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Sample records for rotor diameter-the diameter

  1. Variable diameter wind turbine rotor blades

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jamieson, Peter McKeich; Hornzee-Jones, Chris; Moroz, Emilian M.; Blakemore, Ralph W.

    2005-12-06

    A system and method for changing wind turbine rotor diameters to meet changing wind speeds and control system loads is disclosed. The rotor blades on the wind turbine are able to adjust length by extensions nested within or containing the base blade. The blades can have more than one extension in a variety of configurations. A cable winching system, a hydraulic system, a pneumatic system, inflatable or elastic extensions, and a spring-loaded jack knife deployment are some of the methods of adjustment. The extension is also protected from lightning by a grounding system.

  2. Wake of the MOD-0A1 wind turbine at two rotor diameters downwind on December 3, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connell, J.R.; George, R.L.

    1982-11-01

    The wake of the MOD-0A1 wind turbine at Clayton, New Mexico has been measured using a vertical plane array of anemometers in a crosswind plane at a distance of two rotor diameters directly downwind of the turbine. Rotor blade vortices were well mixed into the wake turbulence and were not separately detectable. Wake swirl about the along-wind axis had a value not greater than 0.025 rad/s. Extra turbulence energy existed in the edge of the wake at a frequency of about n=0.025 Hz. The cross-wake plane analyses of wind speeds revealed a nearly circular inner portion and a strongly elliptical portion. The elliptical portion major axis was horizontal. An estimate of the average rate of reenergizing of the wake, using measurements of mean wind energy flow and turbine power, suggests that entrainment with ambient air may have been rapid. Some wake characteristics were compared with the corresponding ones for several simple wake models based upon concepts of mixing of ambient air into a wake or an equivalent coaxial jet. (LEW)

  3. rotors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rotors - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  4. Vacuum coupling of rotating superconducting rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoykhet, Boris A.; Zhang, Burt Xudong; Driscoll, David Infante

    2003-12-02

    A rotating coupling allows a vacuum chamber in the rotor of a superconducting electric motor to be continually pumped out. The coupling consists of at least two concentric portions, one of which is allowed to rotate and the other of which is stationary. The coupling is located on the non-drive end of the rotor and is connected to a coolant supply and a vacuum pump. The coupling is smaller in diameter than the shaft of the rotor so that the shaft can be increased in diameter without having to increase the size of the vacuum seal.

  5. Separators for flywheel rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, Donald A.; Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1998-01-01

    A separator forms a connection between the rotors of a concentric rotor assembly. This separator allows for the relatively free expansion of outer rotors away from inner rotors while providing a connection between the rotors that is strong enough to prevent disassembly. The rotor assembly includes at least two rotors referred to as inner and outer flywheel rings or rotors. This combination of inner flywheel ring, separator, and outer flywheel ring may be nested to include an arbitrary number of concentric rings. The separator may be a segmented or continuous ring that abuts the ends of the inner rotor and the inner bore of the outer rotor. It is supported against centrifugal loads by the outer rotor and is affixed to the outer rotor. The separator is allowed to slide with respect to the inner rotor. It is made of a material that has a modulus of elasticity that is lower than that of the rotors.

  6. Separators for flywheel rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, D.A.; Kuklo, T.C.

    1998-07-07

    A separator forms a connection between the rotors of a concentric rotor assembly. This separator allows for the relatively free expansion of outer rotors away from inner rotors while providing a connection between the rotors that is strong enough to prevent disassembly. The rotor assembly includes at least two rotors referred to as inner and outer flywheel rings or rotors. This combination of inner flywheel ring, separator, and outer flywheel ring may be nested to include an arbitrary number of concentric rings. The separator may be a segmented or continuous ring that abuts the ends of the inner rotor and the inner bore of the outer rotor. It is supported against centrifugal loads by the outer rotor and is affixed to the outer rotor. The separator is allowed to slide with respect to the inner rotor. It is made of a material that has a modulus of elasticity that is lower than that of the rotors. 10 figs.

  7. Sandia Energy - SMART Rotor Video

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SMART Rotor Video Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Wind Energy Resources Wind Energy Publications Online Abstracts and Reports SMART Rotor Video SMART Rotor...

  8. Investigating Aeroelastic Performance of Multi-Mega Watt Wind Turbine Rotors Using CFD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigating Aeroelastic Performance of Multi-MegaWatt Wind Turbine Rotors Using CFD David A. Corson 1 Altair Engineering, Inc., Clifton Park, NY, 12065 D. Todd Griffith 2 Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, 87185 Tom Ashwill 3 Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, 87185 Farzin Shakib 4 Altair Engineering, Inc., Mountain View, CA, 94043 Recent trends in wind power technology are focusing on increasing power output through an increase in rotor diameter. As the rotor diameter

  9. Rotor Aerodynamic Design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerodynamic Design - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us ... Twitter Google + Vimeo GovDelivery SlideShare Rotor Aerodynamic Design HomeStationary ...

  10. Single Rotor Turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Platts, David A.

    2004-10-26

    A rotor for use in turbine applications has a centrifugal compressor having axially disposed spaced apart fins forming passages and an axial turbine having hollow turbine blades interleaved with the fins and through which fluid from the centrifugal compressor flows.

  11. Double diameter boring tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashbaugh, Fred N.; Murry, Kenneth R.

    1988-12-27

    A boring tool and a method of operation are provided for boring two concentric holes of precision diameters and depths in a single operation. The boring tool includes an elongated tool body, a shank for attachment to a standard adjustable boring head which is used on a manual or numerical control milling machine and first and second diametrically opposed cutting edges formed for cutting in opposite directions. The diameter of the elongated tool body is substantially equal to the distance from the first cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation plus the distance from the second cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation. The axis of rotation of the tool is spaced from the tool centerline a distance substantially equal to one-half the distance from the second cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation minus one-half the distance from the first cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation. The method includes the step of inserting the boring tool into the boring head, adjusting the distance between the tool centerline and the tool axis of rotation as described above and boring the two concentric holes.

  12. Double diameter boring tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashbaugh, F.A.; Murry, K.R.

    1986-02-10

    A boring tool and a method of operation are provided for boring two concentric holes of precision diameters and depths in a single operation. The boring tool includes an elongated tool body, a shank for attachment to a standard adjustable boring head which is used on a manual or numerical control milling machine and first and second diametrically opposed cutting flutes formed for cutting in opposite directions. The diameter of the elongated tool body is substantially equal to the distance from the first flute tip to the axis of rotation plus the distance from the second flute tip to the axis of rotation. The axis of rotation of the tool is spaced from the tool centerline a distance substantially equal to one-half the distance from the second flute tip to the axis of rotation minus one-half the distance from the first flute tip to the axis of rotation. The method includes the step of inserting the boring tool into the boring head, adjusting the distance between the tool centerline and the tool axis of rotation as described above and boring the two concentric holes.

  13. Single rotor turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Platts, David A.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented a turbine engine with a single rotor which cools the engine, functions as a radial compressor, pushes air through the engine to the ignition point, and acts as an axial turbine for powering the compressor. The invention engine is designed to use a simple scheme of conventional passage shapes to provide both a radial and axial flow pattern through the single rotor, thereby allowing the radial intake air flow to cool the turbine blades and turbine exhaust gases in an axial flow to be used for energy transfer. In an alternative embodiment, an electric generator is incorporated in the engine to specifically adapt the invention for power generation. Magnets are embedded in the exhaust face of the single rotor proximate to a ring of stationary magnetic cores with windings to provide for the generation of electricity. In this alternative embodiment, the turbine is a radial inflow turbine rather than an axial turbine as used in the first embodiment. Radial inflow passages of conventional design are interleaved with radial compressor passages to allow the intake air to cool the turbine blades.

  14. Polygonal shaft hole rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hussey, John H.; Rose, John Scott; Meystrik, Jeffrey J.; White, Kent Lee

    2001-01-23

    A laminated rotor for an induction motor has a plurality of ferro-magnetic laminations mounted axially on a rotor shaft. Each of the plurality of laminations has a central aperture in the shape of a polygon with sides of equal length. The laminations are alternatingly rotated 180.degree. from one another so that the straight sides of the polygon shaped apertures are misaligned. As a circular rotor shaft is press fit into a stack of laminations, the point of maximum interference occurs at the midpoints of the sides of the polygon (i.e., at the smallest radius of the central apertures of the laminations). Because the laminates are alternatingly rotated, the laminate material at the points of maximum interference yields relatively easily into the vertices (i.e., the greatest radius of the central aperture) of the polygonal central aperture of the next lamination as the shaft is inserted into the stack of laminations. Because of this yielding process, the amount of force required to insert the shaft is reduced, and a tighter fit is achieved.

  15. Homopolar motor with dual rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, J.S.

    1998-12-01

    A homopolar motor has a field rotor mounted on a frame for rotation in a first rotational direction and for producing an electromagnetic field, and an armature rotor mounted for rotation on said frame within said electromagnetic field and in a second rotational direction counter to said first rotational direction of said field rotor. The two rotors are coupled through a 1:1 gearing mechanism, so as to travel at the same speed but in opposite directions. This doubles the output voltage and output power, as compared to a motor in which only the armature is rotated. Several embodiments are disclosed. 7 figs.

  16. Homopolar motor with dual rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.

    1998-01-01

    A homopolar motor (10) has a field rotor (15) mounted on a frame (11) for rotation in a first rotational direction and for producing an electromagnetic field, and an armature rotor (17) mounted for rotation on said frame (11) within said electromagnetic field and in a second rotational direction counter to said first rotational direction of said field rotor (15). The two rotors (15, 17) are coupled through a 1:1 gearing mechanism (19), so as to travel at the same speed but in opposite directions. This doubles the output voltage and output power, as compared to a motor in which only the armature is rotated. Several embodiments are disclosed.

  17. Rotor Blade Sensors and Instrumentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EnergyWater Nexus EnergyWater History Water Monitoring & Treatment Technology Decision ... rotor thrust loading-and detect any vibration that may be out of the ordinary; ...

  18. Rotor component displacement measurement system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mercer, Gary D.; Li, Ming C.; Baum, Charles R.

    2003-05-27

    A measuring system for measuring axial displacement of a tube relative to an axially stationary component in a rotating rotor assembly includes at least one displacement sensor adapted to be located normal to a longitudinal axis of the tube; an insulated cable system adapted for passage through the rotor assembly; a rotatable proximitor module located axially beyond the rotor assembly to which the cables are connected; and a telemetry system operatively connected to the proximitor module for sampling signals from the proximitor module and forwarding data to a ground station.

  19. Wind turbine rotor aileron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coleman, Clint; Kurth, William T.

    1994-06-14

    A wind turbine has a rotor with at least one blade which has an aileron which is adjusted by an actuator. A hinge has two portions, one for mounting a stationary hinge arm to the blade, the other for coupling to the aileron actuator. Several types of hinges can be used, along with different actuators. The aileron is designed so that it has a constant chord with a number of identical sub-assemblies. The leading edge of the aileron has at least one curved portion so that the aileron does not vent over a certain range of angles, but vents if the position is outside the range. A cyclic actuator can be mounted to the aileron to adjust the position periodically. Generally, the aileron will be adjusted over a range related to the rotational position of the blade. A method for operating the cyclic assembly is also described.

  20. SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Design and Field Test

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Design and field test results from the SMART Rotor project, a wind turbine rotor with integrated trailing-edge flaps designed for active control of the rotor aerodynamics.

  1. Stellar diameters and temperatures. IV. Predicting stellar angular diameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Van Belle, Gerard; Von Braun, Kaspar

    2014-03-01

    The number of stellar angular diameter measurements has greatly increased over the past few years due to innovations and developments in the field of long baseline optical interferometry. We use a collection of high-precision angular diameter measurements for nearby, main-sequence stars to develop empirical relations that allow the prediction of stellar angular sizes as a function of observed photometric color. These relations are presented for a combination of 48 broadband color indices. We empirically show for the first time a dependence on metallicity of these relations using Johnson (B – V) and Sloan (g – r) colors. Our relations are capable of predicting diameters with a random error of less than 5% and represent the most robust and empirical determinations of stellar angular sizes to date.

  2. SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Data Analysis and Conclusions | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Data Analysis and Conclusions SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Data Analysis and Conclusions Data analysis and conclusions from the SMART Rotor project, a wind turbine rotor with integrated trailing-edge flaps designed for active control of the rotor aerodynamics. SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Data Analysis and Conclusions (2.47 MB) More Documents & Publications SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Data Analysis and Conclusions SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Design and Field Test

  3. Hi-Q Rotor - Low Wind Speed Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd E. Mills; Judy Tatum

    2010-01-11

    The project objective was to optimize the performance of the Hi-Q Rotor. Early research funded by the California Energy Commission indicated the design might be advantageous over state-of-the-art turbines for collecting wind energy in low wind conditions. The Hi-Q Rotor is a new kind of rotor targeted for harvesting wind in Class 2, 3, and 4 sites, and has application in areas that are closer to cities, or 'load centers.' An advantage of the Hi-Q Rotor is that the rotor has non-conventional blade tips, producing less turbulence, and is quieter than standard wind turbine blades which is critical to the low-wind populated urban sites. Unlike state-of-the-art propeller type blades, the Hi-Q Rotor has six blades connected by end caps. In this phase of the research funded by DOE's Inventions and Innovation Program, the goal was to improve the current design by building a series of theoretical and numeric models, and composite prototypes to determine a best of class device. Development of the rotor was performed by aeronautical engineering and design firm, DARcorporation. From this investigation, an optimized design was determined and an 8-foot diameter, full-scale rotor was built and mounted using a Bergey LX-1 generator and furling system which were adapted to support the rotor. The Hi-Q Rotor was then tested side-by-side against the state-of-the-art Bergey XL-1 at the Alternative Energy Institute's Wind Test Center at West Texas State University for six weeks, and real time measurements of power generated were collected and compared. Early wind tunnel testing showed that the cut-in-speed of the Hi-Q rotor is much lower than a conventional tested HAWT enabling the Hi-Q Wind Turbine to begin collecting energy before a conventional HAWT has started spinning. Also, torque at low wind speeds for the Hi-Q Wind Turbine is higher than the tested conventional HAWT and enabled the wind turbine to generate power at lower wind speeds. Based on the data collected, the results of

  4. Rotor assembly and assay method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1993-09-07

    A rotor assembly for carrying out an assay includes a rotor body which is rotatable about an axis of rotation, and has a central chamber and first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth chambers which are in communication with and radiate from the central chamber. The rotor assembly further includes a shuttle which is movable through the central chamber and insertable into any of the chambers, the shuttle including a reaction cup carrying an immobilized antigen or an antibody for transport among the chambers. A method for carrying out an assay using the rotor assembly includes moving the reaction cup among the six chambers by passing the cup through the central chamber between centrifugation steps in order to perform the steps of: separating plasma from blood cells, binding plasma antibody or antigen, washing, drying, binding enzyme conjugate, reacting with enzyme substrate and optically comparing the resulting reaction product with unreacted enzyme substrate solution. The movement of the reaction cup can be provided by attaching a magnet to the reaction cup and supplying a moving magnetic field to the rotor. 34 figures.

  5. Rotor assembly and assay method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burtis, Carl A.; Johnson, Wayne F.; Walker, William A.

    1993-01-01

    A rotor assembly for carrying out an assay includes a rotor body which is rotatable about an axis of rotation, and has a central chamber and first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth chambers which are in communication with and radiate from the central chamber. The rotor assembly further includes a shuttle which is movable through the central chamber and insertable into any of the chambers, the shuttle including a reaction cup carrying an immobilized antigen or an antibody for transport among the chambers. A method for carrying out an assay using the rotor assembly includes moving the reaction cup among the six chambers by passing the cup through the central chamber between centrifugation steps in order to perform the steps of: separating plasma from blood cells, binding plasma antibody or antigen, washing, drying, binding enzyme conjugate, reacting with enzyme substrate and optically comparing the resulting reaction product with unreacted enzyme substrate solution. The movement of the reaction cup can be provided by attaching a magnet to the reaction cup and supplying a moving magnetic field to the rotor.

  6. Axial seal system for a gas turbine steam-cooled rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mashey, Thomas Charles

    2002-01-01

    An axial seal assembly is provided at the interface between adjacent wheels and spacers of a gas turbine rotor and disposed about tubes passing through openings in the rotor adjacent the rotor rim and carrying a thermal medium. Each seal assembly includes a support bushing for supporting a land of the thermal medium carrying tube, an axially registering seat bushing disposed in the opposed opening and a frustoconical seal between the seal bushing and seat. The seal bushing includes a radial flange having an annular recess for retaining the outer diameter edge of the seal, while the seat bushing has an axially facing annular surface forming a seat for engagement by the inner diameter edge of the seal.

  7. Ener G Rotors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rotors Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ener-G-Rotors Place: Schenectady, California Zip: 12305 Product: California-based company converts hot water or steam as an input to...

  8. Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hultgren, Kent Goran (Winter Park, FL); McLaurin, Leroy Dixon (Winter Springs, FL); Bertsch, Oran Leroy (Titusville, FL); Lowe, Perry Eugene (Oviedo, FL)

    1998-01-01

    A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn.

  9. Rotor for centrifugal fast analyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, N.E.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is an improved photometric analyzer of the rotary cuvette type, the analyzer incorporating a multicuvette rotor of novel design. The rotor (a) is leaktight, (b) permits operation in the 90/sup 0/ and 180/sup 0/ excitation modes, (c) is compatible with extensively used Centrifugal Fast Analyzers, and (d) can be used thousands of times. The rotor includes an assembly comprising a top plate, a bottom plate, and a central plate, the rim of the central plate being formed with circumferentially spaced indentations. A uv-transmitting ring is sealably affixed to the indented rim to define with the indentations an array of cuvettes. The ring serves both as a sealing means and an end window for the cuvettes.

  10. Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hultgren, K.G.; McLaurin, L.D.; Bertsch, O.L.; Lowe, P.E.

    1998-05-26

    A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn. 5 figs.

  11. Rotor for centrifugal fast analyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Norman E.

    1985-01-01

    The invention is an improved photometric analyzer of the rotary cuvette type, the analyzer incorporating a multicuvette rotor of novel design. The rotor (a) is leaktight, (b) permits operation in the 90.degree. and 180.degree. excitation modes, (c) is compatible with extensively used Centrifugal Fast Analyzers, and (d) can be used thousands of times. The rotor includes an assembly comprising a top plate, a bottom plate, and a central plate, the rim of the central plate being formed with circumferentially spaced indentations. A UV-transmitting ring is sealably affixed to the indented rim to define with the indentations an array of cuvettes. The ring serves both as a sealing means and an end window for the cuvettes.

  12. Filter type rotor for multistation photometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shumate, II, Starling E.

    1977-07-12

    A filter type rotor for a multistation photometer is provided. The rotor design combines the principle of cross-flow filtration with centrifugal sedimentation so that these occur simultaneously as a first stage of processing for suspension type fluids in an analytical type instrument. The rotor is particularly useful in whole-blood analysis.

  13. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanacek, D.L.; Pike, C.D.

    1982-07-13

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly having a tubular insulator extending between the ground plane ring and the high voltage ring. The insulator is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring to the high voltage ring, producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall of the insulator to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly.

  14. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanecek, David L.; Pike, Chester D.

    1984-01-01

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly (10) having a tubular insulator (15) extending between the ground plane ring (16) and the high voltage ring (30). The insulator (15) is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring (16) to the high voltage ring (30), producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall (27) of the insulator (15) to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly (10).

  15. Rotor blades for turbine engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piersall, Matthew R; Potter, Brian D

    2013-02-12

    A tip shroud that includes a plurality of damping fins, each damping fin including a substantially non-radially-aligned surface that is configured to make contact with a tip shroud of a neighboring rotor blade. At least one damping fin may include a leading edge damping fin and at least one damping fin may include a trailing edge damping fin. The leading edge damping fin may be configured to correspond to the trailing edge damping fin.

  16. Rotary engine with inserts in rotor faces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, C.

    1992-06-23

    This patent describes a rotor for a rotary combustion engine. It comprises a plurality of circumferentially spaced apex portions, a plurality of working surfaces extending between adjacent apex portions, each working surface having a recess formed therein, and an insulating plate for each recess, characterized by: a slot formed in the rotor adjacent one end of each recess, the rotor having a lip which radially separates each slot from the working surface; and one end of each plate being rigidly fixed to the rotor and a second end of each plate being slidably received in a corresponding one of the slots.

  17. Method for manufacturing a rotor having superconducting coils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Driscoll, David I.; Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for manufacturing a rotor for use with a rotating machine is provided that employs a superconducting coil on the rotor. An adhesive is applied to an outer surface of the rotor body, which may include a groove disposed within an outer surface of the rotor body. A superconducting coil is then mounted onto the rotor body such that the adhesive bonds the superconducting coil to the rotor body.

  18. SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Design and Field Test | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Design and Field Test SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Design and Field Test This report documents the design, fabrication, and testing of the SMART Wind Turbine Rotor. This work ...

  19. Radial-radial single rotor turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Platts, David A.

    2006-05-16

    A rotor for use in turbine applications has a radial compressor/pump having radially disposed spaced apart fins forming passages and a radial turbine having hollow turbine blades interleaved with the fins and through which fluid from the radial compressor/pump flows. The rotor can, in some applications, be used to produce electrical power.

  20. Multiple piece turbine rotor blade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Russell B; Fedock, John A

    2013-05-21

    A multiple piece turbine rotor blade with a shell having an airfoil shape and secured between a spar and a platform with the spar including a tip end piece. a snap ring fits around the spar and abuts against the spar tip end piece on a top side and abuts against a shell on the bottom side so that the centrifugal loads from the shell is passed through the snap ring and into the spar and not through a tip cap dovetail slot and projection structure.

  1. Substantially parallel flux uncluttered rotor machines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.

    2012-12-11

    A permanent magnet-less and brushless synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic rotating field when sourced by polyphase alternating currents. An uncluttered rotor is positioned within the magnetic rotating field and is spaced apart from the stator. An excitation core is spaced apart from the stator and the uncluttered rotor and magnetically couples the uncluttered rotor. The brushless excitation source generates a magnet torque by inducing magnetic poles near an outer peripheral surface of the uncluttered rotor, and the stator currents also generate a reluctance torque by a reaction of the difference between the direct and quadrature magnetic paths of the uncluttered rotor. The system can be used either as a motor or a generator

  2. Final project report: High energy rotor development, test and evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-09-01

    Under the auspices of the {open_quotes}Government/Industry Wind Technology Applications Project{close_quotes} [{open_quotes}Letter of Interest{close_quotes} (LOI) Number RC-1-11101], Flo Wind Corp. has successfully developed, tested, and delivered a high-energy rotor upgrade candidate for their 19-meter Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. The project included the demonstration of the innovative extended height-to-diameter ratio concept, the development of a continuous span single-piece composite blade, the demonstration of a continuous blade manufacturing technique, the utilization of the Sandia National Laboratories developed SNLA 2150 natural laminar flow airfoil and the reuse of existing wind turbine and wind power plant infrastructure.

  3. Interlayer toughening of fiber composite flywheel rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groves, S.E.; Deteresa, S.J.

    1998-07-14

    An interlayer toughening mechanism is described to mitigate the growth of damage in fiber composite flywheel rotors for long application. The interlayer toughening mechanism may comprise one or more tough layers composed of high-elongation fibers, high-strength fibers arranged in a woven pattern at a range from 0{degree} to 90{degree} to the rotor axis and bound by a ductile matrix material which adheres to and is compatible with the materials used for the bulk of the rotor. The number and spacing of the tough interlayers is a function of the design requirements and expected lifetime of the rotor. The mechanism has particular application in uninterruptable power supplies, electrical power grid reservoirs, and compulsators for electric guns, as well as electromechanical batteries for vehicles. 2 figs.

  4. Wind turbine rotor hub and teeter joint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coleman, Clint; Kurth, William T.; Jankowski, Joseph

    1994-10-11

    A rotor hub is provided for coupling a wind turbine rotor blade and a shaft. The hub has a yoke with a body which is connected to the shaft, and extension portions which are connected to teeter bearing blocks, each of which has an aperture. The blocks are connected to a saddle which envelops the rotor blade by one or two shafts which pass through the apertures in the bearing blocks. The saddle and blade are separated by a rubber interface which provides for distribution of stress over a larger portion of the blade. Two teeter control mechanisms, which may include hydraulic pistons and springs, are connected to the rotor blade and to the yoke at extension portions. These control mechanisms provide end-of-stroke damping, braking, and stiffness based on the teeter angle and speed of the blade.

  5. Interlayer toughening of fiber composite flywheel rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groves, Scott E.; Deteresa, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    An interlayer toughening mechanism to mitigate the growth of damage in fiber composite flywheel rotors for long application. The interlayer toughening mechanism may comprise one or more tough layers composed of high-elongation fibers, high-strength fibers arranged in a woven pattern at a range from 0.degree. to 90.degree. to the rotor axis and bound by a ductile matrix material which adheres to and is compatible with the materials used for the bulk of the rotor. The number and spacing of the tough interlayers is a function of the design requirements and expected lifetime of the rotor. The mechanism has particular application in uninterruptable power supplies, electrical power grid reservoirs, and compulsators for electric guns, as well as electromechanical batteries for vehicles.

  6. Growth of nanostructures with controlled diameter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfefferle, Lisa; Haller, Gary; Ciuparu, Dragos

    2009-02-03

    Transition metal-substituted MCM-41 framework structures with a high degree of structural order and a narrow pore diameter distribution were reproducibly synthesized by a hydrothermal method using a surfactant and an anti-foaming agent. The pore size and the mesoporous volume depend linearly on the surfactant chain length. The transition metals, such as cobalt, are incorporated substitutionally and highly dispersed in the silica framework. Single wall carbon nanotubes with a narrow diameter distribution that correlates with the pore diameter of the catalytic framework structure were prepared by a Boudouard reaction. Nanostructures with a specified diameter or cross-sectional area can therefore be predictably prepared by selecting a suitable pore size of the framework structure.

  7. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandon, E.D.; Hooper, F.M.; Reichenbach, M.L.

    1992-08-11

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut. 1 figure.

  8. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandon, Eldon D.; Hooper, Frederick M.; Reichenbach, Marvin L.

    1992-01-01

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut.

  9. The Influence of Rotor Blade Design on Wake Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Influence of Rotor Blade Design on Wake Development - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon ... Twitter Google + Vimeo GovDelivery SlideShare The Influence of Rotor Blade Design on Wake ...

  10. Data analysis and conclusions from the SMART Rotor project, a...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Design and Field Test Jonathan C. Berg, Brian R. Resor, Joshua ... SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Design and Field Test Jonathan C. Berg, Brian R. Resor, Joshua ...

  11. PN Rotor GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PN Rotor GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: PN Rotor GmbH Place: Lower Saxony, Germany Sector: Wind energy Product: Germany-based subsidiary of Prokon Nord Energiesysteme GmbH...

  12. Submicron diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hill, Cary; Homa, Daniel; Liu, Bo; Yu, Zhihao; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary

    2014-10-02

    In this work, a submicron-diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber was demonstrated via wet acid etching at elevated temperatures. Etch rates on the order 2.3 µm/hr were achievable with a 3:1 molar ratio sulfuric-phosphoric acid solution maintained at a temperature of 343°C. A sapphire fiber with an approximate diameter of 800 nm was successfully fabricated from a commercially available fiber with an original diameter of 50 µm. The simple and controllable etching technique provides a feasible approach to the fabrication of unique waveguide structures via traditional silica masking techniques. The ability to tailor the geometry of sapphire optical fibers ismore » the first step in achieving optical and sensing performance on par with its fused silica counterpart.« less

  13. Rotor bore and turbine rotor wheel/spacer heat exchange flow circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caruso, Philip M.; Eldrid, Sacheverel Quentin; Ladhani, Azad A.; DeMania, Alan Richard; Palmer, Gene David; Wilson, Ian David; Rathbun, Lisa Shirley; Akin, Robert Craig

    2002-01-01

    In a turbine having closed-circuit steam-cooling passages about the rim of the rotor during steady-state operation, compressor discharge air is supplied to the rotor bore for passage radially outwardly into the wheel space cavities between the wheels and spacers. Communicating slots and channels in the spacers and wheels at circumferentially spaced positions enable egress of the compressor discharge air into the hot gas flow path. At turbine startup, cooling air flows through the closed-circuit steam passages to cool the outer rim of the rotor while compressor discharge air pre-warms the wheels and spacers. At steady-state, cooling steam is supplied in the closed-circuit steam-cooling passages and compressor discharge air is supplied through the bore and into the wheel space cavities to cool the rotor.

  14. Flywheel system using wire-wound rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiao, Edward Young; Bender, Donald Arthur; Means, Andrew E.; Snyder, Philip K.

    2016-06-07

    A flywheel is described having a rotor constructed of wire wound onto a central form. The wire is prestressed, thus mitigating stresses that occur during operation. In another aspect, the flywheel incorporates a low-loss motor using electrically non-conducting permanent magnets.

  15. Utilization of rotor kinetic energy storage for hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, John S.

    2011-05-03

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine, the power system comprises an electric machine (12) further comprising a first excitation source (47), a permanent magnet rotor (28) and a magnetic coupling rotor (26) spaced from the permanent magnet rotor and at least one second excitation source (43), the magnetic coupling rotor (26) also including a flywheel having an inertial mass to store kinetic energy during an initial acceleration to an operating speed; and wherein the first excitation source is electrically connected to the second excitation source for power cycling such that the flywheel rotor (26) exerts torque on the permanent magnet rotor (28) to assist braking and acceleration of the permanent magnet rotor (28) and consequently, the vehicle. An axial gap machine and a radial gap machine are disclosed and methods of the invention are also disclosed.

  16. Small diameter, deep bore optical inspection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lord, David E.; Petrini, Richard R.; Carter, Gary W.

    1981-01-01

    An improved rod optic system for inspecting small diameter, deep bores. The system consists of a rod optic system utilizing a curved mirror at the end of the rod lens such that the optical path through the system is bent 90.degree. to minimize optical distortion in examining the sides of a curved bore. The system is particularly useful in the examination of small bores for corrosion, and is capable of examining 1/16 inch diameter and up to 4 inch deep drill holes, for example. The positioning of the curved mirror allows simultaneous viewing from shallow and right angle points of observation of the same artifact (such as corrosion) in the bore hole. The improved rod optic system may be used for direct eye sighting, or in combination with a still camera or a low-light television monitor; particularly low-light color television.

  17. Small diameter, deep bore optical inspection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lord, D.E.; Petrini, R.R.; Carter, G.W.

    An improved rod optic system for inspecting small diameter, deep bores is described. The system consists of a rod optic system utilizing a curved mirror at the end of the rod lens such that the optical path through the system is bent 90/sup 0/ to minimize optical distortion in examing the sides of a curved bore. The system is particularly useful in the examination of small bores for corrosion, and is capable if examing 1/16 inch diameter and up to 4-inch deep drill holes, for example. The positioning of the curved mirror allows simultaneous viewing from shallow and righ angle points of observation of the same artifact (such as corrosion) in the bore hole. The improved rod optic system may be used for direct eye sighting, or in combination with a still camera or a low-light television monitor; particularly low-light color television.

  18. Lasing in microdisks of ultrasmall diameter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhukov, A. E. Kryzhanovskaya, N. V.; Maximov, M. V.; Lipovskii, A. A.; Savelyev, A. V.; Bogdanov, A. A.; Shostak, I. I.; Moiseev, E. I.; Karpov, D. V.; Laukkanen, J.; Tommila, J.

    2014-12-15

    It is demonstrated by calculations and experimental results that room-temperature lasing can be obtained at the ground-state optical transition of InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots in optical microcavities with a record-small diameter of 1.5 ?m. In 1-?m cavities, lasing occurs at the wavelength of one of the whispering-gallery modes within the band corresponding to the first excited-state optical transition.

  19. Electrofriction method of manufacturing squirrel cage rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.

    2005-04-12

    A method of making a squirrel cage rotor of copper material for use in AC or DC motors, includes forming a core with longitudinal slots, inserting bars of conductive material in the slots, with ends extending out of opposite ends of the core, and joining the end rings to the bars, wherein the conductive material of either the end rings or the bars is copper. Various methods of joining the end rings to the bars are disclosed including electrofriction welding, current pulse welding and brazing, transient liquid phase joining and casting. Pressure is also applied to the end rings to improve contact and reduce areas of small or uneven contact between the bar ends and the end rings. Rotors made with such methods are also disclosed.

  20. Closed continuous-flow centrifuge rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Breillatt, Jr., Julian P.; Remenyik, Carl J.; Sartory, Walter K.; Thacker, Louis H.; Penland, William Z.

    1976-01-01

    A blood separation centrifuge rotor having a generally parabolic core disposed concentrically and spaced apart within a housing having a similarly shaped cavity. Blood is introduced through a central inlet and into a central passageway enlarged downwardly to decrease the velocity of the entrant blood. Septa are disposed inside the central passageway to induce rotation of the entrant blood. A separation chamber is defined between the core and the housing wherein the whole blood is separated into red cell, white cell, and plasma zones. The zones are separated by annular splitter blades disposed within the separation chamber. The separated components are continuously removed through conduits communicating through a face seal to the outside of the rotor.

  1. Rotor assembly and method for automatically processing liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1992-12-22

    A rotor assembly is described for performing a relatively large number of processing steps upon a sample, such as a whole blood sample, and a diluent, such as water. It includes a rotor body for rotation about an axis and includes a network of chambers within which various processing steps are performed upon the sample and diluent and passageways through which the sample and diluent are transferred. A transfer mechanism is movable through the rotor body by the influence of a magnetic field generated adjacent the transfer mechanism and movable along the rotor body, and the assembly utilizes centrifugal force, a transfer of momentum and capillary action to perform any of a number of processing steps such as separation, aliquoting, transference, washing, reagent addition and mixing of the sample and diluent within the rotor body. The rotor body is particularly suitable for automatic immunoassay analyses. 34 figs.

  2. Rotor assembly and method for automatically processing liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burtis, Carl A.; Johnson, Wayne F.; Walker, William A.

    1992-01-01

    A rotor assembly for performing a relatively large number of processing steps upon a sample, such as a whole blood sample, and a diluent, such as water, includes a rotor body for rotation about an axis and including a network of chambers within which various processing steps are performed upon the sample and diluent and passageways through which the sample and diluent are transferred. A transfer mechanism is movable through the rotor body by the influence of a magnetic field generated adjacent the transfer mechanism and movable along the rotor body, and the assembly utilizes centrifugal force, a transfer of momentum and capillary action to perform any of a number of processing steps such as separation, aliquoting, transference, washing, reagent addition and mixing of the sample and diluent within the rotor body. The rotor body is particularly suitable for automatic immunoassay analyses.

  3. Double-ended ceramic helical-rotor expander

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohr, Peter B.; Myers, Wendell B.

    1995-01-01

    A ceramic helical rotor expander using a double-ended or tandem herringbone type rotor arrangement with bearing and seal assemblies remote from the hot gas inlets and especially capable of operating at an inlet temperature of above 1100.degree. C. The rotors are solid or hollow and bonded to hollow metal shafts, and mounted in a composite or simple prismatic casing. The rotors, casing and shafts are constructed from low expansivity materials. In the preferred embodiment the rotors are constructed of silicon nitride and the shafts constructed of an molybdenum alloy, with the metal shafts being supported in bearings and secured to synchronizing gears. The rotors and casing may be provided with coolant channels therein, and are constructed to eliminate the problem of end leakages at inlet temperature and pressure, and the need for high temperature bearings and seals.

  4. Double-ended ceramic helical-rotor expander

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohr, P.B.; Myers, W.B.

    1995-02-28

    A ceramic helical rotor expander is disclosed using a double-ended or tandem herringbone type rotor arrangement with bearing and seal assemblies remote from the hot gas inlets and especially capable of operating at an inlet temperature of above 1,100 C. The rotors are solid or hollow and bonded to hollow metal shafts, and mounted in a composite or simple prismatic casing. The rotors, casing and shafts are constructed from low expansivity materials. In the preferred embodiment the rotors are constructed of silicon nitride and the shafts constructed of an molybdenum alloy, with the metal shafts being supported in bearings and secured to synchronizing gears. The rotors and casing may be provided with coolant channels therein, and are constructed to eliminate the problem of end leakages at inlet temperature and pressure, and the need for high temperature bearings and seals. 3 figs.

  5. Locally fabricated Savonius rotor wind water pumps. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, S.

    1982-12-31

    A prototype Savonius rotor and supporting structure were designed and fabricated to power several configurations of water pumps. In addition, several commercially available horizontal axis water pumping windmills were purchased and installed adjacent to the Savonius rotor prototype such that simultaneous real-time data could be compared. The Savonius rotor was found to be materials intensive and difficult to govern at high wind speeds, and the horizontal axis machines were found to be more cost effective. (LEW)

  6. Rotor for processing liquids using movable capillary tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Wayne F.; Burtis, Carl A.; Walker, William A.

    1989-05-30

    A rotor assembly for processing liquids, especially whole blood samples, is disclosed. The assembly includes apparatus for separating non-liquid components of whole blood samples from liquid components, apparatus for diluting the separated liquid component with a diluent and apparatus for transferring the diluted sample to an external apparatus for analysis. The rotor assembly employs several movable capillary tubes to handle the sample and diluents. A method for using the rotor assembly to process liquids is also described.

  7. Rotor for processing liquids using movable capillary tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Wayne F.; Burtis, Carl A.; Walker, William A.

    1989-01-01

    A rotor assembly for processing liquids, especially whole blood samples, is disclosed. The assembly includes apparatus for separating non-liquid components of whole blood samples from liquid components, apparatus for diluting the separated liquid component with a diluent and apparatus for transferring the diluted sample to an external apparatus for analysis. The rotor assembly employs several movable capillary tubes to handle the sample and diluents. A method for using the rotor assembly to process liquids is also described.

  8. Rotor for processing liquids using movable capillary tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, W.F.; Burtis, C.A.; Walker, W.A.

    1987-07-17

    A rotor assembly for processing liquids, especially whole blood samples, is disclosed. The assembly includes apparatus for separating non-liquid components of whole blood samples from liquid components, apparatus for diluting the separated liquid component with a diluent and apparatus for transferring the diluted sample to an external apparatus for analysis. The rotor assembly employs several movable capillary tubes to handle the sample and diluents. A method for using the rotor assembly to process liquids is also described. 5 figs.

  9. Thread gauge for measuring thread pitch diameters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brewster, Albert L.

    1985-01-01

    A thread gauge which attaches to a vernier caliper to measure the thread pitch diameter of both externally threaded and internally threaded parts. A pair of anvils are externally threaded with threads having the same pitch as those of the threaded part. Each anvil is mounted on a stem having a ball on which the anvil can rotate to properly mate with the parts to which the anvils are applied. The stems are detachably secured to the caliper blades by attachment collars having keyhole openings for receiving the stems and caliper blades. A set screw is used to secure each collar on its caliper blade.

  10. Thread gauge for measuring thread pitch diameters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brewster, A.L.

    1985-11-19

    A thread gauge which attaches to a vernier caliper to measure the thread pitch diameter of both externally threaded and internally threaded parts is disclosed. A pair of anvils are externally threaded with threads having the same pitch as those of the threaded part. Each anvil is mounted on a stem having a ball on which the anvil can rotate to properly mate with the parts to which the anvils are applied. The stems are detachably secured to the caliper blades by attachment collars having keyhole openings for receiving the stems and caliper blades. A set screw is used to secure each collar on its caliper blade. 2 figs.

  11. Sandia Energy - Structural and Mechanical Adaptive Rotor Technology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Mechanical Adaptive Rotor Technology (SMART) Final Project Reports Published Home Renewable Energy Energy News Wind Energy News & Events Systems Analysis Structural and...

  12. Mechanical coupling for a rotor shaft assembly of dissimilar materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shi, Jun; Bombara, David; Green, Kevin E.; Bird, Connic; Holowczak, John

    2009-05-05

    A mechanical coupling for coupling a ceramic disc member to a metallic shaft includes a first wedge clamp and a second wedge clamp. A fastener engages a threaded end of a tie-bolt to sandwich the ceramic disc between the wedge clamps. An axial spring is positioned between the fastener and the second wedge clamp to apply an axial preload along the longitudinal axis. Another coupling utilizes a rotor shaft end of a metallic rotor shaft as one wedge clamp. Still another coupling includes a solid ceramic rotor disc with a multiple of tie-bolts radially displaced from the longitudinal axis to exert the preload on the solid ceramic rotor disc.

  13. Innovative Offshore Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Rotors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Offshore Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Rotors - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home ... Google + Vimeo Newsletter Signup SlideShare Innovative Offshore Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine ...

  14. Aerodynamic Wind-Turbine Blade Design for the National Rotor...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind-Turbine Blade Design for the National Rotor Testbed - Sandia Energy Energy Search ... Twitter Google + Vimeo Newsletter Signup SlideShare Aerodynamic Wind-Turbine Blade Design ...

  15. Interface structure for hub and mass attachment in flywheel rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deteresa, Steven J.; Groves, Scott E.

    1998-06-02

    An interface structure for hub and mass attachment in flywheel rotors. The interface structure efficiently transmits high radial compression forces and withstands both large circumferential elongation and local stresses generated by mass-loading and hub attachments. The interface structure is comprised of high-strength fiber, such as glass and carbon, woven into an angle pattern which is about 45.degree. with respect to the rotor axis. The woven fiber is bonded by a ductile matrix material which is compatible with and adheres to the rotor material. This woven fiber is able to elongate in the circumferential direction to match the rotor growth during spinning.

  16. Interface structure for hub and mass attachment in flywheel rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deteresa, S.J.; Groves, S.E.

    1998-06-02

    An interface structure is described for hub and mass attachment in flywheel rotors. The interface structure efficiently transmits high radial compression forces and withstands both large circumferential elongation and local stresses generated by mass-loading and hub attachments. The interface structure is comprised of high-strength fiber, such as glass and carbon, woven into an angle pattern which is about 45{degree} with respect to the rotor axis. The woven fiber is bonded by a ductile matrix material which is compatible with and adheres to the rotor material. This woven fiber is able to elongate in the circumferential direction to match the rotor growth during spinning. 2 figs.

  17. Measurement of Diameter Changes during Irradiation Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, K. L.; Knudson, D. L.; Crepeau, J. C.; Solstad, S.

    2015-03-01

    New materials are being considered for fuel, cladding, and structures in advanced and existing nuclear reactors. Such materials can experience significant dimensional and physical changes during irradiation. Currently in the US, such changes are measured by repeatedly irradiating a specimen for a specified period of time and then removing it from the reactor for evaluation. The time and labor to remove, examine, and return irradiated samples for each measurement makes this approach very expensive. In addition, such techniques provide limited data and handling may disturb the phenomena of interest. In-pile detection of changes in geometry is sorely needed to understand real-time behavior during irradiation testing of fuels and materials in high flux US Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). This paper presents development results of an advanced Linear Variable Differential Transformer-based test rig capable of detecting real-time changes in diameter of fuel rods or material samples during irradiation in US MTRs. This test rig is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory and will provide experimenters with a unique capability to measure diameter changes associated with fuel and cladding swelling, pellet-clad interaction, and crud buildup.

  18. Effects of increasing tip velocity on wind turbine rotor design.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resor, Brian Ray; Maniaci, David Charles; Berg, Jonathan Charles; Richards, Phillip William

    2014-05-01

    A reduction in cost of energy from wind is anticipated when maximum allowable tip velocity is allowed to increase. Rotor torque decreases as tip velocity increases and rotor size and power rating are held constant. Reduction in rotor torque yields a lighter weight gearbox, a decrease in the turbine cost, and an increase in the capacity for the turbine to deliver cost competitive electricity. The high speed rotor incurs costs attributable to rotor aero-acoustics and system loads. The increased loads of high speed rotors drive the sizing and cost of other components in the system. Rotor, drivetrain, and tower designs at 80 m/s maximum tip velocity and 100 m/s maximum tip velocity are created to quantify these effects. Component costs, annualized energy production, and cost of energy are computed for each design to quantify the change in overall cost of energy resulting from the increase in turbine tip velocity. High fidelity physics based models rather than cost and scaling models are used to perform the work. Results provide a quantitative assessment of anticipated costs and benefits for high speed rotors. Finally, important lessons regarding full system optimization of wind turbines are documented.

  19. Disc rotors with permanent magnets for brushless DC motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawsey, Robert A.; Bailey, J. Milton

    1992-01-01

    A brushless dc permanent magnet motor drives an autonomous underwater vehe. In one embodiment, the motor comprises four substantially flat stators in stacked relationship, with pairs of the stators axially spaced, each of the stators comprising a tape-wound stator coil, and first and second substantially flat rotors disposed between the spaced pairs of stators. Each of the rotors includes an annular array of permanent magnets embedded therein. A first shaft is connected to the first rotor and a second, concentric shaft is connected to the second rotor, and a drive unit causes rotation of the two shafts in opposite directions. The second shaft comprises a hollow tube having a central bore in which the first shaft is disposed. Two different sets of bearings support the first and second shafts. In another embodiment, the motor comprises two ironless stators and pairs of rotors mounted on opposite sides of the stators and driven by counterrotating shafts.

  20. SMART wind turbine rotor. Data analysis and conclusions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Jonathan Charles; Barone, Matthew Franklin; Yoder, Nathanael C.

