Rough Creek faults, Bordley Quadrangle, Union County) vary with no regard for vertical position, from high volatile C(0.55% R/sub max/) to high volatile A (0.89%R/sub max) bituminous. Examination of the upper Sturgis Formation (Missourian/Virgilian) coals revealed that the higher rank (generally above 0.75% R/sub max/) coals had vein mineral assemblages of sphalerite, twinned calcite, and ferroan dolomite. Lower rank coals had only untwinned calcite. Several sites in Webster County contain various coals (Well (No. 8) to Coiltwon (No. 14)) with vitrinite reflectances up to 0.83% R/sub max/ and associated sphalerite mineralization. Mississippian and Lower Pennsylvanian (Caseyville Formation Gentry coal) coals in the mineralized Fluorspar District have ranks to nearly medium volatile bituminous (1.03% R/sub max/). The regional rank trend exhibited by the fualt zones is generally higher rank than the surrounding areas. Sphalerite mineralization in itself is not unique within Illinois basin coals, but if it was partly responsible for the metamorphism of these coals, then the fluid temperature must have been higher within the above mentioned fault complexes.

  14. The determination of the Reynolds shear stress distribution in the transition region resulting from a sudden increase in wall roughness in a two-dimensional channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heilhecker, Joe Keith

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE DETERMINATION OF THE REYNOLDS SHEAR STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN THE TRANSITION REGION RESULTING FROM A SUDDEN INCREASE IN WALL ROUGHNESS IN A TWO-DIMENSIONAL CHANNEL A Thesis By JOE K. HEI LHE CKER Submitted to the Graduate School... REGION RESULTING FROM A SUDDEN INCREASE IN WALL ROUGHNESS IN A TWO-DIMEN4$ONAL CHANNEL A Thesis By JOE K. HEI LHE CKER Approved as to style and content by: (Chairm o C mittee) (Head of Department) May 1962 TAB LE OF CONTE NT S Page List...

  15. Effect of discharge current and deposition temperature on roughness and density of NbC films fabricated by ion beam sputtering technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhawan, Rajnish, E-mail: rajnish@rrcat.gov.in; Rai, Sanjay, E-mail: rajnish@rrcat.gov.in; Lodha, G. S., E-mail: rajnish@rrcat.gov.in [X-ray optics Section, Indus Synchrotron Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    NbC films were prepared using Ion beam sputtering system at various discharges current from 0.4 amps to 1.2 amps at room temperature. Effect of temperature on NbC films were also studied by depositing NbC films at various temperatures from room temperature to 200,300,400 and 600°C. X-ray reflectivity (XRR) study shows that surface roughness of the film decreases with decrease in discharge current. The optimum lowest roughness 3.2Å having density 92% of bulk was achieved at discharge current 0.6 amps at 3.0 cm{sup 3}/min Ar gas flow. X-ray study also shows that film roughness decreases with increase in temperature of the film and after a certain temperature it increases with increase in temperature. The lowest surface roughness 2.1Å was achieved at 300°C with density 83% of bulk NbC at constant discharge current 0.6 amps.

  16. COMPARISON OF SEA SURFACE ROUGHNESS MODELS FOR OFFSHORE WIND POWER UTILISATION Bernhard Lange(1), Jrgen Hjstrup(2), Sren Larsen(2), Rebecca Barthelmie(2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    Large offshore wind farms are being built in several countries in Europe. The economic viabilityCOMPARISON OF SEA SURFACE ROUGHNESS MODELS FOR OFFSHORE WIND POWER UTILISATION Bernhard Lange(1 of such projects depends on the favourable wind conditions of offshore sites, since the higher energy yield has

  17. D etailed m odeling ofreactive flow s th rough geologicm edia is necessary to understand a num ber of environm entalproblem s of national

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Richard

    fluids and geologic seq uestration of CO2 in deep reservoirs. Such problem s generally req uire sim s to th e surface , for e xam ple , th rough abandone d w e lls and fracture s in cap rock s. Accurate

  18. Local changes of work function near rough features on Cu surfaces operated under high external electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djurabekova, Flyura, E-mail: flyura.djurabekova@helsinki.fi; Ruzibaev, Avaz; Parviainen, Stefan [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Holmström, Eero [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences, UCL Earth Sciences, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hakala, Mikko [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal surfaces operated under high electric fields produce sparks even if they are held in ultra high vacuum. In spite of extensive research on the topic of vacuum arcs, the mystery of vacuum arc origin still remains unresolved. The indications that the sparking rates depend on the material motivate the research on surface response to extremely high external electric fields. In this work by means of density-functional theory calculations we analyze the redistribution of electron density on (100) Cu surfaces due to self-adatoms and in presence of high electric fields from ?1?V/nm up to ?2?V/nm (?1 to ?2 GV/m, respectively). We also calculate the partial charge induced by the external field on a single adatom and a cluster of two adatoms in order to obtain reliable information on charge redistribution on surface atoms, which can serve as a benchmarking quantity for the assessment of the electric field effects on metal surfaces by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, we investigate the modifications of work function around rough surface features, such as step edges and self-adatoms.

  19. Validated heat-transfer and pressure-drop prediction methods based on the discrete-element method: Phase 2, two-dimensional rib roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, C.A.; Hodge, B.K.; Taylor, R.P. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface roughness is a commonly used approach for enhancing the rate of heat transfer of surfaces, such as in heat-exchanger tubes. Because the improved thermal performance of roughened surfaces is at the expense of increased flow resistance (increased pressure drop or friction factor), accurate prediction techniques for determining the friction factors and Nusselt numbers for roughened surfaces are required if such features are to be considered as design options. This report presents the results of the second phase of a research program sponsored by Argonne National Laboratory to validate models for the prediction of friction factors and Nusselt numbers for fully developed turbulent flow in enhanced heat-exchanger tubes. The first phase was concerned with validating a roughness model for turbulent flow in tubes internally roughened with three-dimensional distributed roughness elements, such as sandgrains, spheres, hemispheres, and cones. The second phase is concerned with devising and validating methods for the prediction of friction factors and Nusselt numbers for turbulent flow in tubes internally roughened with repeated, two-dimensional ribs aligned perpendicular to the flow. The ribs are spaced sufficiently far apart that the leeward-side separated flow reattaches to the wall before again separating in order to negotiate the next rib. This heat-transfer enhancement mechanism is called the separation and reattachment mechanism, after Rabas (1989). This work is limited to rectangular rib shapes.

  20. Comprehensive magnetotransport characterization of two dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures leading to the assessment of interface roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, Manna Kumari [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi-110054 (India); Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Dwarka, New Delhi-110078 (India); Sharma, Rajesh K., E-mail: rksharma@sspl.drdo.in; Manchanda, Rachna; Bag, Rajesh K.; Muralidharan, Rangarajan [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi-110054 (India); Thakur, Om Prakash [Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Dwarka, New Delhi-110078 (India)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetotransport in two distinct AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) on Fe-doped templates is investigated using Shubnikov de-Haas Oscillations in the temperature range of 1.8–6 K and multicarrier fitting in the temperature range of 1.8–300 K. The temperature dependence of the two dimensional electron gas mobility is extracted from simultaneous multicarrier fitting of transverse and longitudinal resistivity as a function of magnetic field and the data is utilized to estimate contribution of interface roughness to the mobility and the corresponding transport lifetime. The quantum scattering time obtained from the analysis of Shubnikov de Haas Oscillations in transverse magnetoresistance along with the transport lifetime time were used to estimate interface roughness amplitude and lateral correlation length. The results indicate that the insertion of AlN over layer deposited prior to the growth of GaN base layer on Fe doped GaN templates for forming HEMT structures reduced the parallel conduction but resulted in an increase in interface roughness.

  1. IMPACT OF DIELECTRIC PARAMETERS ON THE REFLECTIVITY OF 3C-SiC WAFERS WITH A ROUGH SURFACE MORPHOLOGY IN THE RESTSTRAHLEN REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.A.A. Engelbrecht; E. Janzén; A. Henry; I.J. van Rooyen

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A layer-on-substrate model is used to obtain the infrared reflectance for 3C-SiC with a rough surface morphology. The effect of varying dielectric parameters of the “damaged layer” on the observed reflectivity of the 3C-SiC in the reststrahlen region is assessed. Different simulated reflectance spectra are obtained to those if the dielectric parameters of the “substrate” were varied. Most notable changes in the shape of the simulated reststrahlen peak are observed for changes in the high frequency dielectric constant, the phonon damping constant, the phonon frequencies and “thickness” of damaged surface layer.

  2. The determination of the turbulent intensities in a transitional flow from a smooth to a rough wall with zero pressure gradient in a two-dimensional channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Islam, Obaidul

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE DETERMINATION OF THE TURBULENT INTENSITIES IN A TRANSITIONAL FLOW FROM A SMOOTH TO A ROUGH WALL WITH ZERO PRESSURE GRADIENT IN A TWO-DIMENSIONAL CHANNEL A Thesis By Ol3AIDU I. ISLAM Submitted to the Graduate School of. tire Agricultural... WALL WITH ZERO PRESSURE GRADIENT IN A TWO DIMENSIONAL. GHANNEL A Thesis By OBAIDUL ISLAM Approved as to style and content by: F / F Ghairma p'f mm tg Head of Department May 1963 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Grateful acknowledgment is made to the Texas...

  3. Impact of surface roughness on the electrical parameters of industrial high efficiency NaOH-NaOCl textured multicrystalline silicon solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, P.K. [Department of Physics, Echelon Institute of Technology, Faridabad 121002, Haryana (India); Pujahari, R.M. [Department of Physics, Echelon Institute of Technology, Faridabad 121002, Haryana (India); Department of Physics, Manav Rachna International University, Faridabad 121001, Haryana (India); Kaur, Harpreet [Department of Physics, Manav Rachna International University, Faridabad 121001, Haryana (India); Department of Physics, Advanced Institute of Technology and Management, Palwal 121105, Haryana (India); Singh, Devi [Department of Physics, Manav Rachna International University, Faridabad 121001, Haryana (India); Varandani, D.; Mehta, B.R. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution (1:1 ratio by volume) based texturization process at 80-82 C is an easy, low cost and comparatively new and convenient option for fabrication of any multicrystalline silicon (mC-Si) solar cell. In the present study atomic force microscope is used to observe the intragrain surface in a miniscule area (3 {mu}m x 3 {mu}m) of NaOH-NaOCl textured surface by two and three dimensional analysis, roughness analysis and section analysis. The r.m.s value of the surface parameter of 7.0 nm ascertains the smoothness of the textured surface and further the surface reflectivity is minimized to 4-6% in the 500-1000 nm wavelength range by a proper silicon nitride anti-reflection coating. Comparing with the standard HF-HNO{sub 3}-CH{sub 3}COOH acid textured cell, the NaOH-NaOCl textured cell shows a comparatively lower value of series resistance of 7.17 m{omega}, higher value of shunt resistance of 18.4 {omega} to yield a fill factor of 0.766 leading to more than 15% cell efficiency in the industrial cell processing line. This AFM study yields different surface roughness parameters for the NaOH-NaOCl textured wafers which can be used as a reference standard for optimized texturing. (author)

  4. Surface figure and roughness tolerances for NIF optics and the interpretation of the gradient, P-V wavefront and RMS specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aikens, D M; English, R E; House, W; Lawson, J K; Nichols, M A; Whistler, W T

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a high energy laser system such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the ability to focus light into as small a spot as possible at the highest possible fluence is highly dependent on the quality of the optics used in the system. Typically, surface form errors and transmitted and reflected wavefront errors are specified in terms of a peak-to-valley wavefront error (P-V), or occasionally in terms of an RMS wavefront error (RMS) 1 . It has been shown, however, that the parameter that most closely correlates with beam focusability is neither of these, but the RMS of the gradients of the wavefront error (RMS Gradient). Further, the spatial frequency of the wavefront error plays a significant role in the way that a given error effects the performance of the laser system, so careful attention must be paid to how the spatial filtering is both specified and accomplished. Since ISO 10110 has no specific provisions for a gradient specification, LLNL has developed its own notation and procedures for these critical specifications. In evaluating surface figure errors as specified by the NIF drawings, modern phase modulating interferometers (PMI) will be used. In addition to performing QA testing of the optics, LLNL intends to utilize the software capabilities of the instruments to obtain the information to model the wavefront of the 131 passes through various optical elements comprising the NIF front end. Tests will be performed and documented after coating and as installed in the specified mechanical mounts. This paper describes the evaluation of the wavefront error for NIF small optics including specifications over a given spatial period callout, the proper low pass filtering of the data and the allowable filtering and settings that can be applied to obtain proper wavefront data. This paper also describes the origin and evolution of other NIF wavefront and roughness specifications, and gives examples. Since the wavefront requirements and hence the specifications vary for the different systems in the NIF, we will focus on one system, the injection laser system (ILS) or ''front end''. Also discussed will be the metrology and data manipulation requirements for the large aperture optics. Finally, clarification will be given to the differences between various versions of the RMS wavefront and roughness specifications allowed in ISO 10110, and how they contrast to the RMS roughness specifications used in ANSI-Y14.5.

  5. Geometric frequency shift for electric dipole searches with trapped spin-1/2 particles in general fields and measurement cells of arbitrary shape with smooth or rough walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steyerl, A; Müller, G; Golub, R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The important role of geometric phases in searches for a permanent electric dipole moment of the neutron, using Ramsey separated oscillatory field nuclear magnetic resonance, was first investigated by Pendlebury $\\textit{et al.}$ [Phys. Rev. A $\\mathbf{70}$, 032102 (2004)]. Their analysis was based on the Bloch equations. In subsequent work using the spin density matrix Lamoreaux and Golub [Phys. Rev. A $\\mathbf{71}$, 032104 (2005)] showed the usual relation between the frequency shifts and the correlation functions of the fields seen by trapped particles in general fields (Redfield theory). More recently we presented a solution of the Schr\\"odinger equation for spin-$1/2$ particles in circular cylindrical traps with smooth walls and exposed to arbitrary fields [Steyerl $\\textit{et al.}$, Phys.Rev. A $\\mathbf{89}$, 052129 (2014)]. Here we extend this work to show how the Redfield theory follows directly from the Schr\\"odinger equation solution and include wall roughness, cylindrical trap geometry with arbitra...

  6. A study of the turbulent intensities and correlation coefficients in the incompressible flow of air in transition from a smooth to a rough wall in a two-dimensional channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carper, Herbert Jackson

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A STUDY OF THE TURBULENT INTENSITIES AND CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS IN THE INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW OF AIR IN TRANSITION FROM A SMOOTH TO A ROUGH WALL IN A TWO-DIMENSIONAL CHANNEL A Thesis By HERBERT JACKSON CARPER JR. Submitted to the Graduate... COEFFICIENTS IN THE INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW OF AIR IN TRANSITION FROM A SMOOTH TO A ROUGH WALL IN A TWO-DIMENSIONAL CHANNEL A Thesis By HERBERT JACKSON CARPER JR. Approved as to style and content by: (Chairm of o e) (Head of Department) August 1962 853958...

