National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for rotating shaft wood

  1. Dual rotating shaft seal apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griggs, J.E.; Newman, H.J.

    1983-06-16

    The report is directed to apparatus suitable for transferring torque and rotary motion through a wall in a manner which is essentially gas impermeable. The apparatus can be used for pressurizing, agitating, and mixing fluids and features two ferrofluidic, i.e., ferrometic seals. Each seal is disposed on one of two supported shafts and each shaft is operably connected at one end to a gear mechanism and at its other end to an adjustable coupling means which is to be connected to a rotatable shaft extending through a wall through which torque and rotary motion are to be transferred.

  2. Shaft adjuster

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harry, H.H.

    1988-03-11

    Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

  3. Shaft adjuster

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harry, Herbert H. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  4. Bent shaft motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benavides, G.L.

    1998-05-05

    A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotatable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor. 11 figs.

  5. Bent shaft motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor.

  6. Rotary valve shaft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynch, R.M.

    1992-07-07

    This patent describes a rotary valve shaft for use with an internal combustion engine having a combustion chamber port, the rotary valve shaft including at least one gas passage means. It comprises groove on the periphery of the rotary valve shaft and a means for connecting the groove with the port upon rotation of the rotary valve shaft, wherein the connecting means comprising notch adjacent to and leading into the groove.

  7. Rotary shaft seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langebrake, C.O.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transucer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

  8. Polygonal shaft hole rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hussey, John H. (St. Louis, MO); Rose, John Scott (Alton, IL); Meystrik, Jeffrey J. (Webster Groves, MO); White, Kent Lee (Maryland Heights, MO)

    2001-01-23

    A laminated rotor for an induction motor has a plurality of ferro-magnetic laminations mounted axially on a rotor shaft. Each of the plurality of laminations has a central aperture in the shape of a polygon with sides of equal length. The laminations are alternatingly rotated 180.degree. from one another so that the straight sides of the polygon shaped apertures are misaligned. As a circular rotor shaft is press fit into a stack of laminations, the point of maximum interference occurs at the midpoints of the sides of the polygon (i.e., at the smallest radius of the central apertures of the laminations). Because the laminates are alternatingly rotated, the laminate material at the points of maximum interference yields relatively easily into the vertices (i.e., the greatest radius of the central aperture) of the polygonal central aperture of the next lamination as the shaft is inserted into the stack of laminations. Because of this yielding process, the amount of force required to insert the shaft is reduced, and a tighter fit is achieved.

  9. Shaft seal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kapich, Davorin D. (Carlsbad, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A shaft seal system is disclosed for isolating two regions of different fluid mediums through which a rotatable shaft extends. The seal system includes a seal housing through which the shaft extends and which defines an annular land and an annular labyrinth both of which face on the shaft so that each establishes a corresponding fluid sealing annulus. A collection cavity is formed in communication with the annular sealing spaces, and fluids compatible with the fluids in each of the two regions to be isolated are introduced, respectively, into the annular sealing spaces and collected in the collection cavity from which the fluid mixture is removed and passed to a separator which separates the fluids and returns them to their respective annular sealing spaces in a recycling manner. In the illustrated embodiment, the isolated fluid mediums comprise a liquid region and a gas region. Gas is removed from the gas region and passed through a purifier and a gas pump operative to introduce the purified gas through the labyrinth sealing annulus to the collection cavity. After passing to the separator, the separated gas is passed through a dryer from which the dried gas is caused to pass through the labyrinth sealing annulus into the collection cavity independently of the purified gas so as to insure isolation of the gas region in the event of sealing gas pump malfunction.

  10. The Importance of Motor Shaft Alignment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Importance of Motor Shaft Alignment The objective of optimized shaft alignment is to increase the operating life span of rotating machinery. To achieve this goal, components that are the most likely to fail must be made to operate within their acceptable design limits. While misalignment has no measurable effect on motor effciency, correct shaft alignment ensures the smooth, effcient transmission of power from the motor to the driven equipment. Incorrect alignment occurs when the centerlines

  11. Blind shaft development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-02-15

    The article discusses how Shaft Drillers International (SDI) is breaking new ground in shaft development and ground stabilization. Techniques of blind shaft drilling and raise bore shaft development developed by SDI are briefly explained. An associated company, Coastal Drilling East, deals with all types of ground improvement such as pre-grouting work for shafts, grouting of poor soil and water leaks into the mine. 3 photos.

  12. Passive magnetic bearing for a horizontal shaft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2003-12-02

    A passive magnetic bearing is composed of a levitation element and a restorative element. The levitation element is composed of a pair of stationary arcuate ferromagnetic segments located within an annular radial-field magnet array. The magnet array is attached to the inner circumference of a hollow shaft end. An attractive force between the arcuate segments and the magnet array acts vertically to levitate the shaft, and also in a horizontal transverse direction to center the shaft. The restorative element is comprised of an annular Halbach array of magnets and a stationary annular circuit array located within the Halbach array. The Halbach array is attached to the inner circumference of the hollow shaft end. A repulsive force between the Halbach array and the circuit array increases inversely to the radial space between them, and thus acts to restore the shaft to its equilibrium axis of rotation when it is displaced therefrom.

  13. Shafts Temporarily Covered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3, 2014 Shafts Temporarily Covered Today, workers continued physical preparations for the filter replacement. The Air Intake Shaft and Salt Handling Shaft openings were temporarily covered to further reduce the amount of air entering the underground. Covering these opening helps maintain ventilation balance while continuing to draw surface air down to the waste shaft, and prevents unfiltered air from exiting the underground. Workers not directly involved in the filter replacement efforts

  14. Cooling system for rotating machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerstler, William Dwight (Niskayuna, NY); El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi (Niskayuna, NY); Lokhandwalla, Murtuza (Clifton Park, NY); Alexander, James Pellegrino (Ballston Lake, NY); Quirion, Owen Scott (Clifton Park, NY); Palafox, Pepe (Schenectady, NY); Shen, Xiaochun (Schenectady, NY); Salasoo, Lembit (Schenectady, NY)

    2011-08-09

    An electrical machine comprising a rotor is presented. The electrical machine includes the rotor disposed on a rotatable shaft and defining a plurality of radial protrusions extending from the shaft up to a periphery of the rotor. The radial protrusions having cavities define a fluid path. A stationary shaft is disposed concentrically within the rotatable shaft wherein an annular space is formed between the stationary and rotatable shaft. A plurality of magnetic segments is disposed on the radial protrusions and the fluid path from within the stationary shaft into the annular space and extending through the cavities within the radial protrusions.

  15. Crank shaft support assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Natkin, Robert J. (Canton, MI); Oltmans, Bret (Stacy, MN); Allison, John E. (Ann Arbor, MI); Heater, Thomas J. (Milford, MI); Hines, Joy Adair (Plymouth, MI); Tappen, Grant K. (Washington, MI); Peiskammer, Dietmar (Rochester, MI)

    2007-10-23

    A crank shaft support assembly for increasing stiffness and reducing thermal mismatch distortion in a crank shaft bore of an engine comprising different materials. A cylinder block comprises a first material and at least two crank journal inserts are insert-molded into respective crank journal regions of the cylinder block and comprise a second material having greater stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion that the first material. At least two bearing caps are bolted to the respective crank journal inserts and define, along with the crank journal inserts, at least two crank shaft support rings defining a crank shaft bore coaxially aligned with a crank shaft axis. The bearing caps comprise a material having higher stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion than the first material and are supported on the respective crank journal inserts independently of any direct connection to the cylinder block.

  16. The Importance of Motor Shaft Alignment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The objective of optimized shaft alignment is to increase the operating life span of rotating machinery. To achieve this goal, components that are the most likely to fail must be made to operate within their acceptable design limits. This tip sheet discusses the types of misalignment and offers suggested actions.

  17. CONTROL ROD ROTATING MECHANISM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumgarten, A.; Karalis, A.J.

    1961-11-28

    A threaded rotatable shaft is provided which rotates in response to linear movement of a nut, the shaft being surrounded by a pair of bellows members connected to either side of the nut to effectively seal the reactor from leakage and also to store up energy to shut down the reactor in the event of a power failure. (AEC)

  18. Fabricated torque shaft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mashey, Thomas Charles

    2002-01-01

    A fabricated torque shaft is provided that features a bolt-together design to allow vane schedule revisions with minimal hardware cost. The bolt-together design further facilitates on-site vane schedule revisions with parts that are comparatively small. The fabricated torque shaft also accommodates stage schedules that are different one from another in non-linear inter-relationships as well as non-linear schedules for a particular stage of vanes.

  19. Rotation sensor switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sevec, John B. (Joliet, IL)

    1978-01-01

    A protective device to provide a warning if a piece of rotating machinery slows or stops comprises a pair of hinged weights disposed to rotate on a rotating shaft of the equipment. When the equipment is rotating, the weights remain in a plane essentially perpendicular to the shaft and constitute part of an electrical circuit that is open. When the shaft slows or stops, the weights are attracted to a pair of concentric electrically conducting disks disposed in a plane perpendicular to the shaft and parallel to the plane of the weights when rotating. A disk magnet attracts the weights to the electrically conducting plates and maintains the electrical contact at the plates to complete an electrical circuit that can then provide an alarm signal.

  20. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietle, Lannie L; Schroeder, John E; Kalsi, Manmohan S; Alvarez, Patricio D

    2013-08-13

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  1. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietle, Lannie L. (Houston, TX); Schroeder, John E. (Richmond, TX); Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Alvarez, Patricio D. (Richmond, TX)

    2010-09-21

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  2. Regenerative braking device with rotationally mounted energy storage means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoppie, Lyle O. (Birmingham, MI)

    1982-03-16

    A regenerative braking device for an automotive vehicle includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (30) and an output shaft (32), clutches (50, 56) and brakes (52, 58) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. In a second embodiment the clutches and brakes are dispensed with and the variable ratio transmission is connected directly across the input and output shafts. In both embodiments the rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft rotates faster or relative to the output shaft and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft rotates faster or relative to the input shaft.

  3. An exploratory shaft facility in SALT: Draft shaft study plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    This draft Shaft Study Plan describes a program of testing and monitoring in the Exploratory Shafts of a candidate high-level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The purpose of the programs to assist with site characterization in support of a determination of site suitability for development as a repository design and performance assessment evaluations. The program includes a variety of geological, geophysical, geomechanical, thermomechanical, and geohydrological testing and monitoring. The program is presented as a series of separate studies concerned with geological, geomechanical, and geohydrological site characterization, and with evaluating the mechanical and hydrological response of the site to construction of the shafts. The various studies, and associated test or monitoring methods are shown. The procedure used in developing the test program has been to initially identify the information necessary to satisfy (1) federal, state, and local requirements, and (2) repository program requirements. These information requirements have then been assessed to determine which requirements can be addressed wholly or in significant part by monitoring and testing from within the shafts. Test methods have been identified to address specific information requirements. 67 refs., 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  4. Engine having multiple pumps driven by a single shaft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL)

    2001-01-01

    An engine comprises an engine housing. A first engine fluid sub-system that includes a first pump and the engine housing defining a first fluid passage is also included in the engine. The engine also includes at least one additional engine fluid sub-system that includes a second pump and the engine housing defining a second fluid passage. A rotating shaft is at least partially positioned in the engine housing, the first pump and the second pump.

  5. Rotating head and piston engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomm, T.J.; Messick, N.C.

    1992-07-21

    This patent describes a rotary piston combustion engine. It comprises a housing means, an engine block housing a single toroidal bore, a piston carrier ring spaced outwardly along the entire perimeter of the toroidal bore with at least one finger extending inwardly for piston attachment, a power transfer cylinder, a power output shaft, an auxiliary shaft with driven gearing means meshing with the driving gearing means, a rotating head with windows for piston passage, a trapezoidal porting means in the engine block and in the rotating head, an exhaust port means.

  6. Flexible shaft and roof drilling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blanz, John H. (Carlisle, MA)

    1981-01-01

    A system for drilling holes in the roof of a mine has a flexible shaft with a pair of oppositely wound, coaxial flat bands. One of the flat bands defines an inner spring that is wound right handed into a helical configuration, adjacent convolutions being in nesting relationship to one another. The other flat band defines an outer spring that is wound left handed into a helical configuration about the inner band, adjacent convolutions being nesting relationship with one another. A transition member that is configured to hold a rock bit is mounted to one end of the flexible shaft. When torque and thrust are applied to the flexible shaft by a driver, the inner spring expands outwardly and the outer spring contracts inwardly to form a relatively rigid shaft.

  7. Reliability assessment of underground shaft closure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fossum, A.F.

    1994-12-31

    The intent of the WIPP, being constructed in the bedded geologic salt deposits of Southeastern New Mexico, is to provide the technological basis for the safe disposal of radioactive Transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by the defense programs of the United States. In determining this technological basis, advanced reliability and structural analysis techniques are used to determine the probability of time-to-closure of a hypothetical underground shaft located in an argillaceous salt formation and filled with compacted crushed salt. Before being filled with crushed salt for sealing, the shaft provides access to an underground facility. Reliable closure of the shaft depends upon the sealing of the shaft through creep closure and recompaction of crushed backfill. Appropriate methods are demonstrated to calculate cumulative distribution functions of the closure based on laboratory determined random variable uncertainty in salt creep properties.

  8. High Pressure Rotary Shaft Sealing Mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietle, Lannie (Sugar Land, TX); Gobeli, Jeffrey D. (Houston, TX)

    2001-05-08

    A laterally translatable pressure staged rotary shaft sealing mechanism having a seal housing with a shaft passage therein being exposed to a fluid pressure P1 and with a rotary shaft being located within the shaft passage. At least one annular laterally translatable seal carrier is provided. First and second annular resilient sealing elements are supported in axially spaced relation by the annular seal carriers and have sealing relation with the rotary shaft. The seal housing and at least one seal carrier define a first pressure staging chamber exposed to the first annular resilient sealing element and a second pressure staging chamber located between and exposed to the first and second annular resilient sealing elements. A first fluid is circulated to the first pressure chamber at a pressure P1, and a second staging pressure fluid is circulated to the second pressure chamber at a fraction of pressure P1 to achieve pressure staging, cooling of the seals. Seal placement provides hydraulic force balancing of the annular seal carriers.

  9. In-line rotating torque sensor with on-board amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Beech Island, SC)

    1990-01-01

    A rotating torque sensor apparatus and method for measuring small torques comprising a shaft, a platform having a circuit board and a first moment arm attached to the shaft, a rotatable wheel coaxial with the shaft and having a second moment arm spaced apart from the first moment arm with a load cell therebetween for generating an electric signal as the torque is applied to the shaft and transferred through the moment arms to the load cell. The electrical signal is conducted from the load cell to the circuit board for filtering and amplification before being extracted from the torque assembly through a slip ring.

  10. Vacuum coupling of rotating superconducting rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoykhet, Boris A.; Zhang, Burt Xudong; Driscoll, David Infante

    2003-12-02

    A rotating coupling allows a vacuum chamber in the rotor of a superconducting electric motor to be continually pumped out. The coupling consists of at least two concentric portions, one of which is allowed to rotate and the other of which is stationary. The coupling is located on the non-drive end of the rotor and is connected to a coolant supply and a vacuum pump. The coupling is smaller in diameter than the shaft of the rotor so that the shaft can be increased in diameter without having to increase the size of the vacuum seal.

  11. Rotating Aperture System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rusnak, Brian; Hall, James M.; Shen, Stewart; Wood, Richard L.

    2005-01-18

    A rotating aperture system includes a low-pressure vacuum pumping stage with apertures for passage of a deuterium beam. A stator assembly includes holes for passage of the beam. The rotor assembly includes a shaft connected to a deuterium gas cell or a crossflow venturi that has a single aperture on each side that together align with holes every rotation. The rotating apertures are synchronized with the firing of the deuterium beam such that the beam fires through a clear aperture and passes into the Xe gas beam stop. Portions of the rotor are lapped into the stator to improve the sealing surfaces, to prevent rapid escape of the deuterium gas from the gas cell.

  12. Independent wheel suspension system using constant velocity universal joints in combination with a single prop shaft joint and mounted differentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krude, W.

    1986-06-24

    An independent wheel suspension system is described for a vehicle having a chassis, vehicle support means for resiliently supporting the chassis for displacement with respect to a driving surface, a wheel assembly with a wheel rotatable about a wheel axis, and an engine adapted to provide driving torque about an engine output axis at an engine output, the independent wheel suspension system consists of: control arm means having a wheel end pivotably connected to the wheel assembly and a pair of frame ends pivotably connected to a respective pair of pivot bearings carried by the vehicle support means to define a swing axis therethrough; differential means comprising a differential housing, differential input means and differential output means within the differential housing establishing a respective differential input axis and a differential output axis substantially perpendicular thereto; transverse pivot means coupling the differential means and the vehicle support means for allowing the differential means to pivot relative to the vehicle support means about a transverse pivot axis substantially parallel to the differential output axis; and prop shaft means having a prop shaft axis and first and second prop shaft coupling means coupling, respectively, to the engine output and the differential input, the first prop shaft coupling means being a constant velocity universal joint, the second prop shaft coupling means being one of an axially splined joint or a fixed joint; whereby, as the first prop shaft coupling means undergoes articulation with respect to the prop shaft means as the chassis undergoes the displacement, the transverse pivot means allows the differential means to pivot relative to the vehicle support means about the transverse pivot axis to accommodate the articulation without articulation between the differential means and the prop shaft means.

  13. Rotational viscometer for high-pressure high-temperature fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Kenneth R. (Knoxville, TN)

    1985-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotational viscometer which is well adapted for use with fluids at high temperatures and/or pressures. In one embodiment, the viscometer includes a substantially non-magnetic tube having a closed end and having an open end in communication with a fluid whose viscosity is to be determined. An annular drive magnet is mounted for rotation about the tube. The tube encompasses and supports a rotatable shaft assembly which carries a rotor, or bob, for insertion in the fluid. Affixed to the shaft are (a) a second magnet which is magnetically coupled to the drive magnet and (b) a third magnet. In a typical operation, the drive magnet is rotated to turn the shaft assembly while the shaft rotor is immersed in the fluid. The viscous drag on the rotor causes the shaft assembly to lag the rotation of the drive magnet by an amount which is a function of the amount of viscous drag. A first magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the drive magnet. A second magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the third magnet. An output is generated indicative of the phase difference between the two waveforms.

  14. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative High-Speed Shaft Calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, J.; McNiff, B.

    2014-09-01

    Instrumentation has been added to the high-speed shaft, pinion, and tapered roller bearing pair of the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative gearbox to measure loads and temperatures. The new shaft bending moment and torque instrumentation was calibrated and the purpose of this document is to describe this calibration process and results, such that the raw shaft bending and torque signals can be converted to the proper engineering units and coordinate system reference for comparison to design loads and simulation model predictions.

  15. Rotational position detecting device for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushida, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Abe, K.

    1986-11-04

    This patent describes a device for detecting the rotational position of an internal combustion engine of the type that has a cam shaft extending outwardly from the engine through a wall of the engine block and a rotary member fixed to the cam shaft and driven therewith by a crankshaft of the engine. The device comprises: reference position information means and angular position information means both fixed to the end face of the driven rotary member remote from the wall of the engine block. In this way, the reference position and angular position information means are both moved among circular paths when the rotary member is rotated. The reference position and angular position information means are disposed at different radial distances from the axis of the driven rotary member; a reference position sensor and an angular position sensor respectively disposed to face the circular paths of the reference position and angular position information means; a housing fixed to the engine block to cover the driven rotary member and support the sensors; the housing having an end wall formed therein with an opening coaxial with the cam shaft; the cam shaft having an outer end portion extending outwardly beyond the driven rotary member into and through the opening; and a bearing mounted in the opening to rotatably receive the outer end portion of the cam shaft and position the housing with respect to the cam shaft.

  16. Omni-directional and holonomic rolling platform with decoupled rotational and translational degrees of freedom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pin, F.G.; Killough, S.M.

    1994-12-20

    A wheel assembly includes a support, a cage rotatably mounted on the support and having a longitudinal rotation axis, a first ball wheel rotatably mounted in the cage and having a rotation axis orthogonal to the rotation axis of the cage, and a second ball wheel rotatably mounted in the cage and having a rotation axis orthogonal to the rotation axis or the cage and to the rotation axis of the first ball wheel. A control circuit includes a photodetector signal which indicates ground contact for each ball wheel, and a tachometer which indicates actual drive shaft velocity. 6 figures.

  17. Omni-directional and holonomic rolling platform with decoupled rotational and translational degrees of freedom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pin, Francois G. (Knoxville, TN); Killough, Stephen M. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A wheel assembly includes a support, a cage rotatably mounted on the support and having a longitudinal rotation axis, a first ball wheel rotatably mounted in the cage and having a rotation axis orthogonal to the rotation axis of the cage, and a second ball wheel rotatably mounted in the cage and having a rotation axis orthogonal to the rotation axis or the cage and to the rotation axis of the first ball wheel. A control circuit includes a photodetector signal which indicates ground contact for each ball wheel, and a tachometer which indicates actual drive shaft velocity.

  18. Multipass comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2014-05-27

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel.

  19. Wood energy system design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This handbook, Wood Energy System Design, was prepared with the support of the Council of Great Lakes Governors and the US Department of Energy. It contains: wood fuel properties; procurement; receiving, handling, and storage; combustion; gasification; emission control; electric power generation and cogeneration; and case studies. (JF)

  20. In-line rotating capacitive torque sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (P.O. Box 385, Beach Island, SC 29841)

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring torques developed along a rotating mechanical assembly comprising a rotating inner portion and a stationary outer portion. The rotating portion has an electrically-conductive flexing section fitted between two coaxial shafts in a configuration which varies radially in accordance with applied torque. The stationary portion comprises a plurality of conductive plates forming a surface concentric with and having a diameter slightly larger than the diameter of the rotating portion. The capacitance between the outer, nonrotating and inner, rotating portion varies with changes in the radial configuration of the rotating portion. Signal output varies approximately linearly with torque for small torques, nonlinearly for larger torques. The sensor is preferably surrounded by a conductive shell to minimize electrical interference from external sources.

  1. In-line rotating capacitive torque sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-09-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for measuring torques developed along a rotating mechanical assembly comprising a rotating inner portion and a stationary outer portion. The rotating portion has an electrically-conductive flexing section fitted between two coaxial shafts in a configuration which varies radially in accordance with applied torque. The stationary portion comprises a plurality of conductive plates forming a surface concentric with and having a diameter slightly larger than the diameter of the rotating portion. The capacitance between the outer, nonrotating and inner, rotating portion varies with changes in the radial configuration of the rotating portion. Signal output varies approximately linearly with torque for small torques, nonlinearly for larger torques. The sensor is preferably surrounded by a conductive shell to minimize electrical interference from external sources. 18 figures.

  2. Mechanical coupling for a rotor shaft assembly of dissimilar materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shi, Jun (Glastonbury, CT); Bombara, David (New Hartford, CT); Green, Kevin E. (Broad Brook, CT); Bird, Connic (Rocky Hill, CT); Holowczak, John (South Windsor, CT)

    2009-05-05

    A mechanical coupling for coupling a ceramic disc member to a metallic shaft includes a first wedge clamp and a second wedge clamp. A fastener engages a threaded end of a tie-bolt to sandwich the ceramic disc between the wedge clamps. An axial spring is positioned between the fastener and the second wedge clamp to apply an axial preload along the longitudinal axis. Another coupling utilizes a rotor shaft end of a metallic rotor shaft as one wedge clamp. Still another coupling includes a solid ceramic rotor disc with a multiple of tie-bolts radially displaced from the longitudinal axis to exert the preload on the solid ceramic rotor disc.

  3. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, T.; Trojanowski, R.; Wei, G.

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  4. Generating power with waste wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkins, R.S.

    1995-02-01

    Among the biomass renewables, waste wood has great potential with environmental and economic benefits highlighting its resume. The topics of this article include alternate waste wood fuel streams; combustion benefits; waste wood comparisons; waste wood ash; pilot scale tests; full-scale test data; permitting difficulties; and future needs.

  5. STEO October 2012 - wood

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    that households across the U.S. use as a supplemental heating source. Almost half of all rural households use wood this way, in addition to using it for cooking or water heating

  6. James F. Wood

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    James F. Wood is currently Deputy Assistant Secretary for Clean Coal in the Office of Fossil Energy (FE). In this position, he is responsible for the management and direction of the Office's...

  7. Transportation fuels from wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.; Stevens, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    The various methods of producing transportation fuels from wood are evaluated in this paper. These methods include direct liquefaction schemes such as hydrolysis/fermentation, pyrolysis, and thermochemical liquefaction. Indirect liquefaction techniques involve gasification followed by liquid fuels synthesis such as methanol synthesis or the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The cost of transportation fuels produced by the various methods are compared. In addition, three ongoing programs at Pacific Northwest Laboratory dealing with liquid fuels from wood are described.

  8. Biomass: Wood as Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass: Wood as Energy Bureau of Indian Affairs Tribal Providers Conference Anchorage, Alaska 2 December 2015 Daniel J. Parrent R10 Biomass & Forest Stewardship Coordinator USDA Forest Service State & Private Forestry Alaska's Forest Resources Alaskans burn approximately 100,000 cords annually for heat Alaska has extensive forest resources: * approximately 120 million acres of forest land * approximately 3 million cords of wood grown annually * wildfires average 1-2 million acres

  9. Salt Repository Project shaft design guide: Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Shaft Design Guide (SDG) and the accompanying SRP Input to Seismic Design define the basic approach for developing appropriate shaft designs for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The SDG is based on current mining industry standards and practices enhanced to meet the special needs of an underground nuclear waste repository. It provides a common approach for design of both the exploratory and repository shafts. The SDG defines shaft lining and material concepts and presents methods for calculating the loads and displacements that will be imposed on lining structures. It also presents the methodology and formulae for sizing lining components. The SDG directs the shaft designer to sources of geoscience and seismic design data for the Deaf Smith County, Texas repository site. In addition, the SDG describes methods for confirming shaft lining design by means of computer analysis, and it discusses performance monitoring needs that must be considered in the design. 113 refs., 18 figs., 14 tabs.

  10. Rotating cylinder engine and method of operating the engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaich, W. A.

    1985-12-17

    Method and apparatus for producing rotation of a power output shaft comprises a plurality of peripherally spaced cylinders disposed in generally tangential relationship to the periphery of a housing defining a cylindrical fluid pressure chamber and connected at their inner ends to such fluid pressure chamber. The housing is mounted on, and co-rotatable with the output shaft. The gas pressure in such chamber is regulated to maintain a selected value above ambient. Cooperating pistons in each of the cylinders are interconnected by connecting rods to a unidirectional clutch mounted in the fluid pressure chamber on a fixed shaft, thus forcing the cylinders to rotate when pressured gas is introduced in the outer ends of the cylinders. Inlet and exhaust valves are provided in a cylinder head mounted in the outer end of each cylinder and are operable by contact with the outer face of the respective piston. A radial exhaust port is uncovered by each piston as it nears the end of its power stroke, thus reducing the fluid pressure on the outer piston face to ambient and permitting the regulated gas pressure in the fluid pressure chamber to effect the return of the pistons to their outermost positions relative to the respective cylinders, thus producing a net unidirectional torque on the housing to rotate the output shaft.

  11. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  12. Method of lining a vertical mine shaft with concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eklund, James D. (Mattawa, WA); Halter, Joseph M. (Richland, WA); Rasmussen, Donald E. (Spokane, WA); Sullivan, Robert G. (Richland, WA); Moffat, Robert B. (Federal Way, WA)

    1981-01-01

    The apparatus includes a cylindrical retainer form spaced inwardly of the wall of the shaft by the desired thickness of the liner to be poured and having overlapping edges which seal against concrete flow but permit the form to be contracted to a smaller circumference after the liner has hardened and is self-supporting. A curb ring extends downwardly and outwardly toward the shaft wall from the bottom of the retainer form to define the bottom surface of each poured liner section. An inflatable toroid forms a seal between the curb ring and the shaft wall. A form support gripper ring having gripper shoes laterally extendable under hydraulic power to engage the shaft wall supports the retainer form, curb ring and liner until the newly poured liner section becomes self-supporting. Adjusting hydraulic cylinders permit the curb ring and retainer form to be properly aligned relative to the form support gripper ring. After a liner section is self-supporting, an advancing system advances the retainer form, curb ring and form support gripper ring toward a shaft boring machine above which the liner is being formed. The advancing system also provides correct horizontal alignment of the form support gripper ring.

  13. Method and system for controlling a rotational speed of a rotor of a turbogenerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahlhut, Ronnie Dean; Vuk, Carl Thomas

    2008-12-30

    A system and method controls a rotational speed of a rotor or shaft of a turbogenerator in accordance with a present voltage level on a direct current bus. A lower threshold and a higher threshold are established for a speed of a rotor or shaft of a turbogenerator. A speed sensor determines speed data or a speed signal for the rotor or shaft associated with a turbogenerator. A voltage regulator adjusts a voltage level associated with a direct current bus within a target voltage range if the speed data or speed signal indicates that the speed is above the higher threshold or below the lower threshold.

  14. Skew And Twist Resistant Hydrodynamic Rotary Shaft Seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietle, Lannie; Kalsi, Manmohan Singh

    2000-03-14

    A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft seal suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion which incorporates one or more resilient protuberances which and cooperate with the gland walls to hold the seal straight in its installation groove in unpressurized and low pressure lubricant retention applications thereby preventing skew-induced wear caused by impingement of abrasive contaminants present in the environment, and which also serve as radial bearings to prevent tipping of the seal within its installation gland. Compared to prior art, this invention provides a dramatic reduction of seal and shaft wear in abrasive environments and provides a significant increase in seal life.

  15. Experimental and analytical study of rotating cavitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamijo, Kenjiro; Shimura, Takashi; Tsujimoto, Yoshinobu [National Aerospace Lab., Miyagi (Japan). Kakuda Research Center

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes experimental and analytical results of rotating cavitation. There are four major sections in this paper. The first section presents the main characteristics of rotating cavitation which was found in the inducer test using a water tunnel. The second section describes the rotating cavitation which occurred in the development test of an LE-7 liquid oxygen pump for the H-II rocket. Also described in this section is how the rotating cavitation was suppressed. The rotating cavitation was the cause of both super synchronous shaft vibration and an unstable head coefficient curve. The third section presents how the theory of rotating cavitation was developed. The final section shows the measured cavitation compliance and mass flow gain factor of the LE-7 pump inducer for comparison of the experimental and analytical results of the rotating cavitation of the LE-7 pump inducer. Almost all the information presented in this paper has already been reported by Kamijo et al. (1977, 1980, 1993, 1993) and by Shimura (1993). In the present paper, the authors attempt to combine and give a clear overview of the experimental and analytical results described in the previous papers to systematically show their experience and findings on rotating cavitation.

  16. Daniel Wood | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Daniel Wood About Us Daniel Wood - Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Daniel Wood Daniel Wood is the Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist in the Office of Public Affairs at the Department of Energy. He develops creative and interactive ways of viewing the Energy Department's vast array of data. You can check out some of his work here. Prior to joining the Energy.gov team, Daniel worked at a large PR firm in Washington, D.C, doing web development

  17. Interim reclamation report: Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploration shaft site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

    1990-02-01

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. Extensive studies of the geotechnical aspects of the site were undertaken, including preparations for drilling a large diameter Exploratory Shaft. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the Exploratory Shaft Facility, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 43 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Skew and twist resistant hydrodynamic rotary shaft seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietle, L.; Kalsi, M.S.

    1999-02-23

    A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft seal suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion which incorporates one or more resilient protuberances which cooperate with the gland walls to hold the seal straight in its installation groove in unpressurized and low pressure lubricant retention applications thereby preventing skew-induced wear caused by impingement of abrasive contaminants present in the environment, and which also serve as radial bearings to prevent tipping of the seal within its installation gland. 14 figs.

  19. Skew and twist resistant hydrodynamic rotary shaft seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietle, Lannie (Sugar Land, TX); Kalsi, Manmohan Singh (Houston, TX)

    1999-01-01

    A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft seal suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion which incorporates one or more resilient protuberances which and cooperate with the gland walls to hold the seal straight in its installation groove in unpressurized and low pressure lubricant retention applications thereby preventing skew-induced wear caused by impingement of abrasive contaminants present in the environment, and which also serve as radial bearings to prevent tipping of the seal within its installation gland.

  20. Wood3 Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wood3 Resources Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood3 Resources Place: Houston, Texas Zip: 77056-2409 Product: Wood3 Resources is an energy project development firm run by former...

  1. Comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-08-13

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (T.sub.D), and wherein at least one of L.sub.C, W.sub.C, and H.sub.C is greater than T.sub.D.

  2. Comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.

    2015-06-23

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, wherein W.sub.C>L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (T.sub.D), and wherein at least one of L.sub.C, W.sub.C, and H.sub.C is less than T.sub.D.

  3. Wanda Woods | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wanda Woods Budget & Resource Administrator Wanda Woods Argonne National Laboratory 9700 South Cass Avenue Building 240 - Wkstn. 1C9 Argonne, IL 60439 630-252-1353...

  4. Quantifying And Predicting Wood Quality Of Loblolly And Slash Pine Under Intensive Forest Management Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark III

    2006-05-04

    The forest industry will increasingly rely on fast-growing intensively managed southern pine plantations to furnish wood and fiber. Intensive silvicultural practices, including competition control, stand density control, fertilization, and genetic improvement are yielding tremendous gains in the quantity of wood production from commercial forest land. How these technologies affect wood properties was heretofore unknown, although there is concern about the suitability of fast-grown wood for traditional forest products. A four year study was undertaken to examine the effects of these intensive practices on the properties of loblolly and slash pine wood by applying a common sampling method over 10 existing field experiments. Early weed control gets young pines off to a rapid start, often with dramatically increased growth rates. This response is all in juvenile wood however, which is low in density and strength. Similar results are found with early Nitrogen fertilization at the time of planting. These treatments increase the proportion of juvenile wood in the tree. Later, mid-rotation fertilization with Nitrogen and Phosphorus can have long term (4-8 year) growth gains. Slight reductions in wood density are short-lived (1-2 years) and occur while the tree is producing dense, stiff mature wood. Impacts of mid-rotation fertilization on wood properties for manufacturing are estimated to be minimal. Genetic differences are evident in wood density and other properties. Single family plantings showed somewhat more uniform properties than bulk improved or unimproved seedlots. Selection of genetic sources with optimal wood properties may counter some of the negative impacts of intensive weed control and fertilization. This work will allow forest managers to better predict the effects of their practices on the quality of their final product.

  5. Final Reclamation Report: Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploratory shaft site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.

    1990-06-01

    The restoration of areas disturbed by activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) constitutes a unique operation at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site, both from the standpoint of restoration objectives and the time frame for accomplishing these objectives. The BWIP reclamation program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility (NSTF) reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) reclamation. The main focus of this report is on determining the success of the revegetation effort 1 year after work was completed. This report also provides a brief overview of the ESF reclamation program. 21 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  6. Fort Yukon Wood Energy Program: Wood Boiler Deployment

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fort Yukon Wood Energy Program: Wood Boiler Deployment Department of Energy Tribal Program Review Golden, Colorado March 26, 2014 Presented by: Kelda Britton CATG Department of Natural Resources Please contact me for a full list of citations. kelda@catg.org CATG is a consortium of 10 Gwich'in and Koyukon Athabascan tribes located throughout the Yukon Flats. Arctic Village, Beaver, Birch Creek, Canyon Village, Chalkyitsik, Circle, Fort Yukon, Rampart, Stevens Village and Venetie are the remote

  7. Fort Yukon Wood Energy Program: Wood Boiler Deployment

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Wood Energy Program: Wood Boiler Deployment Department of Energy Tribal Program Review Golden, Colorado May 7 2015 Presented by: Frannie Hughes Gwitchyaa Zhee Corporation CEO Work compiled by Kelda Britton, CATG NR Director Please contact me for a full list of citations. kelda@catg.org CATG is a consortium of 10 Gwich'in and Koyukon Athabascan tribes located throughout the Yukon Flats. Arctic Village, Beaver, Birch Creek, Canyon Village, Chalkyitsik, Circle, Fort Yukon, Rampart, Stevens Village

  8. Hydrodynamically Lubricated Rotary Shaft Having Twist Resistant Geometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietle, Lannie; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.

    1993-07-27

    A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft with a cross-sectional geometry suitable for pressurized lubricant retention is provided which, in the preferred embodiment, incorporates a protuberant static sealing interface that, compared to prior art, dramatically improves the exclusionary action of the dynamic sealing interface in low pressure and unpressurized applications by achieving symmetrical deformation of the seal at the static and dynamic sealing interfaces. In abrasive environments, the improved exclusionary action results in a dramatic reduction of seal and shaft wear, compared to prior art, and provides a significant increase in seal life. The invention also increases seal life by making higher levels of initial compression possible, compared to prior art, without compromising hydrodynamic lubrication; this added compression makes the seal more tolerant of compression set, abrasive wear, mechanical misalignment, dynamic runout, and manufacturing tolerances, and also makes hydrodynamic seals with smaller cross-sections more practical. In alternate embodiments, the benefits enumerated above are achieved by cooperative configurations of the seal and the gland which achieve symmetrical deformation of the seal at the static and dynamic sealing interfaces. The seal may also be configured such that predetermined radial compression deforms it to a desired operative configuration, even through symmetrical deformation is lacking.