    2014-01-01

    The Wind Energy Technologies department at Sandia National Laboratories has developed and field tested a wind turbine rotor with integrated trailing-edge flaps designed for active control of the rotor aerodynamics. The SMART Rotor project was funded by the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and was conducted to demonstrate active rotor control and evaluate simulation tools available for active control research. This report documents the data post-processing and analysis performed to date on the field test data. Results include the control capability of the trailing edge flaps, the combined structural and aerodynamic damping observed through application of step actuation with ensemble averaging, direct observation of time delays associated with aerodynamic response, and techniques for characterizing an operating turbine with active rotor control.

  1. SMART wind turbine rotor. Design and field test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Jonathan Charles; Resor, Brian Ray; Paquette, Joshua A.; White, Jonathan Randall

    2014-01-01

    The Wind Energy Technologies department at Sandia National Laboratories has developed and field tested a wind turbine rotor with integrated trailing-edge flaps designed for active control of rotor aerodynamics. The SMART Rotor project was funded by the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and was conducted to demonstrate active rotor control and evaluate simulation tools available for active control research. This report documents the design, fabrication, and testing of the SMART Rotor. This report begins with an overview of active control research at Sandia and the objectives of this project. The SMART blade, based on the DOE / SNL 9-meter CX-100 blade design, is then documented including all modifications necessary to integrate the trailing edge flaps, sensors incorporated into the system, and the fabrication processes that were utilized. Finally the test site and test campaign are described.

  2. Reference Model 2: %22Rev 0%22 Rotor Design.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barone, Matthew F.; Berg, Jonathan Charles; Griffith, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    The preliminary design for a three-bladed cross-flow rotor for a reference marine hydrokinetic turbine is presented. A rotor performance design code is described, along with modifications to the code to allow prediction of blade support strut drag as well as interference between two counter-rotating rotors. The rotor is designed to operate in a reference site corresponding to a riverine environment. Basic rotor performance and rigid-body loads calculations are performed to size the rotor elements and select the operating speed range. The preliminary design is verified with a simple finite element model that provides estimates of bending stresses during operation. A concept for joining the blades and support struts is developed and analyzed with a separate finite element analysis. Rotor mass, production costs, and annual energy capture are estimated in order to allow calculations of system cost-of-energy. Evaluation Only. Created with Aspose.Pdf.Kit. Copyright 2002-2011 Aspose Pty Ltd Evaluation Only. Created with Aspose.Pdf.Kit. Copyright 2002-2011 Aspose Pty Ltd

  3. Diameter-Refined Metallic Carbon Nanotubes as Optically Tunable Transparent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conductors | ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Diameter-Refined Metallic Carbon Nanotubes as Optically Tunable Transparent Conductors Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Diameter-Refined Metallic Carbon Nanotubes as Optically Tunable Transparent Conductors

  4. Unconventional Rotor Power Response to Yaw Error Variations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schreck, S. J.; Schepers, J. G.

    2014-12-16

    Continued inquiry into rotor and blade aerodynamics remains crucial for achieving accurate, reliable prediction of wind turbine power performance under yawed conditions. To exploit key advantages conferred by controlled inflow conditions, we used EU-JOULE DATA Project and UAE Phase VI experimental data to characterize rotor power production under yawed conditions. Anomalies in rotor power variation with yaw error were observed, and the underlying fluid dynamic interactions were isolated. Unlike currently recognized influences caused by angled inflow and skewed wake, which may be considered potential flow interactions, these anomalies were linked to pronounced viscous and unsteady effects.

  5. Control coil arrangement for a rotating machine rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Manoj R.; Lewandowsk, Chad R.

    2001-07-31

    A rotating machine (e.g., a turbine, motor or generator) is provided wherein a fixed solenoid or other coil configuration is disposed adjacent to one or both ends of the active portion of the machine rotor for producing an axially directed flux in the active portion so as to provide planar axial control at single or multiple locations for rotor balance, levitation, centering, torque and thrust action. Permanent magnets can be used to produce an axial bias magnetic field. The rotor can include magnetic disks disposed in opposed, facing relation to the coil configuration.

  6. DOE and Sandia National Laboratories Develop National Rotor Testbed |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories Develop National Rotor Testbed DOE and Sandia National Laboratories Develop National Rotor Testbed August 1, 2013 - 3:05pm Addthis This is an excerpt from the Second Quarter 2013 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are designing a modern, research-quality wind turbine rotor for use at the new Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) site at Texas Tech

  7. Double-rotor rotary engine and turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, A.S.

    1990-04-03

    This patent describes a double-rotor engine. It comprises: a base; a housing rotatably mounted to the base and forming a radial cylinder; an output shaft rotatably mounted concentric with the housing and having an arm rigidly extending therefrom within the housing; a piston slidingly engaging the cylinder and forming a combustion chamber with the cylinder; means for admitting a fuel-air mixture into the cylinder; means for releasing combustion products from the cylinder following operation of the expanding means; turbine means operatively connected between the base and the housing, the turbine means providing a torque reaction against the housing in response to flow of the combustion products from the releasing means; and stop means on the shaft for limiting the relative movement between the shaft and the housing.

  8. Tip cap for a turbine rotor blade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimmel, Keith D

    2014-03-25

    A turbine rotor blade with a spar and shell construction, and a tip cap that includes a row of lugs extending from a bottom side that form dovetail grooves that engage with similar shaped lugs and grooves on a tip end of the spar to secure the tip cap to the spar against radial displacement. The lug on the trailing edge end of the tip cap is aligned perpendicular to a chordwise line of the blade in the trailing edge region in order to minimize stress due to the lugs wanting to bend under high centrifugal loads. A two piece tip cap with lugs at different angles will reduce the bending stress even more.

  9. Rotor and bearing system for a turbomachine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lubell, Daniel; Weissert, Dennis

    2006-09-26

    A rotor and bearing system for a turbomachine. The turbomachine includes a drive shaft, an impeller positioned on the drive shaft, and a turbine positioned on the drive shaft proximate to the impeller. The bearing system comprises one gas journal bearing supporting the drive shaft between the impeller and the turbine. The area between the impeller and the turbine is an area of increased heat along the drive shaft in comparison to other locations along the drive shaft. The section of the drive shaft positioned between impeller and the turbine is also a section of the drive shaft that experiences increased stressed and load in the turbomachine. The inventive bearing machine system positions only one radial bearing in this area of increased stress and load.

  10. SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Design and Field Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Jonathan C.; Resor, Brian R.; Paquette, Joshua A.; White, Jonathan R.

    2014-01-29

    This report documents the design, fabrication, and testing of the SMART Rotor. This work established hypothetical approaches for integrating active aerodynamic devices (AADs) into the wind turbine structure and controllers.

  11. DOE and Sandia National Laboratories Develop National Rotor Testbed...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    a modern, research-quality wind turbine rotor for use at the new Scaled Wind Farm ... and to conduct complex flow and turbine-to-turbine interaction research that will ...

  12. Methods and apparatus for rotor blade ice detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeMieux, David Lawrence

    2006-08-08

    A method for detecting ice on a wind turbine having a rotor and one or more rotor blades each having blade roots includes monitoring meteorological conditions relating to icing conditions and monitoring one or more physical characteristics of the wind turbine in operation that vary in accordance with at least one of the mass of the one or more rotor blades or a mass imbalance between the rotor blades. The method also includes using the one or more monitored physical characteristics to determine whether a blade mass anomaly exists, determining whether the monitored meteorological conditions are consistent with blade icing; and signaling an icing-related blade mass anomaly when a blade mass anomaly is determined to exist and the monitored meteorological conditions are determined to be consistent with icing.

  13. Assessment of Scaled Rotors for Wind Tunnel Experiments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maniaci, David Charles; Kelley, Christopher Lee; Chiu, Phillip

    2015-07-01

    Rotor design and analysis work has been performed to support the conceptualization of a wind tunnel test focused on studying wake dynamics. This wind tunnel test would serve as part of a larger model validation campaign that is part of the Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Program’s Atmosphere to electrons (A2e) initiative. The first phase of this effort was directed towards designing a functionally scaled rotor based on the same design process and target full-scale turbine used for new rotors for the DOE/SNL SWiFT site. The second phase focused on assessing the capabilities of an already available rotor, the G1, designed and built by researchers at the Technical University of München.

  14. Methods and apparatus for rotor load control in wind turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw

    2006-08-22

    A wind turbine having a rotor, at least one rotor blade, and a plurality of generators, of which a first generator is configured to provide power to an electric grid and a second generator is configured to provide power to the wind turbine during times of grid loss. The wind turbine is configured to utilize power provided by the second generator to reduce loads on the wind turbine during times of grid loss.

  15. Whole blood analysis rotor assembly having removable cellular sedimentation bowl

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.

    1975-08-26

    A rotor assembly for performing photometric analyses using whole blood samples is described. Following static loading of a gross blood sample within a centrally located, removable, cell sedimentation bowl, the red blood cells in the gross sample are centrifugally separated from the plasma, the plasm displaced from the sedimentation bowl, and measured subvolumes of plasma distributed to respective sample analysis cuvettes positioned in an annular array about the rotor periphery. Means for adding reagents to the respective cuvettes are also described. (auth)

  16. The effect of voltage waveform and tube diameter on transporting cold plasma strings through a flexible dielectric tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sohbatzadeh, Farshad; Omran, Azadeh Valinataj

    2014-11-15

    In this work, we developed transporting atmospheric pressure cold plasma using single electrode configuration through a sub-millimetre flexible dielectric tube beyond 100 cm. It was shown that the waveform of the applied high voltage is essential for controlling upstream and downstream plasma inside the tube. In this regard, sawtooth waveform enabled the transport of plasma with less applied high voltage compared to sinusoidal and pulsed form voltages. A cold plasma string as long as 130 cm was obtained by only 4 kV peak-to-peak sawtooth high voltage waveform. Optical emission spectroscopy revealed that reactive chemical species, such as atomic oxygen and hydroxyl, are generated at the tube exit. The effect of tube diameter on the transported plasma was also examined: the smaller the diameter, the higher the applied voltage. The device is likely to be used for sterilization, decontamination, and therapeutic endoscopy as already suggested by other groups in recent past years.

  17. Synthesis of very small diameter silica nanofibers using sound...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    silica nanofibers using sound waves Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synthesis of very small diameter silica nanofibers using sound waves Authors: Sharma, ...

  18. Turbulence loads on the Howden 26-m-diameter wind turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madsen, P.H.; Hock, S.M.; Hausfeld, T.E.

    1987-11-01

    Conducted in Palm Springs, California, a joint effort between SERI and James Howden and Company involved a comprehensive test program on the 330-kW Howden wind turbine with a three-bladed, fixed-hub rotor 26 m in diameter. Part of the measurement analysis is to quantify the turbulence loads during the steady-state production modes of operation. Assuming wind turbulence to be the cause of the random loads, the turbulence loads in terms of blade root-bending moments have been determined empirically by isolating the random or nonperiodic part of the load signals using azimuthal averaging. Standard deviations as functions of wind speed, as well as power spectra of the loads, are presented. The measured turbulence loads are compared to a recently developed model for turbulence loading of wind turbines. The model works in the frequency domain and uses the standard engineering representation of turbulence in terms of a coherence function and a wind-power spectrum at a fixed point in space. The turbulence load model accounts for the dominant mode of vibration for the load in question and is intended to be simple enough to be used for a preliminary load estimate for practical design purposes.

  19. Rigid-rotor, field-reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conti, F. Giammanco, F.; Plasma Diagnostics and Technologies Ltd., Via Giuntini 63, 56023 Navacchio ; Wessel, F. J.; Binderbauer, M. W.; Bolte, N.; Morehouse, M.; Qerushi, A.; Rahman, H. U.; Roche, T.; Slepchenkov, M.

    2014-02-15

    The radial profiles, n(r), B{sub z}(r), and E{sub r}(r), for a Flux-Coil (“inductively driven”), Field-Reversed Configuration (FC-FRC) are measured and compared to the predictions of the Rigid-Rotor Model (RRM), which is an analytic, one-dimensional, time-independent, equilibrium description for the FRC. Injectors mounted on both ends of the confinement vessel provide a pre-fill plasma. Coaxial coils mounted outside the vacuum boundaries of the annular-confinement vessel accelerate the plasma and produce the FRC. The density profile is measured by laser interferometry, the magnetic-field profile using an in-situ probe array, and the electric-field profile using an in-situ, floating-probe array. Free parameters for each profile are measured, which also allow other intrinsic-plasma parameters to be determined, using computer-fit algorithms: null radius, radial thickness, plasma temperature, rotation frequencies, the latter of which are independently verified by spectroscopy. All radial profiles agree with the RRM predictions, for the experimental configuration, parameter regime, and specified-time interval studied here.

  20. Rotor apparatus for high strength undiffused brushless electric machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2006-01-24

    A radial gap brushless electric machine (30) having a stator (31) and a rotor (32) and a main air gap (34) also has at least one stationary excitation coil (35a, 36a) separated from the rotor (32) by a secondary air gap (35e, 35f, 36e, 36f) so as to induce a secondary flux in the rotor (32) which controls a resultant flux in the main air gap (34). Permanent magnetic (PM) material (38) is disposed in spaces between the rotor pole portions (39) to inhibit the second flux from leaking from the pole portions (39) prior to reaching the main air gap (34). By selecting the direction of current in the stationary excitation coil (35a, 36a) both flux enhancement and flux weakening are provided for the main air gap (34). Improvements of a laminated rotor, an end pole structure, and an arrangement of the PM elements for providing an arrangement of the flux paths from the auxiliary field coil assemblies are also disclosed.

  1. Method and apparatus for assembling permanent magnet rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.; Adams, Donald J.

    1999-01-01

    A permanent magnet assembly (22) for assembly in large permanent magnet (PM) motors and generators includes a two-piece carrier (23, 24) that can be slid into a slot (13) in the rotor (10) and then secured in place using a set screw (37). The invention also provides an auxiliary carrier device (50) with guide rails (51) that line up with the teeth (12) of the rotor, so that a permanent magnet assembly (22) can be pushed first into a slot (13), and then down the slot (13) to its proper location. An auxiliary tool (50) is provided to move the permanent magnet assembly (22) into position in the slot (13) before it is secured in place. Methods of assembling and disassembling the magnet assemblies (22) in the rotor (10) are also disclosed.

  2. Method and apparatus for assembling permanent magnet rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, J.S.; Adams, D.J.

    1999-06-22

    A permanent magnet assembly for assembly in large permanent magnet motors and generators includes a two-piece carrier that can be slid into a slot in the rotor and then secured in place using a set screw. The invention also provides an auxiliary carrier device with guide rails that line up with the teeth of the rotor, so that a permanent magnet assembly can be pushed first into a slot, and then down the slot to its proper location. An auxiliary tool is provided to move the permanent magnet assembly into position in the slot before it is secured in place. Methods of assembling and disassembling the magnet assemblies in the rotor are also disclosed. 2 figs.

  3. Coplanar Doppler Lidar Retrieval of Rotors from T-REX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, Michael; Calhoun, Ron; Fernando, H. J. S.; Wieser, Andreas; Dornbrack, Andreas; Weissmann, Martin; Mayr, G.; Newsom, Rob K.

    2010-03-01

    Two coherent Doppler lidars were deployed during the Terrain-induced Rotor EXperiment (T-REX). Coplanar Range Height Indicator (RHI) scans by the lidars (along the same azimuthal angle) allowed retrieval of two-dimensional velocity vectors on a vertical/cross-barrier plane using the least squares method. Vortices are shown to evolve and advect in the flow field, allowing analysis of their behavior in the mountain-wave-boundary layer system. The locations, magnitudes, and evolution of the vortices can be studied through calculated fields of velocity, vorticity, streamlines, and swirl. Two classes of vortical motions are identified: rotors and sub-rotors, which differ in scale and behavior. The level of coordination of the two lidars and the nature of the output (i.e., in range-gates) creates inherent restrictions on the spatial and temporal resolution of retrieved fields.

  4. Final Report: DoE SBIR Phase 2 Low-Cost Small Diameter NMR Technologies for In-Situ Subsurface Characterization and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, David Oliver

    2010-09-03

    In this Phase 2 SBIR program, Vista Clara successfully developed and field-tested small diameter NNR logging tools for subsurface characterization and monitoring. This effort involved the design and development surface electronics, a winch with 470ft cable, and three interchangeable downhole probes: a 3.5? diameter borehole NMR probe, a 1.67? diameter borehole NMR probe, and a 2.5? diameter NMR probe that can be deployed using a Geoprobe direct push machine. The 3.5? probe was tested extensively over a 6 week period including 4? to 8? boreholes in Washington, Idaho, Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas, Connecticut and Massachusetts. The field test campaign was highly successful. The 1.67? probe was assembled, tested and calibrated in the laboratory. The 2.5? Geoprobe probe is in final assembly and testing at the time of this report. The completed Phase 2 R&D program has resulted in the first NMR logging tool that can be deployed in boreholes of 4? diameter, the first NMR logging tool that can be deployed in boreholes on 2? diameter, and the first NMR logging tool that can be deployed by a direct push machine. These small diameter tools make NMR logging technically and economically feasible, for the first time. Previously available NMR logging tools were developed for oilfield applications and are prohibitively large and expensive for the majority of near surface groundwater characterization problems.

  5. National Rotor Testbed Targets Future Wind Plant Research Needs |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Rotor Testbed Targets Future Wind Plant Research Needs National Rotor Testbed Targets Future Wind Plant Research Needs May 18, 2015 - 4:12pm Addthis Two illustrated graphs. The graph on the top shows a single line repeating in four quadrants, the bottom graph shows all colors The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) initiative has identified the evolution of wakes in turbulent inflow as a key physical process affecting power production and

  6. NRT Rotor Structural / Aeroelastic Analysis for the Preliminary Design Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ennis, Brandon Lee; Paquette, Joshua A.

    2015-10-01

    This document describes the initial structural design for the National Rotor Testbed blade as presented during the preliminary design review at Sandia National Laboratories on October 28- 29, 2015. The document summarizes the structural and aeroelastic requirements placed on the NRT rotor for satisfactory deployment at the DOE/SNL SWiFT experimental facility to produce high-quality datasets for wind turbine model validation. The method and result of the NRT blade structural optimization is also presented within this report, along with analysis of its satisfaction of the design requirements.

  7. A comparison of the heat transfer and pressure drop performance of R-134a-lubricant mixtures in different diameter smooth tubes and micro-fin tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckels, S.J.; Doerr, T.M.; Pate, M.B.

    1998-10-01

    The average heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops during evaporation and condensation are reported for mixtures of R-134a and an ester lubricant in tubes of 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) outer diameter. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the R-134a-lubricant mixtures in these tubes and determine the performance benefits of the micro-fin tube. The performance benefits of the tubes with 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) outer diameter are compared to those of smaller tubes with 9.52 mm (3/8 in.) outer diameter. The lubricant used was a 169 SUS penta erythritol ester mixed-acid lubricant. The lubricant concentration was varied from 0--5.1% in the mixture. The average heat transfer coefficients in the 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) micro-fin tube were 50--150% higher than those for the 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) smooth tube, while pressure drops in the micro-fin tube were 5% to 50% higher than in the smooth tube. The addition of lubricant degraded the average heat transfer coefficients in all cases except during evaporation at low lubricant concentrations. Pressure drops were always increased with the addition of lubricant. The experimental results also indicate that tube diameter has some effect on the performance benefits of the micro-fin tube over that of the smooth tube.

  8. Eddy sensors for small diameter stainless steel tubes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, Jack L.; Morales, Alfredo Martin; Grant, J. Brian; Korellis, Henry James; LaFord, Marianne Elizabeth; Van Blarigan, Benjamin; Andersen, Lisa E.

    2011-08-01

    The goal of this project was to develop non-destructive, minimally disruptive eddy sensors to inspect small diameter stainless steel metal tubes. Modifications to Sandia's Emphasis/EIGER code allowed for the modeling of eddy current bobbin sensors near or around 1/8-inch outer diameter stainless steel tubing. Modeling results indicated that an eddy sensor based on a single axial coil could effectively detect changes in the inner diameter of a stainless steel tubing. Based on the modeling results, sensor coils capable of detecting small changes in the inner diameter of a stainless steel tube were designed, built and tested. The observed sensor response agreed with the results of the modeling and with eddy sensor theory. A separate limited distribution SAND report is being issued demonstrating the application of this sensor.

  9. Application of ceramics to turbocharger rotors for passenger cars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katano, Y.; Ando, M.; Itoh, T.; Sasaki, M. )

    1993-01-01

    Nissan has been developing and marketing ceramic turbocharger rotors for five years. This paper outlines the major theories and techniques used in ceramic fabrication, joining of ceramic and metal components, and machining of ceramics. It also presents a dynamic stress analysis using DYNA3D and describes techniques used in performing impact damage experiments, reliability evaluation, and lifetime preprediction.

  10. SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Data Analysis and Conclusions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Jonathan C.; Barone, Matthew F.; Yoder, Nathanael C.

    2014-01-29

    This report documents the data post-processing and analysis performed to date on the field test data. Results include the control capability of the trailing edge flaps, the combined structural and aerodynamic damping observed through application of step actuation with ensemble averaging, direct observation of time delays associated with aerodynamic response, and techniques for characterizing an operating turbine with active rotor control.

  11. RIT rotor vibration testing. Test report. [Radial inflow turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chartier, G L

    1982-09-27

    A radial inflow turbine (RIT) B rotor, including the impeller and shaft, was examined experimentally to determine vibratory characteristics. It was concluded that there are no specific speeds within the operating range with adequate resonance encroachment margins. It is recommended that performance tests be carried out with caution.

  12. Active Flow Control on Bidirectional Rotors for Tidal MHK Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiu, Henry; van Dam, Cornelis P.

    2013-08-22

    A marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) tidal turbine extracts energy from tidal currents, providing clean, sustainable electricity generation. In general, all MHK conversion technologies are confronted with significant operational hurdles, resulting in both increased capital and operations and maintenance (O&M) costs. To counter these high costs while maintaining reliability, MHK turbine designs can be simplified. Prior study found that a tidal turbine could be cost-effectively simplified by removing blade pitch and rotor/nacelle yaw. Its rotor would run in one direction during ebb and then reverse direction when the current switched to flood. We dubbed such a turbine a bidirectional rotor tidal turbine (BRTT). The bidirectional hydrofoils of a BRTT are less efficient than conventional hydrofoils and capture less energy, but the elimination of the pitch and yaw systems were estimated to reduce levelized cost of energy by 7.8%-9.6%. In this study, we investigated two mechanisms for recapturing some of the performance shortfall of the BRTT. First, we developed a novel set of hydrofoils, designated the yy series, for BRTT application. Second, we investigated the use of active flow control via microtabs. Microtabs are small deployable/retractable tabs, typically located near the leading or trailing edge of an air/hydrofoil with height on the order of the boundary layer thickness (1% - 2% of chord). They deploy approximately perpendicularly to the foil surface and, like gurney flaps and plain flaps, globally affect the aerodynamics of the airfoil. By strategically placing microtabs and selectively deploying them based on the direction of the inflow, performance of a BRTT rotor can be improved while retaining bidirectional operation. The yy foils were computationally designed and analyzed. They exhibited better performance than the baseline bidirectional foil, the ellipse. For example, the yyb07cn-180 had 14.7% higher (l/d)max than an ellipse of equal thickness. The yyb07cn

  13. Optimum rotationally symmetric shells for flywheel rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blake, Henry W.

    2000-01-01

    A flywheel rim support formed from two shell halves. Each of the shell halves has a disc connected to the central shaft. A first shell element connects to the disc at an interface. A second shell element connects to the first shell element. The second shell element has a plurality of meridional slits. A cylindrical shell element connects to the second shell element. The cylindrical shell element connects to the inner surface of the flywheel rim. A flywheel rim support having a disc connected an outer diameter of a shaft. Two optimally shaped shell elements connect to the optimally shaped disc at an interface. The interface defines a discontinuity in a meridional slope of said support. A cylindrical shell element connects to the two shell elements. The cylindrical shell element has an outer surface for connecting to the inner surface of the flywheel rim. A flywheel rim casing includes an annular shell connected to the central shaft. The annular shell connects to the flywheel rim. A composite shell surrounds the shaft, annular shell and flywheel rim.

  14. Sweep-twist adaptive rotor blade : final project report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashwill, Thomas D.

    2010-02-01

    Knight & Carver was contracted by Sandia National Laboratories to develop a Sweep Twist Adaptive Rotor (STAR) blade that reduced operating loads, thereby allowing a larger, more productive rotor. The blade design used outer blade sweep to create twist coupling without angled fiber. Knight & Carver successfully designed, fabricated, tested and evaluated STAR prototype blades. Through laboratory and field tests, Knight & Carver showed the STAR blade met the engineering design criteria and economic goals for the program. A STAR prototype was successfully tested in Tehachapi during 2008 and a large data set was collected to support engineering and commercial development of the technology. This report documents the methodology used to develop the STAR blade design and reviews the approach used for laboratory and field testing. The effort demonstrated that STAR technology can provide significantly greater energy capture without higher operating loads on the turbine.

  15. Small-scale self-excited-rotor electrostatic generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalganov, A.F.

    1985-04-15

    Electrostatic generators, as sources of high direct-current voltage, are being used more and more extensively in science and technology. Rotor electrostatic generators with conductor-carriers occupy a significant place among these generators; rotor electrostatic generators develop a voltage in the hundreds of kV and have the advantage that they can be made self-exciting. This considerably simplifies servicing and operation of the generators and is especially important in a small-scale design. Theoretical and experimental works on electrostatic generators with conductor-carriers in the last 20 years have led to the development of various types of such generators. Soviet scientists have made a great contribution to these works. However, the procedure for engineering calculation of certain types of generators still has not been adequately developed. In particular, the Zan calculation does not take into account the effect of parasitic capacitances in generators of disc and cylinder types.

  16. Adaptor assembly for coupling turbine blades to rotor disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell

    2014-09-23

    An adaptor assembly for coupling a blade root of a turbine blade to a root slot of a rotor disk is described. The adaptor assembly includes a turbine blade having a blade root and an adaptor body having an adaptor root. The adaptor body defines a slot having an open end configured to receive the blade root of the turbine blade such that the adaptor root of the adaptor body and the blade root of the turbine blade are adjacent to one another when the blade root of the turbine blade is positioned within the slot. Both the adaptor root of the adaptor body and the blade root of the turbine blade are configured to be received within the root slot of the rotor disk.

  17. Analysis of a teetered, variable-speed rotor: final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, T.L.; Wilson, R.E.; Walker, S.N. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1991-06-01

    A computer model of a horizontal axis wind turbine (HOOT) with four structural degrees of freedom has been derived and verified. The four degrees of freedom include flapwise motion of the blades, teeter motion, and variable rotor speed. Options for the variable rotor speed include synchronous, induction, and constant-tip speed generator models with either start, stop, or normal operations. Verification is made by comparison with analytical solutions and mean and cyclic ESI-80 data. The Veers full-field turbulence model is used as a wind input for a synchronous and induction generator test case during normal operation. As a result of the comparison, it is concluded that the computer model can be used to predict accurately mean and cyclic loads with a turbulent wind input. 47 refs., 19 figs.

  18. Aeroacoustics and aerodynamic performance of a rotor with flatback airfoils.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paquette, Joshua A.; Barone, Matthew Franklin; Christiansen, Monica; Simley, Eric

    2010-06-01

    The aerodynamic performance and aeroacoustic noise sources of a rotor employing flatback airfoils have been studied in field test campaign and companion modeling effort. The field test measurements of a sub-scale rotor employing nine meter blades include both performance measurements and acoustic measurements. The acoustic measurements are obtained using a 45 microphone beamforming array, enabling identification of both noise source amplitude and position. Semi-empirical models of flatback airfoil blunt trailing edge noise are developed and calibrated using available aeroacoustic wind tunnel test data. The model results and measurements indicate that flatback airfoil noise is less than drive train noise for the current test turbine. It is also demonstrated that the commonly used Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini model for blunt trailing edge noise may be over-conservative in predicting flatback airfoil noise for wind turbine applications.

  19. Preform spar cap for a wind turbine rotor blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livingston, Jamie T.; Driver, Howard D.; van Breugel, Sjef; Jenkins, Thomas B.; Bakhuis, Jan Willem; Billen, Andrew J.; Riahi, Amir

    2011-07-12

    A spar cap for a wind turbine rotor blade. The spar cap may include multiple preform components. The multiple preform components may be planar sheets having a swept shape with a first end and a second end. The multiple preform components may be joined by mating the first end of a first preform component to the second end of a next preform component, forming the spar cap.

  20. Innovative Offshore Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Rotors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Offshore Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Rotors - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management

  1. CFD analysis of rotating two-bladed flatback wind turbine rotor.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Dam, C.P.; Chao, David D.; Berg, Dale E.

    2008-04-01

    The effects of modifying the inboard portion of the NREL Phase VI rotor using a thickened, flatback version of the S809 design airfoil are studied using a three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes method. A motivation for using such a thicker airfoil design coupled with a blunt trailing edge is to alleviate structural constraints while reducing blade weight and maintaining the power performance of the rotor. The calculated results for the baseline Phase VI rotor are benchmarked against wind tunnel results obtained at 10, 7, and 5 meters per second. The calculated results for the modified rotor are compared against those of the baseline rotor. The results of this study demonstrate that a thick, flatback blade profile is viable as a bridge to connect structural requirements with aerodynamic performance in designing future wind turbine rotors.

  2. Preliminary structural design conceptualization for composite rotor for verdant power water current turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paquette, J. A.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Verdant Power Inc. (VPI) have partnered under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop a new kinetic hydropower rotor. The rotor features an improved hydrodynamic and structural design which features state-of-the-art technology developed for the wind industry. The new rotor will have higher energy capture, increased system reliability, and reduction of overall cost of energy. This project was divided into six tasks: (1) Composite Rotor Project Planning and Design Specification; (2) Baseline Fatigue Testing and Failure analysis; (3) Develop Blade/Rotor Performance Model; (4) Hydrofoil Survey and Selection; (5) FEM Structural Design; and (6) Develop Candidate Rotor Designs and Prepare Final Report.

  3. Hydrodynamic Optimization Method and Design Code for Stall-Regulated Hydrokinetic Turbine Rotors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sale, D.; Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.

    2009-08-01

    This report describes the adaptation of a wind turbine performance code for use in the development of a general use design code and optimization method for stall-regulated horizontal-axis hydrokinetic turbine rotors. This rotor optimization code couples a modern genetic algorithm and blade-element momentum performance code in a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) that allows for rapid and intuitive design of optimal stall-regulated rotors. This optimization method calculates the optimal chord, twist, and hydrofoil distributions which maximize the hydrodynamic efficiency and ensure that the rotor produces an ideal power curve and avoids cavitation. Optimizing a rotor for maximum efficiency does not necessarily create a turbine with the lowest cost of energy, but maximizing the efficiency is an excellent criterion to use as a first pass in the design process. To test the capabilities of this optimization method, two conceptual rotors were designed which successfully met the design objectives.

  4. Advanced turbocharger rotor for variable geometry turbocharging systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stafford, R.J.; Mulloy, J.M.; Yonushonis, T.M.; Weber, H.G.; Patel, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    Turbocharging of diesel engines has enhanced fuel economy and reduced diesel engine emissions. The initial applications of turbochargers to heavy duty diesel engines during the early 1970`s reduced Bosch smoke (a measure of particulate matter used at the time) from 2.4 to 0.6 units. Current turbochargers are optimized at one set of engine conditions and by necessity, at the off-design conditions or transient conditions the fuel economy and emissions performance are penalized. A rotor was designed and a prototype fabricated which showed as much as a 10% efficiency improvement at off-design conditions. The leading edges are blunt and rounded to accept the flow from the turbine nozzles at a variety of inlet conditions with a minimum of losses. The rotor efficiency is better at all conditions and the advantage improves as it operates at conditions further from the design point. Unfortunately, the conventional materials from which this turbine rotor was constructed had inadequate strength to allow its use on engines, and had such high rotational inertia that transient response would have been severely compromised.

  5. Blade platform seal for ceramic/metal rotor assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wertz, John L.

    1982-01-01

    A combination ceramic and metal turbine rotor for use in high temperature gas turbine engines includes a metal rotor disc having a rim with a plurality of circumferentially spaced blade root retention slots therein to receive a plurality of ceramic blades, each including side platform segments thereon and a dovetail configured root slidably received in one of the slots. Adjacent ones of the platform segments including edge portions thereon closely spaced when the blades are assembled to form expansion gaps in an annular flow surface for gas passage through the blades and wherein the assembly further includes a plurality of unitary seal members on the rotor connected to its rim and each including a plurality of spaced, axially extending, flexible fingers that underlie and conform to the edge portions of the platform segments and which are operative at turbine operating temperatures and speeds to distribute loading on the platform segments as the fingers are seated against the underside of the blade platforms to seal the gaps without undesirably stressing thin web ceramic sections of the platform.

  6. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME ZERO: OVERVIEW AND COMMERCIAL PATH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuteck, Michael D.; Jackson, Kevin L.; Santos, Richard A.

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  7. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME TWO: INNOVATION & COST OF ENERGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuteck, Michael D.; Jackson, Kevin L.; Santos, Richard A.

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  8. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME ONE: PRELIMINARY DESIGN REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuteck, Michael D.; Jackson, Kevin L.; Santos, Richard A.; Chow, Ray; Nordenholz, Thomas R.; Wamble, John Lee

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  9. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME THREE: MARKET & TEAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuteck, Michael D.; Jackson, Kevin L.; Santos, Richard A.

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  10. New Facility Tool at SWiFT Makes Rotor Work More Efficient

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Rotor fixation stands, one for each Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility turbine, ...

  11. Control for stabilizing the alignment position of the rotor of the synchronous motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donley, L.I.

    1985-03-12

    A method and apparatus is described for damping oscillations in the rotor load angle of a synchronous motor to provide stable rotational alignment in high precision applications. The damping method includes sensing the angular position of the rotor and utilizing the position signal to generate an error signal in response to changes in the period of rotation of the rotor. The error signal is coupled to phase shift amplifiers which shift the phase of the motor drive signal in a direction to damp out the oscillations in the rotor load angle.

  12. Control for stabilizing the alignment position of the rotor of a synchronous motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donley, Lawrence I.

    1988-01-01

    A method and apparatus for damping oscillations in the rotor load angle of a synchronous motor to provide stable rotational alignment in high precision applications. The damping method includes sensing the angular position of the rotor and utilizing the position signal to generate an error signal in response to changes in the period of rotation of the rotor. The error signal is coupled to phase shift amplifiers which shift the phase of the motor drive signal in a direction to damp out the oscillations in the rotor load angle.

  13. Tuning thermal mismatch between turbine rotor parts with a thermal medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Mark Christopher

    2001-01-01

    In a turbine rotor, an aft shaft wheel and the final-stage wheel of the rotor are coupled together, including by a rabbeted joint. During shutdown and startup of the turbine, a thermal mismatch between the aft shaft wheel and final-stage wheel is avoided by respectively heating and cooling the aft shaft wheel to maintain the thermal mismatch within acceptable limits, thereby avoiding opening of the rabbeted joint and the potential for unbalancing the rotor and rotor vibration. The thermal medium may be supplied by piping in the aft bearing cavity into the cavity between the forward closure plate and the aft shaft wheel.

  14. Methods and apparatus for reduction of asymmetric rotor loads in wind turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw; Pierce, Kirk Gee

    2006-10-10

    A method for reducing load and providing yaw alignment in a wind turbine includes measuring displacements or moments resulting from asymmetric loads on the wind turbine. These measured displacements or moments are used to determine a pitch for each rotor blade to reduce or counter asymmetric rotor loading and a favorable yaw orientation to reduce pitch activity. Yaw alignment of the wind turbine is adjusted in accordance with the favorable yaw orientation and the pitch of each rotor blade is adjusted in accordance with the determined pitch to reduce or counter asymmetric rotor loading.

  15. Diameter dependent thermoelectric properties of individual SnTe nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, E. Z.; Li, Z.; Martinez, J. A.; Sinitsyn, N.; Htoon, H.; Li, Nan; Swartzentruber, B.; Hollingsworth, J. A.; Wang, Jian; Zhang, S. X.

    2015-01-15

    The lead-free compound tin telluride (SnTe) has recently been suggested to be a potentially promising thermoelectric material because of its similar electronic band structure as the well-known lead telluride. Here we report on the first thermoelectric study of individual single crystalline SnTe nanowires (NWs) with different diameters ranging from ~200 to ~1000 nm. Measurements of thermopower S, electrical conductivity σ, and thermal conductivity κ were carried out on the same nanowires over a temperature range of 25 - 300 K. While σ does not show a strong diameter dependence, the thermopower increases by a factor of 2 when the nanowire diameter is decreased from 1000 nm to 200 nm. The thermal conductivities of the measured NWs are only about half of that of the bulk SnTe, which may arise from the enhanced phonon-grain boundary and phonon-defect scatterings. Temperature dependent figure-of-merit ZT was determined and the maximum value at room temperature is ~3 times higher than what was obtained in bulk samples of comparable carrier density.

  16. Diameter dependent thermoelectric properties of individual SnTe nanowires

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, E. Z.; Li, Z.; Martinez, J. A.; Sinitsyn, N.; Htoon, H.; Li, Nan; Swartzentruber, B.; Hollingsworth, J. A.; Wang, Jian; Zhang, S. X.

    2015-01-15

    The lead-free compound tin telluride (SnTe) has recently been suggested to be a potentially promising thermoelectric material because of its similar electronic band structure as the well-known lead telluride. Here we report on the first thermoelectric study of individual single crystalline SnTe nanowires (NWs) with different diameters ranging from ~200 to ~1000 nm. Measurements of thermopower S, electrical conductivity σ, and thermal conductivity κ were carried out on the same nanowires over a temperature range of 25 - 300 K. While σ does not show a strong diameter dependence, the thermopower increases by a factor of 2 when the nanowiremore » diameter is decreased from 1000 nm to 200 nm. The thermal conductivities of the measured NWs are only about half of that of the bulk SnTe, which may arise from the enhanced phonon-grain boundary and phonon-defect scatterings. Temperature dependent figure-of-merit ZT was determined and the maximum value at room temperature is ~3 times higher than what was obtained in bulk samples of comparable carrier density.« less

  17. BRANCH-BASED MODEL FOR THE DIAMETERS OF THE PULMONARY AIRWAYS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    BRANCH-BASED MODEL FOR THE DIAMETERS OF THE PULMONARY AIRWAYS: ACCOUNTING FOR DEPARTURES ... Title: BRANCH-BASED MODEL FOR THE DIAMETERS OF THE PULMONARY AIRWAYS: ACCOUNTING FOR ...

  18. Advanced steelmaking processes for rotor forgings. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steiner, J.E.; Busby, P.E.; Jaffee, R.I.; Murphy, E.L.; Newhouse, D.L.; Wriedt, H.A.

    1983-12-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the current status and trends in advanced steelmaking for the production of large low-alloy steel ingots for large steam-turbine and generator-rotor forgings. The study reviews the essential chemistry of steelmaking and describes the equipment and processes that are state of the art or in development. Pertinent emerging technologies are reviewed. Emphasis is on processes related to steel refining and the casting of large ingots. The advantages and limitations, effects on quality, and economics of the processes are discussed.

  19. Assembly for facilitating inservice inspection of a reactor coolant pump rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veronesi, Luciano

    1990-01-01

    A reactor coolant pump has an outer casing with an internal cavity holding a coolant and a rotor rotatably mounted in the cavity within the coolant. An assembly for permitting inservice inspection of the pump rotor without first draining the coolant from the casing cavity is attached to an end of the pump. A cylindrical bore is defined through the casing in axial alignment with an end of pump rotor and opening into the internal cavity. An extension attached on the rotor end and rotatable therewith has a cylindrical coupler member extending into the bore. An outer end of the coupler member has an element configured to receive a tool for performance of inservice rotor inspection. A hollow cylindrical member is disposed in the bore and surrounds the coupler member. The cylindrical member is slidably movable relative to the coupler member along the bore between a retracted position wherein the cylindrical member is stored for normal pump operation and an extended position wherein the cylindrical member is extended for permitting inservice rotor inspection. A cover member is detachably and sealably attached to the casing across the bore for closing the bore and retaining the cylindrical member at its retracted position for normal pump operation. Upon detachment of the cover member, the cylindrical member can be extended to permit inservice rotor inspection.

  20. Connector tube for a turbine rotor cooling circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ming Cheng (Cincinnati, OH)

    2002-01-01

    A tubular connector adapted to extend between two tubular components comprising a tubular body having an internal diameter, a first free end including an annular radial flange having a tapered surface adapted to engage a complementary seating surface on a first of the two tubular components, the internal diameter remaining constant through the first free end; and a second free end having an annular bulbous shape adapted to seat within a cylindrical end of a second of the two tubular components.

  1. Connector tube for a turbine rotor cooling circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ming Cheng (Cincinnati, OH)

    2003-06-24

    A tubular connector adapted to extend between two tubular components comprising a tubular body having an internal diameter, a first free end including an annular radial flange having a tapered surface adapted to engage a complementary seating surface on a first of the two tubular components, the internal diameter remaining constant through the first free end; and a second free end having an annular bulbous shape adapted to seat within a cylindrical end of a second of the two tubular components.

  2. Method and system for controlling a rotational speed of a rotor of a turbogenerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahlhut, Ronnie Dean; Vuk, Carl Thomas

    2008-12-30

    A system and method controls a rotational speed of a rotor or shaft of a turbogenerator in accordance with a present voltage level on a direct current bus. A lower threshold and a higher threshold are established for a speed of a rotor or shaft of a turbogenerator. A speed sensor determines speed data or a speed signal for the rotor or shaft associated with a turbogenerator. A voltage regulator adjusts a voltage level associated with a direct current bus within a target voltage range if the speed data or speed signal indicates that the speed is above the higher threshold or below the lower threshold.

  3. WindPACT Turbine Rotor Design Study: June 2000--June 2002 (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm, D. J.; Hansen, A. C.

    2006-04-01

    This report presents the results of the turbine rotor study completed by Global Energy Concepts (GEC) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's WindPACT (Wind Partnership for Advanced Component Technologies) project. The purpose of the WindPACT project is to identify technology improvements that will enable the cost of energy from wind turbines to fall to a target of 3.0 cents/kilowatt-hour in low wind speed sites. The study focused on different rotor configurations and the effect of scale on those rotors.

  4. Rotor spectra, berry phases, and monopole fields: From antiferromagnets to QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandrasekharan, S.; Jiang, F.-J.; Wiese, U.-J.; Pepe, M.

    2008-10-01

    The order parameter of a finite system with a spontaneously broken continuous global symmetry acts as a quantum mechanical rotor. Both antiferromagnets with a spontaneously broken SU(2){sub s} spin symmetry and massless QCD with a broken SU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R} chiral symmetry have rotor spectra when considered in a finite volume. When an electron or hole is doped into an antiferromagnet or when a nucleon is propagating through the QCD vacuum, a Berry phase arises from a monopole field and the angular momentum of the rotor is quantized in half-integer units.

  5. Adaptor assembly for coupling turbine blades to rotor disks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delvaux, John McConnel; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Joyce, Kilmer Joseph; Tindell, Allan Randall

    2014-06-03

    An adaptor assembly for coupling a blade root of a turbine blade to a root slot of a rotor disk is disclosed. The adaptor assembly may generally include an adaptor body having a root configured to be received within the root slot. The adaptor body may also define a slot having an open end configured to receive the blade root. The adaptor body may further define a channel. The adaptor assembly may also include a plate having an outwardly extending foot. The foot may be configured to be received within the channel. Additionally, the plate may be configured to cover at least a portion of the open end of the slot when the foot is received within the channel.

  6. Assessment of research needs for wind turbine rotor materials technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Wind-driven power systems is a renewable energy technology that is still in the early stages of development. Wind power plants installed in early 1980s suffered structural failures chiefly because of incomplete understanding of wind forces (turbulent), in some cases because of poor product quality. Failures of rotor blades are now somewhat better understood. This committee has examined the experience base accumulated by wind turbines and the R and D programs sponsored by DOE. It is concluded that a wind energy system such as is described is within the capability of engineering practice; however because of certain gaps in knowledge, and the presence of only one major integrated manufacturer of wind power machines in the USA, a DOE R and D investment is still required.

  7. Cooling system for a bearing of a turbine rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Mark Christopher

    2002-01-01

    In a gas turbine, a bore tube assembly radially inwardly of an aft bearing conveys cooling steam to the buckets of the turbine and returns the cooling steam to a return. To cool the bearing and thermally insulate the bearing from the cooling steam paths, a radiation shield is spaced from the bore tube assembly by a dead air gap. Additionally, an air passageway is provided between the radiation shield and the inner surface of an aft shaft forming part of the rotor. Air is supplied from an inlet for flow along the passage and radially outwardly through bores in the aft shaft disk to cool the bearing and insulate it from transfer of heat from the cooling steam.

  8. Diameter Control and Photoluminescence of ZnO Nanorods from Trialkylamines

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Andelman, Tamar; Gong, Yinyan; Neumark, Gertrude; O'Brien, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    A novel solution method to control the diameter of ZnO nanorods is reported. Small diameter (2-3 nm) nanorods were synthesized from trihexylamine, and large diameter (50–80 nm) nanorods were synthesized by increasing the alkyl chain length to tridodecylamine. The defect (green) emission of the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the nanorods varies with diameter, and can thus be controlled by the diameter control. The small ZnO nanorods have strong green emission, while the large diameter nanorods exhibit a remarkably suppressed green band. We show that this observation supports surface oxygen vacancies as the defect that gives rise to the green emission.