  7. 27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Frankfurt, Germany, 24-28 September 2012, 2AO.1.5 IMPACT OF THE REAR SURFACE ROUGHNESS ON INDUSTRIAL-TYPE PERC SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -generation industrial solar cells as stated in the International Technology Roadmap [3]. An industrial PERC process flow27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Frankfurt, Germany, 24-28 September 2012, 2AO.1.5 IMPACT OF THE REAR SURFACE ROUGHNESS ON INDUSTRIAL-TYPE PERC SOLAR CELLS C.Kranz1 , S. Wyczanowski1 , S

  8. Roughly 15,000 patents a month are issued by the US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO).1 By law, these are supposed to cover only "novel" and "nonobvious" inventions, but an average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    1347 Roughly 15,000 patents a month are issued by the US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO).1 By law­20 hours of patent examiner time,2 and a substantial proportion of the few patents later fully evaluated the issuance of many ques- tionable patents. Responding to such concerns, the Supreme Court recently made

  9. Geometric frequency shift for electric dipole searches with trapped spin-1/2 particles in general fields and measurement cells of arbitrary shape with smooth or rough walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Steyerl; C. Kaufman; G. Müller; R. Golub

    2015-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The important role of geometric phases in searches for a permanent electric dipole moment of the neutron, using Ramsey separated oscillatory field nuclear magnetic resonance, was first investigated by Pendlebury $\\textit{et al.}$ [Phys. Rev. A $\\mathbf{70}$, 032102 (2004)]. Their analysis was based on the Bloch equations. In subsequent work using the spin density matrix Lamoreaux and Golub [Phys. Rev. A $\\mathbf{71}$, 032104 (2005)] showed the usual relation between the frequency shifts and the correlation functions of the fields seen by trapped particles in general fields (Redfield theory). More recently we presented a solution of the Schr\\"odinger equation for spin-$1/2$ particles in circular cylindrical traps with smooth walls and exposed to arbitrary fields [Steyerl $\\textit{et al.}$, Phys.Rev. A $\\mathbf{89}$, 052129 (2014)]. Here we extend this work to show how the Redfield theory follows directly from the Schr\\"odinger equation solution and include wall roughness, cylindrical trap geometry with arbitrary cross section, and field perturbations that do not, in the frame of the moving particles, average to zero in time and which, therefore, do not satisfy the prerequisites of the statistical approach based on the spin-density matrix. We show by direct, detailed, calculation the agreement of the results from the Schr\\"odinger equation with the Redfield theory for the cases of a rectangular cell with specular walls and of a circular cell with diffuse reflecting walls.

  10. A Unifying Framework to Quantify the Effects of Substrate Interactions, Stiffness, and Roughness on the Dynamics of Thin Supported Polymer Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Z. Hanakata; Beatriz A. Pazmiño Betancourt; Jack F. Douglas; Francis W. Starr

    2015-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Changes in the dynamics of supported polymer films in comparison to bulk materials involve a complex convolution of effects, such as substrate interactions, roughness and compliance, in addition to film thickness. We consider molecular dynamics simulations of substrate-supported, coarse-grained polymer films where these parameters are tuned separately to determine how each of these variables influence the molecular dynamics of thin polymer films. We find that all these variables significantly influence the film dynamics, leading to a seemingly intractable degree of complexity in describing these changes. However, by considering how these constraining variables influence string-like collective motion within the film, we show that all our observations can be understood in a unified and quantitative way. More specifically, the string model for glass-forming liquids implies that the changes in the structural relaxation of these films are governed by the changes in the average length of string-like cooperative motions and this model is confirmed under all conditions considered in our simulations. Ultimately, these changes are parameterized in terms of just the activation enthalpy and entropy for molecular organization, which have predictable dependences on substrate properties and film thickness, offering a promising approach for the rational design of film properties.

  11. Temperature-dependent tensile strength, surface roughness diagnostics, and magnetic support and positioning of polymer ICF shells. Final report, October 1, 1993--April 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honig, A.

    1995-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    During the course of this grant, we perfected emissivity and accommodation coefficient measurements on polymer ICF shells in the temperature range 250 to 350 K. Values for polystyrene shells are generally between 10{sup -2} and 10{sup -3}, which are very advantageous for ICF at cryogenic temperatures. Preliminary results on Br doped target shells indicate an accommodation coefficient, presumably associated with surface roughness on an atomic scale, about an order of magnitude larger than for ordinary polystyrene target shells. We also constructed apparatus with optical access for low temperature tensile strength and emissivity measurements, and made preliminary tests on this system. Magnetic shells were obtained both from GDP coating and from doping styrene with 10 manometer size ferromagnetic particles. The magnetic properties were measured through electron spin resonance (ESR). These experiments confirm the applicability of the Curie law, and establish the validity of using ESR measurements to determine shell temperature in the low temperature regime from 4K to 250K, thus complementing our presently accessible range. The high electron spin densities (> 10{sup 20}/CM{sup 3}) suggest magnetic levitation should be feasible at cryogenic temperatures. This work has resulted in two conference presentations, a Technical Report, a paper to be published in Fusion Technology, and a Master`s Thesis.

  12. Rough Paths Theory Fabrice Baudoin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Let p > 2. If xn : [0,1] ? Rd is a sequence of bounded variation paths ... The fundamental theorem of Lyons is the following: ... Brownian motion (B(t))t?0.

  13. Fundamental Mechanisms of Interface Roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall L. Headrick

    2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Publication quality results were obtained for several experiments and materials systems including: (i) Patterning and smoothening of sapphire surfaces by energetic Ar+ ions. Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS) experiments were performed in the system at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) X21 beamline. Ar+ ions in the energy range from 300 eV to 1000 eV were used to produce ripples on the surfaces of single-crystal sapphire. It was found that the ripple wavelength varies strongly with the angle of incidence of the ions, which increase significantly as the angle from normal is varied from 55° to 35°. A smooth region was found for ion incidence less than 35° away from normal incidence. In this region a strong smoothening mechanism with strength proportional to the second derivative of the height of the surface was found to be responsible for the effect. The discovery of this phase transition between stable and unstable regimes as the angle of incidence is varied has also stimulated new work by other groups in the field. (ii) Growth of Ge quantum dots on Si(100) and (111). We discovered the formation of quantum wires on 4° misoriented Si(111) using real-time GISAXS during the deposition of Ge. The results represent the first time-resolved GISAXS study of Ge quantum dot formation. (iii) Sputter deposition of amorphous thin films and multilayers composed of WSi2 and Si. Our in-situ GISAXS experiments reveal fundamental roughening and smoothing phenomena on surfaces during film deposition. The main results of this work is that the WSi2 layers actually become smoother during deposition due to the smoothening effect of energetic particles in the sputter deposition process.

  14. Pavement roughness on expansive clays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velasco, Manuel O

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    0 I/I Ql 0 Z 0 V- IU 0 Soil samples were taken adjacent to the roadway segments using a manual auger, in general at depths of 1, 2, and 3 feet. A total of 60 samples were brought to the laboratory, where the following tests have been...

  15. Bayesian Networks 1. I can identify rotten meat (r) because it smells bad (s) and because it looks darker than usual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larrosa, Javier

    (l|h). #12;5. Suppose that I wake up in the morning and go for a shower. I realize that there is no hot water (¬w). There are two natural causes for it: the heater is faulty (¬h) or there is an electric power: · The heater is faulty · There is a power fault · The heater is faulty, given that there is no electric power

  16. A Rough Road Leads To The Stars

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    launch. Additional support equipment necessary to open the flight unit after recovery including a special saw, a radiation shield, and other necessary tools and radiation...

  17. X-ray reflectivity and surface roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ocko, B.M.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the advent of high brightness synchrotron radiation sources there has been a phenomenal growth in the use of x-rays as a probe of surface structure. The technique of x-ray reflectivity is particularly relevant to electrochemists since it is capable of probing the structure normal to an electrode surface in situ. In this paper the theoretical framework for x-ray reflectivity is reviewed and the results from previous non-electrochemistry measurements are summarized. These measurements are from the liquid/air interface (CCl/sub 4/), the metal crystal vacuum interface (Au(100)), and from the liquid/solid interface(liquid crystal/silicon). 34 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Diffusion in a rough potential revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Saikat; Seki, Kazuhiko; Bagchi, Biman

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rugged energy landscapes find wide applications in diverse fields ranging from astrophysics to protein folding. We study the dependence of diffusion coefficient $(D)$ of a Brownian particle on the distribution width $(\\varepsilon)$ of randomness in a Gaussian random landscape by simulations and theoretical analysis. We first show that the elegant expression of Zwanzig [PNAS, 85, 2029 (1988)] for $D(\\varepsilon)$ can be reproduced exactly by using the Rosenfeld diffusion-entropy scaling relation. Our simulations show that Zwanzig's expression overestimates $D$ in an uncorrelated Gaussian random lattice - differing by almost an order of magnitude at moderately high ruggedness. The disparity originates from the presence of "three-site traps" (TST) on the landscape -- which are formed by the presence of deep minima flanked by high barriers on either side. Using mean first passage time formalism, we derive a general expression for the effective diffusion coefficient in the presence of TST, that quantitatively repr...

  19. Effect of Roughness Geometry on Wetting and Dewetting of Rough PDMS Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Susan

    was studied as model for print surfaces used in additive manufacturing and printed electronics. A smooth PDMS on decline for over a decade,9 printing has evolved and has become a manufacturing technology for flexible are keys to a successful implementation of ink printing in manufacturing. Arias et al.4 showed that balance

  20. Minimalistic Control of a Compass Gait Robot in Rough Terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iida, Fumiya

    Although there has been an increasing interest in dynamic bipedal locomotion for significant improvement of energy efficiency and dexterity of mobile robots in the real world, their locomotion capabilities are still mostly ...

  1. Procedure for estimating fracture energy from fracture surface roughness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williford, Ralph E. (Kennewick, WA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fracture energy of a material is determined by first measuring the length of a profile of a section through a fractured surface of the material taken on a plane perpendicular to the mean plane of that surface, then determining the fractal dimensionality of the surface. From this, the yield strength of the material, and the Young's Modulus of that material, the fracture energy is calculated.

  2. On the rough folding landscape of green fluorescent protein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrews, Benjamin Thomas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    H. (2008). Understanding protein folding: small proteins inG. (1997). Theory of protein folding: the energy landscapeenergy landscape of protein folding: a synthesis. Proteins

  3. Analysis of the Scattering by an Unbounded Rough Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    [27] for solving the two- and three-dimensional bounded obstacle .... It is clear that the dual space associated with Hs(?t) is the space H-s(?t). ...... n (?,0) + K-.

  4. Elastic–Plastic Spherical Contact Modeling Including Roughness Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, L.; Etsion, I.; Talke, F. E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multilevel model for elastic–plastic contact between ajunction growth of an elastic–plastic spherical contact. J.nite element based elastic–plastic model for the contact of

  5. Roughness variability estimation of microscopic surfaces during engineering wear process-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    consists of a femoral stem with a femoral head placed on the upper part of the stem, made of stainless, UMR CNRS 5037 Ecole Nationale Sup´erieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne 158 cours Fauriel, 42023, Saint strongly the bone structure, [2], such as changing the osteoclast, and osteoblast activity which might lead

  6. Pressure Drop of Fully Developed, Laminar Flow in Rough Microtubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    Mem. ASME e-mail: majid@mhtlab.uwaterloo.ca M. M. Yovanovich Distinguished Professor Emeritus Fellow ASME J. R. Culham1 Associate Professor Mem. ASME Microelectronics Heat Transfer Laboratory, Department be supplied to their numerical code. These parameters cannot be measured directly; no relationship

  7. Analysis of the scattering by an unbounded rough surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Jun 7, 2012 ... Specifically, we consider the scattering of a time-harmonic wave field, ... of analytical solution in the form of an infinite series but also to an ...

  8. Design of a chain flail mower for leveling rough terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores, Aaron (Aaron N.)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The flail mower is a piece of agricultural equipment that uses bladed attachments rotating around a drum to cut down bushes and grassy terrain. One major drawback to the flail mower is the rapid wear that happens almost ...

  9. Modeling rough energy landscapes in defected condensed matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monasterio Velásquez, Paul Rene

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation is a computational and theoretical investigation of the behavior of defected condensed matter and its evolution over long time scales. The thesis provides original contributions to the methodology used ...

  10. Statistics of ultrasonic speckles reflected from a rough surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Qinghua

    interface between water and aluminium alloy. The numerical results are compared with the experimental ones

  11. What rough beast? Synthetic Biology and the Future of Biosecurity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohr, Scott C.

    Synthetic biology seeks to create modular biological parts that can be assembled into useful devices, allowing the modification of biological systems with greater reliability, at lower cost, with greater speed, and by a ...

  12. Classical Control Using H 1 Methods Rough Draft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helton, J. William

    : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 17 3 Frequency domain performance requirements 19 3.1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 19 3.1.1 The closed loop system S : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 19 3.1.2 Frequency domain performance : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 32 3.4.4 Disturbance rejection : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 33 3.4.5 More on tracking error

  13. File:Wind rough example.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 NoEuropeStrat.pdf JumpNotificationWhiskey flats 100k.pdfrough

  14. Impact of Ice Crystal Roughness on Satellite Retrieved Cloud Properties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School footballHydrogenIT |HotImpact of Generator Flexibility

  15. Rough Rock, Arizona: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt Ltd Jump to:Roscommon County, Michigan:Rotokawa Geothermal Power Plant Jump

  16. Rough and Ready Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt Ltd Jump to:Roscommon County, Michigan:Rotokawa Geothermal Power Plant

  17. Hydrogen Sulfide in Drinking Water: Causes and Treatment Alternatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFarland, Mark L.; Provin, Tony

    1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    If drinking water has a nuisance "rotten egg odor, it contains hydrogen sulfide. This leaflet discusses how hydrogen sulfide is formed and how the problem can be corrected....

  18. Momentum roughness and view-angle dependent heat roughness at a Southern Great Plains test-site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    14853, USA Received 9 January 1998; received in revised form 9 July 1998; accepted 9 July 1998 Abstract Department of Energy's Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site in north-central Oklahoma. Measurements of wind speed and temperature were made by radiosondes and instruments mounted on 2 and 10 m towers during

  19. www.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications and Marketing, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    like water softeners and water heaters. Occasionally the "rotten egg" odor associated with hydrogen heaters, sulfates can be chemically changed to hydrogen sulfide in some hot water heaters due gas that gives water a distinctive sulfur or "rotten egg" smell and taste, which may be especially

  20. Urbanism of disassembly : strategies for Alang's shipbreaking industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barve, Aditya S. (Aditya Shankar)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste is an integral part of our contemporary civilization based on consumption and material culture. From an empty soda can to the spent nuclear fuel rod, we define waste as the matter without immediate use: rotten, broken, ...

  1. TEAM UP WITH TOBY! Return dishes and eating utensils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krstic, Miroslav

    , Kitchenware · Unopened, Non-Perishable Food · Electronic Waste · Glass and Plastic Bottles · Paper, Midterms, Cardboard · Newspapers, Magazine · Metal, Aluminum Cans · Plastic Wrapping · Rotten Food PLEASE DISPOSE

  2. ForPeerReview Wheat canopy structure and surface roughness effects on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    is in particular suitable due to i) its high sensitivity to the47 dielectric properties of the soil-water medium, which can be directly related to the water content,48 ii) the reduced interference with the atmosphere-band Journal: Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing Manuscript ID: Draft Manuscript Type: Soil Moisture

  3. Comprehensive Evaluation Model of Building Energy Efficiency Based on Rough Sets Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, L.; Ruan, X.; Huang, J.; Li, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of building the paper precedes energy evaluation. There is method of ambiguity synthesis evaluation chiefly, but ambiguity optimization model gets weight normalization indicator by adopting commonly expert evaluation or empirical evidence method, so... and Comfort, Vol. VI-3-1 The evaluation of building energy efficiency evaluation subentry index and establishment of reference grade table The value of building energy efficiency subentry index evaluation should be graded by authoritative experts...

  4. Friction factor for turbulent flow in rough pipes from Heisenberg's closure hypothesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esteban Calzetta

    2009-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the main results of the analysis of the friction factor for turbulent pipe flow reported in G. Gioia and P. Chakraborty (GC), Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 044502 (1996) can be recovered by assuming the Heisenberg closure hypothesis for the turbulent spectrum. This highlights the structural features of the turbulent spectrum underlying GC's analysis.

  5. Effect of Roughness as Determined by Atomic Force Microscopy on the Wetting Properties of PTFE Thin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drelich, Jaroslaw W.

    Engineering College of Mines and Earth Sciences University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 and G. YAMAUCHI decreases the spreading of a non-wetting liquid on low energy solids (1­4). Similar work with high energy ratio (r a/A (da/dA) 1), a is the apparent contact angle, a is the actual area of surface

  6. Surface Roughness and Effective Stick-Slip Motion I. V. Ponomarev and A. E. Meyerovich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyerovich, Alex

    by effective stick-slip boundary conditions on a Ã?at surface with two constants: the stick-slip length is in nanometer range. This slip length, though very small, is, nevertheless, extremely important for hydrodynamic Ã?ows in nano- and micro-channels, lubrication, etc. Modern experimental techniques, including

  7. Asperity-scale surface mechanics - Implications to adhesive contacts and microscale deformation behavior of rough surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Huaming

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microtribology for Microelectromechanical Systems,” Wear,forces in microelectromechanical systems: mechanisms,Analysis Microelectromechanical Systems,” ASME J. Tribol. ,

  8. Nanoscale Surface and Interface Mechanics of Elastic-Plastic Media with Smooth, Patterned, and Rough Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Xi

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fractal analysis microelectromechanical systems. J. Tribol.adhesion in microelectromechanical systems. Journal ofof sidewall adhesion in microelectromechanical systems. J.