  9. Stanford - Woods Institute for the Environment | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stanford - Woods Institute for the Environment Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Stanford- Woods Institute for the Environment Name: Stanford- Woods Institute for the Environment...

  10. Processes change the look of wood fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1980-06-01

    The various forms of wood-derived fuels are reviewed, these include briquetted and pelleted wood products. Charcoal, obtained by pyrolysis has a heating value one and a half times the equivalent weight of the dry wood from which it was made. By process modifications, more oil and gas may be produced instead of charcoal. At Albany, Oregon two barrels of oil are produced daily by hydrogenation of one ton of dry wood chips. It is stated that methanol can be synthesized from solid wood - by wood gasification - with a 38% energy efficiency while ethanol can also be made from wood. The use of wood fuels for electric power generation and cogeneration are also mentioned.

  11. Processes change the look of wood fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1980-06-01

    The various forms of wood-derived fuels are reviewed; these include briquetted and pelleted wood products. Charcoal, obtained by pyrolysis has a heating value one and a half times the equivalent weight of the dry wood from which it was made. By process modifications, more oil and gas may be produced instead of charcoal. At Albany, Oregon two barrels of oil are produced daily by hydrogenation of one ton of dry wood chips. It is stated that methanol can be synthesized from solid wood - by wood gasification - with a 38% energy efficiency while ethanol can also be made from wood. The use of wood fuels for electric power generation and cogeneration are also mentioned.

  12. Duffield Wood Pellets | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Duffield Wood Pellets Jump to: navigation, search Name: Duffield Wood Pellets Place: North Yorkshire, United Kingdom Zip: HG4 5JB Product: A Yorkshire-based, family-run producer of...

  13. Wood To Fuel LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    To Fuel LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood To Fuel LLC Place: Lackawana, New York Zip: 14208 Product: Wood fuelproduct supplier. Coordinates: 41.401932, -75.637848...

  14. Marcia A. Wood | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marcia A. Wood Group Leader, Information Solutions and Technology Assurance B.S. Computer Science, University of St. Francis Telephone 630.252.4656 Fax 630.252.6866 E-mail wood

  15. Rotary Shaft Power Extraction From a Free-Piston Engine | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Rotary Shaft Power Extraction From a Free-Piston Engine Rotary Shaft Power Extraction From a Free-Piston Engine A mechanical rectifier using modern high-performance mechanical diodes can improve direct rotary shaft power output. PDF icon deer08_fitzgerald.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Combustion/Modeling and Analysis Toward HCCI/PCCI in a 60% Efficient Free-Piston Engine Advanced Combustion/Modeling and Analysis Toward HCCI/PCCI in a 60% Efficient Free-Piston Engine

  16. A nonlinear calculation of rotating cavitation in inducers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, Y. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering]|[National Aerospace Lab., Kakuda, Miyagi (Japan); Watanabe, S.; Yoshida, Y. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Kamijo, K. [National Aerospace Lab., Kakuda, Miyagi (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    In the previous linear analysis (Tsujimoto et al., 1993) it was found that there can be a backward rotating cavitation as well as a forward mode which rotates faster than impeller. Although some shaft vibration has been observed, which might be caused by the backward mode, experimental evidence has been obtained only for the forward mode. The purpose of the present study is to find out the factors which determine the amplitude of each mode of rotating cavitation by taking into account several nonlinearities. A time marching nonlinear 2-D flow analysis was carried out for this purpose. It was found that the increase of cavitation compliance at lower inlet pressure can be a factor which limits the amplitude. The mode selectivity is mainly dependent on the stability limit obtained by a linear analysis for which the phase delay of cavity has a most important effect.

  17. Wood and Pellet Heating | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat & Cool » Home Heating Systems » Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and Pellet Heating A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie Today you can choose from a new generation of wood- and pellet-burning appliances that are cleaner burning, more efficient, and powerful enough to heat many average-sized, modern homes. Pellet fuel appliances burn small pellets that measure 3/8 to 1

  18. Wood and Pellet Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Home Heating Systems » Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and Pellet Heating A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie Today you can choose from a new generation of wood- and pellet-burning appliances that are cleaner burning, more efficient, and powerful enough to heat many average-sized, modern homes. Pellet fuel appliances burn small pellets that measure 3/8 to 1 inch in length.

  19. Fort Yukon Wood Energy Program: Wood Boiler Deployment

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    By: Karonhiakta'tie Bryan Maracle and Bill Wall - Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments (CATG) - Consortia of 10 Tribal Governments of Interior Alaska - Gwitchyaa Zhee Corporation (GZ Corp) - Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act Village Corporation - Alaska Village Initiatives (AVI) - Rural Alaska economic development organization - First off grid, off road system biomass CHP in the world - 8 miles north of the Arctic Circle - New Power House - Wood Chip Boiler - District Heating loop

  20. 2013-01 "Action in Analysis of Disposal Pathways for Disposition of 33 Shafts"

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Approved January 30, 2013 The intent of this Recommendation 2013‐01 remains the same as 2010‐01, namely to discourage inaction in addressing the permanent disposition of the 33 shafts.

  1. Comminution process to produce engineered wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from veneer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Comminution process of wood veneer to produce wood particles, by feeding wood veneer in a direction of travel substantially normal to grain through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of veneer travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (Td), to produce wood particles characterized by a length dimension (L) substantially equal to the Td and aligned substantially parallel to grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) substantially equal to the veneer thickness (Tv) and aligned normal to W and L, wherein the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces with end checking between crosscut fibers.

  2. From the Woods to the Refinery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Woods to the Refinery CORRIM Life Cycle Analyses of Woody Feedstocks Dr. Steve Kelley Dr. Elaine Oneil President, CORRIM Executive Director, CORRIM Professor North Carolina State Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials A non-profit corporation formed by 17 research institutions to conduct cradle to grave environmental studies of wood products * Seventeen years of LCI/LCA work on durable wood products * Biofuel LCI/LCA research support from: * Eight institutions/cooperators

  3. Stud hardware with self-contained stud anti-rotation feature and method of installing studs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kartik, J.S.; Richardson, W.M.

    1984-03-14

    Disclosed herein is a method and apparatus for preventing the rotation of a stud member during preloading. The apparatus comprises a stud member having a shaft portion extending into the member to be clamped and a hex or double hex portion carrying a locking nut. Extending outward from the hex or double hex portion of the stud there is a threaded portion carrying a nut which is torqued to preload the stud

  4. Wood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 43.568752, -90.330887 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice"...

  5. Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Scotland, United Kingdom Zip: AB30 1PA Product: Wood pellet producer. Coordinates: 56.932781, -2.42531 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlema...

  6. Grant F. Wood | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grant F. Wood Consultant - Project Management 9700 S. Cass Avenue Building 240 / Wkstn. 3D18 Argonne, IL 60439 630-252-5315 gfwood

  7. Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Total cost, exclusive of taxes, interest and other finance charges Summary This incentive allows Arizona taxpayers to deduct the cost of converting an existing wood fireplace to a ...

  8. Measurements and modeling of surface waves in drilled shafts in rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalinski, M.E.; Stokoe, K.H. II; Roesset, J.M.; Cheng, D.S.

    1999-07-01

    Seismic testing was conducted in the WIPP facility in November 1994 by personnel from the Geotechnical Engineering Center at the University of Texas at Austin. Surface wave measurements were made in horizontal drilled shafts in rock salt to characterize the stiffness of the rock around the shafts. The Spectral-Analysis-of-Surface-Waves (SASW) method was used to determine dispersion curves of surface wave velocity versus wavelength. Dispersion curves were measured for surface waves propagating axially and circumferentially in the shafts. Surface wave velocities determined from axial testing increased slightly with increasing wavelength due to the cylindrical geometry of the shafts. On the other hand, surface wave velocities determined from circumferential testing exhibited a completely different type of geometry-induced dispersion. In both instances, finite-element forward modeling of the experimental dispersion curves revealed the presence of a thin, slightly softer disturbed rock zone (DRZ) around the shafts. This phenomenon has been previously confirmed by crosshole and other seismic measurements and is generally associated with relaxation of the individual salt crystals after confirming stress is relieved by excavation.

  9. Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Wood Residues and Wood-Related Pulping Liquor Wood Byproducts and NAICS or Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly from Mill Paper-Related Code(a) Subsector and Industry Black Liquor Total(b) Waste(c) from Trees(d) Processing(e) Refuse(f) Total United States 311 Food 0 44 43 * * 1 311221 Wet Corn Milling 0 1 1 0 0 0

  10. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report on the March 27, 1998, Rotating Shaft Accident at the Ames Laboratory, Ames, Iowa

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report is an independent product of the Type B Accident Investigation Board appointed by John Kennedy, Acting Manager, Chicago Operations Office, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  11. Rachel Woods-Robinson | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Woods-Robinson About Us Rachel Woods-Robinson - Guest Blogger, Cycle for Science Most Recent Rain or Shine: We Cycle for Science July 2 Mountains, and Teachers, and a Bear, Oh My! June 2 Sol-Cycle: Biking Across America for Science Education May

  12. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Little Valley Area (Wood,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Little Valley Area (Wood,...

  13. Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Jump to: navigation, search Name Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Facility Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Sector Wind energy...

  14. Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota Baudette, Minnesota Roosevelt, Minnesota Williams, Minnesota Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLakeoftheWoodsC...

  15. Alaska Wood Biomass Energy Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonathan Bolling

    2009-03-02

    The purpose of the Craig Wood Fired Boiler Project is to use waste wood from local sawmilling operations to provide heat to local public buildings, in an effort to reduce the cost of operating those buildings, and put to productive use a byproduct from the wood milling process that otherwise presents an expense to local mills. The scope of the project included the acquisition of a wood boiler and the delivery systems to feed wood fuel to it, the construction of a building to house the boiler and delivery systems, and connection of the boiler facility to three buildings that will benefit from heat generated by the boiler: the Craig Aquatic Center, the Craig Elementary School, and the Craig Middle School buildings.

  16. Project Profile: Long-Shafted Molten Salt Pump | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Long-Shafted Molten Salt Pump Project Profile: Long-Shafted Molten Salt Pump Pratt Whitney Rocketdyne logo Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR), under the CSP R&D FOA, is validating the manufacturability of a large-scale molten salt receiver panel and then confirming its operation in prototypic solar flux. This work is an important step in reducing the LCOE from a central receiver solar power plant. Approach Image of PWR's design for an advanced molten salt receiver panel for a large

  17. Solvolytic liquefaction of wood under mild conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, S.M.

    1982-04-01

    Conversion of wood to liquid products requires cleavage of bonds which crosslink the wood structure. This study examines a low-severity wood solubilization process utilizing a solvent medium consisting of a small amount of sulfuric acid and a potentially wood-derivable alcohol. In one half hour of reaction time at 250/sup 0/C under 15 psia starting nitrogen pressure, over 95% of the wood (maf) was rendered acetone-soluble. The product is a soft, black, bitumen-like solid at room temperature but readily softens at 140/sup 0/C. Between 25 and 50% of the original wood oxygen, depending on alcohol used, was removed as water. Approximately 2 to 17% of the alcohols were retained in the product. Gel permeation chromatography showed that the product's median molecular weight is around 300. Based on experimental and literature results, a mechanism for wood solubilization is proposed. This involves protonation of the etheric oxygen atoms, leading to subsequent bond scission to form carbonium ions which are stabilized by solvent alkoxylation. At severe conditions, polymerization and condensation reactions result in acetone-insoluble materials.

  18. Wood fuel in fluidized bed boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virr, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Development of fluidized bed fire-tube and water-tube boilers for the burning of wood, gas, and refuse-derived fuel will be reviewed. Experience gained in already installed plants will be outlined. Research experiments results on the use of various forms of wood and other biomass fuels, such as wood chips, pellets, peach pits, nut shells and kernels and refuse-derived fuels, will be described for small and medium sized fire-tube boilers, and for larger water-tube boilers for co-generation. (Refs. 4).

  19. Rotary electrical contact device and method for providing current to and/or from a rotating member

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2013-11-19

    Examples of rotary electrical connectors include a first pair and a second pair of opposing sheaves coupled together by intersecting first shaft connecting the first pair of opposing sheaves and a second shaft connecting the second pair of opposing sheaves, and at least partially electrically conductive belt disposed about respective perimeters of the first pair and second pair of opposing sheaves and adapted to remain in contact with at least a portion of the respective perimeters of the sheaves during motion of said sheaves. In example devices, one of the plurality of sheaves may remain stationary during operation of the device while the remaining sheaves rotate and/or orbit around a center axis of the stationary sheave, the device being configured to couple current between a stationary power source and a rotating member through the electrically conductive belt.

  20. Marin County- Wood Stove Replacement Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Homes in the San Geronimo Valley (Forest Knolls, Lagunitas, San Geronimo, and Woodacre) can receive a rebate of $1,500 for the removal and replacement of non-certified wood burning appliances with...

  1. Wood Energy Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood Energy Ltd Place: Devon, United Kingdom Zip: EX16 9EU Product: Specialises in the design, installation and service of automatic...

  2. From the Woods to the Refinery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2D—Building Market Confidence and Understanding II: Carbon Accounting and Woody Biofuels From the Woods to the Refinery Stephen S. Kelley, Principal and Department Head, Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University

  3. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in wind can make electricity. Bioenergy comes from plants we can turn into fuel. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass We can use energy from the earth to heat and cool our...

  4. Wood Fuel LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    77034 Region: Texas Area Sector: Biomass Product: Wood by-products consulting and marketing Website: www.woodfuel.com Coordinates: 29.6221328, -95.1872605 Show Map Loading...

  5. Wood and Pellet Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wood and Pellet Heating Basics Wood and Pellet Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:02pm Addthis Wood-burning and pellet fuel appliances use biomass or waste resources to heat homes or buildings. Types of Wood- and Pellet-Burning Appliances The following is a brief overview of the different types of wood and pellet fuel appliances available. High-Efficiency Fireplaces and Fireplace Inserts Designed more for show, traditional open masonry fireplaces should not be considered heating devices.

  6. Diamagnetism of rotating plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, W. C.; Hassam, A. B.; Romero-Talamas, C. A.; Ellis, R. F.; Teodorescu, C.

    2011-11-15

    Diamagnetism and magnetic measurements of a supersonically rotating plasma in a shaped magnetic field demonstrate confinement of plasma pressure along the magnetic field resulting from centrifugal force. The Grad-Shafranov equation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic force balance, including supersonic rotation, is solved to confirm that the predicted angular velocity is in agreement with spectroscopic measurements of the Doppler shifts.

  7. Rotatable seal assembly. [Patent application; rotating targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, C.M.; Garibaldi, J.L.

    1980-11-12

    An assembly is provided for rotatably supporting a rotor on a stator so that vacuum chambers in the rotor and stator remain in communication while the chambers are sealed from ambient air, which enables the use of a ball bearing or the like to support most of the weight of the rotor. The apparatus includes a seal device mounted on the rotor to rotate therewith, but shiftable in position on the rotor while being sealed to the rotor as by an O-ring. The seal device has a flat face that is biased towards a flat face on the stator, and pressurized air is pumped between the faces to prevent contact between them while spacing them a small distance apart to avoid the inflow of large amounts of air between the faces and into the vacuum chambers.

  8. On rapid plasma rotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helander, P.

    2007-10-15

    The conditions under which rapid plasma rotation may occur in a general three-dimensional magnetic field with flux surfaces, such as that of a stellarator, are investigated. Rotation velocities comparable to the ion thermal speed are found to be attainable only in magnetic fields whose strength B depends on the arc length l along the field in approximately the same way for all field lines on each flux surface {psi}, i.e., B{approx_equal}f({psi},l). Moreover, it is shown that the rotation must be in the direction of the vector {nabla}{psi}x{nabla}B.

  9. Rotational rate sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Steven L. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

  10. Rotating arc spark plug

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whealton, John H.; Tsai, Chin-Chi

    2003-05-27

    A spark plug device includes a structure for modification of an arc, the modification including arc rotation. The spark plug can be used in a combustion engine to reduce emissions and/or improve fuel economy. A method for operating a spark plug and a combustion engine having the spark plug device includes the step of modifying an arc, the modifying including rotating the arc.

  11. Electromagnetic rotational actuation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, Alexander Lee

    2010-08-01

    There are many applications that need a meso-scale rotational actuator. These applications have been left by the wayside because of the lack of actuation at this scale. Sandia National Laboratories has many unique fabrication technologies that could be used to create an electromagnetic actuator at this scale. There are also many designs to be explored. In this internship exploration of the designs and fabrications technologies to find an inexpensive design that can be used for prototyping the electromagnetic rotational actuator.

  12. Seal assembly with anti-rotation pin for high pressure supercritical fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Steven A.; Fuller, Robert L.

    2014-08-05

    A seal assembly for sealing a machine with a first chamber and a second chamber is provided. A rotating shaft extends through the first and second chambers, and rotates therein. The seal assembly has a seal housing, a seal ring and a seal pin. The seal housing is positionable in the machine housing. The seal housing has a seal pocket extending into a fluid side thereof, and a housing receptacle extending into an inner diameter thereof at the seal pocket. The seal ring is positionable in the seal pocket of the seal housing for forming a seal therewith. The seal ring has a ring receptacle extending into an outer diameter thereof. The ring receptacle is positionable adjacent to the housing receptacle for defining a pin hole therebetween. The seal pin is loosely positionable in the pin hole whereby movement about the seal ring is accommodated while preventing rotation thereof.

  13. Stud hardware with self-contained stud anti-rotation feature and method of installing studs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kartik, John S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Richardson, William M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a method and apparatus for preventing the rotation of a stud member during preloading. The apparatus comprises a stud member having a shaft portion extending into the member to be clamped and a hex or double hex portion carrying a locking nut. Extending outward from the hex or double hex portion of the stud there is a threaded portion carrying a nut which is torqued to preload the stud. Between the locking nut and the member to be clamped is a locking ring which engages the locking nut to prevent the stud from rotating during preloading. Also disclosed is a method of preloading a stud without the use of an external restraint to prevent the stud from rotating when a torque is applied.

  14. Rotating superconductor magnet for producing rotating lobed magnetic field lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hilal, Sadek K. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ); Sampson, William B. (Bellport, NY); Leonard, Edward F. (Leonia, NJ)

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a rotating superconductor magnet for producing a rotating lobed magnetic field, comprising a cryostat; a superconducting magnet in the cryostat having a collar for producing a lobed magnetic field having oppositely directed adjacent field lines; rotatable support means for selectively rotating the superconductor magnet; and means for energizing the superconductor magnet.

  15. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  16. A nonlinear calculation of rotating cavitation in inducers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Yoshida, Y. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan); Kamijo, K. [Kakuda Research Center (Japan). Rocket Propulsion Division

    1994-12-31

    In the previous linear analysis (Tsujimoto et al., 1993) it was found that there can be a backward rotating cavitation as well as a forward mode which rotates faster than impeller. Although some shaft vibration has been observed which might be caused by the backward mode, experimental evidence has been obtained only for the forward mode. The ultimate goal of the present study is to answer the question which mode of the cavitation instabilities -- cavitation surge and the two modes of rotating cavitation -- occurs in a given system and operating condition, and to find out analytical method to determine their amplitude. A time marching non-linear 2-D flow analysis was carried out for this purpose. It was found that the increase of cavitation compliance at lower inlet pressure can be a factor which limits the amplitude. The mode selectivity is mainly dependent on the stability limit obtained by a linear analysis for which the phase delay of cavity has a most important effect.

  17. Method of predicting mechanical properties of decayed wood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-07-15

    A method for determining the mechanical properties of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms, comprising: a) illuminating a surface of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms with wavelengths from visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectra; b) analyzing the surface of the decayed wood using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra region; and c) using a multivariate analysis to predict mechanical properties of decayed wood by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra obtained from a reference decay wood, the second spectral data being correlated with a known mechanical property analytical result obtained from the reference decayed wood.

  18. City of Wood River, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    City of Wood River, Nebraska (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood River Municipal Power Place: Nebraska Phone Number: 308.583-2515; 308-583-2066 Website:...

  19. Wood County Electric Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wood County Electric Coop, Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood County Electric Coop, Inc Place: Texas Phone Number: 1-866-415-2951 Website: www.wcec.org Facebook: https:...

  20. Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    composite materials that can be used in wood products such as furniture components or building materials. Paris's ALS research is funded by the Wood-Based Composites Center (WBC),...

  1. New England Wood Pellet LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pellet LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: New England Wood Pellet LLC Place: Jaffrey, New Hampshire Zip: NH 03452 Product: New England Wood Pellet LLC is a manufacturer and...

  2. One on One - Douglas K Woods | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    One on One - Douglas K Woods One on One - Douglas K Woods A September 2014 interview with Douglas K Woods, the President of the Association for Manufacturing Technology, on the state of US manufacturing. PDF icon One on One - Douglas K Woods More Documents & Publications Printing a Car: A Team Effort in Innovation Printing a Car: A Team Effort in Innovation Advanced Microturbine System: Market Assessment, May 2003 Green Leasing Deployment Portfolio - 2014 BTO Peer Review

  3. Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"S e l e c t e d","W o o d","a n d","W o o d -","R e l a t e d","P r o d u c t s" ,,,,,"B i o m a s s" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " ","

  4. Table N5.2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"S e l e c t e d","W o o d","a n d","W o o d -","R e l a t e d","P r o d u c t s" ,,,,,"B i o m a s s" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " ","

  5. Fast Curing of Composite Wood Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2006-04-26

    The overall objective of this program is to develop low temperature curing technologies for UF and PF resins. This will be accomplished by: Identifying the rate limiting UF and PF curing reactions for current market resins; Developing new catalysts to accelerate curing reactions at reduced press temperatures and times. In summary, these new curing technologies will improve the strength properties of the composite wood products and minimize the detrimental effects of wood extractives on the final product while significantly reducing energy costs for wood composites. This study is related to the accelerated curing of resins for wood composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), particle board (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). The latter is frequently manufactured with a phenol-formaldehyde resin whereas ureaformaldehyde (UF) resins are usually used in for the former two grades of composite wood products. One of the reasons that hinder wider use of these resins in the manufacturing of wood composites is the slow curing speed as well as inferior bondability of UF resin. The fast curing of UP and PF resins has been identified as an attractive process development that would allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures that currently employed. Several differing additives have been developed to enhance cure rates of PF resins including the use of organic esters, lactones and organic carbonates. A model compound study by Conner, Lorenz and Hirth (2002) employed 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol with organic esters to examine the chemical basis for the reported enhanced reactivity. Their studies suggested that the enhance curing in the presence of esters could be due to enhanced quinone methide formation or enhanced intermolecular SN2 reactions. In either case the esters do not function as true catalysts as they are consumed in the reaction and were not found to be incorporated in the polymerized resin product. An alternative approach to accelerated PF curing can be accomplished with the addition amines or amides. The later functionality undergoes base catalyzed hydrolysis yielding the corresponding carboxyl ate and free amine which rapidly reacts with the phenolic methylol groups facilitating polymerization and curing of the PF resin (Pizzi, 1997).

  6. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Brent J. (West Richland, WA); Coomes, Edmund P. (West Richland, WA)

    1988-12-06

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  7. Rotating flexible drag mill

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pepper, W.B.

    1984-05-09

    A rotating parachute for decelerating objects travelling through atmosphere at subsonic or supersonic deployment speeds includes a circular canopy having a plurality of circumferentially arranged flexible panels projecting radially from a solid central disk. A slot extends radially between adjacent panels to the outer periphery of the canopy. Upon deployment, the solid disk diverts air radially to rapidly inflate the panels into a position of maximum diameter. Air impinging on the panels adjacent the panel slots rotates the parachute during its descent. Centrifugal force flattens the canopy into a constant maximum diameter during terminal descent for maximum drag and deceleration.

  8. Rotating shielded crane system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Commander, John C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1988-01-01

    A rotating, radiation shielded crane system for use in a high radiation test cell, comprises a radiation shielding wall, a cylindrical ceiling made of radiation shielding material and a rotatable crane disposed above the ceiling. The ceiling rests on an annular ledge intergrally attached to the inner surface of the shielding wall. Removable plugs in the ceiling provide access for the crane from the top of the ceiling into the test cell. A seal is provided at the interface between the inner surface of the shielding wall and the ceiling.

  9. Measurement of wood/plant cell or composite material attributes with computer assisted tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Darrell C.; Paulus, Michael J.; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Wimmer, Rupert

    2004-06-08

    A method for obtaining wood-cell attributes from cellulose containing samples includes the steps of radiating a cellulose containing sample with a beam of radiation. Radiation attenuation information is collected from radiation which passes through the sample. The source is rotated relative to the sample and the radiation and collecting steps repeated. A projected image of the sample is formed from the collected radiation attenuation information, the projected image including resolvable features of the cellulose containing sample. Cell wall thickness, cell diameter (length) and cell vacoule diameter can be determined. A system for obtaining physical measures from cellulose containing samples includes a radiation source, a radiation detector, and structure for rotating the source relative to said sample. The system forms an image of the sample from the radiation attenuation information, the image including resolvable features of the sample.

  10. Rotatable stem and lock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deveney, J.E.; Sanderson, S.N.

    1981-10-27

    A valve stem and lock is disclosed which includes a housing surrounding a valve stem, a solenoid affixed to an interior wall of the housing, an armature affixed to the valve stem and a locking device for coupling the armature to the housing body. When the solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves away from the housing body, permitting rotation of the valve stem.

  11. High-Speed Shaft Bearing Loads Testing and Modeling in the NREL Gearbox Reliability Collaborative: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNiff, B.; Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; Sethuraman, L.

    2014-12-01

    Bearing failures in the high speed output stage of the gearbox are plaguing the wind turbine industry. Accordingly, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) has performed an experimental and theoretical investigation of loads within these bearings. The purpose of this paper is to describe the instrumentation, calibrations, data post-processing and initial results from this testing and modeling effort. Measured HSS torque, bending, and bearing loads are related to model predictions. Of additional interest is examining if the shaft measurements can be simply related to bearing load measurements, eliminating the need for invasive modifications of the bearing races for such instrumentation.

  12. Simplified simulation of the transient behavior of temperatures in the upper shaft of the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxen, H.

    1998-06-01

    The blast furnace is the principal process in the world for production of iron for primary steelmaking. The furnace acts as a huge countercurrent heat exchange and chemical reactor with complicated heat and mass transfer phenomena and chemical reactions. The flows of burden and gas in the blast furnace shaft strongly affect the fuel economy of the process. An optimal gas flow distribution, which is obtained by controlling the burden distribution, leads to a high utilization degree of the reducing gas, smooth burden descent, and little wear of the furnace lining. Here, a one-dimensional dynamic model of the upper part of the blast furnace shaft is applied to study the evolution of gas and burden temperatures, mainly in order to shed light on the transient phenomena after charging dumps of burden. The effects of irregularities in the burden descent and charging are also studied briefly. The simulations demonstrate that the temperatures of the burden layers in the lower part of the simulated region assume a quasi-steady state, indicating that the changes in the top gas temperature experienced immediately after a dump of burden arise primarily because of heat transfer between the gas and the dump. These results support the idea that such temporary changes can be interpreted in terms of distribution of the dumps on the burden surface.

  13. Correlation of drillhole and shaft logs. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project, southeastern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarolimek, L.; Timmer, M.J.; Powers, D.W.

    1983-03-01

    This report on stratigraphic correlations from drillhole and shaft data along a generally north-south section across the potential extent of underground excavations of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility was prepared as part of the Site Validation Field Program Plan. The results provide (1) input for the report entitled ''Results of Site Validation Experiments,'' (2) input for other WIPP-related investigations, including the Design Validation Program, and (3) a framework for further underground activities at WIPP. In general, this correlation study confirmed previous findings, including: relatively high consistency of thickness and lateral continuity of all beds within the Salado Formation, especially in the host rock interval; gentle, generally south and southeastward dips/slopes of the host rock interval strata; close correspondence between stratigraphic data obtained from the present underground excavations and data derived from the previous investigative drillholes and shafts; and depositional origin of the undulations on the top of Marker Bed (MB) 139 and relatively small variation in its thickness (1.2 to 4.1 feet).

  14. Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments - Wood Energy Program in the Yukon Flats Region

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Collaborative Integrated Wood Energy Program for Fort Yukon Implementation DOE Tribal Energy Program 2 0 November 2008 Gwitchyaa Zhee Corporation CATG - AWEA For-Profit Wood Energy Business Model Fort Yukon * Forest Management Service - CATG * For-Profit Wood Utility Company - Vertically Integrated * Gwitchyaa Zhee Native Corporation - Wood Harvest Company - Village Wood Yard/Distribution Company - Wood Energy Utility - Diesel Biomass - Wood diesel hybrid power plant CHP - still dreaming for

  15. Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments - Wood Energy Program in the Yukon Flats Region

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Collaborative Integrated Wood Energy Program for Fort Yukon Implementation DOE Tribal Energy Program 2 0 November 2008 Gwitchyaa Zhee Corporation CATG - AWEA For-Profit Wood Energy Business Model Fort Yukon * Forest Management Service - CATG * For-Profit Wood Utility Company - Vertically Integrated * Gwitchyaa Zhee Native Corporation - Wood Harvest Company - Village Wood Yard/Distribution Company - Wood Energy Utility - Diesel Biomass - Wood diesel hybrid power plant CHP - still dreaming for

  16. Rotatable seal assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, Clinton M. (Pleasanton, CA); Garibaldi, Jack L. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    An assembly is provided for rotatably supporting a rotor on a stator so that vacuum chambers in the rotor and stator remain in communication while the chambers are sealed from ambient air, which enables the use of a ball bearing or the like to support most of the weight of the rotor. The apparatus includes a seal device mounted on the rotor to rotate therewith, but shiftable in position on the rotor while being sealed to the rotor as by an O-ring. The seal device has a flat face that is biased towards a flat face on the stator, and pressurized air is pumped between the faces to prevent contact between them while spacing them a small distance apart to avoid the inflow of large amounts of air between the faces and into the vacuum chambers.

  17. Operational results of shaft repair by installing stave type cooler at Kimitsu Nos. 3 and 4 blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oda, Hiroshi; Amano, Shigeru; Sakamoto, Aiichiro; Anzai, Osamu; Nakagome, Michiru; Kuze, Toshisuke; Imuta, Akira

    1997-12-31

    Nos. 3 and 4 blast furnaces in Nippon Steel Corporation Kimitsu Works were both initially fitted with cooling plate systems. With the aging of each furnace, the damage to their respective inner-shaft profiles had become serious. Thus, in order to prevent operational change and prolong the furnace life, the inner-shaft profile of each furnace was repaired by replacing the former cooling plate system with the stave type cooler during the two-week-shutdowns. With this repair, stability of burden descent and gas flow near the wall part of the furnace have been achieved. Thus the prolongation of the furnace life is naturally expected.

  18. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  19. Transcriptome and Biochemical Analyses of Fungal Degradation of Wood

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Transcriptome and Biochemical Analyses of Fungal Degradation of Wood Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Transcriptome and Biochemical Analyses of Fungal Degradation of Wood Lignocellulosic accounts for a large percentage of material that can be utilized for biofuels. The most costly part of lignocellulosic material processing is the initial hydrolysis of the wood which is needed to circumvent the lignin barrier and the crystallinity of cellulose.

  20. Massachusetts Schools Switch to Wood Pellets | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Massachusetts Schools Switch to Wood Pellets Massachusetts Schools Switch to Wood Pellets August 20, 2015 - 5:22pm Addthis Art created by a student at John Briggs Elementary School as part of their recent Green Ceremony. John Briggs Elementary is one of the Massachusetts schools switching their heating fuel source from petroleum based fuels to wood pellets. Art created by a student at John Briggs Elementary School as part of their recent Green Ceremony. John Briggs Elementary is one of the

  1. International WoodFuels LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Maine Zip: 4101 Product: Maine-based pellet producer and installer of commercial wood pellet heating systems. Coordinates: 45.511795, -122.675629 Show Map Loading map......

  2. Wood-Burning Heating System Deduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Alabama Program Type Rebate Amount 100% Summary This statute allows individual taxpayers a deduction for the purchase and installation of a wood-burning heating system. The...

  3. Title: Ames Blue Alert- Wood Cabinet Falls Apart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ames Blue Alert- Wood Cabinet Falls Apart Lessons Learned Statement- Cumulative damage can cause a loss of structural integrity. When furnishings are repeatedly exposed to water,...

  4. Water Sampling At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  5. Water Sampling At Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  6. Water Sampling At Alvord Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Alvord Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  7. Water Sampling At Beowawe Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Beowawe Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  8. Water Sampling At Salton Sea Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Salton Sea Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Salton...

  9. Water Sampling At Mccredie Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Mccredie Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  10. Water Sampling At Umpqua Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Umpqua Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  11. Water Sampling At Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity...

  12. Water Sampling At Heber Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Heber Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Heber Area...

  13. Water Sampling At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  14. Water Sampling At Crane Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Crane Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  15. Water Sampling At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  16. Building America Case Study: Retrofit Measure for Embedded Wood...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Existing Homes Building America Case Study Retrofit Measures for Embedded Wood Members in Insulated Mass Masonry Walls Lawrence, Massachusetts PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: The...

  17. Digital rotation measurement unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanderson, S.N.

    1983-09-30

    A digital rotation indicator is disclosed for monitoring the position of a valve member having a movable actuator. The indicator utilizes mercury switches adapted to move in cooperation with the actuator. Each of the switches produces an output as it changes state when the actuator moves. A direction detection circuit is connected to the switches to produce a first digital signal indicative of the direction of rotation of the actuator. A count pulse generating circuit is also connected to the switches to produce a second digital pulse signal having count pulses corresponding to a change of state of any of the mercury switches. A reset pulse generating circuit is provided to generate a reset pulse each time a count pulse is generated. An up/down counter is connected to receive the first digital pulse signal and the second digital pulse signal and to count the pulses of the second digital pulse signal either up or down depending upon the instantaneous digital value of the first digital signal whereby a running count indicative of the movement of the actuator is maintained.

  18. Rotating drum filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anson, Donald (Worthington, OH)

    1990-01-01

    A perforated drum (10) rotates in a coaxial cylindrical housing (18) having three circumferential ports (19,22,23), and an axial outlet (24) at one end. The axis (11) is horizontal. A fibrous filter medium (20) is fed through a port (19) on or near the top of the housing (81) by a distributing mechanism (36) which lays a uniform mat (26) of the desired thickness onto the rotating drum (10). This mat (26) is carried by the drum (10) to a second port (23) through which dirty fluid (13) enters. The fluid (13) passes through the filter (26) and the cleaned stream (16) exits through the open end (15) of the drum (10) and the axial port (24) in the housing (18). The dirty filter material (20) is carried on to a third port (22) near the bottom of the housing (18) and drops into a receiver (31) from which it is continuously removed, cleaned (30), and returned (32) to the charging port (36) at the top. To support the filter mat, the perforated cylinder may carry a series of tines (40), shaped blades (41), or pockets, so that the mat (26) will not fall from the drum (10) prematurely. To minimize risk of mat failure, the fluid inlet port (23) may be located above the horizontal centerline (11).

  19. Wood Pulp Digetster Wall Corrosion Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giles, GE

    2003-09-18

    The modeling of the flow in a wood pulp digester is but one component of the investigation of the corrosion of digesters. This report describes the development of a Near-Wall-Model (NWM) that is intended to couple with a CFD model that determines the flow, heat, and chemical species transport and reaction within the bulk flow of a digester. Lubrication theory approximations were chosen from which to develop a model that could determine the flow conditions within a thin layer near the vessel wall using information from the interior conditions provided by a CFD calculation of the complete digester. The other conditions will be determined by coupled solutions of the wood chip, heat, and chemical species transport and chemical reactions. The NWM was to couple with a digester performance code in an iterative fashion to provide more detailed information about the conditions within the NW region. Process Simulations, Ltd (PSL) is developing the digester performance code. This more detailed (and perhaps more accurate) information from the NWM was to provide an estimate of the conditions that could aggravate the corrosion at the wall. It is intended that this combined tool (NWM-PSL) could be used to understand conditions at/near the wall in order to develop methods to reduce the corrosion. However, development and testing of the NWM flow model took longer than anticipated and the other developments (energy and species transport, chemical reactions and linking with the PSL code) were not completed. The development and testing of the NWM are described in this report. In addition, the investigation of the potential effects of a clear layer (layer reduced in concentration of wood chips) near the wall is reported in Appendix D. The existence of a clear layer was found to enhance the flow near the wall.