  9. AUTOMATED WATER LEVEL MEASUREMENTS IN SMALL-DIAMETER AQUIFER TUBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PETERSEN SW; EDRINGTON RS; MAHOOD RO; VANMIDDLESWORTH PE

    2011-01-14

    Groundwater contaminated with hexavalent chromium, strontium-90, and uranium discharges into the Columbia River along approximately 16 km (10 mi) of the shoreline. Various treatment systems have and will continue to be implemented to eliminate the impact of Hanford Site contamination to the river. To optimize the various remediation strategies, it is important to understand interactions between groundwater and the surface water of the Columbia River. An automated system to record water levels in aquifer sampling tubes installed in the hyporheic zone was designed and tested to (1) gain a more complete understanding of groundwater/river water interactions based on gaining and losing conditions ofthe Columbia River, (2) record and interpret data for consistent and defensible groundwater/surface water conceptual models that may be used to better predict subsurface contaminant fate and transport, and (3) evaluate the hydrodynamic influence of extraction wells in an expanded pump-and-treat system to optimize the treatment system. A system to measure water levels in small-diameter aquifer tubes was designed and tested in the laboratory and field. The system was configured to allow manual measurements to periodically calibrate the instrument and to permit aquifer tube sampling without removing the transducer tube. Manual measurements were collected with an e-tape designed and fabricated especially for this test. Results indicate that the transducer system accurately records groundwater levels in aquifer tubes. These data are being used to refine the conceptual and numeric models to better understand interactions in the hyporheic zone of the Columbia River and the adjacent river water and groundwater, and changes in hydrochemistry relative to groundwater flux as river water recharges the aquifer and then drains back out in response to changes in the river level.

  10. Method and apparatus for reducing rotor blade deflections, loads, and/or peak rotational speed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw; Pierce, Kirk Gee

    2006-10-17

    A method for reducing at least one of loads, deflections of rotor blades, or peak rotational speed of a wind turbine includes storing recent historical pitch related data, wind related data, or both. The stored recent historical data is analyzed to determine at least one of whether rapid pitching is occurring or whether wind speed decreases are occurring. A minimum pitch, a pitch rate limit, or both are imposed on pitch angle controls of the rotor blades conditioned upon results of the analysis.

  11. Turning Waste Heat into Power: Ener-G-Rotors and the Entrepreneurial Mentorship Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    If you’ve ever driven by an industrial plant, you’ve probably noticed big white plumes rising from the tops of the facilities. While it might look like smoke or pollution at first glance, most of the time those white plumes are comprised of steam and heat, or what Ener-G-Rotors CEO Michael Newell calls waste heat. Mike and the researchers of Ener-G-Rotors are finding ways to use this escaped steam and turn it into energy.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of DNP enhancements in a rotor spinning at the magic angle

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Perras, Frederic A.; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Pruski, Marek

    2016-02-23

    Simulations performed on model, static, samples have shown that the microwave power is non-uniformly distributed in the magic angle spinning (MAS) rotor when using conventional dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) instrumentation. Here, we applied the stray-field magic angle spinning imaging (STRAFI–MAS) experiment to generate a spatial map of the DNP enhancements in a full rotor, which is spun at a low rate in a commercial DNP–MAS NMR system. Notably, we observed that the enhancement factors produced in the center of the rotor can be twice as large as those produced at the top of the rotor. Surprisingly, we observed that themore » largest enhancement factors are observed along the axis of the rotor as opposed to against its walls, which are most directly irradiated by the microwave beam. We lastly observed that the distribution of enhancement factors can be moderately improved by degassing the sample and increasing the microwave power. The inclusion of dielectric particles greatly amplifies the enhancement factors throughout the rotor. Furthermore, the STRAFI–MAS approach can provide useful guidance for optimizing the access of microwave power to the sample, and thereby lead to further increases in sensitivity of DNP–MAS NMR.« less

  13. Control system for a wound-rotor motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, James N.

    1983-01-01

    A load switching circuit for switching two or more transformer taps under load carrying conditions includes first and second parallel connected bridge rectifier circuits which control the selective connection of a direct current load to taps of a transformer. The first bridge circuit is normally conducting so that the load is connected to a first tap through the first bridge circuit. To transfer the load to the second tap, a switch is operable to connect the second bridge circuit to a second tap, and when the second bridge circuit begins to conduct, the first bridge circuit ceases conduction because the potential at the second tap is higher than the potential at the first tap, and the load is thus connected to the second tap through the second bridge circuit. The load switching circuit is applicable in a motor speed controller for a wound-rotor motor for effecting tap switching as a function of motor speed while providing a stepless motor speed control characteristic.

  14. RAMGEN ROTOR CARTRIDGE FOR THE PRE-PROTOTYPE RAMGEN ENGINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaron Koopman

    2003-09-01

    The research and development of a unique combustion engine is presented. The engine converts the thrust from ramjet modules located on the rim of a disk into shaft torque, which in turn can be used for electrical power generation or mechanical drive applications. A test program was undertaken that included evaluation of the pre-prototype engine and incorporation of improvements to the thrust modules and supporting systems. Fuel mixing studies with vortex generators and bluff body flame holders demonstrated the importance of increasing the shear-layer area and spreading angle to augment flame volume. Evaluation of flame-holding configurations (with variable fuel injection methods) concluded that the heat release zone, and therefore combustion efficiency, could be manipulated by judicious selection of bluff body geometry, and is less influenced by fuel injection distribution. Finally, successful operation of novel fuel and cooling air delivery systems have resolved issues of gas (fuel and air) delivery to the individual rotor segments. The lessons learned from the pre-prototype engine are currently being applied to the development of a 2.8MW engine.

  15. Operation of a test bed axial-gap brushless dc rotor with a superconducting stator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKeever, J.W.; Sohns, C.W.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Young, R.W. Sr.; Campbell, V.W.; Hickey, M.H.; Ott, G.W.; Bailey, J.M.

    1993-08-01

    A variable-speed axial-gap motor with a stator consisting of four liquid helium cooled superconducting electromagnets (two pole pairs) was built and proof tested up to 608 rpm in November 1990 as a tool for joint industry-laboratory evaluation of coils fabricated from high-temperature oxide superconductors. A second rotor was fabricated with improved materia winding configuration, and wire type, and the drive system was modified to eliminate current spiking. The modified motor was characterized to design speed, 188 rad/s (1800 rpm), to acquire a performance baseline for future comparison with that of high-temperature superconducting (HIS) wire. As it becomes commercially available, HTS wire will replace the low-temperature electromagnet wire in a stator modified to control wire temperatures between 4 K and 77 K. Measurements of the superconducting electromagnetic field and locked rotor torque as functions of cryocurrent and dc current through two phases of the rotor, respectively, provided data to estimate power that could be developed by the rotor. Back emf and parasitic mechanical and electromagnetic drag torques were measured as functions of angular velocity to calculate actual rotor power developed and to quantify losses, which reduce the motor`s efficiency. A detailed measurement of motor power at design speed confirmed the developed power equation. When subsequently operated at the 33-A maximum available rotor current, the motor delivered 15.3 kill (20.5 hp) to the load. In a final test, the cryostat was operated at 2500 A, 200 A below its critical current. At rotor design current of 60 A and 2500 A stator current, the extrapolated developed power would be 44.2 kill (59.2 hp) with 94% efficiency.

  16. Segmented Ultralight Pre-Aligned Rotor for Extreme-Scale Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loth, E.; Steele, A.; Ichter, B.; Selig, M.; Moriarty, P.

    2012-01-01

    To alleviate the mass-scaling issues associated with conventional upwind rotors of extreme-scale turbines, a downwind rotor concept is proposed which employs fixed blade curvature based on force alignment at rated conditions. For a given peak stress constraint, the reduction in downwind cantilever loads allows reduced shell and spar thickness, and thus a reduced blade mass as compared with a conventional upwind rotor, especially as rotor sizes approach extreme-scales. To quantify this mass reduction, a Finite Element Analysis was conducted for a 10 MW rated rotor based on the NREL offshore 5 MW baseline wind turbine. The results show that this 'pre-alignment' yields a net downstream deflection of 32 deg, a downward hub-pitch angle of 6 deg, a 20% increase in blade length (to maintain the same radius as the conventional blade), and a net mass savings of about 50% through decreased shell and spar thicknesses. The pre-alignment may also allow a more straightforward and efficient segmentation of the blade since shear stresses near joints are substantially reduced. Segmenting, in turn, can dramatically reduce costs associated with fabrication, transport and assembly for extreme-scale off-shore systems. The pre-aligned geometric curvature can also help alleviate tower wake effects on the blades since blade tips (where shadow effects can be most problematic) are shifted downstream where the tower wake is weaker. In addition, the portion of the tower that is upstream of the blade tips can be faired with an externally-rotating aerodynamic shroud. Furthermore, the downwind rotor can allow a floating off-shore tri-pod platform to reduce tower weight and yaw-control requirements. A simple economic analysis of the segmented ultralight pre-aligned rotor (SUPAR) concept suggests that the overall system cost savings can be as much as 25%, indicating that more detailed (numerical and experimental) investigations are warranted.

  17. Catalyst and its diameter dependent growth kinetics of CVD grown GaN nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samanta, Chandan [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India)] [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India); Chander, D. Sathish [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India) [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India); Ramkumar, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India); Dhamodaran, S., E-mail: kdams2003@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India)

    2012-04-15

    Graphical abstract: GaN nanowires with controlled diameter and aspect ratio has been grown using a simple CVD technique. The growth kinetics of CVD grown nanowires investigated in detail for different catalysts and their diameters. A critical diameter important to distinguish the growth regimes has been discussed in detail. The results are important which demonstrates the growth of diameter and aspect ratio controlled GaN nanowires and also understand their growth kinetics. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Controlled diameter and aspect ratio of GaN nanowires achieved in simple CVD reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanowire growth kinetics for different catalyst and its diameters were understood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adatoms vapor pressure inside reactor plays a crucial role in growth kinetics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diffusion along nanowire sidewalls dominate for gold and nickel catalysts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gibbs-Thomson effect dominates for palladium catalyst. -- Abstract: GaN nanowires were grown using chemical vapor deposition with controlled aspect ratio. The catalyst and catalyst-diameter dependent growth kinetics is investigated in detail. We first discuss gold catalyst diameter dependent growth kinetics and subsequently compare with nickel and palladium catalyst. For different diameters of gold catalyst there was hardly any variation in the length of the nanowires but for other catalysts with different diameter a strong length variation of the nanowires was observed. We calculated the critical diameter dependence on adatoms pressure inside the reactor and inside the catalytic particle. This gives an increasing trend in critical diameter as per the order gold, nickel and palladium for the current set of experimental conditions. Based on the critical diameter, with gold and nickel catalyst the nanowire growth was understood to be governed by limited surface diffusion of adatoms and by Gibbs-Thomson effect for the palladium

  18. Dynamic Rotor Deformation and Vibration Monitoring Using a Non-Incremental Laser Doppler Distance Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfister, Thorsten; Guenther, Philipp; Dreier, Florian; Czarske, Juergen

    2010-05-28

    Monitoring rotor deformations and vibrations dynamically is an important task for improving the safety and the lifetime as well as the energy efficiency of motors and turbo machines. However, due to the high rotor speed encountered in particular at turbo machines, this requires concurrently a high measurement rate and high accuracy, which can not be fulfilled by most commercially available sensors. To solve this problem, we developed a non-incremental laser Doppler distance sensor (LDDS), which is able to measure simultaneously the in-plane velocity and the out-of-plane position of moving rough solid objects with micrometer precision. In addition, this sensor concurrently offers a high temporal resolution in the microsecond range, because its position uncertainty is in principle independent of the object velocity in contrast to conventional distance sensors, which is a unique feature of the LDDS. Consequently, this novel sensor enables precise and dynamic in-process deformation and vibration measurements on rotating objects, such as turbo machine rotors, even at very high speed. In order to evidence the capability of the LDDS, measurements of rotor deformations (radial expansion), vibrations and wobbling motions are presented at up to 50,000 rpm rotor speed.

  19. Sealed rotors for in situ high temperature high pressure MAS NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Jian Z.; Hu, Mary Y.; Zhao, Zhenchao; Xu, Souchang; Vjunov, Aleksei; Shi, Hui; Camaioni, Donald M.; Peden, Charles H. F.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2015-07-06

    Magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) investigations on heterogeneous samples containing solids, semi-solids, liquid and gases or a mixture of them under non-conventional conditions of a combined high pressure and high temperature, or cold temperature suffer from the unavailability of a perfectly sealed rotor. Here, we report the design of reusable and perfectly-sealed all-zircornia MAS rotors. The rotors are easy to use and are suitable for operation temperatures from below 0 to 250 °C and pressures up to 100 bar. As an example of potential applications we performed in situ MAS NMR investigations of AlPO₄-5 molecular sieve crystallization, a kinetic study of the cyclohexanol dehydration reaction using 13C MAS NMR, and an investigation of the metabolomics of intact biological tissue at low temperature using 1H HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy. The in situ MAS NMR experiments performed using the reported rotors allowed reproduction of the results from traditional batch reactions, while offering more detailed quantitative information at the molecular level, as demonstrated for the molecular sieve synthesis and activation energy measurements for cyclohexanol dehydration. The perfectly sealed rotor also shows promising application for metabolomics studies using 1H HR-MAS NMR.

  20. Method and apparatus for wind turbine air gap control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grant, James Jonathan; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; DiMascio, Paul Stephen; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya; Qu, Ronghai

    2007-02-20

    Methods and apparatus for assembling a wind turbine generator are provided. The wind turbine generator includes a core and a plurality of stator windings circumferentially spaced about a generator longitudinal axis, a rotor rotatable about the generator longitudinal axis wherein the rotor includes a plurality of magnetic elements coupled to a radially outer periphery of the rotor such that an airgap is defined between the stator windings and the magnetic elements and the plurality of magnetic elements including a radially inner periphery having a first diameter. The wind turbine generator also includes a bearing including a first member in rotatable engagement with a radially inner second member, the first member including a radially outer periphery, a diameter of the radially outer periphery of the first member being substantially equal to the first diameter, the rotor coupled to the stator through the bearing such that a substantially uniform airgap is maintained.

  1. Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of minute hollow spherical shells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinman, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of hollow microspheres or shells wherein terminal velocities of shells traveling in fluid-filled conduits of differing diameters are measured. A wall-effect factor is determined as a ratio of the terminal velocities, and shell outside diameter may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of wall-effect factor. For shells of known outside diameter, wall thickness may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of terminal velocity in either conduit.

  2. Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of minute hollow spherical shells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinman, D.A.

    1980-05-30

    Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of hollow microspheres or shells wherein terminal velocities of shells traveling in fluid-filled conduits of differing diameters are measured. A wall-effect factor is determined as a ratio of the terminal velocities, and shell outside diameter may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of wall-effect factor. For shells of known outside diameter, wall thickness may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of terminal velocity in either conduit.

  3. (Solar variability observed through changes in solar limb-darkening function and mean diameter)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses: long-term changes in the apparent solar diameter/limb-darkening functions; work on solar gravity modes; and development on inverse techniques.

  4. A numerical investigation of transonic axial compressor rotor flow using a low-Reynolds-number {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arima, T.; Sonoda, T.; Shirotori, M.; Tamura, A.; Kikuchi, K.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have developed a computer simulation code for three-dimensional viscous flow in turbomachinery based on the time-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes equations and a low-Reynolds-number {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model. It is described in detail in this paper. The code is used to compute the flow fields for two types of rotor (a transonic fan NASA Rotor 67 and a transonic axial compressor NASA rotor 37), and numerical results are compared to experimental data based on aerodynamic probe and laser anemometer measurements. In the case of Rotor 67, calculated and experimental results are compared under the design speed to validate the code. The calculated results show good agreement with the experimental data, such as the rotor performance map and the spanwise distribution of total pressure, total temperature, and flow angle downstream of the rotor. In the case of Rotor 37, detailed comparisons between the numerical results and the experimental data are made under the design speed condition to assess the overall quality of the numerical solution. Furthermore, comparisons under the part-speed condition are used to investigate a flow field without passage shock. The results are well predicted qualitatively. However, considerable quantitative discrepancies remain in predicting the flow near the tip. In order to assess the predictive capabilities of the developed code, computed flow structures are presented with the experimental data for each rotor and the cause of the discrepancies is discussed.

  5. WindPACT Turbine Rotor Design Study: June 2000--June 2002 (Revised)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WindPACT Turbine Rotor Design Study June 2000 - June 2002 D.J. Malcolm Global Energy Concepts, LLC Kirkland, Washington A.C. Hansen Windward Engineering Salt Lake City, Utah Subcontract Report NREL/SR-500-32495 Revised April 2006 WindPACT Turbine Rotor Design Study June 2000 - June 2002 D.J. Malcolm Global Energy Concepts, LLC Kirkland, Washington A.C. Hansen Windward Engineering Salt Lake City, Utah NREL Technical Monitor: A. Laxson Prepared under Subcontract No. YAT-0-30213-01 Subcontract

  6. Dual-rotor, radial-flux, toroidally-wound, permanent-magnet machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qu, Ronghai; Lipo, Thomas A.

    2005-08-02

    The present invention provides a novel dual-rotor, radial-flux, toroidally-wound, permanent-magnet machine. The present invention improves electrical machine torque density and efficiency. At least one concentric surface-mounted permanent magnet dual-rotor is located inside and outside of a torus-shaped stator with back-to-back windings, respectively. The machine substantially improves machine efficiency by reducing the end windings and boosts the torque density by at least doubling the air gap and optimizing the machine aspect ratio.

  7. Improved Structure and Fabrication of Large, High-Power KHPS Rotors - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corren, Dean; Colby, Jonathan; Adonizio, Mary Ann

    2013-01-29

    Verdant Power, Inc, working in partnership with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the University of Minnesota St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL), among other partners, used evolving Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) models and techniques to improve the structure and fabrication of large, high-power composite Kinetic Hydropower System (KHPS) rotor blades. The objectives of the project were to: design; analyze; develop for manufacture and fabricate; and thoroughly test, in the lab and at full scale in the water, the improved KHPS rotor blade.

  8. Vertically aligned crystalline silicon nanowires with controlled diameters for energy conversion applications: Experimental and theoretical insights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Razek, Sara Abdel; Swillam, Mohamed A.; Allam, Nageh K.

    2014-05-21

    Vertically orientated single crystalline silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays with controlled diameters are fabricated via a metal-assisted chemical etching method. The diameter of the fabricated nanowires is controlled by simply varying the etching time in HF/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} electrolytes. The fabricated SiNWs have diameters ranging from 117 to 650?nm and lengths from 8 to 18??m. The optical measurements showed a significant difference in the reflectance/absorption of the SiNWs with different diameters, where the reflectance increases with increasing the diameter of the SiNWs. The SiNWs showed significant photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra with peaks lying between 380 and 670?nm. The PL intensity increases as the diameter increases and shows red shift for peaks at ?670?nm. The increase or decrease of reflectivity is coincident with PL intensity at wavelength ?660?nm. The x-ray diffraction patterns confirm the high crystallinity of the fabricated SiNWs. In addition, the Raman spectra showed a shift in the first order transverse band toward lower frequencies compared to that usually seen for c-Si. Finite difference time domain simulations have been performed to confirm the effect of change of diameter on the optical properties of the nanowires. The simulation results showed good agreement with the experimental results for the SiNWs of different diameters.

  9. Materials for Advanced Ultrasupercritical Steam Turbines Task 3: Materials for Non-Welded Rotors, Buckets, and BoltingMaterials for Advanced Ultrasupercritical Steam Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saha, Deepak

    2015-09-15

    The primary objective of the task was to characterize the materials suitable for mechanically coupled rotor, buckets and bolting operating with an inlet temperature of 760°C (1400°F). A previous study DOE-FC26-05NT42442, identified alloys such as Haynes®282®, Nimonic 105, Inconel 740, Waspaloy, Nimonic 263, and Inconel 617 as potential alloys that met the requirements for the necessary operating conditions. Of all the identified materials, Waspaloy has been widely utilized in the aviation industry in the form of disk and other smaller forgings, and sufficient material properties and vendor experience exist, for the design and manufacture of large components. The European program characterizing materials for A-USC conditions are evaluating Nimonic 263 and Inconel 617 for large components. Inconel 740 has been studied extensively as a part of the boiler consortium and is code approved. Therefore, the consortium focused efforts in the development of material properties for Haynes®282® and Nimonic 105 to avoid replicative efforts and provide material choices/trade off during the detailed design of large components. Commercially available Nimonic 105 and Haynes®282® were evaluated for microstructural stability by long term thermal exposure studies. Material properties requisite for design such as tensile, creep / rupture, low cycle fatigue, high cycle fatigue, fatigue crack growth rate, hold-time fatigue, fracture toughness, and stress relaxation are documented in this report. A key requisite for the success of the program was a need demonstrate the successful scale up of the down-selected alloys, to large components. All property evaluations in the past were performed on commercially available bar/billet forms. Components in power plant equipment such as rotors and castings are several orders in magnitude larger and there is a real need to resolve the scalability issue. Nimonic 105 contains high volume fraction y’ [>50%], and hence the alloy is best suited

  10. Decoherence from chaotic internal dynamics in two coupled {delta}-function-kicked rotors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Hwa-Kyun; Kim, Sang Wook

    2003-06-01

    We show that classical-quantum correspondence of center-of-mass motion in two coupled {delta}-kicked rotors is enhanced by the entanglement of the center of-mass motion to the internal degree of freedom. The observed correspondence can be attributed to the decoherence generated from chaotic internal dynamics with a few degrees of freedom.

  11. Numerical Simulations of Subscale Wind Turbine Rotor Inboard Airfoils at Low Reynolds Number

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaylock, Myra L.; Maniaci, David Charles; Resor, Brian R.

    2015-04-01

    New blade designs are planned to support future research campaigns at the SWiFT facility in Lubbock, Texas. The sub-scale blades will reproduce specific aerodynamic characteristics of utility-scale rotors. Reynolds numbers for megawatt-, utility-scale rotors are generally above 2-8 million. The thickness of inboard airfoils for these large rotors are typically as high as 35-40%. The thickness and the proximity to three-dimensional flow of these airfoils present design and analysis challenges, even at the full scale. However, more than a decade of experience with the airfoils in numerical simulation, in the wind tunnel, and in the field has generated confidence in their performance. Reynolds number regimes for the sub-scale rotor are significantly lower for the inboard blade, ranging from 0.7 to 1 million. Performance of the thick airfoils in this regime is uncertain because of the lack of wind tunnel data and the inherent challenge associated with numerical simulations. This report documents efforts to determine the most capable analysis tools to support these simulations in an effort to improve understanding of the aerodynamic properties of thick airfoils in this Reynolds number regime. Numerical results from various codes of four airfoils are verified against previously published wind tunnel results where data at those Reynolds numbers are available. Results are then computed for other Reynolds numbers of interest.

  12. Unified continuum damage model for matrix cracking in composite rotor blades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollayi, Hemaraju; Harursampath, Dineshkumar

    2015-03-10

    This paper deals with modeling of the first damage mode, matrix micro-cracking, in helicopter rotor/wind turbine blades and how this effects the overall cross-sectional stiffness. The helicopter/wind turbine rotor system operates in a highly dynamic and unsteady environment leading to severe vibratory loads present in the system. Repeated exposure to this loading condition can induce damage in the composite rotor blades. These rotor/turbine blades are generally made of fiber-reinforced laminated composites and exhibit various competing modes of damage such as matrix micro-cracking, delamination, and fiber breakage. There is a need to study the behavior of the composite rotor system under various key damage modes in composite materials for developing Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system. Each blade is modeled as a beam based on geometrically non-linear 3-D elasticity theory. Each blade thus splits into 2-D analyzes of cross-sections and non-linear 1-D analyzes along the beam reference curves. Two different tools are used here for complete 3-D analysis: VABS for 2-D cross-sectional analysis and GEBT for 1-D beam analysis. The physically-based failure models for matrix in compression and tension loading are used in the present work. Matrix cracking is detected using two failure criterion: Matrix Failure in Compression and Matrix Failure in Tension which are based on the recovered field. A strain variable is set which drives the damage variable for matrix cracking and this damage variable is used to estimate the reduced cross-sectional stiffness. The matrix micro-cracking is performed in two different approaches: (i) Element-wise, and (ii) Node-wise. The procedure presented in this paper is implemented in VABS as matrix micro-cracking modeling module. Three examples are presented to investigate the matrix failure model which illustrate the effect of matrix cracking on cross-sectional stiffness by varying the applied cyclic load.

  13. Handling state-of-the-art large-diameter coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Courville, P.

    1994-12-31

    Completion and workover demands placed on coiled tubing technology in the last 10 years have shown the limitations of small-diameter (1- to 1{1/2}-in.) coiled tubing. The small tubing tends to buckle when used at lengths greater than 1,500 ft in most horizontal applications. Large-diameter coiled tubing (up to 3{1/2} in.) provides greater flexibility of job design and increases horizontal reach possibilities for drilling, completion, and workover activities. Transportation and handling equipment to accommodate the larger, heavier tubing is naturally a critical component of the system. This paper will present the benefits of large-diameter coiled tubing including completion and workover for greater depth and more extended horizontal reach. It will also discuss the unique concerns of transportation and handling of large diameter tubing and associated equipment.

  14. Status Report: Characterization of Weld Residual Stresses on Full Diameter SNF Interim Storage Canister Mockup

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The goal of work described in this document is to assess the effects of the manufacturing process on canister performance by evaluating the properties of a full-diameter cylindrical mockup of an...

  15. Risk assessment of turbine rotor failure using probabilistic ultrasonic non-destructive evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, Xuefei; Zhang, Jingdan; Zhou, S. Kevin; Rasselkorde, El Mahjoub; Abbasi, Waheed A.

    2014-02-18

    The study presents a method and application of risk assessment methodology for turbine rotor fatigue failure using probabilistic ultrasonic nondestructive evaluations. A rigorous probabilistic modeling for ultrasonic flaw sizing is developed by incorporating the model-assisted probability of detection, and the probability density function (PDF) of the actual flaw size is derived. Two general scenarios, namely the ultrasonic inspection with an identified flaw indication and the ultrasonic inspection without flaw indication, are considered in the derivation. To perform estimations for fatigue reliability and remaining useful life, uncertainties from ultrasonic flaw sizing and fatigue model parameters are systematically included and quantified. The model parameter PDF is estimated using Bayesian parameter estimation and actual fatigue testing data. The overall method is demonstrated using a realistic application of steam turbine rotor, and the risk analysis under given safety criteria is provided to support maintenance planning.

  16. Microwave-emitting rotor, separator apparatus including same, methods of operation and design thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H.

    2006-12-19

    An apparatus for use in separating, at least in part, a mixture, including at least one chamber and at least one microwave generation device configured for communicating microwave energy into the at least one chamber is disclosed. The rotor assembly may comprise an electric generator for generating electricity for operating the microwave generation device. At least one microwave generation device may be positioned within a tubular interior shaft extending within the rotor assembly. At least a portion of the tubular interior shaft may be substantially transparent to microwave energy. Microwave energy may be emitted in an outward radial direction or toward an anticipated boundary surface defined between a mixture and a separated constituent thereof. A method including flowing a mixture through at least one chamber and communicating microwave energy into the at least one chamber while rotating same is disclosed. Methods of operating a centrifugal separator and design thereof are disclosed.

  17. Rotor whirl forces induced by the tip clearance effect in axial flow compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrich, F. )

    1993-10-01

    It is now widely recognized that destabilizing forces, tending to generate forward rotor whirl, are generated in axial flow turbines as a result of the nonuniform torque induced by the nonuniform tip-clearance in a deflected rotor--the so called Thomas/Alford force. It is also recognized that there will be a similar effect in axial flow compressors, but qualitative considerations cannot definitively establish the magnitude or even the direction of the induced whirling forces--that is, if they will tend to forward or backward whirl. Applying a parallel compressor model to simulate the operation of a compressor rotor deflected radially in its clearance, it is possible to derive a quantitative estimate of the proportionality factor [beta] which relates the Thomas/Alford force in axial flow compressors (i.e., the tangential force generated by a radial deflection of the rotor) to the torque level in the compressor. The analysis makes use of experimental data from the GE Aircraft Engines Low Speed Research Compressor facility comparing the performance of three different axial flow compressors, each with four stages (typical of a mid-block of an aircraft gas turbine compressor) at two different clearances. It is found that the value of [beta] is in the range of +0.27 to [minus]0.71 in the vicinity of the stages' nominal operating line and +0.08 to [minus]1.25 in the vicinity of the stages' operation at peak efficiency. The value of [beta] reaches a level of between [minus]1.16 and [minus]3.36 as the compressor is operated near its stalled condition.

  18. Large Diameter Limbs for Dilated Common Iliac Arteries in Endovascular Aneurysm Repair. Is It Safe?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malagari, Katerina Brountzos, Elias; Gougoulakis, Alexandros; Papathanasiou, Matilda; Alexopoulou, Efthymia; Mastorakou, Renata; Kelekis, Dimitris

    2004-09-15

    In this prospective study we examined whether dilated common iliac arteries (CIAs) can provide a safe distal seal in endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) with the use of bifurcated stent grafts with large diameter limbs. Sixteen patients with 26 dilated CIAs with a diameter of {>=}6 mm who were offered EVAR using stent grafts with large diameter limbs were included in the study (Group A). Forty-two patients who also underwent EVAR without iliac dilatation, matched for age, sex and surgical risk were used for comparison (controls-Group B). In group A mean CIA diameter was 18.2 mm (16-28) and mean abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) diameter was 6.87 {+-} 1.05 cm; mean age was 77.2 {+-} 4.8 yrs (67-81). Mean follow-up was 33.6 months (2.8 yrs). CIA diameter changes and development of endoleaks were assessed by CT angiography (CTA). Overall iliac dilatation was present in 16/58 of our patients (27.6%). In 10 patients dilatation was bilateral (17.3%). Partial or complete flow to the internal iliac artery (IIA) territories was preserved in all patients post-EVAR. On follow-up, stable caliber of the dilated CIAs was observed in 21 patients (84%), enlargement of 1mm in 3 (16%), and failure of the distal attachment in 1 (6.2%). Compared to the control group there was no statistical significance in the incidence of complications. Dilated common iliac arteries provide a safe distal seal in patients who have undergone EVAR, thus obviating the need for additional endovascular procedures and sparing flow in the IIA vascular bed.

  19. Carbon nanotube diameter selection by pretreatment of metal catalysts on surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hauge, Robert H.; Xu, Ya-Qiong; Shan, Hongwei; Nicholas, Nolan Walker; Kim, Myung Jong; Schmidt, Howard K.; Kittrell, W. Carter

    2012-02-28

    A new and useful nanotube growth substrate conditioning processes is herein disclosed that allows the growth of vertical arrays of carbon nanotubes where the average diameter of the nanotubes can be selected and/or controlled as compared to the prior art.

  20. Production of vertical arrays of small diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hauge, Robert H; Xu, Ya-Qiong

    2013-08-13

    A hot filament chemical vapor deposition method has been developed to grow at least one vertical single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). In general, various embodiments of the present invention disclose novel processes for growing and/or producing enhanced nanotube carpets with decreased diameters as compared to the prior art.

  1. An evaluation of large diameter coiled tubing for subsurface production tubulars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, L.S.; Smith, L.W.

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides an economic and technological perspective for use of large diameter coiled tubing relative to threaded tubulars for subsurface production tubing. This new advancement in coiled tubing technology can significantly reduce the expense for purchasing and installing production tubing while increasing hydrocarbon reserve recovery and providing a safer, more desirable ecosystem interrelation.

  2. Effect of catalyst diameter on vapour-liquid-solid growth of GaAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Dowd, B. J. Shvets, I. V.; Wojtowicz, T.; Kolkovsky, V.; Wojciechowski, T.; Zgirski, M.; Rouvimov, S.; Liu, X.; Pimpinella, R.; Dobrowolska, M.; Furdyna, J.

    2014-08-14

    GaAs nanowires were grown on (111)B GaAs substrates using the vapour-liquid-solid mechanism. The Au/Pt nanodots used to catalyse wire growth were defined lithographically and had varying diameter and separation. An in-depth statistical analysis of the resulting nanowires, which had a cone-like shape, was carried out. This revealed that there were two categories of nanowire present, with differing height and tapering angle. The bimodal nature of wire shape was found to depend critically on the diameter of the Au-Ga droplet atop the nanowire. Transmission electron microscopy analysis also revealed that the density of stacking faults in the wires varied considerably between the two categories of wire. It is believed that the cause of the distinction in terms of shape and crystal structure is related to the contact angle between the droplet and the solid-liquid interface. The dependency of droplet diameter on contact angle is likely related to line-tension, which is a correction to Young's equation for the contact angle of a droplet upon a surface. The fact that contact angle may influence resulting wire structure and shape has important implications for the planning of growth conditions and the preparation of wires for use in proposed devices.

  3. Characterizing Inflow Conditions Across the Rotor Disk of a Utility-Scale Wind Turbine (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifton, A.; Lundquist, J. K.; Kelley, N.; Scott, G.; Jager, D.; Schreck, S.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-megawatt utility-scale wind turbines operate in a turbulent, thermally-driven atmosphere where wind speed and air temperature vary with height. Turbines convert the wind's momentum into electrical power, and so changes in the atmosphere across the rotor disk influence the power produced by the turbine. To characterize the inflow into utility scale turbines at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) near Boulder, Colorado, NREL recently built two 135-meter inflow monitoring towers. This poster introduces the towers and the measurements that are made, showing some of the data obtained in the first few months of operation in 2011.

  4. Rotor dynamic analysis of GCEP (Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant) Tails Withdrawal Test Facility AC-12 compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, J.W.

    1982-01-22

    The reliable operation of the centrifugal compressors utilized in the gaseous diffusion process is of great importance due to the critical function of these machines in product and tails withdrawal, cascade purge and evacuation processes, the purge cascade and product booster applications. The same compressors will be used in equally important applications within the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP). In response to concern over the excessive vibration exhibited by the AC-12 compressor in the No. 3 position of the GCEP Tails Withdrawal Test Facility, a rotor-bearing dynamic analysis was performed on the compressor. This analysis included the acquisition and reduction of compressor vibration data, characterization and modeling of the rotorbearing system, a computer dynamic study, and recommendations for machine modification. The compressor dynamic analysis was performed for rotor speeds of 9000 rpm and 7200 to 7800 rpm, which includes all possible opreating speeds of the compressor in the GCEP Test Facility. While the analysis was performed on this particular AC-12 compressor, the results should be pertinent to other AC-12 applications as well. Similar diagnostic and analytical techniques can be used to evaluate operation of other types of centrifugal compressors.

  5. Evaluation of lightning accommodation systems for wind-driven turbine rotors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bankaitis, H

    1982-03-01

    Several concepts of lightning accommodation systems for wind-driven turbine rotor blades were evaluated by submitting them to simulated lightning tests. Test samples representative of epoxy-fiberglass and wood-epoxy composite structural materials were submitted to a series of high-voltage and high-current damage tests. The high-voltage tests were designed to determine the strike points and current paths through the sample and the need for, and the most proper type of, lightning accommodation. The high-current damage tests were designed to determine the capability of the potential lightning accommodation system to sustain the 200-kA lightning current without causing damage to the composite structure. The observations and data obtained in the series of tests of lightning accommodation systems clearly led to the conclusions that composite-structural-material rotor blades require a lightning accommodation system; that the concepts tested prevent internal streamering; and that keeping discharge currents on the blade surface precludes structure penetration. Induced voltage effects or any secondary effects on the integral components of the total system could not be addressed. Further studies should be carried out to encompass effects on the total system design.

  6. Controlling the width of a femtosecond continuum generated in a small-diameter fibre

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobtsev, Sergey M; Kukarin, S V; Fateev, N V

    2002-01-31

    The control of the width of a continuum generated in a tapered germanium-doped silica fibre with the waist diameter of {approx}3 {mu}m is experimentally demonstrated for the first time. The width of the continuum was controlled by varying the wavelength of chirped femtosecond pump pulses near the zero-point of the group velocity dispersion of the fibre. The width of the continuum at the -20-dB level was varied from 98 to 790 nm by tuning the central wavelength of 80-fs, 0.6-nJ input pulses from 789 to 847 nm. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  7. PROCESSING METHOD EFFECT ON SUN DIAMETER MEASUREMENT WITH CCD SOLAR ASTROLABE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djafer, Djelloul; Irbah, Abdenour E-mail: abdenour.irbah@latmos.ipsl.fr

    2012-05-01

    Photometric Sun diameter measurement is based on the calculation of the inflection point of the solar limb. In ground measurement, this point is located at a position on the solar limb where the signal-to-noise ratio is very high, which necessitates the appropriate filtering techniques to eliminate the noise while preserving its position. In this paper, we compare the filtering method currently in use to process the CCD solar astrolabe data, the FFTD method widely used, with a different method that we propose. Using the acquired data from the CCD astrolabe at Calern, France during 1997, we can obtain a mean difference of 130 mas in the measured radii.

  8. Machine imparting complex rotary motion for lapping a spherical inner diameter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carroll, T.A.; Yetter, H.H.

    1985-01-30

    An apparatus for imparting complex rotary motion is used to lap an inner spherical diameter surface of a workpiece. A lapping tool consists of a dome and rod mounted along the dome's vertical axis. The workpiece containing the lapping tool is held in a gimbal which uses power derived from a secondary takeoff means to impart rotary motion about a horizontal axis. The gimbal is rotated about a vertical axis by a take means while mounted at a radially outward position on a rotating arm.

  9. Machine imparting complex rotary motion for lapping a spherical inner diameter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carroll, Thomas A.; Yetter, Harold H.

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for imparting complex rotary motion is used to lap an inner spherical diameter surface of a workpiece. A lapping tool consists of a dome and rod mounted along the dome's vertical axis. The workpiece containing the lapping tool is held in a gimbal which uses power derived from a secondary takeoff means to impart rotary motion about a horizontal axis. The gimbal is rotated about a vertical axis by a take means while mounted at a radially outward position on a rotating arm.

  10. Design and Laboratory Evaluation of Future Elongation and Diameter Measurements at the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. L. Davis; D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe; J. C. Crepeau; S. Solstad

    2015-07-01

    New materials are being considered for fuel, cladding, and structures in next generation and existing nuclear reactors. Such materials can undergo significant dimensional and physical changes during high temperature irradiations. In order to accurately predict these changes, real-time data must be obtained under prototypic irradiation conditions for model development and validation. To provide such data, researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL) are developing several instrumented test rigs to obtain data real-time from specimens irradiated in well-controlled pressurized water reactor (PWR) coolant conditions in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This paper reports the status of INL efforts to develop and evaluate prototype test rigs that rely on Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDTs) in laboratory settings. Although similar LVDT-based test rigs have been deployed in lower flux Materials Testing Reactors (MTRs), this effort is unique because it relies on robust LVDTs that can withstand higher temperatures and higher fluxes than often found in other MTR irradiations. Specifically, the test rigs are designed for detecting changes in length and diameter of specimens irradiated in ATR PWR loops. Once implemented, these test rigs will provide ATR users with unique capabilities that are sorely needed to obtain measurements such as elongation caused by thermal expansion and/or creep loading and diameter changes associated with fuel and cladding swelling, pellet-clad interaction, and crud buildup.

  11. THE MEGAMASER COSMOLOGY PROJECT. V. AN ANGULAR-DIAMETER DISTANCE TO NGC 6264 AT 140 Mpc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuo, C. Y.; Braatz, J. A.; Lo, K. Y.; Condon, J. J.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Reid, M. J.; Henkel, C.

    2013-04-20

    We present the direct measurement of the Hubble constant, yielding the direct measurement of the angular-diameter distance to NGC 6264 using the H{sub 2}O megamaser technique. Our measurement is based on sensitive observations of the circumnuclear megamaser disk from four observations with the Very Long Baseline Array, the Green Bank Telescope (GBT), and the Effelsberg telescope. We also monitored the maser spectral profile for 2.3 years using the GBT to measure accelerations of maser lines by tracking their line-of-sight velocities as they change with time. The measured accelerations suggest that the systemic maser spots have a significantly wider radial distribution than in the archetypal megamaser in NGC 4258. We model the maser emission as arising from a circumnuclear disk with orbits dominated by the central black hole. The best fit of the data gives a Hubble constant of H{sub 0} = 68 {+-} 9 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1}, which corresponds to an angular-diameter distance of 144 {+-} 19 Mpc. In addition, the fit also gives a mass of the central black hole of (3.09 {+-} 0.42) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }. The result demonstrates the feasibility of measuring distances to galaxies located well into the Hubble flow by using circumnuclear megamaser disks.

  12. Development of an equivalent diameter expression for vertical U-tubes used in ground-coupled heat pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Y.; O`Neal, D.L.

    1998-12-31

    An expression for the equivalent diameter was developed for the heat transfer of a vertical U-tube heat exchanger used in applications of ground-coupled heat pumps. The expression was derived using the assumptions of steady-state heat transfer and concentricity of one leg and the borehole. Potential errors in applying the results to a transient start-up problem are also quantified and discussed in this paper, using transient cylindrical heat source solutions available in the literature. A conformal mapping technique was used to develop a solution to examine the errors in evaluating the external thermal resistance with a concentricity assumption. The principle of superposition of multiple heat sources was applied in the present work. The results show that the equivalent diameter depends on the tube diameter and the leg spacing. The ratio of the calculated equivalent diameter to the tube diameter can be two or greater.

  13. Wind turbine rotor blade with in-plane sweep and devices using the same, and methods for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wetzel, Kyle Kristopher

    2014-06-24

    A wind turbine includes a rotor having a hub and at least one blade having a torsionally rigid root, an inboard section, and an outboard section. The inboard section has a forward sweep relative to an elastic axis of the blade and the outboard section has an aft sweep.

  14. Wind turbine rotor blade with in-plane sweep and devices using same, and methods for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wetzel, Kyle Kristopher

    2008-03-18

    A wind turbine includes a rotor having a hub and at least one blade having a torsionally rigid root, an inboard section, and an outboard section. The inboard section has a forward sweep relative to an elastic axis of the blade and the outboard section has an aft sweep.

  15. Modeling Creep-Fatigue-Environment Interactions in Steam Turbine Rotor Materials for Advanced Ultra-supercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Chen

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this project is to model creep-fatigue-environment interactions in steam turbine rotor materials for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) coal power Alloy 282 plants, to develop and demonstrate computational algorithms for alloy property predictions, and to determine and model key mechanisms that contribute to the damages caused by creep-fatigue-environment interactions.

  16. Rotor Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  17. The Engineering Design of the 1.5 m Diameter Solenoid for the MICERFCC Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, L.; Green, M.A.; Xu, F.Y.; Wu, H.; Li, L.K.; Gou, C.S.; Liu, C.S.; Han, G.; Jia, L.X.; Li, D.; Prestemon, S.O.; Virostek, S.P.

    2007-08-27

    The RF coupling coil (RFCC) module of MICE is where muonsthat have been cooled within the MICE absorber focus (AFC) modules arere-accelerated to their original longitudinal momentum. The RFCC moduleconsists of four 201.25 MHz RF cavities in a 1.4 meter diameter vacuumvessel. The muons are kept within the RF cavities by the magnetic fieldgenerated by a superconducting coupling solenoid that goes around the RFcavities. The coupling solenoid will be cooled using a pair of 4 K pulsetube cooler that will generate 1.5 W of cooling at 4.2 K. The magnet willbe powered using a 300 A two-quadrant power supply. This report describesthe ICST engineering design of the coupling solenoid forMICE.

  18. Demonstration of the BioBaler harvesting system for collection of small-diameter woody biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langholtz, Matthew H; Caffrey, Kevin R; Barnett, Elliott J; Webb, Erin; Brummette, Mark W; Downing, Mark

    2011-12-01

    As part of a project to investigate sustainable forest management practices for producing wood chips on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the ORNL steam plant, the BioBaler was tested in various Oak Ridge locations in August of 2011. The purpose of these tests and the subsequent economic analysis was to determine the potential of this novel woody biomass harvesting method for collection of small-diameter, low value woody biomass. Results suggest that opportunities may exist for economical harvest of low-value and liability or negative-cost biomass. (e.g., invasives). This could provide the ORR and area land managers with a tool to produce feedstock while improving forest health, controlling problem vegetation, and generating local employment.

  19. Design Calculations for Gas Flow & Diffusion Behavior in the large Diameter Container & Cask

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    2003-10-21

    This report describes the calculations for the gas behavior in the void volumes or gas spaces of the sludge Large Diameter Container (LDC) and Cask. The objective is to prevent flammable gas conditions in the LDC and Cask gas spaces. This is achieved by the Active Inert Ventilation System (AIVS), which uses argon gas for dilution purposes. With AIVS, the oxygen content is kept below 5 vol% in the LDC, and the hydrogen content is kept below 4 vol% in the Cask before its purge at the KE Basin. After the Cask sweep-through purge with argon at the KE Basin, oxygen is kept below 5% in both the Cask and the LDC. The analysis here assumes that any oxygen generated in the sludge is consumed by the uranium and uranium dioxide (SNF-18133, ''Gas Behavior in Large Diameter Containers (LDCs) During and Following Loading with 105K East Sludge''). Thus, oxygen production from radiolysis is intentionally not included in this report, but hydrogen from radiolysis and from chemical reactions between uranium and water are considered, depending on the scenario being analyzed. The analysis starts immediately after the final decant at K Basin, when argon is assumed to be the only gas in the LDC gas space, except for the normal water vapor. The oxygen ingress is calculated during the disconnecting of the lines hoses from the LDC, during the time that air is surrounding the LDC with two NucFil-type filters in place after the disconnect, before the Cask is sealed, and, finally, during the sweep-through Cask purge. Dissolution of oxygen from water due to increasing sludge temperatures (mainly during hot transport to the T Plant) is also included.