  9. Contact Mechanics Modeling of Homogeneous and Layered Elastic-Plastic Media: Surface Roughness and Adhesion Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Zhichao

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    adhesion in microelectromechanical systems. ASME J. Tribol.microtribology for microelectromechanical systems. Wear 200,forces in microelectromechanical systems: mechanisms,

  10. A study of acoustic wave scattering from randomly rough surfaces using numerical techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Douglas Norman

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    'ttenii'icj sel" fnce. II. Rece'iven enneJ in ol. erties. III. nels tiensbip bei. "nnn tbe n n, s" i- fields and tl', scattening senfece. V1 LI5! Ol I IBJI&55 Figure parce Ii)''ta I a'r)d cohilr':)n'L ini"Oils I;i -s fol I. i) k, 'lz as v i(w(Pi'I 'I I...!IL'cl'ls'Ity avcragr!I 0'/er th: (I I ci! r)entr'al I"i;cr. lv(. r I'0!'I ~ aiiil coll'!III'is ur))'a!(a I I'e(', I/ency i I a c. : t vil 0 d 0 I ) . 25 0e(JIPP. of cohcri)ncP. for 1. 5 kHZ as viewed Fl om rear 0 F arra!j' (faces model). 28 5. 0coree of cohcrerce...

  11. Rough Design of a Double-Stator Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    developed MCTs [2]. However, because of tides low speed and to avoid blades cavitation, the turbine Current Turbine Sofiane Djebarri1 , Jean Frédéric Charpentier1 , Franck Scuiller1 , Mohamed Benbouzid2 (DSAFPM) for a rim-driven Marine Current Turbine (MCT). The DSAFPM machine will be compared

  12. RESEARCH ARTICLE The effect of canopy roughness density on the constitutive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katul, Gabriel

    and highly variable canopy morphology on particle dispersion, heat, mass, and momentum transfer, whether canopy morphology on turbulence remains a fundamental chal- lenge yet to be confronted. Planar averaging over some minimal area can be applied to average-out this sort of spatial variability in the time

  13. Roughly 6-17% of college females have an eating disorder.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    , diabetes, high blood pressure and cholesterol, irritable bowel syndrome and other nutrition-related issues

  14. Asperity-scale surface mechanics - Implications to adhesive contacts and microscale deformation behavior of rough surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Huaming

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Media With Fractal Surface Topographies,” ASME J. Tribol. ,of the new sample surface topography. To account for theprocess, the sample surface topography is modified at

  15. Numerical Simulation of Equilibrium Liquid Configurations On and Between Rough Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartlow, Christopher Clayton

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with fractal surface topographies", Journal of Tribology-used to report surface topography, usually statisticalis determined by surface topography, optimization of PTLP

  16. Numerical Simulation of Equilibrium Liquid Configurations On and Between Rough Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartlow, Christopher Clayton

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thesis, Materials Science and Engineering, U.C. Berkeley, (Thesis, Materials Science and Engineering, U.C. Berkeley, (Ph.D. Research", Materials Science and Engineering, U.C.

  17. Global Distribution of Ice Cloud Particle Shape and Roughness from PARASOL Satellite Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Benjamin

    2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy balance of the Earth is regulated in part by ice clouds, which both reflect shortwave solar radiation and absorb infrared radiation from the Earth. These clouds appear frequently worldwide, with up to 70% coverage in tropical regions...

  18. Improved global bathymetry, global sea floor roughness, and deep ocean mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Joseph Jeffrey

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dissipation of tidal energy in the deep ocean inferred fromdissipation of tidal energy in the deep ocean inferred fromthe amount of energy conversion in an ocean of finite depth

  19. Improved Global Bathymetry, Global Sea Floor Roughness, and Deep Ocean Mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Joseph J

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dissipation of tidal energy in the deep ocean inferred fromdissipation of tidal energy in the deep ocean inferred fromthe amount of energy conversion in an ocean of finite depth

  20. Improved global bathymetry, global sea floor roughness, and deep ocean mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Joseph Jeffrey

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Azores and the Canary Islands suggests that [Egbert andsouth of the Azores and the Canary Islands are strong point

  1. Improved Global Bathymetry, Global Sea Floor Roughness, and Deep Ocean Mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Joseph J

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Azores and the Canary Islands suggests that [Egbert andsouth of the Azores and the Canary Islands are strong point

  2. Asperity-scale surface mechanics - Implications to adhesive contacts and microscale deformation behavior of rough surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Huaming

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the applied pressure promote sliding in the boundarycontact pressure, and relative sliding speed. Therefore, asliding contact between non-planar surfaces. Thus, a different equation of the adhesive pressure

  3. Non-convex clustering using expectation maximization algorithm with rough set initialization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitra, Pabitra

    criterion function or likelihood of some probabilistic model (e.g., k-means (Jain et al., 1999), mixture schemes like k-means and ex- pectation-maximization (EM) are fast and easily scalable to large databases. Comparison with related methods is made in terms of a cluster quality measure and computation time. Ó 2002

  4. Surface Energy, Elasticity and the Homogenization of Rough P.Mohammadi1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Liping

    distribution and subsequently different physical, mechanical and chemical properties. These differences temperature, electromagnetic properties among 1 Corresponding author: psharma@uh.edu 1 #12;others al., 2001; Hurley et al., 2001; Villain et al., 2002; Sun and Zhang, 2003; Workum and Pablo, 2003

  5. Analysis, design, and control of an omnidirectional mobile robot in rough terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Udengaard, Martin Richard

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An omnidirectional mobile robot is able, kinematically, to move in any direction regardless of current pose. To date, nearly all designs and analyses of omnidirectional mobile robots have considered the case of motion on ...

  6. Global Distribution of Ice Cloud Particle Shape and Roughness from PARASOL Satellite Measurements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Benjamin

    2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy balance of the Earth is regulated in part by ice clouds, which both reflect shortwave solar radiation and absorb infrared radiation from the Earth. These clouds appear frequently worldwide, with up to 70% coverage in tropical regions...

  7. How surface roughness affects the angular dependence of the sputtering yield , A. Hassanein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Center for Materials under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West fractal ITMC code a b s t r a c t Comprehensive model is developed to study the impact of surface

  8. angle deposited nano-rough: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Science Websites Summary: the deposition angle, deposition rate, ro- tation speed, and material specific parameters such as surface deposition T. Karabacak,a) G.-C....

  9. Kinetics modeling and 3-dimensional simulation of surface roughness during plasma etching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Wei, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The control of feature profiles in directional plasma etching processes is crucial as critical dimension, line-edge roughening, and other artifacts affect device performance and process yields. A profile simulator is ...

  10. A Contact-Mechanics-Based Model for General Rough Pads in Chemical Mechanical Polishing Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Wei

    and System, Microelectronics Department, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, People's Republic of China b and after CMP.1 Figure 1 illustrates metal dishing and oxide erosion in a copper CMP. These two phenomena have a significant impact on circuit performance and yield loss. Thus, it is important to develop

  11. Using Contextually Closed Queries for Local Closed-World Reasoning in Rough Knowledge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doherty, Patrick

    that arise unexpectedly and demand immediate #12;220 P. Doherty, J. Kachniarz, A. Szalas response with little room for deliberation as to what the best response should be. Deliberative capabilities are useful CCQs is co-NPTIME com- plete, but we isolate a number of important practical cases where polynomial

  12. Author's personal copy Application of rough set and decision tree for characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munakata, Toshinori

    of premonitory factors of low seismic activity Iftikhar U. Sikder *, Toshinori Munakata 1 Department of Computer asymmetric distribution of seismic events and sampling limitations make it difficult to apply the conventional statistical predictive techniques. The paper shows that inductive machine learning techniques

  13. Pilot study of horizontal roughing filtration in northern Ghana as pretreatment for highly turbid dugout water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Losleben, Tamar

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Northern Region Ghana (NRG), highly turbid rainwater runoff and intermittent streams are collected in earthen dams called dugouts. These dams serve as many communities' main source of drinking and domestic water despite ...

  14. Annals of Glaciology 52(59) 2011 99 Modeling surface-roughness/solar-ablation feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbot, Dorian Schuyler

    of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 to small-scale surface channels and crevasses of the Greenland ice sheet L. Maclagan CATHLES,1 Dorian S. ABBOT,1 Jeremy N. BASSIS,2 Douglas R. MacAYEAL1 1 Department of Geophysical Sciences, University

  15. Numerical Simulation of Equilibrium Liquid Configurations On and Between Rough Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartlow, Christopher Clayton

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    32) O. Akselsen, "Diffusion Bonding of Ceramics", Journal ofcondition on diffusion bonding", Materials Transactions,interfacial contact during diffusion bonding", Metallurgical

  16. Lateral diffusion of receptor-ligand bonds in membrane adhesion zones: Effect of thermal membrane roughness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Krobath; G. J. Schuetz; R. Lipowsky; T. R. Weikl

    2007-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The adhesion of cells is mediated by membrane receptors that bind to complementary ligands in apposing cell membranes. It is generally assumed that the lateral diffusion of mobile receptor-ligand bonds in membrane-membrane adhesion zones is slower than the diffusion of unbound receptors and ligands. We find that this slowing down is not only caused by the larger size of the bound receptor-ligand complexes, but also by thermal fluctuations of the membrane shape. We model two adhering membranes as elastic sheets pinned together by receptor-ligand bonds and study the diffusion of the bonds using Monte Carlo simulations. In our model, the fluctuations reduce the bond diffusion constant in planar membranes by a factor close to 2 in the biologically relevant regime of small bond concentrations.

  17. The roughness of stylolites: Implications of 3D high resolution topography measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    diagenesis and metamorphism that develop after their initiation. In this Letter we show the first 3D high

  18. Parallelized Distributed Embedded Control System for 2D Walking Robot for Studying Rough Terrain Locomotion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strunk, Gavin

    2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    C Bus…………………………………….31 3.3 Jaywalker GUI…………………………………………………………...38 4. JAYWALKER TESTING……………………………………………………….41 4.1 Motor Ramping…………………………………………………………..41 4.2 Range of Motion…………………………………………………………42 4.3 Data Acquisition…………………………………………………………42... cylinders…………………………………………………………..53 Figure B.4.1: Propeller wiring diagram with EEPROM and connectors corresponding to the Sensor Controller connectors………………………….54 Figure B.4.2: Regulator power source provided +3.3 VDC and +5 VDC for the Foot...

  19. Rough Solutions of the Einstein Constraints on Closed Manifolds without Near-CMC Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holst, Michael; Nagy, Gabriel; Tsogtgerel, Gantumur

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    global) sub- and super-solution constructions for closed manifolds; analogous constructions for compactof compact manifolds with boundary. Lemma 7 (Global super-

  20. Near-Field Imaging of Infinite Rough Surfaces in Dielectric Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao, G. and Li, P.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    May 15, 2014 ... of modern science and technology, including surface chemistry, biology, materials science, and ... Research Plan of NSFC (91130004), and a special research grant from Zhejiang University. ‡ .... for energy absorption.

  1. Surface Roughness of Stainless Steel Bender Mirrors for Focusing Soft X-rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a polished, gold coated, electroless nickel surface, whichthe past, 15 with an electroless nickel surface for smoothwas coated with electroless nickel after the steel failed to

  2. Surface geosciences (Hydrologyhydrogeology) Fracture roughness and thermal exchange: A case study at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmittbuhl, Jean

    -affine. Une application au cas d'e´tude du re´servoir de ge´othermie profonde a` Soultz-sous-Fore^ts, France

  3. The influence of interface roughness on electrical transport in nanoscale metallic multilayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holtz, Mark

    high- temperature synthesis,2,3 and in metallization for microelectronics.4,5 Materials with dimensions areas. These include corrosion and oxidation resistant coatings,1 preparation of materials by self-propagating- fusion can take place during deposition, under ambient con- ditions, and when high-temperature annealing

  4. A physical model of particulate wash-off from rough impervious surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    ; accepted 23 January 2006 Summary Current urban water quality models rely on empirical, catchment of particulate available. Current urban stormwater models such as SWMM and HSPF are still based on this original urban storm runoff pollution. There are few published explanations of physical wash- off mechanisms

  5. EVALUATION OF EMPIRICAL RELATIONS FOR THE SEA SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF FETCH-LIMITED WIND WAVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    with an improved description of the wave field. The aim is to find a power law between non-dimensional scaling either the Charnock parameter z0g/u* 2 (with friction velocity u* and gravitational acceleration g

  6. Origin, evolution, and control of sidewall line edge roughness transfer during plasma etching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasgon, Stacy A., 1974-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) micromasking. Porous films seem especially prone, perhaps due to polymer diffusion into the pore structure. Control of polymerization during the etch through the use of lower-polymerizing fluorocarbons or the ...

  7. When D is reduced, the surface-to-volume ratio grows roughly as 1/D. Consequently,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    the solid state to the gas phase, an energy, W, of at least 36 kJ/mol (heat of melting plus heat-induced de- coupling of energy and density changes. This may explain many observations in confined). 19. J. Israelachvili, Intermolecular & Surface Forces (Ac- ademic Press, London, ed. 2, 1991). 20

  8. Frequency-dependent viscous flow in channels with fractal rough surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cortis, A.; Berryman, J.G.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The viscous dynamic permeability of some fractal-like channels is studied. For our particular class of geometries, the ratio of the pore surface area-to-volume tends to {infinity} (but has a finite cutoff), and the universal scaling of the dynamic permeability, k({omega}), needs modification. We performed accurate numerical computations of k({omega}) for channels characterized by deterministic fractal wall surfaces, for a broad range of fractal dimensions. The pertinent scaling model for k({omega}) introduces explicitly the fractal dimension of the wall surface for a range of frequencies across the transition between viscous and inertia dominated regimes. The new model provides excellent agreement with our numerical simulations.

  9. Modeling drag reduction and meniscus stability of superhydrophobic surfaces comprised of random roughness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tafreshi, Hooman Vahedi

    Modeling drag reduction and meniscus stability of superhydrophobic surfaces comprised of random reduction and stability of the air-water interface on superhydrophobic surfaces were conducted in aligned or staggered configurations. In this paper, we model the performance of superhydrophobic surfaces

  10. Sept 2001 Rough Draft OFFM Policy Letter 02-1.doc | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary of Energy Advisory10MEASUREMENTSensors, Controls, andSept

  11. Roles of ionic strength and biofilm roughness on adhesion kinetics of Escherichia coli onto groundwater biofilm grown on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boppart, Stephen

    groundwater biofilm grown on PVC surfaces Dao Janjaroen a , Fangqiong Ling a , Guillermo Monroy b , Nicolas Pathogens a b s t r a c t Mechanisms of Escherichia coli attachment on biofilms grown on PVC coupons were. coli on clean PVC surfaces and biofilms grown on PVC surfaces for different ages. Two mechanisms of E

  12. Wavy and rough cracks in silicon Robert D. Deegan, Shilpa Chheda, Lisa Patel, M. Marder, and Harry L. Swinney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin. University of

    and microfluidic devices from silicon is a case in point: the drive to miniaturization is on a collision course

  13. Experimental investigation of effects of surface roughness, wettability and boiling-time on steady state and transient CHF for nanofluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Vivek Inder

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Critical Heat Flux (CHF) is one of the primary design constraints in a nuclear reactor. Increasing the CHF of water can enhance the safety margins of the current fleet of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) and/or increase their ...

  14. Studies into the Effects of Surface Roughness on Spatial Eddy-Current Data from Nickel-Based Engine Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, M.J.; Nakagawa, N.; Wendt, S.E. [Center for NDE, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3042 (United States); Hentscher, S.R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3042 (United States); Nelson, D.L.; Buhr, K.T.; Kilbugh, B.A. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3042 (United States); Raithel, D.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3042 (United States)

    2005-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Eddy-current scans have been carried out on two Inconel-718 specimens following the application of various levels of shot peening and heat treatments. The conventional analysis of roughened or shot peened surfaces looks at multi-frequency impedance measurements and interprets the data as a change in conductivity or liftoff. An approach involving the statistical analysis of scanned eddy-current impedance data is suggested as an alternative that may provide a more sensitive way of determining the treatment history of a component. It is possible that an analysis of these statistical distributions in spatial eddy-current data could be used to determine the level of remaining residual stress in engine components.