  20. Sample rotating turntable kit for infrared spectrometers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eckels, Joel Del (Livermore, CA); Klunder, Gregory L. (Oakland, CA)

    2008-03-04

    An infrared spectrometer sample rotating turntable kit has a rotatable sample cup containing the sample. The infrared spectrometer has an infrared spectrometer probe for analyzing the sample and the rotatable sample cup is adapted to receive the infrared spectrometer probe. A reflectance standard is located in the rotatable sample cup. A sleeve is positioned proximate the sample cup and adapted to receive the probe. A rotator rotates the rotatable sample cup. A battery is connected to the rotator.

  1. Surface dimpling on rotating work piece using rotation cutting tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhapkar, Rohit Arun; Larsen, Eric Richard

    2015-03-31

    A combined method of machining and applying a surface texture to a work piece and a tool assembly that is capable of machining and applying a surface texture to a work piece are disclosed. The disclosed method includes machining portions of an outer or inner surface of a work piece. The method also includes rotating the work piece in front of a rotating cutting tool and engaging the outer surface of the work piece with the rotating cutting tool to cut dimples in the outer surface of the work piece. The disclosed tool assembly includes a rotating cutting tool coupled to an end of a rotational machining device, such as a lathe. The same tool assembly can be used to both machine the work piece and apply a surface texture to the work piece without unloading the work piece from the tool assembly.

  2. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal effects; Method 25A emissions from lumber drying can be modeled from a knowledge of the airflow through the kiln; A heat transfer model shows that VOCs released during hot-pressing mainly originate from the surface of the board; and Boiler ash can be used to adsorb formaldehyde from air streams.

  3. Feasibility for Wood Heat - Collaborative Integrated Wood Energy Program for Yukon Flats Villages

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Wood Heat * Non-Profit Consortium of Ten Tribal Governments within the Yukon Flats. * CATG Administers several Tribal Programs on behalf of the Tribes. * CATG also applies for and administers several other grants. - IHS, Regional Clinic (Fort Yukon), Health Aids in Each Village, drug and alcohol programs, and other health related programs. - Natural Resources, EPA/IGAP, ANA (Traditional Land use Planning and Mapping), GIS, USDA RC&D, Contracts/Compacts with the USF&W (first tribal

  4. Feasibility for Wood Heat - Collaborative Integrated Wood Energy Program for Yukon Flats Villages

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for Wood Heat * Non-Profit Consortium of Ten Tribal Governments within the Yukon Flats. * CATG Administers several Tribal Programs on behalf of the Tribes. * CATG also applies for and administers several other grants. - IHS, Regional Clinic (Fort Yukon), Health Aids in Each Village, drug and alcohol programs, and other health related programs. - Natural Resources, EPA/IGAP, ANA (Traditional Land use Planning and Mapping), GIS, USDA RC&D, Contracts/Compacts with the USF&W (first tribal

  5. An economical and market analysis of Canadian wood pellets.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2010-08-01

    This study systematically examined the current and future wood pellet market, estimated the cost of Canadian torrefied pellets, and compared the torrefied pellets with the conventional pellets based on literature and industrial data. The results showed that the wood pellet industry has been gaining significant momentum due to the European bioenergy incentives and the rising oil and natural gas prices. With the new bioenergy incentives in USA, the future pellets market may shift to North America, and Canada can potentially become the largest pellet production centre, supported by the abundant wood residues and mountain pine beetle (MPB) infested trees.

  6. Wood chips: an exploration of problems and opportunities. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report evaluates the current use of and potential market for wood chips as a fuel in the Northeast. This study covers the residential, commercial, and light industrial sectors and addresses cost, reliability, marketing systems, and technology improvements. A review of the available equipment for wood chip harvesting, processing, handling, drying, and transport is included. Three representative strategic business guides for different chip suppliers are presented. There is also a recommended action plan for future programs with initiatives that could facilitate the development of the wood chip market. 25 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Precise rotation rates for five slowly rotating A stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, David F.

    2014-04-01

    Projected rotation rates of five early A-type slowly rotating stars are measured spectroscopically to a precision of 0.2 km s{sup 1}. A detailed Fourier analysis is done, as well as a comparison of profiles directly. Macroturbulence is needed in addition to rotation to reproduce the profile shapes. An upper limit of ?2 km s{sup 1} is placed on the microturbulence dispersion. Small unexplained differences between the models and the observations are seen in the sidelobe structure of the transforms. The v sin i results are: ? Dra, 26.2; ? Leo, 22.5; ? CMa A, 16.7; ? Gem A, 10.7; o Peg, 6.0 km s{sup 1}. These stars are suitable as standards for measuring rotation using less fundamental methods.

  8. Synchronous motor with soft start element formed between the motor rotor and motor output shaft to successfully synchronize loads that have high inertia and/or high torque

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umans, Stephen D; Nisley, Donald L; Melfi, Michael J

    2014-10-28

    A line-start synchronous motor has a housing, a rotor shaft, and an output shaft. A soft-start coupling portion is operatively coupled to the output shaft and the rotor shaft. The soft-start coupling portion is configurable to enable the synchronous motor to obtain synchronous operation and to drive, at least near synchronous speed during normal steady state operation of the motor, a load having characteristics sufficient to prevent obtaining normal synchronous operation of the motor when the motor is operatively connected to the load in the absence of the soft-start coupling. The synchronous motor is sufficiently rated to obtain synchronous operation and to drive, at least near synchronous speed during normal steady state operation of the motor, a load having characteristics sufficient to prevent obtaining normal synchronous operation of the motor when the motor is operatively connected to the load in the absence of the soft-start coupling.

  9. Method for lowering the VOCS emitted during drying of wood products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Sujit (1832 Jacksons Creek Point, Marietta, GA 30068); Boerner, James Robert (154 Junedale Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45218); Su, Wei (2262 Orleans Ave., Marietta, GA 30062)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for removal of VOCs from wood products prior to drying the wood products. The method of the invention includes the steps of providing a chamber having an opening for receiving wood and loading the chamber with green wood. The wood is loaded to an extent sufficient to provide a limited headspace in the chamber. The chamber is then closed and the wood is heated in the chamber for a time and at a temperature sufficient to saturate the headspace with moisture and to substantially transfer VOCs from the wood product to the moisture in the headspace.

  10. Mission Woods, Kansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Mission Woods is a city in Johnson County, Kansas. It falls under Kansas's 3rd congressional district.12 References...

  11. Wood Dale, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Wood Dale is a city in DuPage County, Illinois. It falls under Illinois' 6th congressional...

  12. Wood County, West Virginia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Wood County is a county in West Virginia. Its FIPS County Code is 107. It is classified as...

  13. Wood County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Wood County is a county in Texas. Its FIPS County Code is 499. It is classified as ASHRAE...

  14. Wood Village, Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Wood Village is a city in Multnomah County, Oregon. It falls under Oregon's 3rd...

  15. Wood-Ridge, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wood-Ridge, New Jersey: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 40.8456555, -74.0879195 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappin...

  16. Laguna Woods, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Laguna Woods is a city in Orange County, California. It falls under California's 48th...

  17. Study of emissions from small woods - fired boiler systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    This short article announces a testing project RFP to determine the air emissions produced by small wood-chip fired combustion systems and to determine associated health risks if any.

  18. Improving combustion in residential size wood chip fireboxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huff, E.R.

    1982-12-01

    In a small experimental wood chip firebox with separate control of grate and overfire air, combustion intensity was increased with reduction in flyash and carbon monoxide by reducing air through the grate to a small fraction of stoichiometric air.

  19. Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that wood-composite development is something that will bolster the U.S. economy, matches the funding from the WBC. "People in this industry are always looking for ways to...

  20. Huntington Woods, Michigan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Huntington Woods is a city in Oakland County, Michigan. It falls under Michigan's 12th...

  1. Rotation Reversal Bifurcation and Energy Confinement Saturation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rotation Reversal Bifurcation and Energy Confinement Saturation in Tokamak OhmicL-Mode Plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rotation Reversal Bifurcation and Energy...

  2. How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    North Country School in Lake Placid, New York, recently installed a high-efficiency wood chip boiler using Recovery Act funds from the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. Using wood sourced from their sustainably managed woodlot and local forests, the school will be able to cut energy costs by $38,970 annually and reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 184 tons per year.

  3. Genomics of wood-degrading fungi (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Genomics of wood-degrading fungi « Prev Next » Title: Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Authors: Ohm, Robin A. ; Riley, Robert ; Salamov, Asaf ; Min, Byoungnam ; Choi, In-Geol ; Grigoriev, Igor V. Publication Date: 2014-11-01 OSTI Identifier: 1222394 Grant/Contract Number: AC02-05CH11231 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Fungal Genetics and Biology (Print) Additional Journal Information: Journal Name: Fungal Genetics and Biology (Print); Journal Volume: 72; Journal Issue: C;

  4. Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments - Wood Energy Feasibility Study

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Integrated Wood Energy Program for Yukon Flats Villages DOE Tribal Energy Program 20 November 2008 Feasibility for Wood Heat Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments (CATG) * Non-Profit Consortium of Ten Tribal Governments within the Yukon Flats. * CATG Administers several Tribal Programs on behalf of the Tribes. * CATG also applies for and administers several other grants. - IHS, Regional Clinic (Fort Yukon), Health Aids in Each Village, drug and alcohol programs, and other health related

  5. Optimum rotationally symmetric shells for flywheel rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blake, Henry W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A flywheel rim support formed from two shell halves. Each of the shell halves has a disc connected to the central shaft. A first shell element connects to the disc at an interface. A second shell element connects to the first shell element. The second shell element has a plurality of meridional slits. A cylindrical shell element connects to the second shell element. The cylindrical shell element connects to the inner surface of the flywheel rim. A flywheel rim support having a disc connected an outer diameter of a shaft. Two optimally shaped shell elements connect to the optimally shaped disc at an interface. The interface defines a discontinuity in a meridional slope of said support. A cylindrical shell element connects to the two shell elements. The cylindrical shell element has an outer surface for connecting to the inner surface of the flywheel rim. A flywheel rim casing includes an annular shell connected to the central shaft. The annular shell connects to the flywheel rim. A composite shell surrounds the shaft, annular shell and flywheel rim.

  6. Evaluation of processes for producing gasoline from wood. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-05-01

    Three processes for producing gasoline from wood by pyrolysis have been investigated. Technical and economic comparisons among the processes have been made, based on a hypothetical common plant size of 2000 tons per day green wood chip feedstock. In order to consider the entire fuel production process, the energy and cost inputs for producing and delivering the feedstock were included in the analysis. In addition, perspective has been provided by comparisons of the wood-to-gasoline technologies with other similar systems, including coal-to-methanol and various biomass-to-alcohol systems. Based on several assumptions that were required because of the candidate processes' information gaps, comparisons of energy efficiency were made. Several descriptors of energy efficiency were used, but all showed that methanol production from wood, with or without subsequent processing by the Mobil route to gasoline, appears most promising. It must be emphasized, however, that the critical wood-to-methanol system remains conceptual. Another observation was that the ethanol production systems appear inferior to the wood-to-gasoline processes. Each of the processes investigated requires further research and development to answer the questions about their potential contributions confidently. The processes each have so many unknowns that it appears unwise to pursue any one while abandoning the others.

  7. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2003-12-18

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration benefits for two forest types used to convert abandoned grasslands for carbon sequestration. Annual mixed hardwood benefits, based on total stand carbon volume present at the end of a given year, range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $5.26/ton of carbon (low prices). White pine benefits based on carbon volume range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $18.61/ton of carbon (high prices). The higher maximum white pine carbon payment can primarily be attributed to the fact that the shorter rotation means that payments for white pine carbon are being made on far less cumulative carbon tonnage than for that of the long-rotation hardwoods. Therefore, the payment per ton of white pine carbon needs to be higher than that of the hardwoods in order to render the conversion to white pine profitable by the end of a rotation. These carbon payments may seem appealingly low to the incentive provider. However, payments (not discounted) made over a full rotation may add up to approximately $17,493/ha for white pine (30-year rotation), and $18,820/ha for mixed hardwoods (60-year rotation). The literature suggests a range of carbon sequestration costs, from $0/ton of carbon to $120/ton of carbon, although the majority of studies suggest a cost below $50/ ton of carbon, with van Kooten et al. (2000) suggesting a cutoff cost of $20/ton of carbon sequestered. Thus, the ranges of carbon payments estimated for this study fall well within the ranges of carbon sequestration costs estimated in previous studies.

  8. Moisture Distribution and Flow During Drying of Wood and Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zink-Sharp, Audrey; Hanna, Robert B.

    2001-12-28

    New understanding, theories, and techniques for moisture flow and distribution were developed in this research on wood and wood fiber. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of flake drying has been provided. Observations of flake drying and drying rate curves revealed that rate of moisture loss consisted of two falling rate periods and no constant rate drying period was observed. Convective heat transfer controls the first period, and bound water diffusion controls the second period. Influence of lower drying temperatures on bending properties of wood flakes was investigated. Drying temperature was found to have a significant influence on bending stiffness and strength. A worksheet for calculation of the energy required to dry a single strandboard flake was developed but has not been tested in an industrial setting yet. A more complete understanding of anisotropic transverse shrinkage of wood is proposed based on test results and statistical analysis. A simplified mod el of a wood cell's cross-section was drawn for calculating differential transverse shrinkage. The model utilizes cell wall thickness and microfibrillar packing density and orientation. In spite of some phenomena of cell wall structure not yet understood completely, the results might explain anisotropic transverse shrinkage to a major extent. Boundary layer theory was found useful for evaluating external moisture resistance during drying. Simulated moisture gradients were quire comparable to the actual gradients in dried wood. A mathematical procedure for determining diffusion and surface emission coefficients was also developed. Thermal conductivity models of wood derived from its anatomical structure were created and tested against experimental values. Model estimations provide insights into changes in heat transfer parameters during drying. Two new techniques for measuring moisture gradients created in wood during drying were developed. A new technique that utilizes optical properties of cobalt chloride was developed for nondestructive determination of surface moisture content. Fundamental new understanding of drying characteristics in wood and fiber has been provided that can be used by researchers to improve drying of wood and fiber. The three techniques for measuring moisture content and gradients provided in this study are efficient, practical, and economical - easy to apply by industry and researchers. An energy consumption worksheet is provided as a first step toward reducing energy consumed during drying of lumber and strandboard flakes. However, it will need additional verification and testing.

  9. 2010-01 "Disposition of Remote-Handled Waste Buried in 33 Shafts at Technical Area 54"

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Approved January 27, 2010 The intent of this recommendation is to remove the highly radioactive RH-TRU wastes from TA-54 in a safe manner with a minimum of radiation exposure to workers at all levels. Accomplishing this will result in a successful closure of the site. If the "ideal" methodology is not feasible, then a secondary or "non-ideal" methodology should be considered. Equally important, this recommendation is to discourage inaction to result in a final "no action" decision/non-decision for the disposition of the 33 shafts.

  10. Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levi, M. P.; O'Grady, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

  11. Cofiring Wood and Coal to Stoker Boilers in Pittsburgh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, J.T., Jr.; Elder, W.W.

    1997-07-01

    The prime objective of the University of Pittsburgh's overall wood/coal cofiring program is the successful introduction of commercial cofiring of urban wood wastes into the stoker boilers of western Pennsylvania. Central to this objective is the demonstration test at the Pittsburgh Brewing Company. In this test the project team is working to show that two commercially-available clean wood wastes - tub-ground pallet waste and chipped clearance wood - can be included in the fuel fed daily to an industrial stoker boiler. Irrespective of its economic outcome, the technical success of the demonstration at the brewery will allow the local air quality regulation agency to permit a parametric test at the Bellefield Boiler Plant. The objective of this test is to obtain comprehensive data on all key parameters of this operational boiler while firing wood with coal. The data would then be used for thorough generic technical and economic analyses. The technical analysis would be added to the open literature for the general planning and operational guidance for boiler owners and operators. The economic analysis would gage the potential for providing this stoker fuel commercially in an urban setting and for purchasing it regularly for combustion in an urban stoker boiler.

  12. Rotating drum variable depth sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nance, Thomas A. (Aiken, SC); Steeper, Timothy J. (Trenton, SC)

    2008-07-01

    A sampling device for collecting depth-specific samples in silt, sludge and granular media has three chambers separated by a pair of iris valves. Rotation of the middle chamber closes the valves and isolates a sample in a middle chamber.

  13. Gas pollution control apparatus and method and wood drying system employing same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eatherton, J.R.

    1984-02-14

    Pollution control apparatus and method are disclosed in which hot exhaust gas containing pollutants including solid particles and hydrocarbon vapors is treated by transmitting such exhaust gas through a container containing wood members, such as wood chips, which serve as a filter media for filtering out such pollutants by causing such solids to deposit and such hydrocarbon vapors to condense upon the surface of the wood members. The contaminated wood chips are discharged from the filter and further processed into chip board or other commercial wood products thereby disposing of the pollutants. Lumber may be used as the wood members of the filter in a lumber kiln by deposition of solid particles on the rough surface of such lumber. The contaminated surfaces of the lumber are removed by a planer which produces a smooth finished lumber and contaminated wood chips that may be processed into chip board or other commercial wood products. A wood drying system employing such pollution control apparatus and method includes a hot air dryer for wood or other organic material, such as a wood chip rotary dryer or a wood veneer dryer, which produces hot exhaust gases containing pollutants including hydrocarbon vapors and solid particles. This hot exhaust air is transmitted through a lumber kiln to dry lumber thereby conserving heat energy and causing solid particle pollutants to deposit on the surface of the lumber. The kiln exhaust air containing solid and hydrocarbon vapor pollutants is then transmitted up through a filter stack of wood chips.

  14. Community Based Wood Heat System for Fort Yukon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Community Based Wood Heat System for Fort Yukon A Systems Integration Bill Wall, PhD Alaska Wood Energy Associates Village Survival Highest Energy Costs in Nation Project Initiation Partners 2005  Council of Athabascan Tribal Government  Alaska Village Initiatives  Original Goal: Displace as much diesel fuel as possible through development of a sustainable community based program  $0.51 per kWh electricity  $6.75 per gallon gasoline  $7.00 per gallon heating fuel  $200 per

  15. Community Based Wood Heat System for Fort Yukon

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Community Based Wood Heat System for Fort Yukon A Systems Integration Bill Wall, PhD Alaska Wood Energy Associates Village Survival Highest Energy Costs in Nation Project Initiation Partners 2005  Council of Athabascan Tribal Government  Alaska Village Initiatives  Original Goal: Displace as much diesel fuel as possible through development of a sustainable community based program  $0.51 per kWh electricity  $6.75 per gallon gasoline  $7.00 per gallon heating fuel  $200 per

  16. Rotation of highly excited nuclei: Mass dependence of rotational damping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Million, B.; Frattini, S.; Bracco, A.; Leoni, S.; Camera, F.; Blasi, N.; Lo Bianco, G.; Pignanelli, M.; Vigezzi, E.; Herskind, B.; Doessing, T.; Bergstroem, M.; Varmette, P.; Toermaenen, S.; Maj, A.; Kmiecik, M.; Napoli, D. R.; Matsuo, M.

    1999-11-16

    The {gamma}-decay of the continuum has been measured in two mass regions. The excitation function of the continuum decay as well as spectral shape and fractional Doppler shifts are discussed for both {sup 114}Te and {sup 164}Yb compound nuclei, and show the typical features of rotational collective motion. Moreover, in both cases an upper limit of {gamma}{sub rot} is given and the number of decay-paths is determined from the fluctuation analysis method. Simulations based on microscopic calculations of the rotational damping model reproduce quite well the experimental findings for both N{sub path} and the scaling of {gamma}{sub rot} as a function of the mass number.

  17. An Additive Resin Reaction Product, a Method of Treating a Wood Product,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and a Wood Product - Energy Innovation Portal An Additive Resin Reaction Product, a Method of Treating a Wood Product, and a Wood Product Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary INL has developed a novel hybrid organic/inorganic substance that is highly flame resistant, fully compatible and directly bondable with the most common wood impregnation resins in current use. This substance is expected to improve not only the flame resistance of the

  18. Fuels for Schools Program Uses Leftover Wood to Warm Buildings | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Fuels for Schools Program Uses Leftover Wood to Warm Buildings Fuels for Schools Program Uses Leftover Wood to Warm Buildings May 10, 2010 - 1:11pm Addthis Darby Schools received a woodchip heating system in 2003. Rick Scheele, facilities manager for the Darby schools, shows off the wood firebox | Photo Courtesy USFS Fuels for Schools, Dave Atkins Darby Schools received a woodchip heating system in 2003. Rick Scheele, facilities manager for the Darby schools, shows off the wood

  19. Translation and rotation positioning motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmid, Andreas (Berkeley, CA); Schaff, Oliver (Berlin, DE)

    2006-07-04

    A positioning device provides the capability of moving an object in both a linear and a rotational direction. The positioning device includes a first piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device further includes a second piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device also includes a first bearing that is disposed against the first piezo stack. The positioning device further includes a second bearing that is disposed against the second piezo stack. The positioning device also includes a spring element and a fifth bearing that is disposed against the spring element. The first through fifth bearings are disposed around and against the object to be positioned, to provide for positioning of the object in at least one of a linear direction and a rotational direction.

  20. Translation and rotation positioning motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmid, Andreas (Berkeley, CA); Schaff, Oliver (13355 Berlin, DE)

    2005-02-01

    A positioning device provides the capability of moving an object in both a linear and a rotational direction. The positioning device includes a first piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device further includes a second piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device also includes a first bearing that is disposed against the first piezo stack. The positioning device further includes a second bearing that is disposed against the second piezo stack. The positioning device also includes a spring element and a fifth bearing that is disposed against the spring element. The first through fifth bearings are disposed around and against the object to be positioned, to provide for positioning of the object in at least one of a linear direction and a rotational direction.

  1. Charged rotating dilaton black strings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehghani, M.H.; Farhangkhah, N.

    2005-02-15

    In this paper we, first, present a class of charged rotating solutions in four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity with zero and Liouville-type potentials. We find that these solutions can present a black hole/string with two regular horizons, an extreme black hole or a naked singularity provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitable. We also compute the conserved and thermodynamic quantities, and show that they satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. Second, we obtain the (n+1)-dimensional rotating solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity with Liouville-type potential. We find that these solutions can present black branes, naked singularities or spacetimes with cosmological horizon if one chooses the parameters of the solutions correctly. Again, we find that the thermodynamic quantities of these solutions satisfy the first law of thermodynamics.

  2. Rotating concave eddy current probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, Dennis P. (Albuquerque, NM); Walkington, Phil (Albuquerque, NM); Rackow, Kirk A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hohman, Ed (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-04-01

    A rotating concave eddy current probe for detecting fatigue cracks hidden from view underneath the head of a raised head fastener, such as a buttonhead-type rivet, used to join together structural skins, such as aluminum aircraft skins. The probe has a recessed concave dimple in its bottom surface that closely conforms to the shape of the raised head. The concave dimple holds the probe in good alignment on top of the rivet while the probe is rotated around the rivet's centerline. One or more magnetic coils are rigidly embedded within the probe's cylindrical body, which is made of a non-conducting material. This design overcomes the inspection impediment associated with widely varying conductivity in fastened joints.

  3. Effect of wood chip size on update gasifier-combustor operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, F.A.; Dunlap, J.L.; Caussanel, P.

    1984-01-01

    Three wood chip sizes were tested in a 0.3 GJ/h updraft gasifier-combustor. Thermal output did not vary significantly between wood chips. Pressure and temperature profiles were measured in the gasifier bed. Channeling occurred with the small wood chips. Efficiency of the combustor was determined by a mass and energy balance and an enthalpy technique.

  4. Gravity controlled anti-reverse rotation device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dickinson, Robert J. (Shaler Township, Allegheny County, PA); Wetherill, Todd M. (Lower Burrell, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A gravity assisted anti-reverse rotation device for preventing reverse rotation of pumps and the like. A horizontally mounted pawl is disposed to mesh with a fixed ratchet preventing reverse rotation when the pawl is advanced into intercourse with the ratchet by a vertically mounted lever having a lumped mass. Gravitation action on the lumped mass urges the pawl into mesh with the ratchet, while centrifugal force on the lumped mass during forward, allowed rotation retracts the pawl away from the ratchet.

  5. Rotation-Enabled 7-DOF Seismometer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rotation-Enabled 7-DOF Seismometer presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  6. Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

    1983-06-01

    A process is discussed for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700/sup 0/C to 1200/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

  7. Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer; Fallon, Peter

    1984-07-31

    A process for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700.degree. C. to 1200.degree. C., at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

  8. Measure Guideline. Wood Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  9. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C.

    1982-01-01

    A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  10. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C.

    1984-01-01

    A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  11. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILER PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb Jr.

    2005-02-10

    Phase I of this project began by obtaining R&D variances for permits at the NIOSH boilerplant (NBP), Emery Tree Service (ETS) and the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC) for their portions of the project. Wood for the test burn was obtained from the JARC inventory (pallets), Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation (construction wood), and the Arlington Heights Housing Project (demolition wood). The wood was ground at ETS and JARC, delivered to the Three Rivers Terminal and blended with coal. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NBP. Blends using hammermilled wood were operationally successful. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and evaluated. During the first year of Phase II the principal work focused upon searching for a replacement boilerplant and developing a commercial supply of demolition wood. The NBP withdrew from the project and a search began for another stoker boilerplant in Pennsylvania to replace it on the project. Three potential commercial demolition wood providers were contacted. Two were not be able to supply wood. At the end of the first year of Phase II, discussions were continuing with the third one, a commercial demolition wood provider from northern New Jersey. During the two-and-a-third years of the contract extension it was determined that the demolition wood from northern New Jersey was impractical for use in Pittsburgh, in another power plant in central New Jersey, and in a new wood gasifier being planned in Philadelphia. However, the project team did identify sufficient wood from other sources for the gasifier project. The Principal Investigator of this project assisted a feasibility study of wood gasification in Clarion County, Pennsylvania. As a result of the study, an independent power producer in the county has initiated a small wood gasification project at its site. Throughout much of this total project the Principal Investigator has counseled two small businesses in developing a waxed cardboard pellet business. A recent test burn of this biofuel appears successful and a purchase contract is anticipated soon. During the past two months a major tree-trimming firm has shown an active interest in entering the wood-chip fuel market in the Pittsburgh area and has contacted the NBP, among others, as potential customers. The NBP superintendent is currently in discussion with the facilities management of the Bruceton Research Center about resuming their interest in cofiring this renewable fuel to the stoker there.

  12. Trirotron: triode rotating beam radio frequency amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lebacqz, Jean V. (Stanford, CA)

    1980-01-01

    High efficiency amplification of radio frequencies to very high power levels including: establishing a cylindrical cloud of electrons; establishing an electrical field surrounding and coaxial with the electron cloud to bias the electrons to remain in the cloud; establishing a rotating electrical field that surrounds and is coaxial with the steady field, the circular path of the rotating field being one wavelength long, whereby the peak of one phase of the rotating field is used to accelerate electrons in a beam through the bias field in synchronism with the peak of the rotating field so that there is a beam of electrons continuously extracted from the cloud and rotating with the peak; establishing a steady electrical field that surrounds and is coaxial with the rotating field for high-energy radial acceleration of the rotating beam of electrons; and resonating the rotating beam of electrons within a space surrounding the second field, the space being selected to have a phase velocity equal to that of the rotating field to thereby produce a high-power output at the frequency of the rotating field.

  13. Incorporation of metal nanoparticles into wood substrate and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rector, Kirk D; Lucas, Marcel

    2015-11-04

    Metal nanoparticles were incorporated into wood. Ionic liquids were used to expand the wood cell wall structure for nanoparticle incorporation into the cell wall structure. Nanoparticles of elemental gold or silver were found to be effective surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) imaging contrast or sensing agents. Nanoparticles of elemental iron were found to be efficient microwave absorbers and caused localized heating for disrupting the integrity of the lignocellulosic matrix. Controls suggest that the localized heating around the iron nanoparticles reduces losses of cellulose in the form of water, volatiles and CO.sub.2. The ionic liquid is needed during the incorporation process at room temperature. The use of small amounts of ionic liquid combined with the absence of an ionic liquid purification step and a lower energy and water use are expected to reduce costs in an up-scaled pretreatment process.

  14. Assessment of superheated steam drying of wood waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, B.G.; Nguyen, Y.; Bruce, S.

    1994-12-31

    A 5 MW co-generation facility using wood waste is described which will supply power to Ontario Hydro, steam to the sawmill for process heating, and hot water for district heating customers in the town. The use of superheated steam for drying the wood was investigated to determine the impact on boiler performance, the environmental impact and the economic feasibility. The main benefit with superheated steam drying is the reduction in VOC emissions. The capital cost is currently higher with superheated steam drying, but further investigation is warranted to determine if the cost reductions which could be achieved by manufacturing the major components in North America are sufficient to make the technology cost competitive.

  15. ART ICHMI DOE Review Oct2015 Wood-1.pptx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies- Instrumentation, Control, and Human- Machine Interface (ICHMI) Technology Area Overview Richard Wood Oak Ridge National Laboratory Presented during 2015 Nuclear Energy I&C Review U.S. Department of Energy - Webinar October 28, 2015 2 ICHMI Technology Area Focus is on Achieving Goals and Resolving Challenges for Advanced Reactors * DOE-NE R&D Objective #2 [Develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors...] establishes the primary goal for ART ICHMI research -

  16. Enhanced Biomass Digestion with Wood Wasp Bacteria - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Enhanced Biomass Digestion with Wood Wasp Bacteria Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Plant biomass represents a vast and renewable source of energy. However, harnessing this energy requires breaking down tough lignin and cellulose cell walls. In nature, certain microbes can deconstruct biomass into simple sugars by secreting combinations of enzymes. Two organisms that utilize cellulose are Clostridium thermocellum -

  17. Mechanics of compression drying solid wood cubes and chip mats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haygreen, J.G.

    1982-10-01

    Wood cubes and chip mats were compressed in a cell under ram face pressures to 13,000 psi. The amount of water removed was determined for a range of species of various specific gravities and at several green moisture contents (MCs). The time dependence of the process was also studied. The purpose of this work was to describe the mechanics of compression drying which must be considered in designing commercial equipment. Green MC of wood chip mats was reduced to 45 to 50 percent MC (31% to 33% MC, wet basis) at pressures of 13,000 psi. At low pressures of 1,000 to 2,000 psi, moisture was reduced to 60 to 75 percent MC (38% to 43% MC, wet basis). There was a significantly greater moisture reduction at these low pressures if the pressure is maintained for up to 2 minutes rather than releasing it immediately once the target pressure is obtained. Water can be removed from high density species but pressures required are higher by a factor of 2 to 3. The chip mat is reduced to about one-sixth of its original volume at 2,000 psi and one-seventh at 6,000 psi. When pressing cubes of high green MC, about 7,000 foot-pounds of work (equivalent to 9 Btu) applied to the wood will remove up to 1 pound of water. (Refs. 9).

  18. Inertial measurement unit using rotatable MEMS sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohler, Stewart M.; Allen, James J.

    2007-05-01

    A MEM inertial sensor (e.g. accelerometer, gyroscope) having integral rotational means for providing static and dynamic bias compensation is disclosed. A bias compensated MEM inertial sensor is described comprising a MEM inertial sense element disposed on a rotatable MEM stage. A MEM actuator drives the rotation of the stage between at least two predetermined rotational positions. Measuring and comparing the output of the MEM inertial sensor in the at least two rotational positions allows for both static and dynamic bias compensation in inertial calculations based on the sensor's output. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) comprising a plurality of independently rotatable MEM inertial sensors and methods for making bias compensated inertial measurements are disclosed.

  19. Inertial measurement unit using rotatable MEMS sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohler, Stewart M.; Allen, James J.

    2006-06-27

    A MEM inertial sensor (e.g. accelerometer, gyroscope) having integral rotational means for providing static and dynamic bias compensation is disclosed. A bias compensated MEM inertial sensor is described comprising a MEM inertial sense element disposed on a rotatable MEM stage. A MEM actuator for drives the rotation of the stage between at least two predetermined rotational positions. Measuring and comparing the output of the MEM inertial sensor in the at least two rotational positions allows, for both static and dynamic bias compensation in inertial calculations based on the sensor's output. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) comprising a plurality of independently rotatable MEM inertial sensors and methods for making bias compensated inertial measurements are disclosed.

  20. Hidden Rotational Symmetries in Magnetic Domain Patterns

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and magnetization history. Left: A typical speckle pattern from the CoPd multilayer. Color bar at bottom indicates relative intensity. The rotational symmetry of a scattering...

  1. Rotation Reversal Bifurcation and Energy Confinement Saturation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Rotation Reversal Bifurcation and Energy Confinement Saturation in Tokamak Ohmic L ... Publication Date: 2011-12-20 OSTI Identifier: 1098456 Type: Publisher's Accepted ...

  2. Fragmentation in rotating isothermal protostellar clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodenheimer, P.; Tohline, J.E.; Black, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    Results of an extensive set of 3-D hydrodynamic calculations that have been performed to investigate the susceptibility of rotating clouds to gravitational fragmentation are presented. (GHT)

  3. Microfabricated microengine with constant rotation rate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Romero, Louis A. (Albuquerque, NM); Dickey, Fred M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A microengine uses two synchronized linear actuators as a power source and converts oscillatory motion from the actuators into constant rotational motion via direct linkage connection to an output gear or wheel. The microengine provides output in the form of a continuously rotating output gear that is capable of delivering drive torque at a constant rotation to a micromechanism. The output gear can have gear teeth on its outer perimeter for directly contacting a micromechanism requiring mechanical power. The gear is retained by a retaining means which allows said gear to rotate freely. The microengine is microfabricated of polysilicon on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication.

  4. Method for predicting dry mechanical properties from wet wood and standing trees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meglen, Robert R.; Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-08-12

    A method for determining the dry mechanical strength for a green wood comprising: illuminating a surface of the wood to be determined with light between 350-2,500 nm, the wood having a green moisture content; analyzing the surface using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data, and using a multivariate analysis to predict the dry mechanical strength of green wood when dry by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data obtained from a reference wood having a green moisture content, the second spectral data correlated with a known mechanical strength analytical result obtained from a reference wood when dried and having a dry moisture content.

  5. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Golder Associates draft test plan for in situ testing in an exploratory shaft in salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hambley, D.F.; Mraz, D.Z.; Unterberter, R.R.; Stormont, J.C.; Neuman, S.P.; Russell, J.E.; Jacoby, C.H.; Hull, A.B.; Brady, B.H.G.; Ditmars, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    This report documents the peer review conducted by Argonne National Laboratory of a document entitled ''Draft Test Plan for In Situ Testing in an Exploratory Shaft in Salt,'' prepared for Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation by Golder Associates, Inc. In general, the peer review panelists found the test plan to be technically sound, although some deficiencies were identified. Recommendations for improving the test plan are presented in this review report. A microfiche copy of the following unpublished report is attached to the inside back cover of this report: ''Draft Test Plan for In Situ Testing in an Exploratory Shaft in Salt,'' prepared by Golder Associates, Inc., for Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio (March 1985).

  6. Spontaneous generation of rotation in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parra Diaz, Felix

    2013-12-24

    Three different aspects of intrinsic rotation have been treated. i) A new, first principles model for intrinsic rotation [F.I. Parra, M. Barnes and P.J. Catto, Nucl. Fusion 51, 113001 (2011)] has been implemented in the gyrokinetic code GS2. The results obtained with the code are consistent with several experimental observations, namely the rotation peaking observed after an L-H transition, the rotation reversal observed in Ohmic plasmas, and the change in rotation that follows Lower Hybrid wave injection. ii) The model in [F.I. Parra, M. Barnes and P.J. Catto, Nucl. Fusion 51, 113001 (2011)] has several simplifying assumptions that seem to be satisfied in most tokamaks. To check the importance of these hypotheses, first principles equations that do not rely on these simplifying assumptions have been derived, and a version of these new equations has been implemented in GS2 as well. iii) A tokamak cross-section that drives large intrinsic rotation has been proposed for future large tokamaks. In large tokamaks, intrinsic rotation is expected to be very small unless some up-down asymmetry is introduced. The research conducted under this contract indicates that tilted ellipticity is the most efficient way to drive intrinsic rotation.

  7. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  8. Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chau, J.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Preto, F.; Melin, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO2) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas.

  9. Water Sampling At Hot Lake Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Hot Lake Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Hot Lake...

  10. Water Sampling At Belknap-Foley-Bigelow Hot Springs Area (Wood...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Belknap-Foley-Bigelow Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity...

  11. Genomics of wood-degrading fungi (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on November 1, 2015 Title: Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Authors: Ohm, Robin A. ; Riley, Robert ;...