  20. Maximum Diameter Measurements of Aortic Aneurysms on Axial CT Images After Endovascular Aneurysm Repair: Sufficient for Follow-up?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumueller, Stephan Nguyen, Thi Dan Linh Goetti, Robert Paul; Lachat, Mario; Seifert, Burkhardt; Pfammatter, Thomas Frauenfelder, Thomas

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of maximum diameter measurements of aortic aneurysms after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) on axial computed tomographic (CT) images in comparison to maximum diameter measurements perpendicular to the intravascular centerline for follow-up by using three-dimensional (3D) volume measurements as the reference standard. Materials and Methods: Forty-nine consecutive patients (73 {+-} 7.5 years, range 51-88 years), who underwent EVAR of an infrarenal aortic aneurysm were retrospectively included. Two blinded readers twice independently measured the maximum aneurysm diameter on axial CT images performed at discharge, and at 1 and 2 years after intervention. The maximum diameter perpendicular to the centerline was automatically measured. Volumes of the aortic aneurysms were calculated by dedicated semiautomated 3D segmentation software (3surgery, 3mensio, the Netherlands). Changes in diameter of 0.5 cm and in volume of 10% were considered clinically significant. Intra- and interobserver agreements were calculated by intraclass correlations (ICC) in a random effects analysis of variance. The two unidimensional measurement methods were correlated to the reference standard. Results: Intra- and interobserver agreements for maximum aneurysm diameter measurements were excellent (ICC = 0.98 and ICC = 0.96, respectively). There was an excellent correlation between maximum aneurysm diameters measured on axial CT images and 3D volume measurements (r = 0.93, P < 0.001) as well as between maximum diameter measurements perpendicular to the centerline and 3D volume measurements (r = 0.93, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Measurements of maximum aneurysm diameters on axial CT images are an accurate, reliable, and robust method for follow-up after EVAR and can be used in daily routine.

  1. {alpha} decay and shape coexistence in the {alpha}-rotor model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, J.D.; Bingham, C.R.; Nazarewicz, W.; Wauters, J.; Berggren, T.; Berggren, T.; Bingham, C.R.; Nazarewicz, W.; Nazarewicz, W.

    1997-09-01

    The particle-plus-rotor model was employed to study the fine structure seen in the {alpha} decay of even-even neutron-deficient nuclei in the Hg-Po region. The configuration mixing resulting from the shape coexistence between well-deformed prolate bands and spherical (or quasirotational oblate) structures in the daughter nuclei was considered. Experimental {alpha}-decay branching ratios are reproduced within one order of magnitude, except for the case of {sup 180}Hg, where the daughter nucleus {sup 176}Pt is expected to be triaxial in its ground state. The effect of configuration mixing on the relative intensities is discussed in detail, together with the sensitivity of results to the choice of the {alpha}-nucleus optical model parameters. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Design Calculations for Gas Flow & Diffusion Behavior in the Large Diameter Container & Cask

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    2003-11-06

    This report describes the calculations for the gas behavior in the void volumes or gas spaces of the sludge Large Diameter Container (LDC) and Cask. The objective is to prevent flammable gas conditions in the LDC and Cask gas spaces. This is achieved by the Active Inert Ventilation System (AIVS), which uses argon gas for dilution purposes. With AIVS, the oxygen content is kept below 4 to 5 vol% in the LDC, and the hydrogen content is kept below 4 vol% in the Cask before its purge at the KE Basin. After the Cask sweep-through purge with argon at the KE Basin, oxygen stays below 4 to 5% in the LDC until two LDC ports are opened at T Plant. The oxygen content stays below 4% in the Cask until the Cask lid is opened at T Plant. The analysis here assumes that any oxygen generated in the sludge is consumed by the uranium and uranium dioxide (SNF-18133, ''Gas Behavior in Large Diameter Containers (LDCs) During and Following Loading with 105K East Sludge''). Thus, oxygen production from radiolysis is not included in this report, but hydrogen from radiolysis and from chemical reactions between uranium and water are considered, depending on the scenario being analyzed. The analysis starts immediately after the final decant at K Basin, when argon is assumed to be the only gas in the LDC gas space, except for the normal water vapor. The oxygen ingress is calculated during the disconnecting of the lined hoses from the LDC, during the time that air is surrounding the LDC with two NucFil-type filters in place after the disconnect, before the Cask is sealed, and, finally, during the sweep-through Cask purge at the KE Basin. Dissolution of oxygen from water due to increasing sludge temperatures (mainly during hot transport to the T Plant) is also included. The analysis includes the gas behavior during the T-Plant operations, which include the venting after the LDC/Cask are received at T Plant, the Cask sweep-through purge, the LDC purge with forced argon delivery into the LDC with 1

  3. Large-diameter coiled tubing completions decrease risk of formation damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, V. ); Edens, F. ); Coker, G. ); King, G. )

    1992-07-20

    Amoco Production Co. has used large-diameter coiled tubing strings to avoid damaging gas wells with kill fluids. The coiled tubing is stripped in the gas well under pressure. In Amoco's case, the gas flows up the tubing/casing annulus. The coiled tubing string provides a way to blow down the well whenever the well loads up with liquids from completion, workover, or naturally produced fluids. This paper reports that to date, Amoco has installed coiled tubing in four wells. The oldest has 18 months of service. Although some turbine longevity questions must be answered, the first four completions have proven fast and trouble free. The basic equipment for handling coil tubing is shown. The transport trailer and tubing injector head are similar to standard servicing equipment and not considered experimental. The production tubing reel is capable of carrying 14,000 ft of 2-in tubing or 18,000 ft of 1 3/4-in. tubing. For shallower wells, multiple tubing strings can be would on the same spool. Because of handling difficulties of large tubing, spools must be wound at the factory. Most of the largest sizes are made to order, making lead time a necessary consideration.

  4. Apparatus and method for increasing the diameter of metal alloy wires within a molten metal pool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartman, Alan D.; Argetsinger, Edward R.; Hansen, Jeffrey S.; Paige, Jack I.; King, Paul E.; Turner, Paul C.

    2002-01-29

    In a dip forming process the core material to be coated is introduced directly into a source block of coating material eliminating the need for a bushing entrance component. The process containment vessel or crucible is heated so that only a portion of the coating material becomes molten, leaving a solid portion of material as the entrance port of, and seal around, the core material. The crucible can contain molten and solid metals and is especially useful when coating core material with reactive metals. The source block of coating material has been machined to include a close tolerance hole of a size and shape to closely fit the core material. The core material moves first through the solid portion of the source block of coating material where the close tolerance hole has been machined, then through a solid/molten interface, and finally through the molten phase where the diameter of the core material is increased. The crucible may or may not require water-cooling depending upon the type of material used in crucible construction. The system may operate under vacuum, partial vacuum, atmospheric pressure, or positive pressure depending upon the type of source material being used.

  5. Apparatus and Method for Increasing the Diameter of Metal Alloy Wires Within a Molten Metal Pool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartman, Alan D.; Argetsinger, Edward R.; Hansen, Jeffrey S.; Paige, Jack I.; King, Paul E.; Turner, Paul C.

    2002-01-29

    In a dip forming process the core material to be coated is introduced directly into a source block of coating material eliminating the need for a bushing entrance component. The process containment vessel or crucible is heated so that only a portion of the coating material becomes molten, leaving a solid portion of material as the entrance port of, and seal around, the core material. The crucible can contain molten and solid metals and is especially useful when coating core material with reactive metals. The source block of coating material has been machined to include a close tolerance hole of a size and shape to closely fit the core material. The core material moves first through the solid portion of the source block of coating material where the close tolerance hole has been machined, then through a solid/molten interface, and finally through the molten phase where the diameter of the core material is increased. The crucible may or may not require water-cooling depending upon the type of material used in crucible construction. The system may operate under vacuum, partial vacuum, atmospheric pressure, or positive pressure depending upon the type of source material being used.

  6. Method and apparatus for controlling current in inductive loads such as large diameter coils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riveros, Carlos A.

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus for controlling electric current in loads that are essentially inductive, such that sparking and "ringing" current problems are reduced or eliminated. The circuit apparatus employs a pair of solid state switches (each of which switch may be an array of connected or parallel solid state switching devices such as transistors) and means for controlling those switches such that a power supply supplying two d.c. voltages (e.g. positive 150 volts d.c. and negative 150 volts d.c.) at low resistance may be connected across an essentially inductive load (e.g. a 6 gauge wire loop one hundred meters in diameter) alternatively and such that the first solid state switch is turned off and the second is turned on such that both are not on at the same time but the first turned on and the other on in less time than the inductive time constant (L/R) so that the load is essentially always presented with a low resistance path across its input. In this manner a steady AC current may be delivered to the load at a frequency desired. Shut-off problems are avoided by gradually shortening the period of switching to less than the time constant so that the maximum energy contained in the inductive load is reduced to approximately zero and dissipated in the inherent resistance. The invention circuit may be employed by adjusting the timing of switching to deliver a desired waveform (such as sinusoidal) to the load.

  7. Characterization of winds through the rotor plane using a phased array SODAR and recommendations for future work.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deola, Regina Anne

    2010-02-01

    Portable remote sensing devices are increasingly needed to cost effectively characterize the meteorology at a potential wind energy site as the size of modern wind turbines increase. A short term project co-locating a Sound Detection and Ranging System (SODAR) with a 200 meter instrumented meteorological tower at the Texas Tech Wind Technology Field Site was performed to collect and summarize wind information through an atmospheric layer typical of utility scale rotor plane depths. Data collected identified large speed shears and directional shears that may lead to unbalanced loads on the rotors. This report identifies suggestions for incorporation of additional data in wind resource assessments and a few thoughts on the potential for using a SODAR or SODAR data to quantify or investigate other parameters that may be significant to the wind industry.

  8. Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation: Increase in Lesion Diameter with Continuous Acetic Acid Infusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lubienski, Andreas Duex, Markus; Lubienski, Katrin; Grenacher, Lars; Kauffmann, Guenter

    2005-12-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the influence of continuous infusion of acetic acid 50% during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) on the size of the thermal lesion produced. Methods. Radiofrequency (RF) was applied to excised bovine liver by using an expandable needle electrode with 10 retractable tines (LeVeen Needle Electrode, RadioTherapeutics, Sunnyvale, CA) connected to a commercially available RF generator (RF 2000, RadioTherapeutics, Sunnyvale, CA). Experiments were performed using three different treatment modalities: RF only (n = 15), RF with continuous saline 0.9% infusion (n = 15), and RF with continuous acetic acid 50% infusion (n = 15). RF duration, power output, tissue impedance, and time to a rapid rise in impedance were recorded. The ablated lesions were evaluated both macroscopically and histologically. Results. The ablated lesions appeared as spherical or ellipsoid, well-demarcated pale areas with a surrounding brown rim with both RF only and RF plus saline 0.9% infusion. In contrast, thermolesions generated with RF in combination with acetic acid 50% infusion were irregular in shape and the central portion was jelly-like. Mean diameter of the coagulation necrosis was 22.3 {+-} 2.1 mm (RF only), 29.2 {+-} 4.8 mm (RF + saline 0.9%) and 30.7 {+-} 5.7 mm (RF + acetic acid 50%), with a significant increase in the RF plus saline 0.9% and RF plus acetic acid 50% groups compared with RF alone. Time to a rapid rise in impedance was significantly prolonged in the RF plus saline 0.9% and RF plus acetic acid 50% groups compared with RF alone. Conclusions. A combination of RF plus acetic acid 50% infusion is able to generate larger thermolesions than RF only or RF combined with saline 0.9% infusion.

  9. Plasma sputtering robotic device for in-situ thick coatings of long, small diameter vacuum tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hershcovitch, A. Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Fischer, W.; Liaw, C.-J.; Meng, W.; Todd, R.; Custer, A.; Dingus, A.; Erickson, M.; Jamshidi, N.; Laping, R.; Poole, H. J.

    2015-05-15

    A novel robotic plasma magnetron mole with a 50?cm long cathode was designed, fabricated, and operated. The reason for this endeavor is to alleviate the problems of unacceptable resistive heating of stainless steel vacuum tubes in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The magnetron mole was successfully operated to copper coat an assembly containing a full-size, stainless steel, cold bore, RHIC magnet tubing connected to two types of RHIC bellows, to which two additional pipes made of RHIC tubing were connected. To increase the cathode lifetime, a movable magnet package was developed, and the thickest possible cathode was made, with a rather challenging target to substrate (de facto anode) distance of less than 1.5?cm. Achieving reliable steady state magnetron discharges at such a short cathode to anode gap was rather challenging, when compared to commercial coating equipment, where the target to substrate distance is 10's cm; 6.3?cm is the lowest experimental target to substrate distance found in the literature. Additionally, the magnetron developed during this project provides unique omni-directional uniform coating. The magnetron is mounted on a carriage with spring loaded wheels that successfully crossed bellows and adjusted for variations in vacuum tube diameter, while keeping the magnetron centered. Electrical power and cooling water were fed through a cable bundle. The umbilical cabling system is driven by a motorized spool. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Measurements indicated that well-scrubbed copper coating reduced secondary electron yield to 1, i.e., the problem of electron clouds can be eliminated. Room temperature RF resistivity measurement indicated that a 10??m copper coated stainless steel RHIC tube has a conductivity close to that of pure copper tubing. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. The device details and experimental results are described.

  10. Direct Probes of 4 nm Diameter Gold Nanoparticles Interacting with Supported Lipid Bylayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troiano, Julianne; Olenick, Laura L.; Kuech, Thomas R.; Melby, Eric S.; Hu, Dehong; Lohse, Samuel E.; Mensch, Arielle C.; Dogangun, Merve; Vartanian, Arlane M.; Torelli, Marco; Ehimiaghe, Eseohi; Walter, Stephanie R.; Fu, Li; Anderton, Christopher R.; Zhu, Zihua; Wang, Hongfei; Orr, Galya; Murphy, Catherine; Hamers, Robert J.; Pedersen, Joel A.; Geiger, Franz M.

    2015-01-08

    Interfacial charge densities and potentials are determined for silica-supported phospholipid bilayers formed from lipids having zwitterionic, negatively charged, and positively charged headgroups. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), and atomic force microscopy demonstrate the presence of well-formed supported lipid bilayers, which, as probed by vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG), undergo negligible structural changes along their alkyl chains when NaCl concentration is raised from 0.001 to 0.1 M. From second harmonic generation (SHG) measurements we estimate that each zwitterionic headgroup of the bilayer formed from pure DOPC is associated with an apparent charge of -0.028(+0.008/-0.007)×10-¹⁹C, corresponding to 1.8 ± 0.5 % of an elementary negative charge. Moreover, we show that a supported lipid bilayer carrying an apparent negative interfacial potential may interact with not just positively charged 4-nm diameter gold nanoparticles but also negatively charged gold nanoparticles. In this latter case, charge-charge repulsion does not appear to inhibit particle-bilayer interactions and is likely overcome by multivalent interactions that are estimated to involve 3-5 hydrogen-bond equivalents. FRAP, QCM-D, and SFG measurements indicate that the bilayers remain intact under the conditions of the experiments. SHG charge screening experiments are consistent with an apparent zero net charge density associated with the positively charged gold nanoparticles when they are attached to a supported lipid bilayer carrying an apparent negative potential. The results presented here serve to benchmark experimental and computational studies of the nano-bio interface.

  11. Spin-symmetry conversion in methyl rotors induced by tunnel resonance at low temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, B.; Sun, C.; Horsewill, A. J.; Alsanoosi, A. M.; Aibout, A.

    2014-02-28

    Field-cycling NMR in the solid state at low temperature (4.2 K) has been employed to measure the tunneling spectra of methyl (CH{sub 3}) rotors in phenylacetone and toluene. The phenomenon of tunnel resonance reveals anomalies in {sup 1}H magnetization from which the following tunnel frequencies have been determined: phenylacetone, ν{sub t} = 6.58 ± 0.08 MHz; toluene, ν{sub t(1)} = 6.45 ± 0.06 GHz and ν{sub t(2)} = 7.07 ± 0.06 GHz. The tunnel frequencies in the two samples differ by three orders of magnitude, meaning different experimental approaches are required. In phenylacetone the magnetization anomalies are observed when the tunnel frequency matches one or two times the {sup 1}H Larmor frequency. In toluene, doping with free radicals enables magnetization anomalies to be observed when the tunnel frequency is equal to the electron spin Larmor frequency. Cross-polarization processes between the tunneling and Zeeman systems are proposed and form the basis of a thermodynamic model to simulate the tunnel resonance spectra. These invoke space-spin interactions to drive the changes in nuclear spin-symmetry. The tunnel resonance lineshapes are explained, showing good quantitative agreement between experiment and simulations.

  12. Prediction of stochastic blade loads for three-bladed, rigid-hub rotors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, A.D.; Weber, T.L.; Thresher, R.W.; Butterfield, C.P.

    1989-11-01

    Accurately predicting wind turbine blade loads and response is important for the design of future wind turbines. The need to include turbulent wind inputs in structural dynamics models is widely recognized. In this paper, the Force and Loads Analysis Program (FLAP) code will be used to predict turbulence-induced bending moments for the SERI Combined Experiment rotor blade and the Howden 330-kW blade. FLAP code predictions will be compared to the power spectra of measured blade-bending moments. Two methods will be used to generate turbulent wind inputs to FLAP: a theoretical simulation: the Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) simulation theory; and measured wind-speed data taken from an array of anemometers upwind of the turbine. Turbulent wind-speed time series are input to FLAP for both methods outlined above. Power spectra of predicted flap-bending moments are compared to measured results for different wind conditions. Conclusions are also drawn as to the ability of the turbulence simulation models to provide accurate wind input to FLAP and to FLAP's ability to accurately simulate blade response to turbulence. Finally, suggestions are made as to needed improvements in the theoretical model. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Evaluation of Manufacturability of Embedded Sensors and Controls with Canned Rotor Pump System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisner, Roger A; Fugate, David L; Melin, Alexander M; Holcomb, David Eugene; Wilson, Dane F; Silva, Pamela C; Cruz Molina, Carola

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the current status of fabrication and assembly planning for the magnetic bearing, canned rotor pump being used as a demonstration platform for deeply integrating I&C into nuclear power plant components. The report identifies material choices and fabrication sequences for all of the required parts and the issues that need to be either resolved or accommodated during the manufacturing process. Down selection between material options has not yet been performed. Potential suppliers for all of the necessary materials have also been identified. The assembly evaluation begins by logically subdividing the pump into modules, which are themselves decomposed into individual parts. Potential materials and fabrication processes for each part in turn are then evaluated. The evaluation process includes assessment of the environmental compatibility requirements and the tolerances available for the selected fabrication processes. A description of the pump power/control electronics is also provided. The report also includes exploded views of the modules that show the integration of the various parts into modules that are then assembled to form the pump. Emphasis has been placed on thermal environment compatibility and the part dimensional changes during heat-up. No insurmountable fabrication or assembly challenges have been identified.

  14. Apparatus and methods for aligning holes through wheels and spacers and stacking the wheels and spacers to form a turbine rotor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, Robert Randolph; Palmer, Gene David; Wilson, Ian David

    2000-01-01

    A gas turbine rotor stacking fixture includes upstanding bolts for reception in aligned bolt holes in superposed aft disk, wheels and spacers and upstanding alignment rods received in openings of the disk, wheels and spacers during the rotor stacking assembly. The axially registering openings enable insertion of thin-walled tubes circumferentially about the rim of the rotor, with tight tolerances to the openings to provide supply and return steam for cooling buckets. The alignment rods have radial dimensions substantially less than their dimensions in a circumferential direction to allow for radial opening misalignment due to thermal expansion, tolerance stack-up and wheel-to-spacer mismatch due to rabbet mechanical growth. The circumferential dimension of the alignment rods affords tightly toleranced alignment of the openings through which the cooling tubes are installed.

  15. SU-F-18C-11: Diameter Dependency of the Radial Dose Distribution in a Long Polyethylene Cylinder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakalyar, D; McKenney, S; Feng, W

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The radial dose distribution in the central plane of a long cylinder following a long CT scan depends upon the diameter and composition of the cylinder. An understanding of this behavior is required for determining the spatial average of the dose in the central plane. Polyethylene, the material for construction of the TG200/ICRU phantom (30 cm in diameter) was used for this study. Size effects are germane to the principles incorporated in size specific dose estimates (SSDE); thus diameter dependency was explored as well. Method: ssuming a uniform cylinder and cylindrically symmetric conditions of irradiation, the dose distribution can be described using a radial function. This function must be an even function of the radial distance due to the conditions of symmetry. Two effects are accounted for: The direct beam makes its weakest contribution at the center while the contribution due to scatter is strongest at the center and drops off abruptly at the outer radius. An analytic function incorporating these features was fit to Monte Carlo results determined for infinite polyethylene cylinders of various diameters. A further feature of this function is that it is integrable. Results: Symmetry and continuity dictate a local extremum at the center which is a minimum for the larger sizes. The competing effects described above can Resultin an absolute maximum occurring between the center and outer edge of the cylinders. For the smallest cylinders, the maximum dose may occur at the center. Conclusion: An integrable, analytic function can be used to characterize the radial dependency of dose for cylindrical CT phantoms of various sizes. One use for this is to help determine average dose distribution over the central cylinder plane when equilibrium dose has been reached.

  16. Enclosure Requirements to Protect Personnel from Spinning Rotor Frailures at the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKeever, John W

    2007-08-01

    Performance evaluation of electric motors is a major function of the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC). Normally these motors have a fixed wire-wound stator and a rotating rotor, which may have conductors embedded in a ferromagnetic core (induction motors), magnets mounted on the surface of the ferromagnetic core with a thin metal or composite cylinder or ring to hold them in place, or magnets embedded in the ferromagnetic core. Most of the work currently involves the last two permanent magnet (PM) configurations. Although the stator of a radial-gap motor can absorb energy from many of the fragments ejected from the rotor during operation, the stator of an axial-gap motor is not positioned to provide significant protection. The housing of each motor can also absorb some of the energy. The most conservative approach, however, is to assume that all fragments from the rotor must be contained by a protective enclosure. An ideal enclosure is transparent. Manufacturers of such plastics as Lexan, Tuffak, and Cyrolon sell different variations of transparent enclosure material. Lexan is a polycarbonate sheet. Lexgard{reg_sign} is a penetration resistant material made by layering polycarbonate material between pieces of ordinary glass. A fragment striking a sheet of enclosure material will pierce the surface layer, but the layered polycarbonate-glass material is able to absorb the fragment's energy before it completes penetration. Tuffak{reg_sign} is Lexan polycarbonate. Cyrolon{reg_sign} bullet resistant material is acrylic sheet. The ability of the enclosure to stop a fragment depends on its thickness as well as the penetration capability of the fragment; for example, a lead fragment has much less penetrating capability than a steel fragment. Enclosure thicknesses are commercially available to provide several levels of protection. These levels depend on the momentum of the fragments and have been evaluated for some common types of ammunition

  17. Preliminary Structural Design Conceptualization for Composite Rotor for Verdant Power Water Current: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-296

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, S.

    2011-02-01

    The primary thrust of the CRADA will be to develop a new rotor design that will allow higher current flows (>4m/s), greater swept area (6-11m), and in the process, will maximize performance and energy capture.

  18. Influence of lubricant oil on heat transfer performance of refrigerant flow boiling inside small diameter tubes. Part I: Experimental study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Wenjian; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Wang, Kaijian

    2007-10-15

    Two-phase flow pattern and heat transfer characteristics of refrigerant-oil mixture flow boiling inside small tubes with inside diameters of 6.34 mm and 2.50 mm are investigated experimentally. The test condition of nominal oil concentration is from 0% to 5%, mass flux from 200 to 400 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, heat flux from 3.2 to 14 kW m{sup -2}, evaporation temperature of 5 C, inlet quality from 0.1 to 0.8, and quality change from 0.1 to 0.2. Wavy, wavy-annular, annular and mist-annular flow pattern in 6.34 mm tube are observed, while only slug-annular and annular flow pattern are observed in 2.50 mm tube. Oil presence can make annular flow to form early and to retard to diminish in quality direction at nominal oil concentration {>=}3%. Augmentation effect of oil on heat transfer coefficient becomes weakened or even diminishes for small diameter tube while detrimental effect of oil on small tube performance becomes more significant than large tube. For both test tubes, variation of heat transfer coefficient and enhanced factor with oil concentration is irregular. Two-phase heat transfer multiplier with refrigerant-oil mixture properties increases consistently and monotonically with local oil concentration at different vapor quality. (author)

  19. Orbital inside diameter welder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patterson, R.A.; Mitchell, J.O.

    1982-07-23

    The disclosure relates to welding apparatus and more particularly to apparatus for welding together two abutted cylinders from the inside of the joint.

  20. Indirect sensing for rotor flux position of permanent magnet AC motors operating over a wide speed range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreira, J.C.

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes an indirect sensing, or sensorless, method for rotor flux position for brushless permanent magnet (BPM) motors operating over a wide speed range, while keeping maximum torque per ampere and/or maximum efficiency capabilities. The method described is particularly applicable to trapezoidal back emf type of BPM motors. The typical trapezoidal waveform of the motor internal voltages (or back emf) contains a fundamental and higher order frequency harmonics. In particular, the third harmonic component is extracted from the stator phase voltages while the fundamental and other polyphase components are eliminated via a simple summation of the three phase voltages. The resulting third harmonic signal keeps a constant phase relationship with the rotor flux for any motor speed and load condition, and is practically free of noise that can be introduced by the inverter switching, making this a robust sensing method. In contrast with indirect sensing methods based on detection of the back-emf signal that require heavy filtering, the third harmonic signal needs only a small amount of filtering to eliminate the switching frequency and its side bands. As a result, the method described here is not sensitive to filtering delays, allowing the motor to achieve a good performance over a wide speed range. Motor starting is also superior with this method since the third harmonic signal can be detected and processed at lower speeds than for the conventional method of back-emf sensing. Moreover, an alternative way to acquire the third harmonic signal without the need to access the stator neutral terminal is discussed. This is particularly interesting with the motor neutral connection is not available or expensive to have access. The third harmonic indirect sensing scheme is implemented in the laboratory and compared to a conventional back-emf sensing method.

  1. ORNL/TM-2012/301 Experimental Test Plan - DOE Tidal And River...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    slightly reduce the torque. Nevertheless, torque measurements will be collected for each bearing to quantify this contribution. The rotor diameter is 0.43 m. Rotor spacing is...

  2. Influence of lubricant oil on heat transfer performance of refrigerant flow boiling inside small diameter tubes. Part II: Correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Wenjian; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Wang, Kaijian

    2007-10-15

    The predictive ability of the available state-of-the-art heat transfer correlations of refrigerant-oil mixture is evaluated with the present experiment data of small tubes with inside diameter of 6.34 mm and 2.50 mm. Most of these correlations can be used to predict the heat transfer coefficient of 6.34 mm tube, but none of them can predict heat transfer coefficient of 2.50 mm tube satisfactorily. A new correlation of two-phase heat transfer multiplier with local properties of refrigerant-oil mixture is developed. This correlation approaches the actual physical mechanism of flow boiling heat transfer of refrigerant-oil mixture and can reflect the actual co-existing conditions of refrigerant and lubricant oil. More than 90% of the experiment data of both test tubes have less than {+-}20% deviation from the prediction values of the new correlations. (author)

  3. Synchronous motor with soft start element formed between the motor rotor and motor output shaft to successfully synchronize loads that have high inertia and/or high torque

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umans, Stephen D; Nisley, Donald L; Melfi, Michael J

    2014-10-28

    A line-start synchronous motor has a housing, a rotor shaft, and an output shaft. A soft-start coupling portion is operatively coupled to the output shaft and the rotor shaft. The soft-start coupling portion is configurable to enable the synchronous motor to obtain synchronous operation and to drive, at least near synchronous speed during normal steady state operation of the motor, a load having characteristics sufficient to prevent obtaining normal synchronous operation of the motor when the motor is operatively connected to the load in the absence of the soft-start coupling. The synchronous motor is sufficiently rated to obtain synchronous operation and to drive, at least near synchronous speed during normal steady state operation of the motor, a load having characteristics sufficient to prevent obtaining normal synchronous operation of the motor when the motor is operatively connected to the load in the absence of the soft-start coupling.

  4. Small Wind Guidebook/Glossary of Terms | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    R is the radius of the rotor. See also rotor diameter. Temperature-A measure of thermal energy.* Tip-speed ratio-The speed at the tip of the rotor blade as it moves through the...

  5. Hydrodynamic Effects on Modeling and Control of a High Temperature Active Magnetic Bearing Pump with a Canned Rotor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melin, Alexander M; Kisner, Roger A; Fugate, David L; Holcomb, David Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Embedding instrumentation and control Embedding instrumentation and control (I\\&C) at the component level in nuclear power plants can improve component performance, lifetime, and resilience by optimizing operation, reducing the constraints on physical design, and providing on-board prognostics and diagnostics. However, the extreme environments that many nuclear power plant components operate in makes embedding instrumentation and control at the component level difficult. Successfully utilizing embedded I\\&C requires developing a deep understanding of the system's dynamics and using that knowledge to overcome material and physical limitations imposed by the environment. In this paper, we will develop a coupled dynamic model of a high temperature (700 $^\\circ$C) canned rotor pump that incorporates rotordynamics, hydrodynamics, and active magnetic bearing dynamics. Then we will compare two control design methods, one that uses a simplified decoupled model of the system and another that utilizes the full coupled system model. It will be seen that utilizing all the available knowledge of the system dynamics in the controller design yield an order of magnitude improvement in the magnitude of the magnetic bearing response to disturbances at the same level of control effort, a large reduction in the settling time of the system, and a smoother control action.

  6. Sensitivity of transitions in internal rotor molecules to a possible variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansen, Paul; Ubachs, Wim; Bethlem, Hendrick L.; Kleiner, Isabelle; Xu, Li-Hong

    2011-12-15

    Recently, methanol was identified as a sensitive target system to probe variations of the proton-to-electron mass ratio {mu}[Jansen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 100801 (2011)]. The high sensitivity of methanol originates from the interplay between overall rotation and hindered internal rotation of the molecule; that is, transitions that convert internal rotation energy into overall rotation energy, or vice versa, have an enhanced sensitivity coefficient, K{sub {mu}}. As internal rotation is a common phenomenon in polyatomic molecules, it is likely that other molecules display similar or even larger effects. In this paper we generalize the concepts that form the foundation of the high sensitivity in methanol and use this to construct an approximate model which makes it possible to estimate the sensitivities of transitions in internal rotor molecules with C{sub 3v} symmetry, without performing a full calculation of energy levels. We find that a reliable estimate of transition sensitivities can be obtained from the three rotational constants (A, B, and C) and three torsional constants (F, V{sub 3}, and {rho}). This model is verified by comparing obtained sensitivities for methanol, acetaldehyde, acetamide, methyl formate, and acetic acid with a full analysis of the molecular Hamiltonian. Of the molecules considered, methanol is by far the most suitable candidate for laboratory and cosmological tests searching for a possible variation of {mu}.

  7. Utilization of the MPI Process for in-tank solidification of heel material in large-diameter cylindrical tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kauschinger, J.L.; Lewis, B.E.

    2000-01-01

    A major problem faced by the US Department of Energy is remediation of sludge and supernatant waste in underground storage tanks. Exhumation of the waste is currently the preferred remediation method. However, exhumation cannot completely remove all of the contaminated materials from the tanks. For large-diameter tanks, amounts of highly contaminated ``heel'' material approaching 20,000 gal can remain. Often sludge containing zeolite particles leaves ``sand bars'' of locally contaminated material across the floor of the tank. The best management practices for in-tank treatment (stabilization and immobilization) of wastes require an integrated approach to develop appropriate treatment agents that can be safely delivered and mixed uniformly with sludge. Ground Environmental Services has developed and demonstrated a remotely controlled, high-velocity jet delivery system termed, Multi-Point-Injection (MPI). This robust jet delivery system has been field-deployed to create homogeneous monoliths containing shallow buried miscellaneous waste in trenches [fiscal year (FY) 1995] and surrogate sludge in cylindrical (FY 1998) and long, horizontal tanks (FY 1999). During the FY 1998 demonstration, the MPI process successfully formed a 32-ton uniform monolith of grout and waste surrogates in about 8 min. Analytical data indicated that 10 tons of zeolite-type physical surrogate were uniformly mixed within a 40-in.-thick monolith without lifting the MPI jetting tools off the tank floor. Over 1,000 lb of cohesive surrogates, with consistencies similar to Gunite and Associated Tank (GAAT) TH-4 and Hanford tank sludges, were easily intermixed into the monolith without exceeding a core temperature of 100 F during curing.

  8. Theoretical and experimental power from large horizontal-axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viterna, L A; Janetzke, D C

    1982-09-01

    A method for calculating the output power from large horizontal-axis wind turbines is presented. Modifications to the airfoil characteristics and the momentum portion of classical blade element-momentum theory are given that improve correlation with measured data. Improvement is particularly evident at low tip speed ratios where aerodynamic stall can occur as the blade experiences high angles of attack. Output power calculated using the modified theory is compared with measured data for several large wind turbines. These wind turbines range in size from the DOE/NASA 100 kW Mod-O (38 m rotor diameter) to the 2000 kW Mod-1 (61 m rotor diameter). The calculated results are in good agreement with measured data from these machines.

  9. Monte Carlo evaluation of CTDI{sub {infinity}} in infinitely long cylinders of water, polyethylene and PMMA with diameters from 10 mm to 500 mm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou Hong; Boone, John M.

    2008-06-15

    Monte Carlo simulations were used to evaluate the radiation dose to infinitely long cylinders of water, polyethylene, and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) from 10 to 500 mm in diameter. Radiation doses were computed by simulating a 10 mm divergent primary beam striking the cylinder at z=0, and the scattered radiation in the -z and +z directions was integrated out to infinity. Doses were assessed using the total energy deposited divided by the mass of the 10-mm-thick volume of material in the primary beam. This approach is consistent with the notion of the computed tomography dose index (CTDI) integrated over infinite z, which is equivalent to the dose near the center of an infinitely long CT scan. Monoenergetic x-ray beams were studied from 5 to 140 keV, allowing polyenergetic x-ray spectra to be evaluated using a weighted average. The radiation dose for a 10-mm-thick CT slice was assessed at the center, edge, and over the entire diameter of the phantom. The geometry of a commercial CT scanner was simulated, and the computed results were in good agreement with measured doses. The absorbed dose in water for 120 kVp x-ray spectrum with no bow tie filter for a 50 mm cylinder diameter was about 1.2 mGy per mGy air kerma at isocenter for both the peripheral and center regions, and dropped to 0.84 mGy/mGy for a 500-mm-diam water phantom at the periphery, where the corresponding value for the center location was 0.19 mGy/mGy. The influence of phantom composition was studied. For a diameter of 100 mm, the dose coefficients were 1.23 for water, 1.02 for PMMA, and 0.94 for polyethylene (at 120 kVp). For larger diameter phantoms, the order changed--for a 400 mm phantom, the dose coefficient of polyethylene (0.25) was greater than water (0.21) and PMMA (0.16). The influence of the head and body bow tie filters was also studied. For the peripheral location, the dose coefficients when no bow tie filter was used were high (e.g., for a water phantom at 120 kVp at a diameter of 300

  10. Cold collisions of highly rotationally excited CO{sub 2} with He: The prospects for cold chemistry with super-rotors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Qady, W. H.; Forrey, R. C.; Yang, B. H.; Stancil, P. C.; Balakrishnan, N.

    2011-11-15

    Building on recent advances in ultrafast lasers and methods to slow molecules, an experiment is proposed to produce translationally cold CO{sub 2} super-rotors (j{approx}200) by combining an optical centrifuge with helium-buffer-gas cooling. Quantum mechanical calculations of the complex scattering length for He-CO{sub 2} collisions demonstrate that the efficiency of rotational quenching decreases rapidly with increasing rotational excitation j in the ultracold regime. Extrapolating to helium cryogenic temperatures, rotational quenching is predicted to remain inefficient up to {approx}1 K, allowing for the possible creation of a beam of translationally cold, rotationally hot molecules.

  11. Results of tests to demonstrate a six-inch diameter coater for production of TRISO-coated particles for advanced gas reactor experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, Charles M; Marshall, Douglas W; Keeley, Joseph T; Hunn, John D

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)/Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program includes a series of irradiation experiments in Idaho National Laboratory's (INL's) Advanced Test Reactor. TRISO-coated particles for the first AGR experiment, AGR-1, were produced at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a two-inch diameter coater. A requirement of the NGNP/AGR Program is to produce coated particles for later experiments in coaters more representative of industrial scale. Toward this end, tests have been performed by Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) in a six-inch diameter coater. These tests are expected to lead to successful fabrication of particles for the second AGR experiment, AGR-2.

  12. Note: Strain sensitivity comparison between fiber Bragg gratings inscribed on 125 and 80 micron cladding diameter fibers, case study on the solidification monitoring of a photo-curable resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maccioni, E.; Morganti, M.; Brandi, F.

    2015-02-15

    The influence of fiber Bragg grating diameter when measuring strain is investigated and quantified. Two fiber Bragg gratings with bare cladding diameter of 125 μm and 80 μm are produced by excimer laser irradiation through a phase mask, and are used to simultaneously monitor the Bragg wavelength shift due to the strain produced by the solidification of a photo-curable resin during light exposure. It is found that the ratio of the measured strains in the two fiber Bragg gratings is close to the inverse ratio of the fiber’s cladding diameter. These results represent a direct simultaneous comparison between 125 μm and 80 μm diameter fiber Bragg grating strain sensors, and demonstrate the feasibility of strain measurements in photo-curable resins using bare 80 μm cladding diameter fiber Bragg gratings with an increased sensitivity and spatial resolution compared with standard 125 μm diameter fiber Bragg gratings.

  13. National Rotor Testbed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion ...

  14. Rotor Aerodynamic Design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerodynamic Design - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  15. Rotor Design Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Design Tools - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  16. Superconductor rotor cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Schwall, Robert E.; Driscoll, David I.; Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2004-11-02

    A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

  17. Superconductor rotor cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Schwall, Robert E.; Driscoll, David I.; Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2002-01-01

    A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

  18. RESULTS OF TESTS TO DEMONSTRATE A SIX-INCH DIAMETER COATER FOR PRODUCTION OF TRISO-COATED PARTICLES FOR ADVANCED GAS REACTOR EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas W. Marshall

    2008-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)/Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program includes a series of irradiation experiments in Idaho National Laboratory's (INL's) Advanced Test Reactor. TRISOcoated particles for the first AGR experiment, AGR-1, were produced at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a twoinch diameter coater. A requirement of the NGNP/AGR Program is to produce coated particles for later experiments in coaters more representative of industrial scale. Toward this end, tests have been performed by Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) in a six-inch diameter coater. These tests are expected to lead to successful fabrication of particles for the second AGR experiment, AGR-2. While a thorough study of how coating parameters affect particle properties was not the goal of these tests, the test data obtained provides insight into process parameter/coated particle property relationships. Most relationships for the six-inch diameter coater followed trends found with the ORNL two-inch coater, in spite of differences in coater design and bed hydrodynamics. For example the key coating parameters affecting pyrocarbon anisotropy were coater temperature, coating gas fraction, total gas flow rate and kernel charge size. Anisotropy of the outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC) layer also strongly correlates with coater differential pressure. In an effort to reduce the total particle fabrication run time, silicon carbide (SiC) was deposited with methyltrichlorosilane (MTS) concentrations up to 3 mol %. Using only hydrogen as the fluidizing gas, the high concentration MTS tests resulted in particles with lower than desired SiC densities. However when hydrogen was partially replaced with argon, high SiC densities were achieved with the high MTS gas fraction.

  19. RESULTS OF TESTS TO DEMONSTRATE A SIX-INCH-DIAMETER COATER FOR PRODUCTION OF TRISO-COATED PARTICLES FOR ADVANCED GAS REACTOR EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles M Barnes

    2008-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)/Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program includes a series of irradiation experiments in Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Advanced Test Reactor. TRISOcoated particles for the first AGR experiment, AGR-1, were produced at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a two inch diameter coater. A requirement of the NGNP/AGR Program is to produce coated particles for later experiments in coaters more representative of industrial scale. Toward this end, tests have been performed by Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) in a six-inch diameter coater. These tests are expected to lead to successful fabrication of particles for the second AGR experiment, AGR-2. While a thorough study of how coating parameters affect particle properties was not the goal of these tests, the test data obtained provides insight into process parameter/coated particle property relationships. Most relationships for the six-inch diameter coater followed trends found with the ORNL two-inch coater, in spite of differences in coater design and bed hydrodynamics. For example the key coating parameters affecting pyrocarbon anisotropy were coater temperature, coating gas fraction, total gas flow rate and kernel charge size. Anisotropy of the outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC) layer also strongly correlates with coater differential pressure. In an effort to reduce the total particle fabrication run time, silicon carbide (SiC) was deposited with methyltrichlorosilane (MTS) concentrations up to 3 mol %. Using only hydrogen as the fluidizing gas, the high concentration MTS tests resulted in particles with lower than desired SiC densities. However when hydrogen was partially replaced with argon, high SiC densities were achieved with the high MTS gas fraction.

  20. BRANCH?BASED MODEL FOR THE DIAMETERS OF THE PULMONARY AIRWAYS: ACCOUNTING FOR DEPARTURES FROM SELF?CONSISTENCY AND REGISTRATION ERRORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neradilek, Moni Blazej; Polissar, Nayak; Einstein, Daniel R.; Glenny, Robb W.; Minard, Kevin R.; Carson, James P.; Jiao, Xiangmin; Jacob, Rick E.; Cox, Timothy C.; Postlewait, Ed; Corley, Richard A.

    2012-06-01

    We examine a previously published branch-based approach to modeling airway diameters that is predicated on the assumption of self-consistency across all levels of the tree. We mathematically formulate this assumption, propose a method to test it and develop a more general model to be used when the assumption is violated. We discuss the effect of measurement error on the estimated models and propose methods that account for it. The methods are illustrated on data from MRI and CT images of silicone casts of two rats, two normal monkeys and one ozone-exposed monkey. Our results showed substantial departures from self-consistency in all five subjects. When departures from selfconsistency exist we do not recommend using the self-consistency model, even as an approximation, as we have shown that it may likely lead to an incorrect representation of the diameter geometry. Measurement error has an important impact on the estimated morphometry models and needs to be accounted for in the analysis.

  1. A Study of Production/Injection Data from Slim Holes and Large-Diameter Wells at the Okuaizu Geothermal Field, Tohoku, Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renner, Joel Lawrence; Garg, Sabodh K.; Combs, Jim

    2002-06-01

    Discharge from the Okuaizu boreholes is accompanied by in situ boiling. Analysis of cold-water injection and discharge data from the Okuaizu boreholes indicates that the two-phase productivity index is about an order of magnitude smaller than the injectivity index. The latter conclusion is in agreement with analyses of similar data from Oguni, Sumikawa, and Kirishima geothermal fields. A wellbore simulator was used to examine the effect of borehole diameter on the discharge capacity of geothermal boreholes with two-phase feedzones. Based on these analyses, it appears that it should be possible to deduce the discharge characteristics of largediameter wells using test data from slim holes with two-phase feeds.

  2. Criticality Safety Study of UF6and UO2F2in 8-in. Inner Diameter Piping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elam, K.R.

    2003-10-07

    The purpose of this report is to provide an evaluation of the criticality safety aspects of using up to 8-in.-inner-diameter (ID) piping as part of a system to monitor the {sup 235}U enrichment in uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) gas both before and after an enrichment down-blending operation. The evaluated operation does not include the blending stage but includes only the monitors and the piping directly associated with the monitors, which are in a separate room from the blending operation. There are active controls in place to limit the enrichment of the blended UF{sub 6} to a maximum of 5 weight percent (wt%) {sup 235}U. Under normal operating conditions of temperature and pressure, the UF{sub 6} will stay in the gas phase and criticality will not be credible. The two accidents of concern are solidification of the UF{sub 6} along with some hydrofluoric acid (HF) and water or moisture ingress, which would cause the UF{sub 6} gas to react and form a hydrated uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) solid or solution. Of these two types of accidents, the addition of water and formation of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} is the most reactive scenario and thus limits related to UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} will bound the limits related to UF{sub 6}. Two types of systems are included in the monitoring process. The first measures the enrichment of the approximately 90 wt% enriched UF{sub 6} before it is blended. This system uses a maximum 4-in.-(10.16-cm-) ID pipe, which is smaller than the 13.7-cm-cylinder-diameter subcritical limit for UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} solution of any enrichment as given in Table 1 of American National Standard ANSI/ANS-8.1.1 Therefore, this system poses no criticality concerns for either accident scenario. The second type of system includes two enrichment monitors for lower-enriched UF{sub 6}. One monitors the approximately 1.5 wt% enriched UF{sub 6} entering the blending process, and the second monitors the approximately 5 wt% enriched UF{sub 6} coming out of the blending

  3. Wind turbine having a direct-drive drivetrain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bevington, Christopher M.; Bywaters, Garrett L.; Coleman, Clint C.; Costin, Daniel P.; Danforth, William L.; Lynch, Jonathan A.; Rolland, Robert H.