  15. Thermal annealing in hydrogen for 3-D profile transformation on silicon-on-insulator and sidewall roughness reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, MCM; Wu, Ming C

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    How- JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO.JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 2,JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 2,

  16. 46 (2009-6) Effect of Surface Roughness on Emittance Spectra of Metal-coated Silicon Microcavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasagi, Nobuhide

    to the electromagnetic resonance mode. When InGaAsSb PV cell is assumed, theoretical conversion efficiency becomes 31-372 infrared heat lamp sample & sample holder vacuum chamber IR spectrometer silver-coated mirror sapphire window lock-in amplifiervacuum pumping system data logger radiation oval mirror RP TMP radiation

  17. Calibration of floodplain roughness and estimation of flood discharge based on tree-ring evidence and hydraulic modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffel, Markus

    and Environmental Engineering, Universidad de Los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia d Laboratory of Dendrogeomorphology the Navaluenga flow gauge (Avila Province) as well as a 1D/2D coupled numerical hydraulic model. A total of 49 hydraulic modelling, we cannot find a statistically sig- nificant difference between water depths registered

  18. "Orobiomes" Mountain Biomes "Orobiomes" in relation to sea level biomes. Very roughly, the sea level biomes become

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richerson, Peter J.

    terracing. The scattered white spots are the metal roofs of farm families' houses. Notice the cloud hanging just above the farms. #12;Cloud Forest. Because the temperature changes little throughout the year and humidity is generally high, the bottom of the cloud deck stays at about the same elevation all the time

  19. Relationships between deformation and microstructure evolution and minimizing surface roughness after BCP processing in RRR Nb cavitites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.R. Bieler; D. Baars; K.T. Hartwig; C. Compton; T.L. Grimm

    2009-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Two strategies for improving the surface finish of niobium sheet used in superconducting radio frequency cavities were examined, using slices of single (or large-grain) material from an ingot, and equal channel angle extrusion (ECAE) preprocessing of ingot material to achieve a uniform and small grain size prior to subsequent rolling. The effect of these two processing paths on final microstructure, texture, and surface finish are discussed.

  20. West Campus Precinct West Campus is roughly defined by University Avenue to the west, West Avenue to the east,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tsuhan

    HALL OLIN HALL SAGE HALL SAGEAVENUE PHILLIPS HALL ANABEL TAYLOR HALL DELTA KAPPA EPSILON HUGHES HALL LYON HALL MENNEN HALL BAKER HALL NORTH BAKER HALL SOUTH FOUNDERS HALL BOLDT HALL BAKER TOWER HALL URIS LIBRARY WILLARD STRAIGHT HALL UNIVERSITYAVENUE LINCOLN HALL FORE RISLEY HALL BAKER LAB

  1. Interval Set Clustering of Web Users using Modified Kohonen Self-Organizing Maps based on the Properties of Rough Sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Interval Set Clustering of Web Users using Modified Kohonen Self-Organizing Maps based, 121 35 Prague 2, Czech Republic Abstract Web usage mining involves application of data mining techniques to discover usage patterns from the web data. Clustering is one of the important functions in web

  2. rise in elevation is the rough equivalent of a 150-mile journey away from the equator--so

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Steven K.

    variety of life-forms that survive amid thin soils, low oxygen, stagger- ing winds, powerful ultraviolet--so ecosystems in the mountains get stacked verti- cally. And the land area decreases as you climb, so new, Bolivia, seems specially evolved, too.A Belgian raised in Africa, the United States, and Argentina, he

  3. Importance of thermal effects and sea surface roughness for wind resource and wind shear at offshore sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    at offshore sites Bernhard Lange*, Søren Larsen# , Jørgen Højstrup# , Rebecca Barthelmie# *ForWind - Centre of offshore wind power utilisation depends on the favourable wind conditions offshore as compared to sites for this flow. It's applicability for wind power prediction at offshore sites is investigated using data from

  4. Global well-posedness for the radial defocusing cubic wave equation on $\\mathbb{R}^{3}$ and for rough data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tristan Roy

    2008-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We prove global well-posedness for the radial defocusing wave equation and for data in $H^{s} \\times H^{s-1}$, $1>s>{7/10}$.

  5. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Impact of surface roughness and soil texture on mineral dust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    properties. The LISA dataset was developed for Northern Africa, Middle East and East Asia. This regional dataset over Northern Africa and Middle East. We explore the sensitivity of the drag partition scheme (a

  6. Derivative Securities Fall 2012 Section 8 Notes by Robert V. Kohn, extended and improved by Steve Allen.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    this standard seems somewhat flawed, since (a) during the 2007-2008 financial crisis LIBOR rates were far above of these issues, see the article "The rotten heart of finance" in the July 7, 2012 issue of The Economist magazine at NYU's Kimmel Center: "The recent financial crisis has had a strong impact on fixed income markets

  7. Still Flying Fusion Edition 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    here is a handy reference guide: ? Je shr shuh muh lan dong shi: What kind of rotten thing is this? ? Ta ma duh: Motherhumper ? Gou zao de: This can't get any worse. ? Pigu: Butt. ? Go-se: Dog crap. ? Hwin dahn: Jerk. ? Wun guo pi: Smelled a...

  8. 22 OPTIMA JUNE 2005 OPTIMA JUNE 2005 23

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    it closes entirely. One woman we meet in front of her mud hut has 15 orphaned grandchildren. Her small farm plot, a little more than an acre in all, would be too small to feed her family even if the rains had of the drought, she will get almost nothing. She reaches into her apron and pulls out a handful of semi- rotten

  9. University of Calgary -Schulich School of Engineering Project 3 -Week Lookahead

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    & Rough In 13 Siemens Rough-In & Wire Pull Corridor lvl 3 14 Siemens Rough-In & Wire Pull Corridor lvl 2 15 Siemens Rough-In & Wire Pull Corridor lvl 1 16 Siemens Rough-In & Wire Pull Basement 17 Siemens Rough-In Corridor Sub Basement 18 Siemens Rough-In Riser lvl Sub Bsmnt-lvl 3 20 Siemens Demo & Rough

  10. Mathematical publications and prepublications by Anders Kock, as of Feb. 2010. The list is roughly chronological (according to creation, rather than

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kock, Anders

    for the Bertrand Russell Memorial Logic Conference, Uldum (DK), August 1971. [15] ­ Bilinearity and Cartesian). Topos-theoretic factorization of non- standard extensions. In Victoria Symposium on Nonstandard Analysis (Univ. Victoria, Victoria, B.C., 1972), pages 122­143. Lecture Notes in Math., Vol. 369. Springer

  11. Finding Computed Diamonds in a Virtual Rough: Screening and Evaluation of Conformations and Energetics from Drug Discovery to Computational Enzyme Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Scott Arne

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3), SYMBOL char(10), PRIMARY KEY(PRIORITY))"; // Execute theSYMBOL char(10), PRIMARY KEY(FROM_SYMBOL, TO_SYMBOL))"; //expression (" "id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY," "expression TEXT," "

  12. The Effects of Surface Roughness on the NEAR XRS Elemental Results: Monte-Carlo Modeling. Lucy F. and Larry R. Nittler2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nittler, Larry R.

    to the direction of the sun (as constrained by the pointing needs of the solar panels). During the major solar of solar X-rays with the upper 100 microns of the surface of 433 Eros. Various investigators, using both than was available to the XRS owing to the greater penetrating power of cosmic-ray induced neutrons

  13. A comparison of local phosphorescence detection and fluid dynamic gauging methods for studying the removal of cohesive fouling layers: effect of layer roughness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Patrick W.; Schöler, Martin; Föste, Henning; Helbig, Manuel; Augustin, Wolfgang; Chew,Y.M. John; Scholl, Stephan; Majschak, Jens-Peter; Wilson,D. Ian

    diameter f [-] Darcy friction factor h [mm] Nozzle-layer separation ho [mm] Nozzle-substrate separation I* [-] Normalised phosphorescent intensity Is [arb.] Phosphorescent intensity Iso [arb.] Initial phosphorescent intensity mf [g s -1] Mass... flow rate ms [g] Mass of soil mso [g] Initial mass of soil po [Pa] Ambient pressure in FDG tank p1 [Pa] Pressure downstream of FDG nozzle ?pH [Pa] Hydrostatic pressure difference rc [-] Weibull process characteristic rate Re [-] Reynolds...

  14. An analog computer study of the transition from fully developed turbulent smooth wall flow to fully developed turbulent rough wall flow in a two-dimensional channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheppard, Donald Max

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Pigures. Table of Symbols ~ Chapter I INTRODUCTION. II OBJECTIVE. III PROCEDURE. . Page a V IY' R'ESULTS AED COKCLUSIOXS. ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ 2'7 RECOMNENDATIORS BIBLIOGRAPHY KIST OP PINURES Pigure Two-Element Computer Circuit T en-Element... and graphical integration and differentiation. He used the Prandtl mixing length theory and assumed that the mixing length did not change 1n the transition region. Th1s was a logical assump- tion since experimental results had indicated that the parabolic...

  15. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 50MT of plutonium using new faciliites at the Savannah River site: alternative 12A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 50 metric tons of plutonium using ceramic in a new facility at Savannah River Site (SRS).

  16. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 50 MT of plutonium using existing facilities at Hanford: alternative 11B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 50 metric tons (nominal) of plutonium as a ceramic in an existing facility at Hanford, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF).

  17. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 50 MT of plutonium using existing facilities at the Savannah River site: alternative 12B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 50 metric tons of plutonium using ceramic in an existing facility (221-F) at an Savannah River Site (SRS).

  18. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 18.2 MT of plutonium sharing existing facilities at Hanford with pit disassembly {ampersand} conversion facility: alternative 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 18.2 metric tons (nominal) of plutonium as a ceramic in an existing facility at Hanford, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF), which is being costed in a separate report will also be located in the FMEF in this co- location option. The technical engineering data used as the basis for this study is presented in the EIS Data Call Input Report, `Plutonium Immobilization Plant Using Ceramic in Existing Facilities at Hanford.` The FMEF will require minimal facility modifications to accommodate the Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). Adequate space is available within the FMEF for installation of the immobilization process equipment. Facility HVAC, utility, and support systems exist to support the immobilization operations. Building modifications are primarily the removal of the SAF line (gloveboxes and support equipment) on the 70` level and building interior changes. The plutonium immobilization equipment will primarily occupy the 42` and 70` levels of the FMEF, with the same equipment layout as in the sole occupancy case. The Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility would occupy the 21` and O` (Entry) levels. Elements of the FMEF and adjacent Fuel Assembly Area (FAA) that will be shared by PIP and PDCF include shipping and receiving, laboratory, waste handling, security, offices, maintenance shops, SNM storage vault, and utilities. It was assumed that the existing utilities and support systems are adequate or only need minor upgrades to support both the PIP and PDCF. The PIP cost estimate was reconciled with the PDCF cost estimate to confirm the use and costs of shared systems and personnel. The facility design for a 50 metric ton plutonium throughput plant will be used for the 18.2 metric ton facility. Plutonium conversion operations will operate at the same design rate as the 50 metric ton facility over the 10 year operating period. Some of the process equipment will operate for a shorter period of time and fewer operators will be required. The assumptions, missions, design bases, facility and process descriptions, and accident analyses are the same. Therefore it is assumed that the capital cost for the 18.2 metric ton facility is identical to that of the 50 metric ton facility. However, the following operating costs will be less: consumable materials, equipment replacement and maintenance labor, employment requirements, and waste generation.

  19. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 18.2 MT of plutonium using existing facilities at Hanford: alternative 4A/8/10/011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 18.2 metric tons (nominal) of plutonium as a ceramic in an existing facility, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF), at Hanford.

  20. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 50 MT of plutonium sharing existing facilities at Hanford with pit disassembly {ampersand} conversion facility: alternative 11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 50 metric tons (nominal) of plutonium as a ceramic in an existing facility at Hanford, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF), which is being costed in a separate report by LANL, will also be located in the FMEF in this co-location option.

  1. Session EP23A. Aeolian Processes and Desert Landscape Development Impact of surface roughness and soil texture on mineral dust emission fluxes modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    and surface properties. The LISA dataset was develo- ped for Northern Africa, Middle East and East Asia in comparison to the LISA dataset over Northern Africa and Middle East. Sensitivity of emissions to several and soil descriptions is estimated over the simulation domain covering Northern Africa and Middle East. AOD

  2. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH: ATMOSPHERES, VOL. 118, 65056520, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50313, 2013 Impact of surface roughness and soil texture on mineral dust emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    Atmospheriques (LISA) data set was developed for Northern Africa, the Middle East, and East Asia. This regional to the LISA data set over Northern Africa and the Middle East. We explore the sensitivity of the drag

  3. Many qualitative properties of the product and the process are of interest during semiconduc-tor manufacturing. One of the typical examples is the sidewall surface roughness of an etched pol-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    will show how categorical models can be used to tune a process, and later to control it via SPC charts

  4. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 18.2 MT of plutonium using existing facilities at the Savannah River site: alternatives 3A/5A/6A/6B/7A/9A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 18.2 metric tons (nominal) of plutonium using ceramic in a new facility at Savannah River Site (SRS).

  5. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 18.2 MT of plutonium sharing existing facilities at Hanford with MOX fuel fabrication facility: alternative 4B/011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 18.2 metric tons (nominal) of plutonium as a ceramic in an existing facility at Hanford, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), which is being costed in a separate report, will also be located in the FMEF in this co-location option.

  6. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 18.2 MT of plutonium using existing facilities at the Savannah River site: alternatives 3B/5B/6C/6D/7B/9B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 18.2 metric tons (nominal) of plutonium using ceramic in an existing facility (221-F) at Savannah River Site (SRS).

  7. Solving Water Quality Problems in the Home 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

    2004-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    unnecessary. Private well water should be tested at least every 2 years for coliform bacteria and nitrates. Also test for lead if the house is old and contains iron or copper pipes, fittings, plumbing fixtures or solder. Other contaminants need to be measured... Reddish-brown slime Iron bacteria Off-color appearance: Cloudy Turbidity Black Hydrogen sulfide, manganese Brown or yellow Iron, tannic acid Unusual taste and odor: Rotten egg Hydrogen sulfide Metallic pH, corrosive index, iron, zinc, copper, lead Septic...

  8. University of Calgary -Schulich School of Engineering Project 3 -Week Lookahead

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    Install Sheet Metal A202Z 12 A211W Demo & Rough In 13 Siemens Rough-In & Wire Pull Corridor lvl 3 14 Siemens Rough-In & Wire Pull Corridor lvl 2 15 Siemens Rough-In & Wire Pull Corridor lvl 1 16 Siemens Rough-In & Wire Pull Basement 17 Siemens Rough-In Corridor Sub Basement 18 Siemens Rough-In Riser lvl

  9. University of Calgary -Schulich School of Engineering Project 3 -Week Lookahead

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    Sheet Metal A11,11c,13,129,131,103,101a 10 Siemens Rough-In & Wire Pull Corridor lvl 3 11 Siemens Rough-In & Wire Pull Corridor lvl 2 12 Siemens Rough-In & Wire Pull Corridor lvl 1 13 Siemens Rough-In & Wire Pull Basement 14 Siemens Rough-In Sub Basement 15 Siemens Rough-In Riser lvl Sub Bsmnt-lvl 3 16 Electrical Rough

  10. University of Calgary -Schulich School of Engineering Project 3 -Week Lookahead

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    A211W Demo & Rough In 13 Siemens Rough-In & Wire Pull Corridor lvl 1 15 Siemens Rough-In & Wire Pull Basement 16 Siemens Rough-In Corridor Sub Basement 17 Siemens Rough-In Riser lvl Sub Bsmnt-lvl 3 18 MCC #7 Metal Basement 44 Siemens Rough in & Wire Pull Corridor lvl 1 45 Siemens Rough-In & Wire Pull Corridor

  11. University of Calgary -Schulich School of Engineering Project 3 -Week Lookahead

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    -insulate elbows Basement 12 West Glass Re-insulate elbows Sub Bsmnt 13 Siemens Rough-In Corridor lvl 2 14 Siemens Rough-In Corridor lvl 1 15 Siemens Rough-In Basement 16 Siemens Rough-In Sub Basement 17 Siemens Rough sheet metal in corridors 21 Prep for MCC & VFD 22 Siemens Demo & Rough-In A01V 23 Install MCC & VFD 24

  12. University of Calgary -Schulich School of Engineering Project 3 -Week Lookahead

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    -insulate elbows lvl 2 West Glass Re-insulate elbows lvl 1 Siemens Rough-In Corridor lvl 3 Siemens Rough-In Corridor lvl 2 Siemens Rough-In Corridor lvl 1 Siemens Rough-In Riser B104V West Glass Re-insulate elbows Investigation of sheet metal cooridor & W/C W/C & Corridor rough-in shet metal lvl 1-3 Siemens Rough-In Corridor

  13. alcoholic fermentation media: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Rough Media Mathematics Websites Summary: Concentration of Eigenfunctions in Rough Media Hart F. Smith Department of Mathematics University of Washington, Seattle UC Irvine...