  12. 01-02-2008 - Wood Cabinet Falls Apart | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 - Wood Cabinet Falls Apart Document Number: NA Effective Date: 01/2008 File (public): PDF icon 01-02-2008_blue

  13. Microsoft Word - DOE-ID-13-053 Woods Hole EC B3-16.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Uranium from Seawater: Studies under Real Ocean Conditions - Woods Hole Oceanographic ... and the best platform to expose, in high current regimes, these new fibers to the optimal ...

  14. Rotation Manager Pro Version 1.0b1

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-02-01

    The Rotation Manager Pro Package maintains databases of instructions to replicate plate tectonic movements. The instructions are in the standard of tectonic plate rotations, including plate identification and location and angle of the rotation pole. Each database is accompanied by various metadata, including information about each rotation pole and the database itself. The package provides a range of tools to actively manage the database using methods specifically required for rotations: rotation pole addition and subtraction,more »viewing of a rotation chain through the rotation hierarchy, and the rotation of data points.« less

  15. Microsoft Word - Title Page Wood Feeding Beetle 2013.docx

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    M etagenomic Profiling Reveals Lignocellulose Degrading System in a Microbial Community Associated w ith a Wood- Feeding Beetle July 2013 Correspondence should be addressed to: John E. Carlson - i e c l 6 @ p s u . e d u Scully, Erin D.1; Geib, Scott M.2; Hoover, Kelli3; Tien, Ming4; Tringe, S usannah G.5; Barry, Kerrie W.3 ; Glavina del Rio, Tijana5; Chovatia,M ansi5; Herr, Joshua R.6 7 ; and Carlson, John E .7' 8 1 Intercollege Program in Genetics a t the Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences,

  16. Environmental characterization studies of a high-throughput wood gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.; Niemann, R.C.; Wilzbach, K.E.; Paisley, M.

    1983-01-01

    Potential environmental effects associated with thermochemical biomass gasification have been studied by Argonne National Laboratory in cooperation with Battelle Columbus Laboratories (BCL). A series of samples from the process research unit of an indirectly heated, high-throughput wood gasifier operated by BCL has been analyzed for potentially toxic organic compounds and trace elements. The results indicate that, under the test-run conditions, the gasification of both pine and hardwood is accompanied by the formation of some oil, the heavier fraction of which gives a positive response in the Ames assay for mutagenicity and contains numerous phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including some carcinogens. The implications of these observations are discussed.

  17. The Honorable John T. 'Gregorio 301 N. Wood Avenue

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Eiergy ; Washington, DC 20585 -, (, > - .' c ' . FEB 1 7 1995 _ .; , _-, The Honorable John T. 'Gregorio 301 N. Wood Avenue Linden, 'New Jersey 07036 d. \ Dear Mayor Gregorio: ,' ,' .' , Secretary of Energy Hazel O'Leary has announced a new approach to openness, in the'llepartment' of Energy (DDE) and its co,annunications with the .public.', In sup~port of this initiative, we are.pleased to forward.the,enclosed information reiated to the.former Linden Pilot Plant of the Chemical' Construction

  18. Flow Split Venturi, Axially-Rotated Valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walrath, David E. (Laramie, WY); Lindberg, William R. (Laramie, WY); Burgess, Robert K. (Sheridan, WY); LaBelle, James (Murrieta, CA)

    2000-02-22

    The present invention provides an axially-rotated valve which permits increased flow rates and lower pressure drop (characterized by a lower loss coefficient) by using an axial eccentric split venturi with two portions where at least one portion is rotatable with respect to the other portion. The axially-rotated valve typically may be designed to avoid flow separation and/or cavitation at full flow under a variety of conditions. Similarly, the valve is designed, in some embodiments, to produce streamlined flow within the valve. An axially aligned outlet may also increase the flow efficiency. A typical cross section of the eccentric split venturi may be non-axisymmetric such as a semicircular cross section which may assist in both throttling capabilities and in maximum flow capacity using the design of the present invention. Such a design can include applications for freeze resistant axially-rotated valves and may be fully-opened and fully-closed in one-half of a complete rotation. An internal wide radius elbow typically connected to a rotatable portion of the eccentric venturi may assist in directing flow with lower friction losses. A valve actuator may actuate in an axial manner yet be uniquely located outside of the axial flow path to further reduce friction losses. A seal may be used between the two portions that may include a peripheral and diametrical seal in the same plane. A seal separator may increase the useful life of the seal between the fixed and rotatable portions.

  19. Hygrothermal Performance of West Coast Wood Deck Roofing System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pallin, Simon B; Kehrer, Manfred; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2014-02-01

    Simulations of roofing assemblies are necessary in order to understand and adequately predict actual the hygrothermal performance. At the request of GAF, simulations have been setup to verify the difference in performance between white and black roofing membrane colors in relation to critical moisture accumulation for traditional low slope wood deck roofing systems typically deployed in various western U.S. Climate Zones. The performance of these roof assemblies has been simulated in the hygrothermal calculation tool of WUFI, from which the result was evaluated based on a defined criterion for moisture safety. The criterion was defined as the maximum accepted water content for wood materials and the highest acceptable moisture accumulation rate in relation to the risk of rot. Based on the criterion, the roof assemblies were certified as being either safe, risky or assumed to fail. The roof assemblies were simulated in different western climates, with varying insulation thicknesses, two different types of wooden decking, applied with varying interior moisture load and with either a high or low solar absorptivity at the roof surface (black or white surface color). The results show that the performance of the studied roof assemblies differs with regard to all of the varying parameters, especially the climate and the indoor moisture load.

  20. Demonstration of wood/coal co-firing in a spreader stoker

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.; Elder, W.W.; Geiger, G.E.; Campus, N.J.; Miller, W.F.; Freeman, M.C.; McCreery, L.R.

    1999-07-01

    The Forest Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is sponsoring a series of demonstrations of wood/coal co-firing in stoker boilers. The first demonstration was conducted in 1997 in an industrial traveling-grate stoker boiler and the second in May 1999 in a spreader stoker boiler operated by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) at the Bruceton Research Laboratory. The principal wood used in both demonstrations was tub-ground broken pallets. In the first phase of the NIOSH demonstration, four five-ton loads of wood/coal mixtures, varying from 3% to 12% wood (by Btu content), were combusted. The second phase of this demonstration was a 50-hour test using a 10% wood/coal blend delivered in two 20-ton loads. It has been concluded from both demonstrations that (1) a 10% wood/coal blend burns acceptably in the boiler, but (2) tub-ground urban wood is unacceptably difficult to feed through the grill above the delivery pit and through the spreader stokers. A method is being sought to acquire urban waste wood, having a more chip-like nature, to use in further testing and for commercialization.

  1. Relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the Southeastern United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulyshen, Michael, Darragh

    2009-05-01

    The importance of dead wood to maintaining forest diversity is now widely recognized. However, the habitat associations and sensitivities of many species associated with dead wood remain unknown, making it difficult to develop conservation plans for managed forests. The purpose of this research, conducted on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina, was to better understand the relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the southeastern United States. In a comparison of forest types, more beetle species emerged from logs collected in upland pine-dominated stands than in bottomland hardwood forests. This difference was most pronounced for Quercus nigra L., a species of tree uncommon in upland forests. In a comparison of wood postures, more beetle species emerged from logs than from snags, but a number of species appear to be dependent on snags including several canopy specialists. In a study of saproxylic beetle succession, species richness peaked within the first year of death and declined steadily thereafter. However, a number of species appear to be dependent on highly decayed logs, underscoring the importance of protecting wood at all stages of decay. In a study comparing litter-dwelling arthropod abundance at different distances from dead wood, arthropods were more abundant near dead wood than away from it. In another study, grounddwelling arthropods and saproxylic beetles were little affected by large-scale manipulations of dead wood in upland pine-dominated forests, possibly due to the suitability of the forests surrounding the plots.

  2. THE ROLE OF DEAD WOOD IN MAINTAINING ARTHROPOD DIVERSITY ON THE FOREST FLOOR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Wade, Dale D.

    2006-08-01

    AbstractDead wood is a major component of forests and contributes to overall diversity, primarily by supporting insects that feed directly on or in it. Further, a variety of organisms benefit by feeding on those insects. What is not well known is how or whether dead wood influences the composition of the arthropod community that is not solely dependent on it as a food resource, or whether woody debris influences prey available to generalist predators. One group likely to be affected by dead wood is ground-dwelling arthropods. We studied the effect of adding large dead wood to unburned and frequently burned pine stands to determine if dead wood was used more when the litter and understory plant community are removed. We also studied the effect of annual removal of dead wood from large (10-ha) plots over a 5-year period on ground-dwelling arthropods. In related studies, we examined the relationships among an endangered woodpecker that forages for prey on live trees, its prey, and dead wood in the forest. The results of these and other studies show that dead wood can influence the abundance and diversity of the ground-dwelling arthropod community and of prey available to generalist predators not foraging directly on dead trees.

  3. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILERPLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; Thomas Stickle; Jun Wang; Hongming Li; William P. Barry

    2002-06-13

    During the third quarter, the experimental portion of the project was carried out. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NIOSH Boiler Plant (NBP). Blends using hammer-milled wood were operationally successful and can form the basis of Phase II. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and the mathematical modeling of mercury speciation reactions continued, yielding many interesting results. Material and energy balances for the test periods at the NBP, as well as at the Bellefield Boiler Plant, were prepared. Steps were taken to remove severe constraints from the Pennsylvania Switchgrass Energy and Conservation Project and to organize the supplying of landfill gas to the Bruceton federal complex. Two presentations were made to meetings of the Electric Power Research Institute and the National Energy Technology Laboratory.

  4. Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on steam turbine drives for rotating equipment provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  5. Hidden Rotational Symmetries in Magnetic Domain Patterns

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hidden Rotational Symmetries in Magnetic Domain Patterns Hidden Rotational Symmetries in Magnetic Domain Patterns Print Wednesday, 27 June 2012 00:00 Magnetic thin films have complicated domain patterns that may or may not repeat with each cycle through a hysteresis loop. A magnetic thin film with perpendicular anisotropy, such as that used in computer hard drives, for example, commonly exhibits labyrinthine domain patterns. These patterns are disordered over a macroscopic length scale, and

  6. Negative energy waves and MHD stability of rotating plasmas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1. Introduction Stability study of rotating plasmas is of great current interest ... At the same time, plasma rotation in the presence of a magnetic field may lead to ...

  7. Edge Temperature Gradient as Intrinsic Rotation Drive in Alcator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Edge Temperature Gradient as Intrinsic Rotation Drive in Alcator C -Mod Tokamak Plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Edge Temperature Gradient as Intrinsic Rotation ...

  8. Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique ...

  9. Physics of Intrinsic Plasma Rotation Explained for First Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics of Intrinsic Plasma Rotation Explained for First Time Physics of Intrinsic Plasma Rotation Explained for First Time Key understanding for modeling future fusion reactors ...

  10. Forming rotated SAR images by real-time motion compensation....

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    collecting Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) phase history data on a rotated grid in the Fourier Space of the scene being imaged. Subsequent image formation preserves the rotated...

  11. Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Multi-Stream Rotational...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multi-Stream Rotational Sprinkler Heads Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: ... rotational sprinkler heads as a water-saving technology that is relevant to the ...

  12. Split Venturi, Axially-Rotated Valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walrath, David E. (Laramie, WY); Lindberg, William R. (Laramie, WY); Burgess, Robert K. (Sheridan, WY)

    2000-08-29

    The present invention provides an axially-rotated valve which permits increased flow rates and lower pressure drop (characterized by a lower loss coefficient) by using an axial eccentric split venturi with two portions where at least one portion is rotatable with respect to the other portion. The axially-rotated valve typically may be designed to avoid flow separation and/or cavitation at full flow under a variety of conditions. Similarly, the valve is designed, in some embodiments, to produce streamlined flow within the valve. A typical cross section of the eccentric split venturi may be non-axisymmetric such as a semicircular cross section which may assist in both throttling capabilities and in maximum flow capacity using the design of the present invention. Such a design can include applications for freeze resistant axially-rotated valves and may be fully-opened and fully-closed in one-half of a complete rotation. An internal wide radius elbow typically connected to a rotatable portion of the eccentric venturi may assist in directing flow with lower friction losses. A valve actuator may actuate in an axial manner yet be uniquely located outside of the axial flow path to further reduce friction losses. A seal may be used between the two portions that may include a peripheral and diametrical seal in the same plane.

  13. Commercial Demonstration of Wood Recovery, Recycling, and Value Adding Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auburn Machinery, Inc.

    2004-07-15

    This commercial demonstration project demonstrated the technical feasibility of converting low-value, underutilized and waste stream solid wood fiber material into higher valued products. With a growing need to increase product/production yield and reduce waste in most sawmills, few recovery operations and practically no data existed to support the viability of recovery operations. Prior to our efforts, most all in the forest products industry believed that recovery was difficult, extremely labor intensive, not cost effective, and that recovered products had low value and were difficult to sell. This project provided an opportunity for many within the industry to see through demonstration that converting waste stream material into higher valued products does in fact offer a solution. Our work, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, throughout the project aimed to demonstrate a reasonable approach to reducing the millions of recoverable solid wood fiber tons that are annually treated as and converted into low value chips, mulch and fuel. Consequently sawmills continue to suffer from reduced availability of forest resources, higher raw material costs, growing waste disposal problems, increased global competition, and more pressure to operate in an Environmentally Friendly manner. It is our belief (based upon the experience of this project) that the successful mainstreaming of the recovery concept would assist in alleviating this burden as well as provide for a realistically achievable economic benefit to those who would seriously pursue the concept and tap into the rapidly growing ''GREEN'' building marketplace. Ultimately, with participation and aggressive pursuit of the recovery concept, the public would benefit in that: (1) Landfill/disposal waste volume could be reduced adding greater life to existing municipal landfill sites thereby minimizing the need to prematurely license and open added facilities. Also, there would be a cost avoidance benefit associated to what would have been the added municipal (community) management costs involved with maintaining closed landfills. (2) With greater quantities of recovered material being returned to and integrated into manufacturing and the marketplace, reduced demand upon virgin wood sources could help lead the way to promoting improved relations and environmental balance between producers and consumers further expanding the value of our natural resource without adding environmental burden.

  14. Ecological objectives can be achieved with wood-derived bioenergy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Marland, Gregg; Miner, Reid A.

    2015-08-01

    Renewable, biomass-based energy options can reduce the climate impacts of fossil fuels. However, calculating the effects of wood-derived bioenergy on greenhouse gases (GHGs), and thus on climate, is complicated (Miner et al. 2015). To clarify concerns and options about bioenergy, in November 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) produced a second draft of its Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions fromStationary Sources (http://1.usa.gov/1dikgHq), which considers the latest scientific information and input from stakeholders. In addition, the EPA is expected to make decisions soon about the use of woody biomass under the Clean Power Plan, which sets targets for carbon pollution from power plants.

  15. Ecological objectives can be achieved with wood-derived bioenergy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Marland, Gregg; Miner, Reid A.

    2015-08-01

    Renewable, biomass-based energy options can reduce the climate impacts of fossil fuels. However, calculating the effects of wood-derived bioenergy on greenhouse gases (GHGs), and thus on climate, is complicated (Miner et al. 2015). To clarify concerns and options about bioenergy, in November 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) produced a second draft of its Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions fromStationary Sources (http://1.usa.gov/1dikgHq), which considers the latest scientific information and input from stakeholders. In addition, the EPA is expected to make decisions soon about the use of woody biomass under the Clean Power Plan, which sets targets for carbonmore » pollution from power plants.« less

  16. Environmental-performance research priorities: Wood products. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-15

    This report describes a research plan to establish environmental, energy, and economic performance measures for renewable building materials, and to identify management and technology alternatives to improve environmental performance in a cost-effective manner. The research plan is designed to: (1) collect environmental and economic data on all life-cycle stages of the materials, (2) ensure that the data follows consistent definitions and collection procedures, and (3) develop analytical procedures for life-cycle analysis to address environmental performance questions. The research will be subdivided into a number of individual project modules. The five processing stages of wood used to organize the research plan are: (1) resource management and harvesting; (2) processing; (3) design and construction of structures; (4) use, maintenance, and disposal; and (5) waste recycling. Individual research module descriptions are provided in the report, as well as assessment techniques, research standards and protocol, and research management. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Potential role of lignin in tomorrow's wood utilization technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glasser, W.G.

    1981-03-01

    Low-grade timber supplies and wood processing residues are presently converted into paper products, used for fuel, or remain totally unused. Competition for this resource will continue to mount, particularly when manufacturers of chemicals and liquid fuels enter the market with new technologies now under development. The type of technology that concentrates on depolymerization of carbohydrates will generate large quantities of lignin-rich residues. The potential of these lignins to contribute to the economic feasibility of new chemical wood process technologies may involve degradative depolymerization to phenols and benzene, or polymer conversion into a wide variety of dispersants, binders, reinforcing and antioxidizing agents, etc. Where lignin's fuel value lies around 3 to 4 cents/lb. (fall of 1979), its raw material value for phenol is reported to be almost 5 cents/lb., and the value of the polymeric materials is estimated to be between 6 and 20 cents/lb. At the lower end of this range of raw material values are ligninsulfonates, which contribute nearly 98 percent to the approximately 1.5 billion lb./yr. U.S. market for lignin products. Kraft lignins are located at the opposite end of this range. Novel bioconversion-type lignins are expected to be more similar in structure and properties to kraft than to sulfite lignins. Whereas application of the dispersant properties of ligninsulfonates in tertiary oil recovery operations is expected to constitute the most significant use of lignin in terms of volume, adhesive and resin applications hold the greatest promise in terms of value. Both utilization schemes seem to require pretreatments in the form of either polymeric fractionation or chemical modification. Potential savings from the use of polymeric lignins in material systems are great.

  18. Urban Wood-Based Bio-Energy Systems in Seattle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stan Gent, Seattle Steam Company

    2010-10-25

    Seattle Steam Company provides thermal energy service (steam) to the majority of buildings and facilities in downtown Seattle, including major hospitals (Swedish and Virginia Mason) and The Northwest (Level I) Regional Trauma Center. Seattle Steam has been heating downtown businesses for 117 years, with an average length of service to its customers of 40 years. In 2008 and 2009 Seattle Steam developed a biomass-fueled renewable energy (bio-energy) system to replace one of its gas-fired boilers that will reduce greenhouse gases, pollutants and the amount of waste sent to landfills. This work in this sub-project included several distinct tasks associated with the biomass project development as follows: a. Engineering and Architecture: Engineering focused on development of system control strategies, development of manuals for start up and commissioning. b. Training: The project developer will train its current operating staff to operate equipment and facilities. c. Flue Gas Clean-Up Equipment Concept Design: The concept development of acid gas emissions control system strategies associated with the supply wood to the project. d. Fuel Supply Management Plan: Development of plans and specifications for the supply of wood. It will include potential fuel sampling analysis and development of contracts for delivery and management of fuel suppliers and handlers. e. Integrated Fuel Management System Development: Seattle Steam requires a biomass Fuel Management System to track and manage the delivery, testing, processing and invoicing of delivered fuel. This application will be web-based and accessed from a password-protected URL, restricting data access and privileges by user-level.

  19. COUNTER-ROTATION IN RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cayatte, V.; Sauty, C.; Vlahakis, N.; Tsinganos, K.; Matsakos, T.; Lima, J. J. G.

    2014-06-10

    Young stellar object observations suggest that some jets rotate in the opposite direction with respect to their disk. In a recent study, Sauty et al. showed that this does not contradict the magnetocentrifugal mechanism that is believed to launch such outflows. Motion signatures that are transverse to the jet axis, in two opposite directions, have recently been measured in M87. One possible interpretation of this motion is that of counter-rotating knots. Here, we extend our previous analytical derivation of counter-rotation to relativistic jets, demonstrating that counter-rotation can indeed take place under rather general conditions. We show that both the magnetic field and a non-negligible enthalpy are necessary at the origin of counter-rotating outflows, and that the effect is associated with a transfer of energy flux from the matter to the electromagnetic field. This can be realized in three cases: if a decreasing enthalpy causes an increase of the Poynting flux, if the flow decelerates, or if strong gradients of the magnetic field are present. An illustration of the involved mechanism is given by an example of a relativistic magnetohydrodynamic jet simulation.

  20. Position, rotation, and intensity invariant recognizing method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochoa, E.; Schils, G.F.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1987-09-15

    A method for recognizing the presence of a particular target in a field of view which is target position, rotation, and intensity invariant includes the preparing of a target-specific invariant filter from a combination of all eigen-modes of a pattern of the particular target. Coherent radiation from the field of view is then imaged into an optical correlator in which the invariant filter is located. The invariant filter is rotated in the frequency plane of the optical correlator in order to produce a constant-amplitude rotational response in a correlation output plane when the particular target is present in the field of view. Any constant response is thus detected in the output plane to determine whether a particular target is present in the field of view. Preferably, a temporal pattern is imaged in the output plane with a optical detector having a plurality of pixels and a correlation coefficient for each pixel is determined by accumulating the intensity and intensity-square of each pixel. The orbiting of the constant response caused by the filter rotation is also preferably eliminated either by the use of two orthogonal mirrors pivoted correspondingly to the rotation of the filter or the attaching of a refracting wedge to the filter to remove the offset angle. Detection is preferably performed of the temporal pattern in the output plane at a plurality of different angles with angular separation sufficient to decorrelate successive frames. 1 fig.

  1. Feasibility study of wood-fired cogeneration at a Wood Products Industrial Park, Belington, WV. Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasenda, S.K.; Hassler, C.C.

    1992-06-01

    Customarily, electricity is generated in a utility power plant while thermal energy is generated in a heating/cooling plant; the electricity produced at the power plant is transmitted to the heating/cooling plant to power equipments. These two separate systems waste vast amounts of heat and result in individual efficiencies of about 35%. Cogeneration is the sequential production of power (electrical or mechanical) and thermal energy (process steam, hot/chilled water) from a single power source; the reject heat of one process issued as input into the subsequent process. Cogeneration increases the efficiency of these stand-alone systems by producing these two products sequentially at one location using a small additional amount of fuel, rendering the system efficiency greater than 70%. This report discusses cogeneration technologies as applied to wood fuel fired system.

  2. Position, rotation, and intensity invariant recognizing method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochoa, Ellen (Pleasanton, CA); Schils, George F. (San Ramon, CA); Sweeney, Donald W. (Alamo, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A method for recognizing the presence of a particular target in a field of view which is target position, rotation, and intensity invariant includes the preparing of a target-specific invariant filter from a combination of all eigen-modes of a pattern of the particular target. Coherent radiation from the field of view is then imaged into an optical correlator in which the invariant filter is located. The invariant filter is rotated in the frequency plane of the optical correlator in order to produce a constant-amplitude rotational response in a correlation output plane when the particular target is present in the field of view. Any constant response is thus detected in the output The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP00789 between the U.S. Department of Energy and AT&T Technologies, Inc.

  3. High-Performance Refrigerator Using Novel Rotating Heat Exchanger |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High-Performance Refrigerator Using Novel Rotating Heat Exchanger High-Performance Refrigerator Using Novel Rotating Heat Exchanger Rotating heat exchangers installed in appliances and heat pumps have the potentially to reduce energy costs and refrigerant charge in a compact space. Rotating heat exchangers installed in appliances and heat pumps have the potentially to reduce energy costs and refrigerant charge in a compact space. Sandia-developed rotating heat exchanger

  4. Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Multi-Stream Rotational Sprinkler

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heads | Department of Energy Multi-Stream Rotational Sprinkler Heads Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Multi-Stream Rotational Sprinkler Heads Multi-stream rotational sprinkler heads can be used for irrigation systems in place of traditional fixed-spray nozzles. Multi-stream rotational sprinkler heads can be used for irrigation systems in place of traditional fixed-spray nozzles. The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) identified multi-stream rotational sprinkler heads as a

  5. Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Ohm, Robin A.; Riley, Robert...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Ohm, Robin A.; Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Min, Byoungnam; Choi, In-Geol; Grigoriev, Igor V. Not Available Elsevier None USDOE United States...

  6. Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (PUC) is offering rebates of 30% of the installed cost of qualifying new residential bulk-fed, wood-pellet central heating boilers or furnaces. The...

  7. Title 43 CFR 3620 Free Use of Petrified Wood | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    620 Free Use of Petrified Wood Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Federal RegulationFederal Regulation: Title 43 CFR 3620 Free Use...

  8. Method and apparatus for assaying wood pulp fibers (Patent) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Patent: Method and apparatus for assaying wood pulp fibers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Method and apparatus for assaying wood pulp fibers × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is

  9. Evolution of novel wood decay mechanisms in Agaricales revealed by the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    genome sequences of Fistulina hepatica and Cylindrobasidium torrendii (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Evolution of novel wood decay mechanisms in Agaricales revealed by the genome sequences of Fistulina hepatica and Cylindrobasidium torrendii « Prev Next » Title: Evolution of novel wood decay mechanisms in Agaricales revealed by the genome sequences of Fistulina hepatica and Cylindrobasidium torrendii Authors: Floudas, Dimitrios ; Held, Benjamin W. ; Riley, Robert ; Nagy, Laszlo G. ;

  10. Lateral displacement and rotational displacement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duden, Thomas

    2014-04-22

    A position measuring sensor formed from opposing sets of capacitor plates measures both rotational displacement and lateral displacement from the changes in capacitances as overlapping areas of capacitors change. Capacitances are measured by a measuring circuit. The measured capacitances are provided to a calculating circuit that performs calculations to obtain angular and lateral displacement from the capacitances measured by the measuring circuit.

  11. Excitation system for rotating synchronous machines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umans, Stephen D. (Belmont, MA); Driscoll, David J. (South Euclid, OH)

    2002-01-01

    A system for providing DC current to a rotating superconducting winding is provided. The system receives current feedback from the superconducting winding and determines an error signal based on the current feedback and a reference signal. The system determines a control signal corresponding to the error signal and provides a positive and negative superconducting winding excitation voltage based on the control signal.

  12. Rotatable superconducting cyclotron adapted for medical use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blosser, Henry G. (East Lansing, MI); Johnson, David A. (Williamston, MI); Riedel, Jack (East Lansing, MI); Burleigh, Richard J. (Berkeley, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A superconducting cyclotron (10) rotatable on a support structure (11) in an arc of about 180.degree. around a pivot axis (A--A) and particularly adapted for medical use is described. The rotatable support structure (13, 15) is balanced by being counterweighted (14) so as to allow rotation of the cyclotron and a beam (12), such as a subparticle (neutron) or atomic particle beam, from the cyclotron in the arc around a patient. Flexible hose (25) is moveably attached to the support structure for providing a liquified gas which is supercooled to near 0.degree. K. to an inlet means (122) to a chamber (105) around superconducting coils (101, 102). The liquid (34) level in the cyclotron is maintained approximately half full so that rotation of the support structure and cyclotron through the 180.degree. can be accomplished without spilling the liquid from the cyclotron. With the coils vertically oriented, each turn of the winding is approximately half immersed in liquid (34) and half exposed to cold gas and adequate cooling to maintain superconducting temperatures in the section of coil above the liquid level is provided by the combination of cold gas/vapor and by the conductive flow of heat along each turn of the winding from the half above the liquid to the half below.

  13. Compound And Rotational Damping In Warm Nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leoni, S.; Bracco, A.; Benzoni, G.; Blasi, N.; Camera, F.; Grassi, C.; Million, B.; Paleni, A.; Pignanelli, M.; Vigezzi, E.; Wieland, O.; Matsuo, M.; Doessing, T.; Herskind, B.; Hagemann, G.B.; Wilson, J.; Maj, A.; Kmiecik, M.; LoBianco, G.; Petrache, C.M.

    2005-04-05

    The {gamma}-decay from excited nuclei is used to study the interplay between rotational motion and compound nucleus formation in deformed nuclei. A new analysis technique is presented which allows for the first time to directly measure the rotational and compound damping widths {gamma}rot and {gamma}{mu} from {gamma}-coincidence spectra. The method is first tested on simulated spectra and then applied to high-statistics EUROBALL data on the nucleus 163Er. Experimental values of {approx_equal}200 and 20 keV are obtained for {gamma}rot and {gamma}{mu}, respectively, in the spin region I {approx_equal} 30-40 ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}), in good agreement with microscopic cranked shell model calculations for the specific nucleus. A dependence of rotational damping on the K-quantum number of the nuclear states is also observed, both in experiment and theory, resulting in a {approx_equal}30% reduction of {gamma}rot for high-K states. This points to a delayed onset of rotational damping in high-K configurations.

  14. Wave-particle Interactions In Rotating Mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2011-01-11

    Wave-particle interactions in EB rotating plasmas feature an unusual effect: particles are diffused by waves in both potential energy and kinetic energy. This wave-particle interaction generalizes the alpha channeling effect, in which radio frequency waves are used to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. In rotating plasmas, the alpha particles may be removed at low energy through the loss cone, and the energy lost may be transferred to the radial electric field. This eliminates the need for electrodes in the mirror throat, which have presented serious technical issues in past rotating plasma devices. A particularly simple way to achieve this effect is to use a high azimuthal mode number perturbation on the magnetic field. Rotation can also be sustained by waves in plasmas without a kinetic energy source. This type of wave has been considered for plasma centrifuges used for isotope separation. Energy may also be transferred from the electric field to particles or waves, which may be useful for ion heating and energy generation.

  15. A theoretical analysis of rotating cavitation in inducers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, Y.; Kamijo, K. (National Aerospace Lab., Miyagi, (Japan)); Yoshida, Y. (Osaka Univ., Toyonaka, (Japan). Engineering Science)

    1993-03-01

    Rotating cavitation was analyzed using an actuator disk method. Quasi-steady pressure performance of the impeller, mass flow gain factor, and cavitation compliance of the cavity were taken into account. Three types of destabilizing modes were predicted: rotation cavitation propagating faster than the rotational speed of the impeller, rotating cavitation propagating in the direction opposite that of the impeller, and rotating stall propagating slower than the rotational speed of the impeller. It was shown that both types of rotating cavitation were caused by the positive mass flow gain factor, while the rotating stall was caused by the positive slope of the pressure performance. Stability and propagation velocity maps are presented for the two types of rotating cavitation in the mass flow gain factor-cavitation compliance place. The correlation between theoretical results and experimental observations is discussed.

  16. Continuous-flow wood chip reactor for biodegradation of 2,4-DCP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yum, K.J.; Peirce, J.J.

    1998-02-01

    Chlorinated phenols are by-products of chlorine bleaching in numerous industries including pulp and paper mills and can be emitted from a variety of incineration processes. This research investigates the ability and efficiency of continuous-flow wood chip reactors seeded with a white-rot fungus to degrade 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) using wood chips as a carbon source. When 2,4-DCP was the only substrate (nonglucose treatment conditions), the wood chip reactor system had a high degradation efficiency and operated continuously without excessive fungal biomass buildup on the wood chips. In the presence of added glucose, a clogging problem and an effluent contamination problem of fungal cells are found during the reactor operating period. In addition, 2,4-DCP is degraded effectively both under low-nitrogen as well as high-nitrogen treatment conditions. The 2,4-DCP is degraded to a greater extent with small-size wood chips and hardwood chips as a carbon source. The results of this research demonstrate a potential application of wood chip reactor systems for the treatment of contaminated water while expanding the use of wasted forest products.

  17. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE BELLEFIELD BOILERPLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; William P. Barry; Jun Wang; Hongming Li

    2004-04-08

    An Environmental Questionnaire for the demonstration at the Bellefield Boiler Plant (BBP) was submitted to the national Energy Technology Laboratory. An R&D variance for the air permit at the BBP was sought from the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD). R&D variances for the solid waste permits at the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC), and Emery Tree Service (ETS) were sought from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP). Construction wood was acquired from Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation. Verbal authorizations were received in all cases. Memoranda of understanding were executed by the University of Pittsburgh with BBP, JARC and ETS. Construction wood was collected from Thompson Properties and from Seven D Corporation. Forty tons of pallet and construction wood were ground to produce BioGrind Wood Chips at JARC and delivered to Mon Valley Transportation Company (MVTC). Five tons of construction wood were hammer milled at ETS and half of the product delivered to MVTC. Blends of wood and coal, produced at MVTC by staff of JARC and MVTC, were shipped by rail to BBP. The experimental portion of the project was carried out at BBP in late March and early April 2001. Several preliminary tests were successfully conducted using blends of 20% and 33% wood by volume. Four one-day tests using a blend of 40% wood by volume were then carried out. Problems of feeding and slagging were experienced with the 40% blend. Light-colored fly ash was observed coming from the stack during all four tests. Emissions of SO{sub 2}, NOx and total particulates, measured by Energy Systems Associates, decreased when compared with combusting coal alone. A procedure for calculating material and energy balances on BBP's Boiler No.1 was developed, using the results of an earlier compliance test at the plant. Material and energy balances were then calculated for the four test periods. Boiler efficiency was found to decrease slightly when the fuel was shifted from coal to the 40% blend. Neither commercial production of sized urban waste wood for the energy market in Pittsburgh nor commercial cofiring of wood/coal blends at BBP are anticipated in the near future.

  18. Chiral meta-atoms rotated by light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Mingkai; Powell, David A.; Shadrivov, Ilya V.

    2012-07-16

    We study the opto-mechanical properties of coupled chiral meta-atoms based on a pair of twisted split-ring resonators. By using a simple analytical model in conjunction with the Maxwell stress tensor, we capture insight into the mechanism and find that this structure can be used as a general prototype of subwavelength light-driven actuators over a wide range of frequencies. This coupled structure can provide a strong and tunable torque, and can support different opto-mechanical modes, including uniform rotation, periodically variable rotation and damped oscillations. Our results suggest that chiral meta-atoms are good candidates for creating sub-wavelength motors or wrenches controlled by light.

  19. MEMS inertial sensors with integral rotation means.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohler, Stewart M.

    2003-09-01

    The state-of-the-art of inertial micro-sensors (gyroscopes and accelerometers) has advanced to the point where they are displacing the more traditional sensors in many size, power, and/or cost-sensitive applications. A factor limiting the range of application of inertial micro-sensors has been their relatively poor bias stability. The incorporation of an integral sensitive axis rotation capability would enable bias mitigation through proven techniques such as indexing, and foster the use of inertial micro-sensors in more accuracy-sensitive applications. Fabricating the integral rotation mechanism in MEMS technology would minimize the penalties associated with incorporation of this capability, and preserve the inherent advantages of inertial micro-sensors.

  20. Faraday rotation assisted by linearly polarized light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jai Min; Kim, Jang Myun; Cho, D.

    2007-11-15

    We demonstrate a type of chiral effect of an atomic medium. Polarization rotation of a probe beam is observed only when both a magnetic field and a linearly polarized coupling beam are present. We compare it with other chiral effects like optical activity, the Faraday effect, and the optically induced Faraday effect from the viewpoint of spatial inversion and time reversal transformations. As a theoretical model we consider a five-level configuration involving the cesium D2 transition. We use spin-polarized cold cesium atoms trapped in a magneto-optical trap to measure the polarization rotation versus probe detuning. The result shows reasonable agreement with a calculation from the master equation of the five-level configuration.

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - Thin Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer 2008.01.08 - 2008.07.18 Lead Scientist : Mary Jane Bartholomew For data sets, see below. Abstract The Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband...

  2. Forming rotated SAR images by real-time motion compensation....

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Forming rotated SAR images by real-time motion compensation. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Forming rotated SAR images by real-time motion compensation. Proper waveform...

  3. Actuator assembly including a single axis of rotation locking member

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quitmeyer, James N.; Benson, Dwayne M.; Geck, Kellan P.

    2009-12-08

    An actuator assembly including an actuator housing assembly and a single axis of rotation locking member fixedly attached to a portion of the actuator housing assembly and an external mounting structure. The single axis of rotation locking member restricting rotational movement of the actuator housing assembly about at least one axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a first end to the actuator housing assembly about a Y axis and at a 90.degree. angle to an X and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the Y axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a second end to a mounting structure, and more particularly a mounting pin, about an X axis and at a 90.degree. angle to a Y and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the X axis. The actuator assembly is thereby restricted from rotation about the Z axis.

  4. Centrifugally activated bearing for high-speed rotating machinery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, R.F.

    1994-02-15

    A centrifugally activated bearing is disclosed. The bearing includes an annular member that extends laterally and radially from a central axis. A rotating member that rotates about the central axis relative to the annular member is also included. The rotating member has an interior chamber that surrounds the central axis and in which the annular member is suspended. Furthermore, the interior chamber has a concave shape for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is at rest and for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is rotating. The concave shape is such that while the rotating member is rotating a centrifugal force causes a lubricant to be forced away from the central axis to form a cylindrical surface having an axis collinear with the central axis. This centrifugally displaced lubricant provides restoring forces to counteract lateral displacement during operation. 4 figures.

  5. Centrifugally activated bearing for high-speed rotating machinery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A centrifugally activated bearing is disclosed. The bearing includes an annular member that extends laterally and radially from a central axis. A rotating member that rotates about the central axis relative to the annular member is also included. The rotating member has an interior chamber that surrounds the central axis and in which the annular member is suspended. Furthermore, the interior chamber has a concave shape for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is at rest and for retaining a lubricant therein while the rotating member is rotating. The concave shape is such that while the rotating member is rotating a centrifugal force causes a lubricant to be forced away from the central axis to form a cylindrical surface having an axis collinear with the central axis. This centrifugally displaced lubricant provides restoring forces to counteract lateral displacement during operation.