    2011-02-22

    A wind turbine comprising an electrical generator that includes a rotor assembly. A wind rotor that includes a wind rotor hub is directly coupled to the rotor assembly via a simplified connection. The wind rotor and generator rotor assembly are rotatably mounted on a central spindle via a bearing assembly. The wind rotor hub includes an opening having a diameter larger than the outside diameter of the central spindle adjacent the bearing assembly so as to allow access to the bearing assembly from a cavity inside the wind rotor hub. The spindle is attached to a turret supported by a tower. Each of the spindle, turret and tower has an interior cavity that permits personnel to traverse therethrough to the cavity of the wind rotor hub. The wind turbine further includes a frictional braking system for slowing, stopping or keeping stopped the rotation of the wind rotor and rotor assembly.

  4. Wind turbine/generator set having a stator cooling system located between stator frame and active coils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bevington, Christopher M.; Bywaters, Garrett L.; Coleman, Clint C.; Costin, Daniel P.; Danforth, William L.; Lynch, Jonathan A.; Rolland, Robert H.

    2012-11-13

    A wind turbine comprising an electrical generator that includes a rotor assembly. A wind rotor that includes a wind rotor hub is directly coupled to the rotor assembly via a simplified connection. The wind rotor and generator rotor assembly are rotatably mounted on a central spindle via a bearing assembly. The wind rotor hub includes an opening having a diameter larger than the outside diameter of the central spindle adjacent the bearing assembly so as to allow access to the bearing assembly from a cavity inside the wind rotor hub. The spindle is attached to a turret supported by a tower. Each of the spindle, turret and tower has an interior cavity that permits personnel to traverse therethrough to the cavity of the wind rotor hub. The wind turbine further includes a frictional braking system for slowing, stopping or keeping stopped the rotation of the wind rotor and rotor assembly.

  5. Wind turbine/generator set and method of making same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bevington, Christopher M.; Bywaters, Garrett L.; Coleman, Clint C.; Costin, Daniel P.; Danforth, William L.; Lynch, Jonathan A.; Rolland, Robert H.

    2013-06-04

    A wind turbine comprising an electrical generator that includes a rotor assembly. A wind rotor that includes a wind rotor hub is directly coupled to the rotor assembly via a simplified connection. The wind rotor and generator rotor assembly are rotatably mounted on a central spindle via a bearing assembly. The wind rotor hub includes an opening having a diameter larger than the outside diameter of the central spindle adjacent the bearing assembly so as to allow access to the bearing assembly from a cavity inside the wind rotor hub. The spindle is attached to a turret supported by a tower. Each of the spindle, turret and tower has an interior cavity that permits personnel to traverse therethrough to the cavity of the wind rotor hub. The wind turbine further includes a frictional braking system for slowing, stopping or keeping stopped the rotation of the wind rotor and rotor assembly.

  6. Novel techniques and devices for in-situ film coatings of long, small diameter tubes or elliptical and other surface contours

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hershcovitch, Ady; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Brennan, Joseph Michael; Fischer, Wolfram; Liaw, Chong -Jer; Meng, Wuzhang; Todd, Robert; Custer, Art; Dingus, Aaron; Erikson, Mark; et al

    2015-07-30

    In this study, devices and techniques that can, via physical vapor deposition,coat various surface contours or very long small aperture pipes, are described. Recently, a magnetron mole was developed in order to in-situ coat accelerator tube sections of the Brookhaven National Lab relativistic heavy ion collider that have 7.1 cm diameter with access points that are 500 m apart, for copper coat the accelerator vacuum tube in order to alleviate the problems of unacceptable ohmic heating and of electron clouds. A magnetron with a 50 cm long cathode was designed fabricated and successfully operated to copper coat a whole assemblymore » containing a full-size, stainless steel, cold bore, of the accelerator magnet tubing connected to two types bellows, to which two additional pipes made of accelerator tubing were connected. The magnetron is mounted on a carriage with spring loaded wheels that successfully crossed bellows and adjusted for variations in vacuum tube diameter, while keeping the magnetron centered. Electrical power and cooling water were fed through a cable bundle. The umbilical cabling system, which is enclosed in a flexible braided metal sleeve, is driven by a motorized spool. To increase cathode lifetime, movable magnet package was developed, and thickest possible cathode was made, with a rather challenging target to substrate distance of less than 1.5 cm. Optimized process to ensure excellent adhesion was developed. Coating thickness of 10 μm Cu passed all industrial tests and even exceeded maximum capability of a 12 kg pull test fixture. Room temperature radio frequency (RF) resistivity measurement indicated that 10 μm Cu coated stainless steel accelerator tube has conductivity close to copper tubing. Work is in progress to repeat the RF resistivity measurement at cryogenic temperatures. Over 20 years ago, a device using multi axis robotic manipulators controlling separate robotic assemblies resulted in nine-axes of motion combined with conformal

  7. Novel techniques and devices for in-situ film coatings of long, small diameter tubes or elliptical and other surface contours

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hershcovitch, Ady; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Brennan, Joseph Michael; Fischer, Wolfram; Liaw, Chong -Jer; Meng, Wuzhang; Todd, Robert; Custer, Art; Dingus, Aaron; Erikson, Mark; Jamshidi, Nader; Poole, Henry Joe

    2015-07-30

    In this study, devices and techniques that can, via physical vapor deposition,coat various surface contours or very long small aperture pipes, are described. Recently, a magnetron mole was developed in order to in-situ coat accelerator tube sections of the Brookhaven National Lab relativistic heavy ion collider that have 7.1 cm diameter with access points that are 500 m apart, for copper coat the accelerator vacuum tube in order to alleviate the problems of unacceptable ohmic heating and of electron clouds. A magnetron with a 50 cm long cathode was designed fabricated and successfully operated to copper coat a whole assembly containing a full-size, stainless steel, cold bore, of the accelerator magnet tubing connected to two types bellows, to which two additional pipes made of accelerator tubing were connected. The magnetron is mounted on a carriage with spring loaded wheels that successfully crossed bellows and adjusted for variations in vacuum tube diameter, while keeping the magnetron centered. Electrical power and cooling water were fed through a cable bundle. The umbilical cabling system, which is enclosed in a flexible braided metal sleeve, is driven by a motorized spool. To increase cathode lifetime, movable magnet package was developed, and thickest possible cathode was made, with a rather challenging target to substrate distance of less than 1.5 cm. Optimized process to ensure excellent adhesion was developed. Coating thickness of 10 μm Cu passed all industrial tests and even exceeded maximum capability of a 12 kg pull test fixture. Room temperature radio frequency (RF) resistivity measurement indicated that 10 μm Cu coated stainless steel accelerator tube has conductivity close to copper tubing. Work is in progress to repeat the RF resistivity measurement at cryogenic temperatures. Over 20 years ago, a device using multi axis robotic manipulators controlling separate robotic assemblies resulted in nine-axes of motion combined with conformal shape of the

  8. Evaluation of the Hydraulic Performance and Mass Transfer Efficiency of the CSSX Process with the Optimized Solvent in a Single Stage of 5.5-Cm Diameter Centrifugal Contactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, J.D.; Tillotson, R.D.; Todd, T.A.

    2002-09-19

    The Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process has been selected for the separation of cesium from Savannah River Site high-level waste. The solvent composition used in the CSSX process was recently optimized so that the solvent is no longer supersaturated with respect to the calixarene crown ether extractant. Hydraulic performance and mass transfer efficiency testing of a single stage of 5.5-cm ORNL-designed centrifugal contactor has been performed for the CSSX process with the optimized solvent. Maximum throughputs of the 5.5-cm centrifugal contactor, as a function of contactor rotor speed, have been measured for the extraction, scrub, strip, and wash sections of the CSSX flowsheet at the baseline organic/aqueous flow ratios (O/A) of the process, as well as at O/A's 20% higher and 20% lower than the baseline. Maximum throughputs are comparable to the design throughput of the contactor, as well as with throughputs obtained previously in a 5-cm centrifugal contactor with the non-optimized CSSX solvent formulation. The 20% variation in O/A had minimal effect on contactor throughput. Additionally, mass transfer efficiencies have been determined for the extraction and strip sections of the flowsheet. Efficiencies were lower than the process goal of greater than or equal to 80%, ranging from 72 to 75% for the extraction section and from 36 to 60% in the strip section. Increasing the mixing intensity and/or the solution level in the mixing zone of the centrifugal contactor (residence time) could potentially increase efficiencies. Several methods are available to accomplish this including (1) increasing the size of the opening in the bottom of the rotor, resulting in a contactor which is partially pumping instead of fully pumping, (2) decreasing the number of vanes in the contactor, (3) increasing the vane height, or (4) adding vanes on the rotor and baffles on the housing of the contactor. The low efficiency results obtained stress the importance of proper design of

  9. Evaluation of the Hydraulic Capacity and Mass Transfer Efficiency of the CSSX Process with the Optimized Solvent in a Single Stage of 5.5-cm-Diameter Centrifugal Contactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, Jack Douglas; Tillotson, Richard Dean; Todd, Terry Allen

    2002-09-01

    The Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process has been selected for the separation of cesium from Savannah River Site high-level waste. The solvent composition used in the CSSX process was recently optimized so that the solvent is no longer supersaturated with respect to the calixarene crown ether extractant. Hydraulic performance and mass transfer efficiency testing of a single stage of 5.5-cm ORNL-designed centrifugal contactor has been performed for the CSSX process with the optimized solvent. Maximum throughputs of the 5.5-cm centrifugal contactor, as a function of contactor rotor speed, have been measured for the extraction, scrub, strip, and wash sections of the CSSX flowsheet at the baseline organic/aqueous flow ratios (O/A) of the process, as well as at O/A’s 20% higher and 20% lower than the baseline. Maximum throughputs are comparable to the design throughput of the contactor, as well as with throughputs obtained previously in a 5-cm centrifugal contactor with the non-optimized CSSX solvent formulation. The 20% variation in O/A had minimal effect on contactor throughput. Additionally, mass transfer efficiencies have been determined for the extraction and strip sections of the flowsheet. Efficiencies were lower than the process goal of greater than or equal to 80%, ranging from 72 to 75% for the extraction section and from 36 to 60% in the strip section. Increasing the mixing intensity and/or the solution level in the mixing zone of the centrifugal contactor (residence time) could potentially increase efficiencies. Several methods are available to accomplish this including (1) increasing the size of the opening in the bottom of the rotor, resulting in a contactor which is partially pumping instead of fully pumping, (2) decreasing the number of vanes in the contactor, (3) increasing the vane height, or (4) adding vanes on the rotor and baffles on the housing of the contactor. The low efficiency results obtained stress the importance of proper design

  10. Project W420 Air Sampler Probe Placement Qualification Tests for Four 6-Inch Diameter Stacks: 296-A-25, 296-B-28, 296-S-22, and 296-T-18

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maughan, A.D.; Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1998-09-30

    The W420 project covers the upgrading of effluent monitoring systems at six ventilation exhaust stacks in tank-farm facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The discharge stacks of five of the six systems will be completely replaced. Four of these (296-A-25, 296-B-28, 296-S-22, and 296-T-18) will be of the same size, 6-inches in diameter and about 12-ft high. This report documents tests that were conducted to verify that these four stacks meet the applicable regulatory criteria regarding the placement of the air sampling probe. These criteria ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the location of the probe such that the extracted sample represents the whole. There are also criteria addressing the transport of the sample to the collection device. These are not covered in this report, but will need to be addressed later. These tests were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on a full-scale model of the 6-inch stick. The sequence of tests addresses the acceptability of the flow angle relative to the probe and the uniformity of air velocity and gaseous and particle tracers in the cross section of the stack. All tests were successful, and all acceptance criteria were met.

  11. South Carolina/Wind Resources/Full Version | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    coefficient, ranging from 0.25 to 0.45, dimension less (theoretical maximum 0.59) Air density, kgm A Rotor swept area, m or D 4 (D is the rotor diameter in m,...

  12. Oregon/Wind Resources/Full Version | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    coefficient, ranging from 0.25 to 0.45, dimension less (theoretical maximum 0.59) Air density, kgm A Rotor swept area, m or D 4 (D is the rotor diameter in m,...

  13. North Carolina/Wind Resources/Full Version | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    coefficient, ranging from 0.25 to 0.45, dimension less (theoretical maximum 0.59) Air density, kgm A Rotor swept area, m or D 4 (D is the rotor diameter in m,...

  14. Alaska/Wind Resources/Full Version | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    coefficient, ranging from 0.25 to 0.45, dimension less (theoretical maximum 0.59) Air density, kgm A Rotor swept area, m or D 4 (D is the rotor diameter in m,...

  15. Wyoming/Wind Resources/Full Version | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    coefficient, ranging from 0.25 to 0.45, dimension less (theoretical maximum 0.59) Air density, kgm A Rotor swept area, m or D 4 (D is the rotor diameter in m,...

  16. New Jersey/Wind Resources/Full Version | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    coefficient, ranging from 0.25 to 0.45, dimension less (theoretical maximum 0.59) Air density, kgm A Rotor swept area, m or D 4 (D is the rotor diameter in m,...

  17. Kentucky/Wind Resources/Full Version | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    coefficient, ranging from 0.25 to 0.45, dimension less (theoretical maximum 0.59) Air density, kgm A Rotor swept area, m or D 4 (D is the rotor diameter in m,...

  18. Iowa/Wind Resources/Full Version | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    coefficient, ranging from 0.25 to 0.45, dimension less (theoretical maximum 0.59) Air density, kgm A Rotor swept area, m or D 4 (D is the rotor diameter in m,...

  19. Maryland/Wind Resources/Full Version | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    coefficient, ranging from 0.25 to 0.45, dimension less (theoretical maximum 0.59) Air density, kgm A Rotor swept area, m or D 4 (D is the rotor diameter in m,...

  20. Maine/Wind Resources/Full Version | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    coefficient, ranging from 0.25 to 0.45, dimension less (theoretical maximum 0.59) Air density, kgm A Rotor swept area, m or D 4 (D is the rotor diameter in m,...

  1. Kansas/Wind Resources/Full Version | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    coefficient, ranging from 0.25 to 0.45, dimension less (theoretical maximum 0.59) Air density, kgm A Rotor swept area, m or D 4 (D is the rotor diameter in m,...

  2. Connecticut/Wind Resources/Full Version | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    coefficient, ranging from 0.25 to 0.45, dimension less (theoretical maximum 0.59) Air density, kgm A Rotor swept area, m or D 4 (D is the rotor diameter in m,...

  3. North Dakota/Wind Resources/Full Version | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    coefficient, ranging from 0.25 to 0.45, dimension less (theoretical maximum 0.59) Air density, kgm A Rotor swept area, m or D 4 (D is the rotor diameter in m,...

  4. Vermont/Wind Resources/Full Version | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    coefficient, ranging from 0.25 to 0.45, dimension less (theoretical maximum 0.59) Air density, kgm A Rotor swept area, m or D 4 (D is the rotor diameter in m,...

  5. Illinois/Wind Resources/Full Version | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    coefficient, ranging from 0.25 to 0.45, dimension less (theoretical maximum 0.59) Air density, kgm A Rotor swept area, m or D 4 (D is the rotor diameter in m,...

  6. Florida/Wind Resources/Full Version | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    coefficient, ranging from 0.25 to 0.45, dimension less (theoretical maximum 0.59) Air density, kgm A Rotor swept area, m or D 4 (D is the rotor diameter in m,...

  7. Virginia/Wind Resources/Full Version | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    coefficient, ranging from 0.25 to 0.45, dimension less (theoretical maximum 0.59) Air density, kgm A Rotor swept area, m or D 4 (D is the rotor diameter in m,...

  8. Georgia/Wind Resources/Full Version | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    coefficient, ranging from 0.25 to 0.45, dimension less (theoretical maximum 0.59) Air density, kgm A Rotor swept area, m or D 4 (D is the rotor diameter in m,...

  9. California/Wind Resources/Full Version | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    coefficient, ranging from 0.25 to 0.45, dimension less (theoretical maximum 0.59) Air density, kgm A Rotor swept area, m or D 4 (D is the rotor diameter in m,...

  10. Minnesota/Wind Resources/Full Version | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    coefficient, ranging from 0.25 to 0.45, dimension less (theoretical maximum 0.59) Air density, kgm A Rotor swept area, m or D 4 (D is the rotor diameter in m,...

  11. Delaware/Wind Resources/Full Version | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    coefficient, ranging from 0.25 to 0.45, dimension less (theoretical maximum 0.59) Air density, kgm A Rotor swept area, m or D 4 (D is the rotor diameter in m,...

  12. Ohio/Wind Resources/Full Version | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    coefficient, ranging from 0.25 to 0.45, dimension less (theoretical maximum 0.59) Air density, kgm A Rotor swept area, m or D 4 (D is the rotor diameter in m,...

  13. Small Wind Guidebook/How Much Energy Will My System Generate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ranging from 0.25 to 0.45, dimension less (theoretical maximum 0.59) Air density, kgm A Rotor swept area, m or D 4 (D is the rotor diameter in m, ...

  14. Structural health and prognostics management for offshore wind turbines : case studies of rotor fault and blade damage with initial O&M cost modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myrent, Noah J.; Kusnick, Joshua F.; Barrett, Natalie C.; Adams, Douglas E.; Griffith, Daniel Todd

    2013-04-01

    Operations and maintenance costs for offshore wind plants are significantly higher than the current costs for land-based (onshore) wind plants. One way to reduce these costs would be to implement a structural health and prognostic management (SHPM) system as part of a condition based maintenance paradigm with smart load management and utilize a state-based cost model to assess the economics associated with use of the SHPM system. To facilitate the development of such a system a multi-scale modeling approach developed in prior work is used to identify how the underlying physics of the system are affected by the presence of damage and faults, and how these changes manifest themselves in the operational response of a full turbine. This methodology was used to investigate two case studies: (1) the effects of rotor imbalance due to pitch error (aerodynamic imbalance) and mass imbalance and (2) disbond of the shear web; both on a 5-MW offshore wind turbine in the present report. Based on simulations of damage in the turbine model, the operational measurements that demonstrated the highest sensitivity to the damage/faults were the blade tip accelerations and local pitching moments for both imbalance and shear web disbond. The initial cost model provided a great deal of insight into the estimated savings in operations and maintenance costs due to the implementation of an effective SHPM system. The integration of the health monitoring information and O&M cost versus damage/fault severity information provides the initial steps to identify processes to reduce operations and maintenance costs for an offshore wind farm while increasing turbine availability, revenue, and overall profit.

  15. Rotor Blade Sensors and Instrumentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Blade Sensors and Instrumentation - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs

  16. Comparison of two mechanical windmills for pumping water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, R.N.

    1995-12-31

    A comparison of two mechanical wind pumping systems was carried out to determine windmill performance at different water depths. A 2.44 m (8 ft) rotor diameter windmill with 15 vanes, and a 4.88 m (16 ft) rotor diameter windmill with 32 delta wing vanes, were compared. The smaller windmill had vanes that filled 90% of the rotor area while the vanes on the larger one filled 41% of the rotor area. The smaller unit used a gearbox and the larger one used a pump jack style with a counter weighted shaft. Results from this study showed that both windmills started pumping at about the same wind speed (2.5 and 3.5 m/s), but the larger rotor operated at 6 to 8 strokes per minute faster than the smaller system when wind speeds were between 4 and 1 0 m/s. Although both windmills were fitted with the same size and style of pump, the larger rotor pumped more water because it had more stokes per unit of time. The delta wing rotor averaged 14,874 L/day compared to 10,974 L/day for the traditionally designed rotor. However, one must consider the difference in rotor diameters, total weight, cost and the efficiency of the two units. The larger rotor had a peak efficiency of 6.5% compared to 10.5% for the smaller rotor. The 35% more water pumped required twice as much rotor diameter.

  17. Large Diameter Lasing Tube Cooling Arrangement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Jerome P.; Alger, Terry W.; Anderson, Andrew T.; Arnold, Philip A.

    2004-05-18

    A cooling structure (16) for use inside a ceramic cylindrical tube (11) of a metal vapor laser (10) to cool the plasma in the tube (11), the cooling structure (16) comprising a plurality of circular metal members (17,31) and mounting members (18, 34) that position the metal members (17,31) coaxially in the tube (11) to form an annular lasing volume, with the metal members (17, 31) being axially spaced from each other along the length of the tube (11) to prevent the metal members from shorting out the current flow through the plasma in the tube (11) and to provide spaces through which the heat from localized hot spots in the plasma may radiate to the other side of the tube (11).

  18. Large diameter lasing tube cooling arrangement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Jerome P. (Livermore, CA); Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA); Anderson, Andrew T. (Livermore, CA); Arnold, Phillip A. (Livermore, CA)

    2004-05-18

    A cooling structure (16) for use inside a ceramic cylindrical tube (11) of a metal vapor laser (10) to cool the plasma in the tube (11), the cooling structure (16) comprising a plurality of circular metal members (17, 31) and mounting members (18, 34) that position the metal members (17, 31) coaxially in the tube (11) to form an annular lasing volume, with the metal members (17, 31) being axially spaced from each other along the length of the tube (11) to prevent the metal members from shorting out the current flow through the plasma in the tube (11) and to provide spaces through which the heat from localized hot spots in the plasma may radiate to the other side of the tube (11).

  19. Evaluation of Aeroelastically Tailored Small Wind Turbine Blades Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, Dayton A.

    2005-09-29

    Evaluation of Aeroelastically Tailored Small Wind Turbine Blades Final Report Global Energy Concepts, LLC (GEC) has performed a conceptual design study concerning aeroelastic tailoring of small wind turbine blades. The primary objectives were to evaluate ways that blade/rotor geometry could be used to enable cost-of-energy reductions by enhancing energy capture while constraining or mitigating blade costs, system loads, and related component costs. This work builds on insights developed in ongoing adaptive-blade programs but with a focus on application to small turbine systems with isotropic blade material properties and with combined blade sweep and pre-bending/pre-curving to achieve the desired twist coupling. Specific goals of this project are to: (A) Evaluate and quantify the extent to which rotor geometry can be used to realize load-mitigating small wind turbine rotors. Primary aspects of the load mitigation are: (1) Improved overspeed safety affected by blades twisting toward stall in response to speed increases. (2) Reduced fatigue loading affected by blade twisting toward feather in response to turbulent gusts. (B) Illustrate trade-offs and design sensitivities for this concept. (C) Provide the technical basis for small wind turbine manufacturers to evaluate this concept and commercialize if the technology appears favorable. The SolidWorks code was used to rapidly develop solid models of blade with varying shapes and material properties. Finite element analyses (FEA) were performed using the COSMOS code modeling with tip-loads and centripetal accelerations. This tool set was used to investigate the potential for aeroelastic tailoring with combined planform sweep and pre-curve. An extensive matrix of design variables was investigated, including aerodynamic design, magnitude and shape of planform sweep, magnitude and shape of blade pre-curve, material stiffness, and rotor diameter. The FEA simulations resulted in substantial insights into the structural

  20. Cell diameter measurements obtained with a handheld cell counter could be used as a surrogate marker of G2/M arrest and apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines exposed to SN-38

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tahara, Makiko; Inoue, Takeshi; Fujii, Hirofumi; Kotake, Kenjiro; Sugano, Kokichi

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: Chemo-sensitivity to SN-38 was assayed by the automated cell counter. Colon cancer cell line, HCT116 cells were more sensitive to SN-38 than HT29 cells. Increase of cell size reflects G2/M arrest. Appearance of small particles indicates cell apoptosis. -- Abstract: In vitro assessment of chemosensitivity are important for experiments evaluating cancer therapies. The Scepter 2.0 cell counter, an automated handheld device based on the Coulter principle of impedance-based particle detection, enables the accurate discrimination of cell populations according to cell size and volume. In this study, the effects of SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan, on the colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and HT29 were evaluated using this device. The cell count data obtained with the Scepter counter were compared with those obtained with the {sup 3}H-thymidine uptake assay, which has been used to measure cell proliferation in many previous studies. In addition, we examined whether the changes in the size distributions of these cells reflected alterations in the frequency of cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induced by SN-38 treatment. In our experiments using the Scepter 2.0 cell counter, the cell counts were demonstrated to be accurate and reproducible measure and alterations of cell diameter reflected G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Our data show that easy-to-use cell counting tools can be utilized to evaluate the cell-killing effects of novel treatments on cancer cells in vitro.

  1. Comparison of Two Types of Double-J Ureteral Stents that Differ in Diameter and the Existence of Multiple Side Holes along the Straight Portion in Malignant Ureteral Strictures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Myung Gyu Seo, Tae-Seok Lee, Chang Hee Kim, Kyeong Ah; Kim, Jun Suk Oh, Sang Cheul; Lee, Jae-Kwan

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThis study was decided to evaluate the impact of diameter and the existences of multiple side holes along the straight portion of double-J ureteral stents (DJUS) on early dysfunction of stents placed for malignant ureteral strictures.MethodsBetween April 2007 and December 2011, 141 DJUSs were placed via a percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) tract in 110 consecutive patients with malignant ureteral strictures. 7F DJUSs with multiple side holes in the straight portion were placed in 58 ureters of 43 patients (Group 1). 8F DJUSs with three side holes in the proximal 2-cm of the straight portion were placed in 83 ureters of 67 patients (Group 2). The incidence of early DJUS dysfunction was compared between the two groups, and nephrostographic findings were evaluated in the cases of early dysfunction.ResultsEarly dysfunction of the DJUS was noted in 14 of 58 patients (24.1 %) in Group 1, which was significantly higher (p = 0.001) than in Group 2 in which only 1 of 83 patients (1.2 %) had early dysfunction of the DJUS. Nephrostographic findings of early dysfunction included dilatation of the pelvicalyceal system, filling defects in the ureteral stent, and no passage of contrast media into the urinary bladder.ConclusionsIn malignant ureteral strictures, multiple side holes in the straight portion of the 7-F DJUS seem to cause early dysfunction. The 8F DJUSs with three side holes in the proximal 2-cm of the straight portion may be superior at preventing early dysfunction.

  2. Measurement of turbulent wind velocities using a rotating boom apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandborn, V.A.; Connell, J.R.

    1984-04-01

    The present report covers both the development of a rotating-boom facility and the evaluation of the spectral energy of the turbulence measured relative to the rotating boom. The rotating boom is composed of a helicopter blade driven through a pulley speed reducer by a variable speed motor. The boom is mounted on a semiportable tower that can be raised to provide various ratios of hub height to rotor diameter. The boom can be mounted to rotate in either the vertical or horizontal plane. Probes that measure the three components of turbulence can be mounted at any location along the radius of the boom. Special hot-film sensors measured two components of the turbulence at a point directly in front of the rotating blade. By using the probe rotated 90/sup 0/ about its axis, the third turbulent velocity component was measured. Evaluation of the spectral energy distributions for the three components of velocity indicates a large concentration of energy at the rotational frequency. At frequencies slightly below the rotational frequency, the spectral energy is greatly reduced over that measured for the nonrotating case measurements. Peaks in the energy at frequencies that are multiples of the rotation frequency were also observed. We conclude that the rotating boom apparatus is suitable and ready to be used in experiments for developing and testing sensors for rotational measurement of wind velocity from wind turbine rotors. It also can be used to accurately measure turbulent wind for testing theories of rotationally sampled wind velocity.

  3. Wind turbine having a direct-drive drivetrain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bevington, Christopher M.; Bywaters, Garrett L.; Coleman, Clint C.; Costin, Daniel P.; Danforth, William L.; Lynch, Jonathan A.; Rolland, Robert H.

    2008-10-07

    A wind turbine (100) comprising an electrical generator (108) that includes a rotor assembly (112). A wind rotor (104) that includes a wind rotor hub (124) is directly coupled to the rotor assembly via a simplified connection. The wind rotor and generator rotor assembly are rotatably mounted on a central spindle (160) via a bearing assembly (180). The wind rotor hub includes an opening (244) having a diameter larger than the outside diameter of the central spindle adjacent the bearing assembly so as to allow access to the bearing assembly from a cavity (380) inside the wind rotor hub. The spindle is attached to a turret (140) supported by a tower (136). Each of the spindle, turret and tower has an interior cavity (172, 176, 368) that permits personnel to traverse therethrough to the cavity of the wind rotor hub. The wind turbine further includes a frictional braking system (276) for slowing, stopping or keeping stopped the rotation of the wind rotor and rotor assembly.

  4. Methods of making wind turbine rotor blades

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livingston, Jamie T.; Burke, Arthur H. E.; Bakhuis, Jan Willem; Van Breugel, Sjef; Billen, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    A method of manufacturing a root portion of a wind turbine blade includes, in an exemplary embodiment, providing an outer layer of reinforcing fibers including at least two woven mats of reinforcing fibers, providing an inner layer of reinforcing fibers including at least two woven mats of reinforcing fibers, and positioning at least two bands of reinforcing fibers between the inner and outer layers, with each band of reinforcing fibers including at least two woven mats of reinforcing fibers. The method further includes positioning a mat of randomly arranged reinforcing fibers between each pair of adjacent bands of reinforcing fibers, introducing a polymeric resin into the root potion of the wind turbine blade, infusing the resin through the outer layer, the inner layer, each band of reinforcing fibers, and each mat of random reinforcing fibers, and curing the resin to form the root portion of the wind turbine blade.

  5. National Rotor Testbed aerodynamic design complete

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aerodynamic design complete - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  6. Rotor assembly including superconducting magnetic coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snitchler, Gregory L.; Gamble, Bruce B.; Voccio, John P.

    2003-01-01

    Superconducting coils and methods of manufacture include a superconductor tape wound concentrically about and disposed along an axis of the coil to define an opening having a dimension which gradually decreases, in the direction along the axis, from a first end to a second end of the coil. Each turn of the superconductor tape has a broad surface maintained substantially parallel to the axis of the coil.

  7. Multiple stage miniature stepping motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Niven, William A.; Shikany, S. David; Shira, Michael L.

    1981-01-01

    A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed.

  8. New Report Shows Domestic Offshore Wind Industry Potential, 21...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Continuing to increase in size, the average offshore wind turbine installed in 2014 had a 377-foot-diameter rotor on a 279-foot-tall tower. The average capacity of offshore wind ...

  9. Concepts to Facilitate Very Large Blades

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    II. Growth Trends Installed wind energy capacity both worldwide and in the U.S. has grown ... Figure 1 shows blade weight growth trends as a function of rotor diameter from commercial ...

  10. Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About Wind Power | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Wind turbines are soaring to record sizes. The average rotor diameter of turbines installed in 2014 grew to 99.4 meters, up 108 percent since 1998-1999. | National Renewable Energy...

  11. A comparative study of small field total scatter factors and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    diameter. For cones of 10-20 mm in diameter, the PTW 60008 silicon diode was the only dosimeter whose measurements did not agree within 1% with the Monte Carlo values. For smaller...

  12. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    or greater in diameter For cones of mm in diameter the PTW silicon diode was the only dosimeter whose measurements did not agree within with the Monte Carlo values For smaller...

  13. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    diameter. For cones of 10-20 mm in diameter, the PTW 60008 silicon diode was the only dosimeter whose measurements did not agree within 1% with the Monte Carlo values. For smaller...

  14. Halbach array generator/motor having an automatically regulated output voltage and mechanical power output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2005-02-22

    A motor/generator having its stationary portion, i.e., the stator, positioned concentrically within its rotatable element, i.e., the rotor, along its axis of rotation. The rotor includes a Halbach array. The stator windings are switched or commutated to provide a DC motor/generator much the same as in a conventional DC motor/generator. The voltage and power are automatically regulated by using centrifugal force to change the diameter of the rotor, and thereby vary the radial gap in between the stator and the rotating Halbach array, as a function of the angular velocity of the rotor.

  15. Development of Larger Diameter High Pressure CNG Cylinder Manufactured...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    These slides were presented at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27 - 29, 2010, in Beijing, China. ihfpvxma.pdf (3.43 MB) More Documents & ...

  16. Selection of powder factor in large diameter blastholes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eloranta, J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper documents the relationship between material handling and processing costs compared to blasting cost. The old adage, The cheapest crushing is done in the pit, appears accurate in this case study. Comparison of the accumulated cost of: powder, selected wear materials and electricity; indicate a strong, inverse correlation with powder factor (lbs powder/long ton of rock). In this case, the increased powder cost is more than offset by electrical savings alone. Measurable, overall costs decline while shovel and crusher productivity rise by about 5% when powder factor rises by 15%. These trends were previously masked by the effects of: weather, ore grade fluctuations and accounting practices. Attempts to correlate increased powder factor to: wear materials in the crushing plant and to shovel hoist rope life have not shown the same benefit.

  17. Method of making tapered capillary tips with constant inner diameters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Ryan T. (West Richland, WA); Page, Jason S. (Kennewick, WA); Tang, Keqi (Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA)

    2009-02-17

    Methods of forming electrospray ionization emitter tips are disclosed herein. In one embodiment, an end portion of a capillary tube can be immersed into an etchant, wherein the etchant forms a concave meniscus on the outer surface of the capillary. Variable etching rates in the meniscus can cause an external taper to form. While etching the outer surface of the capillary wall, a fluid can be flowed through the interior of the capillary tube. Etching continues until the immersed portion of the capillary tube is completely etched away.

  18. Templated one-step catalytic fabrication of uniform diameter...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Journal of Materials Chemistry Research Org: Oak Ridge National Laboratory ...

  19. Insensitive detonator apparatus for initiating large failure diameter explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, III, William Leroy

    2015-07-28

    A munition according to a preferred embodiment can include a detonator system having a detonator that is selectively coupled to a microwave source that functions to selectively prime, activate, initiate, and/or sensitize an insensitive explosive material for detonation. The preferred detonator can include an explosive cavity having a barrier within which an insensitive explosive material is disposed and a waveguide coupled to the explosive cavity. The preferred system can further include a microwave source coupled to the waveguide such that microwaves enter the explosive cavity and impinge on the insensitive explosive material to sensitize the explosive material for detonation. In use the preferred embodiments permit the deployment and use of munitions that are maintained in an insensitive state until the actual time of use, thereby substantially preventing unauthorized or unintended detonation thereof.

  20. MHK Technologies/Wave Rotor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Project(s) where this technology is utilized *MHK ProjectsC Energy Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology Type Click here Axial Flow Turbine Technology Readiness Level...

  1. Bore tube assembly for steam cooling a turbine rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeStefano, Thomas Daniel; Wilson, Ian David

    2002-01-01

    An axial bore tube assembly for a turbine is provided to supply cooling steam to hot gas components of the turbine wheels and return the spent cooling steam. A pair of inner and outer tubes define a steam supply passage concentric about an inner return passage. The forward ends of the tubes communicate with an end cap assembly having sets of peripheral holes communicating with first and second sets of radial tubes whereby cooling steam from the concentric passage is supplied through the end cap holes to radial tubes for cooling the buckets and return steam from the buckets is provided through the second set of radial tubes through a second set of openings of the end cap into the coaxial return passage. A radial-to-axial flow transitioning device, including anti-swirling vanes is provided in the end cap. A strut ring adjacent the aft end of the bore tube assembly permits axial and radial thermal expansion of the inner tube relative to the outer tube.

  2. Offshore Wind RD&D: Large Offshore Rotor Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Offshore wind resource by state and wind speed interval within 50 nm of shore. Wind Speed at 90 m (m/s) 7.0 - 7.5 7.5 - 8.0 8.0 - 8.5 8.5 - 9.0 9.0 - 9.5 9.5 - 10.0 >10.0 Total >7.0 State Area km 2 (MW) Area km 2 (MW) Area km 2 (MW) Area km 2 (MW) Area km 2 (MW) Area km 2 (MW) Area km 2 (MW) Area km 2 (MW) California 11,439 (57,195) 24,864 (124,318) 23,059 (115,296) 22,852 (114,258) 13,185 (65,924) 15,231 (76,153) 6,926 (34,629) 117,555 (587,773) Connecticut 530 (2,652) 702 (3,508) 40

  3. SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Data Analysis and Conclusions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    expanded in an infinite sum involving products of Legendre polynomials and azimuthal Fourier components. The aerodynamic blade loads are similarly expanded in a spectral basis,...

  4. Aerodynamic Sensitivity Analysis of Rotor Imbalance and Shear...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Health Prognostics Management of Wind Turbine Blades Noah J. Myrent 1 and Douglas E. ... and how these changes manifest themselves in the operational response of a full turbine. ...

  5. Full-scale wind turbine rotor aerodynamics research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simms, D A; Butterfield, C P

    1994-11-01

    The United States Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are conducting research to improve wind turbine technology at the NREL National Wind Technology Center (NWTC). One program, the Combined Experiment, has focused on making measurements needed to understand aerodynamic and structural responses of horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT). A new phase of this program, the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment, will focus on quantifying unsteady aerodynamic phenomena prevalent in stall-controlled HAWTs. Optimally twisted blades and innovative instrumentation and data acquisition systems will be used in these tests. Data can now be acquired and viewed interactively during turbine operations. This paper describes the NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment and highlights planned future research activities.

  6. Field Test Results from the Sandia SMART Rotor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    back to collaborations with C.P. van Dam and R. Chow on the microtab device concept ... from Wind, 2010. 18 Chow, R., and van Dam, C.P., "Unsteady Computational ...

  7. A new day: SWiFT reaches rotor mounting milestone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, ... on one of its SWiFT wind turbines, a heavily modified ...

  8. Substantially Parallel Flux Uncluttered Rotor Machines (U-Machine...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Peak motor speed can increase further from the existing drive motors for reductions in cost, weight, and volume of the motor No permanent magnets in the motor for cost and ...

  9. Die Casting Copper Motor Rotors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In 2003, SEW Eurodrive of Bruchsal, Germany, was the first company, worldwide, to bring the technology to market. A line of high-efficiency gear motors (1.1-5.5 kW) use copper ...

  10. Turbine rotor-stator leaf seal and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herron, William Lee (Cincinnati, OH); Butkiewicz, Jeffrey John (Simpsonville, SC)

    2003-01-01

    A seal assembly for installation between rotating and stationary components of a machine includes a first plurality of leaf spring segments secured to the stationary component in a circumferential array surrounding the rotating component, the leaf spring segments each having a radial mounting portion and a substantially axial sealing portion, the plurality of leaf spring segments shingled in a circumferential direction.

  11. Hybrid Rotor Compression for Multiphase and Liquids-Rich Wellhead

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    but also allows for compression of wet gas, or gas that contains liquid content. At many natural gas wellheads, liquids-typically heavier hydrocarbons and water-are present in the...

  12. Fabrication, Integration and Initial Testing of a SMART Rotor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... the blade tip vortex on the performance of the AALC device. ... standard vacuum infusion process utilizing epoxy resin. ... comparison of the performance of the two technologies. ...

  13. National Rotor Testbed Functional Scaling Presented at American...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Functional Scaling Presented at American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 2014 ... Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, ...

  14. SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Data Analysis and Conclusions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... J. Solar Energy Engineering - Transactions of the ASME, 125(4):448-456, 2003. 31. H. Glauert. Airplane propellers. In W. F. Durand, editor, Aerodynamic Theory. Julius Springer, ...

  15. SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Data Analysis and Conclusions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report documents the data post-processing and analysis performed to date on the field test data.

  16. Offshore Wind RD&D: Large Offshore Rotor Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Search Publications EC Publications Factsheets Press Releases Energy Research Highlights ... and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh ...

  17. DE-AF26-01NT00394 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The drill has six detachable titanium coring bits that measure 11.5 inches (29 cm) in length and have an 0.875 inch (2.22 cm) internal diameter. The drill is placed in operating ...

  18. Topographic Features | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the overlying volcanic edifice forms a ring-shaped caldera depression up to several kilometers in diameter. The edges of the underlying magma chamber are roughly marked by a ring...

  19. Caldera Depression | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the overlying volcanic edifice forms a ring-shaped caldera depression up to several kilometers in diameter. The edges of the underlying magma chamber are roughly marked by a ring...

  20. Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About Wind Power | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wind Power Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About Wind Power August 10, 2015 - 8:20am Addthis Wind turbines are soaring to record sizes. The average rotor diameter of turbines installed in 2014 grew to 99.4 meters, up 108 percent since 1998-1999. | National Renewable Energy Laboratory photo. Wind turbines are soaring to record sizes. The average rotor diameter of turbines installed in 2014 grew to 99.4 meters, up 108 percent since 1998-1999. | National Renewable Energy Laboratory photo. Liz Hartman

  1. Heat flux limiting sleeves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, William G. (Tampa, FL)

    1985-01-01

    A heat limiting tubular sleeve extending over only a portion of a tube having a generally uniform outside diameter, the sleeve being open on both ends, having one end thereof larger in diameter than the other end thereof and having a wall thickness which decreases in the same direction as the diameter of the sleeve decreases so that the heat transfer through the sleeve and tube is less adjacent the large diameter end of the sleeve than adjacent the other end thereof.

  2. Method for fabricating thin californium-containing radioactive source wires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Ian G; Pierce, Larry A

    2006-08-22

    A method for reducing the cross-sectional diameter of a radioactive californium-containing cermet wire while simultaneously improving the wire diameter to a more nearly circular cross section. A collet fixture is used to reduce the wire diameter by controlled pressurization pulses while simultaneously improving the wire cross-sectional diameter. The method is especially suitable for use in hot cells for the production of optimized cermet brachytherapy sources that contain large amounts of radioactive californium-252.

  3. Wisconsin Power and Light Company's wind energy research and demonstration program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeWinkel, C.C.

    1982-03-01

    Wisconsin Power and Light's (WPL) Wind Energy Test Program, encompasses the purchase and installation of six windmills which are or will be installed on customers' premises. These windmills (2 Windworks, 2 United Technologies, 1 Jay Carter and 1 Jacobs) vary in size from 10 to 20 Kilowatts (kw) with rotor diameters from 7 to 10 meters.

  4. Development and application of centrifugal contactors in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Pijia; Duan, Wuhua

    2008-07-01

    Compared with mixer-settlers and extraction columns, centrifugal contactors have some advantages. Since the late 1970's, a series of centrifugal contactors with rotor diameters of 10 to 550 mm have been developed and applied in some industrial fields in China. In this paper, both new improvements and applications of centrifugal contactors in China are reviewed. (authors)

  5. Cost of Wind Energy in the United States: Trends from 2007 to 2012 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hand, M.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of recent technology trends observed in the United States including project size, turbine size, rotor diameter, hub height, annual average wind speed, and annual energy production. It also highlights area where system analysis is required to fully understand how these technology trends relate to the cost of wind energy.

  6. This invention relates to methods of generating NP gallium nitride (GaN) across large areas (>1 cm.sup.2) with controlled pore diameters, pore density, and porosity. Also disclosed are methods of generating novel optoelectronic devices based on porous GaN. Additionally a layer transfer scheme to separate and create free-standing crystalline GaN thin layers is disclosed that enables a new device manufacturing paradigm involving substrate recycling. Other disclosed embodiments of this invention relate to fabrication of GaN based nanocrystals and the use of NP GaN electrodes for electrolysis, water splitting, or photosynthetic process applications.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qian; Han, Jung

    2015-12-08

    This invention relates to methods of generating NP gallium nitride (GaN) across large areas (>1 cm.sup.2) with controlled pore diameters, pore density, and porosity. Also disclosed are methods of generating novel optoelectronic devices based on porous GaN. Additionally a layer transfer scheme to separate and create free-standing crystalline GaN thin layers is disclosed that enables a new device manufacturing paradigm involving substrate recycling. Other disclosed embodiments of this invention relate to fabrication of GaN based nanocrystals and the use of NP GaN electrodes for electrolysis, water splitting, or photosynthetic process applications.

  7. All fiber passively Q-switched laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soh, Daniel B. S.; Bisson, Scott E

    2015-05-12

    Embodiments relate to an all fiber passively Q-switched laser. The laser includes a large core doped gain fiber having a first end. The large core doped gain fiber has a first core diameter. The laser includes a doped single mode fiber (saturable absorber) having a second core diameter that is smaller than the first core diameter. The laser includes a mode transformer positioned between a second end of the large core doped gain fiber and a first end of the single mode fiber. The mode transformer has a core diameter that transitions from the first core diameter to the second core diameter and filters out light modes not supported by the doped single mode fiber. The laser includes a laser cavity formed between a first reflector positioned adjacent the large core doped gain fiber and a second reflector positioned adjacent the doped single mode fiber.

  8. Fabrication of small-orifice fuel injectors for diesel engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodford, J. B.; Fenske, G. R.

    2005-04-08

    Diesel fuel injector nozzles with spray hole diameters of 50-75 {micro}m have been fabricated via electroless nickel plating of conventionally made nozzles. Thick layers of nickel are deposited onto the orifice interior surfaces, reducing the diameter from {approx}200 {micro}m to the target diameter. The nickel plate is hard, smooth, and adherent, and covers the orifice interior surfaces uniformly.