  14. 2009 Wind Technologies Market Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    capacity), with 17% of all potential wind energy generationthat roughly 17% of potential wind energy generation withinexample, roughly 1% of potential wind energy output in 2009

  15. Computational Mechanics manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of the dynamics of sliding rough surfaces Viet Hung DANG · Joel PERRET-LIAUDET, Julien SCHEIBERT, Alain LE BOT weak contact pressure is usually called rough- ness noise. The underlying vibration which produces Introduction Roughness noise is the sound produced by rubbing two rough surfaces under light contact pressure

  16. Bibliography and Literature Database, Ecology of the Southern California Bight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, L

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    waddensea; ecosystem Influence of oil shale on intertidalorganisms: Effect of oil shale surface roughness on

  17. This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Weisong

    -acknowledged that dynamic power is roughly determined by utilization rates, especially for CPUs. However, the experimental

  18. University of Calgary -Schulich School of Engineering Project 3 -Week Lookahead

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    / Drywall 8 Siemens Commissioning Bsmnt-lvl 3 9 Siemens Rough-In Corridor Sub Basement 10 Siemens Rough-In Riser lvl Sub Bsmnt-lvl 3 11 Siemens Rough-in A107 & A103 12 Spectra Fans Change out parts on AHU's 13 lvl 2 25 Siemens Rough-In & Wire Pull Corridor basement 26 Siemens Rough-In Corridor Sub-Basement 27

  19. Who farted? Hydrogen sulphide transport from Bardarbunga to Scandinavia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grahn, Håkan; Brännström, Niklas

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On September 9 2014 several incidences of foul smell (rotten eggs) were reported on the coast of Norway (in particular in the vicinity of Molde) and then on September 10 in the interior parts of county V\\"asterbotten, Sweden. One of the theories that were put forward was that the foul smell was due to degassing of the Bardarbunga volcano on Iceland. Using satellite images (GOME-1,-2) of the sulphur dioxide, SO_2, contents in the atmosphere surrounding Iceland to estimate flux of SO_2 from the volcano and an atmospheric transport model, PELLO, we vindicate this theory: we argue that the cause for the foul smell was hydrogen sulphide originating from Bardarbunga. The model concentrations are also compared to SO_2 concentration measurements from Muonio, Finland.

  20. The perfect storm : flow through a restored compound channel : Tassajara Creek, Dublin, CA : assessment of the roughness, flow, floodplain conveyance, and compound channel capacity of the restoration of Tassajara Creek from the high-water marks of a 20-year storm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Andre; Heard, Sarah K

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Morphology in the Tassajara Creek Restoration Project Area:Compound Channel, Tassajara Creek, Dublin, CA Andre Chan andBack: Monitoring the Tassajara Creek Restoration Project. UC

  1. On the asymptotic state of high Reynolds number, smooth-wall turbulent D. I. Pullin, M. Inoue, and N. Saito

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adolphs, Ralph

    . Classic pipe-flow experiments begin with Osborne Reynolds and continue with the rough-wall pipe a geometric or equivalent sand-roughness scale. Presently we do not consider this issue but instead focus

  2. Effects of Surface Properties on Adhesion of Protein to Biomaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Fangzhou

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    . The effects of surface and material properties, such as roughness, topography, contact angle, surface conductivity, and concentration of carbon nanotubes on adhesion were analyzed. Research results showed that the surface roughness dominated the adhesion...

  3. Design of robotic quadruped legs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenzie, Jacob Elijah

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prized for their performance on prepared surfaces, wheeled vehicles are often limited in mobility by rough and unstructured terrain. Conversely, systems that rely on legs have shown promising rough terrain performance but ...

  4. X-ray and Neutron Scattering Studies of Magnetic Domain Dynamics and Spin Structures /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, San-Wen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stanley. X-ray and neutron scattering from rough surfaces.1988. [3] R. Pynn. Neutron scattering by rough surfaces at39] V. F. Sears. Neutron scattering lengths and cross

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lighting Science SSLS Logo Lighting consumes roughly 22 percent of United States electricity, a roughly 50 billion per year cost to the U.S. consumer. Solid-state...

  6. american fuzzy information: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    25 January 2012 Keywords: Fuzzy information granulation Rough neighborhood sets Rough-fuzzy granular computing Soft computing Pattern recognition Remote sensing a b s t r a c t...

  7. S I M O N F R A S E R U N I V E R S I T Y MANAGED PRINT SERVICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Services at SFU SFU currently has a fleet of roughly 250 Multi Function Devices under a service contract

  8. Sliding contacts and the dynamics of magnetic tape transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raeymaekers, Bart

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    manufacturing of metal rolling cylinders with well-defined surface roughness [6.11] or the fabrication of laser

  9. Molasses for Fattening Cattle.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, John A. (John Alexander); Marshall, F. R. (Frederick Rupert)

    1906-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1. Molasses for Fattening Cattle 2. Rough Rice as a Steer Feed 3. Profit from Different Systems of Feeding Cattle...

  10. Thermal stability of a Ti-Si-N diffusion barrier in contact with a Ti adhesion layer for Au metallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shalish, Ilan

    with a surface roughness of less than 20 nm obtained from The Carborundum Company were used as substrates

  11. Facilities Services Update July 1 Sept 30, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Merrick

    . Those guys endured some pretty rough conditions and heavy lifting. By this time next week, that basement the TV

  12. Formation of Porous Layers by Electrochemical Etching of Germanium and Gallium Arsenide for Cleave Engineered Layer Transfer (CELT) Application in High Efficiency Multi-Junction Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fong, David Michael

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    film photovoltaics [1]. This roughly doubling of efficiencyMJ photovoltaics. MJ solar cells achieve higher efficiencies

  13. 7, 28572871, 2007 stratospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to roughly once per decade for events of VEI 5 or above (Simkin and Siebert, 1994). A more quantitative

  14. PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE This article was downloaded by: [Rochester Institute of Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    , micromachining, laser drilling, etc., results in a high value of relative roughness (defined as the wall surface

  15. SUPER MIRROR FABRICATION VIA ELECTROFORMING M. P. Ulmer a , R. Altkorn b , A. Krieger c , D. Parsignault c ,Y.W. Chung d , M. S. Wong b , B. Lai e ,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulmer, Melville P.

    . These were coated with about 5 mils of electroless nickel and initially polished to sub 1 nm roughness

  16. Fractal Function Estimation via Wavelet Shrinkage Yazhen Wang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yazhen

    Fractal Function Estimation via Wavelet Shrinkage Yazhen Wang University of Missouri studies objects are often very rough. Mathematically these rough objects are modeled by fractal functions, and fractal dimension is usually used to measure their roughness. The present paper investigates fractal

  17. NAME_______________________ (1) Stunt driver Fearless Freida is performing a loop-the-loop in her frictionless coaster car. She

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, Joseph

    ) A toy cart is propelled on an ice rink by a spring. Initially, the cart is stationary, and the spring a rough patch of ice, with coefficient of friction µ = 0.15 between the cart and the ice. The cart has the spring, but before hitting the rough ice. (b) Find the frictional force of the cart on the rough ice. (c

  18. Surface plasmon assisted electron acceleration in photoemission from gold nanopillars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagel, Phillip M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Phys. (2012) Surface plasmon assisted electron accelerationH. Raether, Surface plasmons on smooth and rough surfaceselds. Implications for plasmon-enhanced attosecond streaking

  19. asteroid rotation periods: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    roughly 1400 are classified as being potentially hazardous asteroids. The recent Chelyabinsk event has shown that these objects can pose a real threat to mankind. We illustrate...

  20. Table of contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fbaudoin

    2014-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    7 An introduction to Lyons rough paths theory. 225. 1. Continuous paths with finite p-variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225. 2 ... Appendix B. Regularity theory. 265.

  1. The Development of Instrumentation and Methods for Measurement of Air-Sea Interaction and Coastal Processes from Manned and Unmanned Aircraft /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reineman, Benjamin D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and currents over a fixed rippled bed: 1. Bottom roughnesscurrents over a fixed rippled bed: 3. Bottom and apparentand currents over a fixed rippled bed .1. bottom roughness

  2. apolar contact area: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    We study the adhesive contact between elastic solids with randomly rough, self affine fractal surfaces. We present molecular dynamics (MD) simulation results for the interfacial...

  3. aerodynamic surface quantities: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aircraft (also transportation for intrathe- ater missions. Wind tunnel tests on high-lift configura- tions have been conducted Xu, Kun 20 Title: Aerodynamic and Scalar Roughness...

  4. Ammonia as an Alternative Energy Storage Medium for Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Scientific and Technical Review for Near-Term Stationary Power Demonstration Projects, Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Tim; Shah, Nihar

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen Generation by OTEC Electrolysis, and Economicalocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems, where “plantcommonly held view was that OTEC would be roughly twice as

  5. Data:098d8690-4031-4b5d-be59-dc33c6b2b809 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    power factor is less than 95% lagging. POWER COST ADJUSTMENT: The Cooperative buys wholesale power from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) th rough the Pacific Northwest...

  6. Solid-State Lighting Patents Resulting from DOE-Funded Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Lens Placement NP * LED Structure with Enhanced Mirror Reflectivity NP, PCT * Light Emitting Diode With High Aspect Ratio Submicron Roughness for Light Extraction and Methods of...

  7. annual modulation effect: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    an annual modulation in the WIMP direct detection rate. If the local WIMP velocity distribution is isotropic then the modulation is roughly sinusoidal with maximum in June,...

  8. Uniform Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    randomly and equally likely a point in that interval), the uniform distribution ... Roughly speaking, this means that from any distribution we can create the uniform.

  9. Group History: Condensed Matter and Magnetic Science, MPA-CMMS...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fuel and producing a thermonuclear yield of roughly 10 megatons of TNT. (See Figure 2.) thermonuclear fusion Figure 2. Mike, the first large-scale experiment with thermonuclear...

  10. Improving endmilling surface finish by workpiece rotation and adaptive toolpath spacing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vijayaraghavan, Athulan; Hoover, Aaron M.; Dornfeld, David A.; Hartnett, Jeffrey

    of endmilled surfaces. The surface topography was predictedmodel to predict the surface topography, taking into accountsimulations to predict surface topography and roughness as a

  11. Experimental Studies of the Tribological Behavior of Microelectromechanical Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang, Hua

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    quantify the sidewall surface topographies in Chapter 3 andbehavior 14 and surface topography (roughness) 15 and the14,15 . Texturing the surface topography by elective etching

  12. Materials for High Pressure Fuel Injection Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Measures and Accomplishments YEAR 1 * Demonstrate the ability to measure fine-scale surface roughness and image the topography on the inside of fuel injector holes. *...

  13. Improvingendmillingsurfacefinishbyworkpiecerotationandadaptive toolpathspacing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vijayaraghavan, Athulan; Hoover, Aaron; Hartnett, Jeffrey; Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of endmilled surfaces. The surface topography was predictedmodel to predict the surface topography, taking into accountsimulations to predict surface topography and roughness as a

  14. Advanced Materials for Lightweight Valve Train Components

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    exist or surface is too rough, light will be reflectedscattered several times within the surface topography before backscattered, so its polarization will change and is detected....

  15. Improving endmilling surface finish by workpiece rotation and adaptive toolpath spacing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vijayaraghavan, Athulan; Hoover, Aaron M.; Hartnett, Jeffrey; Dornfeld, David A.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of endmilled surfaces. The surface topography was predictedmodel to predict the surface topography, taking into accountsimulations to predict surface topography and roughness as a

  16. Artificial Soiling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pigments found in soils throughout the United States roughly following the USDA soil taxonomy 11. Ensuring a repeatable test formulation was straightforward when using...

  17. atmospheric tracer experiments: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    112 6.1. Meteorological conditions 112 6.2. Roughness length 6 Uncertainties in gas exchange parameterization during the SAGE dual-tracer experiment Geosciences Websites...

  18. Education Toolbox Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsget-current-switch-clean-energy-activity-book Download How Big Is Your Footprint? An ecological footprint is a way to roughly...

  19. Proteoglycan 4 metabolism and boundary lubrication of articular cartilage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Tannin A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    occurs. Pressure, surface roughness, and relative slidinga sliding friction machine. Although fluid pressure effectspressure in the viscous film separating the surfaces cause significant elastic deformation of the sliding

  20. unconstrained by physical proximity, and in which the number of contacts per node are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, James

    quickly9 . Very roughly, then, one could view models of biological epidemics as rooted in spatial net- works, and expanding into less spatial realms tomodelthetechnologiesthathaveaccelerated human travel

  1. Statistical mechanics problem sheet 3 1. Does an ideal gas satisfy the third law of thermodynamics? Explain.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dettmann, Carl

    ? Explain. 2. Give a rough estimate of the amount of molten salt required to store 10MWh of heat energy from

  2. Recap and Conclusions to Tc/I in Hanford Flowsheet Presentations

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Recap & Conclusions to TcI in Hanford Flowsheet Presentations Gary Smith Office of Waste Processing (EM-31) November 18, 2010 2 Rough Flowsheet Diagram Tank Farm Evaporator...

  3. ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrell, G.C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    literature survey of capital cost estimates over roughly thecost. Also, some capital cost estimates may include directsavings (49,64). Capital cost estimates for the case without

  4. Experience curves for power plant emission control technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Edward S.; Yeh, Sonia; Hounshell, David A

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    detail. But unlike capital cost estimates, which can be (andcapital cost. The data in Figure 4 are used later to provide a rough estimate

  5. Energy Efficiency as a Preferred Resource: Evidence from Utility Resource Plans in the Western United States and Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopper, Nichole

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coordinating Council (WECC) (2005). Hourly Demands 1998-Coordinating Council (WECC, 2005). 3 To compare utilities’one to three years. The WECC control area roughly includes

  6. antarctic resupply voyages: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Voyager 2 (V2) entered the heliosheath in 2007 August at roughly the same time solar minimum conditions were reaching the outer heliosphere. Soon after crossing the...

  7. Recessed LED Downlights

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of 2007, DOE estimated that there were roughly 800 million downlights installed in residential and commercial buildings, noting that in both settings, relatively inefficient...

  8. Scalable Routes to Efficient Thermoelectric Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feser, Joseph Patrick

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. D. Yang, "Enhanced thermoelectric performance of roughHigh efficiency thermoelectric materials consisting ofG. Chen, and Z. F. Ren, "High-thermoelectric performance of

  9. air abrasion dental: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and a number of roughness parameters were used as response variables i.e. (ISO industrial AWJM system. The specimens were processed with three different diameters of the...

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - aspherical core-collapse supernovae Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    II and Ibc) have not been observed... . The distribution is roughly 55% SNe Ia (thermonuclear explosions of white dwarfs) and ... Source: Leibundgut, Bruno - European Southern...

  11. A Science Service Feature Releasad upon receipt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : The deposits of white rough ice that grow out to windward of Objects ex- Posed t o drifting fog or cloud when

  12. oazb2b2.tmp

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    instruments may respond differently to rough, convex, or narrow surfaces and should be exam- ined fully before use. At all ferrite levels,surface prepa- ration must be...