  6. Fuel switching from wood to LPG can benefit the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nautiyal, Sunil Kaechele, Harald

    2008-11-15

    The Himalaya in India is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Various scientific studies have reported and proven that many factors are responsible for the tremendous decline of the Himalayan forests. Extraction of wood biomass from the forests for fuel is one of the factors, as rural households rely entirely on this for their domestic energy. Efforts continue for both conservation and development of the Himalayan forests and landscape. It has been reported that people are still looking for more viable solutions that could help them to improve their lifestyle as well as facilitate ecosystem conservation and preservation of existing biodiversity. In this direction, we have documented the potential of the introduction of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which is one of the solutions that have been offered to the local people as a substitute for woodfuel to help meet their domestic energy demand. The results of the current study found dramatic change in per capita woodfuel consumption in the last two decades in the villages where people are using LPG. The outcome showed that woodfuel consumption had been about 475 kg per capita per year in the region, but after introduction of LPG, this was reduced to 285 kg per capita per year in 1990-1995, and was further reduced to 46 kg per capita per year in 2000-2005. Besides improving the living conditions of the local people, this transformation has had great environmental consequences. Empirical evidence shows that this new paradigm shift is having positive external effects on the surrounding forests. Consequently, we have observed a high density of tree saplings and seedlings in adjacent forests, which serves as an assessment indicator of forest health. With the help of the current study, we propose that when thinking about a top-down approach to conservation, better solutions, which are often ignored, should be offered to local people.

  7. Face seal assembly for rotating drum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, J. Giles (Knoxville, TN); Rennich, Mark J. (Knoxville, TN); Whatley, Marvin E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01

    A seal assembly comprises a tube rotatable about its longitudinal axis and having two longitudinally spaced flanges projecting radially outwardly from the outer surface thereof. Slidably positioned against one of the flanges is a seal ring, and disposed between this seal ring and the other flange are two rings that are forced apart by springs, one of the latter rings being attached to a flexible wall.

  8. Edge rotational magnons in magnonic crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisenkov, Ivan Kalyabin, Dmitry; Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Instituskij per., Dolgoprudny, 141700 Moscow Region ; Nikitov, Sergey; Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Instituskij per., Dolgoprudny, 141700 Moscow Region; Saratov State University, 112 Bol'shaya Kazach'ya, Saratov 410012

    2013-11-11

    It is predicted that in 2D magnonic crystals the edge rotational magnons of forward volume magnetostatic spin waves can exist. Under certain conditions, locally bounded magnons may appear within the crystal consisting of the ferromagnetic matrix and periodically inserted magnetic/non-magnetic inclusions. It is also shown that interplay of different resonances in 2D magnonic crystal may provide conditions for spin wave modes existence with negative group velocity.

  9. Hidden Rotational Symmetries in Magnetic Domain Patterns

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hidden Rotational Symmetries in Magnetic Domain Patterns Print Magnetic thin films have complicated domain patterns that may or may not repeat with each cycle through a hysteresis loop. A magnetic thin film with perpendicular anisotropy, such as that used in computer hard drives, for example, commonly exhibits labyrinthine domain patterns. These patterns are disordered over a macroscopic length scale, and intuitively we do not expect to observe any symmetry in such systems. Scientists at the

  10. Hidden Rotational Symmetries in Magnetic Domain Patterns

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hidden Rotational Symmetries in Magnetic Domain Patterns Print Magnetic thin films have complicated domain patterns that may or may not repeat with each cycle through a hysteresis loop. A magnetic thin film with perpendicular anisotropy, such as that used in computer hard drives, for example, commonly exhibits labyrinthine domain patterns. These patterns are disordered over a macroscopic length scale, and intuitively we do not expect to observe any symmetry in such systems. Scientists at the

  11. Hidden Rotational Symmetries in Magnetic Domain Patterns

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hidden Rotational Symmetries in Magnetic Domain Patterns Print Magnetic thin films have complicated domain patterns that may or may not repeat with each cycle through a hysteresis loop. A magnetic thin film with perpendicular anisotropy, such as that used in computer hard drives, for example, commonly exhibits labyrinthine domain patterns. These patterns are disordered over a macroscopic length scale, and intuitively we do not expect to observe any symmetry in such systems. Scientists at the

  12. Hidden Rotational Symmetries in Magnetic Domain Patterns

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hidden Rotational Symmetries in Magnetic Domain Patterns Print Magnetic thin films have complicated domain patterns that may or may not repeat with each cycle through a hysteresis loop. A magnetic thin film with perpendicular anisotropy, such as that used in computer hard drives, for example, commonly exhibits labyrinthine domain patterns. These patterns are disordered over a macroscopic length scale, and intuitively we do not expect to observe any symmetry in such systems. Scientists at the

  13. Hidden Rotational Symmetries in Magnetic Domain Patterns

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hidden Rotational Symmetries in Magnetic Domain Patterns Print Magnetic thin films have complicated domain patterns that may or may not repeat with each cycle through a hysteresis loop. A magnetic thin film with perpendicular anisotropy, such as that used in computer hard drives, for example, commonly exhibits labyrinthine domain patterns. These patterns are disordered over a macroscopic length scale, and intuitively we do not expect to observe any symmetry in such systems. Scientists at the

  14. Rotating copper plasmoid in external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandey, Pramod K.; Thareja, Raj K.

    2013-02-15

    Effect of nonuniform magnetic field on the expanding copper plasmoid in helium and argon gases using optical emission spectroscopy and fast imaging is presented. We report a peculiar oscillatory rotation of plasmoid in magnetic field and argon ambient. The temporal variation and appearance of the dip in the electron temperature show a direct evidence of the threading and expulsion of the magnetic field lines from the plasmoid. Rayleigh Taylor instability produced at the interface separating magnetic field and plasma is discussed.

  15. Diagnostics - Rotating Wall Machine - UW Plasma Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diagnostics UW Madison Line Tied Reconnection Experiment Diagnostics LTRX HomeResearch MissionLTRX DevicePhysics TopicsDiagnosticsLTRX GalleryLTRX People CPLA Home Directory Publications Links University of Wisconsin Physics Department Department of Energy National Science Foundation As the UW-LTRX was designed with the goal of employing a rotating solid wall along the boundary of the experimental volume, diagnostic access is necessarily much more constrained than in comparable devices. With the

  16. Hidden Rotational Symmetries in Magnetic Domain Patterns

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hidden Rotational Symmetries in Magnetic Domain Patterns Print Magnetic thin films have complicated domain patterns that may or may not repeat with each cycle through a hysteresis loop. A magnetic thin film with perpendicular anisotropy, such as that used in computer hard drives, for example, commonly exhibits labyrinthine domain patterns. These patterns are disordered over a macroscopic length scale, and intuitively we do not expect to observe any symmetry in such systems. Scientists at the

  17. Hidden Rotational Symmetries in Magnetic Domain Patterns

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hidden Rotational Symmetries in Magnetic Domain Patterns Print Magnetic thin films have complicated domain patterns that may or may not repeat with each cycle through a hysteresis loop. A magnetic thin film with perpendicular anisotropy, such as that used in computer hard drives, for example, commonly exhibits labyrinthine domain patterns. These patterns are disordered over a macroscopic length scale, and intuitively we do not expect to observe any symmetry in such systems. Scientists at the

  18. Hidden Rotational Symmetries in Magnetic Domain Patterns

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hidden Rotational Symmetries in Magnetic Domain Patterns Print Magnetic thin films have complicated domain patterns that may or may not repeat with each cycle through a hysteresis loop. A magnetic thin film with perpendicular anisotropy, such as that used in computer hard drives, for example, commonly exhibits labyrinthine domain patterns. These patterns are disordered over a macroscopic length scale, and intuitively we do not expect to observe any symmetry in such systems. Scientists at the

  19. Short-Rotation Woody Biomass Sustainability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review Short-Rotation Woody Biomass Sustainability Natalie A. Griffiths, Oak Ridge National Laboratory C. Rhett Jackson, University of Georgia Kellie Vache, Oregon State University Jeffrey J. McDonnell, University of Saskatchewan Gregory Starr, University of Alabama John I. Blake, Ben M. Rau, USDA Forest Service This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information March 23, 2015 Analysis and Sustainability *2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S.

  20. Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment This tip sheet outlines the benefits of steam turbine drives for rotating equipment as part of optimized steam systems. STEAM TIP SHEET #21 PDF icon Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment (January 2012) More Documents & Publications Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Adjustable Speed Drive Part-Load Efficiency Benchmark the Fuel Cost of

  1. Microscopic origin of quantum chaos in rotational damping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuo, M.; Dossing, T.; Vigezzi, E.; Broglia, R.A. (Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan) The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark) Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy) Departimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Milano, Milano (Italy))

    1993-05-03

    The rotational spectrum of [sup 168]Yb is calclated by diagonalizing different effective interactions within the basis of unperturbed rotational bands provided by the cranked shell model. A transition between order and chaos taking place in the energy region between 1 and 2 MeV above the yrast line is observed, associated with the onset of rotational damping. It can be related to the higher multipole components of the force acting among the unperturbed rotational bands.

  2. Measurement of turbulent wind velocities using a rotating boom apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandborn, V.A.; Connell, J.R.

    1984-04-01

    The present report covers both the development of a rotating-boom facility and the evaluation of the spectral energy of the turbulence measured relative to the rotating boom. The rotating boom is composed of a helicopter blade driven through a pulley speed reducer by a variable speed motor. The boom is mounted on a semiportable tower that can be raised to provide various ratios of hub height to rotor diameter. The boom can be mounted to rotate in either the vertical or horizontal plane. Probes that measure the three components of turbulence can be mounted at any location along the radius of the boom. Special hot-film sensors measured two components of the turbulence at a point directly in front of the rotating blade. By using the probe rotated 90/sup 0/ about its axis, the third turbulent velocity component was measured. Evaluation of the spectral energy distributions for the three components of velocity indicates a large concentration of energy at the rotational frequency. At frequencies slightly below the rotational frequency, the spectral energy is greatly reduced over that measured for the nonrotating case measurements. Peaks in the energy at frequencies that are multiples of the rotation frequency were also observed. We conclude that the rotating boom apparatus is suitable and ready to be used in experiments for developing and testing sensors for rotational measurement of wind velocity from wind turbine rotors. It also can be used to accurately measure turbulent wind for testing theories of rotationally sampled wind velocity.

  3. Controlling Data Collection to Support SAR Image Rotation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doerry, Armin W. (Albuquerque, NM); Cordaro, J. Thomas (Albuquerque, NM); Burns, Bryan L. (Tijeras, NM)

    2008-10-14

    A desired rotation of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image can be facilitated by adjusting a SAR data collection operation based on the desired rotation. The SAR data collected by the adjusted SAR data collection operation can be efficiently exploited to form therefrom a SAR image having the desired rotational orientation.

  4. Spin-stabilized magnetic levitation without vertical axis of rotation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Romero, Louis (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd (Albuquerque, NM); Aaronson, Gene (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-06-09

    The symmetry properties of a magnetic levitation arrangement are exploited to produce spin-stabilized magnetic levitation without aligning the rotational axis of the rotor with the direction of the force of gravity. The rotation of the rotor stabilizes perturbations directed parallel to the rotational axis.

  5. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE BELLEFIELD BOILERPLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; William P. Barry; Jun Wang; Hongming Li

    2001-08-21

    During the third quarter, important preparatory work was continued so that the experimental activities can begin early in the fourth quarter. Authorization was awaited in response to the letter that was submitted to the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD) seeking an R&D variance for the air permit at the Bellefield Boiler Plant (BBP). Verbal authorizations were received from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) for R&D variances for solid waste permits at the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC), and Emery Tree Service (ETS). Construction wood was acquired from Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation. Forty tons of pallet and construction wood were ground to produce BioGrind Wood Chips at JARC and delivered to Mon Valley Transportation Company (MVTC). Five tons of construction wood were milled at ETS and half of the product delivered to MVTC. Discussions were held with BBP and Energy Systems Associates (ESA) about the test program. Material and energy balances on Boiler No.1 and a plan for data collection were prepared. Presentations describing the University of Pittsburgh Wood/Coal Co-Firing Program were provided to the Pittsburgh Chapter of the Pennsylvania Society of Professional Engineers, and the Upgraded Coal Interest Group and the Biomass Interest Group (BIG) of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). An article describing the program appeared in the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. An application was submitted for authorization for a Pennsylvania Switchgrass Energy and Conservation Program.

  6. Mass transport parameters of aspen wood chip beds via stimulus-response tracer techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hradil, G.; Calo, J.M.; Wunderlich, T.K. Jr. )

    1993-02-05

    A stimulus-response tracer technique has been used to characterize packed beds of untreated, as well as acid prehydrolyzed, and enzymatically hydrolyzed aspen wood chips. Glucose was used as the trace. Bulk liquid phase dispersion, interphase mass transfer, and intraparticle diffusion coefficients were determined for these materials as well as effective porosities and tortuosities. The untreated and prehydrolyzed aspen wood chips were found to have effective void fractions of ca. 0.8, while the enzymatically hydrolyzed wood chips exhibited a void fraction of 0.37. Intraparticle diffusion was approximately twice as rapid in the prehydrolyzed and enzymatically hydrolyzed wood chips as in the untreated wood chips. Also, under the current experimental conditions, intraparticle diffusional transport resistance accounted for roughly half of the total tracer pulse dispersion. It is demonstrated that stimulus-response tracer techniques can be useful and convenient probes for beds of lignocellulosic, or other porous materials, which vary in character with extent of conversion and/or treatment.

  7. Tracking single-particle rotation during macrophage uptake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, Lucero; Patton, Paul; Anthony, Stephen Michael; Yi, Yi; Yu, Yan

    2015-06-10

    We investigated the rotational dynamics of single microparticles during their internalization by macrophage cells. The microparticles used were triblock patchy particles that display two fluorescent patches on their two poles. The optical anisotropy made it possible to directly visualize and quantify the orientation and rotation of the particles. We show that particles exhibit a mixture of fast and slow rotation as they are uptaken by macrophages and transiently undergo directional rotation during their entry into the cell. As a result, the size of the particles and the surface presentation of ligands exerted a negligible influence on this heterogeneity of particle rotation.

  8. Tracking single-particle rotation during macrophage uptake

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sanchez, Lucero; Patton, Paul; Anthony, Stephen Michael; Yi, Yi; Yu, Yan

    2015-06-10

    We investigated the rotational dynamics of single microparticles during their internalization by macrophage cells. The microparticles used were triblock patchy particles that display two fluorescent patches on their two poles. The optical anisotropy made it possible to directly visualize and quantify the orientation and rotation of the particles. We show that particles exhibit a mixture of fast and slow rotation as they are uptaken by macrophages and transiently undergo directional rotation during their entry into the cell. As a result, the size of the particles and the surface presentation of ligands exerted a negligible influence on this heterogeneity of particlemore » rotation.« less

  9. Demonstration Results From Greenhouse Heating with Liquified Wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, Philip; Parish, Don; Cooper, Jerome

    2011-07-01

    A boiler fuel known as Lignocellulosic Boiler Fuel (LBF) was developed at the Department of Forest Products, Mississippi State University for potential application for heating agricultural buildings. LBF was field tested to heat green houses in cooperation with Natchez Trace Greenhouses (NTG) located in Kosciusko, Mississippi. MSU modified an idled natural gas boiler located at NTG to combust the LBF. Thirty gallons of bio-oil were produced at the MSU Bio-oil Research Laboratory. The bio-oil was produced from the fast-pyrolysis of southern pine (15 gal) and white oak (15 gal) feedstocks and subsequently upgraded by a proprietary process. Preliminary field testing was conducted at (NTG). The LBF was produced from each wood species was tested separately and co-fed with diesel fuel to yield three fuel formulations: (1) 100% diesel; (2) 87.5% LBF from southern pine bio-oil co-fed with 12.5% diesel and (3) 87.5% LBF from white oak co-fed with 12.5% diesel fuel formulations. Each fuel formulation was combusted in a retrofit NTG boiler. Fuel consumption and water temperature were measured periodically. Flue gas from the boiler was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The 100% diesel fuel increased water temperature at a rate of 4 ???°F per min. for 35 min. to achieve the target 140 ???°F water temperature increase. The 87.5% pine LBF fuel cofed with 12.5%) diesel attained the 140 ???°F water temperature increase in 62 min. at a rate of 2.3 ???°F per min. The 87.5% white oak LBF fuel co-fed with 12.5% diesel reached the 140 ???°F water temperature increase in 85 min. at a rate of 1.6 ???°F per min. Fuel that contained 87.5% pine LBF co-fed with 12.5% diesel yielded nitrogen and oxygen at a ratio of 5.3 and carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide at a ratio of 22.2. Fuel formulations that contained 87.5% white oak LBF co-fed with 12.5% diesel yielded nitrogen and oxygen at a ratio of 4.9 and carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide at a ratio of 16.4. Neither the pine LBF nor the white oak LBF fuel showed any measureable methane emissions from the NTG boiler flue gas. These results indicate a viable potential for mildly upgraded bio-oil to become an alternative fuel source for greenhouse operations.

  10. A method for determining poloidal rotation from poloidal asymmetry in toroidal rotation (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrystal, C.; Burrell, K. H.; Lao, L. L.; Pace, D. C.; Grierson, B. A.

    2014-11-15

    A new diagnostic has been developed on DIII-D that determines the impurity poloidal rotation from the poloidal asymmetry in the toroidal angular rotation velocity. This asymmetry is measured with recently added tangential charge exchange viewchords on the high-field side of the tokamak midplane. Measurements are made on co- and counter-current neutral beams, allowing the charge exchange cross section effect to be measured and eliminating the need for atomic physics calculations. The diagnostic implementation on DIII-D restricts the measurement range to the core (r/a < 0.6) where, relative to measurements made with the vertical charge exchange system, the spatial resolution is improved. Significant physics results have been obtained with this new diagnostic; for example, poloidal rotation measurements that significantly exceed neoclassical predictions.

  11. Electric co-generation units equipped with wood gasifier and Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartolini, C.M.; Caresana, F.; Pelagalli, L.

    1998-07-01

    The disposal of industrial waste such as oil sludges, waste plastic, lubricant oils, paper and wood poses serious problems due to the ever increasing amount of material to be disposed of and to the difficulty in finding new dumping sites. The interest in energy recovery technologies is accordingly on the increase. In particular, large amounts of waste wood are simply burned or thrown away causing considerable environmental damage. In this context the co-generation technique represents one of the possible solutions for efficient energy conversion. The present paper proposes the employment of a Stirling engine as prime mover in a co-generation set equipped with a wood gasifier. A Stirling engine prototype previously developed in a joint project with Mase Generators, an Italian manufacturer of fixed and portable electrogenerators, is illustrated and its design is described.

  12. Renewable wood fuel: Fuel feed system for a pulverized coal boiler. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates a pilot test program conducted by New York State Gas & Electric Corporation to evaluate the feasibility of co-firing a pulverized coal plant with renewable wood fuels. The goal was to establish that such a co-firing system can reduce air emissions while maintaining good operational procedures and cost controls. The test fuel feed system employed at Greenidge Station`s Boiler 6 was shown to be effective in feeding wood products. Emission results were promising and an economic analysis indicates that it will be beneficial to pursue further refinements to the equipment and systems. The report recommends further evaluation of the generation and emission impacts using woods of varied moisture contents and at varied Btu input rates to determine if a drying system would be a cost-effective option.

  13. Precision wood particle feedstocks with retained moisture contents of greater than 30% dry basis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2014-10-28

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  14. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-12-01

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, and Pennsylvania mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, one each in Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. Regression models of chemical and physical soil properties were created in order to estimate the SOC content down the soil profile. Soil organic carbon concentration and volumetric percent of the fines decreased exponentially down the soil profile. The results indicated that one-third of the total SOC content on mined lands was found in the surface 0-13 cm soil layer, and more than two-thirds of it was located in the 0-53 cm soil profile. A relative estimate of soil density may be best in broad-scale mine soil mapping since actual D{sub b} values are often inaccurate and difficult to obtain in rocky mine soils. Carbon sequestration potential is also a function of silvicultural practices used for reforestation success. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and white pine, as any increased growth resulting from fertilization may not offset the decreased survival that accompanied fertilization. Relative to carbon value, our analysis this quarter shows that although short-rotation hardwood management on reclaimed surface mined lands may have higher LEVs than traditional long-rotation hardwood management, it is only profitable in a limited set of circumstances.

  15. TIDALLY DRIVEN DYNAMOS IN A ROTATING SPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cébron, D.; Hollerbach, R. E-mail: r.hollerbach@leeds.ac.uk

    2014-07-01

    Large-scale planetary or stellar magnetic fields generated by a dynamo effect are mostly attributed to flows forced by buoyancy forces in electrically conducting fluid layers. However, these large-scale fields may also be controlled by tides, as previously suggested for the star τ-boo, Mars, or the early Moon. By simulating a small local patch of a rotating fluid, Barker and Lithwick have recently shown that tides can drive small-scale dynamos by exciting a hydrodynamic instability, the so-called elliptical (or tidal) instability. By performing global magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a rotating spherical fluid body, we investigate if this instability can also drive the observed large-scale magnetic fields. We are thus interested in the dynamo threshold and the generated magnetic field in order to test if such a mechanism is relevant for planets and stars. Rather than solving the problem in a geometry deformed by tides, we consider a spherical fluid body and add a body force to mimic the tidal deformation in the bulk of the fluid. This allows us to use an efficient spectral code to solve the magnetohydrodynamic problem. We first compare the hydrodynamic results with theoretical asymptotic results and numerical results obtained in a truly deformed ellipsoid, which confirms the presence of elliptical instability. We then perform magnetohydrodynamic simulations and investigate the dynamo capability of the flow. Kinematic and self-consistent dynamos are finally simulated, showing that the elliptical instability is capable of generating a dipole-dominated large-scale magnetic field in global simulations of a fluid rotating sphere.

  16. Relativistic theory of nuclear spin-rotation tensor with kinetically balanced rotational London orbitals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Yunlong; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Wenjian

    2014-10-28

    Both kinetically balanced (KB) and kinetically unbalanced (KU) rotational London orbitals (RLO) are proposed to resolve the slow basis set convergence in relativistic calculations of nuclear spin-rotation (NSR) coupling tensors of molecules containing heavy elements [Y. Xiao and W. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134104 (2013)]. While they perform rather similarly, the KB-RLO Ansatz is clearly preferred as it ensures the correct nonrelativistic limit even with a finite basis. Moreover, it gives rise to the same direct relativistic mapping between nuclear magnetic resonance shielding and NSR coupling tensors as that without using the London orbitals [Y. Xiao, Y. Zhang, and W. Liu, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 600 (2014)].

  17. Rotating electric machine with fluid supported parts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Joseph L. (Concord, MA); Kirtley, Jr., James L. (Brookline, MA)

    1981-01-01

    A rotating electric machine in which the armature winding thereof and other parts are supported by a liquid to withstand the mechanical stresses applied during transient overloads and the like. In particular, a narrow gap is provided between the armature winding and the stator which supports it and this gap is filled with an externally pressurized viscous liquid. The liquid is externally pressurized sufficiently to balance the static loads on the armature winding. Transient mechanical loads which deform the armature winding alter the gap dimensions and thereby additionally pressurize the viscous liquid to oppose the armature winding deformation and more nearly uniformly to distribute the resulting mechanical stresses.

  18. Manipulator for rotating and examining small spheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinstein, Berthold W. [Livermore, CA; Willenborg, David L. [Livermore, CA

    1980-02-12

    A manipulator which provides fast, accurate rotational positioning of a small sphere, such as an inertial confinement fusion target, which allows inspecting of the entire surface of the sphere. The sphere is held between two flat, flexible tips which move equal amounts in opposite directions. This provides rolling of the ball about two orthogonal axes without any overall translation. The manipulator may be controlled, for example, by an x- and y-axis driven controlled by a mini-computer which can be programmed to generate any desired scan pattern.

  19. Manipulator for rotating and examining small spheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinstein, B.W.; Willenborg, D.L.

    1980-02-12

    A manipulator is disclosed which provides fast, accurate rotational positioning of a small sphere, such as an inertial confinement fusion target, which allows inspecting of the entire surface of the sphere. The sphere is held between two flat, flexible tips which move equal amounts in opposite directions. This provides rolling of the ball about two orthogonal axes without any overall translation. The manipulator may be controlled, for example, by an x- and y-axis driven controlled by a mini-computer which can be programmed to generate any desired scan pattern. 8 figs.

  20. The flash pyrolysis and methanolysis of biomass (wood) for production of ethylene, benzene and methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

    1990-02-01

    The process chemistry of the flash pyrolysis of biomass (wood) with the reactive gases, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} and with the non-reactive gases He and N{sub 2} is being determined in a 1 in. downflow tubular reactor at pressures from 20 to 1000 psi and temperatures from 600 to 1000{degrees}C. With hydrogen, flash hydropyrolysis leads to high yields of methane and CO which can be used for SNG and methanol fuel production. With methane, flash methanolysis leads to high yields of ethylene, benzene and CO which can be used for the production of valuable chemical feedstocks and methanol transportation fuel. At reactor conditions of 50 psi and 1000{degrees}C and approximately 1 sec residence time, the yields based on pine wood carbon conversion are up to 25% for ethylene, 25% for benzene, and 45% for CO, indicating that over 90% of the carbon in pine is converted to valuable products. Pine wood produces higher yields of hydrocarbon products than Douglas fir wood; the yield of ethylene is 2.3 times higher with methane than with helium or nitrogen, and for pine, the ratio is 7.5 times higher. The mechanism appears to be a free radical reaction between CH{sub 4} and the pyrolyzed wood. There appears to be no net production or consumption of methane. A preliminary process design and analysis indicates a potentially economical competitive system for the production of ethylene, benzene and methanol based on the methanolysis of wood. 10 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  1. SEP Success Story: How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy This is the North Country School's 32,000-square-foot main building. Aligning with the school's commitment to a simple, sustainable lifestyle, the school is heated with a wood chip boiler that uses wood sourced from their sustainably managed woodlot and local forests. | Courtesy of North Country School This is the North Country School's 32,000-square-foot main building. Aligning with the school's commitment to a simple, sustainable lifestyle, the school is heated with a

  2. Method and apparatus for assaying wood pulp fibers (Patent) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Patent: Method and apparatus for assaying wood pulp fibers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Method and apparatus for assaying wood pulp fibers Paper pulp is added to a stain solution. The stain solution and pulp fibers are mixed to form a slurry. Samples are removed from the slurry and are admixed with dilution water and a bleach. Then, the fibers are moved into a flow cell where they are subjected to a light source adapted to stimulate fluorescence from the stained pulp

  3. Investigation of possible health effects of community exposure to fermenting wood chips

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkhead, G.; Vogt, R.L.; Hudson, P.J.

    1988-03-01

    We conducted a case-control study of emergency room (ER) patients to evaluate whether asthma is caused by living near a wood-chip fueled power plant that released wood-chip fermentation products. Only eight (29 per cent) of 28 asthma patients seen in the ER during an 11-week period lived within 1.5 miles of the plant compared with 18 (34 per cent) of 54 control patients matched for severity of diagnosis and seen during the same period (Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio controlling for age = 0.96).

  4. Lowell L. Wood, 1981 | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lowell L. Wood, 1981 The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award Lawrence Award Home Nomination & Selection Guidelines Award Laureates 2010's 2000's 1990's 1980's 1970's 1960's Ceremony The Life of Ernest Orlando Lawrence Contact Information The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award U.S. Department of Energy SC-2/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-2411 E: Email Us 1980's Lowell L. Wood, 1981 Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page National Security: For his

  5. Dynamics and Statistical Mechanics of Rotating and non-Rotating Vortical Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Chjan

    2013-12-18

    Three projects were analyzed with the overall aim of developing a computational/analytical model for estimating values of the energy, angular momentum, enstrophy and total variation of fluid height at phase transitions between disordered and self-organized flow states in planetary atmospheres. It is believed that these transitions in equilibrium statistical mechanics models play a role in the construction of large-scale, stable structures including super-rotation in the Venusian atmosphere and the formation of the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. Exact solutions of the spherical energy-enstrophy models for rotating planetary atmospheres by Kac's method of steepest descent predicted phase transitions to super-rotating solid-body flows at high energy to enstrophy ratio for all planetary spins and to sub-rotating modes if the planetary spin is large enough. These canonical statistical ensembles are well-defined for the long-range energy interactions that arise from 2D fluid flows on compact oriented manifolds such as the surface of the sphere and torus. This is because in Fourier space available through Hodge theory, the energy terms are exactly diagonalizable and hence has zero range, leading to well-defined heat baths.

  6. Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kent Perry

    2009-04-30

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI), in partnership with Dennis Tool Company (DTC), has worked to develop an advanced drill bit system to be used with microhole drilling assemblies. One of the main objectives of this project was to utilize new and existing coiled tubing and slimhole drilling technologies to develop Microhole Technology (MHT) so as to make significant reductions in the cost of E&P down to 5000 feet in wellbores as small as 3.5 inches in diameter. This new technology was developed to work toward the DOE's goal of enabling domestic shallow oil and gas wells to be drilled inexpensively compared to wells drilled utilizing conventional drilling practices. Overall drilling costs can be lowered by drilling a well as quickly as possible. For this reason, a high drilling rate of penetration is always desired. In general, high drilling rates of penetration (ROP) can be achieved by increasing the weight on bit and increasing the rotary speed of the bit. As the weight on bit is increased, the cutting inserts penetrate deeper into the rock, resulting in a deeper depth of cut. As the depth of cut increases, the amount of torque required to turn the bit also increases. The Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System (CRTMDS) was planned to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) resulting in the reduction of the drilling cost. The system includes two counter-rotating cutter systems to reduce or eliminate the reactive torque the drillpipe or coiled tubing must resist. This would allow the application of maximum weight-on-bit and rotational velocities that a coiled tubing drilling unit is capable of delivering. Several variations of the CRTDMS were designed, manufactured and tested. The original tests failed leading to design modifications. Two versions of the modified system were tested and showed that the concept is both positive and practical; however, the tests showed that for the system to be robust and durable, borehole diameter should be substantially larger than that of slim holes. As a result, the research team decided to complete the project, document the tested designs and seek further support for the concept outside of the DOE.

  7. Rotational actuator of motor based on carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alexander K. (Kensington, CA); Fennimore, Adam M. (Berkeley, CA); Yuzvinsky, Thomas D. (Berkeley, CA)

    2008-11-18

    A rotational actuator/motor based on rotation of a carbon nanotube is disclosed. The carbon nanotube is provided with a rotor plate attached to an outer wall, which moves relative to an inner wall of the nanotube. After deposit of a nanotube on a silicon chip substrate, the entire structure may be fabricated by lithography using selected techniques adapted from silicon manufacturing technology. The structures to be fabricated may comprise a multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT), two in plane stators S1, S2 and a gate stator S3 buried beneath the substrate surface. The MWNT is suspended between two anchor pads and comprises a rotator attached to an outer wall and arranged to move in response to electromagnetic inputs. The substrate is etched away to allow the rotor to freely rotate. Rotation may be either in a reciprocal or fully rotatable manner.

  8. Rotational actuator or motor based on carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zetti, Alexander K.; Fennimore, Adam M.; Yuzvinsky, Thomas D.

    2006-05-30

    A rotational actuator/motor based on rotation of a carbon nanotube is disclosed. The carbon nanotube is provided with a rotor plate attached to an outer wall, which moves relative to an inner wall of the nanotube. After deposit of a nanotube on a silicon chip substrate, the entire structure may be fabricated by lithography using selected techniques adapted from silicon manufacturing technology. The structures to be fabricated may comprise a multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT), two in plane stators S1, S2 and a gate stator S3 buried beneath the substrate surface. The MWNT is suspended between two anchor pads and comprises a rotator attached to an outer wall and arranged to move in response to electromagnetic inputs. The substrate is etched away to allow the rotor to freely rotate. Rotation may be either in a reciprocal or fully rotatable manner.

  9. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyPerAreaKwhM2WoodChips | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PerAreaKwhM2WoodChips" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0...

  10. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrWoodChips | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    yNrmlYrMwhYrWoodChips" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0...

  11. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrWoodChips | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    rPeriodMwhYrWoodChips" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0...

  12. Agenda 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood and Paper Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1994-11-01

    In November 1994, the forest products industry published Agenda 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood and Paper Industry, which articulated the industry's vision. This document set the foundation for collaborative efforts between the industry and the federal government.

  13. Review and analysis of emissions data for residential wood-fired central furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCrillis, R.C.

    1998-12-31

    The paper reviews data published over the past 10--15 years on domestic wood-fired central heaters. Emphasis is on stick-fired units, the most common type used in the US, but also presented are data on chip- and pellet-fired units, showing that they are capable of achieving lower emissions.

  14. Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, L.

    1995-07-11

    A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350 and 375 C to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan. 2 figs.

  15. Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350.degree. and 375.degree. C. to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan.

  16. Renewed interest in prop supports as a replacement for wood cribs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barczak, T.M.; Gearhart, D.F.

    1995-11-01

    Wood cribs have been the dominant form of supplemental support in coal mining for many years. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in prop supports as a replacement for wood cribbing due to the increasing cost of mine timber and engineering advancements in prop design to improve their stability and yield capability. Prop supports generally consume less material, can be installed in less time with less labor, and provide less restriction to mine ventilation than wood crib supports. Several prop supports are now available or under development. These include: (1) Strata Products Propsetter{trademark} Support System, (2) Heintzmann ACS and Super Prop; (3) MBK-Hydraulik MEGA prop; (4) Advanced Mining Technology Inc. (AMTI) BTS Mortar prop; (5) Dywidag Coal Post; (6) Western Support Systems YIPPI support; and (7) ``The Can`` support by Burrell Mining Products. A comparison of the performance and cost of these support systems to wood cribs is made to provide mine operators with information needed to underground installations are discussed. Included in this assessment are full scale tests of these supports conducted in the US Bureau of Mines` Mine Roof Stimulator.

  17. Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technique | Department of Energy Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar, "Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique," held March 12, 2013. Presenters were Shyam S. Kocha, National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Yannick Garsany, Naval Research

  18. Physics of Intrinsic Plasma Rotation Explained for First Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics of Intrinsic Plasma Rotation Explained for First Time Physics of Intrinsic Plasma Rotation Explained for First Time Key understanding for modeling future fusion reactors such as ITER July 23, 2013 CHANG.JPG Flamelets or hot spots along the plasma edge (a) drive turbulence intensity (b), temperature intensity (c), and intrinsic torque (d) inward, converting heat into toroidal rotation. (S. Ku et al.) If humans could harness nuclear fusion, the process that powers stars like our sun, the

  19. Rotational Electrophoresis of Striped Metallic Microrods (Journal Article)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Rotational Electrophoresis of Striped Metallic Microrods Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rotational Electrophoresis of Striped Metallic Microrods Analytical models are developed for the translation and rotation of metallic rods in a uniform electric field. The limits of thin and thick electric double layers are considered. These models include the effect of stripes of different metals along the length of the particle. Modeling results are compared to experimental

  20. SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DETECTION OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN ROTATIONAL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    EMISSION TOWARDS TRANSLUCENT CLOUDS (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DETECTION OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN ROTATIONAL EMISSION TOWARDS TRANSLUCENT CLOUDS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DETECTION OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN ROTATIONAL EMISSION TOWARDS TRANSLUCENT CLOUDS Using the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have detected emission in the S(0), S(1), and S(2) pure-rotational (v = 0-0) transitions

  1. Alpha Channeling in Rotating Plasma with Stationary Waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch

    2010-02-15

    An extension of the alpha channeling effect to supersonically rotating mirrors shows that the rotation itself can be driven using alpha particle energy. Alpha channeling uses radiofrequency waves to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. We show that stationary magnetic fields with high n? can be used for this purpose, and simulations show that a large fraction of the alpha energy can be converted to rotation energy.

  2. Hybrid fs/ps Rotational CARS Temperature and Concentration Measurement...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Temperature and Concentration Measurements Using Two Different ps-Duration Probe Beams. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hybrid fsps Rotational CARS Temperature and ...

  3. Abstract: Development and Deployment of a Short Rotation Woody...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Holland Forage Harvester and SRC Woody Crop Header Abstract: Development and Deployment of a Short Rotation Woody Crops Harvesting System Based on a Case New Holland Forage ...

  4. A low temperature nonlinear optical rotational anisotropy spectrometer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A low temperature nonlinear optical rotational anisotropy spectrometer for the ... Although this technique has been successfully used to study the lattice and magnetic ...