  9. Generation of a polarised supercontinuum in small-diameter quasi-elliptic fibres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobtsev, Sergey M; Kukarin, S V; Fateev, N V

    2003-12-31

    A supercontinuum is generated for the first time and studied in twin tapered fibres with a micron waist upon pumping by femtosecond pulses. The supercontinuum is obtained in the range from 460 to 1070 nm at the -28 dB level with the degree of polarisation up to 97 %. The polarisation and coherent properties of the supercontinuum are studied experimentally. (fibres)

  10. In-line inspection of large diameter pipelines using enhanced collapsible pigs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pikas, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    In-line inspection tools, smart pigs, are devices that detect magnetic irregularities or anomalies in the wall of the pipe that includes corrosion, gouges, and material defects that exhibit metal loss. However, they do not normally detect stress corrosion cracking (SCC), hydrogen embrittlement, hard spots, certain types of horizontal defects, and anomalies on or near the girth weld. Dents if significant, casings, and foreign metallic objects if touching the pipe may also be detected qualitatively. Also, features such as welds, valves, taps, flanges, test station plates, and other appurtenances can be identified. Case histories and field findings using the newly developed 30 inch x 24 inch and 36 inch x 30 inch collapsible smart pigs will be discussed. In addition, the results of the first generation smart pigs with enhancements consisting of hardware developments, new field logs, and software will be presented.

  11. Non-intrusive ultrasonic liquid-in-line detector for small diameter tubes. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piper, T.C.

    1980-09-24

    An arrangement for detecting liquids in a line, using non-intrusive ultrasonic techniques is disclosed. In this arrangement, four piezoelectric crystals are arranged in pairs about a 0.078 inch o.d. pipe. An ultrasonic tone burst is transmitted along the pipe, between crystal pairs, and the amplitude of the received tone burst indicates the absence/presence of liquid in the pipe.

  12. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-07-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. Bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple castiron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs with the pipe in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, minimize excavation, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of old cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct safe repair operations on live mains.

  13. Visible-Wavelength Polarized-Light Emission with Small-Diameter...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: solar (photovoltaic), solar (thermal), phonons, thermal conductivity, thermoelectric, electrodes - solar, defects, charge transport, materials and chemistry by design, ...

  14. Project W320 52-inch diameter equipment container load test: Test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellomy, J.R.

    1995-02-22

    This test report summarizes testing activities and documents the results of the load tests performed on-site and off-site to structural qualify the 52-inch equipment containers designed and fabricated under Project W-320.

  15. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2003-01-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and attaching a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service (which results in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1--Program Management was previously completed. Two reports, one describing the program management plan and the other consisting of the technology assessment, were submitted to the DOE COR in the first quarter. Task 2--Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications and Task 3--Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves are now well underway. First-quarter activities included conducting detailed analyses to determine the capabilities of coiled-tubing locomotion for entering and repairing gas mains and the first design iteration of the joint-sealing sleeve. The maximum horizontal reach of coiled tubing inside a pipeline before buckling prevents further access was calculated for a wide range of coiled-tubing string designs and pipe environments. Work conducted in the second quarter consisted of: (1) selecting a preferred pan/zoom/tilt camera; (2) initiating design of the digital control electronics and switching power supply for the control and operation of the in-pipe robotic modules; (3) continuing design of the repair sleeve and (4) initial testing of the wall-cleaning device. Most recently, activities in the third quarter included: (1) development of the system's pan/zoom/tilt camera control electronics and operating software, and implementing these in the surface and downhole modules and (2) further testing of the wall-cleaning elements used to clean the inside of the bell and spigot joints. Details of these activities are described in the body of the report along with a summary of events scheduled for the fourth quarter.

  16. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2003-06-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and attaching a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service (which results in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1-Program Management was previously completed. Two reports, one describing the program management plan and the other consisting of the technology assessment, were submitted to the DOE COR in the first quarter. Task 2-Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications and Task 3-Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves are now well underway. First-quarter activities included conducting detailed analyses to determine the capabilities of coiled-tubing locomotion for entering and repairing gas mains and the first design iteration of the joint-sealing sleeve. The maximum horizontal reach of coiled tubing inside a pipeline before buckling prevents further access was calculated for a wide range of coiled-tubing string designs and pipe environments. Work conducted in the second quarter consisted of: (1) selecting a preferred pan/zoom/tilt camera; (2) initiating design of the digital control electronics and switching power supply for the control and operation of the in-pipe robotic modules; (3) continuing design of the repair sleeve and (4) initial testing of the wall-cleaning device. Activities in the third quarter included: (1) development of the system's pan/zoom/tilt camera control electronics and operating software, and implementing these in the surface and downhole modules and (2) further testing of the wall-cleaning elements used to clean the inside of the bell and spigot joints. Most recently, fourth quarter developments were centered on designing and testing the pipe-wall cleaning device including the selection of the drive motor and its control electronics. In addition, efforts were also focused on the design of the repair sleeve. Details of these activities are described in the body of the report along with a summary of events scheduled for the next quarter.

  17. Strain-Based Design Methodology of Large Diameter Grade X80 Linepipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lower, Mark D.

    2014-04-01

    Continuous growth in energy demand is driving oil and natural gas production to areas that are often located far from major markets where the terrain is prone to earthquakes, landslides, and other types of ground motion. Transmission pipelines that cross this type of terrain can experience large longitudinal strains and plastic circumferential elongation as the pipeline experiences alignment changes resulting from differential ground movement. Such displacements can potentially impact pipeline safety by adversely affecting structural capacity and leak tight integrity of the linepipe steel. Planning for new long-distance transmission pipelines usually involves consideration of higher strength linepipe steels because their use allows pipeline operators to reduce the overall cost of pipeline construction and increase pipeline throughput by increasing the operating pressure. The design trend for new pipelines in areas prone to ground movement has evolved over the last 10 years from a stress-based design approach to a strain-based design (SBD) approach to further realize the cost benefits from using higher strength linepipe steels. This report presents an overview of SBD for pipelines subjected to large longitudinal strain and high internal pressure with emphasis on the tensile strain capacity of high-strength microalloyed linepipe steel. The technical basis for this report involved engineering analysis and examination of the mechanical behavior of Grade X80 linepipe steel in both the longitudinal and circumferential directions. Testing was conducted to assess effects on material processing including as-rolled, expanded, and heat treatment processing intended to simulate coating application. Elastic-plastic and low-cycle fatigue analyses were also performed with varying internal pressures. Proposed SBD models discussed in this report are based on classical plasticity theory and account for material anisotropy, triaxial strain, and microstructural damage effects developed from test data. The results are intended to enhance SBD and analysis methods for producing safe and cost effective pipelines capable of accommodating large plastic strains in seismically active arctic areas.

  18. Munitions having an insensitive detonator system for initiating large failure diameter explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, III, William Leroy

    2015-08-04

    A munition according to a preferred embodiment can include a detonator system having a detonator that is selectively coupled to a microwave source that functions to selectively prime, activate, initiate, and/or sensitize an insensitive explosive material for detonation. The preferred detonator can include an explosive cavity having a barrier within which an insensitive explosive material is disposed and a waveguide coupled to the explosive cavity. The preferred system can further include a microwave source coupled to the waveguide such that microwaves enter the explosive cavity and impinge on the insensitive explosive material to sensitize the explosive material for detonation. In use the preferred embodiments permit the deployment and use of munitions that are maintained in an insensitive state until the actual time of use, thereby substantially preventing unauthorized or unintended detonation thereof.

  19. Calibration of a Neutron Hydroprobe for Moisture Measurements in Small-Diameter Steel-Cased Boreholes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2009-08-01

    Computation of soil moisture content from thermalized neutron counts for the T-Farm Interim cover requires a calibration relationship but none exists for 2-in tubes. A number of calibration options are available for the neutron probe, including vendor calibration, field calibration, but none of these methods were deemed appropriate for the configuration of interest. The objective of this work was to develop a calibration relation for converting neutron counts measured in 2-in access tubes to soil water content. The calibration method chosen for this study was a computational approach using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP). Model calibration was performed using field measurements in the Hanford calibration models with 6-in access tubes, in air and in the probe shield. The bet-fit model relating known water content to measured neutron counts was an exponential model that was essentially equivalent to that currently being used for 6-in steel cased wells. The MCNP simulations successfully predicted the neutron count rate for the neutron shield and the three calibration models for which data were collected in the field. However, predictions for air were about 65% lower than the measured counts . This discrepancy can be attributed to uncertainties in the configuration used for the air measurements. MCNP-simulated counts for the physical models were essentially equal to the measured counts with values. Accurate prediction of the response in 6-in casings in the three calibration models was motivation to predict the response in 2-in access tubes. Simulations were performed for six of the seven calibration models as well as 4 virtual models with the entire set covering a moisture range of 0 to 40%. Predicted counts for the calibration models with 2-in access tubes were 40 to 50% higher than in the 6-inch tubes. Predicted counts for water were about 60% higher in the 2-in tube than in the 6-in tube. The discrepancy between the 2-in and 6-in tube can be attributed to the smaller air gap between the probe and the 2-in access tube. The best-fit model relating volumetric water content to count ratio (CR) is of the form e^A x CR^B with A=0.3596 0.0216 and B=0.4629 0.0629 and r^2= 0.9998. It is recommended that the calibration function based on the count ratio, rather than raw counts, be used to avoid the effects of electronic noise in the probe that may arise due to the conditions at the time of measurement. These results suggest that the MCNP code can be used to extend calibrations for the neutron probe to different conditions including access tube size as well as composition without the need to construct additional physical models.

  20. Non-intrusive ultrasonic liquid-in-line detector for small diameter tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piper, Thomas C.

    1982-01-01

    An arrangement for deleting liquid in a line, using non-intrusive ultrasonic techniques is disclosed. In this arrangement, four piezoelectric crystals are arranged in pairs about a 0.072 inch o.d. pipe. An ultrasonic tone burst is transmitted along the pipe, between crystal pairs, and the amplitude of the received tone burst indicates the absence/presence of liquid in the pipe.

  1. From medium-sized to megawatt turbines...

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dongen, W. van

    1996-12-31

    One of the world`s first 500 kW turbines was installed in 1989 in the Netherlands. This forerunner of the current NedWind 500 kW range also represents the earliest predesign of the NedWind megawatt turbine. After the first 500 kW turbines with steel rotor blades and rotor diameter of 34 m, several design modifications followed, e.g. the rotor diameter was increased to 35 m and a tip brake was added. Later polyester blades were introduced and the rotor diameter was increased with 5 in. The drive train was also redesigned. Improvements on the 500 kW turbine concept has resulted in decreased cost, whereas annual energy output has increased to approx. 1.3 million kWh. Wind energy can substantially contribute to electricity supply. Maximum output in kiloWatthours is the target. Further improvement of the existing technology and implementation of flexible components may well prove to be a way to increase energy output, not only in medium or large sized wind turbines. 7 figs.

  2. Test and analysis results for two Synergy Power Corp. wind turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, D.; Hansen, C.

    1996-12-31

    The testing and modeling of small (rotor diameter 10.3 m and 12.8 m) wind turbines is the subject of this paper. The paper focuses primarily on the ADAMS computer model for dynamic analysis. The code calculates design loads, optimizes tilt configuration, and helps to interpret test results. A comparison of some of the modeling predictions is made to test data for validation purposes. The ADAMS model was found to accurately predict performance characteristics and loads for free-tilting turbines. ADAMS was found to be relatively successful in modeling the free tilt and variable rotors. The model also showed that tilting behavior is dependent on the restoring moment from the rotor aerodynamics as well as on surface aerodynamics. The effects of changes in air density on the power curve, load predictions, and analysis of emergency stops were also performed satisfactorily with the model. 15 figs.

  3. Mixer-Ejector Wind Turbine: Breakthrough High Efficiency Shrouded Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-02-22

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: FloDesign Wind Turbine’s innovative wind turbine, inspired by the design of jet engines, could deliver 300% more power than existing wind turbines of the same rotor diameter by extracting more energy over a larger area. FloDesign Wind Turbine’s unique shrouded design expands the wind capture area, and the mixing vortex downstream allows more energy to flow through the rotor without stalling the turbine. The unique rotor and shrouded design also provide significant opportunity for mass production and simplified assembly, enabling mid-scale turbines (approximately 100 kW) to produce power at a cost that is comparable to larger-scale conventional turbines.

  4. Economical Remediation of Plastic Waste into Advanced Materials with

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coatings | Argonne National Laboratory Economical Remediation of Plastic Waste into Advanced Materials with Coatings Technology available for licensing: An autogenic pyrolysis process to convert plastic waste into high-value carbon nanotubes (50- to 100-nm outside diameter) and perfectly round carbon spheres (2- to 12-μm outside diameter). The tubes can be used as anode material in advanced batteries such as lithium-ion and eventually, lithium-air batteries. An environmentally-friendly,

  5. Computation of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Phase-VI Rotor in Pitch Motion during Standstill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorensen, N. N.; Schreck, S.

    2012-04-01

    Previously, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computations of dynamic stall on wind turbine blades have been performed for stand still conditions with moderate success by among others the present authors. In the present work, numerical investigations are performed to illustrate the possibilities of state of the art CFD methods for this problem, including the numerical requirements as time-step and grid resolution. Additionally, the effect of different types of modeling is investigated, ranging from fully turbulent Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), transitional RANS, to transitional delayed detached-eddy simulation computations. The investigation indicates that detailed information and fair agreement with measurements can be obtained.

  6. Evaluation of Demo 1C composite flywheel rotor burst test and containment design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kass, M.D.; McKeever, J.W.; Akerman, M.A.; Goranson, P.L.; Litherland, P.S.; O`Kain, D.U.

    1998-07-01

    Laboratory-Directed funds were provided in FY 1995 for research to develop flywheel containment specifications and to consider concepts that could satisfy these specifications and produce a prototype small, lightweight, inexpensive, mobile flywheel containment. Research activities have included an analytical and pictorial review of the Demo 1C flywheel failure test, which provided significant insight about radial and axial failure modes; calculations of the thickness of ultra-conservative pressure vessel containment; entertainment of advanced containment concepts using lightweight materials and armor literature; consideration of fabrication assembly procedures; and participation in a Flywheel Energy Storage Workshop during which additional flywheel failure experiences were discussed. Based on these activities, calculations, and results, a list of conclusions concerning flywheel containment and its relation to the flywheel are presented followed by recommendations for further research.

  7. Numerical Simulation of Combustion and Rotor-Stator Interaction in a Turbine Combustor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Isvoranu, Dragos D.; Cizmas, Paul G. A.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the development of a numerical algorithm for the computation of flow and combustion in a turbine combustor. The flow and combustion are modeled by the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the species-conservation equations. The chemistry model used herein is a two-step, global, finite-rate combustion model for methane and combustion gases. The governing equations are written in the strong conservation form and solved using a fully implicit, finite-difference approximation. The gas dynamics and chemistry equations are fully decoupled. A correction technique has been developed to enforce the conservation of mass fractions. The numerical algorithm developed herein has beenmore » used to investigate the flow and combustion in a one-stage turbine combustor.« less

  8. Processing ultrasonic inspection data from multiple scan patterns for turbine rotor weld build-up evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, Xuefei; Zhou, S. Kevin; Rasselkorde, El Mahjoub; Abbasi, Waheed

    2015-03-31

    The study presents a data processing methodology for weld build-up using multiple scan patterns. To achieve an overall high probability of detection for flaws with different orientations, an inspection procedure with three different scan patterns is proposed. The three scan patterns are radial-tangential longitude wave pattern, axial-radial longitude wave pattern, and tangential shear wave pattern. Scientific fusion of the inspection data is implemented using volume reconstruction techniques. The idea is to perform spatial domain forward data mapping for all sampling points. A conservative scheme is employed to handle the case that multiple sampling points are mapped to one grid location. The scheme assigns the maximum value for the grid location to retain the largest equivalent reflector size for the location. The methodology is demonstrated and validated using a realistic ring of weld build-up. Tungsten balls and bars are embedded to the weld build-up during manufacturing process to represent natural flaws. Flat bottomed holes and side drilled holes are installed as artificial flaws. Automatic flaw identification and extraction are demonstrated. Results indicate the inspection procedure with multiple scan patterns can identify all the artificial and natural flaws.

  9. Multi-piece wind turbine rotor blades and wind turbines incorporating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz,; Mieczyslaw, Emilian [San Diego, CA

    2008-06-03

    A multisection blade for a wind turbine includes a hub extender having a pitch bearing at one end, a skirt or fairing having a hole therethrough and configured to mount over the hub extender, and an outboard section configured to couple to the pitch bearing.

  10. COE Reductions through Active Aerodynamic Control of Rotor Aerodynamics and Geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, D. A.; McCoy, T. J.

    2008-12-01

    This study investigates potential cost of energy reductions that might be achieved by designing active systems to mitigate loads throughout the wind turbine system.

  11. Quantum diffusion dynamics in nonlinear systems: A modified kicked-rotor model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong Jiangbin [Department of Physics and Centre of Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117542 (Singapore); Wang Jiao [Temasek Laboratories and Beijing-Hong Kong-Singapore Joint Center for Nonlinear and Complex Systems (Singapore), National University of Singapore, 117542 (Singapore)

    2007-09-15

    Using a simple method analogous to a quantum rephasing technique, a simple modification to a paradigm of classical and quantum chaos is proposed. The interesting quantum maps thus obtained display remarkably rich quantum dynamics. Emphasis is placed on the destruction of dynamical localization without breaking periodicity, unbounded quantum anomalous diffusion in integrable systems, and transient dynamical localization. Experimental realizations of this work are also discussed.

  12. Localization-Delocalization Transition in a System of Quantum Kicked Rotors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Creffield, C.E.; Hur, G.; Monteiro, T.S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-20

    The quantum dynamics of atoms subjected to pairs of closely spaced {delta} kicks from optical potentials are shown to be quite different from the well-known paradigm of quantum chaos, the single {delta}-kick system. We find the unitary matrix has a new oscillating band structure corresponding to a cellular structure of phase space and observe a spectral signature of a localization-delocalization transition from one cell to several. We find that the eigenstates have localization lengths which scale with a fractional power L{approx}({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sup -0.75} and obtain a regime of near-linear spectral variances which approximate the 'critical statistics' relation {sigma}{sub 2}(L){approx_equal}{chi}L{approx_equal}(1/2)(1-{nu})L, where {nu}{approx_equal}0.75 is related to the fractal classical phase-space structure. The origin of the {nu}{approx_equal}0.75 exponent is analyzed.

  13. DISCRETE ELEMENT MODELING OF BLADE–STRIKE FREQUENCY AND SURVIVAL OF FISH PASSING THROUGH HYDROKINETIC TURBINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero Gomez, Pedro DJ; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2014-04-17

    aspects of the passage event ---which the probabilistic method does--- as well as the fluid-particle interactions ---which the Lagrangian particle method does. The DEM-based survival rates were comparable to laboratory results for small fish but not for mid-size fish because of the considerably different turbine diameters. The modeling framework can be used for applications that aim at evaluating the biological performance of MHK turbine units during the design phase and to provide information to regulatory agencies needed for the environmental permitting process.

  14. Development of Larger Diameter High Pressure CNG Cylinder Manufactured by Piercing and Drawing for Natural Gas Vehicle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These slides were presented at the International Hydrogen Fuel and Pressure Vessel Forum on September 27 – 29, 2010, in Beijing, China.

  15. True uniaxial compressive strengths of rock or coal specimens are independent of diameter-to-length ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babcock, C.O.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that part of the compressive strength of a test specimen of rock or coal in the laboratory or a pillar in a mine comes from physical property strength and, in part, from the constraint provided by the loading stresses. Much confusion in pillar design comes from assigning the total strength change to geometry, as evidenced by the many pillar design equations with width to height as the primary variable. In tests by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, compressive strengths for cylindrical specimens of limestone, marble, sandstone, and coal were independent of the specimen test geometry when the end friction was removed. A conventional uniaxial compressive strength test between two steel platens is actually a uniaxial force and not a uniaxial stress test. The biaxial or triaxial state of stress for much of the test volume changes with the geometry of the test specimen. By removing the end friction supplied by the steel platens to the specimen, a more nearly uniaxial stress state independent of the specimen geometry is produced in the specimen. Pillar design is a constraint and physical property problem rather than a geometry problem. Roof and floor constraint are major factors in pillar design and strength.

  16. Status report. Characterization of Weld Residual Stresses on a Full-Diameter SNF Interim Storage Canister Mockup.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enos, David; Bryan, Charles R.

    2015-08-01

    This report documents the mockup specifications and manufacturing processes; the initial cutting of the mockup into three cylindrical pieces for testing and the measured strain changes that occurred during the cutting process; and the planned weld residual stress characterization activities and the status of those activities.

  17. Building America Case Study: Mockup Small-Diameter Air Distribution System (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Bright Lights and Even Brighter Ideas Bright Lights and Even Brighter Ideas July 3, 2013 - 2:04pm Addthis Kim Kisslinger, a researcher at Brookhaven Lab's Center for Functional Nanomaterials seen here with a focused-ion beam instrument, reduced the indium gallium nitride (InGaN) samples to a thickness of just 20 nanometers to prepare them for electron microscopy. | Photo courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory. Kim Kisslinger, a researcher at Brookhaven Lab's Center for Functional

  18. Heavy duty insulator assemblies for 500-kV bulk power transmission line with large diameter octagonalbundled conductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, K.; Hayase, I.; Hirai, J.; Inove, M.; Naito, K.; Yukino, T.

    1982-11-01

    This paper describes the design procedure and the results of field tests on mechanical performances of insulator assemblies newly developed to support octagonal-bundled conductors for 500-kV bulk power transmission. Taking account of conductor-motion-induced peak tensile load, fatigue, torsional torque and others, a successful design has been achieved in two prototype assemblies for such heavy mechanical duties as encountered during conductor galloping or swing. This has been proved throughout three years of the field tests.

  19. Aerodynamic analysis of a 10 kW horizontal-axis windmill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figard, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    An aerodynamic study of the performance and the flowfield in the vicinity of the rotor of a three bladed 10 kW, horizontal-axis windmill is presented. The windmill has a 6.38 m (20.92 ft) diameter rotor and is rated at 10 kW in a 13.41 m/s (44.0 fps) wind. Three basic approaches are utilized. First, field measurements of the performance and the axial velocity and turbulence behind the rotor were conducted. Second, wind tunnel tests of a 1:5 scale model were performed. Third, theoretical analyses of the windmill were made. This included performance predictions with a computerized, modified blade element (vortex theory) analysis and the development and utilization of a numerical procedure employing the full Navier-Stokes equations in axi-symmetric form to examine the wake development in detail. In that effort the rotor is modeled by an actuator disk in a uniform flow, a simple turbulence transport model based on an integrated TKE equation is applied, and the equations of motion are taken in terms of the stream function, one vorticity component, and the peripheral velocity. The results of each of the three approaches shows agreement within 10 to 15% with the other two approaches.

  20. Apparatus for high speed rotation of electrically operated devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Keith E.; Rogus, Arnold J.

    1976-10-26

    Most high speed centrifuges employ a relatively small diameter elongate flexible drive shaft, sometimes called a "quill" shaft. These relatively slender shafts are flexible to absorb vibration as the assembly passes through speeds of resonance and to permit re-alignment of the axis of rotation of the shaft and the rotor driven thereby in the event the center of mass of the rotor and shaft assembly is displaced from the nominal axis of the rotation. To use such an apparatus for testing electrical devices and components, electrical conductors for wires are passed from a slip ring assembly located at an end of the quill shaft remote from the rotor and longitudinally alongside the quill shaft to the electrical device mounted on the rotor. The longitudinally extending conductors are supported against the radially outward directed centrifugal forces by a plurality of strong, self-lubricating, slightly compressible wafers or washers co-axially stacked on the slender shaft and provided with radially offset longitudinally aligned openings to support the longitudinally extending conductors. The conductors are supported against the centrifugal forces and thus protected from rupture or other damage without restricting or constraining the essential flexure or bending of the drive shaft.

  1. Quantized spin waves in single Co/Pt dots detected by anomalous Hall effect based ferromagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kikuchi, N. Furuta, M.; Okamoto, S.; Kitakami, O.; Shimatsu, T.

    2014-12-15

    Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) based ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements were carried out on perpendicularly magnetized Co/Pt multilayer single dots of 0.4–3 μm in diameter. The resonance behavior was measured by detecting the decrease of perpendicular magnetization component due to magnetization precession. Resonance behavior was observed as a clear decrease of Hall voltages, and the obtained resonance fields were consistent with the results of vector-network-analyzer FMR. Spin-waves with cylindrical symmetry became significant by decreasing the dot diameter, and quantized multiple resonances were observed in the dot of 0.4 μm in diameter. The AHE based FMR proposed here is a powerful method to approach magnetization dynamics including spin waves and non-linear behavior excited in a finite nanostructure.

  2. Wind Turbine Wake Measurements in the Operating Region of a Tail Vain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larwood, S.

    2001-01-22

    In conjunction with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE) at NASA Ames, we measured the wake of an upwind 10-meter (m) diameter wind turbine in the typical region of a tail vane. The experiment was performed in a 24.4-by-36.6-m wind tunnel. We placed two sonic anemometers 0.58 rotor diameters downwind of the rotor at hub height. One was positioned nominally behind the nacelle at 9% radius and the second was placed 2-m outboard at 49% radius. The tunnel wind speed was varied from 5 to 25 meters per second (m/s) and the turbine rotor speed was held at 72 revolutions per minute (rpm). We varied yaw from 0{degree} to 60{degree}. The data showed unsteadiness in the wake due to the nacelle wake. Also, the unsteadiness increased with the onset of blade stall. The axial induction factor in the wake showed that the turbine was operating within the windmill brake state of actuator disk momentum theory. Little variation in unsteadiness was shown under yawed conditions. We also discovered that lateral velocity behind the nacelle was negative and would result in an unfurling normal force on a tail vane. The vertical velocity was shown to change sign under yawed conditions, conceivably as a result of the opposing blade root vortex.

  3. Intake system for rotary piston engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tadokoro, T.; Okimoto, H.; Shiraishi, H.; Akagi, T.

    1986-01-07

    This patent describes a two rotor type rotary piston engine consisting of a casing composed of: a pair of rotor housings each having an inner wall of trochoidal configuration; an intermediate housing located between the rotor housings; and a pair of side housings secured to the outer sides of the respective rotor housings to define rotor cavities in the respective rotor housings.

  4. Ultra-high speed vacuum pump system with first stage turbofan and second stage turbomolecular pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jostlein, Hans

    2006-04-04

    An ultra-high speed vacuum pump evacuation system includes a first stage ultra-high speed turbofan and a second stage conventional turbomolecular pump. The turbofan is either connected in series to a chamber to be evacuated, or is optionally disposed entirely within the chamber. The turbofan employs large diameter rotor blades operating at high linear blade velocity to impart an ultra-high pumping speed to a fluid. The second stage turbomolecular pump is fluidly connected downstream from the first stage turbofan. In operation, the first stage turbofan operates in a pre-existing vacuum, with the fluid asserting only small axial forces upon the rotor blades. The turbofan imparts a velocity to fluid particles towards an outlet at a high volume rate, but moderate compression ratio. The second stage conventional turbomolecular pump then compresses the fluid to pressures for evacuation by a roughing pump.

  5. Apparatus and method for classifying fuel pellets for nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilks, Robert S.; Sternheim, Eliezer; Breakey, Gerald A.; Sturges, Jr., Robert H.; Taleff, Alexander; Castner, Raymond P.

    1984-01-01

    Control for the operation of a mechanical handling and gauging system for nuclear fuel pellets. The pellets are inspected for diameters, lengths, surface flaws and weights in successive stations. The control includes, a computer for commanding the operation of the system and its electronics and for storing and processing the complex data derived at the required high rate. In measuring the diameter, the computer enables the measurement of a calibration pellet, stores that calibration data and computes and stores diameter-correction factors and their addresses along a pellet. To each diameter measurement a correction factor is applied at the appropriate address. The computer commands verification that all critical parts of the system and control are set for inspection and that each pellet is positioned for inspection. During each cycle of inspection, the measurement operation proceeds normally irrespective of whether or not a pellet is present in each station. If a pellet is not positioned in a station, a measurement is recorded, but the recorded measurement indicates maloperation. In measuring diameter and length a light pattern including successive shadows of slices transverse for diameter or longitudinal for length are projected on a photodiode array. The light pattern is scanned electronically by a train of pulses. The pulses are counted during the scan of the lighted diodes. For evaluation of diameter the maximum diameter count and the number of slices for which the diameter exceeds a predetermined minimum is determined. For acceptance, the maximum must be less than a maximum level and the minimum must exceed a set number. For evaluation of length, the maximum length is determined. For acceptance, the length must be within maximum and minimum limits.

  6. Rotational Augmentation on a 2.3 MW Rotor Blade with Thick Flatback Airfoil Cross-Sections: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreck, S.; Fingersh, L.; Siegel, K.; Singh, M.; Medina, P.

    2013-01-01

    Rotational augmentation was analyzed for a 2.3 MW wind turbine, which was equipped with thick flatback airfoils at inboard radial locations and extensively instrumented for acquisition of time varying surface pressures. Mean aerodynamic force and surface pressure data were extracted from an extensive field test database, subject to stringent criteria for wind inflow and turbine operating conditions. Analyses of these data showed pronounced amplification of aerodynamic forces and significant enhancements to surface pressures in response to rotational influences, relative to two-dimensional, stationary conditions. Rotational augmentation occurrence and intensity in the current effort was found to be consistent with that observed in previous research. Notably, elevated airfoil thickness and flatback design did not impede rotational augmentation.

  7. Electrostatic generator/motor having rotors of varying thickness and a central stator electrically connected together into two groups

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2010-11-16

    A sub-module consists of a set of two outer sets of stationary fan-blade-shaped sectors. These outer sectors include conductive material and are maintained at ground potential in several examples. Located midway between them is a set of stationary sector plates with each plate being electrically insulated from the others. An example provides that the inner sector plates are connected together alternately, forming two groups of parallel-connected condensers that are then separately connected, through high charging circuit resistances, to a source of DC potential with respect to ground, with an additional connecting lead being provided for each group to connect their output as an AC output to a load. These same leads can he used, when connected to a driver circuit, to produce motor action.

  8. Vacuum Arc Plasma Motion In A Curvilinear Magnetic Field In A Framework Of The Rigid-Rotor Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timoshenko, Aleksandr I.; Gnybida, Mikhail V.; Taran, Valeriy S.; Tereshin, Vladimir I.; Chechel'nitskij, Oleg G.

    2006-01-15

    Vacuum-arc plasma motion in a toroidal magnetic field is described on a base of steady-state ({partial_derivative}/{partial_derivative}t = 0) Vlasov-Maxwell equations for the long plasma column aligned parallel to a constant axial magnetic field. The relations for the self-consistent electric field, which appears due to a displacement of the electrons from the ions at the curvilinear trajectory, were derived within a framework of the drift approximation. The dynamics of the central part of the plasma flow in the electric polarization fields was considered in detail. The displacement of the plasma flow at the output of the plasma duct was calculated. The results are in a good agreement with the experimental data obtained by others authors.

  9. Design guide for composite-material flywheels: rotor dyamic considerations. Part I. System whirling and stability. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bert, C.W.; Ramunujam, G.

    1981-09-01

    Information to designers of flywheels is provided which will enable them to predict many aspects of the dynamic behavior of their flywheel systems when spin-tested with a quill-shaft support and driven by an air turbine. Computer programs are presented for the following dynamic analysis to obtain the results indicated: free whirling for natural frequencies versus rotational speed and the associated mode shapes; rough-type stability analysis for determining the stability limits; and forced whirling analysis for estimating the response of major components of the system to flywheel mass eccentricity and initial tilt. For the first and third kinds of analyses, two different mathematical models of the generic system are investigated. One is a seven-degree-of-freedom lumped-parameter analysis, while the other is a combined distributed- and lumped-parameter analysis. When applied to an existing flywheel system, the two models yielded numerical values for the lowest first-order forward critical speed in very close agreement with each other and with experimental results obtained in spin tests. Therefore, for the second kind of analysis, only the lumped-parameter model is implemented. Qualitative discussions as to why forced retrograde whirling is not as severe as forward whirling are also presented. The analyses are applied to the multi-material ring type flywheel systems, a constant-thickness-diskring type, and a tapered-thickness-disk type. In addition, the effects of the following flywheel design parameters on system dynamics were investigated: flywheel mass; diametral and polar mass moments of inertia; location of mass center from the lower end of the quill shaft; quill shaft length; lower turbine-bearing support stiffness; equivalent viscous damping coefficient of the external damper; flywheel dead weight; and torque applied at the turbine.

  10. Theory of long-lived nuclear spin states in methyl groups and quantum-rotor induced polarisation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dumez, Jean-Nicolas; Håkansson, Pär; Mamone, Salvatore; Meier, Benno; Stevanato, Gabriele; Hill-Cousins, Joseph T.; Roy, Soumya Singha; Brown, Richard C. D.; Pileio, Giuseppe; Levitt, Malcolm H.

    2015-01-28

    Long-lived nuclear spin states have a relaxation time much longer than the longitudinal relaxation time T{sub 1}. Long-lived states extend significantly the time scales that may be probed with magnetic resonance, with possible applications to transport and binding studies, and to hyperpolarised imaging. Rapidly rotating methyl groups in solution may support a long-lived state, consisting of a population imbalance between states of different spin exchange symmetries. Here, we expand the formalism for describing the behaviour of long-lived nuclear spin states in methyl groups, with special attention to the hyperpolarisation effects observed in {sup 13}CH{sub 3} groups upon rapidly converting a material with low-barrier methyl rotation from the cryogenic solid state to a room-temperature solution [M. Icker and S. Berger, J. Magn. Reson. 219, 1 (2012)]. We analyse the relaxation properties of methyl long-lived states using semi-classical relaxation theory. Numerical simulations are supplemented with a spherical-tensor analysis, which captures the essential properties of methyl long-lived states.

  11. Induction machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Whitney H.

    1980-01-01

    A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizing a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

  12. Multicolor generation using silicon nanodisk absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Sheng-Chieh Richter, Karola; Fischer, Wolf-Joachim

    2015-02-23

    A multicolored matrix that spans the visible range was demonstrated by using silicon nanodisk arrays. A nanostructured silicon substrate, which featured periodic silicon nanodisk arrays of various diameters, inter-nanodisk distances, and heights, was fabricated using electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching. These silicon nanodisks were able to support HE{sub 1m} leaky modes, which depended on the diameter of the nanodisks, resulting in wavelength-dependent reflection spectra. The resonant wavelength redshifted linearly with the increasing nanodisk diameter. The output color lay in the visible range and was observed to be tunable when varying the diameter, interdistance, and height. The results of finite-difference time-domain simulations exhibited close agreement with the observed optical properties of the periodic silicon nanodisk arrays.

  13. First-principles study of quantum confinement and surface effects on the electronic properties of InAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ning, Feng; Tang, Li-Ming Zhang, Yong; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2013-12-14

    We have used first principles methods to systematically investigate the quantum confinement effect on the electronic properties of zinc-blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) InAs nanowires (NWs) with different orientations and diameters, and compared their electronic properties before and after pseudo-hydrogen passivation. The results show that the calculated carrier effective masses are dependent on the NW diameter, except for [110] ZB NWs, and the hole effective masses of [111] ZB NWs are larger than the electron effective masses when the NW diameter is ?26?. The band alignments of [111] ZB and [0001] WZ NWs reveal that the effect of quantum confinement on the conduction bands is greater than on the valence bands, and the position of the valence band maximum level changes little with increasing NW diameter. The pseudo-hydrogen passivated NWs have larger band gaps than the corresponding unpassivated NWs. The carrier effective masses and mobilities can be adjusted by passivating the surface dangling bonds.

  14. THE TESTING OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE ENGINEERING AND PLANT SCALE ANNULAR CENTRIFUGAL CONTACTORS FOR THE PROCESSING OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack D. Law; David Meikrantz; Troy Garn; Nick Mann; Scott Herbst

    2006-10-01

    Annular centrifugal contactors are being evaluated for process scale solvent extraction operations in support of United State Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative goals. These contactors have the potential for high stage efficiency if properly employed and optimized for the application. Commercially available centrifugal contactors are being tested at the Idaho National Laboratory to support this program. Hydraulic performance and mass transfer efficiency have been measured for portions of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle using 5-cm diameter annular centrifugal contactors. Advanced features, including low mix sleeves and clean-in-place rotors, have also been evaluated in 5-cm and 12.5-cm contactors.

  15. Your wind driven generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolff, B.

    1984-01-01

    Wind energy pioneer Benjamin Lee Wolff offers practical guidance on all aspects of setting up and operating a wind machine. Potential builders will learn how to: determine if wind energy is suitable for a specific application; choose an appropriate machine; assess the financial costs and benefits of wind energy; obtain necessary permits; sell power to local utilities; and interpret a generator's specifications. Coverage includes legislation, regulations, siting, and operation. While describing wind energy characteristics, Wolff explores the relationships among wind speed, rotor diameter, and electrical power capacity. He shows how the power of wind energy can be tapped at the lowest cost.

  16. Double-layer ion acceleration triggered by ion magnetization in expanding radiofrequency plasma sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W.; Fujiwara, Tamiya

    2010-10-04

    Ion energy distribution functions downstream of the source exit in magnetically expanding low-pressure plasmas are experimentally investigated for four source tube diameters ranging from about 5 to 15 cm. The magnetic-field threshold corresponding to a transition from a simple expanding plasma to a double layer-containing plasma is observed to increase with a decrease in the source tube diameter. The results demonstrate that for the four geometries, the double layer and the accelerated ion beam form when the ion Larmour radius in the source becomes smaller than the source tube radius, i.e., when the ions become magnetized in the source tube.

  17. Explosive shaped charge penetration into tuff rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vigil, M.G.

    1988-10-01

    Analysis and data for the use of Explosive Shaped Charges (ESC) to generate holes in tuff rock formation is presented. The ESCs evaluated include Conical Shaped Charges (CSC) and Explosive Formed Projectiles (EFP). The CSCs vary in size from 0.158 to 9.1 inches inside cone diameter. The EFPs were 5.0 inches in diameter. Data for projectile impact angles of 30 and 90 degrees are presented. Analytically predicted depth of penetration data generally compared favorably with experimental data. Predicted depth of penetration versus ESC standoff data and hole profile dimensions in tuff are also presented. 24 refs., 45 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Shock destruction armor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Froeschner, Kenneth E.

    1993-01-01

    A shock destruction armor system is constructed and arranged to destroy the force of impact of a projectile by shock hydrodynamics. The armor system is designed to comprise a plurality of superimposed armor plates each preferably having a thickness less than five times the projectile's diameter and are preferably separated one-from-another by a distance at least equal to one-half of the projectile's diameter. The armor plates are effective to hydrodynamically and sequentially destroy the projectile. The armor system is particularly adapted for use on various military vehicles, such as tanks, aircraft and ships.

  19. DE-FC26-04NT42266 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Delivery Reliability for Natural Gas - Inspection Technologies DE-FC26-04NT42266 Goal: The objective of this project is to develop, construct, integrate, and test/demonstrate an accurate and dependable in-line pipeline inspection tool for natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines (four to eight inches in diameter). The inspection tool will consist of an advanced sensor, based on eddy current technology, capable of detecting pipeline defects and a semi-autonomous robotic platform (for

  20. Apparatus for monitoring tritium in tritium contaminating environments using a modified Kanne chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F.

    1984-01-01

    A conventional Kanne tritium monitor has been redesigned to reduce its sensitivity to such contaminants as tritiated water vapor and tritiated oil. The high voltage electrode has been replaced by a wire cylinder and the collector electrode has been reduced in diameter. The area sensitive to contamination has thereby been reduced by about a factor of forty while the overall apparatus sensitivity and operation has not been affected. The design allows for in situ decontamination of the chambers, if necessary.

  1. Apparatus for monitoring tritium in tritium-contaminating environments using a modified Kanne chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.

    1981-01-27

    A conventional Kanne tritium monitor has been redesigned to reduce its sensitivity to such contaminants as tritiated water vapor and tritiated oil. The high voltage electrode has been replaced by a wire cylinder and the collector electrode has been reduced in diameter. The area sensitive to contamination has thereby been reduced by about a factor of forty while the overall apparatus sensitivity and operation has not been affected. The design allows for in situ decontamination of the chambers, if necessary.

  2. Electrically conductive connection for an electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hornack, Thomas R.; Chilko, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    An electrically conductive connection for an electrode assembly of an electrolyte cell in which aluminum is produced by electrolysis in a molten salt is described. The electrode assembly comprises an electrode flask and a conductor rod. The flask has a collar above an area of minimum flask diameter. The electrically conductive connection comprises the electrode flask, the conductor rod and a structure bearing against the collar and the conductor rod for pulling the conductor rod into compressive and electrical contact with the flask.

  3. True uniaxial compressive strengths of rock or coal specimens are independent of diameter-to-length ratios. Report of Investigations/1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babcock, C.O.

    1990-01-01

    Part of the compressive strength of a test specimen of rock or coal in the laboratory or a pillar in a mine comes from physical property strength and, in part, from the constraint provided by the loading stresses. Much confusion in pillar design comes from assigning the total strength change to geometry, as evidenced by the many pillar design equations with width to height as the primary variable. In tests by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, compressive strengths for cylindrical specimens of limestone, marble, sandstone, and coal were independent of the specimen test geometry when the end friction was removed. A conventional uniaxial compressive strength test between two steel platens is actually a uniaxial force and not a uniaxial stress test. The biaxial or triaxial state of stress for much of the test volume changes with the geometry of the test specimen. By removing the end friction supplied by the steel platens to the specimen, a more nearly uniaxial stress state independent of the specimen geometry is produced in the specimen. Pillar design is a constraint and physical property problem rather than a geometry problem. Roof and floor constraint are major factors in pillar design and strength.

  4. Prediction of residual stress field in mechanically expanded 0.750 inch diameter steam generator tube plugs. Part 1: 2-D solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, D.K.

    1996-12-01

    One of the most formidable classes of problems that arises in the commercial nuclear power industry is the determination of the residual stress field in steam generator tubes. As early as 1983, it was reported that primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 steam generator tubes had occurred at a low frequency. The degradation of steam generator tubing by PWSCC has resulted in unplanned nuclear plant outages and costly repair operations such as tube plugging and eventually steam generator replacement. Although the previous discussion centered around the PWSCC of the Inconel 600 tubes, the repair plugs which are intended to isolate the damaged tubes from the primary system, have also begun to show similar types of cracking in the rolled transitions. Plug severance is highly undesirable in the nuclear plant because the primary-to-secondary barrier would then be voided and radioactive fluid would escape to the non-radioactive feedwater system. At the present time, although the tube problems have been discussed extensively in the literature roll plugs and their associated SCC have yet to be fully addressed. In addition, roll plus present a different set of loads, expansion regions, discontinuities, and displacement boundary conditions to be analyzed. The method of solution to the subject roll expansion problem employs the use of a general purpose finite element program to mathematically simulate the expansion process. The hydraulic expansion simulation is accomplished by matching the final displacements of an installed plug for which field measurements are available. Because of the symmetry which exists in the geometry and loading, this problem is modeled and analyzed as an axisymmetric problem. The resulting stress field throughout the plug, and in particular, in the rolled transition region, is calculated.

  5. The signal introduced into a through transducer as a function of the height of the specimen and the diameter of a concentric hole in it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dyakin, V.V.; Raevskii, V.Ya.; Sandovskii, V.A.

    1994-10-01

    A method is described for solving the problem of calculating the electromagnetic field excited by an a.c. winding around a nonmagnetic cylinder with or without a hole and of limited height. The result of the pertinent computer calculations were interpreted with the aid of holographs of the relative signal. It was found that the procedure can be used to calculate the signal of a through eddy-current transducer with various cylinder configurations. When a infinitely long cylinder in a through transducer is replaced by a cylinder with a length three times its radius the resulting error is less than 10%. It was also found that a direct transistion can be made from the theory of a superposed transducer to the theory of a through transducer.

  6. Resolution of critical environmental issues with WARP{trademark} wind power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weisbrich, A.L.; Rainey, D.L.; Burns, R.E.

    1996-11-01

    A modular patented wind power technology, the TARP{trademark} Windframe{trademark}, forms the basis for environmentally complying electric energy generation and power plants. A TARP Windframe provides two highly amplified wind flow fields to a set of two tailored conventional, low risk, small diameter wind turbines. It also serves as a support for the wind turbines, yaw assembly and protective housing for a core tower and other internal sub-systems. Wind Amplified Rotor Platforms (WARP{trademark}) Systems are tall TARP module arrays about a core tower. These intelligent towers can be flexibly and incrementally deployed into multi-megawatt size wind power plants. While heavily building on proven windmill technology, WARP systems may be shown to surpass current technology windmills in all aspects of system characteristics. WARPs have improved features as a result of amplified gearless and shrouded turbine performance, user friendly operation and maintenance, and high reliability and operation and maintenance, and high reliability and low risk due to small, simple and robust dynamic components. Environmental benefits include an order of magnitude less land requirement, absence of bird kill potential, attractive appearance, lower far field noise and EMI/TV interference, and improved rotor safety through containment means. Operation under extreme icing is also afforded due to both rotor shielding and inherent self-sustaining tower anti-icing shielding and inherent self-sustaining tower anti-icing capability. This avoids the large rotor imbalance and ice shedding predicaments of conventional windmills. System components are suited for low cost volume production, ease of transportation, erection and servicing.

  7. SANDIA REPORT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Increasing Tip Velocity on Wind Turbine Rotor Design Brian R. Resor, David C. ... of Increasing Tip Velocity on Wind Turbine Rotor Design Brian R. Resor, David C. ...

  8. Wind Turbine Scaling Enables Projects to Reach New Heights |...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    chapter that focuses on trends in wind turbine nameplate capacity, hub height, rotor ... chapter that focuses on trends in wind turbine nameplate capacity, hub height, rotor ...