  13. Application Performance Variability on Hopper

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    system with roughly 6300 compute nodes. In normal day to day operations, Hopper can be running hundreds of individual applications at any given time. Some users have reported...

  14. augmentation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and evaluation of the numerous techniques which have been shown to augment convective heat transfer. These techniques are: surface promoters, including roughness and treatment;...

  15. augments radiation-induced growth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and evaluation of the numerous techniques which have been shown to augment convective heat transfer. These techniques are: surface promoters, including roughness and treatment;...

  16. Effects of a carbon tax on microgrid combined heat and power adoption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Firestone, Ryan M.; Ghosh, Srijay; Stadler, Michael

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is inefficient compared to compressor cooling. Roughly sevenof 5 is assumed for compressor cooling. The recovered heatinefficient compared to compressor cooling, its attractive

  17. Benchmarking of Competitive Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2010 Prius - Focus seemed to be placed on mass in the 2010 Prius packaging - 2010 Prius motor versus Camry motor * Volume comparable - power density roughly proportional to power...

  18. adhesive system self-etching: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the adhesive contact between elastic solids with randomly rough, self affine fractal surfaces. We present molecular dynamics (MD) simulation results for the interfacial stress...

  19. ENERGY USE AND CONSERVATION IN INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schipper, L.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    prices for natural gas and oil than in Sweden, and fear ofand Sweden were roughly equal (Table 7), Americans enjoyed natural gas

  20. 6.042J / 18.062J Mathematics for Computer Science (SMA 5512), Fall 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagpal, Radhika

    This is an introductory course in Discrete Mathematics oriented toward Computer Science and Engineering. The course divides roughly into thirds: Fundamental concepts of Mathematics: definitions, proofs, sets, functions, ...

  1. Current Rusume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Research Interest Rough paths theory, Stochastic differential equations, ... I am currently working on a problem about stochastic analysis on Riemannian folia-.

  2. --No Title--

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plant spanned roughly 65,000 square feet and operated several decades ago to convert depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6 ) into uranium metal and uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4...

  3. Guidebook for Using the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galitsky, Christina

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    leading manufacturers in China, costs roughly 20 to 33% ofwith high power costs. In China, however, low temperaturedomestically in China. 1 Energy/Environment/Cost/Other

  4. american merchant marine: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: THE SCALING OF FLUVIAL LANDSCAPES Bjrn Birnir Terence R. Smith + Lambda George E. Merchant roughness coefficient of 0:75 and is analogous to an...

  5. Cellar theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellar theory. A. Eremenko. March 12, 2015. The temperature on the Earth surface at a given place experiences roughly speaking periodic fluctuation, daily and ...

  6. Nanotechnology in Cancer Treatment and Detection Richard Acosta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

    Nanotechnology in Cancer Treatment and Detection Richard Acosta #12;Motivation ·Ineffectiveness or roughly 100 times smaller than most human cells Cancer Nanotechnology research is interdisciplinary

  7. Backscattering by Non-spherical Natural Particles: Instrument Development, IOP's, and Implications for Radiative Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boss, Emmanuel S.

    -Pi measured roughly 0.5m diameter x 1 m long and did not incorporate batteries or computer; contrasted with LISST at 0.12 m dia x 0.7 m long, roughly 20 times smaller, yet complete with battery and data logger-spherical effects on backscatter. b. Characterization of scattering from terrigenous and biological size-sorted non

  8. 2.3 / S.-J. Lee 26 IDRC 03

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanicki, Jerzy

    of this method is its ability to model bulk absorption events, thin film coatings, and rough surfaces while silica aerogel layer [8]. Several models have also been proposed for modeling organic light advantage of this method is its ability to model bulk absorption events, thin film coatings, and rough

  9. Wetting on nanorough surfaces T. Biben and L. Joly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    no-slip boundary conditions (BC) for the liquid at the walls, and recent experiments have shown, one can imagine that a thin layer of gas (air or vapor) at the surface could produce a lubricating are extremely rough: roughness is indeed a key ingredient in superhydrophobicity, since it favors the trapping

  10. A Brief User's Manual of The Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    ) vacuum chamber, (b) Al slab, (c) pneumatically elevated legs, (d) roughing valve, (e) ion pump, (f) gate it inside the vacuum chamber (h in Fig. 2.1). (May need somebody else to secure the position of the STM. Figure 2.3 (a) The roughing valve on the vacuum chamber, (b) the torque and (c) the O-ring. Turbo Pump

  11. Observation of Changes in Bacterial Cell Morphology Using Tapping Mode Atomic Force Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sodium salt (MOPS) buffer (as a control), and the surface topography of the cells was examined after. Topographic images, phase images, traces of surface topography, and analyses of surface roughness were the topography of the cell was altered by the different treatments. The surface roughness was quantified in terms

  12. Tailoring the surface properties of Ti6Al4V by controlled chemical oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    activity at the surface of implants, mainly by modifying their topography and physicochemical properties, such as its surface chemistry and energy, roughness, and topography [6]. It is generally accepted that roughTailoring the surface properties of Ti6Al4V by controlled chemical oxidation Fabio Variola a,b , Ji

  13. DISORDER ENGINEERING FOR LIGHT-TRAPPING IN THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS P. Kowalczewski, M. Liscidini, and L.C. Andreani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at the significantly reduced computational cost. 3 TAILORING THE ROUGHNESS FOR LIGHT- TRAPPING Solar cell structureDISORDER ENGINEERING FOR LIGHT-TRAPPING IN THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS P. Kowalczewski, M. Liscidini: In this work we focus on randomly rough textures for light-trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells. We use

  14. Oscillatory flow across an irregular boundary Geno Pawlak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlak, Geno

    ; KEYWORDS: eddies, tidal mixing, rough boundary, oscillatory flow, residual currents, wave boundary layers 1Oscillatory flow across an irregular boundary Geno Pawlak Department of Ocean and Resources. Introduction [2] Oscillatory flow past a rough boundary is a prevalent feature in a number of oceanographic

  15. AN ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS OF Joseph M. Skitka for the degree of Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering presented on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Sourabh V.

    of a Cartesian-Grid-Based Solver for an Oscillatory Boundary Layer over a Rough Wall by Joseph M. Skitka Boundary Layer over a Rough Wall Abstract approved: Sourabh V. Apte Predominant models for predicting rates of sediment transport face acute shortcomings when applied to coastal boundary layers [58]. This is due

  16. March 2004 1 Two-scale homogenization of a hydrodynamic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    clearance is very small, typically ¡� � ½¼ ¿ for oil lubricated bearings. The smallness of this ratio allows roughness effects in lubrication, the most popular perhaps being the flow factor method (see [35, 36, 41-Adams problem with highly oscillating roughness effects. 0 Statement of the problem Cylindrical thin film

  17. Development Abstract-One of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Patrick

    into a teaching lab are discussed. II.DESIGN DISCUSSION The design process for this project had different objectives were sizing, magnetizing inductance of the stator, physical feasibility and observation on a laboratory bench. A stator length of roughly 35 cm and lamination stacking depth of roughly 5

  18. Mobile Sensing Microsoft Research Asia, Beijing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    i7 Bell's Law of Computer Classes: A new computer class emerges roughly every decade 1950 1960 1970 log(peoplepercomputer) "Roughly every decade a new, lower priced computer class forms based on a new Event Cmd, Info Device Response Manage and optimize home energy consumption Bodhi Priyantha, Aman Kansal

  19. SUBMITTED FOR PUBLICATION TO: IEEE COMPUTER, 2002, JANUARY 28, 2002 1 Interval Set Clustering of Web Users with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Web Users with Rough K-means Pawan Lingras Chad West Abstract Data collection and analysis in web mining faces certain unique challenges. Due to a variety of reasons inherent in web browsing and web techniques in web mining need to accommodate such data. Fuzzy and rough sets provide the ability to deal

  20. J. Fluid Mech. (2010), vol. 648, pp. 435469. c Cambridge University Press 2010 doi:10.1017/S0022112009992758

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaqfeh, Eric

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    disturbance of fixed frequency being triggered via blowing and suction upstream of the roughness element behaves as disturbance amplifier with a limited bandwidth capable of filtering a range of frequencies0022112009992758 435 Disturbance evolution in a Mach 4.8 boundary layer with two-dimensional roughness

  1. This article was downloaded by: [Rochester Institute of Technology] On: 15 April 2014, At: 13:34

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    diameter. The tubes were made by electrodepositing nickel on an aluminum sacrificial substrate. The desired roughness structures were machined or etched on the substrate before depositing nickel to generate a replica of the aluminum substrate on the internal surface of the nickel tubes. Four different surface roughness features

  2. Rotation estimation for a satellite from Sun sensors Lionel Magnis Nicolas Petit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the angle of incidence of solar radiation, the output signal of a Sun sensor is, roughly speaking, a cosine attitude deter- mination [2], the data produced with these techniques have to be consolidated using another , photocells 3 and 4 lie in the shadow of the satellite. The output currents of photocells 1 and 2 are roughly

  3. PUBLICATIONS LIST Louisiana Forest Products Development Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Trade Center SOUTHPIC. Smith, Granskog, Michael, Muehlenfeld, Nicholas #30 Accident Analysis #5 Sorting Lumber by Grade Prior to Rough Mill Processing. Gazo, Steele #6 RAM (Rough Mill Analysis #17 Increasing Productivity in Cabinet Shops. Gazo #18 An Analysis of State Level Economic Development

  4. 94 IEEE JOURNAL OF OCEANIC ENGINEERING, VOL. 26, NO. 1, JANUARY 2001 An FDTD Method for Analysis of Scattering from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broschat, Shira Lynn

    dispersion inherent to the FDTD algorithm. Numerical results are presented for fluid­fluid cases modeling WHEN shear speeds in shallow-water sediment bottoms are relatively slow, a fluid-fluid model water­sediment interfaces. Two different roughness spectra, the single-scale Gaussian roughness spectrum

  5. Different Approach to the Aluminium Oxide Topography Characterisation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poljacek, Sanja Mahovic; Gojo, Miroslav [Faculty of Graphic Arts, University of Zagreb, Getaldiceva 2, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Raos, Pero; Stoic, Antun [Mechanical Engineering Faculty, J.J. Strossmayer University of Osijek, Trg Ivane Brlic Mazuranic 2, 35000 Slavonski Brod (Croatia)

    2007-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Different surface topographic techniques are being widely used for quantitative measurements of typical industrial aluminium oxide surfaces. In this research, specific surface of aluminium oxide layer on the offset printing plate has been investigated by using measuring methods which have previously not been used for characterisation of such surfaces. By using two contact instruments and non-contact laser profilometer (LPM) 2D and 3D roughness parameters have been defined. SEM micrographs of the samples were made. Results have shown that aluminium oxide surfaces with the same average roughness value (Ra) and mean roughness depth (Rz) typically used in the printing plate surface characterisation, have dramatically different surface topographies. According to the type of instrument specific roughness parameters should be used for defining the printing plate surfaces. New surface roughness parameters were defined in order to insure detailed characterisation of the printing plates in graphic reproduction process.

  6. A comparison of several surface finish measurement methods as applied to ground ceramic and metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, P.J.; Martin, R.L.; Riester, L.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface finish is one of the most common measures of surface quality of ground ceramics and metal parts and a wide variety of methods and parameters have been developed to measure it. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the surface roughness parameters obtained on the same two specimens from three different types of measuring instruments: a traditional mechanical stylus system, a non-contact laser scanning system, and the atomic force microscope (two different AFM systems were compared). The same surface-ground silicon nitride and Inconel 625 alloy specimens were used for all measurements in this investigation. Significant differences in arithmetic average roughness, root-mean-square roughness, and peak-to-valley roughness were obtained when comparing data from the various topography measuring instruments. Non-contact methods agreed better with the others on the metal specimen than on the ceramic specimen. Reasons for these differences include the effective dimensions and geometry of the probe with respect to the surface topography; the reflectivity of the surface, and the type of filtering scheme Results of this investigation emphasize the importance of rigorously specifying the manner of surface roughness measurement when either reporting roughness data or when requesting that roughness data be provided.

  7. An investigation of the depolarization of backscattered electromagnetic waves using a lidar polarimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilhelmi, Gary Joe

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -2 Values of Q' for Rough Surfaces 91 V-3 C-1 C-2 Values of Volume Reflection Coefficients for Rough Surfaces Turbid Water Data Rough Surface Data 140 141 LIST OF FIGURFS Figure ~pa e II-1 Scattering geometry for the surface scatter... components are given by: 19 H, (a. . ~, ) Z-, E (ct, - g, ) (n. x 7, ) Egg (I I- 2) The components in the plane of incidence are: Ea = ECa, , n, )n. + Ccz, -d ) 4. 3 E H = -(o. , -d )+ (I 1-3) The local surface currents are now found. If the sub...

  8. How to check quantum mechanics independently (Reply to arXiv:1505.04293)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuri I. Ozhigov

    2015-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the reply to the paper of Andrei Khrennikov arXiv:1505.04293 in which he expresses dissatisfaction with that the rough data in quantum experiments is not easily available and compares it with the open rough data in genetics. I try to explain why quantum experiments rough data is closed and why it differs radically from the biological. I also tried to answer the more thorny issue: is it possible to check quantum mechanics independently of other humans, e.g. trusting nobody.

  9. Surface finish measurements of diamond-turned electroless-nickel-plated mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, J.S.; Syn, C.K.; Saito, T.T.; Donaldson, R.R.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface roughness data are presented for a matrix of diamond-turned electroless nickel samples having a combination of six phosphorus contents and four heat treatments. Roughness measurements were conducted with commercial optical and stylus profilers (WYKO and Talystep). The results are discussed in terms of the material composition and heat treatment, plus other factors having an observed influence on the surface roughness. For the optimum material properties, full-length (665..mu..m) 20x WYKO scans yielded values of better than 10 A rms after correction for instrument roll-off.

  10. Surface finish measurements of diamond-turned electroless-nickel-plated mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, J.S.; Syn, C.K.; Saito, T.T.; Donaldson, R.R.

    1985-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface roughness data are presented for a matrix of diamond-turned electroless-nickel samples having a combination of six phosphorous contents and four heat treatments. Roughness measurements were conducted with commercial optical and stylus profilometers (Wyko and Talystep). The results are discussed in terms of the material composition and heat treatment, plus other factors having an observed influence on the surface roughness. For the optimum material properties, full-length (665 ..mu..m) restored 20X Wyko scans yielded values of better than 10A rms.

  11. Cone Penetrometer Shear Strength Measurements of Sludge Waste in Tanks 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Follett, Jordan R.

    2014-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents the resulting shear strength profiles for sludge waste in Tanks 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106, as determined with a full-flow cone penetrometer. Full-flow penetrometer measurements indicate shear strength profiles that increase roughly uniformly with depth. For Tank 241-AN-101, the undrained shear strength was calculated to range from 500 Pa near the sludge surface to roughly 3,300 Pa at 15 inches above the tank bottom. For 241-AN-106, the undrained shear strength was calculated to range from 500 Pa near the sludge surface to roughly 5,000 Pa at 15 inches above the tank bottom.

  12. Sensing animal group behavior and bio-clutter in the ocean over continental shelf scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Jagannathan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fish populations often comprise the largest biomass in a productive marine ecosystem. They typically play an essential role in inter-trophic energy transport, and serve as a mainstay for human consumption comprising roughly ...

  13. Division of Astronomy and Space Physics Analyzing Thermal Emission Spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    System bodies such as surface roughness, infrared self heating and 3D heat conduction. In close: Calculating temperature dis- tributions, considering infrared self- heating and 3D heat conduction. Production

  14. Energy Conservation Strategies E x t e n s i o n B u l l e t i n E -3 1 6 0 N e w N o v e m b e r 2 0 1 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of greenhouse crops in temperate climates. Of the total energy consumed, roughly 65 to 85 percent is for heating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Install infrared anti-condensate polyethylene film . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Properly maintain heating equipment

  15. Application Of 3D Inversion To Magnetotelluric Data In The Ogiri...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    difference method. A Bayesian criterion ABIC is applied to searching for the optimum trade-off among the minimization of the data misfit, model roughness and static shifts. The...

  16. Slides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng Ouyang UIC

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Dec 6, 2011 ... We say B is a d-dimensional fractional Brownian motion if. B = (B1, ..., Bd ) ... the equation is understood in the Lyons' rough .... p (Rd ) and.