  5. NREL: MIDC/Oak Ridge National Laboratory Rotating Shadowband Radiometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (35.93 N, 84.31 W, 245 m, GMT-5) Oak Ridge National Laboratory Irradiance Inc. Rotating Shadowband

  6. Cooling for a rotating anode X-ray tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for cooling a rotating anode X-ray tube. An electromagnetic motor is provided to rotate an X-ray anode with cooling passages in the anode. These cooling passages are coupled to a cooling structure located adjacent the electromagnetic motor. A liquid metal fills the passages of the cooling structure and electrical power is provided to the motor to rotate the anode and generate a rotating magnetic field which moves the liquid metal through the cooling passages and cooling structure.

  7. Ferns and fires: Experimental charring of ferns compared to wood and implications for paleobiology, paleoecology, coal petrology, and isotope geochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McParland, L.C.; Collinson, M.E.; Scott, A.C.; Steart, D.C.; Grassineau, N.V.; Gibbons, S.J.

    2007-09-15

    We report the effects of charring on the ferns Osmunda, Pteridium, and Matteucia with coniferous wood (Sequoia) for comparison. Like charred wood, charred ferns shrink, become black and brittle with a silky sheen, and retain three-dimensional cellular structure. Ferns yield recognizable charcoal (up to 800{sup o}C) that could potentially survive in the fossil record enabling reconstruction of ancient fire-prone vegetation containing ferns. Charred fossils of herbaceous ferns would indicate surface fires. Like charred wood, cell-wall layers of charred ferns homogenize, and their reflectance values increase with rising temperature. Charcoalified fragments of thick-walled cells from conifer wood or fern tissues are indistinguishable and so cannot be used to infer the nature of source vegetation. Charred conifer wood and charred fern tissues show a relationship between mean random reflectance and temperature of formation and can be used to determine minimum ancient fire temperatures. Charred fern tissues consistently have significantly more depleted {delta}{sup 13}C values ({le} 4 parts per thousand) than charred wood. Therefore, if an analysis of {delta} {sup 13}C through time included fern charcoal among a succession of wood charcoals, any related shifts in {delta} {sup 13}C could be misinterpreted as atmospheric changes or misused as isotope stratigraphic markers. Thus, charcoals of comparable botanical origin and temperatures of formation should be used in order to avoid misinterpretations of shifts in {delta}{sup 13}C values.

  8. The impact of gas bulk rotation on the Ly? line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garavito-Camargo, Juan N.; Forero-Romero, Jaime E.; Dijkstra, Mark E-mail: je.forero@uniandes.edu.co

    2014-11-10

    We present results of radiative transfer calculations to measure the impact of gas bulk rotation on the morphology of the Ly? emission line in distant galaxies. We model a galaxy as a sphere with an homogeneous mixture of dust and hydrogen at a constant temperature. These spheres undergo solid-body rotation with maximum velocities in the range 0-300 km s{sup 1} and neutral hydrogen optical depths in the range ?{sub H} = 10{sup 5}-10{sup 7}. We consider two types of source distributions in the sphere: central and homogeneous. Our main result is that rotation introduces a dependence of the line morphology with viewing angle and rotational velocity. Observations with a line of sight parallel to the rotation axis yield line morphologies similar to the static case. For lines of sight perpendicular to the rotation axis, both the intensity at the line center and the line width increase with rotational velocity. Along the same line of sight, the line becomes single peaked at rotational velocities close to half the line width in the static case. Notably, we find that rotation does not induce any spatial anisotropy in the integrated line flux, the escape fraction or the average number of scatterings. This is because Lyman scattering through a rotating solid-body proceeds identically to the static case. The only difference is the Doppler shift from the different regions in the sphere that move with respect to the observer. This allows us to derive an analytic approximation for the viewing-angle dependence of the emerging spectrum, as a function of rotational velocity.

  9. Use of a region of the visible and near infrared spectrum to predict mechanical properties of wet wood and standing trees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meglen, Robert R. (Boulder, CO); Kelley, Stephen S. (Evergreen, CO)

    2003-01-01

    In a method for determining the dry mechanical strength for a green wood, the improvement comprising: (a) illuminating a surface of the wood to be determined with a reduced range of wavelengths in the VIS-NIR spectra 400 to 1150 nm, said wood having a green moisture content; (b) analyzing the surface of the wood using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data of a reduced range of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra; and (c) using a multivariate analysis technique to predict the mechanical strength of green wood when dry by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data of a reduced range of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra obtained from a reference wood having a green moisture content, the second spectral being correlated with a known mechanical strength analytical result obtained from the reference wood when dried and a having a dry moisture content.

  10. Galvano-rotational effect induced by electroweak interactions in pulsars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dvornikov, Maxim

    2015-05-21

    We study electroweakly interacting particles in rotating matter. The existence of the electric current along the axis of the matter rotation is predicted in this system. This new galvano-rotational effect is caused by the parity violating interaction between massless charged particles in the rotating matter. We start with the exact solution of the Dirac equation for a fermion involved in the electroweak interaction in the rotating frame. This equation includes the noninertial effects. Then, using the obtained solution, we derive the induced electric current which turns out to flow along the rotation axis. We study the possibility of the appearance of the galvano-rotational effect in dense matter of compact astrophysical objects. The particular example of neutron and hypothetical quark stars is discussed. It is shown that, using this effect, one can expect the generation of toroidal magnetic fields comparable with poloidal ones in old millisecond pulsars. We also briefly discuss the generation of the magnetic helicity in these stars. Finally we analyze the possibility to apply the galvano-rotational effect for the description of the asymmetric neutrino emission from a neutron star to explain pulsars kicks.

  11. A low temperature nonlinear optical rotational anisotropy spectrometer for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the determination of crystallographic and electronic symmetries (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A low temperature nonlinear optical rotational anisotropy spectrometer for the determination of crystallographic and electronic symmetries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A low temperature nonlinear optical rotational anisotropy spectrometer for the determination of crystallographic and electronic symmetries Nonlinear optical generation from a crystalline material can reveal the

  12. Test report for slow rotation core sampling test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ralston, G.L.

    1995-04-03

    This report documents the temperature increase experienced when core sampling equipment is rotated slowly with a relatively low downforce applied to the drill string (nominal 10 rpm/400 lb downforce). The test was carried out in close to worst-case conditions, rotating against a cement mixture in one test sequence, and a steel plate in the second test sequence.

  13. Magnetic and antimagnetic rotation in covariant density functional theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, P. W.; Liang, H. Z.; Peng, J.; Ring, P.; Zhang, S. Q.; Meng, J.

    2012-10-20

    Progress on microscopic and self-consistent description of the magnetic rotation and antimagnetic rotation phenomena in tilted axis cranking relativistic mean-field theory based on a point-coupling interaction are briefly reviewed. In particular, the microscopic pictures of the shears mechanism in {sup 60}Ni and the two shears-like mechanism in {sup 105}Cd are discussed.

  14. Rotational dynamics of cargos at pauses during axonal transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Yan; Sun, Wei; Wang, Gufeng; Jeftinija, Ksenija; Jeftinija, Srdija; Fang, Ning

    2012-08-28

    Direct visualization of axonal transport in live neurons is essential for our understanding of the neuronal functions and the working mechanisms of microtubule-based motor proteins. Here we use the high-speed single particle orientation and rotational tracking technique to directly visualize the rotational dynamics of cargos in both active directional transport and pausing stages of axonal transport, with a temporal resolution of 2 ms. Both long and short pauses are imaged, and the correlations between the pause duration, the rotational behaviour of the cargo at the pause, and the moving direction after the pause are established. Furthermore, the rotational dynamics leading to switching tracks are visualized in detail. These first-time observations of cargo's rotational dynamics provide new insights on how kinesin and dynein motors take the cargo through the alternating stages of active directional transport and pause.

  15. Solid State Replacement of Rotating Mirror Cameras

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, A M; Bartolick, J M

    2006-08-25

    Rotating mirror cameras have been the mainstay of mega-frame per second imaging for decades. There is still no electronic camera that can match a film based rotary mirror camera for the combination of frame count, speed, resolution and dynamic range. The rotary mirror cameras are predominantly used in the range of 0.1 to 100 micro-seconds per frame, for 25 to more than a hundred frames. Electron tube gated cameras dominate the sub microsecond regime but are frame count limited. Video cameras are pushing into the microsecond regime but are resolution limited by the high data rates. An all solid state architecture, dubbed ''In-situ Storage Image Sensor'' or ''ISIS'', by Prof. Goji Etoh, has made its first appearance into the market and its evaluation is discussed. Recent work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has concentrated both on evaluation of the presently available technologies and exploring the capabilities of the ISIS architecture. It is clear though there is presently no single chip camera that can simultaneously match the rotary mirror cameras, the ISIS architecture has the potential to approach their performance.

  16. Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodges, GB; Michalsky, JJ

    2011-02-07

    The visible Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) is a passive instrument that measures global and diffuse components of solar irradiance at six narrowband channels and one open, or broadband, channel (Harrison et al. 1994). Direct irradiance is not a primary measurement, but is calculated using the diffuse and global measurements. To collect one data record, the MFRSR takes measurements at four different shadowband positions. The first measurement is taken with the shadowband in the nadir (home) position. The next three measurements are, in order, the first side-band, sun-blocked, and second side-band. The side-band measurements are used to correct for the portion of the sky obscured by the shadowband. The nominal wavelengths of the narrowband channels are 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's aerosol optical depth at each wavelength. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Harrison and Michalsky 1994) and other atmospheric constituents.

  17. Theoretical rotation-vibration spectrum of thioformaldehyde

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yachmenev, Andrey; Polyak, Iakov; Thiel, Walter

    2013-11-28

    We present a variational calculation of the first comprehensive T = 300 K rovibrational line list for thioformaldehyde, H{sub 2}CS. It covers 41?809 rovibrational levels for states up to J{sub max} = 30 with vibrational band origins up to 5000 cm{sup ?1} and provides the energies and line intensities for 547?926 transitions from the ground vibrational state to these levels. It is based on our previously reported accurate ab initio potential energy surface and a newly calculated ab initio dipole moment surface. Minor empirical adjustments are made to the ab initio equilibrium geometry to reduce systematic errors in the predicted intra-band rotational energy levels. The rovibrational energy levels and transition intensities are computed variationally by using the methods implemented in the computer program TROVE. Transition wavelengths and intensities are found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data. The present calculations correctly reproduce the observed resonance effects, such as intensity borrowing, thus reflecting the high accuracy of the underlying ab initio surfaces. We report a detailed analysis of several vibrational bands, especially those complicated by strong Coriolis coupling, to facilitate future laboratory assignments.

  18. Wood-Producing Sunflower? Mining Genetic Diversity in Desert-Dwelling Wild Species (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Knapp, Steve

    2011-04-26

    Steve Knapp from Monsanto on "Wood-Producing Sunflower? Mining Genetic Diversity in Desert-Dwelling Wild Species" on March 25, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  19. BIA Southwest Region - Wood Energy Assessment for BIA Schools and Facilities in the Southwest Region

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Wood Energy Assessment for BIA Schools and Facilities in Southwest Region John Waconda, BIA Southwest Region Regional Forester 505-563-3360 Tribal Energy Review October 26, 2006 Project Objectives/Goals * Seek viable solutions to forest product utilization challenges in support of fuels reduction activities, forest health/timber stand improvement projects, and assisting tribal and other forest enterprises seeking higher valued use for waste material. * Demonstrate to tribes and ourselves that

  20. On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jeffers, L.A.; Malito, M.L.

    1996-01-23

    Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method. 6 figs.

  1. On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jeffers, Larry A. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH); Malito, Michael L. (Liberty Township, Trumbull County, OH)

    1996-01-01

    Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method.

  2. Byggmeister Test Home. Analysis and Initial Results of Cold Climate Wood-Framed Home Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, C.

    2013-01-01

    BSC seeks to further the energy efficiency market for New England area retrofit projects by supporting projects that are based on solid building science fundamentals that will benefit the homeowner through a combination of energy savings, improved durability, and occupant comfort. This report describes a deep retrofit project of a two-family wood-framed home in Belmont, Massachusetts, and examines the retrofit measures for the enclosure amd mechanical systems and reviews the decision-making process that took place during planning.

  3. Genetics of Wood Formation | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Genetics of Wood Formation Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3251 F: (301) 903-5051 E:

  4. Green Gasoline from Wood Using Carbona Gasification and Topsoe TIGAS Processes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Green Gasoline from Wood Using Carbona Gasification and Topsoe TIGAS Processes March 24, 2015 Demonstration and Market Transformation Rick Knight Gas Technology Institute This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Acronyms AGR Acid Gas Removal DME Dimethyl ether GTI Gas Technology Institute HGF Hot gas filter HTAS Haldor Topsoe A/S (Denmark) HTI Haldor Topsoe Inc. (Houston TX) TIGAS Topsoe Improved Gasoline Synthesis UHGF Ultra-hot gas

  5. Mathematical model of steam drying of wood chips and other hygroscopic porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fyhr, C.; Rasmuson, A.

    1996-09-01

    A model is presented that is focused on the drying kinetics of single wood chips as a function of time and external conditions, such as temperature, pressure and velocity of the superheated steam. A multiphase and 2-D approach was used to model the coupled transport of water, vapor, air and heat in anisotropic hygroscopic porous media. The model was verified by drying experiments where measurements of the average moisture content, center temperature and pressure in a single wood chip could be performed simultaneously. A comparison between the calculations and the measurements showed that the drying behavior was well predicted. The drying can be divided into three stages: a heat-up period when condensation on the surface initially increases the moisture content; a period of constant drying rate when the external heat transfer controls the drying rate; and a period of decreasing drying rate when the drying is controlled by internal mass transfer. Many interesting features of the drying could be assigned to the strong anisotropicity of wood, which makes a 2-D model necessary.

  6. Composites of Polystyrene/Wood Fiber, Processing Effect to Creep Resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero-Balderrama, L.; Mendoza-Duarte, M. E.; Flores-Gallardo, S. G.; Ibarra-Gomez, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109. Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Gaspar-Rosas, A. [TA Instruments-Waters LLC. 109 Lukens Drive New Castle, DE 19720 (United States)

    2008-07-07

    In the present work, PS/wood fiber composites were studied in relation to their creep response as to be affected by the incorporation of a silane type coupling agent. Two elaboration variables were also considered in the experiments: wood fiber content and type of composites processing (compression, extrusion and injection molding). A series of weight ratios PS/wood fiber, with and without coupling agent, were prepared, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30 and 60/40. For the compatibilized series, 1% wt of silane coupling agent in relation to the polystyrene weight was employed. The creep tests were performed inside the lineal viscoelastic region at 80 deg. C. A general improvement of the creep resistance for the compatibilized composites was observed independently of the elaboration process. However, the injection molded samples showed by far the lowest deformation with time. This behavior suggests that the high orientation of the fibers generated by the injection molding process, in relation to the extrusion and compression molding, promotes a higher superficial area of treated fiber to be in contact with the PS matrix, which enhances the adhesion and in consequence the resistance to creep.

  7. Influence of corn steep liquor and glucose on colonization of control and CCB (Cu/Cr/B)-treated wood by brown rot fungi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humar, Miha; Pohleven, Franc

    2006-07-01

    There are increasing problems with regard to the disposal of treated wood waste. Due to heavy metals or arsenic in impregnated wood waste, burning and landfill disposal options are not considered to be environmentally friendly solutions for dealing with this problem. Extraction of the heavy metals and recycling of the preservatives from the wood waste is a much more promising and environmentally friendly solution. In order to study the scale up of this process, copper/chromium/boron-treated wood specimens were exposed to copper tolerant (Antrodia vaillantii and Leucogyrophana pinastri) and copper sensitive wood decay fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria monticola). Afterwards, the ability of fungal hyphae to penetrate and overgrow the wood specimens was investigated. The fungal growths were stimulated by immersing the specimens into aqueous solution of glucose or corn steep liquor prior to exposure to the fungi. The fastest colonization of the impregnated wood was by the copper tolerant A. vaillantii. Addition of glucose onto the surface of the wood specimens increased the fungi colonization of the specimens; however, immersion of the specimens into the solution of corn steep liquor did not have the same positive influence. These results are important in elucidating copper toxicity in wood decay fungi and for using these fungi for bioremediation of treated wood wastes.

  8. Hot cell examination table

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaal, Peter S. (Monroeville, PA); Ebejer, Lino P. (Weston, MA); Kareis, James H. (Slickville, PA); Schlegel, Gary L. (McKeesport, PA)

    1991-01-01

    A table for use in a hot cell or similar controlled environment for use in examining specimens. The table has a movable table top that can be moved relative to a table frame. A shaft is fixedly mounted to the frame for axial rotation. A shaft traveler having a plurality of tilted rollers biased against the shaft is connected to the table top such that rotation of the shaft causes the shaft traveler to roll along the shaft. An electromagnetic drive is connected to the shaft and the frame for controllably rotating the shaft.

  9. Machine protection system for rotating equipment and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lakshminarasimha, Arkalgud N. (Marietta, GA); Rucigay, Richard J. (Marietta, GA); Ozgur, Dincer (Kennesaw, GA)

    2003-01-01

    A machine protection system and method for rotating equipment introduces new alarming features and makes use of full proximity probe sensor information, including amplitude and phase. Baseline vibration amplitude and phase data is estimated and tracked according to operating modes of the rotating equipment. Baseline vibration and phase data can be determined using a rolling average and variance and stored in a unit circle or tracked using short term average and long term average baselines. The sensed vibration amplitude and phase is compared with the baseline vibration amplitude and phase data. Operation of the rotating equipment can be controlled based on the vibration amplitude and phase.

  10. Tracking single particle rotation: Probing dynamics in four dimensions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Anthony, Stephen Michael; Yu, Yan

    2015-04-29

    Direct visualization and tracking of small particles at high spatial and temporal resolution provides a powerful approach to probing complex dynamics and interactions in chemical and biological processes. Analysis of the rotational dynamics of particles adds a new dimension of information that is otherwise impossible to obtain with conventional 3-D particle tracking. In this review, we survey recent advances in single-particle rotational tracking, with highlights on the rotational tracking of optically anisotropic Janus particles. Furthermore, strengths and weaknesses of the various particle tracking methods, and their applications are discussed.

  11. Reducing collective quantum state rotation errors with reversible dephasing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Kevin C.; Norcia, Matthew A.; Weiner, Joshua M.; Bohnet, Justin G.; Thompson, James K.

    2014-12-29

    We demonstrate that reversible dephasing via inhomogeneous broadening can greatly reduce collective quantum state rotation errors, and observe the suppression of rotation errors by more than 21?dB in the context of collective population measurements of the spin states of an ensemble of 2.110{sup 5} laser cooled and trapped {sup 87}Rb atoms. The large reduction in rotation noise enables direct resolution of spin state populations 13(1) dB below the fundamental quantum projection noise limit. Further, the spin state measurement projects the system into an entangled state with 9.5(5) dB of directly observed spectroscopic enhancement (squeezing) relative to the standard quantum limit, whereas no enhancement would have been obtained without the suppression of rotation errors.

  12. THE FREQUENCY OF RAPID ROTATION AMONG K GIANT STARS (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    catalog are much fainter and typically more metal-poor than those of other catalogs of red giant star rotational velocities, but the spectra generally only have signal-to-noise...

  13. Contrast from rotating frame relaxation by adiabatic pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Michaeli, Shalom; Garwood, Michael G.; Ugurbil, Kamil; Sorce, Dennis J.

    2007-10-09

    This document discusses, among other things, a system and method for modulating transverse and longitudinal relaxation time contrast in a rotating frame based on a train of radio frequency pulses.

  14. Micro rotary machine and methods for using same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stalford, Harold L.

    2012-04-17

    A micro rotary machine may include a micro actuator and a micro shaft coupled to the micro actuator. The micro shaft comprises a horizontal shaft and is operable to be rotated by the micro actuator. A micro tool is coupled to the micro shaft and is operable to perform work in response to motion of the micro shaft.

  15. Micro rotary machine and methods for using same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stalford, Harold

    2015-01-13

    A micro rotary machine may include a micro actuator and a micro shaft coupled to the micro actuator. The micro shaft comprises a horizontal shaft and is operable to be rotated by the micro actuator. A micro tool is coupled to the micro shaft and is operable to perform work in response to motion of the micro shaft.

  16. Self-cleaning rotating anode X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulikas, Arvydas P.

    1989-01-01

    A self-cleaning rotating anode x-ray source comprising an evacuable housing, a rotatable cylindrical anode within the housing, a source of electrons within the housing which electrons are caused to impinge upon the anode to produce x-rays, and means for ionizing residual particles within the housing and accelerating such ions so as to impinge upon the anode to sputter impurities from the surface thereof.

  17. Self-cleaning rotating anode x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulikas, A.P.

    1987-06-02

    A self-cleaning rotating anode x-ray source comprising and evacuable housing, a rotatable cylindrical anode within the housing, a source of electrons within the housing which electrons are caused to impinge upon the anode to produce x-rays, and means for ionizing residual particles within the housing and accelerating such ions so as to impinge upon the anode to sputter impurities from the surface thereof. 2 figs.

  18. Grain Rotation and Development of Orientation Spread in Deforming

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Polycrystals. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Grain Rotation and Development of Orientation Spread in Deforming Polycrystals. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Grain Rotation and Development of Orientation Spread in Deforming Polycrystals. Abstract not provided. Authors: Buchheit, Thomas Edward ; Lim, Hojun ; Carroll, Jay ; Clark, Blythe ; Battaile, Corbett Chandler. ; Boyce, Brad Lee Publication Date: 2014-02-01 OSTI Identifier: 1140310 Report Number(s): SAND2014-1263C 499256 DOE

  19. Hybrid fs/ps Rotational CARS Temperature and Concentration Measurements

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Using Two Different ps-Duration Probe Beams. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Hybrid fs/ps Rotational CARS Temperature and Concentration Measurements Using Two Different ps-Duration Probe Beams. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hybrid fs/ps Rotational CARS Temperature and Concentration Measurements Using Two Different ps-Duration Probe Beams. Authors: Kearney, Sean P. ; Scoglietti, Daniel ; Kliewer, Christopher Jesse [1] + Show Author Affiliations (Sandia National Laboratories,

  20. Critical surface for explosions of rotational core-collapse supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwakami, Wakana; Nagakura, Hiroki [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Yamada, Shoichi, E-mail: wakana@heap.phys.waseda.ac.jp [Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 169-8555 (Japan)

    2014-09-20

    The effect of rotation on the explosion of core-collapse supernovae is investigated systematically in three-dimensional simulations. In order to obtain the critical conditions for explosion as a function of mass accretion rate, neutrino luminosity, and specific angular momentum, rigidly rotating matter was injected from the outer boundary with an angular momentum, which is increased every 500 ms. It is found that there is a critical value of the specific angular momentum, above which the standing shock wave revives, for a given combination of mass accretion rate and neutrino luminosity, i.e., an explosion can occur by rotation even if the neutrino luminosity is lower than the critical value for a given mass accretion rate in non-rotational models. The coupling of rotation and hydrodynamical instabilities plays an important role in characterizing the dynamics of shock revival for the range of specific angular momentum that are supposed to be realistic. Contrary to expectations from past studies, the most rapidly expanding direction of the shock wave is not aligned with the rotation axis. Being perpendicular to the rotation axis on average, it can be oriented in various directions. Its dispersion is small when the spiral mode of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) governs the dynamics, while it is large when neutrino-driven convection is dominant. As a result of the comparison between two-dimensional and three-dimensional rotational models, it is found that m ? 0 modes of neutrino-driven convection or SASI are important for shock revival around the critical surface.

  1. Rotation Reversal Bifurcation and Energy Confinement Saturation in Tokamak

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ohmic L -Mode Plasmas (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Rotation Reversal Bifurcation and Energy Confinement Saturation in Tokamak Ohmic L -Mode Plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rotation Reversal Bifurcation and Energy Confinement Saturation in Tokamak Ohmic L -Mode Plasmas Authors: Rice, J. E. ; Cziegler, I. ; Diamond, P. H. ; Duval, B. P. ; Podpaly, Y. A. ; Reinke, M. L. ; Ennever, P. C. ; Greenwald, M. J. ; Hughes, J. W. ; Ma, Y. ; Marmar, E. S. ; Porkolab, M. ;

  2. Manipulator for rotating and translating a sample holder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    van de Water, Jeroen (Breugel, NL); van den Oetelaar, Johannes (Eindhoven, NL); Wagner, Raymond (Gorinchem, NL); Slingerland, Hendrik Nicolaas (Venlo, NL); Bruggers, Jan Willem (Eindhoven, NL); Ottevanger, Adriaan Huibert Dirk (Malden, NL); Schmid, Andreas (Berkeley, CA); Olson, Eric A. (Champaign, IL); Petrov, Ivan G. (Champaign, IL); Donchev, Todor I. (Urbana, IL); Duden, Thomas (Kensington, CA)

    2011-02-08

    A manipulator for use in e.g. a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) is described, said manipulator capable of rotating and translating a sample holder (4). The manipulator clasps the round sample holder between two members (3A, 3B), said members mounted on actuators (2A, 2B). Moving the actuators in the same direction results in a translation of the sample holder, while moving the actuators in opposite directions results in a rotation of the sample holder.

  3. Edge Temperature Gradient as Intrinsic Rotation Drive in AlcatorC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Edge Temperature Gradient as Intrinsic Rotation Drive in AlcatorC-Mod Tokamak Plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Edge Temperature Gradient as Intrinsic Rotation...

  4. Rotation-dependent catastrophic disruption of gravitational aggregates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballouz, Ronald-Louis; Richardson, Derek C.; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Michel, Patrick

    2014-07-10

    We carry out a systematic exploration of the effect of pre-impact rotation on the outcomes of low-speed collisions between planetesimals modeled as gravitational aggregates. We use pkdgrav, a cosmology code adapted to collisional problems and recently enhanced with a new soft-sphere collision algorithm that includes more realistic contact forces. A rotating body has lower effective surface gravity than a non-rotating one and therefore might suffer more mass loss as the result of a collision. What is less well understood, however, is whether rotation systematically increases mass loss on average regardless of the impact trajectory. This has important implications for the efficiency of planet formation via planetesimal growth, and also more generally for the determination of the impact energy threshold for catastrophic disruption (leading to the largest remnant retaining 50% of the original mass), as this has generally only been evaluated for non-spinning bodies. We find that for most collision scenarios, rotation lowers the threshold energy for catastrophic dispersal. For head-on collisions, we develop a semi-analytic description of the change in the threshold description as a function of the target's pre-impact rotation rate, and find that these results are consistent with the 'universal law' of catastrophic disruption developed by Leinhardt and Stewart. Using this approach, we introduce re-scaled catastrophic disruption variables that take into account the interacting mass fraction of the target and the projectile in order to translate oblique impacts into equivalent head-on collisions.

  5. Rotation-induced nonlinear wavepackets in internal waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitfield, A. J. Johnson, E. R.

    2014-05-15

    The long time effect of weak rotation on an internal solitary wave is the decay into inertia-gravity waves and the eventual formation of a localised wavepacket. Here this initial value problem is considered within the context of the Ostrovsky, or the rotation-modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV), equation and a numerical method for obtaining accurate wavepacket solutions is presented. The flow evolutions are described in the regimes of relatively-strong and relatively-weak rotational effects. When rotational effects are relatively strong a second-order soliton solution of the nonlinear Schrdinger equation accurately predicts the shape, and phase and group velocities of the numerically determined wavepackets. It is suggested that these solitons may form from a local Benjamin-Feir instability in the inertia-gravity wave-train radiated when a KdV solitary wave rapidly adjusts to the presence of strong rotation. When rotational effects are relatively weak the initial KdV solitary wave remains coherent longer, decaying only slowly due to weak radiation and modulational instability is no longer relevant. Wavepacket solutions in this regime appear to consist of a modulated KdV soliton wavetrain propagating on a slowly varying background of finite extent.

  6. COMPARISON OF THE POPULATIONS OF COMMON WOOD-NYMPH BUTTERFLIES IN BURNED PRAIRIE, UNBURNED PRAIRIE AND OLD FIELD GRASSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, M.; Walton, R.

    2007-01-01

    Common wood-nymph butterfl ies are found throughout the United States and Canada. However, not much is known about how they overwinter or their preferences for particular grasses and habitats. In this study, the impact of prairie management plans on the abundance of the wood-nymph population was assessed, as well as the preference of these butterfl ies for areas with native or non-native grasses. The abundance of common wood-nymph butterfl ies was determined using Pollard walks; more common wood-nymph butterfl ies were found in the European grasses than were found in the burned and unburned prairie sites. The majority of the vegetation at each of the three sites was identifi ed and documented. Using a 1 X 3 ANOVA analysis, it was determined there were signifi cantly more butterfl ies in the European grasses than in the burned and unburned prairie sites (p < 0.0005). There was no signifi cant difference between the burned and unburned treatments of the prairie on the common wood-nymph population. A multiple variable linear regression model described the effect of temperature and wind speed on the number of observed common wood-nymph butterfl ies per hour (p = 0.026). These preliminary results need to be supplemented with future studies. Quadrat analysis of the vegetation from all three sites should be done to search for a correlation between common wood-nymph butterfl y abundance per hour and the specifi c types or quantity of vegetation at each site. The effect of vegetation height and density on the observers visual fi eld should also be assessed.

  7. Remarks on the derivation of the governing equations for the dynamics of a nonlinear beam to a non ideal shaft coupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenili, Andr; Lopes Rebello da Fonseca Brasil, Reyolando Manoel

    2014-12-10

    We derive nonlinear governing equations without assuming that the beam is inextensible. The derivation couples the equations that govern a weak electric motor, which is used to rotate the base of the beam, to those that govern the motion of the beam. The system is considered non-ideal in the sense that the response of the motor to an applied voltage and the motion of the beam must be obtained interactively. The moment that the motor exerts on the base of the beam cannot be determined without solving for the motion of the beam.

  8. Characterization of emissions from a fluidized-bed wood chip home heating furnace. Final report Apr 82-May 83

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truesdale, R.S.

    1984-03-01

    The report gives results of measurements of emissions from a residential wood-chip combustor, operated in both a fluidized-bed and cyclone-fired mode, and their comparison with those from a conventional woodstove and industrial wood-fired boilers. In general, the combustion efficiency of the fluidized-bed and cyclone-fired wood-chip burner is higher than that of conventional woodstoves. Concomitant with this increase in efficiency is a decrease in most emissions. For the fluidized-bed tests, significant reductions of total hydrocarbons and CO were observed, compared to woodstove emissions. The cyclone test showed PAH levels far below those of conventional woodstoves, approaching levels measured in industrial wood-fired boilers. A baghouse, installed during two fluidized-bed tests, was extremely effective in reducing both particulate and PAH emissions. Method 5 samples from above the fluid bed suggest that appreciable PAH is formed in the upper region of the furnace or in the watertube heat exchangers. In general, the cyclone-fired mode was more effective in reducing emissions from residential wood combustion than the fluidized-bed mode.

  9. Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Cogasification/cofiring of Biomass and Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Ping; Howard, Bret; Hedges, Sheila; Morreale, Bryan; Van Essendelft, Dirk; Berry, David

    2013-10-29

    Utilization of biomass as a co-feed in coal and biomass co-firing and co-gasification requires size reduction of the biomass. Reducing biomass to below 0.2 mm without pretreatment is difficult and costly because biomass is fibrous and compressible. Torrefaction is a promising thermal pretreatment process and has the advantages of increasing energy density, improving grindability, producing fuels with more homogenous compositions and hydrophobic behavior. Temperature is the most important factor for the torrefaction process. Biomass grindability is related to cell wall structure, thickness and composition. Thermal treatment such as torrefaction can cause chemical changes that significantly affect the strength of biomass. The objectives of this study are to understand the mechanism by which torrefaction improves the grindability of biomass and discuss suitable temperatures for thermal pretreatment for co-gasification/cofiring of biomass and coal. Wild cherry wood was selected as the model for this study. Samples were prepared by sawing a single tangential section from the heartwood and cutting it into eleven pieces. The samples were consecutively heated at 220, 260, 300, 350, 450 and 550oC for 0.5 hr under flowing nitrogen in a tube furnace. Untreated and treated samples were characterized for physical properties (color, dimensions and weight), microstructural changes by SEM, and cell wall composition changes and thermal behaviors by TGA and DSC. The morphology of the wood remained intact through the treatment range but the cell walls were thinner. Thermal treatments were observed to decompose the cell wall components. Hemicellulose decomposed over the range of ~200 to 300oC and resulted in weakening of the cell walls and subsequently improved grindability. Furthermore, wood samples treated above 300oC lost more than 39% in mass. Therefore, thermal pretreatment above the hemicelluloses decomposition temperature but below 300oC is probably sufficient to improve grindability and retain energy value.

  10. Development and demonstration of a wood-fired gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, V.; Selzer, B.; Sethi, V.

    1993-08-01

    The objectives of the test program were to obtain some preliminary information regarding the nature of particulate and vapor phase alkali compounds produced and to assess any deleterious impact they might have on materials of construction. Power Generating Incorporated (PGI) is developing a wood-fired gas turbine system for specialized cogeneration applications. The system is based on a patented pressurized combustor designed and tested by PGI in conjunction with McConnell Industries. The other components of the system are fuel receiving, preparation, storage and feeding system, gas clean-up equipment, and a gas turbine generator.

  11. 3219," Other Wood Products",41,43,0,58

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 11.3;" " Unit: Percents." " "," ",,,"Renewable Energy" " "," ",,,"(excluding Wood" "NAICS"," ","Total Onsite",,"and" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Generation","Cogeneration(b)","Other Biomass)(c)","Other(d)" ,,"Total United States" 311,"Food",7,7,0,38

  12. ANALYTICAL CALCULATION OF STOKES PROFILES OF ROTATING STELLAR MAGNETIC DIPOLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez Gonzalez, M. J.

    2012-08-20

    The observation of the polarization emerging from a rotating star at different phases opens up the possibility to map the magnetic field in the stellar surface thanks to the well-known Zeeman-Doppler imaging. When the magnetic field is sufficiently weak, the circular and linear polarization profiles locally in each point of the star are proportional to the first and second derivatives of the unperturbed intensity profile, respectively. We show that the weak-field approximation (for weak lines in the case of linear polarization) can be generalized to the case of a rotating star including the Doppler effect and taking into account the integration on the stellar surface. The Stokes profiles are written as a linear combination of wavelength-dependent terms expressed as series expansions in terms of Hermite polynomials. These terms contain the surface-integrated magnetic field and velocity components. The direct numerical evaluation of these quantities is limited to rotation velocities not larger than eight times the Doppler width of the local absorption profiles. Additionally, we demonstrate that in a rotating star, the circular polarization flux depends on the derivative of the intensity flux with respect to the wavelength and also on the profile itself. Likewise, the linear polarization depends on the profile and on its first and second derivatives with respect to the wavelength. We particularize the general expressions to a rotating dipole.

  13. Rotational stability of a long field-reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, D. C. Steinhauer, L. C.

    2014-02-15

    Rotationally driven modes of long systems with dominantly axial magnetic field are considered. We apply the incompressible model and order axial wavenumber small. A recently developed gyro-viscous model is incorporated. A one-dimensional equilibrium is assumed, but radial profiles are arbitrary. The dominant toroidal (azimuthal) mode numbers ℓ=1 and ℓ=2 modes are examined for a variety of non-reversed (B) and reversed profiles. Previous results for both systems with rigid rotor equilibria are reproduced. New results are obtained by incorporation of finite axial wavenumber and by relaxing the assumption of rigid electron and ion rotation. It is shown that the frequently troublesome ℓ=2 field reversed configuration (FRC) mode is not strongly affected by ion kinetic effects (in contrast to non-reversed cases) and is likely stabilized experimentally only by finite length effects. It is also shown that the ℓ=1 wobble mode has a complicated behavior and is affected by a variety of configuration and profile effects. The rotationally driven ℓ=1 wobble is completely stabilized by strong rotational shear, which is anticipated to be active in high performance FRC experiments. Thus, observed wobble modes in these systems are likely not driven by rotation alone.

  14. JET ROTATION DRIVEN BY MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SHOCKS IN HELICAL MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fendt, Christian

    2011-08-10

    In this paper, we present a detailed numerical investigation of the hypothesis that a rotation of astrophysical jets can be caused by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks in a helical magnetic field. Shock compression of the helical magnetic field results in a toroidal Lorentz force component that will accelerate the jet material in the toroidal direction. This process transforms magnetic angular momentum (magnetic stress) carried along the jet into kinetic angular momentum (rotation). The mechanism proposed here only works in a helical magnetic field configuration. We demonstrate the feasibility of this mechanism by axisymmetric MHD simulations in 1.5 and 2.5 dimensions using the PLUTO code. In our setup, the jet is injected into the ambient gas with zero kinetic angular momentum (no rotation). We apply different dynamical parameters for jet propagation such as the jet internal Alfven Mach number and fast magnetosonic Mach number, the density contrast of the jet to the ambient medium, and the external sonic Mach number of the jet. The mechanism we suggest should work for a variety of jet applications, e.g., protostellar or extragalactic jets, and internal jet shocks (jet knots) or external shocks between the jet and the ambient gas (entrainment). For typical parameter values for protostellar jets, the numerically derived rotation feature looks consistent with the observations, i.e., rotational velocities of 0.1%-1% of the jet bulk velocity.