  9. Sandia Energy Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerodynamic Wind-Turbine Blade Design for the National Rotor Testbed http:energy.sandia.govaerodynamic-wind-turbine-blade-design-for-the-national-rotor-testbed http:...

  10. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Filter Results Filter by Subject darrieus rotors (2) performance testing (2) rotors (2) wind energy (2) -- energy conservation, consumption, & utilization-- transportation-- air & ...

  11. Systems and methods for determining strength of cylindrical structures by internal pressure loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeTeresa, Steven John; Groves, Scott Eric; Sanchez, Roberto Joseph; Andrade, William Andrew

    2015-08-04

    In one embodiment, an apparatus, includes: a mandrel; an expansion cylinder, comprising: opposite first and second ends; an inner circumferential surface extending between the ends and characterized by an inner diameter, the inner circumferential surface defining a hollow cavity; an outer circumferential surface extending between the ends and characterized by an outer diameter that is greater than the inner diameter; and a plurality of slots extending from the inner circumferential surface to the outer circumferential surface and latitudinally oriented between the ends; and one or more base plates configured to engage one of the ends of the expansion cylinder. In another embodiment, a method includes: arranging an expansion cylinder inside a test cylinder; arranging a mandrel inside the expansion cylinder; applying a force to the mandrel for exerting a radial force on the expansion cylinder; and detecting one or more indicia of structural failure of the test cylinder.

  12. Optical, electronic, and structural properties of uncoupled and close-packed arrays of InP quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Micic, O.I.; Jones, K.M.; Cahill, A.; Nozik, A.J.

    1998-12-03

    Solid films consisting of close-packed arrays of InP quantum dots have been prepared by slowly evaporating colloidal solutions of InP quantum dots. The diameters of the quantum dots were controlled to be between about 30 to 60 {angstrom}; size-selective precipitation yielded a size distribution of about 10% about the mean diameter. The arrays show regions of hexagonal order, as well as disordered regions. Oxide layers can form irreversibly on the quantum dot surface and limit the effectiveness of the size-selective precipitation. Photoluminescence spectra obtained from close-packed films of InP quantum dots formed from quantum dots with a single mean diameter and from a mixture of two quantum dot sizes show that energy transfer occurs from the photoexcited smaller quantum dots to the larger quantum dots. The efficiency of this energy transfer process is high.

  13. Elastomeric member for energy storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoppie, Lyle O.; Chute, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An energy storage device (10) is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member (16), disposed within a tubular housing (14), which elastomeric member (16) is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member (16) is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section, transition end sections, and is attached to rigid end piece assemblies (22, 24) of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections (76, 78) are such that upon stretching of the member, a substantially uniform diameter assembly results to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing (14). During manufacture, woven wire mesh sleeves (26, 28) are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section (76, 78) to provide the correct profile and helix angle. Each sleeve (26, 28) contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond therebetween.

  14. Premixed direct injection nozzle for highly reactive fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho; Zuo, Baifang

    2013-09-24

    A fuel/air mixing tube for use in a fuel/air mixing tube bundle is provided. The fuel/air mixing tube includes an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis between an inlet end and an exit end, the outer tube wall having a thickness extending between an inner tube surface having a inner diameter and an outer tube surface having an outer tube diameter. The tube further includes at least one fuel injection hole having a fuel injection hole diameter extending through the outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  15. Laser beam characterization results for a high power CW Nd:YAG laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keicher, D.M.

    1994-12-31

    In an effort to understand multimode laser beam propagation characteristics for better development of laser material processing applications, beam diagnostic experiments were performed on a 1800 watt CW Nd:YAG laser. Beam diameter data were acquired at approximately 12 positions along the beam optical axis about the minimum waist created by a long focal length single element lens at several power levels. These data were then used to evaluate the laser output beam characteristics using two differing techniques. For the ISO technique, two data points from the beam diameter data were used in determining the output laser beam characteristics. These points were the beam minimum waist diameter and the diameter at a point along the beam optical axis where the beam diameter had increased to approximately 0.7 times that of the beam minimum waist diameter. The second analysis technique involved fitting the entire data set to theoretical equations used to describe the multimode laser beam propagation and points from the fitted curve fit were then used to determine the output beam characteristics from the laser. For all power levels evaluated, calculated results predicting the laser beam minimum waist location were in agreement with measured values and more consistent using the curve-fit technique than the two-point evaluation technique.

  16. Advanced Offshore Wind Turbine/Foundation Concept for the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afjeh, Abdollah A.; Windpower, Nautica; Marrone, Joseph; Wagner, Thomas

    2013-08-29

    This project investigated a conceptual 2-bladed rotor wind turbine design and assessed its feasibility for installation in the Great Lakes. The levelized cost of energy was used for this purpose. A location in Lake Erie near the coast of Cleveland, Ohio was selected as the application site. The loading environment was defined using wind and wave data collected at a weather station in Lake Erie near Cleveland. In addition, the probability distributions of the annual significant wave height and wind speed were determined. A model of the dependence of the above two quantities was also developed and used in the study of wind turbine system loads. Loads from ice floes and ridges were also included.The NREL 5 MW 3-bladed rotor wind turbine concept was used as the baseline design. The proposed turbine design employs variable pitch blade control with tip-brakes and a teeter mechanism. The rotor diameter, rated power and the tower dimensions were selected to closely match those of the NREL 5 MW wind turbine.A semi-floating gravity base foundation was designed for this project primarily to adapt to regional logistical constraints to transport and install the gravity base foundation. This foundation consists of, from bottom to top, a base plate, a buoyancy chamber, a taper zone, a column (with ice cone), and a service platform. A compound upward-downward ice cone was selected to secure the foundation from moving because of ice impact.The turbine loads analysis was based on International ElectroTechnical Committee (IEC) Standard 61400-1, Class III winds. The NREL software FAST was the primary computational tool used in this study to determine all design load cases. An initial set of studies of the dynamics of wind turbines using Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) demonstrated that FAST and ADAMS load predictions were comparable. Because of its relative simplicity and short run times, FAST was selected for this study. For ice load calculations, a method

  17. Internal combustion rotary engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, S.P.

    1993-08-24

    An internal combustion rotary engine is described comprising: an internal combustion chamber wherein a combustible fuel-air mixture is ignited for producing a driving gas flow; a central rotor having an outer surface in which at least one group of curved channels circumferentially-and-axially extending without radially extending through the central rotor; and at least one annular rotor each enclosing the central rotor having an inner surface in which a corresponding number of curved channels circumferentially-and-axially extending without radially extending through the annular rotor; when the curved channels in the central rotor communicate with the curved channels in the annular rotor, the driving gas flow circumferentially-and-axially passing between the outer surface of the central rotor and the inner surface of the annular rotor for rotating the central rotor and the annular rotor in opposite directions.

  18. Quantifying error of lidar and sodar Doppler beam swinging measurements of wind turbine wakes using computational fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundquist, J. K.; Churchfield, M. J.; Lee, S.; Clifton, A.

    2015-02-23

    Wind-profiling lidars are now regularly used in boundary-layer meteorology and in applications such as wind energy and air quality. Lidar wind profilers exploit the Doppler shift of laser light backscattered from particulates carried by the wind to measure a line-of-sight (LOS) velocity. The Doppler beam swinging (DBS) technique, used by many commercial systems, considers measurements of this LOS velocity in multiple radial directions in order to estimate horizontal and vertical winds. The method relies on the assumption of homogeneous flow across the region sampled by the beams. Using such a system in inhomogeneous flow, such as wind turbine wakes or complex terrain, will result in errors.

    To quantify the errors expected from such violation of the assumption of horizontal homogeneity, we simulate inhomogeneous flow in the atmospheric boundary layer, notably stably stratified flow past a wind turbine, with a mean wind speed of 6.5 m s-1 at the turbine hub-height of 80 m. This slightly stable case results in 15° of wind direction change across the turbine rotor disk. The resulting flow field is sampled in the same fashion that a lidar samples the atmosphere with the DBS approach, including the lidar range weighting function, enabling quantification of the error in the DBS observations. The observations from the instruments located upwind have small errors, which are ameliorated with time averaging. However, the downwind observations, particularly within the first two rotor diameters downwind from the wind turbine, suffer from errors due to the heterogeneity of the wind turbine wake. Errors in the stream-wise component of the flow approach 30% of the hub-height inflow wind speed close to the rotor disk. Errors in the cross-stream and vertical velocity components are also significant: cross-stream component errors are on the order of 15% of the hub-height inflow wind speed (1.0 m s−1) and errors in the vertical velocity measurement

  19. Quantifying error of lidar and sodar Doppler beam swinging measurements of wind turbine wakes using computational fluid dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lundquist, J. K.; Churchfield, M. J.; Lee, S.; Clifton, A.

    2015-02-23

    Wind-profiling lidars are now regularly used in boundary-layer meteorology and in applications such as wind energy and air quality. Lidar wind profilers exploit the Doppler shift of laser light backscattered from particulates carried by the wind to measure a line-of-sight (LOS) velocity. The Doppler beam swinging (DBS) technique, used by many commercial systems, considers measurements of this LOS velocity in multiple radial directions in order to estimate horizontal and vertical winds. The method relies on the assumption of homogeneous flow across the region sampled by the beams. Using such a system in inhomogeneous flow, such as wind turbine wakes ormore » complex terrain, will result in errors. To quantify the errors expected from such violation of the assumption of horizontal homogeneity, we simulate inhomogeneous flow in the atmospheric boundary layer, notably stably stratified flow past a wind turbine, with a mean wind speed of 6.5 m s-1 at the turbine hub-height of 80 m. This slightly stable case results in 15° of wind direction change across the turbine rotor disk. The resulting flow field is sampled in the same fashion that a lidar samples the atmosphere with the DBS approach, including the lidar range weighting function, enabling quantification of the error in the DBS observations. The observations from the instruments located upwind have small errors, which are ameliorated with time averaging. However, the downwind observations, particularly within the first two rotor diameters downwind from the wind turbine, suffer from errors due to the heterogeneity of the wind turbine wake. Errors in the stream-wise component of the flow approach 30% of the hub-height inflow wind speed close to the rotor disk. Errors in the cross-stream and vertical velocity components are also significant: cross-stream component errors are on the order of 15% of the hub-height inflow wind speed (1.0 m s−1) and errors in the vertical velocity measurement exceed the actual

  20. Passive magnetic bearing configurations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2011-01-25

    A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

  1. Wind Turbine Blade Test Definition of the DeWind DW90 Rotor Blade: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-326

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, S.

    2012-05-01

    This CRADA was developed as a funds-in CRADA with DeWind to assess the suitability of facilities and equipment at the NWTC for performing certification blade testing on wind turbine blades made from advanced materials. DeWind produces a wind turbine blade which includes the use of high-strength and stiffness materials. NREL and DeWind had a mutual interest in defining the necessary facilities, equipment, and test methods for testing large wind turbine blades which incorporate advanced materials and adaptive structures, as the demands on test equipment and infrastructure are greater than current capabilities. Work under this CRADA would enable DeWind to verify domestic capability for certification-class static and fatigue testing, while NREL would be able to identify and develop specialized test capabilities based on the test requirements.

  2. Motor torque compensation of an induction electric motor by adjusting a slip command during periods of supposed change in motor temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelledes, William L.; St. John, Don K.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention maintains constant torque in an inverter driven AC induction motor during variations in rotor temperature. It is known that the torque output of a given AC induction motor is dependent upon rotor temperature. At rotor temperatures higher than the nominal operating condition the rotor impedance increases, reducing the rotor current and motor torque. In a similar fashion, the rotor impedance is reduced resulting in increased rotor current and motor torque when the rotor temperature is lower than the nominal operating condition. The present invention monitors the bus current from the DC supply to the inverter and adjusts the slip frequency of the inverter drive to maintain a constant motor torque. This adjustment is based upon whether predetermined conditions implying increased rotor temperature or decreased rotor temperature exist for longer that a predetermined interval of time.

  3. The dynamic shape factor of sodium chloride nanoparticles as regulated by drying rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Z.; Lewis, E.; King, S. M.; Freney, E.; Rosenoern, T.; Smith, M.; Chen, Q.; Kuwata, M.; Poschl, U.; Wang, W.; Buseck, P. R.; Martin, S. T.

    2010-09-01

    The influence of drying rate on the dynamic shape factor {chi} of NaCl particles was investigated. The drying rate at the efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) of 45% was controlled in a laminar flow tube and varied from 5.5 {+-} 0.9 to 101 {+-} 3 RH s{sup -1} at ERH, where RH represents one percent unit of relative humidity. Dry particles having mobility diameters of 23-84 nm were studied, corresponding to aqueous particles of 37-129 nm at the RH (57%) prior to drying. At each mobility diameter and drying rate, the critical supersaturation of cloud-condensation activation was also measured. The mobility diameter and the critical supersaturation were combined in an analysis to determine the value of {chi}. The measured values varied from 1.02 to 1.26. For fixed particle diameter the {chi} value decreased with increasing drying rate. For fixed drying rate, a maximum occurred in {chi} between 35- and 40-nm dry mobility diameter, with a lower {chi} for both smaller and larger particles. The results of this study, in conjunction with the introduced apparatus for obtaining quantified drying rates, can allow the continued development of a more detailed understanding of the morphology of submicron salt particles, with the potential for the follow-on development of quantitative modeling of evaporation and crystal growth at these dimensions.

  4. Gel Electrophoresis of Gold-DNA Nanoconjugates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pellegrino, T.; Sperling, R. A.; Alivisatos, A. P.; Parak, W. J.

    2007-01-01

    Gold-DNA conjugates were investigated in detail by a comprehensive gel electrophoresis study based on 1200 gels. A controlled number of single-stranded DNA of different length was attached specifically via thiol-Au bonds to phosphine-stabilized colloidal gold nanoparticles. Alternatively, the surface of the gold particles was saturated with single stranded DNA of different length either specifically via thiol-Au bonds or by nonspecific adsorption. From the experimentally determined electrophoretic mobilities, estimates for the effective diameters of the gold-DNA conjugates were derived by applying two different data treatment approaches. The first method is based on making a calibration curve for the relation between effectivemore » diameters and mobilities with gold nanoparticles of known diameter. The second method is based on Ferguson analysis which uses gold nanoparticles of known diameter as reference database. Our study shows that effective diameters derived from gel electrophoresis measurements are affected with a high error bar as the determined values strongly depend on the method of evaluation, though relative changes in size upon binding of molecules can be detected with high precision. Furthermore, in this study, the specific attachment of DNA via gold-thiol bonds to Au nanoparticles is compared to nonspecific adsorption of DNA. Also, the maximum number of DNA molecules that can be bound per particle was determined.« less

  5. Apparatus for producing laser targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jarboe, T.R.; Baker, W.R.

    1975-09-23

    This patent relates to an apparatus and method for producing deuterium targets or pellets of 25u to 75u diameter. The pellets are sliced from a continuously spun solid deuterium thread at a rate of up to 10 pellets/second. The pellets after being sliced from the continuous thread of deuterium are collimated and directed to a point of use, such as a laser activated combustion or explosion chamber wherein the pellets are imploded by laser energy or laser produced target plasmas for neutral beam injection. (auth)

  6. Method for producing laser targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jarboe, Thomas R.; Baker, William R.

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus and method for producing deuterium targets or pellets of 25.mu. to 75.mu. diameter. The pellets are sliced from a continuously spun solid deuterium thread at a rate of up to 10 pellets/second. The pellets after being sliced from the continuous thread of deuterium are collimated and directed to a point of use, such as a laser activated combustion or explosion chamber wherein the pellets are imploded by laser energy or laser produced target plasmas for neutral beam injection.

  7. Temperature-dependent efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Pengfei; McKendry, Jonathan J. D.; Herrnsdorf, Johannes; Ferreira, Ricardo; Watson, Ian M.; Gu, Erdan Dawson, Martin D.; Watson, Scott; Kelly, Anthony E.

    2014-10-27

    Temperature-dependent trends in radiative and Auger recombination coefficients have been determined at different injection carrier concentrations using InGaN micro-light emitting diodes 40 ?m in diameter. The differential lifetime was obtained first from the measured modulation bandwidth and was then employed to calculate the carrier concentration in the quantum well active region. When the temperature increases, the carrier concentration increases, but both the radiative and Auger recombination coefficients decrease. In addition, the temperature dependence of radiative and Auger recombination coefficients is weaker at a higher injection carrier concentration, which is strongly related to phase space filling.

  8. Electrically conductive connection for an electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hornack, T.R.; Chilko, R.J.

    1986-09-02

    An electrically conductive connection for an electrode assembly of an electrolyte cell in which aluminum is produced by electrolysis in a molten salt is described. The electrode assembly comprises an electrode flask and a conductor rod. The flask has a collar above an area of minimum flask diameter. The electrically conductive connection comprises the electrode flask, the conductor rod and a structure bearing against the collar and the conductor rod for pulling the conductor rod into compressive and electrical contact with the flask. 2 figs.

  9. X-RAY DISCOVERY OF A DWARF-GALAXY-GALAXY COLLISION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garmire, Gordon P.

    2013-06-10

    We report the discovery of a probable dwarf galaxy colliding with NGC 1232. This collision is visible only in the X-ray spectral band, and it is creating a region of shocked gas with a temperature of 5.8 MK covering an impact area 7.25 kpc in diameter. The X-ray luminosity is 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1}. The long lifetime of this gas against radiative and adiabatic cooling should permit the use of the luminous afterglow from such collisions to be used as a way of estimating their importance in galaxy evolution.

  10. Wind turbine performance under icing conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasinski, W.J.; Noe, S.C.; Selig, M.S.; Bragg, M.B.

    1998-02-01

    The effects of rime ice on horizontal axis wind turbine performance were estimated. For typical supercooled fog conditions found in cold northern regions, four rime ice accretions on the S809 wind turbine airfoil were predicted using the NASA LEWICE code. The resulting airfoil/ice profile combinations were wind tunnel tested to obtain the lift, drag, and pitching moment characteristics over the Reynolds number range 1--2 {times} 10{sup 6}. These data were used in the PROPID wind turbine performance prediction code to predict the effects of rime ice on a 450-kW rated-power, 28.7-m diameter turbine operated under both stall-regulated and variable-speed/variable-pitch modes. Performance losses on the order of 20% were observed for the variable-speed/variable-pitch rotor. For the stall-regulated rotor, however, a relatively small rime ice profile yielded significantly larger performance losses. For a larger 0.08c-long rime ice protrusion, however, the rated peak power was exceeded by 16% because at high angles the rime ice shape acted like a leading edge flap, thereby increasing the airfoil C{sub l,max} and delaying stall.

  11. Tilting at windmills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selde, V.

    1982-04-01

    The three MOD-2, 300 ft. blade windmills, situated in the Goodnoe Hills in Washington state are described. Built by Boeing Engineering and Construction and financed by the DOE ($35 million) and the Bonneville Power Administration ($2 million), the wind turbines are rated at 2.5 megawatts of capacity per turbine. The need for the large size of the blades (world's largest) is explained as well as the factors influencing the site selection. It is pointed out that efficiency increases as the square of the rotor diameter and a wind velocity of at least 14 m.p.h. is required. The various factors and people involved in the financial aspects of commercialization of large windmills are discussed. Current cost of power generated is about $0.10/kWh. This can be reduced to $0.04-0.05/kwh by developing a facility with 100 windmills. Control of the facility by computers, safety features, rotor and tower design and the test program are described as well as environmental effects. (MJJ)

  12. DSA torque test robot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMillan, D.E.

    1990-11-01

    A rotary solenoid used in the Dual Strong-Link Assembly (DSA) has a housing diameter of 0.67 inches, and overall length of approximately 1.37 inches. The rotor and housing each have four poles. When the coil is energized and the shaft is rotated, magnetic torque is produced which completes four nominally identical cycles during each revolution of the shaft. At zero and 90 degrees of shaft rotation, the poles are aligned and the rotor is stable. The mid-point between poles is unstable; any displacement produces a torque toward one of the stable points. A torque measurement is performed on each solenoid produced. The measurement technique used previously was labor intensive and required that analog torque plots be manually interpreted to determine compliance with the torque specification. This paper describes a robotically assisted torque measurement system that was developed and placed into production. This system reduces cycle time from approximately 6 minutes per part to a little more than 1 minute per part.

  13. Performance characteristics of the Lysholm engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berger, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of a 5 in. diameter rotor Lysholm engine prototype running on simulated geothermal flows from 16 to 100% quality is described. Staging was performed with conventional Westinghouse 25 kW steam turbines demonstrating that such a process is feasible. Maximum efficiency and power noted were 37.2% and 26.3 kW respectively, but inhibiting factors were discovered which, upon correction, should allow efficiencies around 50% and powers up to 35 kW. Larger engines with minor modifications should get better efficiencies. Data was taken for inlet pressures of 75 to 120 psia and speeds of 3000 to 9000 rpm's. Further testing under similar conditions is planned.

  14. Wind farm array wake losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, R.W.; McCarthy, E.F.

    1997-12-31

    A wind turbine wake study was conducted in the summer of 1987 at an Altamont Pass wind electric generating facility. The wind speed deficits, turbulence, and power deficits from an array consisting of several rows of wind turbines is discussed. A total of nine different test configurations were evaluated for a downwind spacing ranging from 7 rotor diameters (RD) to 34 RD and a cross wind spacing of 1.3 RD and 2.7 RD. Wake power deficits of 15% were measured at 16 RD and power losses of a few percent were even measurable at 27 RD for the closer cross wind spacing. For several rows of turbines separated by 7-9 RD the wake zones overlapped and formed compound wakes with higher velocity deficits. The wind speed and direction turbulence in the wake was much higher than the ambient turbulence. The results from this study are compared to the findings from other similar field measurements.

  15. Broadband-antireflective hybrid nanopillar array for photovoltaic application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watanabe, Keiji Yamamoto, Jiro; Tsuchiya, Ryuta

    2015-08-28

    Subwavelength structures such as nanopillars, nanoholes, and nanodomes have recently attracted considerable attention as antireflective structures for solar cells. Recent studies on the optical property of nanopillar array revealed that the reflection minimum is related to the diameter, the pitch, and the height of nanopillars. Here, we investigate the “hybrid” nanopillar array, which is composed of different diameters of nanopillars. Finite differential time domain simulations revealed that the photogeneration in a hybrid nanopillar array is spatially heterogeneous: carriers are generated mainly in the narrower pillars for short-wavelength incident light and in the thicker pillars for long-wavelength light, respectively. Hybrid silicon nanopillar arrays fabricated by using electron beam lithography and dry etching show excellent broadband antireflection property. Hybrid nanopillar array is thus highly promising for next-generation antireflection for photovoltaic applications.

  16. A wire scanner system for characterizing the BNL energy recovery LINAC beam position monitor system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michnoff R.; Biscardi, C.; Cerniglia, P.; Degen, C.; Gassner, D.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.

    2012-04-15

    A stepper motor controlled wire scanner system has recently been modified to support testing of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Collider-Accelerator department's Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) beam position monitor (BPM) system. The ERL BPM consists of four 9.33 mm diameter buttons mounted at 90 degree spacing in a cube with 1.875 inch inside diameter. The buttons were designed by BNL and fabricated by Times Microwave Systems. Libera brilliance single pass BPM electronic modules with 700 MHz bandpass filter, manufactured by Instrumentation Technologies, will be used to measure the transverse beam positions at 14 locations around the ERL. The wire scanner assembly provides the ability to measure the BPM button response to a pulsed wire, and evaluate and calibrate the Libera position measurement electronics. A description of the wire scanner system and test result data will be presented.

  17. Method for hot press forming articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Robert R.; Hartsock, Dale L.

    1982-01-01

    This disclosure relates to an improved method for achieving the best bond strength and for minimizing distortion and cracking of hot pressed articles. In particular, in a method for hot press forming both an outer facing circumferential surface of and an inner portion of a hub, and of bonding that so-formed outer facing circumferential surface to an inner facing circumferential surface of a pre-formed ring thereby to form an article, the following improvement is made. Normally, in this method, the outside ring is restrained by a restraining sleeve of ring-shaped cross-section having an inside diameter. A die member, used to hot press form the hub, is so-formed as to have an outside diameter sized to engage the inside diameter of the restraining sleeve in a manner permitting relative movement therebetween. The improved method is one in which several pairs of matched restraining sleeve and die member are formed with each matched pair having a predetermined diameter. The predetermined diameter of each matched pair is different from another matched pair by stepped increments. The largest inside diameter of a restraining sleeve is equal to the diameter of the outer facing circumferential surface of the hub. Each pair of the matched restraining sleeve and die member is used to form an article in which an inside hub is bonded to an outside ring. The several samples so-formed are evaluated to determine which sample has the best bond formed between the hub and the ring with the least or no cracking or distortion in the ring portion of the article. Thereafter, the matched restraining sleeve and die member which form the article having the best bonding characteristics and least distortion cracking is then used for repeated formations of articles.

  18. Multi-institutional dosimetric and geometric commissioning of image-guided small animal irradiators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsay, P. E.; Granton, P. V.; Hoof, S. van; Hermans, J.; Gasparini, A.; Jelveh, S.; Clarkson, R.; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1; Mid-South Radiation Physics, Inc., 1801 South 54th Street, Paragould, Arkansas 72450 ; Kaas, J.; Wittkamper, F.; Sonke, J.-J.; Verhaegen, F.; Medical Physics Unit, Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Qubec H3G 1A4 ; Jaffray, D. A.; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1; The TECHNA Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric and geometric properties of a commercial x-ray based image-guided small animal irradiation system, installed at three institutions and to establish a complete and broadly accessible commissioning procedure. Methods: The system consists of a 225 kVp x-ray tube with fixed field size collimators ranging from 1 to 44 mm equivalent diameter. The x-ray tube is mounted opposite a flat-panel imaging detector, on a C-arm gantry with 360 coplanar rotation. Each institution performed a full commissioning of their system, including half-value layer, absolute dosimetry, relative dosimetry (profiles, percent depth dose, and relative output factors), and characterization of the system geometry and mechanical flex of the x-ray tube and detector. Dosimetric measurements were made using Farmer-type ionization chambers, small volume air and liquid ionization chambers, and radiochromic film. The results between the three institutions were compared. Results: At 225kVp, with 0.3 mm Cu added filtration, the first half value layer ranged from 0.9 to 1.0 mm Cu. The dose-rate in-air for a 40 40 mm{sup 2} field size, at a source-to-axis distance of 30 cm, ranged from 3.5 to 3.9 Gy/min between the three institutions. For field sizes between 2.5 mm diameter and 40 40 mm{sup 2}, the differences between percent depth dose curves up to depths of 3.5 cm were between 1% and 4% on average, with the maximum difference being 7%. The profiles agreed very well for fields >5 mm diameter. The relative output factors differed by up to 6% for fields larger than 10 mm diameter, but differed by up to 49% for fields ?5 mm diameter. The mechanical characteristics of the system (source-to-axis and source-to-detector distances) were consistent between all three institutions. There were substantial differences in the flex of each system. Conclusions: With the exception of the half-value layer, and mechanical properties, there were significant differences between the

  19. Surge-accepting accumulator transmission for windmills and the like

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strutman, W.A.

    1980-12-16

    An alternator, powered by a wind rotor having pitch changeable blades, is maintained at a fixed speed despite variations in wind speed and cyclic perturbations in rotor shaft speed due to rotor dynamics. In one embodiment, a geared speed increaser, coupling the rotor to the alternator, is mounted for reversible rotation relative to the rotor shaft. A fluid transfer means, such as a torque motor, coupled to a pressurized accumulator, applies such a torsional reaction to the speed increaser to permit its rotation at a rate which accommodates the difference between the instantaneous rotor shaft speed and that rotor shaft speed corresponding to the alternator's fixed speed. The fluid transfer means and accumulator means together permit a maximum angular displacement of the speed increaser sufficient to provide a time interval in which the rotor blade pitch may be corrected and the rotor shaft returned to normal speed. Pitch changes are effected, in part, responsive to rotation of the speed increaser.

  20. Development of a fuel-rod simulator and small-diameter thermocouples for high-temperature, high-heat-flux tests in the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor Core Flow Test Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCulloch, R.W.; MacPherson, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The Core Flow Test Loop was constructed to perform many of the safety, core design, and mechanical interaction tests in support of the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) using electrically heated fuel rod simulators (FRSs). Operation includes many off-normal or postulated accident sequences including transient, high-power, and high-temperature operation. The FRS was developed to survive: (1) hundreds of hours of operation at 200 W/cm/sup 2/, 1000/sup 0/C cladding temperature, and (2) 40 h at 40 W/cm/sup 2/, 1200/sup 0/C cladding temperature. Six 0.5-mm type K sheathed thermocouples were placed inside the FRS cladding to measure steady-state and transient temperatures through clad melting at 1370/sup 0/C.

  1. Crystalline ropes of metallic carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thess, A.; Lee, R.; Nikolaev, P.

    1996-07-26

    Fullerene single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) were produced in yields of more than 70 percent by condensation of a laser-vaporized carbon-nickel-cobalt mixture at 1200{degrees}C. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy showed that these SWNTs are nearly uniform in diameter and that they self-organize into {open_quotes}ropes,{close_quotes} which consist of 100 to 500 SWNTs in a two-dimensional triangular lattice with a lattice constant of 17 angstroms. The x-ray form factor is consistent with that of uniformly charged cylinders 13.8 {plus_minus} 0.2 angstroms in diameter. The ropes were metallic, with a single-rope resistivity of <10{sup {minus}4} ohmcentimeters at 300 kelvin. The uniformity of SWNT diameter is attributed to the efficient annealing of an initial fullerene tubelet kept open by a few metal atoms; the optimum diameter is determined by competition between the strain energy of curvature of the graphene sheet and the dangling-bond energy of the open edge, where growth occurs. These factors strongly favor the metallic (10,10) tube with C{sub 5v} symmetry and an open edge stabilized by triple bonds. 33 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. Impact of x-ray dose on the response of CR-39 to 1–5.5 MeV alphas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rojas-Herrera, J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Orozco, D.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sio, H.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; et al

    2015-03-01

    The CR-39 nuclear track detector is used in many nuclear diagnostics fielded at inertial confinement fusion (ICF) facilities. Large x-ray uences generated by ICF experiments may impact the CR-39 response to incident charged particles. To determine the impact of x-ray exposure on the CR-39 response to alpha particles, a thick-target bremsstrahlung x-ray generator was used to expose CR-39 to various doses of 8 keV Cu-Kα and Kβ x-rays. The CR-39 detectors were then exposed to 1-5.5 MeV alphas from an Am-241 source. The regions of the CR-39 exposed to x-rays showed a smaller track diameter than those not exposed tomore » x-rays: for example, a dose of 3.0 ± 0.1 Gy causes a decrease of (19 ± 2)% in the track diameter of a 5.5 MeV alpha particle, while a dose of 60.0 ± 1.3 Gy results in a decrease of (45 ± 5)% in the track diameter. The reduced track diameters were found to be predominantly caused by a comparable reduction in the bulk etch rate of the CR-39 with x-ray dose. A residual effect depending on alpha particle energy is characterized using an empirical formula.« less

  3. Impact of x-ray dose on the response of CR-39 to 1–5.5 MeV alphas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rojas-Herrera, J. Rinderknecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Orozco, D.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sio, H.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-03-15

    The CR-39 nuclear track detector is used in many nuclear diagnostics fielded at inertial confinement fusion (ICF) facilities. Large x-ray fluences generated by ICF experiments may impact the CR-39 response to incident charged particles. To determine the impact of x-ray exposure on the CR-39 response to alpha particles, a thick-target bremsstrahlung x-ray generator was used to expose CR-39 to various doses of 8 keV Cu-K{sub α} and K{sub β} x-rays. The CR-39 detectors were then exposed to 1–5.5 MeV alphas from an Am-241 source. The regions of the CR-39 exposed to x-rays showed a smaller track diameter than those not exposed to x-rays: for example, a dose of 3.0 ± 0.1 Gy causes a decrease of (19 ± 2)% in the track diameter of a 5.5 MeV alpha particle, while a dose of 60.0 ± 1.3 Gy results in a decrease of (45 ± 5)% in the track diameter. The reduced track diameters were found to be predominantly caused by a comparable reduction in the bulk etch rate of the CR-39 with x-ray dose. A residual effect depending on alpha particle energy is characterized using an empirical formula.

  4. Impact of x-ray dose on the response of CR-39 to 1–5.5 MeV alphas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rojas-Herrera, J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Orozco, D.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sio, H.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-03-01

    The CR-39 nuclear track detector is used in many nuclear diagnostics fielded at inertial confinement fusion (ICF) facilities. Large x-ray uences generated by ICF experiments may impact the CR-39 response to incident charged particles. To determine the impact of x-ray exposure on the CR-39 response to alpha particles, a thick-target bremsstrahlung x-ray generator was used to expose CR-39 to various doses of 8 keV Cu-Kα and Kβ x-rays. The CR-39 detectors were then exposed to 1-5.5 MeV alphas from an Am-241 source. The regions of the CR-39 exposed to x-rays showed a smaller track diameter than those not exposed to x-rays: for example, a dose of 3.0 ± 0.1 Gy causes a decrease of (19 ± 2)% in the track diameter of a 5.5 MeV alpha particle, while a dose of 60.0 ± 1.3 Gy results in a decrease of (45 ± 5)% in the track diameter. The reduced track diameters were found to be predominantly caused by a comparable reduction in the bulk etch rate of the CR-39 with x-ray dose. A residual effect depending on alpha particle energy is characterized using an empirical formula.

  5. Optimization of the optical properties of nanostructured silicon surfaces for solar cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Di; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Lambert, Y.; Deblock, Y.; Stiévenard, D.; Cristini-Robbe, O.; Xu, T.; Faucher, M.

    2014-04-07

    Surface nanostructuration is an important challenge for the optimization of light trapping in solar cell. We present simulations on both the optical properties and the efficiency of micro pillars—MPs—or nanocones—NCs—silicon based solar cells together with measurements on their associated optical absorption. We address the simulation using the Finite Difference Time Domain method, well-adapted to deal with a periodic set of nanostructures. We study the effect of the period, the bottom diameter, the top diameter, and the height of the MPs or NCs on the efficiency, assuming that one absorbed photon induces one exciton. This allows us to give a kind of abacus involving all the geometrical parameters of the nanostructured surface with regard to the efficiency of the associated solar cell. We also show that for a given ratio of the diameter over the period, the best efficiency is obtained for small diameters. For small lengths, MPs are extended to NCs by changing the angle between the bottom surface and the vertical face of the MPs. The best efficiency is obtained for an angle of the order of 70°. Finally, nanostructures have been processed and allow comparing experimental results with simulations. In every case, a good agreement is found.

  6. Impact of x-ray dose on the response of CR-39 to 15.5 MeV alphas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rojas-Herrera, J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Orozco, D.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sio, H.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-03-01

    The CR-39 nuclear track detector is used in many nuclear diagnostics #12;fielded at inertial con#12;nement fusion (ICF) facilities. Large x-ray uences generated by ICF experiments may impact the CR-39 response to incident charged particles. To determine the impact of x-ray exposure on the CR-39 response to alpha particles, a thick-target bremsstrahlung x-ray generator was used to expose CR-39 to various doses of 8 keV Cu-K?#11; and K#12;? x-rays. The CR-39 detectors were then exposed to 1-5.5 MeV alphas from an Am-241 source. The regions of the CR-39 exposed to x-rays showed a smaller track diameter than those not exposed to x-rays: for example, a dose of 3.0#6; 0.1 Gy causes a decrease of (19 #6;2)% in the track diameter of a 5.5 MeV alpha particle, while a dose of 60.0 #6;1.3 Gy results in a decrease of (45 #6;5)% in the track diameter. The reduced track diameters were found to be predominantly caused by a comparable reduction in the bulk etch rate of the CR-39 with x-ray dose. A residual eff#11;ect depending on alpha particle energy is characterized using an empirical formula.

  7. Electrical machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Alexander, James Pellegrino; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Gerstler, William Dwight; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2016-06-21

    An apparatus, such as an electrical machine, is provided. The apparatus can include a rotor defining a rotor bore and a conduit disposed in and extending axially along the rotor bore. The conduit can have an annular conduit body defining a plurality of orifices disposed axially along the conduit and extending through the conduit body. The rotor can have an inner wall that at least partially defines the rotor bore. The orifices can extend through the conduit body along respective orifice directions, and the rotor and conduit can be configured to provide a line of sight along the orifice direction from the respective orifices to the inner wall.

  8. Stator for a rotating electrical machine having multiple control windings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Manoj R.; Lewandowski, Chad R.

    2001-07-17

    A rotating electric machine is provided which includes multiple independent control windings for compensating for rotor imbalances and for levitating/centering the rotor. The multiple independent control windings are placed at different axial locations along the rotor to oppose forces created by imbalances at different axial locations along the rotor. The multiple control windings can also be used to levitate/center the rotor with a relatively small magnetic field per unit area since the rotor and/or the main power winding provides the bias field.

  9. Method and system for controlling a permanent magnet machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walters, James E.

    2003-05-20

    Method and system for controlling the start of a permanent magnet machine are provided. The method allows to assign a parameter value indicative of an estimated initial rotor position of the machine. The method further allows to energize the machine with a level of current being sufficiently high to start rotor motion in a desired direction in the event the initial rotor position estimate is sufficiently close to the actual rotor position of the machine. A sensing action allows to sense whether any incremental changes in rotor position occur in response to the energizing action. In the event no changes in rotor position are sensed, the method allows to incrementally adjust the estimated rotor position by a first set of angular values until changes in rotor position are sensed. In the event changes in rotor position are sensed, the method allows to provide a rotor alignment signal as rotor motion continues. The alignment signal allows to align the estimated rotor position relative to the actual rotor position. This alignment action allows for operating the machine over a wide speed range.

  10. Rotary-reciprocal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blount, D.H.

    1992-10-06

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine of the rotary-reciprocal type. It comprises a housing formed with a peripheral wall; a rotor; and a shaft for the rotor.

  11. How Does a Wind Turbine Work?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wind turbines operate on a simple principle. The energy in the wind turns two or three propeller-like blades around a rotor. The rotor is connected to the main shaft, which spins a generator to...

  12. SANDIA REPORT SAND2011-9306 Unlimited Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Rotor mass, production costs, and annual energy capture are estimated in order to allow calculations of system cost-of-ener... focus on rotor cost estimation, blade and struts were ...

  13. MHK Technologies/PowerGin | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    similar to hydro electric turbine blades which provide a high surface area to catch wave energy As the buckets on the ramp side of the rotor fill with wave water the rotors begin...

  14. Small Scale Turbine Testing and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skemp, Susan H.

    2011-09-27

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review in which the principal investigator discusses project progress in assessing device reliability and monitoring (with integrated environmental measurements), rotor design tools and models, and rotor materials and performance.

  15. Turbine inter-disk cavity cooling air compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chupp, Raymond E.; Little, David A.

    1998-01-01

    The inter-disk cavity between turbine rotor disks is used to pressurize cooling air. A plurality of ridges extend radially outwardly over the face of the rotor disks. When the rotor disks are rotated, the ridges cause the inter-disk cavity to compress air coolant flowing through the inter-disk cavity en route to the rotor blades. The ridges eliminate the need for an external compressor to pressurize the air coolant.

  16. Turbine inter-disk cavity cooling air compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chupp, R.E.; Little, D.A.

    1998-01-06

    The inter-disk cavity between turbine rotor disks is used to pressurize cooling air. A plurality of ridges extend radially outwardly over the face of the rotor disks. When the rotor disks are rotated, the ridges cause the inter-disk cavity to compress air coolant flowing through the inter-disk cavity en route to the rotor blades. The ridges eliminate the need for an external compressor to pressurize the air coolant. 5 figs.

  17. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)","USDOE","17 WIND ENERGY; DARRIEUS ROTORS; TURBINE BLADES; AERODYNAMICS; AIRFOILS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DATA COMPILATION;...

  18. Aerodynamic characteristics of seven symmetrical airfoil sections...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 17 WIND ENERGY; DARRIEUS ROTORS; TURBINE BLADES; AERODYNAMICS; AIRFOILS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DATA COMPILATION; PERFORMANCE TESTING; REYNOLDS NUMBER; ...

  19. Methods and apparatus for twist bend coupled (TCB) wind turbine blades

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw; LeMieux, David Lawrence; Pierce, Kirk Gee

    2006-10-10

    A method for controlling a wind turbine having twist bend coupled rotor blades on a rotor mechanically coupled to a generator includes determining a speed of a rotor blade tip of the wind turbine, measuring a current twist distribution and current blade loading, and adjusting a torque of a generator to change the speed of the rotor blade tip to thereby increase an energy capture power coefficient of the wind turbine.

  20. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siepierski, James S.; Moore, Barbara S.; Hoch, Martin Monroe

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  1. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature turbine engine includes a rotor portion having axially stacked adjacent ceramic rotor parts. A ceramic/ceramic joint structure transmits torque between the rotor parts while maintaining coaxial alignment and axially spaced mutually parallel relation thereof despite thermal and centrifugal cycling.

  2. Eligibility for Renal Denervation: Anatomical Classification and Results in Essential Resistant Hypertension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okada, Takuya Pellerin, Olivier; Savard, Sébastien; Curis, Emmanuel; Monge, Matthieu; Frank, Michael; Bobrie, Guillaume; Yamaguchi, Masato; Sugimoto, Koji; Plouin, Pierre-François; Azizi, Michel; Sapoval, Marc

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo classify the renal artery (RA) anatomy based on specific requirements for endovascular renal artery denervation (RDN) in patients with drug-resistant hypertension (RH).Materials and MethodsThe RA anatomy of 122 consecutive RH patients was evaluated by computed tomography angiography and classified as two types: A (main RA ≥20 mm in length and ≥4.0 mm in diameter) or B (main RA <20 mm in length or main RA <4.0 mm in diameter). The A type included three subtypes: A1 (without accessory RAs), A2 (with accessory RAs <3.0 mm in diameter), and A3 (with accessory RAs ≥3.0 mm in diameter]. A1 and A2 types were eligible for RDN with the Simplicity Flex catheter. Type B included twi subtypes based on the main RA length and diameter. Patients were accordingly classified into three eligibility categories: complete (CE; both RAs were eligible), partial (PE; one eligible RA), and noneligibility (NE; no eligible RA).ResultsBilateral A1 type was the most prevalent and was observed in 48.4 % of the patients followed by the A1/A2 type (18 %). CE, PE, and NE were observed in 69.7, 22.9, and 7.4 % of patients, respectively. The prevalence of accessory RAs was 41 %.ConclusionsOf RH patients, 30.3 % were not eligible for bilateral RDN with the current Simplicity Flex catheter. This classification provides the basis for standardized reporting to allow for pooling of results of larger patient cohorts in the future.

  3. Plasma formation and dynamics in conical wire arrays in the Llampudken pulsed power generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muoz, C. Gonzalo E-mail: fveloso@fis.puc.cl; Valenzuela, Vicente E-mail: fveloso@fis.puc.cl; Veloso, Felipe E-mail: fveloso@fis.puc.cl; Favre, Mario E-mail: fveloso@fis.puc.cl; Wyndham, Edmund E-mail: fveloso@fis.puc.cl

    2014-12-15

    Plasma formation and dynamics from conical wire array is experimentally studied. Ablation from the wires is observed, forming plasma accumulation at the array axis and subsequently a jet outflow been expelled toward the top of the array. The arrays are composed by 16 equally spaced 25? diameter tungsten wires. Their dimensions are 20mm height, with base diameters of 8mm and 16mm top diameter. The array loads are design to be overmassed, hence no complete ablation of the wires is observed during the current rise. The experiments have been carried out in the Llampudken. pulsed power generator (?350kA in ?350ns). Plasma dynamics is studied in both side-on and end-on directions. Laser probing (shadowgraphy) is achieved using a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (532nm, 12ps FWHM) captured by CCD cameras. Pinhole XUV imaging is captured using gated microchannel plate cameras with time resolution ?5ns. Results on the jet velocity and the degree of collimation indicating the plausibility on the use of these jets as comparable to the study astrophysically produced jets are presented and discussed.

  4. New correlation to predict the heat transfer coefficient in-tube cooling of supercritical CO{sub 2} in horizontal macro-tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, Hoo-Kyu; Son, Chang-Hyo

    2010-11-15

    The heat transfer coefficient during gas cooling process of supercritical CO{sub 2} without lubricating oil in horizontal macro-tubes has experimentally investigated. Investigation has done on two stainless steel circular tubes having inside-diameter of 4.55 mm and 7.75 mm and carried out for CO{sub 2} mass fluxes of 200-600 kg/m{sup 2} s, inlet fluid pressures of 7.5-10.0 MPa, and the inlet fluid temperatures of 90-100 C. The experimental results indicate that the gas cooling pressure, the inner tube diameter, the mass flux and the temperature of CO{sub 2} have significant effects on the heat transfer coefficient, especially near pseudo-critical region. The heat transfer coefficient decreases as the cooling pressure increases otherwise increases as mass flux increases. At any temperatures, smaller inner tube diameter shows higher heat transfer coefficient. In comparison between present experimental data and existing correlations from references, most of supercritical heat transfer correlations show large deviations with this present experimental data. Therefore, based on experimental data obtained in this present work, a new correlation is proposed to predict more accurate heat transfer coefficient of supercritical CO{sub 2} in horizontal macro-tubes under cooling conditions. The majority of the experimental values are within 13% of the values predicted by the new correlation. (author)

  5. Elastomeric member

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoppie, Lyle O.