  17. Slides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrice Baudoin

    2011-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    where the Vi 's are C?-bounded vector fields on Rn and B is a d-dimensional .... The equation is understood in the Lyons' rough ..... For every n,p > 1, sup. 0

  18. Storing unsteady energy, like photovoltaically generated electric energy, as potential energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nadja Kutz

    2012-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A proposal to store unsteady energy in potential energy via lifting masses with a rough quantitative overview. Some applications and methods to harvest the potential energy are also given. A focus is put on photovoltaically generated energy.

  19. Characterization and preservation techniques of plant xylem as low cost membrane filtration devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potash, Benjamin R

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Safe drinking water remains inaccessible for roughly 1.1 billion people in the world.³? As a result, 400 children under the age of 5 die every hour from biological contamination of drinking water.³? Studies have been done ...

  20. No Pants...No Badge...No Gun...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple Contributors

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gasping breaths, with the moist slapping sound of their bodies meeting and the rhythmic squeaking of protesting bedsprings. Against his bare back, Starsky felt the clinging bedspread they had neglected to turn down, its rough-stitched pattern scratching...

  1. Evaluation of thermal evaporation conditions used in coating aluminum on near-field fiber-optic probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollars, Christopher W.; Dunn, Robert C.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects that the thermal evaporation conditions have on the roughness of aluminum-coated near-field fiber-optic probes were investigated using the high-resolution capabilities of atomic force microscopy. The coating ...

  2. Forestry Policies (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kansas is home to an established forestry industry managing roughly 2 million acres of land. The vast majority of these lands are privately owned. The Kansas Forest Service (KFS) provides the...

  3. The feasibility of sodar wind profile measurements from an oceanographic buoy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berg, Allison M. (Allison May)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores the feasibility of making wind speed profile measurements from an oceanographic buoy using a Doppler sodar. In the fall of 2005, we deployed a Scintec SFAS sodar on an ASIS buoy. Roughly one week of ...

  4. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M.Z. 2007. Effects of ethanol (E85) versus gasoline vehiclese.g. , E85 indicates 85% anhydrous ethanol by volume. Ine.g. , E85 actually contains roughly 81% ethanol), and in

  5. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M.Z. 2007. Effects of ethanol (E85) versus gasoline vehiclese.g. , E85 indicates 85% anhydrous ethanol by volume. Ine.g. , E85 actually contains roughly 81% ethanol), and in

  6. Effects of mineral aerosols on the summertime climate of southwest Asia: Incorporating subgrid variability in a dust emission scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcella, Marc Pace

    [1] Improvements in modeling mineral aerosols over southwest Asia are made to the dust scheme in a regional climate model by representing subgrid variability of both wind speed and surface roughness length. The new module ...

  7. Habitat Restoration at the Salmon, Mississippi, Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 1,470-acre Salmon, Mississippi, Site is located in Lamar County, approximately 20 miles southwest of Hattiesburg, in southwestern Mississippi. It is roughly square in shape, and each side is...

  8. Beyond Network Equivalence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koetter, Ralf

    In earlier work, we described an equivalence result for network capacity. Roughly, that result is as follows. Given a network of noisy, memoryless, point-to-point channels, replace each channel by a noiseless, memoryless ...

  9. The idea of digital oilfields, i.e., with unmanned exploration unities, is a strong trend in the oil & gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbosa, Alberto

    Abstract The idea of digital oilfields, i.e., with unmanned exploration unities, is a strong trend oilfields is roughly an interplay of several technologies that provides resources for gathering raw data

  10. analyzing lightning field: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A roughly second order power-law fit to the mean radar echo top height above the 0C isotherm is shown to capture both regional and land-ocean contrasts in lightning...

  11. 4, 28392866, 2004 Mixing height for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    focuses on specific problems in describing the sur- face energy balance and MH in urban areas (Piringer et in surface5 roughness and heating from rural to central city areas. So, the UBL is considered as a specific

  12. SuperhydrophobicCoatings.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 ature, low-pressure technique was used to prepare a rough, highly porous organosilica aerogel-like film. UVozone treatments were used 15 to control the surface coverage of...

  13. 10A UppERCAMpUS VIACENTRE/CRAIG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibille, Etienne

    HALL MONdAYThROUGhFRIdAY Does not operate on Friday Friday only 2:55 3:01 3:06 3:07 3:14 3:00 3:06 3

  14. NERSC HPSS Storage Trends and Summaries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summaries Storage Trends and Summaries Total Bytes Utilized The growth in NERSC's storage systems amounts to roughly 1.7x per year. Total Bytes Utilized Number of Files Stored The...

  15. Shear Connections for the Development of a Full-Depth Precast Concrete Deck System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henley, Matthew D.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    the effects of various pre- and post-installed shear connectors, haunch height, surface roughness, grouping effects, and grout composition as compared to cast-in-place specimens. The experimental results are presented along with a method for normalizing...

  16. Radiation and dissipation of internal waves generated by geostrophic motions impinging on small-scale topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikurashin, Maxim (Maxim Anatolevich)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations and inverse models suggest that small-scale turbulent mixing is enhanced in the Southern Ocean in regions above rough topography. The enhancement extends 1 km above the topography suggesting that mixing is ...

  17. An inverse approach to understanding benthic oxygen isotope records from the last deglaciation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amrhein, Daniel Edward

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations suggest that during the last deglaciation (roughly 20,000-10,000 years ago) the Earth warmed substantially, global sea level rose approximately 100 meters in response to melting ice sheets and glaciers, and ...

  18. Supplementary Information for: Diurnally Resolved Particulate and VOC Measurements at a Rural Site: Indication of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    heights were roughly between 400 and 2200m, as deduced from potential temperature and water vapour, as calculated using the approach described in the text. #12;Supplementary Information for Regional BTEX Values

  19. THE SCALING OF FLUVIAL LANDSCAPES Bjrn Birnir # Terence R. Smith + \\Lambda George E. Merchant +

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    THE SCALING OF FLUVIAL LANDSCAPES Björn Birnir # Terence R. Smith + \\Lambda George E. Merchant roughness coefficient of 0:75 and is analogous to an interface driven through random media with quenched

  20. Laboratory measurements of the temporal and cross-shore variation of the wave-induced bed stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukumaran, Ashok

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed laboratory measurements of horizontal velocity above a rough, fixed, impermeable slope were made to determine the effect of varying wave conditions on the shear stress in the swash zone. The research involved the design, construction...

  1. A Review of Wind Project Financing Structures in the USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on U.S. Wind Power Installation, Cost, and Performancecapital to finance wind project costs. Roughly $28 billion (90-95% of the total costs of a wind project qualify for 5-

  2. TSPA First Interim Report - June 20, 1997

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    displacement, such as drainage, in a rough fracture has been modeled in analogy to porous media. Because of the complicated nature of two-dimensional flow in fractures, however,...

  3. Geothermal Energy Growth Continues, Industry Survey Reports ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    economic benefits, according to GEA. "These new projects will result in the infusion of roughly 15 billion in capital investment in the western states, and create 7,000...

  4. Energy Department Making Hydropower More Eco-Friendly

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydropower has long provided a flexible, low-cost, and renewable source of power for the United States—since the 1800s, in fact. Even today, in fact, hydropower accounted for roughly half of the...

  5. DESIGN OF A MOLECULAR BEAM SURFACE SCATTERING APPARATUS FOR VELOCITY AND ANGULAR DISTRIBUTION MEASUREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceyer, S.T.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mounting block, (Q) Main chamber ion pump, (R) Main chamberJ) Primary buffer chamber, (K) Ion gauge, roughing port, (L)The main chamber is pumped by a 400 1/sec noble ion pump, a

  6. Semantic spaces : behavior, language and word learning in the Human Speechome corpus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Matthew Adam

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Human Speechome Project is an unprecedented attempt to record, analyze and understand the process of language acquisition. It is composed of over 90,000 hours of video and 150,000 hours of audio, capturing roughly 80% ...

  7. LDPC code-based bandwidth efficient coding schemes for wireless communications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sankar, Hari

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation deals with the design of bandwidth-efficient coding schemes with Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for reliable wireless communications. Code design for wireless channels roughly falls into three categories: (1) when channel state...

  8. Optical loss reduction in HIC chalcogenide glass waveguides via thermal reflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Juejun

    A rapid thermal reflow technique is applied to high-index-contrast, sub-micron waveguides in As[subscript 2]S[subscript 3] chalcogenide glass to reduce sidewall roughness and associated optical scattering loss. Up to 50% ...

  9. Parameters defining flow resistance and the friction factor behavior in liquid annular seals with deliberately roughened surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villasmil Urdaneta, Larry Alfonso

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    replaced with stators containing different roughness patterns to reduce leakage and enhance rotor response. Several roughened seal experiments with liquid and air have produced leakage data indicating that the friction factor increases as the seal clearance...

  10. Three-dimensional routed manifolds with externally inserted cables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breinlinger, Keith J. (Keith Joseph), 1974-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Automatic Test Equipment industry must maintain a tester accuracy of roughly one tenth the pulsewidth of the device under test (DUT). Funneling a vast number of electrical signals into a very tiny area to contact the ...

  11. The characterization of human [gamma]D-crystallin mutants and their differential interactions with the lens chaperone [alpha]B-crystallin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreau, Kate L. (Kate Lauren)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cataract, the leading cause of blindness worldwide, is the opacification of the eye lens. In.age-related cataract, as well as roughly one half of congenital cataract cases, aggregation or precipitation of crystallin proteins ...

  12. Carex geyeri. (A) Inflorescences, (B) pistillate scales, (C) perigynia, (D) achenes. B through D: Left--dorsal view; right--ventral view.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the leaves, strongly aphyllopodic. LEAVES: Generally 2. Blades: Flat or channeled, stiff with rough mar- gins wide. Nerves: Two-ribbed, otherwise absent. Beaks: Very short or obsolete, bidentate or nearly so

  13. Balance of chemistry, topography, and mechanics at the cellbiomaterial interface: Issues and challenges for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of creating surfaces with well-defined chemistry and topography combined with sensitive surface. Keywords: Surface tension; Adhesion; Surface structure, morphology, roughness, and topography; Atomic force- face chemistry, topography, or mechanics of the substrate). The surface scientist is already quite

  14. The Effect of Titanium Implants on the Peripheral Circadian Rhythm of Bone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarville, Kirstin Ty

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Titanium Figure 11. Surface Topography Data at 310x FigureVitamin D Table 3. Surface Topography of Implants from FourRough Titanium Surface  Topography  Data  310x   32mm  

  15. SOLUTION OF THE EULER EQUATIONS FOR TWO DIMENSIONAL TRANSONIC FLOW BY A MULTIGRID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jameson, Antony

    . The cruising efficiency is roughly proportional to the speed multiplied by the lift to drag ratio, so an artificial dissipative term which restricts the results to first order accuracy. In this paper it is shown

  16. Compressed Air 101: Getting Compressed Air to Work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, J. J.; Bessey, E. G.

    "Air compressors are a significant industrial energy user. Based on a survey (conducted by Oregon State University and the Bonneville Power Administration) of energy audit reports from 125 plants, air compressors account for roughly 10% of total...

  17. Parameter Identification with Adaptive Sparse Grid-based ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greg Buzzard

    2009-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    varying their values to minimize a cost function that represents the difference between the ... species, the uncertainty and complexity of the interconnected signaling .... values can be roughly estimated by back-of-the-envelope calculations or ...

  18. An Investigation of Light Scattering by Irregular Ice Crystals via PSTD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jianing

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    to determine the validity PSTD with CPML. We propose a random field model for surface irregularities of ice crystals with roughened surfaces. Results using this model show that reflection probability decreases exponentially as the roughness is increased...

  19. Green Features Tour Duke Environment Hall Landscaping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, John H.

    solar thermal panels (center) provide domestic hot water for the building. Photovoltaic Rooftop Panels More than 50 photovoltaic rooftop panels (left and right of the center panels) produce 45 kilowatts of electricity ­ enough to provide roughly 9

  20. Effective Slip over Superhydrophobic Surfaces in Thin Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feuillebois, Francois

    Superhydrophobic surfaces reduce drag by combining hydrophobicity and roughness to trap gas bubbles in a microscopic texture. Recent work has focused on specific cases, such as arrays of pillars or grooves, with limited ...

  1. The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    abnormal for potential solar customers to either ignore orthe viability of customer-sited solar markets. We hope thatas annual solar output is less than roughly 25% of customer

  2. The impact of retail rate structures on the economics of commercial photovoltaic systems in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    abnormal for potential solar customers to either ignore orthe viability of customer-sited solar markets. We hope thatas annual solar output is less than roughly 25% of customer

  3. Math4317

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The first three topics complete the coverage of single variable calculus, and the fourth, on which we shall spend roughly two thirds of the course is the basis of ...

  4. DOE/CF-0090

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    in the U.S. doubled from roughly 35 percent to 70 percent. Creating a Strong Solar Industry through Public Private Partnerships. In 2011 EERE began a five-year, 110 million...

  5. acid-based hydrogel rhbmp-2: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effect of surface composition and roughness on the apparent surface free energy of silica aerogel,1,2 microfluidics,3,4 tis- sue engineering,5,6 oilfield management,7,8 and food...

  6. anti-inflammatory peptide-functionalized hydrogels: Topics by...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effect of surface composition and roughness on the apparent surface free energy of silica aerogel,1,2 microfluidics,3,4 tis- sue engineering,5,6 oilfield management,7,8 and food...

  7. THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS VOLUME 59, NUMBER 8 15 OCTOBER 1973 Optical pumping of molecules II. Relaxation studies *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    -up of excess population in the weakly absorbing sublevels. Be- cause of the multiplicity of radiative decay. These experiments may be roughly divided into two classes: (1) structural studies, in which radiofrequency

  8. European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering ECCOMAS 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Achdou, Yves

    equations in real 3D domains (thousand of roughness elements for computational treatment) becomes a di shuttles are covered with tiles and its walls have an array of periodic gaps between the tiles. In addition

  9. 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Bulk vs surface disorder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rotter, Stefan

    . Chaikina et al, PRB 71, 085419 (2005) [3] T. Jenke et al, Nature Physics, PRE 83, 051124 (2011), M. Rendón et al, PRB 75, 205404, PRB 86, 2011106(R) (2012) Bulk vs surface disorder Rough boundary systems

  10. --No Title--

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    U.S. Market Global Market 4) The stakes are huge: As the world moves to limit carbon pollution, more than 500,000 wind turbines will be needed. At roughly 4 million each,...

  11. REAL-TIME SEGMENTATION OF 4D ULTRASOUND BY ACTIVE GEOMETRIC , Elsa D. Angelini2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    approaches can be roughly divided into several classes: classification (e.g. thresholding, k-means), region and evaluated on 35 4D ultrasound data sets with a total of 425 time frames. Quantitative comparison to manual

  12. REO to rental : the creation of a new asset class and the transformation of the American single family landscape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierson, Morgan W

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The prodigious US single-family housing market consists of roughly 80 million existing homes and of those, more than 14 million are currently being rented. This trillion-dollar rental market has traditionally been operated ...

  13. Tactile sensing using elastomeric sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Xiaodan (Xiaodan Stella)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GelSight, namely, elastomeric sensor, is a novel tactile sensor to get the 3D information of contacting surfaces. Using GelSight, some tactile properties, such as softness and roughness, could be gained through image ...

  14. alginates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effect of surface composition and roughness on the apparent surface free energy of silica aerogel,1,2 microfluidics,3,4 tis- sue engineering,5,6 oilfield management,7,8 and food...

  15. Case studies on lithography-friendly vlsi circuit layout

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Pratik Jitendra

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    showed an increase of roughly 2.2-8.8% and 1.2- 7.8% respectively for different circuits. The routing congestion by and large remains unaffected....

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: Transportation Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a roughly 50 billion per year cost to the U.S. consumer. Solid-state lighting (SSL) is an emerging technology with the potential to reduce that energy consumption by a...

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: Solid-State Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a roughly 50 billion per year cost to the U.S. consumer. Solid-state lighting (SSL) is an emerging technology with the potential to reduce that energy consumption by a...

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a roughly 50 billion per year cost to the U.S. consumer. Solid-state lighting (SSL) is an emerging technology with the potential to reduce that energy consumption by a...