  15. NMR system and method having a permanent magnet providing a rotating magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlueter, Ross D; Budinger, Thomas F

    2009-05-19

    Disclosed herein are systems and methods for generating a rotating magnetic field. The rotating magnetic field can be used to obtain rotating-field NMR spectra, such as magic angle spinning spectra, without having to physically rotate the sample. This result allows magic angle spinning NMR to be conducted on biological samples such as live animals, including humans.

  16. NREL: MIDC/SMUD Anatolia Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (38.55 N, 121.24 W,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    51 m, GMT-8) SMUD Anatolia Irradiance Inc. Rotating Shadowband

  17. Ultra high vacuum heating and rotating specimen stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coombs, A.W. III

    1995-05-02

    A heating and rotating specimen stage provides for simultaneous specimen heating and rotating. The stage is ideally suited for operation in ultrahigh vacuum (1{times}10{sup {minus}9} torr or less), but is useful at atmosphere and in pressurized systems as well. A specimen is placed on a specimen holder that is attached to a heater that, in turn, is attached to a top housing. The top housing is rotated relative to a bottom housing and electrically connected thereto by electrically conductive brushes. This stage is made of materials that are compatible with UHV, able to withstand high temperatures, possess low outgassing rates, are gall and seize resistant, and are able to carry substantial electrical loading without overheating. 5 figs.

  18. The influence of the drying medium on high temperature convective drying of single wood chips

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johansson, A.; Rasmuson, A.

    1997-10-01

    High temperature convective drying of single wood chips with air and superheated steam respectively is studied theoretically. The two-dimensional model presented describes the coupled transport of water, vapor, air and heat. Transport mechanisms included are the convection of gas and liquid, intergas as well as bound water diffusion. In the initial part of the drying process, moisture is transported to the surface mainly due to capillary forces in the transversal direction where evaporation occurs. As the surface becomes dry, the drying front moves towards the center of the particle and an overpressure is simultaneously built up which affects the drying process. The differences between drying in air and steam respectively can be assigned to the physical properties of the drying medium. The period of constant drying rate which does not exist (or is very short) in air drying becomes more significant with decreasing amounts of air in the drying medium and is clearly visible in pure superheated steam drying. The maximal drying rate is larger in air drying, and shorter drying times are obtained since the heat flux to the wood chip particle increases with increasing amounts of air in the drying medium. The period of falling drying rate can be divided into two parts: in the first, the drying rate is dependent upon the humidity of the drying medium whereas in the second, there is no such correlation.

  19. The Influence of Process Conditions on the Chemical Composition of Pine Wood Catalytic Pyrolysis Oils

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pereira, J.; Agblevor, F. A.; Beis, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Pine wood samples were used as model feedstock to study the properties of catalytic fast pyrolysis oils. The influence of two commercial zeolite catalysts (BASF and SudChem) and pretreatment of the pine wood with sodium hydroxide on pyrolysis products were investigated. The pyrolysis oils were first fractionated using column chromatography and characterized using GC-MS. Long chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, levoglucosan, aldehydes and ketones, guaiacols/syringols, and benzenediols were the major compounds identified in the pyrolysis oils. The catalytic pyrolysis increased the polycyclic hydrocarbons fraction. Significant decreases in phthalate derivatives using SudChem and long chain aliphatics using BASF catalyst were observed. Significant amountsmore » of aromatic heterocyclic hydrocarbons and benzene derivatives were formed, respectively, using BASF and SudChem catalysts. Guaiacyl/syringyl and benzenediols derivatives were partly suppressed by the zeolite catalysts, while the sodium hydroxide treatment enriched phenolic derivatives. Zeolite catalyst and sodium hydroxide were employed together; they showed different results for each catalyst.« less

  20. Relation between combustion heat and chemical wood composition during white and brown rot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobry, J.; Dziurzynski, A.; Rypacek, V.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of beech and spruce wood were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinus tigrinus and the brown rot fungi Fomitopsis pinicola and Serpula lacrymans (S. lacrimans) for four months. Decomposition (expressed as percent weight loss) and amounts of holocellulose, lignin, humic acids (HU), hymatomelanic acids (HY) and fulvo acids (FU) were determined and expressed in weight percent. Combustion heat of holocellulose and lignin was determined in healthy wood and in specimens where decomposition was greater than 50%. During white rot decomposition, combustion heat was unchanged even at high decomposition and the relative amounts of holocellulose and lignin remained the same. Total amounts of HU, HY and FU increased during the initial stages and stabilized at 20%. The content of HU plus HY was negligible even at the highest degree of decomposition. During brown rot decomposition, combustion heat was unchanged only in the initial stages, it increased continously with increasing rot. Lignin content was unchanged in the initial stages and increased after 30% weight loss. Total amounts of HU, HY and FU increased continuously, reaching higher values than in white rot decomposition; there were differences between the two species. Biosynthesis of HU plus HY began when weight loss reached 30%; there were differences in absolute and relative amounts between species. 24 references.

  1. Effect of natural ageing on volume stability of MSW and wood waste incineration residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gori, Manuela; Bergfeldt, Britta; Reichelt, Jrgen; Sirini, Piero

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? Natural weathering on BA from MSW and wood waste incineration was evaluated. ? Type of mineral phases, pH and volume stability were considered. ? Weathering reactions effect in improved stability of the materials. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of a study on the effect of natural weathering on volume stability of bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste (MSW) and wood waste incineration. BA samples were taken at different steps of treatment (fresh, 4 weeks and 12 weeks aged) and then characterised for their chemical and mineralogical composition and for volume stability by means of the mineralogical test method (M HMVA-StB), which is part of the German quality control system for using aggregates in road construction (TL Gestein-StB 04). Changes of mineralogical composition with the proceeding of the weathering treatment were also monitored by leaching tests. At the end of the 12 weeks of treatment, almost all the considered samples resulted to be usable without restrictions in road construction with reference to the test parameter volume stability.

  2. Wood energy and preservation of woodlands in semi-arid developing countries. The case of Dodoma region, Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    At present little land and labour resources are expended on energy production, but the woodlands in Dodoma are disappearing, causing villagers to save time by switching from fuelwood collected on foot to charcoal shipped in by truck. Results of a linear program show that if the costs of growing the wood for charcoal are counted the switch to charcoal saves time only in areas where population is relatively dense and natural woodland remote. Woodland preservation in Dodoma will require more plantations, increased plantation productivity, improved efficiency of charcoal kilns or stoves and ultimately a switch to some other fuel than wood.

  3. Method of regulating the amount of underfire air for combustion of wood fuels in spreader-stroke boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, Kenneth L. (Federal Way, WA)

    1980-01-01

    A method of metering underfire air for increasing efficiency and reducing particulate emissions from wood-fire, spreader-stoker boilers is disclosed. A portion of the combustion air, approximately one pound of air per pound of wood, is fed through the grate into the fuel bed, while the remainder of the combustion air is distributed above the fuel in the furnace, and the fuel bed is maintained at a depth sufficient to consume all oxygen admitted under fire and to insure a continuous layer of fresh fuel thereover to entrap charred particles inside the fuel bed.

  4. A quantum mechanical description of particle spin rotation in channeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silenko, A.Ya.

    1995-04-01

    Spin rotation of spin-1/2 particles involved in planar channeling in straight and bent crystals is described in a consistent quantum mechanical manner. This is done by solving the Dirac equation in the Foldy-Wouthuysen representation, constructing an operator equation of motion for the spin, and calculating the average value of the spin precession frequency. For the case of channeling in bent crystals agreement is observed between the classical and quantum mechanical expressions, provided that the field of the planes is approximated by a harmonic potential. The effect of spin rotation in straight crystals is also examined. 17 refs.

  5. Graphene Monolayer Rotation on Ni(111) Facilities Bilayer Graphene Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batzill M.; Sutter P.; Dahal, A.; Addou, R.

    2012-06-11

    Synthesis of bilayer graphene by chemical vapor deposition is of importance for graphene-based field effect devices. Here, we demonstrate that bilayer graphene preferentially grows by carbon-segregation under graphene sheets that are rotated relative to a Ni(111) substrate. Rotated graphene monolayer films can be synthesized at growth temperatures above 650 C on a Ni(111) thin-film. The segregated second graphene layer is in registry with the Ni(111) substrate and this suppresses further C-segregation, effectively self-limiting graphene formation to two layers.

  6. Discovery and characteristics of the rapidly rotating active asteroid

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (62412) 2000 SY178 in the main belt (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Discovery and characteristics of the rapidly rotating active asteroid (62412) 2000 SY178 in the main belt Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Discovery and characteristics of the rapidly rotating active asteroid (62412) 2000 SY178 in the main belt We report a new active asteroid in the main belt of asteroids between Mars and Jupiter. Object (62412) 2000 SY178 exhibited a tail in images collected

  7. Change of translational-rotational coupling in liquids revealed by

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    field-cycling {sup 1}H NMR (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Change of translational-rotational coupling in liquids revealed by field-cycling {sup 1}H NMR Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Change of translational-rotational coupling in liquids revealed by field-cycling {sup 1}H NMR Applying the field-cycling nuclear magnetic resonance technique, the frequency dependence of the {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation rate, R{sub 1}(ω)=T{sub 1}{sup -1}(ω), is measured for propylene

  8. Distributions of methyl group rotational barriers in polycrystalline organic solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckmann, Peter A. E-mail: wangxianlong@uestc.edu.cn; Conn, Kathleen G.; Division of Education and Human Services, Neumann University, One Neumann Drive, Aston, Pennsylvania 19014-1298 ; Mallory, Clelia W.; Department of Chemistry, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 ; Mallory, Frank B.; Rheingold, Arnold L.; Rotkina, Lolita; Wang, Xianlong E-mail: wangxianlong@uestc.edu.cn

    2013-11-28

    We bring together solid state {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation rate measurements, scanning electron microscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, and electronic structure calculations for two methyl substituted organic compounds to investigate methyl group (CH{sub 3}) rotational dynamics in the solid state. Methyl group rotational barrier heights are computed using electronic structure calculations, both in isolated molecules and in molecular clusters mimicking a perfect single crystal environment. The calculations are performed on suitable clusters built from the X-ray diffraction studies. These calculations allow for an estimate of the intramolecular and the intermolecular contributions to the barrier heights. The {sup 1}H relaxation measurements, on the other hand, are performed with polycrystalline samples which have been investigated with scanning electron microscopy. The {sup 1}H relaxation measurements are best fitted with a distribution of activation energies for methyl group rotation and we propose, based on the scanning electron microscopy images, that this distribution arises from molecules near crystallite surfaces or near other crystal imperfections (vacancies, dislocations, etc.). An activation energy characterizing this distribution is compared with a barrier height determined from the electronic structure calculations and a consistent model for methyl group rotation is developed. The compounds are 1,6-dimethylphenanthrene and 1,8-dimethylphenanthrene and the methyl group barriers being discussed and compared are in the 212 kJ?mol{sup ?1} range.

  9. Deriving stellar inclination of slow rotators using stellar activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dumusque, X.

    2014-12-01

    Stellar inclination is an important parameter for many astrophysical studies. Although different techniques allow us to estimate stellar inclination for fast rotators, it becomes much more difficult when stars are rotating slower than ?2-2.5 km s{sup 1}. By using the new activity simulation SOAP 2.0 which can reproduce the photometric and spectroscopic variations induced by stellar activity, we are able to fit observations of solar-type stars and derive their inclination. For HD 189733, we estimate the stellar inclination to be i=84{sub ?20}{sup +6} deg, which implies a star-planet obliquity of ?=4{sub ?4}{sup +18} considering previous measurements of the spin-orbit angle. For ? Cen B, we derive an inclination of i=45{sub ?19}{sup +9}, which implies that the rotational spin of the star is not aligned with the orbital spin of the ? Cen binary system. In addition, assuming that ? Cen Bb is aligned with its host star, no transit would occur. The inclination of ? Cen B can be measured using 40 radial-velocity measurements, which is remarkable given that the projected rotational velocity of the star is smaller than 1.15 km s{sup 1}.

  10. Single Particle Orientation and Rotational Tracking (SPORT) in biopysical studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Yan; Ha, Ji Won; Augspurger, Ashley E.; Chen, Kuangcai; Zhu, Shaobin; Fang, Ning

    2013-08-02

    The single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) techniques have seen rapid development in the past 5 years. Recent technical advances have greatly expanded the applicability of SPORT in biophysical studies. In this feature article, we survey the current development of SPORT and discuss its potential applications in biophysics, including cellular membrane processes and intracellular transport.

  11. Rotation of the Sacrum During Bellyboard Pelvic Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasabasic, Mladen Faj, Dario; Ivkovic, Ana; Jurkovic, Slaven; Belaj, Nenad

    2010-04-01

    Patients with cervical, uterine, and rectal carcinomas are usually treated in the prone position using the bellyboard positioning device. Specific and uncomfortable prone position gives rise to uncertainties in the daily set-up of patients during the treatment. During investigation of translational movements, rotational movements of the pelvis are observed and investigated. The film portal imaging is used to discover patient positioning errors during treatment. We defined the rotational set-up errors by angle deviations of the sacrum. Thirty-six patients were included in the study; 15 patients were followed during the whole treatment and 21 during the first 5 consecutive treatment days. The image acquisitions were completed in 84%. Systematic and random positioning errors were analyzed in 725 images. Approximately half of the patients had adjusted to the bellyboard in the first few fractions, with sacrum angles remaining the same for the rest of the treatment. The other half had drifts of the sacrum angle during the whole treatment. The rotation of the sacrum during treatment ranged up to 14 deg., causing the usual set-up verification and correction procedure to result in errors up to 15 mm. Rotational movements of the patient pelvis during bellyboard pelvis radiotherapy can introduce considerable patient position error.

  12. Webinar: Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Electrode Technique | Department of Energy Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique," originally held on March 12, 2013. In addition to this recording, you can access the presentation slides. A text version of this recording will be available soon

  13. A solar eruption driven by rapid sunspot rotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruan, Guiping; Chen, Yao; Du, Guohui; Wang, Shuo; Jing, Ju; Wang, Haimin; Zhang, Hongqi; Su, Jiangtao; Xu, Haiqing; Li, Gang; Li, Xing

    2014-04-01

    We present the observation of a major solar eruption that is associated with fast sunspot rotation. The event includes a sigmoidal filament eruption, a coronal mass ejection, and a GOES X2.1 flare from NOAA active region 11283. The filament and some overlying arcades were partially rooted in a sunspot. The sunspot rotated at ?10 hr{sup 1} during a period of 6 hr prior to the eruption. In this period, the filament was found to rise gradually along with the sunspot rotation. Based on the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager observation, for an area along the polarity inversion line underneath the filament, we found gradual pre-eruption decreases of both the mean strength of the photospheric horizontal field (B{sub h} ) and the mean inclination angle between the vector magnetic field and the local radial (or vertical) direction. These observations are consistent with the pre-eruption gradual rising of the filament-associated magnetic structure. In addition, according to the nonlinear force-free field reconstruction of the coronal magnetic field, a pre-eruption magnetic flux rope structure is found to be in alignment with the filament, and a considerable amount of magnetic energy was transported to the corona during the period of sunspot rotation. Our study provides evidence that in this event sunspot rotation plays an important role in twisting, energizing, and destabilizing the coronal filament-flux rope system, and led to the eruption. We also propose that the pre-event evolution of B{sub h} may be used to discern the driving mechanism of eruptions.

  14. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

  15. Insight into trade-off between wood decay and parasitism from the genome of a fungal forest pathogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, Ake; Aerts, Andrea; Asiegbu, Fred; Belbahri, Lassaad; Bouzid, Ourdia; Broberg, Anders; Canback, Bjorn; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Cullen, Dan; Dalman, Kerstin; Deflorio, Giuliana; van Diepen, Linda T. A.; Dunand, Christophe; Duplessis, Sebastien; Durling, Mikael; Gonthier, Paolo; Grimwood, Jane; Fossdal, Carl Gunnar; Hansson, David; Henrissat, Bernard; Hietala, Ari; Himmelstrand, Kajsa; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Hogberg, Nils; James, Timothy Y.; Karlsson, Magnus; Kohler, Annegret; Lucas, Susan; Lunden, Karl; Morin, Emmanuelle; Murat, Claude; Park, Jongsun; Raffaello, Tommaso; Rouze, Pierre; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Solheim, Halvor; Stahlberg, Jerry; Velez, Heriberto; de Vries, Ronald P.; Wiebenga, Ad; Woodward, Steve; Yakovlev, Igor; Garbelotto, Matteo; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Stenlid, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Parasitism and saprotrophic wood decay are two fungal strategies fundamental for succession and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. An opportunity to assess the trade-off between these strategies is provided by the forest pathogen and wood decayer Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato. We report the annotated genome sequence and transcript profiling, as well as the quantitative trait loci mapping, of one member of the species complex: H. irregulare. Quantitative trait loci critical for pathogenicity, and rich in transposable elements, orphan and secreted genes, were identified. A wide range of cellulose-degrading enzymes are expressed during wood decay. By contrast, pathogenic interaction between H. irregulare and pine engages fewer carbohydrate-active enzymes, but involves an increase in pectinolytic enzymes, transcription modules for oxidative stress and secondary metabolite production. Our results show a trade-off in terms of constrained carbohydrate decomposition and membrane transport capacity during interaction with living hosts. Our findings establish that saprotrophic wood decay and necrotrophic parasitism involve two distinct, yet overlapping, processes.

  16. A high precision, compact electromechanical ground rotation sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dergachev, V.; DeSalvo, R.; University of Sannio, C.so Garibaldi 107, Benevento 82100 ; Asadoor, M.; Oklahoma State University, 219 Student Union, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74074 ; Bhawal, A.; Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 ; Gong, P.; School of Industrial and System Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0205 ; Kim, C.; Lottarini, A.; Department of Computer Science, Columbia University, 1214 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, New York 10027 ; Minenkov, Y.; Murphy, C.; University of Melbourne Grattan Street, Parkville VIC 3010 ; O'Toole, A.; Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Dr, Houghton, Michigan 49931 ; Peña Arellano, F. E.; and others

    2014-05-15

    We present a mechanical rotation sensor consisting of a balance pivoting on a tungsten carbide knife edge. These sensors are important for precision seismic isolation systems, as employed in land-based gravitational wave interferometers and for the new field of rotational seismology. The position sensor used is an air-core linear variable differential transformer with a demonstrated noise floor of 1 × 10{sup −11}m/√( Hz ). We describe the instrument construction and demonstrate low noise operation with a noise floor upper bound of 5.7 × 10{sup −9} rad /√( Hz ) at 10 mHz and 6.4 × 10{sup −10} rad /√( Hz ) at 0.1 Hz. The performance of the knife edge hinge is compatible with a behaviorur free of noise from dislocation self-organized criticality.

  17. PIC simulation of electrodeless plasma thruster with rotating electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nomura, Ryosuke; Ohnishi, Naofumi; Nishida, Hiroyuki

    2012-11-27

    For longer lifetime of electric propulsion system, an electrodeless plasma thruster with rotating electric field have been proposed utilizing a helicon plasma source. The rotating electric field may produce so-called Lissajous acceleration of helicon plasma in the presence of diverging magnetic field through a complicated mechanism originating from many parameters. Two-dimensional simulations of the Lissajous acceleration were conducted by a code based on Particle-In-Cell (PIC) method and Monte Carlo Collision (MCC) method for understanding plasma motion in acceleration area and for finding the optimal condition. Obtained results show that azimuthal current depends on ratio of electron drift radius to plasma region length, AC frequency, and axial magnetic field. When ratio of cyclotron frequency to the AC frequency is higher than unity, reduction of the azimuthal current by collision effect is little or nothing.

  18. Electron inertial effects on rotating magnetic field current drive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrari, Hugo E.; Farengo, Ricardo; Clemente, Roberto A.

    2006-03-15

    The effect of finite electron mass on the formation and sustainment of a field reversed configuration (FRC) by rotating magnetic fields (RMF) is studied. The importance of inertial effects is measured by the ratio between the RMF frequency ({omega}) and the electron-ion collision frequency ({nu}). In the limit where this ratio is very small ({omega}/{nu}{yields}0), previous results corresponding to massless electrons are recovered. When {omega}/{nu} increases there are significant changes in the value of the minimum external rotating field needed to sustain the FRC and the time required to reach a steady state. Since {nu} decreases with increasing temperature and decreasing density, these effects are expected to become more important as fusion relevant temperatures are approached.

  19. Dual annular rotating "windowed" nuclear reflector reactor control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacox, Michael G.; Drexler, Robert L.; Hunt, Robert N. M.; Lake, James A.

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear reactor control system is provided in a nuclear reactor having a core operating in the fast neutron energy spectrum where criticality control is achieved by neutron leakage. The control system includes dual annular, rotatable reflector rings. There are two reflector rings: an inner reflector ring and an outer reflector ring. The reflectors are concentrically assembled, surround the reactor core, and each reflector ring includes a plurality of openings. The openings in each ring are capable of being aligned or non-aligned with each other. Independent driving means for each of the annular reflector rings is provided so that reactor criticality can be initiated and controlled by rotation of either reflector ring such that the extent of alignment of the openings in each ring controls the reflection of neutrons from the core.

  20. Electron beam machining using rotating and shaped beam power distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elmer, J.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1996-07-09

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for electron beam (EB) machining (drilling, cutting and welding) that uses conventional EB guns, power supplies, and welding machine technology without the need for fast bias pulsing technology. The invention involves a magnetic lensing (EB optics) system and electronic controls to: (1) concurrently bend, focus, shape, scan, and rotate the beam to protect the EB gun and to create a desired effective power-density distribution, and (2) rotate or scan this shaped beam in a controlled way. The shaped beam power-density distribution can be measured using a tomographic imaging system. For example, the EB apparatus of this invention has the ability to drill holes in metal having a diameter up to 1,000 {micro}m (1 mm or larger), compared to the 250 {micro}m diameter of laser drilling. 5 figs.

  1. Electron beam machining using rotating and shaped beam power distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elmer, John W. (Pleasanton, CA); O'Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for electron beam (EB) machining (drilling, cutting and welding) that uses conventional EB guns, power supplies, and welding machine technology without the need for fast bias pulsing technology. The invention involves a magnetic lensing (EB optics) system and electronic controls to: 1) concurrently bend, focus, shape, scan, and rotate the beam to protect the EB gun and to create a desired effective power-density distribution, and 2) rotate or scan this shaped beam in a controlled way. The shaped beam power-density distribution can be measured using a tomographic imaging system. For example, the EB apparatus of this invention has the ability to drill holes in metal having a diameter up to 1000 .mu.m (1 mm or larger), compared to the 250 .mu.m diameter of laser drilling.

  2. Multilayered Glass Fibre-reinforced Composites In Rotational Moulding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, W. C.; Harkin-Jones, E. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, Ashby Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AH, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Kearns, M.; McCourt, M. [Polymer Processing Research Centre, Queen's University Belfast, Ashby Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AH Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-04

    The potential of multiple layer fibre-reinforced mouldings is of growing interest to the rotational moulding industry because of their cost/performance ratio. The particular problem that arises when using reinforcements in this process relate to the fact that the process is low shear and good mixing of resin and reinforcement is not optimum under those conditions. There is also a problem of the larger/heavier reinforcing agents segregating out of the powder to lay up on the inner part surface. In this study, short glass fibres were incorporated and distributed into a polymer matrix to produce fibre-reinforced polymer composites using the rotational moulding process and characterised in terms of morphology and mechanical properties.

  3. Aerodynamic testing of a rotating wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butterfield, C.P.; Nelsen, E.N.

    1990-01-01

    Aerodynamic, load, flow-visualization, and inflow measurements were taken on a downwind horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT). A video camera mounted on the rotor recorded video images of tufts attached to the low-pressure side of the blade. Strain gages, mounted every 10% of the blade's span, provided load and pressure measurements. Pressure taps at 32 chordwise positions recorded pressure distributions. Wind inflow was measured via a vertical-plane array of anemometers located 10 m upwind. The objectives of the test were to address whether airfoil pressure distributions measured on a rotating blade differed from those measured in the wind tunnel, if radial flow near or in the boundary layer of the airfoil affected pressure distributions, if dynamic stall could result in increased dynamic loads, and if the location of the separation boundary measured on the rotating blade agreed with that measured in two-dimensional flow in the wind tunnel. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 8): Smeltertown Site, Operable Unit 2, former Koppers Wood Treating site, Salida, CO, June 4, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-10-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action (RA) for the former Koppers Wood Treating Operable Unit (OU2) at the Smeltertown Superfund Site (the Site). This action addresses the wood-treating contaminants from the tie treating operations at the former Koppers Wood Treating Operable Unit that were conducted by Koppers Company, Inc. (now known as Beazer East, Inc.) from 1924 through 1953. This remedy calls for the containment of soils contaminated at low levels and monitors the effect of the contaminants in the soils, dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) within the groundwater.

  5. Life history and habitat associations of the broad wood cockroach, Parcoblatta lata (Blattaria: Blattellidae) and other native cockroaches in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.

    2002-06-18

    Wood cockroaches are an important prey of the red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis, an endangered species inhabiting pine forests in the southern United States. These woodpeckers forage on the boles of live pine trees, but their prey consists of a high proportion of wood cockroaches, Parcoblatta spp., that are more commonly associated with dead plant material. Cockroach population density samples were conducted on live pine trees, dead snags and coarse woody debris on the ground. The studies showed that snags and logs are also important habitats of wood cockroaches in pine forests.

  6. Surface geometry of a rotating black hole in a magnetic field...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Surface geometry of a rotating black hole in a magnetic field Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Surface geometry of a rotating black hole in a magnetic field We study the ...

  7. Evaporative cooler including one or more rotating cooler louvers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerlach, David W

    2015-02-03

    An evaporative cooler may include an evaporative cooler housing with a duct extending therethrough, a plurality of cooler louvers with respective porous evaporative cooler pads, and a working fluid source conduit. The cooler louvers are arranged within the duct and rotatably connected to the cooler housing along respective louver axes. The source conduit provides an evaporative cooler working fluid to the cooler pads during at least one mode of operation.

  8. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Rotating Shadowband

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectroradiometer (RSS) at SGP: Performance, Data Processing, and Value-Added Products Rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer (RSS) at SGP: Performance, Data Processing, and Value-Added Products Kiedron, Piotr State University of New York Albany Schlemmer, Jim The first ARM owned RSS was deployed at SGP central site in May 2003. This RSS provides direct-normal, diffuse-horizontal andtotal-horizontal components of irradiance at 1001 pixels in 360nm-1050nm spectral range every minute between

  9. Rotating machinery surveillance system reduces plant downtime and radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohanick, J.S.; Robinson, J.C.; Allen, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    A rotating machinery surveillance system (RMSS) was permanently installed at Grand Gulf nuclear station (GGNS) as part of a program sponsored by the US Department of Energy whose goal was to reduce radiation exposure to power plant personnel resulting from the inspection, maintenance, and repair of rotating machinery. The RMSS was installed at GGNS in 1983 to continuously monitor 173 analog vibration signals from proximity probes mounted on 26 machine trains and {approximately}450 process data points via a computer data link. Vibration frequency spectra, i.e., the vibration amplitude versus frequency of vibration, and various characterizations of these spectra are the fundamental data collected by the RMSS for performing machinery diagnostics. The RMSS collects vibration frequency spectra on a daily basis for all the monitored rotating equipment and automatically stores the collected spectra for review by the vibration engineer. Vibration spectra automatically stored by the RMSS fall into categories that include the last normal, alarm, minimum and maximum, past three-day data set, baseline, current, and user-saved spectra. During first and second fuel-cycle operation at GGNS, several significant vibration problems were detected by the RMSS. Two of these are presented in this paper: recirculation pumps and turbine-generator bearing degradation. The total reduction in personnel radiation exposure at GGNS from 1985 to 1987 due to the presence of the RMSS was estimated to be in the range from 49 to 54 person-rem.

  10. HOW CAN NEWLY BORN RAPIDLY ROTATING NEUTRON STARS BECOME MAGNETARS?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Quan; Yu, Yun-Wei

    2014-05-10

    In a newly born (high-temperature and Keplerian rotating) neutron star, r-mode instability can lead to stellar differential rotation, which winds the seed poloidal magnetic field (∼10{sup 11} G) to generate an ultra-high (∼10{sup 17} G) toroidal field component. Subsequently, by succumbing to the Tayler instability, the toroidal field could be partially transformed into a new poloidal field. Through such dynamo processes, the newly born neutron star with sufficiently rapid rotation could become a magnetar on a timescale of ∼10{sup 2} {sup –} {sup 3} s, with a surface dipolar magnetic field of ∼10{sup 15} G. Accompanying the field amplification, the star could spin down to a period of ∼5 ms through gravitational wave radiation due to the r-mode instability and, in particular, the non-axisymmetric stellar deformation caused by the toroidal field. This scenario provides a possible explanation for why the remnant neutron stars formed in gamma-ray bursts and superluminous supernovae could be millisecond magnetars.

  11. Large-scale anisotropy in stably stratified rotating flows

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marino, R.; Mininni, P. D.; Rosenberg, D. L.; Pouquet, A.

    2014-08-28

    We present results from direct numerical simulations of the Boussinesq equations in the presence of rotation and/or stratification, both in the vertical direction. The runs are forced isotropically and randomly at small scales and have spatial resolutions of up tomore » $1024^3$ grid points and Reynolds numbers of $$\\approx 1000$$. We first show that solutions with negative energy flux and inverse cascades develop in rotating turbulence, whether or not stratification is present. However, the purely stratified case is characterized instead by an early-time, highly anisotropic transfer to large scales with almost zero net isotropic energy flux. This is consistent with previous studies that observed the development of vertically sheared horizontal winds, although only at substantially later times. However, and unlike previous works, when sufficient scale separation is allowed between the forcing scale and the domain size, the total energy displays a perpendicular (horizontal) spectrum with power law behavior compatible with $$\\sim k_\\perp^{-5/3}$$, including in the absence of rotation. In this latter purely stratified case, such a spectrum is the result of a direct cascade of the energy contained in the large-scale horizontal wind, as is evidenced by a strong positive flux of energy in the parallel direction at all scales including the largest resolved scales.« less

  12. Rotational and translational temperature equilibrium in an inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimada, Masashi; Tynan, George R.; Cattolica, Robert

    2006-09-15

    Rotational temperature has been used widely as neutral gas temperature measurement in different types of plasmas (electron cyclotron resonance, inductively coupled plasma, helicon, hollow cathode, etc.), and has been assumed to be in equilibrium with translational temperature. The direct experimental comparison of rotational and translational temperature in low-temperature plasmas has not been reported. In this research, optical emission spectroscopy is used to measure the neutral gas rotational temperature, T{sub rot}, from the second-positive band of a nitrogen molecule (380 nm). The results are compared with the Doppler-broadened translational temperature, T{sub trans}, of Ar (750 nm) and He (587 nm), determined with a high-resolution spectrometer at various partial pressures of N{sub 2} in Ar/N{sub 2} and He/N{sub 2} plasmas. The results demonstrated that T{sub rot} and T{sub trans} are in equilibrium in the conditions [10{sup 10}

  13. Final Report: Development of Renewable Microbial Polyesters for Cost Effective and Energy- Efficient Wood-Plastic Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, David N.; Emerick, Robert W.; England, Alfred B.; Flanders, James P.; Loge, Frank J.; Wiedeman, Katherine A.; Wolcott, Michael P.

    2010-03-31

    In this project, we proposed to produce wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (WFRTCs) using microbial thermoplastic polyesters in place of petroleum-derived plastic. WFRTCs are a rapidly growing product area, averaging a 38% growth rate since 1997. Their production is dependent on substantial quantities of petroleum based thermoplastics, increasing their overall energy costs by over 230% when compared to traditional Engineered Wood Products (EWP). Utilizing bio-based thermoplastics for these materials can reduce our dependence on foreign petroleum. We have demonstrated that biopolymers (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHA) can be successfully produced from wood pulping waste streams and that viable wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite products can be produced from these materials. The results show that microbial polyester (PHB in this study) can be extruded together with wastewater-derived cell mass and wood flour into deck products having performance properties comparable to existing commercial HDPE/WF composite products. This study has thus proven the underlying concept that the microbial polyesters produced from waste effluents can be used to make cost-effective and energy-efficient wood-plastic composites. The cost of purified microbial polyesters is about 5-20 times that of HDPE depending on the cost of crude oil, due to high purification (40%), carbon substrate (40%) and sterilized fermentation (20%) costs for the PHB. Hence, the ability to produce competitive and functional composites with unpurified PHA-biomass mixtures from waste carbon sources in unsterile systems—without cell debris removal—is a significant step forward in producing competitive value-added structural composites from forest products residuals using a biorefinery approach. As demonstrated in the energy and waste analysis for the project, significant energy savings and waste reductions can also be realized using this approach. We recommend that the next step for development of useful products using this technology is to scale the technology from the 700-L pilot reactor to a small-scale production facility, with dedicated operation staff and engineering controls. In addition, we recommend that a market study be conducted as well as further product development for construction products that will utilize the unique properties of this bio-based material.

  14. System for automatically aligning a support roller system under a rotating body

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singletary, B.H.

    1982-07-21

    Two support rings on a rotatable drum respectively engage conically tapered end surfaces of support rollers mounted on pivot universally relative to its axis of rotation and translate therealong. Rotation of the drum on differential conical support roller diameters causes pivotal steering and axial translation of support roller until roller is centered on support rings.

  15. System for automatically aligning a support roller system under a rotating body

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singletary, B. Huston (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1983-01-01

    Two support rings on a rotatable drum respectively engage conically tapered nd surfaces of support rollers mounted on pivot universally relative to its axis of rotation and translate therealong. Rotation of the drum on differential conical support roller diameters causes pivotal steering and axial translation of support roller until roller is centered on support rings.

  16. Rotational fluctuation of molecules in quantum clusters. II. Molecular rotation and superfluidity in OCS-doped helium-4 clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miura, Shinichi [Institute for Molecular Science, 38 Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)

    2007-03-21

    In this paper, quantum fluctuations of a carbonyl sulfide molecule in helium-4 clusters are studied as a function of cluster size N in a small-to-large size regime (2{<=}N{<=}64). The molecular rotation of the dopant shows nonmonotonic size dependence in the range of 10{<=}N{<=}20, reflecting the density distribution of the helium atoms around the molecule. The size dependence on the rotational constant shows a plateau for N{>=}20, which is larger than the experimental nanodroplet value. Superfluid response of the doped cluster is found to show remarkable anisotropy especially for N{<=}20. The superfluid fraction regarding the axis perpendicular to the molecular axis shows a steep increase at N=10, giving the significant enhancement of the rotational fluctuation of the molecule. On the other hand, the superfluid fraction regarding the axis parallel to the molecular axis reaches 0.9 at N=5, arising from the bosonic exchange cycles of the helium atoms around the molecular axis. The anisotropy in the superfluid response is found to be the direct consequence of the configurations of the bosonic exchange cycles.

  17. Effect on plasma rotation of lower hybrid (LH) waves in Alcator C-Mod

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Effect on plasma rotation of lower hybrid (LH) waves in Alcator C-Mod Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect on plasma rotation of lower hybrid (LH) waves in Alcator C-Mod The injection of LH waves for current drive into a tokamak changes the ion toroidal rotation. In Alcator C-Mod, the direction of the steady state rotation change due to LH waves depends on the plasma current and the density. The change in rotation can be estimated by balancing

  18. Observation of dust torus with poloidal rotation in direct current glow discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaur, Manjit Bose, Sayak; Chattopadhyay, P. K. Sharma, Devendra; Ghosh, J.; Saxena, Y. C.

    2015-03-15

    Observation of dust cloud rotation in parallel-plate DC glow discharge plasma is reported here. The experiments are carried out at high pressures (∼130 Pa) with a metallic ring placed on the lower electrode (cathode). The dust cloud rotates poloidally in the vertical plane near the cathode surface. This structure is continuous toroidally. Absence of magnetic field rules out the possibility of E × B induced ion flow as the cause of dust rotation. The dust rotational structures exist even with water cooled cathode. Therefore, temperature gradient driven mechanisms, such as thermophoretic force, thermal creep flow, and free convection cannot be causing the observed dust rotation. Langmuir probe measurement reveals the existence of a sharp density gradient near the location of the rotating dust cloud. The gradient in the density, giving rise to a gradient in the ion drag force, has been identified as the principal cause behind the rotation of dust particles.