    1985-01-01

    An energy storage device (10) is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member (16) disposed within a tubular housing (14), which elastomeric member (16) is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member (16) is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section (74), and transition end sections (76, 78), attached to rigid end piece assemblies (22, 24) of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections (76, 78) are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member (16), a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing (14). Each of the transition sections (76, 78) are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve (26, 28) having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve (26, 28) also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond therebetween. During manufacture, the sleeves (26, 28) are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section (76, 78) to provide the correct profile and helix angle.

  6. Elastomeric member and method of manufacture therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoppie, Lyle O.

    1985-01-01

    An energy storage device (10) is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member (16) disposed within a tubular housing (14), which elastomeric member (16) is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member (16) is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section (74), and transition end sections (76, 78), attached to rigid end piece assemblies (22, 24) of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections (76, 78) are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member (16), a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing (14). Each of the transition sections (76, 78) are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve (26, 28) having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve (26, 28) also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond therebetween. During manufacture, the sleeves (26, 28) are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section (76, 78) to provide the correct profile and helix angle.

  7. Elastomeric member

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoppie, L.O.

    1985-07-30

    An energy storage device is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member disposed within a tubular housing, which elastomeric member is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section, and transition end sections, attached to rigid end piece assemblies of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member, a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing. Each of the transition sections are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond there between. During manufacture, the sleeves are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section to provide the correct profile and helix angle. 12 figs.

  8. Reduced Magnetization and Loss in Ag-Mg Sheathed Bi2212 Wires: Systematics With Sample Twist Pitch and Length

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Myers, C. S.; Susner, M. A.; Miao, H.; Huang, Y.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.

    2014-11-20

    Suppression of magnetization and effective filament diameter (deff) with twisting was investigated for a series of recent Bi2212 strands manufactured by Oxford Superconducting Technologies. We measured magnetization as a function of field (out to 14 T), at 5.1 K, of twisted and nontwisted 37 × 18 double restack design strands. The samples were helical coils 5-6 mm in height and approximately 5 mm in diameter. The strand diameter was 0.8 mm. The magnetization of samples having twist pitches of 25.4, 12.7, and 6.35 mm were examined and compared to nontwisted samples of the same filament configuration. The critical state modelmore » was used to extract the 12-T deff from magnetization data for comparison. Twisting the samples reduced deff by a factor of 1.5-3. The deff was shown to increase both with L and Lp. Mathematical expressions, based upon the anisotropic continuum model, were fit to the data, and a parameter γ2, which quantifies the electrical connectivity perpendicular to the filament axis, was extracted. The bundle-to-bundle connectivity along the radial axis was found to be approximately 0.2%. The deff was substantially reduced with Lp. In addition, the importance of understanding sample length dependence for quantitative measurements is discussed.« less

  9. Elastomeric member and method of manufacture therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoppie, L.O.

    1985-12-10

    An energy storage device is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member disposed within a tubular housing, which elastomeric member is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section, and transition end sections, attached to rigid end piece assemblies of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member, a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing. Each of the transition sections are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond therebetween. During manufacture, the sleeves are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section to provide the correct profile and helix angle. 12 figs.

  10. Reduced Magnetization and Loss in Ag-Mg Sheathed Bi2212 Wires: Systematics With Sample Twist Pitch and Length

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, C. S.; Susner, M. A.; Miao, H.; Huang, Y.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.

    2014-11-20

    Suppression of magnetization and effective filament diameter (deff) with twisting was investigated for a series of recent Bi2212 strands manufactured by Oxford Superconducting Technologies. We measured magnetization as a function of field (out to 14 T), at 5.1 K, of twisted and nontwisted 37 × 18 double restack design strands. The samples were helical coils 5-6 mm in height and approximately 5 mm in diameter. The strand diameter was 0.8 mm. The magnetization of samples having twist pitches of 25.4, 12.7, and 6.35 mm were examined and compared to nontwisted samples of the same filament configuration. The critical state model was used to extract the 12-T deff from magnetization data for comparison. Twisting the samples reduced deff by a factor of 1.5-3. The deff was shown to increase both with L and Lp. Mathematical expressions, based upon the anisotropic continuum model, were fit to the data, and a parameter γ2, which quantifies the electrical connectivity perpendicular to the filament axis, was extracted. The bundle-to-bundle connectivity along the radial axis was found to be approximately 0.2%. The deff was substantially reduced with Lp. In addition, the importance of understanding sample length dependence for quantitative measurements is discussed.

  11. Reduced Magnetization and Loss in Ag-Mg Sheathed Bi2212 Wires: Systematics With Sample Twist Pitch and Length

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, C. S.; Susner, M. A.; Miao, H.; Huang, Y.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.

    2014-11-20

    Suppression of magnetization and effective filament diameter (deff) with twisting was investigated for a series of recent Bi2212 strands manufactured by Oxford Superconducting Technologies. We measured magnetization as a function of field (out to 14 T), at 5.1 K, of twisted and nontwisted 37 18 double restack design strands. The samples were helical coils 5-6 mm in height and approximately 5 mm in diameter. The strand diameter was 0.8 mm. The magnetization of samples having twist pitches of 25.4, 12.7, and 6.35 mm were examined and compared to nontwisted samples of the same filament configuration. The critical state model was used to extract the 12-T deff from magnetization data for comparison. Twisting the samples reduced deff by a factor of 1.5-3. The deff was shown to increase both with L and Lp. Mathematical expressions, based upon the anisotropic continuum model, were fit to the data, and a parameter ?2, which quantifies the electrical connectivity perpendicular to the filament axis, was extracted. The bundle-to-bundle connectivity along the radial axis was found to be approximately 0.2%. The deff was substantially reduced with Lp. In addition, the importance of understanding sample length dependence for quantitative measurements is discussed.

  12. Spark-safe low-voltage detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieberman, Morton L.

    1989-01-01

    A column of explosive in a low-voltage detonator which makes it spark-safe ncludes an organic secondary explosive charge of HMX in the form of a thin pad disposed in a bore of a housing of the detonator in an ignition region of the explosive column and adjacent to an electrical ignition device at one end of the bore. The pad of secondary charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter. The explosive column also includes a first explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in the ignition region of the explosive column next to the secondary charge pad on a side opposite from the ignition device. The first CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, 25 to 40 kpsi, to provide mechanical confinement of the pad of secondary charge and physical coupling thereof with the ignition device. The explosive column further includes a second explosive charge of CP disposed in the housing bore in a transition region of the explosive column next to the first CP charge on a side opposite from the pad of secondary charge. The second CP charge is loaded under sufficient pressure, about 10 kpsi, to allow occurrence of DDT. The first explosive CP charge has an axial thickness within the range of twenty to thirty percent of its diameter, whereas the second explosive CP charge contains a series of increments (nominally 4) each of which has an axial thickness-to-diameter ratio of one to two.

  13. Design and Construction of Test Coils for the MICE Coupling Solenoid Magnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Li; Pan, Heng; Xu, F.Y.; Liu, XioaKun; Chen, AnBin; Li, LanKai; Gou, XingLong; Wu, Hong; Green, Michael; Li, Darun; Strauss, Bruce

    2008-08-08

    The superconducting coupling solenoid to be applied in the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is made from copper matrix Nb-Ti conductors with inner radius of 750 mm, length of 285 mm and thickness of 102.5 mm at room temperature. The magnetic field up to 2.6 T at the magnet centerline is to keep the muons within the MICE RF cavities. Its self inductance is around 592 H and its magnet stored energy is about 13 MJ at a full current of 210 A for the worst operation case of the MICE channel. The stress induced inside the coil during cool down and charging is relatively high. Two test coils are to build and test in order to validate the design method and develop the fabrication technique required for the coupling coil winding, one is 350 mm inner diameter and full length same as the coupling coil, and the other is one-quarter length and 1.5 m diameter. The 1.5 m diameter coil will be charged to strain conditions that are greater than would be encountered in the coupling coil. This paper presents detailed design of the test coils as well as developed winding skills. The analyses on stress in coil assemblies, AC loss, and quench process are carried out.

  14. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    House, P.A.

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  15. Method and system for controlling start of a permanent magnet machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walters, James E.; Krefta, Ronald John

    2003-10-28

    Method and system for controlling a permanent magnet machine are provided. The method provides a sensor assembly for sensing rotor sector position relative to a plurality of angular sectors. The method further provides a sensor for sensing angular increments in rotor position. The method allows starting the machine in a brushless direct current mode of operation using a calculated initial rotor position based on an initial angular sector position information from the sensor assembly. Upon determining a transition from the initial angular sector to the next angular sector, the method allows switching to a sinusoidal mode of operation using rotor position based on rotor position information from the incremental sensor.

  16. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    House, Palmer A.

    1982-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  17. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    House, Palmer A.

    1984-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  18. Rotary engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leas, A. M.; Leas, L. E.

    1985-02-12

    Disclosed are an engine system suitable for use with methyl alcohol and hydrogen and a rotary engine particularly suited for use in the engine system. The rotary engine comprises a stator housing having a plurality of radially directed chamber dividers, a principal rotor, a plurality of subordinate rotors each having an involute gear in its periphery mounted on the principal rotor, and means for rotating the subordinate rotors so that their involute gears accept the radially directed dividers as the subordinate rotors move past them.

  19. Methods and apparatus for cooling wind turbine generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salamah, Samir A.; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya; Garg, Jivtesh; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Carl, Jr., Ralph James

    2008-10-28

    A wind turbine generator includes a stator having a core and a plurality of stator windings circumferentially spaced about a generator longitudinal axis. A rotor is rotatable about the generator longitudinal axis, and the rotor includes a plurality of magnetic elements coupled to the rotor and cooperating with the stator windings. The magnetic elements are configured to generate a magnetic field and the stator windings are configured to interact with the magnetic field to generate a voltage in the stator windings. A heat pipe assembly thermally engaging one of the stator and the rotor to dissipate heat generated in the stator or rotor.

  20. Electrical machines and assemblies including a yokeless stator with modular lamination stacks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qu, Ronghai; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumar; Carl, Jr., Ralph James; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya; Lopez, Fulton Jose

    2010-04-06

    An electrical machine includes a rotor with an inner rotor portion and an outer rotor portion, and a double-sided yokeless stator. The yokeless stator includes modular lamination stacks and is configured for radial magnetic flux flow. The double-sided yokeless stator is concentrically disposed between the inner rotor portion and the outer rotor portion of the electrical machine. Examples of particularly useful embodiments for the electrical machine include wind turbine generators, ship propulsion motors, switch reluctance machines and double-sided synchronous machines.

  1. Rotary sequencing valve with flexible port plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Glenn Paul

    2005-05-10

    Rotary sequencing valve comprising a rotor having a rotor face rotatable about an axis perpendicular to the rotor face, wherein the rotor face has a plurality of openings, one or more of which are disposed at a selected radial distance from the axis, and wherein the rotor includes at least one passage connecting at least one pair of the plurality of openings. The valve includes a flexible port plate having a first side and a second side, wherein the first side faces the rotor and engages the rotor such that the flexible port plate can be rotated coaxially by the rotor and can move axially with respect to the rotor, wherein the flexible port plate has a plurality of ports between the first and second sides, which ports are aligned with the openings in the rotor face. The valve also includes a stator having a stator face disposed coaxially with the rotor and the flexible port plate, wherein the second side of the flexible port plate is in sealable, slidable rotary contact with the stator face, wherein the stator face has a plurality of openings, some of which are disposed at the selected radial distance from the axis, and wherein the plurality of openings extend as passages through the stator. The valve may be used in pressure or temperature swing adsorption systems.

  2. Device for measuring the fluid density of a two-phase mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Jack H.

    1980-01-01

    A device for measuring the fluid density of a two-phase mixture flowing through a tubular member. A rotor assembly is rotatively supported within the tubular member so that it can also move axially within the tubular member. The rotor assembly is balanced against a pair of springs which exert an axial force in the opposite direction upon the rotor assembly. As a two-phase mixture flows through the tubular member it contacts the rotor assembly causing it to rotate about its axis. The rotor assembly is forced against and partially compresses the springs. Means are provided to measure the rotational speed of the rotor assembly and the linear displacement of the rotor assembly. From these measurements the fluid density of the two-phase mixture is calculated.

  3. Rotary engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyman, U.

    1987-02-03

    A rotary engine is described comprising: two covers spaced from one another; rotors located between the covers and rotating and planetating in different phases; the rotors interengaging to form working chambers therebetween; means to supply fluid to the working chambers and means to exhaust fluid from the working chambers during the operating cycle of the engine; gearing for synchronizing rotation and planetation of the rotors and each including first and second gears arranged so that one of the gears is connected with the rotors while the other of the gears is connected with an immovable part of the engine and the gears engage with one another; carriers interconnecting the rotors and planetating in the same phase with the planetation of the rotors for synchronizing the rotation and planetation of the rotors; shafts arranged to support the carriers during their planetations; and elements for connecting the covers with one another.

  4. He Puff System For Dust Detector Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Rais, C.H. Skinner A.L. Roquemore

    2010-10-01

    Local detection of surface dust is needed for the safe operation of next-step magnetic fusion devices such as ITER. An electrostatic dust detector, based on a 5 cm x 5 cm grid of interlocking circuit traces biased to 50 V, has been developed to detect dust on remote surfaces and was successfully tested for the first time on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). We report on a helium puff system that clears residual dust from this detector and any incident debris or fibers that might cause a permanent short circuit. The entire surface of the detector was cleared of carbon particles by two consecutive helium puffs delivered by three nozzles of 0.45 mm inside diameter. The optimal configuration was found to be with the nozzles at an angle of 30o with respect to the surface of the detector and a helium backing pressure of 6 bar. __________________________________________________

  5. A Field Theory Approach to Modeling Helical FCG's

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortgang, C.M.

    1998-10-18

    Often helical flux-compressor generator (FCG) design codes are essentially circuit codes which utilize known equations for parameterizing circuit elements such as armature and stator inductance. The authors present an analytical model that is based more on first principals. The stator inductance is calculated using a definition of inductance in terms of the magnetic vector-potential. The calculation accounts for winding-pitch, bifurcations, and works for any ratio of length to diameter. The currents on the armature are calculated self-consistently and are not assumed to simply 'mirror' the stator currents. Resistive losses and magnetic diffusion losses are calculated less rigorously but they are working on better methods. Details of the model and comparison with experiment will be presented.

  6. Extendable pipe crawler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hapstack, M.

    1991-05-28

    A pipe crawler is described having a front leg assembly and a back leg assembly connected together by two air cylinders, each leg assembly having four extendable legs and a pair of actuators for sliding the extendable legs radially outward to increase the range of the legs when the pipe crawler enters a section of a pipe having a larger diameter. The crawler crawls by inchworm'-like motion, the front leg assembly and back leg assembly alternately engaging and disengaging the wall of the pipe to hold the pipe crawler as the air cylinders alternately advance the front leg assembly and bring up the rear leg assembly. The pair of actuators of each leg assembly are parallel, adjacent and opposing acting so that each slides two adjacent extendable legs radially outward. 5 figures.

  7. Donor states in inverse opals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahan, G. D.

    2014-09-21

    We calculate the binding energy of an electron bound to a donor in a semiconductor inverse opal. Inverse opals have two kinds of cavities, which we call octahedral and tetrahedral, according to their group symmetry. We put the donor in the center of each of these two cavities and obtain the binding energy. The binding energies become very large when the inverse opal is made from templates with small spheres. For spheres less than 50 nm in diameter, the donor binding can increase to several times its unconfined value. Then electrons become tightly bound to the donor and are unlikely to be thermally activated to the semiconductor conduction band. This conclusion suggests that inverse opals will be poor conductors.

  8. Using Ambient Ion Beams to Write Nanostructured Patterns for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Anyin; Baird, Zane; Bag, Soumabha; Sarkar, Depanjan; Prabhath, Anupama; Pradeep, Thalappil; Cooks, Robert G.

    2014-11-10

    Electrolytic spray deposition was used to pattern surfaces with 2D metallic nanostructures. Spots that contain silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were created by landing solvated silver ions at desired locations using electrically floated masks to focus the metal ions to an area as little as 20 mm in diameter. The AgNPs formed are unprotected and their aggregates can be used for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The morphology and SERS activity of the NP structures were controlled by the surface coverage of landed silver ions. The NP structures created could be used as substrates onto which SERS samples were deposited or prepared directly on top of predeposited samples of interest. The evenly distributed hot spots in the micron-sized aggregates had an average SERS enhancement factor of 108. The surfaces showed SERS activity when using lasers of different wavelengths (532, 633, and 785 nm) and were stable in air.

  9. Broad-band characteristics of circular button pickups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barry, W.C.

    1992-10-01

    A broad-band.theory of the circular button pickup is presented. Expressions for the longitudinal and transverse transfer impedance of a pair of such pickups are derived in the frequency domain. The broad-band expressions are shown to reduce to the standard electrostatic transfer functions for wavelengths large compared to the button diameter. The theory is shown to be in reasonable agreement with measurements performed on standard LEP button electrodes. In particular, the theory explains a resonance in the response of the LEP buttons which made them unsuitable, in standard form, for their intended application as pickups in the LBL Advanced Light Source feedback system. The buttons were modified to suppress the resonance and subsequently incorporated into the feedback system.

  10. Axial strain in GaAs/InAs core-shell nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich; Rieger, Torsten; Gruetzmacher, Detlev; Ion Lepsa, Mihail; JARA-Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, 52425 Juelich ; Bussone, Genziana; ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex

    2013-01-28

    We study the axial strain relaxation in GaAs/InAs core-shell nanowire heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Besides a gradual strain relaxation of the shell material, we find a significant strain in the GaAs core, increasing with shell thickness. This strain is explained by a saturation of the dislocation density at the core-shell interface. Independent measurements of core and shell lattice parameters by x-ray diffraction reveal a relaxation of 93% in a 35 nm thick InAs shell surrounding cores of 80 nm diameter. The compressive strain of -0.5% compared to bulk InAs is accompanied by a tensile strain up to 0.9% in the GaAs core.

  11. Lineal energy calibration of mini tissue-equivalent gas-proportional counters (TEPC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conte, V.; Moro, D.; Colautti, P.; Grosswendt, B.

    2013-07-18

    Mini TEPCs are cylindrical gas proportional counters of 1 mm or less of sensitive volume diameter. The lineal energy calibration of these tiny counters can be performed with an external gamma-ray source. However, to do that, first a method to get a simple and precise spectral mark has to be found and then the keV/{mu}m value of this mark. A precise method (less than 1% of uncertainty) to identify this markis described here, and the lineal energy value of this mark has been measured for different simulated site sizes by using a {sup 137}Cs gamma source and a cylindrical TEPC equipped with a precision internal {sup 244}Cm alpha-particle source, and filled with propane-based tissue-equivalent gas mixture. Mini TEPCs can be calibrated in terms of lineal energy, by exposing them to {sup 137}Cesium sources, with an overall uncertainty of about 5%.

  12. High energy X-ray pinhole imaging at the Z facility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McPherson, L. Armon; Ampleford, David J.; Coverdale, Christine A.; Argo, Jeffrey W.; Owen, Albert C.; Jaramillo, Deanna M.

    2016-06-06

    A new high photon energy (hv > 15 keV) time-integrated pinhole camera (TIPC) has become available at the Z facility for diagnostic applications. This camera employs five pinholes in a linear array for recording five images at once onto an image plate detector. Each pinhole may be independently filtered to yield five different spectral responses. The pinhole array is fabricated from a 1-cm thick tungsten block and is available with either straight pinholes or conical pinholes. Each pinhole within the array block is 250 μm in diameter. The five pinholes are splayed with respect to each other such that theymore » point to the same location in space, and hence present the same view of the target load at the Z facility. The fielding distance is 66 cm and the nominal image magnification is 0.374. Initial experimental results are shown to illustrate the performance of the camera.« less

  13. Measurements of the asymmetric, dynamic sheath around a pulse biased sphere immersed in flowing metal plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Wu, Hongchen; Anders, Andre

    2008-06-13

    A long-probe technique was utilized to record the expansion and retreat of the dynamic sheath around a spherical substrate immersed in pulsed cathode arc metal plasma. Positively biased, long cylindrical probes were placed on the side and downstream of a negatively pulsed biased stainless steel sphere of 1" (25.4 mm) diameter. The amplitude and width of the negative high voltage pulses (HVP) were 2 kV, 5 kV, 10 kV, and 2 mu s, 4 mu s, 10 mu s, respectively. The variation of the probe (electron) current during the HVP is a direct measure for the sheath expansion and retreat. Maximum sheath sizes were determined for the different parameters of the HVP. The expected rarefaction zone behind the biased sphere (wake) due to the fast plasma flow was clearly established and quantified.

  14. Phase I characterization of the HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filter media used in the airborne activity confinement system at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novick, V.J.; Higgins, P.J. )

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to characterize the HEPA filter media material. This work consisted of two major tasks. First, the pressure drop characteristics of the HEPA filter material were measured as a function of the aerosol mass loading. Particle size effects were studied by using three different particle size distributions to load the filter material. The second task was to determine the filtration efficiency spectrum for solid particles as a function of particle diameter. The filtration efficiency was measured at two different media velocities, one corresponding to the equivalent flow rate under normal operating conditions, the other corresponding to the minimum equivalent flow rate expected through the filter compartments. These tests were conducted at the Argonne National Laboratory between September 1988 and February 1989. 20 refs., 31 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. The HMDS Coating Flaw Removal Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monticelli, M V; Nostrand, M C; Mehta, N; Kegelmeyer, L; Johnson, M A; Fair, J; Widmayer, C

    2008-10-24

    In many high energy laser systems, optics with HMDS sol gel antireflective coatings are placed in close proximity to each other making them particularly susceptible to certain types of strong optical interactions. During the coating process, halo shaped coating flaws develop around surface digs and particles. Depending on the shape and size of the flaw, the extent of laser light intensity modulation and consequent probability of damaging downstream optics may increase significantly. To prevent these defects from causing damage, a coating flaw removal tool was developed that deploys a spot of decane with a syringe and dissolves away the coating flaw. The residual liquid is evacuated leaving an uncoated circular spot approximately 1mm in diameter. The resulting uncoated region causes little light intensity modulation and thus has a low probability of causing damage in optics downstream from the mitigated flaw site.

  16. Extendable pipe crawler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hapstack, Mark

    1991-01-01

    A pipe crawler having a front leg assembly and a back leg assembly connected together by two air cylinders, each leg assembly having four extendable legs and a pair of actuators for sliding the extendable legs radially outward to increase the range of the legs when the pipe crawler enters a section of a pipe having a larger diameter. The crawler crawls by "inchworm"-like motion, the front leg assembly and back leg assembly alternately engaging and disengaging the wall of the pipe to hold the pipe crawler as the air cylinders alternately advance the front leg assembly and bring up the rear leg assembly. The pair of actuators of each leg assembly are parallel, adjacent and opposing acting so that each slides two adjacent extendable legs radially outward.

  17. Electronic states of lithium passivated germanium nanowires: An ab-initio study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trejo, A.; Carvajal, E.; Vzquez-Medina, R.; Cruz-Irisson, M.

    2014-05-15

    A study of the electronic and structural properties of germanium nanowires (GeNWs) was performed using the ab-initio Density Functional Theory within the generalized gradient approximation where electron-ion interactions are described by ultrasoft pseudopotentials. To study the effects of the lithium in the surface of the GeNWs we compare the electronic band structures of Hydrogen passivated GeNWs with those of partial and totally Li passivated GeNWs. The nanowires were constructed in the [001], [111] and [110] directions, using the supercell model to create different wire diameters. The results show that in the case of partial Li passivation there are localized orbitals near the valence band maximum, which would create a p-doped-kind of state. The total Li passivation created metallic states for all the wires.

  18. Density functional calculation of the structural and electronic properties of germanium quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anas, M. M.; Gopir, G.

    2015-04-24

    We apply first principles density functional computational methods to study the structures, densities of states (DOS), and higher occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gaps of selected free-standing Ge semiconductor quantum dots up to 1.8nm. Our calculations are performed using numerical atomic orbital approach where linear combination of atomic orbital was applied. The surfaces of the quantum dots was passivized by hydrogen atoms. We find that surface passivation does affect the electronic properties associated with the changes of surface state, electron localization, and the energy gaps of germanium nanocrystals as well as the confinement of electrons inside the quantum dots (QDs). Our study shows that the energy gaps of germanium quantum dots decreases with the increasing dot diameter. The size-dependent variations of the computed HOMO-LUMO gaps in our quantum dots model were found to be consistent with the effects of quantum confinement reported in others theoretical and experimental calculation.

  19. Experiment summary for n/y attenuation through materials (Environments 1A).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePriest, Kendall Russell

    2006-05-01

    The Radiation Effects Sciences (RES) program is responsible for conducting Neutron Gamma Energy Transport (NuGET) code validation. In support of this task, a series of experiments were conducted in the annular core research reactor (ACRR) to investigate the modification of the incident neutron/gamma environment by aluminum (Al6061) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) spheres with 4-in and 7-in-diameter. The experiment series described in this report addresses several NuGET validation concerns. The validation experiment series also addresses the design and execution of proper reactor testing to match the hostile radiation environments and to match the component stresses that arise from the hostile radiation environments. This report summarizes the RES Validation: n/{gamma} Attenuation through Materials, Environments 1A, experiments conducted at the ACRR in FY 2003 using ACRR Experiment Plans 933 and 949.

  20. Characteristics and development report for the MC3714 thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scharrer, G.L.; Lasky, F.P.

    1990-08-01

    This report describes the design intent, design considerations, system use, development, product characteristics, and early production history of the MC3714 Thermal Battery. This battery has a required operating life of 146 s above 24.0 V with a constant current load of 0.5 A. It is activated when the MC3830 Actuator initiates the WW42C1 Percussion Primer in the battery. The MC3714 employs the Li(Si)/LiCl-CCl/lithiated FeS{sub 2} electrochemical system. The battery is a hermetically sealed right-circular cylinder with an antirotation ring brazed to the base of the cylinder. The battery is 50 mm long and 38.1 mm in diameter. The mass of the battery is 165 g. The battery was designed and developed to provide the power for the W82 JTA Telemetry System. 8 refs., 12 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Electric cartridge-type heater for producing a given non-uniform axial power distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, D.L.; Kress, T.S.

    1975-10-14

    An electric cartridge heater is provided to simulate a reactor fuel element for use in safety and thermal-hydraulic tests of model nuclear reactor systems. The electric heat-generating element of the cartridge heater consists of a specifically shaped strip of metal cut with variable width from a flat sheet of the element material. When spirally wrapped around a mandrel, the strip produces a coiled element of the desired length and diameter. The coiled element is particularly characterized by an electrical resistance that varies along its length due to variations in strip width. Thus, the cartridge heater is constructed such that it will produce a more realistic simulation of the actual nonuniform (approximately ''chopped'' cosine) power distribution of a reactor fuel element.

  2. Wall-Friction Support of Vertical Loads in Submerged Sand and Gravel Columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walton, O. R.; Vollmer, H. J.; Hepa, V. S.

    2015-08-25

    Laboratory studies of the ‘floor-loads’ under submerged vertical columns of sand and/or gravel indicate that such loads can be approximated by a buoyancy-corrected Janssen-silo-theory-like relationship. Similar to conditions in storage silos filled with dry granular solids, most of the weight of the sand or gravel is supported by wall friction forces. Laboratory measurements of the loads on the floor at the base of the water-filled columns (up to 25-diameters tall) indicate that the extra floor-load from the addition of the granular solid never exceeded the load that would exist under an unsupported (wide) bed of submerged sand or gravel that has a total depth corresponding to only two column-diameters. The measured floorloads reached an asymptotic maximum value when the depth of granular material in the columns was only three or four pipe-diameters, and never increased further as the columns were filled to the top (e.g. up to heights of 10 to 25 diameters). The floor-loads were stable and remained the same for days after filling. Aggressive tapping (e.g. hitting the containing pipe on the outside, manually with a wrench up and down the height and around the circumference) could increase (and occasionally decrease) the floor load substantially, but there was no sudden collapse or slumping to a state without significant wall friction effects. Considerable effort was required, repeatedly tapping over almost the entire column wall periphery, in order to produce floor-loads that corresponded to the total buoyancy-corrected weight of granular material added to the columns. Projecting the observed laboratory behavior to field conditions would imply that a stable floor-load condition, with only a slightly higher total floor pressure than the preexisting hydrostatic-head, would exist after a water-filled bore-hole is filled with sand or gravel. Significant seismic vibration (either a large nearby event or many micro-seismic events over an extended period) would likely

  3. The preliminary analysis on the steady-state and kinetic features of the molten salt pebble-bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, B.; Lu, Y.

    2012-07-01

    A novel design concept of molten salt pebble-bed reactor with an ultra-simplified integral primary circuit called 'Nuclear Hot Spring' has been proposed, featured by horizontal coolant flow in a deep pool pebble-bed reactor, providing 'natural safety' features with natural circulation under full power operation and less expensive primary circuit arrangement. In this work, the steady-state physical properties of the equilibrium state of the molten salt pebble-bed reactor are calculated by using the VSOP code, and the steady-state thermo-hydraulic analysis is carried out based on the approximation of absolutely horizontal flow of the coolant through the core. A new concept of 2-dimensional, both axial and radial, multi-pass on-line fuelling scheme is presented. The result reveals that the radial multi-pass scheme provides more flattened power distribution and safer temperature distribution than the one-pass scheme. A parametric analysis is made corresponding to different pebble diameters, the key parameter of the core resistance and the temperature at the pebble center. It is verified that within a wide range of pebble diameters, the maximum pebble center temperatures are far below the safety limit of the fuel, and the core resistance is considerably less than the buoyant force, indicating that the natural circulation under full power operation is achievable and the ultra-simplified integral primary circuit without any pump is possible. For the kinetic properties, it is verified that the negative temperature coefficient is achieved in sufficient under-moderated condition through the preliminary analysis on the temperature coefficients of fuel, coolant and moderator. The requirement of reactivity compensation at the shutdown stages of the operation period is calculated for the further studies on the reactivity control. The molten salt pebble-bed reactor with horizontal coolant flow can provide enhanced safety and economical features. (authors)

  4. SU-E-T-586: Field Size Dependence of Output Factor for Uniform Scanning Proton Beams: A Comparison of TPS Calculation, Measurement and Monte Carlo Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Y; Singh, H; Islam, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Output dependence on field size for uniform scanning beams, and the accuracy of treatment planning system (TPS) calculation are not well studied. The purpose of this work is to investigate the dependence of output on field size for uniform scanning beams and compare it among TPS calculation, measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: Field size dependence was studied using various field sizes between 2.5 cm diameter to 10 cm diameter. The field size factor was studied for a number of proton range and modulation combinations based on output at the center of spread out Bragg peak normalized to a 10 cm diameter field. Three methods were used and compared in this study: 1) TPS calculation, 2) ionization chamber measurement, and 3) Monte Carlos simulation. The XiO TPS (Electa, St. Louis) was used to calculate the output factor using a pencil beam algorithm; a pinpoint ionization chamber was used for measurements; and the Fluka code was used for Monte Carlo simulations. Results: The field size factor varied with proton beam parameters, such as range, modulation, and calibration depth, and could decrease over 10% from a 10 cm to 3 cm diameter field for a large range proton beam. The XiO TPS predicted the field size factor relatively well at large field size, but could differ from measurements by 5% or more for small field and large range beams. Monte Carlo simulations predicted the field size factor within 1.5% of measurements. Conclusion: Output factor can vary largely with field size, and needs to be accounted for accurate proton beam delivery. This is especially important for small field beams such as in stereotactic proton therapy, where the field size dependence is large and TPS calculation is inaccurate. Measurements or Monte Carlo simulations are recommended for output determination for such cases.

  5. DOE-RCT-0003641 Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Edward; Lesster, Ted

    2014-09-30

    characteristics were tabulated for use in comparing to the Axial Flux Machine. Three basic conceptual designs for the Axial Flux Machine were considered: (1) a machine with a single coil at the inner diameter of the machine, (2) a machine with a single coil at the outside diameter of the machine, and (3) a machine with a coil around each tooth. Slight variations of these basic configurations were considered during the study. Analysis was performed on these configurations to determine the best candidate design to advance to preliminary design, based on size, weight, performance, cost and manufacturability. The configuration selected as the most promising was the multi-pole machine with a coil around each tooth. This configuration provided the least complexity with respect to the mechanical configuration and manufacturing, which would yield the highest reliability and lowest cost machine of the three options. A preliminary design was performed on this selected configuration. For this first ever axial design of the multi rotor configuration the 'apples to apples' comparison was based on using the same length of rotor pole as the axial length of rotor pole in the radial machine and making the mean radius of the rotor in the axial machine the same as the air gap radius in the radial machine. The tooth to slot ratio at the mean radius of the axial machine was the same as the tooth to slot ratio of the radial machine. The comparison between the original radial flux machine and the new axial flux machine indicates that for the same torque, the axial flux machine diameter will be 27% greater, but it will have 30% of the length, and 76% of the weight. Based on these results, it is concluded that an axial flux reluctance machine presents a viable option for large generators to be used for the capture of wave energy. In the analysis of Task 4, below, it is pointed out that our selection of dimensional similarity for the 'apples to apples' comparison did not produce an optimum axial flux

  6. Innovative Coal Solids-Flow Monitoring and Measurement Using Phase-Doppler and Mie Scattering Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Seong Lee

    2010-01-19

    Fuel flow to individual burners is complicated and difficult to determine on coal fired boilers, since coal solids were transported in a gas suspension that is governed by the complex physics of two-phase flow. The objectives of the project were the measurements of suspended coal solids-flows in the simulated test conditions. Various extractive methods were performed manually and can give only a snapshot result of fuel distribution. In order to measure particle diameter & velocity, laser based phase-Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were carefully applied. Statistical methods were used to analyze particle characteristics to see which factors have significant effect. The transparent duct model was carefully designed and fabricated for the laser-based-instrumentation of solids-flow monitoring (LISM). The experiments were conducted with two different kinds of particles with four different particle diameters. The particle types were organic particles and saw dust particles with the diameter range of 75-150 micron, 150-250 micron, 250-355 micron and 355-425 micron. The densities of the particles were measured to see how the densities affected the test results. Also the experiment was conducted with humid particles and fog particles. To generate humid particles, the humidifier was used. A pipe was connected to the humidifier to lead the particle flow to the intersection of the laser beam. The test results of the particle diameter indicated that, the mean diameter of humid particles was between 6.1703 microns and 6.6947 microns when the humid particle flow was low. When the humid particle flow was high, the mean diameter was between 6.6728 microns and 7.1872 microns. The test results of the particle mean velocity indicated that the mean velocity was between 1.3394 m/sec and 1.4556 m/sec at low humid particle flow. When the humid particle flow was high, the mean velocity was between 1.5694 m/sec and 1.7856 m/sec. The Air Flow Module, TQ

  7. Study of television interference by small wind turbines. Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, D.L.; Senior, T.B.A.; Ferris, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Electromagnetic interference to television reception caused by small wind turbines (generating about 5 kW of power) has been studied by carrying out measurements using 1/8th-scale models of small windmills in conjunction with a microwave TV system inside an anechoic chamber. Two- and three-bladed windmills with metallized and wooden blades rectangular and trapezoidal in shape were investigated. The locally available TV Channel 9 signal was received and, after up-converting its center frequency to 4.0 GHz, was used as the rf source of the microwave TV system. The television interference (TVI) results were extrapolated to give the TVI effects of the corresponding full-scale windmills at the commercial TV Channel frequencies. Generally, it was found that the two- and three-bladed machines produced similar TVI effects, the metallized blades producing stronger interference than the wooden blades. Extrapolation of the results obtained indicate that, even at the highest TV frequency, the significant TVI effects (video distortion) produced by small wind turbines will not extend out to a distance larger than about 2.5 times the rotor diameter. At lower TV frequenies (or Channel numbers) the distance will be correspondingly smaller. Within this distance, the observed effects will generally be small to negligible over most of the region except possibly in the forward interference direction.

  8. Wind farm production cost: Optimum turbine size and farm capacity in the actual market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laali, A.R.; Meyer, J.L.; Bellot, C.; Louche, A.

    1996-12-31

    Several studies are undertaken in R&D Division of EDF in collaboration with ERASME association in order to have a good knowledge of the wind energy production costs. These studies are performed in the framework of a wind energy monitoring project and concern the influence of a few parameters like wind farm capacity, turbine size and wind speed on production costs, through an analysis of the actual market trend. Some 50 manufacturers and 140 different kind of wind turbines are considered for this study. The minimum production cost is situated at 800/900 kW wind turbine rated power. This point will probably move to more important powers in the future. This study is valid only for average conditions and some special parameters like particular climate conditions or lack of infrastructure for a special site the could modify the results shown on the curves. The variety of wind turbines (rated power as a function of rotor diameter, height and specific rated power) in the actual market is analyzed. A brief analysis of the market trend is also performed. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Implementation and assessment of turbine wake models in the Weather Research and Forecasting model for both mesoscale and large-eddy simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, M; Mirocha, J; Lundquist, J; Cleve, J

    2010-03-03

    Flow dynamics in large wind projects are influenced by the turbines located within. The turbine wakes, regions characterized by lower wind speeds and higher levels of turbulence than the surrounding free stream flow, can extend several rotor diameters downstream, and may meander and widen with increasing distance from the turbine. Turbine wakes can also reduce the power generated by downstream turbines and accelerate fatigue and damage to turbine components. An improved understanding of wake formation and transport within wind parks is essential for maximizing power output and increasing turbine lifespan. Moreover, the influence of wakes from large wind projects on neighboring wind farms, agricultural activities, and local climate are all areas of concern that can likewise be addressed by wake modeling. This work describes the formulation and application of an actuator disk model for studying flow dynamics of both individual turbines and arrays of turbines within wind projects. The actuator disk model is implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, which is an open-source atmospheric simulation code applicable to a wide range of scales, from mesoscale to large-eddy simulation. Preliminary results demonstrate the applicability of the actuator disk model within WRF to a moderately high-resolution large-eddy simulation study of a small array of turbines.

  10. The empirical modeling of a Lysholm screw expander

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stiedel, R.F.; Brown, K.A.; Pankow, D.H.

    1983-08-01

    This is a description of the development of an engine model for the prediction of mass flow rate, power, efficiency and exhaust quality for a Lysholm Screw Expander at a given set of operating conditions. The testing of an expander having a rotor diameter of 130 mm (5.12 inches) and an expansion ratio of 5.3 was performed with simulated geothermal fluid at an inlet pressure of 0.827 MPa (120 psia). The inlet quality, engine speed and pressure ratio were independently varied to produce a three-dimensional data matrix of 104 data points. Statistical curve fitting methods were adapted to produce equations for mass flow rate and power output in terms of the three variables associated with the data matrix. These explicit equations were combined with a numerical steam table subroutine to produce an engine model. The predictive ability observed during the validation of the model is adequate for use in system modeling, such as a hybrid geothermal energy conversion system. Mass flow rates were predicted to within 3% of the measured values. For most conditions, predictions of power were within 3% of the measured values. The predictions for exhaust quality were within 1/2% of the measured values. Predictions of engine efficiency reflected the combined errors in prediction of power and mass flow rate. The maximum error in efficiency predictions was 1 part in 20.

  11. Observations of wake characteristics at the Goodnoe Hills MOD-2 array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buck, J.W.; Renne, D.S.

    1985-08-01

    The array of three MOD-2 wind turbines and two meteorological towers at Goodnoe Hills, Washington, provides an opportunity to evaluate turbine and wake interactions in a real environment. The triangular arrangement of the three turbines provides opportunities to study the effect of wakes on the performance of a downwind turbine at three different distances: 5, 7, and 10 rotor diameters (D), where 1 D is 300 ft. The information obtained from this test configuration is critical to future wind farm activities and is a key objective of the MOD-2 test program. This report describes the analysis of data measured at the turbines and towers from August 29 to November 12, 1982. The data are 2-min averages of 1-s values. Background flow characteristics were also examined to determine if flow variations across the site could mask wake measurements. For this analysis, one year's data gathered at the meteorological towers were analyzed. The results show some differences between characteristics measured at the towers, but these differences were not great enough to consider in evaluating wakes at the towers.

  12. Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spera, D.A. . Lewis Research Center); Esgar, J.B. ); Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.D. )

    1990-05-01

    This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue and strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 in. by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications. 9 refs.

  13. Method for providing slip energy control in permanent magnet electrical machines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.

    2006-11-14

    An electric machine (40) has a stator (43), a permanent magnet rotor (38) with permanent magnets (39) and a magnetic coupling uncluttered rotor (46) for inducing a slip energy current in secondary coils (47). A dc flux can be produced in the uncluttered rotor when the secondary coils are fed with dc currents. The magnetic coupling uncluttered rotor (46) has magnetic brushes (A, B, C, D) which couple flux in through the rotor (46) to the secondary coils (47c, 47d) without inducing a current in the rotor (46) and without coupling a stator rotational energy component to the secondary coils (47c, 47d). The machine can be operated as a motor or a generator in multi-phase or single-phase embodiments and is applicable to the hybrid electric vehicle. A method of providing a slip energy controller is also disclosed.

  14. Hybrid-secondary uncluttered permanent magnet machine and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.

    2005-12-20

    An electric machine (40) has a stator (43), a permanent magnet rotor (38) with permanent magnets (39) and a magnetic coupling uncluttered rotor (46) for inducing a slip energy current in secondary coils (47). A dc flux can be produced in the uncluttered rotor when the secondary coils are fed with dc currents. The magnetic coupling uncluttered rotor (46) has magnetic brushes (A, B, C, D) which couple flux in through the rotor (46) to the secondary coils (47c, 47d) without inducing a current in the rotor (46) and without coupling a stator rotational energy component to the secondary coils (47c, 47d). The machine can be operated as a motor or a generator in multi-phase or single-phase embodiments and is applicable to the hybrid electric vehicle. A method of providing a slip energy controller is also disclosed.

  15. Electric fluid pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  16. Method and apparatus for measuring shear modulus and viscosity of a monomolecular film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Bernard M.; Miyano, Kenjiro; Ketterson, John B.

    1985-01-01

    Instrument for measuring the shear modulus of a monomolecular film comprises a circular trough having inwardly sloping sides containing a liquid for supporting the monolayer on the surface thereof; a circular rotor suspended above the trough such that the lower surface of the rotor contacts the surface of the liquid, positioned such that the axis of the rotor is concentric with the axis of the trough and freely rotable about its axis; apparatus for hydrostatically compressing the monolayer in the annular region formed between the rotor and the sides of the trough; and apparatus for rotating the trough about its axis. Preferably, hydrostatic compression of the monolayer is achieved by removing liquid from the bottom of the trough (decreasing the surface area) while raising the trough vertically along its axis to maintain the monolayer at a constant elevation (and maintain rotor contact). In order to measure viscosity, a apparatus for rotating the rotor about its axis is added to the apparatus.

  17. Rotatable seal assembly. [Patent application; rotating targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, C.M.; Garibaldi, J.L.

    1980-11-12

    An assembly is provided for rotatably supporting a rotor on a stator so that vacuum chambers in the rotor and stator remain in communication while the chambers are sealed from ambient air, which enables the use of a ball bearing or the like to support most of the weight of the rotor. The apparatus includes a seal device mounted on the rotor to rotate therewith, but shiftable in position on the rotor while being sealed to the rotor as by an O-ring. The seal device has a flat face that is biased towards a flat face on the stator, and pressurized air is pumped between the faces to prevent contact between them while spacing them a small distance apart to avoid the inflow of large amounts of air between the faces and into the vacuum chambers.

  18. Stirling cycle rotary engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, J.A.

    1988-06-28

    A Stirling cycle rotary engine for producing mechanical energy from heat generated by a heat source external to the engine, the engine including: an engine housing having an interior toroidal cavity with a central housing axis for receiving a working gas, the engine housing further having a cool as inlet port, a compressed gas outlet port, a heated compressed gas inlet port, and a hot exhaust gas outlet port at least three rotors each fixedly mounted to a respective rotor shaft and independently rotatable within the toroidal cavity about the central axis; each of the rotors including a pair of rotor blocks spaced radially on diametrically opposing sides of the respective rotor shaft, each rotor block having a radially fixed curva-linear outer surface for sealed rotational engagement with the engine housing.

  19. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiebe, David J; Wessell, Brian J; Ebert, Todd; Beeck, Alexander; Liang, George; Marussich, Walter H

    2013-02-19

    A gas turbine includes forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, a row of stationary vanes between the forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, an annular intermediate disc, and a seal housing apparatus. The forward and aft rows of rotatable blades are coupled to respective first and second portions of a disc/rotor assembly. The annular intermediate disc is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable with the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine. The annular intermediate disc includes a forward side coupled to the first portion of the disc/rotor assembly and an aft side coupled to the second portion of the disc/rotor assembly. The seal housing apparatus is coupled to the annular intermediate disc so as to be rotatable with the annular intermediate disc and the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine.

  20. Blade attachment assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell; Miller, Diane Patricia

    2016-05-03

    An assembly and method for affixing a turbomachine rotor blade to a rotor wheel are disclosed. In an embodiment, an adaptor member is provided disposed between the blade and the rotor wheel, the adaptor member including an adaptor attachment slot that is complementary to the blade attachment member, and an adaptor attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot. A coverplate is provided, having a coverplate attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot, and a hook for engaging the adaptor member. When assembled, the coverplate member matingly engages with the adaptor member, and retains the blade in the adaptor member, and the assembly in the rotor wheel.