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a roughly 50 billion per year cost to the U.S. consumer. Solid-state lighting (SSL) is an emerging technology with the potential to reduce that energy consumption by a...

  20. An Environmental and Economic Trade-off Analysis of Manufacturing Process Chains to Inform Decision Making for Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, Stefanie L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    have a more energy-efficient design, in which electricalan energy and resource efficient process chain design. In J.energy roughing and finish machining, plans for minimum consumable use, efficient spindle/tooling design

  1. A laboratory study of localized boundary mixing in a rotating stratified fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, Judith R. (Judith Roberta)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oceanic observations indicate that abyssal mixing is localized in regions of rough topography. How locally mixed fluid interacts with the ambient fluid is an open question. Laboratory experiments explore the interaction ...

  2. Estimating attitude and wind velocity using biomimetic sensors on a microrobotic bee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, Sawyer Buckminster

    to estimate attitude angle relative to a luminous sky. We demonstrate accurate wind velocity estimation have three light sensors, distinct from the compound eyes, that point roughly upward and sense the sky

  3. Effects and applications of capillary condensation in ultrathin nanoparticle assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gemici, Zekeriyya

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique can be used to make uniform, conformal multi-stack nanoparticle thin films from aqueous solution, with precise thickness and roughness control over each stack. Much ...

  4. Introduction to Tc/I in Hanford Flowsheet

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Introduction to TcI in Hanford Flowsheet Gary Smith Office of Waste Processing (EM-31) November 18, 2010 2 Rough Flowsheet Diagram Tank Farm Evaporator Pretreatment Evaporator IDF...

  5. Projected-search methods for box-constrained optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferry, Michael William

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    method, such as the conjugate-gradient method, to minimize aobtained from a conjugate-gradient method, the line search1 when using a conjugate-gradient method. Roughly speaking,

  6. Tactile mapping of harsh, constrained environments, with an application to oil wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzini, Francesco, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work develops a practical approach to explore rough environments when time is critical. The harsh environmental conditions prevent the use of range, force/torque or tactile sensors. A representative case is the mapping ...

  7. Urban Sewage Delivery Heat Transfer System (1): Flow Resistance and Energy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wu, R.; Li, G.; Li, X.; Huang, L.; Sun, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thimble delivery heat-transfer (TDHT) system is one of the primary modes to utilize the energy of urban sewage. Given the schematic diagram of TDHT system, introducing the definition of equivalent fouling roughness height, and using the Niklaus...

  8. alabama eastern gulf: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The angiosperm flora of eastern Asia (EAS) is roughly twice as rich as that of eastern North America (ENA), in spite of similar area and climate. Using provincestate-level...

  9. Appropriate technology water treatment processes for MaeLa Temporary Shelter, Thailand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vater, Katherine Ann

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis recommends the use of horizontal-flow roughing filters to treat spring water of variable annual quality in MaeLa Temporary Shelter, Thailand. The public drinking water system for 45,000 refugees is overseen by ...

  10. THE MATERIALS OF FAST BREEDER REACTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olander, Donald R.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    times larger in a fast reactor than in a thermal reactor,structural metals in a fast reactor will be subject to farof fuel ele- ments in fast reactors which are roughly one

  11. accretion disc theory: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    we conjecture that the limiting field strength for a thin disc is such that the Alfven speed roughly equals the geometric mean of the Keplerian speed and the gas sound speed. We...

  12. accretion disc models: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    we conjecture that the limiting field strength for a thin disc is such that the Alfven speed roughly equals the geometric mean of the Keplerian speed and the gas sound speed. We...

  13. accretion disc model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    we conjecture that the limiting field strength for a thin disc is such that the Alfven speed roughly equals the geometric mean of the Keplerian speed and the gas sound speed. We...

  14. High Frequency Electrochemical Nanopolishing of Alpha Titanium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanchwala, Abbas M

    2013-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    manufacturing techniques have been employed traditionally to manufacture microcomponents; however, these techniques would be expensive, cause surface damage, or produce a very rough surface. Electrochemical polishing is capable of machining/polishing any...

  15. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a heat engine, such as a steam turbine or sterling enginethese concentrations, a steam turbine achieves roughly 25%ratio can run a steam turbine at 35-50% efficiency, with

  16. The ENERGY STAR® Plant Label: A Valuable Component of Strategic Corporate Energy Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tunnessen, W.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ENERGY STAR is the national symbol for energy efficiency and environmental performance recognized by roughly 70% of the American people. In September 2006, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) extend the brand to industrial plants...

  17. Paying for Green: An economics literature review on the constraints to financing environmental innovation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Daniel K.N.; Lybecker, Kristina M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In addition, since fossil fuels receive close to one-quarterof subsidies for fossil fuels due to the complexity of the$50 billion. Moreover, fossil fuels receive roughly one-

  18. PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND WORKSHOP ON EXPERIMENTS AND DETECTORS FOR A RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER (RHIC), LAWRENCE BERKELEY LABORATORY, MAY 25-29, 1987

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritter, Hans Georg

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    0.1 seconds per track on a VAX 780, approximately linear into approximately 500 x VAX 780 speed (roughly a kiloVAX)coupled by Ethernet to a VAX online computer as. part of its

  19. Ten Incredibly Dangerous Software Ideas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. A. Maney

    2006-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a rough draft synopsis of a book presently in preparation. This book provides a systematic critique of the software industry. This critique is accomplished using classical methods in practical design science.

  20. Indexing spatio-temporal trajectories with efficient polynomial approximations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, J F; Ravishankar, C V

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    we only count index construction costs, completely ignoringAs with offline index construction, SETI costs roughly halfSETI incurs I/O cost for index construction lower than the

  1. Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Killer Whale Sightings in the Galapagos Marine Reserve, Ecuador

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Kerri

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    sightings and resources; and (e) spatial change in sightings with seasonality. Sightings were roughly equally distributed between non-upwelling (56%) and upwelling seasons (July-December). No direct correlation was found between sightings and the MEI...

  2. Smooth electrode and method of fabricating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Stanton Earl (Northville, NY); Kennerly, Stacey Joy (Albany, NY); Aimi, Marco Francesco (Niskayuna, NY)

    2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A smooth electrode is provided. The smooth electrode includes at least one metal layer having thickness greater than about 1 micron; wherein an average surface roughness of the smooth electrode is less than about 10 nm.

  3. IEA Bioenergy task 40 Country report for the Netherlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is used to almost 100% in Dutch power plants (mainly coal and two gas-fired plants), and can be roughly are avoided by the use of (largely imported biomass), mainly by co-firing of biomass and waste combustion

  4. 2010 Wind Technologies Market Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    weighted-average price of wind energy in 1999 was roughly $reduced near-term price expectations, wind energy?s primaryelectricity prices in 2009 pushed wind energy to the top of

  5. Implications of Modern Semiconductor Technologies on Gate Sizing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, John

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lost due to the short circuit current that flows when bothFrom [SN90], a short- circuit current expression based onindicates that the short-circuit current is roughly linear

  6. Dilaton and axion bremsstrahlung from collisions of cosmic (super)strings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Yu. Melkumova; D. V. Gal'tsov; K. Salehi

    2006-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate dilaton and axion radiation generated in the collision of two straight initially unexcited strings and give a rough cosmological estimate of dilaton and axion densities produced via this mechanism in the early universe.

  7. Federal Water Use Indices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides water use indices as a guide for Federal agencies. Note that each is a rough estimate of water usage at different types of sites. Your site may vary considerably.

  8. LANL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lost during the rise-240 gigatons, or roughly the amount that melts from the entire Greenland ice sheet each year. 6 1663 January 2015 At the same time, the Colorado River-which...

  9. NERSC/DOE BER Requirements Workshop Presentations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Author(s): Victor Markowitz | Proteomics and BLAST Scaling May 7, 2009 | Author(s): Lee Ann McCue | Rough Draft of Day-1 Summary May 7, 2009 | Author(s): NERSC staff | Analysis...

  10. Diverse outcomes of homologous recombination in the human Y chromosome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lange, Julian H. (Julian Hendrik)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mammalian sex chromosomes began diverging from an ordinary pair of autosomes roughly 300 million years ago. Inversions in the evolving Y chromosome sequentially suppressed recombination with the X chromosome. While ...

  11. Operational Impacts of Responsive Electricity Loads: A Modeling Framework Including Policy Implications for Cyprus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruchon, Matthew Bremer

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to meet EU mandates, the island nation of Cyprus must raise penetration of renewable energy from roughly 5% in 2013 to 16% in 2020. This means Cyprus will need economical ways of balancing intermittency, a special ...

  12. Multinozzle Emitter Arrays for Nanoelectrospray Mass Spectrometry 1,4 3,4 2,3 1, *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong

    increase of hydrodynamic resistance (R), which is roughly inversely proportional to the fourth power for oxidant species to reach the sealed channel surface in the following steps. Next, we performed thermal

  13. Secretary Chu Announces Over $110 Million in SunShot Projects...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1 a watt or roughly 6 cents per kilowatt-hour for utility systems - would allow solar energy systems to be broadly deployed across the country. By engaging multiple...

  14. de recherche ISSN0249-6399ISRNINRIA/RR--7109--FR+ENG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Introduction The ITER device is a tokamak designed to study controlled thermonuclear fu- sion. Roughly speaking, it is a toroidal vessel containing a magnetised plasma where fusion reactions occur. The plasma is kept out

  15. Fluffiness of dog Fluffiness of towel Inferring Analogous Attributes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grauman, Kristen

    AP) of attribute prediction: Total 664 categories x 84 attributes Smooth+Wheel White+Schnauzer Cloud+Hottub Ours, yellow Brown, white, red Shiny, wooden, wet White, gray, wooden Gray, smooth, rough White, gray, red

  16. Modeling of LNG Pool Spreading and Vaporization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basha, Omar 1988-

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the effect of boiling heat transfer regimes, friction, thermal contact/roughness correction parameter and VLE/mixture thermodynamics on the pool spreading behavior. The aim was to provide a better understanding...

  17. Comparisons with Other sources

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Excel workbook containing the data shown in these graphs. In Texas, the EIA-914 survey sample provides roughly 84 percent of the total production. Both the HPDI data and the...

  18. The Modeling of Metal Layers and Vias in RF MOSFET for Accurate Circuit Design Jaehong Lee, Yeonam Yun, *Jung Han Choi, Byung-Gook Park, Jong Duk Lee, and Hyungcheol Shin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong Duk

    layers in the MOSFET technology are necessary for interconnection line between devices and inductors a good agreement. To avoid this, there are some ways as follows. 1. The ratio of Rge to Rde is roughly

  19. Investigation of heat transfer augmentation through use of internally finned and roughened tubes : final summary report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergles A. E.

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes a three-year program concerned with obtaining basic design information for tubes having a random roughness on the inside wall (RID) and tubing having continuous internal fins (Forge Fin). Test apparatus ...

  20. Water and Energy Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, James E.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    power plants, water withdrawals for electricity generationelectricity generation in 2009 (33). Water used in thermal electric power plantsplant with CCS technologies requires roughly 1,000 gallons of water for every megawatt-hour of electricity generation (

  1. Improving parameterization of scalar transport through vegetation in a coupled ecosystem-atmosphere model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Link, Percy Anne

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several regional-scale ecosystem models currently parameterize subcanopy scalar transport using a rough-wall boundary eddy diffusivity formulation. This formulation predicts unreasonably high soil evaporation beneath tall, ...

  2. 1

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    you with just a few of our relevant operational statistics: Today, we have 17 rigs running and approximately 830 wells operational across an area of roughly 640,000 acres in...

  3. Hyper-Threading

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the same physical core, but at roughly half the speed of a single stream. If a stream running on one of the logical cores stalls, the other stream can recoup the lost cycles by...

  4. 11.013J / 21H.231J American Urban History I, Spring 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fogelson, Robert

    This course is a seminar on the history of institutions and institutional change in American cities from roughly 1850 to the present. Among the institutions to be looked at are political machines, police departments, courts, ...

  5. Polaritonics : an intermediate regime between electronics and photonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, David W. (David Wayne), 1970-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis contains the foundational work behind the field of polaritonics. Corresponding to a frequency range from roughly 100 gigahertz up to 10 terahertz, polaritonics bridges the gap between electronics and photonics. ...

  6. PDF file

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    cells, in the absence of endwall effects, have roughly square cross-section. For our .... and minimum of the radial velocity at this point over a precession period, denoted as ...... frequencies (obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry at a point).

  7. Unreliable supplies offeedstock FEATURE I DESPERATELY SEEKING MOLY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    brought down the second biggest Mo-99 producer - the Dutch High Flux Reactor in Petten - for roughly to about 30 percent of normal. Although the Petten reactor resumed operation in mid-August, its return

  8. M-E Policies and MDGS At the Millennium Assembly in September 2000, the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a global compact to reduce extreme poverty in the Millennium Declaration. The Millennium Development Goals assistance ­ roughly US$450 bn per year compared with US$15 bn.This is despite the clear truth that global

  9. Introduction Model Fitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albert, Réka

    susceptibility to disease is homogenous across the network degree distribution is roughly symmetric much the network highly skewed distribution of contacts (follows a discretized Weibull distribution) most nodesIntroduction ERGM Model Fitting Simulation References Using social network characteristics

  10. Environmental Influences on Crossflow Instability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downs, Robert 1982-

    2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The laminar-to-turbulent transition process in swept-wing boundary layers is often dominated by an inflectional instability arising from crossflow. It is now known that freestream turbulence and surface roughness are two of the key disturbance...

  11. A new spectral method for numerical solution of the unbounded ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ying He

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Jul 23, 2014 ... 0 physically accounts for energy absorption and ...... We plan to extend the method to the electromagnetic wave scattering by unbounded rough surfaces, ... Scattering and Inverse Scattering in Pure and Applied Science,.

  12. NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE | VOL 3 | OCTOBER 2013 | www.nature.com/natureclimatechange 867 news & views

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saleska, Scott

    for roughly 60% of global primary production, Earth system models (ESMs) increasingly use mechanistic | The stabilization of plant carbon into soil carbon as represented in Earth system models. Left: A classical model

  13. EECBG Success Story: Topeka’s “Green Light Tunnel” Saves Fuel and Time

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Using roughly half of its $1.2 million Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant, Topeka, Kansas installed adaptive traffic signal systems at 22 intersections across the city. Learn more.

  14. Technology Integration Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Next-Steps when R&D is completed Roughly 10% of VTP base budget supports Deployment (Technology Introduction) efforts Over 3.5 Billion Gallons of Petroleum Reduction since...

  15. Survey and evaluation of techniques to augment convective heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergles A. E.

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a survey and evaluation of the numerous techniques which have been shown to augment convective heat transfer. These techniques are: surface promoters, including roughness and treatment; displaced ...

  16. Addressing the problem with natural ventilation : producing a guide for designers to integrate natural ventilation into the early stages of building design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fennessy, Kristian (Kristian M.)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, the United States alone is responsible for approximately twenty percent of the world's total energy consumption. This consumption is equivalent to roughly 100 quadrillion Btu of energy, or in plainer terms, over ...

  17. Terrain identification methods for planetary exploration rovers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brooks, Christopher Allen, 1978-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Autonomous mobility in rough terrain is becoming increasingly important for planetary exploration rovers. Increased knowledge of local terrain properties is critical to ensure a rover's safety, especially when driving on ...

  18. Headcut retreat resulting from plunge pool erosion in a 3D landscape evolution model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores Cervantes, Javier Homero, 1977-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Headcut retreat produced by plunge pools is represented using existing concepts about this type of erosion. The model estimates retreat rates, given flow, height of the headcut, upstream slope and Manning's roughness, and ...

  19. Accepted To: IEEE 21st International Requirements Engineering Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breaux, Travis D.

    summarize the forces that influence this challenge in the legal requirements lifecycle (see Figure 1), which illustrates how legal requirements coverage can change over time. The lifecycle roughly extends Michael

  20. Poster: Inaugural lecture: When was Medieval Philosophy?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lecky-Thompson, Jenni

    Professor John Marenbon will argue against the usual belief that ‘medieval philosophy’ corresponded roughly to the Middle Ages. He will explain why such a question about chronological divisions is important, even for philosophers...