  19. Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

  20. System and method for cooling a super-conducting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, James William (Niskayuna, NY); Steinbach, Albert Eugene (Schenectady, NY); Dawson, Richard Nils (Voorheesville, NY); Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon (Schenectady, NY); Huang, Xianrul (Clifton Park, NY)

    2008-01-08

    A system and method for cooling a superconductive rotor coil. The system comprises a rotatable shaft coupled to the superconductive rotor coil. The rotatable shaft may comprise an axial passageway extending through the rotatable shaft and a first passageway extending through a wall of the rotatable shaft to the axial passageway. The axial passageway and the first passageway are operable to convey a cryogenic fluid to the superconductive rotor coil through the wall of the rotatable shaft. A cryogenic transfer coupling may be provided to supply cryogenic fluid to the first passageway.

  1. Ion acoustic shocks in magneto rotating Lorentzian plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussain, S.; Akhtar, N.; Hasnain, H.

    2014-12-15

    Ion acoustic shock structures in magnetized homogeneous dissipative Lorentzian plasma under the effects of Coriolis force are investigated. The dissipation in the plasma system is introduced via dynamic viscosity of inertial ions. The electrons are following the kappa distribution function. Korteweg-de Vries Burger (KdVB) equation is derived by using reductive perturbation technique. It is shown that spectral index, magnetic field, kinematic viscosity of ions, rotational frequency, and effective frequency have significant impact on the propagation characteristic of ion acoustic shocks in such plasma system. The numerical solution of KdVB equation is also discussed and transition from oscillatory profile to monotonic shock for different plasma parameters is investigated.

  2. Stator for a rotating electrical machine having multiple control windings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Manoj R. (Latham, NY); Lewandowski, Chad R. (Amsterdam, NY)

    2001-07-17

    A rotating electric machine is provided which includes multiple independent control windings for compensating for rotor imbalances and for levitating/centering the rotor. The multiple independent control windings are placed at different axial locations along the rotor to oppose forces created by imbalances at different axial locations along the rotor. The multiple control windings can also be used to levitate/center the rotor with a relatively small magnetic field per unit area since the rotor and/or the main power winding provides the bias field.

  3. Unusual aryl-porphyrin rotational barriers in peripherally crowded porphyrins.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shyr, David C.; Dooley, Neal R.; Haddad, Raid Edward; Shelnutt, John Allen; Muzzi, Cinzia M.; Ma, Jian-Guo; Olmstead, Marilyn M.; Jaquinod, Laurent A.; Nurco, Daniel J.; Medforth, Craig John; Smith, Kevin M.

    2003-06-01

    Previous studies of 5,10,15,20-tetraarylporphyrins have shown that the barrier for meso aryl-porphyrin rotation ({Delta}G{sub ROT}) varies as a function of the core substituent M and is lower for a small metal (M = Ni) compared to a large metal (M = Zn) and for a dication (M 4H{sup 2+}) versus a free base porphyrin (M = 2H). This has been attributed to changes in the nonplanar distortion of the porphyrin ring and the deformability of the macrocycle caused by the core substituent. In the present work, X-ray crystallography, molecular mechanics (MM) calculations, and variable temperature (VT) {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy are used to examine the relationship between the aryl-porphyrin rotational barrier and the core substituent M in some novel 2,3,5,7,8,10,12,13,15,17,18,20-dodecaarylporphyrins (DArPs), and specifically in some 5,10,15,20-tetraaryl-2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaphenylporphyrins (TArOPPs), where steric crowding of the peripheral groups always results in a very nonplanar macrocycle. X-ray structures of DArPs indicate differences in the nonplanar conformation of the macrocycle as a function of M, with saddle conformations being observed for M = Zn, 2H or M = 4H{sup 2+} and saddle and/or ruffle conformations for M = Ni. VT NMR studies show that the effect of protonation in the TArOPPs is to increase {Delta}G{sub ROT}, which is the opposite of the effect seen for the TArPs, and MM calculations also predict a strikingly high barrier for the TArOPPs when M = 4H{sup 2+}. These and other findings suggest that the aryl-porphyrin rotational barriers in the DArPs are closely linked to the deformability of the macrocycle along a nonplanar distortion mode which moves the substituent being rotated out of the porphyrin plane.

  4. Control coil arrangement for a rotating machine rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Manoj R. (Latham, NY); Lewandowsk, Chad R. (Amsterdam, NY)

    2001-07-31

    A rotating machine (e.g., a turbine, motor or generator) is provided wherein a fixed solenoid or other coil configuration is disposed adjacent to one or both ends of the active portion of the machine rotor for producing an axially directed flux in the active portion so as to provide planar axial control at single or multiple locations for rotor balance, levitation, centering, torque and thrust action. Permanent magnets can be used to produce an axial bias magnetic field. The rotor can include magnetic disks disposed in opposed, facing relation to the coil configuration.

  5. Electromagnetic Detection and Real-Time DMLC Adaptation to Target Rotation During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Junqing; Ruan, Dan; Cho, Byungchul; Sawant, Amit; Petersen, Jay; Newell, Laurence J.; Cattell, Herbert; Keall, Paul J.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Intrafraction rotation of more than 45 Degree-Sign and 25 Degree-Sign has been observed for lung and prostate tumors, respectively. Such rotation is not routinely adapted to during current radiotherapy, which may compromise tumor dose coverage. The aim of the study was to investigate the geometric and dosimetric performance of an electromagnetically guided real-time dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking system to adapt to intrafractional tumor rotation. Materials/Methods: Target rotation was provided by changing the treatment couch angle. The target rotation was measured by a research Calypso system integrated with a real-time DMLC tracking system employed on a Varian linac. The geometric beam-target rotational alignment difference was measured using electronic portal images. The dosimetric accuracy was quantified using a two-dimensional ion chamber array. For each beam, the following five delivery modes were tested: 1) nonrotated target (reference); 2) fixed rotated target with tracking; 3) fixed rotated target without tracking; 4) actively rotating target with tracking; and 5) actively rotating target without tracking. Dosimetric performance of the latter four modes was measured and compared to the reference dose distribution using a 3 mm/3% {gamma}-test. Results: Geometrically, the beam-target rotational alignment difference was 0.3 Degree-Sign {+-} 0.6 Degree-Sign for fixed rotation and 0.3 Degree-Sign {+-} 1.3 Degree-Sign for active rotation. Dosimetrically, the average failure rate for the {gamma}-test for a fixed rotated target was 11% with tracking and 36% without tracking. The average failure rate for an actively rotating target was 9% with tracking and 35% without tracking. Conclusions: For the first time, real-time target rotation has been accurately detected and adapted to during radiation delivery via DMLC tracking. The beam-target rotational alignment difference was mostly within 1 Degree-Sign . Dose distributions to fixed and actively rotating targets with DMLC tracking were significantly superior to those without tracking.

  6. Lethal synergism between organic and inorganic wood preservatives via formation of an unusual lipophilic ternary complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, Zhi-Guo; Li, Yan; Fan, Rui-Mei; Chao, Xi-Juan; Zhu, Ben-Zhan; Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331

    2013-02-01

    We have shown previously that exposing bacteria to wood preservatives pentachlorophenol (PCP) and copper-containing compounds together causes synergistic toxicity. However, it is not clear whether these findings also hold true in mammalian cells; and if so, what is the underlying molecular mechanism? Here we show that PCP and a model copper complex bis-(1,10-phenanthroline) cupric (Cu(OP){sub 2}), could also induce synergistic cytotoxicity in human liver cells. By the single crystal X-ray diffraction and atomic absorption spectroscopy assay, the synergism was found to be mainly due to the formation of a lipophilic ternary complex with unusual structural and composition characteristics and subsequent enhanced cellular copper uptake, which markedly promoted cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, leading to apoptosis by decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing pro-apoptotic protein expression, releasing cytochrome c from mitochondria and activating caspase-3, and -9. Analogous results were observed with other polychlorinated phenols (PCPs) and Cu(OP){sub 2}. Synergistic cytotoxicity could be induced by PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} via formation of an unusual lipophilic complex in HepG2 cells. The formation of ternary complexes with similar lipophilic character could be of relevance as a general mechanism of toxicity, which should be taken into consideration especially when evaluating the toxicity of environmental pollutants found at currently-considered non- or sub-toxic concentrations. -- Highlights: ? The combination of PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} induces synergistic cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. ? The synergism is mainly due to forming a lipophilic ternary complex between them. ? The formation of lipophilic ternary complex enhances cellular copper uptake. ? PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} stimulates the cellular ROS production. ? The ROS promoted by PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis.

  7. Evaluation of Gas, Oil and Wood Pellet Fueled Residential Heating System Emissions Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.

    2009-12-01

    This study has measured the emissions from a wide range of heating equipment burning different fuels including several liquid fuel options, utility supplied natural gas and wood pellet resources. The major effort was placed on generating a database for the mass emission rate of fine particulates (PM 2.5) for the various fuel types studied. The fine particulates or PM 2.5 (less than 2.5 microns in size) were measured using a dilution tunnel technique following the method described in US EPA CTM-039. The PM 2.5 emission results are expressed in several units for the benefit of scientists, engineers and administrators. The measurements of gaseous emissions of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} were made using a combustion analyzer based on electrochemical cells These measurements are presented for each of the residential heating systems tested. This analyzer also provides a steady state efficiency based on stack gas and temperature measurements and these values are included in the report. The gaseous results are within the ranges expected from prior emission studies with the enhancement of expanding these measurements to fuels not available to earlier researchers. Based on measured excess air levels and ultimate analysis of the fuel's chemical composition the gaseous emission results are as expected and fall within the range provided for emission factors contained in the US-EPA AP 42, Emission Factors Volume I, Fifth Edition. Since there were no unexpected findings in these gaseous measurements, the bulk of the report is centered on the emissions of fine particulates, or PM 2.5. The fine particulate (PM 2.5) results for the liquid fuel fired heating systems indicate a very strong linear relationship between the fine particulate emissions and the sulfur content of the liquid fuels being studied. This is illustrated by the plot contained in the first figure on the next page which clearly illustrates the linear relationship between the measured mass of fine particulate per unit of energy, expressed as milligrams per Mega-Joule (mg/MJ) versus the different sulfur contents of four different heating fuels. These were tested in a conventional cast iron boiler equipped with a flame retention head burner. The fuels included a typical ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with sulfur below 0.5 percent (1520 average ppm S), an ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with very high sulfur content (5780 ppm S), low sulfur heating oil (322 ppm S) and an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (11 ppm S). Three additional oil-fired heating system types were also tested with normal heating fuel, low sulfur and ultralow sulfur fuel. They included an oil-fired warm air furnace of conventional design, a high efficiency condensing warm air furnace, a condensing hydronic boiler and the conventional hydronic boiler as discussed above. The linearity in the results was observed with all of the different oil-fired equipment types (as shown in the second figure on the next page). A linear regression of the data resulted in an Rsquared value of 0.99 indicating that a very good linear relationship exits. This means that as sulfur decreases the PM 2.5 emissions are reduced in a linear manner within the sulfur content range tested. At the ultra low sulfur level (15 ppm S) the amount of PM 2.5 had been reduced dramatically to an average of 0.043 mg/MJ. Three different gas-fired heating systems were tested. These included a conventional in-shot induced draft warm air furnace, an atmospheric fired hydronic boiler and a high efficiency hydronic boiler. The particulate (PM 2.5) measured ranged from 0.011 to 0.036 mg/MJ. depending on the raw material source used in their manufacture. All three stoves tested were fueled with premium (low ash) wood pellets obtained in a single batch to provide for uniformity in the test fuel. Unlike the oil and gas fired systems, the wood pellet stoves had measurable amounts of particulates sized above the 2.5-micron size that defines fine particulates (less than 2.5 microns). The fine particulate emissions rates ranged from 22 to 30 mg/ MJ with an average value

  8. Interactive Effects of Climate Change and Decomposer Communities on the Stabilization of Wood-Derived Carbon Pools: Catalyst for a New Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resh, Sigrid C.

    2014-11-17

    Globally, forest soils store ~two-thirds as much carbon (C) as the atmosphere. Although wood makes up the majority of forest biomass, the importance of wood contributions to soil C pools is unknown. Even with recent advances in the mechanistic understanding of soil processes, integrative studies tracing C input pathways and biological fluxes within and from soils are lacking. Therefore, our research objectives were to assess the impact of different fungal decay pathways (i.e., white-rot versus brown-rot)in interaction with wood quality, soil temperature, wood location (i.e., soil surface and buried in mineral soil), and soil textureon the transformation of woody material into soil CO2 efflux, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and soil C pools. The use of 13C-depleted woody biomass harvested from the Rhinelander, WI free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (Aspen-FACE) experiment affords the unique opportunity to distinguish the wood-derived C from other soil C fluxes and pools. We established 168 treatment plots across six field sites (three sand and three loam textured soil). Treatment plots consisted of full-factorial design with the following treatments: 1. Wood chips from elevated CO2, elevated CO2 + O3, or ambient atmosphere AspenFACE treatments; 2. Inoculated with white rot (Bjerkandera adusta) or brown rot (Gloeophyllum sepiarium) pure fungal cultures, or the original suite of endemic microbial community on the logs; and 3. Buried (15cm in soil as a proxy for coarse roots) or surface applied wood chips. We also created a warming treatment using open-topped, passive warming chambers on a subset of the above treatments. Control plots with no added wood (no chip control) were incorporated into the research design. Soils were sampled for initial ?13C values, CN concentrations, and bulk density. A subset of plots were instrumented with lysimeters for sampling soil water and temperature data loggers for measuring soil temperatures. To determine the early pathways of decomposition, we measured soil surface CO2 efflux, dissolved organic C (DOC), and DO13C approximately monthly over two growing seasons from a subsample of the research plots. To determine the portion of soil surface CO2 efflux attributable to wood-derived C, we used Keeling plot techniques to estimate the associated ?13C values of the soil CO2 efflux. We measured the ?13CO2 once during the peak of each growing season. Initial values for soil ?13C values and CN concentrations averaged across the six sites were -26.8 (standard error = 0.04), 2.46% (se = 0.11), and 0.15% (se = 0.01), respectively. The labeled wood chips from the Aspen FACE treatments had an average ?13C value of -39.5 (se 0.10). The >12 isotopic difference between the soil and wood chip ?13C values provides the basis for tracking the wood-derived C through the early stages of decomposition and subsequent storage in the soil. Across our six research sites, average soil surface CO2 efflux ranged from 1.04 to 2.00 g CO2 m-2 h-1 for the first two growing seasons. No wood chip controls had an average soil surface CO2 efflux of 0.67 g CO2 m-2 h-1 or about half of that of the wood chip treatment plots. Wood-derived CO2 efflux was higher for loam textured soils relative to sands (0.70 and 0.54 g CO2 m-2 h-1, respectively; p = 0.045)), for surface relative to buried wood chip treatments (0.92 and 0.39 g CO2 m-2 h-1, respectively; p < 0.001), for warmed relative to ambient temperature treatments (0.99 and 0.78 g CO2 m-2 h-1, respectively; 0.004), and for natural rot relative to brown and white rots (0.93, 0.82, and 0.78 g CO2 m-2 h-1, respectively; p = 0.068). Our first two growing seasons of soil surface CO2 efflux data show that wood chip location (i.e., surface vs. buried chip application) is very important, with surface chips loosing twice the wood-derived CO2. The DOC data support this trend for greater loss of ecosystem C from surface chips. This has strong implications for the importance of root and buried wood for ecosystem C retention. This strong chip location effect on wood-derived C loss was significantly modified by soil texture, soil temperature, decomposer communities, and wood quality as effected by potential future CO2 and O3 levels.

  9. Unstable domains of tearing and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in a rotating cylindrical plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, D. M.; Wei, L.; Wang, Z. X., E-mail: zxwang@dlut.edu.cn; Zheng, S. [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Beams of the Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Duan, P. [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Effects of poloidal rotation profile on tearing and Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instabilities in a cylindrical plasma are investigated by using a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model. Since the poloidal rotation has different effects on the tearing and KH modes in different rotation regimes, four unstable domains are numerically identified, i.e., the destabilized tearing mode domain, stabilized tearing mode domain, stable-window domain, and unstable KH mode domain. It is also found that when the rotation layer is in the outer region of the rational surface, the stabilizing role of the rotation can be enhanced so significantly that the stable window domain is enlarged. Moreover, Alfvn resonances can be induced by the tearing and KH modes in such rotating plasmas. Radially wide profiles of current and vorticity perturbations can be formed when multiple current sheets on different resonance positions are coupled together.

  10. Distant optical detection of small rotations and displacements by means of chiral liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shibaev, Petr V. E-mail: shibayev@fordham.edu; Troisi, Juliana; Reddy, Kathryn; Iljin, Andrey

    2014-01-15

    The paper describes novel chiral viscoelastic liquid crystalline mixtures and their application for the detection of small rotational displacements of two plates confining cholesteric liquid crystals (CLC). The mixtures are characterized by extremely high viscosities and stability of the selective reflection band (SRB) at ambient temperatures. Even a small rotation applied to the chiral liquid crystal (CLC) cell results in dramatic changes of the reflective properties of sandwiched CLC films. The angle and direction of rotation as well as the magnitude of CLC's shear deformation can be determined for a variety of experimental geometries, each of which is characterized by its own response function. The proposed model explains changes in the reflection spectra for different experimental geometries and relates them to the angle of rotation and magnitude of shear. The method was tested for a detection of small rotations from a distance of up to 50 m and allows for resolving small rotations of the order of fractions of degrees.

  11. Rotational fluctuation of molecules in quantum clusters. I. Path integral hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miura, Shinichi [Institute for Molecular Science, 38 Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)

    2007-03-21

    In this paper, we present a path integral hybrid Monte Carlo (PIHMC) method for rotating molecules in quantum fluids. This is an extension of our PIHMC for correlated Bose fluids [S. Miura and J. Tanaka, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 2160 (2004)] to handle the molecular rotation quantum mechanically. A novel technique referred to be an effective potential of quantum rotation is introduced to incorporate the rotational degree of freedom in the path integral molecular dynamics or hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm. For a permutation move to satisfy Bose statistics, we devise a multilevel Metropolis method combined with a configurational-bias technique for efficiently sampling the permutation and the associated atomic coordinates. Then, we have applied the PIHMC to a helium-4 cluster doped with a carbonyl sulfide molecule. The effects of the quantum rotation on the solvation structure and energetics were examined. Translational and rotational fluctuations of the dopant in the superfluid cluster were also analyzed.

  12. Rotating fiber array molecular driver and molecular momentum transfer device constructed therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milleron, Norman (1854 San Juan, Berkeley, CA 94707)

    1983-01-01

    A rotating fiber array molecular driver is disclosed which includes a magnetically suspended and rotated central hub to which is attached a plurality of elongated fibers extending radially therefrom. The hub is rotated so as to straighten and axially extend the fibers and to provide the fibers with a tip speed which exceeds the average molecular velocity of fluid molecules entering between the fibers. Molecules colliding with the sides of the rotating fibers are accelerated to the tip speed of the fiber and given a momentum having a directional orientation within a relatively narrow distribution angle at a point radially outward of the hub, which is centered and peaks at the normal to the fiber sides in the direction of fiber rotation. The rotating fiber array may be used with other like fiber arrays or with other stationary structures to form molecular momentum transfer devices such as vacuum pumps, molecular separators, molecular coaters, or molecular reactors.

  13. High power microwave generation from rotating e-layers in magnetron-type

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    conducting boundary systems (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: High power microwave generation from rotating e-layers in magnetron-type conducting boundary systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High power microwave generation from rotating e-layers in magnetron-type conducting boundary systems Studies of the production of microwave and millimeter wave radiation at high harmonics of the relativistic electron cyclotron frequency by the interaction of a rotating

  14. Anomalies in the theory of viscous energy losses due to shear in rotational

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MEMS resonators. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Anomalies in the theory of viscous energy losses due to shear in rotational MEMS resonators. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Anomalies in the theory of viscous energy losses due to shear in rotational MEMS resonators. In this paper, the effect of viscous wave motion on a micro rotational resonator is discussed. This work shows the inadequacy of developing theory to represent energy losses due to shear motion in air. Existing

  15. Simulation of Alpha Particles in Rotating Plasma Interacting with a Stationary Ripple

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2011-01-11

    Superthermal ExB rotation can provide magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and enhanced confinement to axisymmetric mirrors. However, the rotation speed has been limited by phenomena at end electrodes. A new prediction is that rotation might instead be produced using a magnetic ripple and alpha particle kinetic energy, in an extension of the alpha channeling concept. The interaction of alpha particles with the ripple results in visually interesting and practically useful orbits.

  16. Muon Spin Rotation Spectroscopy - Utilizing Muons in Solid State Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suter, Andreas

    2012-10-17

    Over the past decades muon spin rotation techniques (mSR) have established themselves as an invaluable tool to study a variety of static and dynamic phenomena in bulk solid state physics and chemistry. Common to all these approaches is that the muon is utilized as a spin microprobe and/or hydrogen-like probe, implanted in the material under investigation. Recent developments extend the range of application to near surface phenomena, thin film and super-lattice studies. After briefly summarizing the production of so called surface muons used for bulk studies, and discussing the principle differences between pulsed and continuous muon beams, the production of keV-energy muon sources will be discussed. A few topical examples from different active research fields will be presented to demonstrate the power of these techniques.

  17. Rotating black hole thermodynamics with a particle probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gwak, Bogeun; Lee, Bum-Hoon

    2011-10-15

    The thermodynamics of Myers-Perry black holes in general dimensions are studied using a particle probe. When undergoing particle absorption, the changes of the entropy and irreducible mass are shown to be dependent on the particle radial momentum. The black hole thermodynamic behaviors are dependent on dimensionality for specific rotations. For a 4-dimensional Kerr black hole, its black hole properties are maintained for any particle absorption. 5-dimensional black holes can avoid a naked ring singularity by absorbing a particle in specific momenta ranges. Black holes over 6 dimensions become ultraspinning black holes through a specific form of particle absorption. The microscopical changes are interpreted in limited cases of Myers-Perry black holes using Kerr/CFT correspondence. We systematically describe the black hole properties changed by particle absorption in all dimensions.

  18. Damping, motional narrowing, and chaos in rotational nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, F. S.; Deleplanque, M. A.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Fallon, P.; Diamond, R. M.; Ward, D.; Clark, R. M.; Cromaz, M.

    2008-09-15

    We have studied the unresolved {gamma}-ray spectrum of three ytterbium nuclei produced in heavy-ion fusion reactions and measured the two damping widths, {gamma}{sub {mu}}, the spreading (compound-damping) width, and {gamma}{sub rot}, the rotational damping width, together with P{sub nar}, the probability that the population enters and leaves a given state via the same component of the wave function. Our results for {gamma}{sub {mu}} and {gamma}{sub rot} are in good agreement with theoretical expectations, as well as with those of other groups using different methods. Our results for P{sub nar} lead to a new method for quantitative evaluation of the full order-to-chaos transition in these Yb nuclei. Finally, we provide the first evidence for the motional narrowing of {gamma}{sub rot} in nuclei. The basic physics occurring in this region is level mixing, which our simulation technique reproduces surprisingly well.

  19. Nanoparticles at liquid interfaces: Rotational dynamics and angular locking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Razavi, Sepideh; Kretzschmar, Ilona; Koplik, Joel; Colosqui, Carlos E.

    2014-01-07

    Nanoparticles with different surface morphologies that straddle the interface between two immiscible liquids are studied via molecular dynamics simulations. The methodology employed allows us to compute the interfacial free energy at different angular orientations of the nanoparticle. Due to their atomistic nature, the studied nanoparticles present both microscale and macroscale geometrical features and cannot be accurately modeled as a perfectly smooth body (e.g., spheres and cylinders). Under certain physical conditions, microscale features can produce free energy barriers that are much larger than the thermal energy of the surrounding media. The presence of these energy barriers can effectively lock the particle at specific angular orientations with respect to the liquid-liquid interface. This work provides new insights on the rotational dynamics of Brownian particles at liquid interfaces and suggests possible strategies to exploit the effects of microscale features with given geometric characteristics.

  20. Double rotation NMR studies of zeolites and aluminophosphate molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jelinek, R. |

    1993-07-01

    Goal is to study the organization and structures of guest atoms and molecules and their reactions on internal surfaces within pores of zeolites and aluminophosphate molecular sieves. {sup 27}Al and {sup 23}Na double rotation NMR (DOR) is used since it removes the anisotropic broadening in NMR spectra of quadrupolar nuclei, thus increasing resolution. This work concentrates on probing aluminum framework atoms in aluminophosphate molecular sieves and sodium extra framework cations in porous aluminosilicates. In aluminophosphates, ordering and electronic environments of the framework {sup 27}Al nuclei are modified upon adsorption of water molecules within the channels; a relation is sought between the sieve channel topology and the organization of adsorbed water, as well as the interaction between the Al nuclei and the water molecules. Extra framework Na{sup +} cations are directly involved in adsorption processes and reactions in zeolite cavities.

  1. MHK Projects/Contra Rotating Marine Turbine CoRMaT | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Contra Rotating Marine Turbine CoRMaT < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps...

  2. Time-Resolved Picosecond Pure-Rotational Coherent anti-Stokes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Time-Resolved Picosecond Pure-Rotational Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy for Thermometry and Species Concentration in Flames. Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  3. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik; Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat; Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd

    2014-02-12

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  4. Genome analysis of Daldinia eschscholtzii strains UM 1400 and UM 1020, wood-decaying fungi isolated from human hosts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chan, Chai Ling; Yew, Su Mei; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2015-11-18

    Background: Daldinia eschscholtzii is a wood-inhabiting fungus that causes wood decay under certain conditions. It has a broad host range and produces a large repertoire of potentially bioactive compounds. However, there is no extensive genome analysis on this fungal species. Results: Two fungal isolates (UM 1400 and UM 1020) from human specimens were identified as Daldinia eschscholtzii by morphological features and ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. Both genomes were similar in size with 10,822 predicted genes in UM 1400 (35.8 Mb) and 11,120 predicted genes in UM 1020 (35.5 Mb). A total of 751 gene families were shared among both UM isolates,more » including gene families associated with fungus-host interactions. In the CAZyme comparative analysis, both genomes were found to contain arrays of CAZyme related to plant cell wall degradation. Genes encoding secreted peptidases were found in the genomes, which encode for the peptidases involved in the degradation of structural proteins in plant cell wall. In addition, arrays of secondary metabolite backbone genes were identified in both genomes, indicating of their potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Both genomes also contained an abundance of gene encoding signaling components, with three proposed MAPK cascades involved in cell wall integrity, osmoregulation, and mating/filamentation. Besides genomic evidence for degrading capability, both isolates also harbored an array of genes encoding stress response proteins that are potentially significant for adaptation to living in the hostile environments. In conclusion: Our genomic studies provide further information for the biological understanding of the D. eschscholtzii and suggest that these wood-decaying fungi are also equipped for adaptation to adverse environments in the human host.« less

  5. Rotation magnet sputtering: Damage-free novel magnetron sputtering using rotating helical magnet with very high target utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goto, Tetsuya; Matsuoka, Takaaki; Ohmi, Tadahiro

    2009-07-15

    Novel magnetron-sputtering equipment, called rotation magnet sputtering (ROT-MS), was developed to overcome various disadvantages of current magnetron-sputtering equipment. Disadvantages include (1) very low target utilization of less than 20%, (2) difficulty in obtaining uniform deposition on the substrate, and (3) charge-up damages and ion-bombardment-induced damages resulting from very high electron temperature (>3 eV) and that the substrate is set at the plasma excitation region. In ROT-MS, a number of moving high-density plasma loops are excited on the target surface by rotating helical magnets, resulting in very high target utilization with uniform target erosion and uniform deposition on the substrate. This excellent performance can be principally maintained even if equipment size increases for very large-substrate deposition. Because strong horizontal magnetic fields (>0.05 T) are produced within a very limited region just at the target surface, very low electron-temperature plasmas (<2.5 eV for Ar plasma and <1 eV for direct-current-excited Xe plasma) are excited at the very limited region adjacent to the target surface with a combination of grounded plate closely mounted on the strong magnetic field region. Consequently, the authors can establish charge-up damage-free and ion-bombardment-induced damage-free processes. ROT-MS has been applied for thin-film formation of LaB{sub 6}, which is well known as a stable, low-work-function bulk-crystal material for electron emissions. The work function of the LaB{sub 6} film decreased to 2.8 eV due to enhanced (100)-orientation crystallinity and reduced resistivity realized by adjusting the flux of low-energy bombarding ions impinging on the depositing surface, which work very efficiently, improving the performance of the electron emission devices.

  6. Magnetic island and plasma rotation under external resonant magnetic perturbation in the T-10 tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eliseev, L. G.; Ivanov, N. V. Kakurin, A. M.; Perfilov, S. V.; Melnikov, A. V.

    2015-05-15

    Experimental comparison of the m = 2, n = 1 mode and plasma rotation velocities at q = 2 magnetic surface in a wide range of the mode amplitudes is presented. Phase velocity of the mode rotation is measured with a set of poloidal magnetic field sensors located at the inner side of the vacuum vessel wall. Plasma rotation velocity at the q = 2 magnetic surface in the direction of the mode phase velocity is measured with the heavy ion beam probe diagnostics. In the presence of a static Resonant Magnetic Perturbation (RMP), the rotation is irregular that appears as cyclical variations of the mode and plasma instantaneous velocities. The period of these variations is equal to the period of the mode oscillations. In the case of high mode amplitude, the rotation irregularity of the mode is consistent with the rotation irregularity of the resonant plasma layer. On the contrary, the observed rise of the mode rotation irregularity in the case of low mode amplitude occurs without an increase of the rotation irregularity of the resonant plasma layer. The experimental results are simulated and analyzed with the TEAR code based on the two-fluid MHD approximation. Calculated irregularities of the mode and plasma rotation depend on the mode amplitude similar to the experimental data. For large islands, the rotation irregularity is attributed to oscillations of the electromagnetic torque applied to the resonant plasma layer. For small islands, the deviation of the mode rotation velocity from the plasma velocity occurs due to the effect of finite plasma resistivity.

  7. SUNSPOT ROTATION, SIGMOIDAL FILAMENT, FLARE, AND CORONAL MASS EJECTION: THE EVENT ON 2000 FEBRUARY 10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, X. L.; Qu, Z. Q.; Kong, D. F.

    2012-07-20

    We find that a sunspot with positive polarity had an obvious counterclockwise rotation and resulted in the formation and eruption of an inverse S-shaped filament in NOAA Active Region 08858 from 2000 February 9 to 10. The sunspot had two umbrae which rotated around each other by 195 Degree-Sign within about 24 hr. The average rotation rate was nearly 8 Degree-Sign hr{sup -1}. The fastest rotation in the photosphere took place during 14:00 UT to 22:01 UT on February 9, with a rotation rate of nearly 16 Degree-Sign hr{sup -1}. The fastest rotation in the chromosphere and the corona took place during 15:28 UT to 19:00 UT on February 9, with a rotation rate of nearly 20 Degree-Sign hr{sup -1}. Interestingly, the rapid increase of the positive magnetic flux occurred only during the fastest rotation of the rotating sunspot, the bright loop-shaped structure, and the filament. During the sunspot rotation, the inverse S-shaped filament gradually formed in the EUV filament channel. The filament experienced two eruptions. In the first eruption, the filament rose quickly and then the filament loops carrying the cool and the hot material were seen to spiral counterclockwise into the sunspot. About 10 minutes later, the filament became active and finally erupted. The filament eruption was accompanied with a C-class flare and a halo coronal mass ejection. These results provide evidence that sunspot rotation plays an important role in the formation and eruption of the sigmoidal active-region filament.

  8. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 2.0: Wind Turbine Reliability and Maintainability Enhancement through System-wide Structure Health Monitoring and Modifications to Rotating Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janet M Twomey, PhD

    2010-04-30

    EXECUTIVE SUMARRY An evaluation of nondestructive structural health monitoring methods was completed with over 132 documents, 37 specifically about wind turbines, summarized into a technology matrix. This matrix lists the technology, what can be monitored with this technology, and gives a short summary of the key aspects of the technology and its application. Passive and active acoustic emission equipment from Physical Acoustics Corp. and Acellent Technologies have been evaluated and selected for use in experimental state loading and fatigue tests of composite wind turbine blade materials. Acoustic Emission (AE) and Active Ultrasonic Testing (AUT), were applied to composite coupons with both simulated and actual damage. The results found that, while composites are more complicated in nature, compared to metallic structures, an artificial neural network analysis could still be used to determine damage. For the AE system, the failure mode could be determined (i.e. fiber breakage, delamination, etc.). The Acellent system has been evaluated to work well with composite materials. A test-rig for reliability testing of the rotating components was constructed. The research on the types of bearings used in the wind turbines indicated that in most of the designs, the main bearings utilized to support the shaft are cylindrical roller bearings. The accelerated degradation testing of a population of bearings was performed. Vibration and acoustic emission data was collected and analyzed in order to identify a representative degradation signal for each bearing to identify the initiation of the degradation process in the bearings. Afterwards, the RMS of the vibration signal from degradation initiation up to the end of the useful life of the bearing was selected to predict the remaining useful life of the bearing. This step included fitting Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) models to the degradation signals and approximating the probability distribution function (PDF) of remaining useful life based on the results of Monte-Carlo simulation of the ARMA models. This step was performed for different percentages of the degradation signal of each bearing. The accuracy of the proposed approach then was assessed by comparing the actual life of the bearing and the estimated life of the bearing from the developed models. The results were impressive and indicated that the accuracy of the models improved as more data was utilized in developing the ARMA models (we get closer to the end of the life of the bearing).

  9. Rotating dipole and quadrupole field for a multiple cathode system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, X.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Kewisch, J.; Litvinenko, V.; Meng, W.; Pikin, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Rao, T.; Sheehy, B.; Skarita, J.; Wang, E.; Wu, Q.; Xin, T.

    2011-03-28

    A multiple cathode system has been designed to provide the high average current polarized electron bunches for the future electron-ion collider eRHIC [1]. One of the key research topics in this design is the technique to generate a combined dipole and quadrupole rotating field at high frequency (700 kHz). This type of field is necessary for combining bunches from different cathodes to the same axis with minimum emittance growth. Our simulations and the prototype test results to achieve this will be presented. The future eRHIC project, next upgrade of EHIC, will be the first electron-heavy ion collider in the world. For polarized-electron and polarized proton collisions, it requires a polarized electron source with high average current ({approx}50 mA), short bunch ({approx}3 mm), emittance of about 20 {micro}m and energy spread of {approx}1% at 10 MeV. The state-of-art polarized electron cathode can generate average current of about more than 1 mA, but much less than 50 mA. The current is limited by the quantum efficiency, lifetime, space charge and ultra-high vacuum requirement of the polarized cathode. A possible approach to achieve the 50 mA beam is to employ multiple cathodes, such as 20 cathodes, and combine the multiple bunched beams from cathodes to the same axis. We name it as 'Gatling gun' because its operations bear similarity to a multi-barrel Gatling gun. The electron spin direction is not affected by electric field but will follow to the direction of the magnetic bending. This requires that, to preserve the spin polarization from cathode, the fixed bending field after the solenoid and the rotating bending field in combiner must be either a pair of electric bendings or a pair of magnetic bendings. We choose the scheme with a pair of magnetic bendings because it is much easier than the scheme with a pair of electric bendings at our 200 keV electron energy level.

  10. Hawking radiation of scalar particles from accelerating and rotating black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillani, Usman A.; Rehman, Mudassar; Saifullah, K. E-mail: mudassar051@yahoo.com

    2011-06-01

    Hawking radiation of uncharged and charged scalar particles from accelerating and rotating black holes is studied. We calculate the tunneling probabilities of these particles from the rotation and acceleration horizons of these black holes. Using this method we recover the correct Hawking temperature as well.

  11. Single-ended counter-rotating radial turbine for space application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coomes, E.P.; Wilson, D.G.; Webb, B.J.; McCabe, S.J.

    1987-05-13

    A single-ended turbine with counter-rotating blades operating with sodium as the working fluid. The single-ended, counter-rotating feature of the turbine results in zero torque application to a space platform. Thus, maneuvering of the platform is not adversely affected by the turbine. 4 figs.

  12. Rotation Angle for the Optimum Tracking of One-Axis Trackers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marion, W. F.; Dobos, A. P.

    2013-07-01

    An equation for the rotation angle for optimum tracking of one-axis trackers is derived along with equations giving the relationships between the rotation angle and the surface tilt and azimuth angles. These equations are useful for improved modeling of the solar radiation available to a collector with tracking constraints and for determining the appropriate motor revolutions for optimum tracking.

  13. The effect of diamagnetic flows on turbulent driven ion toroidal rotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J. P.; Barnes, M.; Parra, F. I.; Belli, E. A.; Candy, J.

    2014-05-15

    Turbulent momentum redistribution determines the radial profile of rotation in a tokamak. The momentum transport driven by diamagnetic flow effects is an important piece of the radial momentum transport for sub-sonic rotation, which is often observed in experiments. In a non-rotating state, the diamagnetic flow and the E B flow must cancel. The diamagnetic flow and the E B flow have different effects on the turbulent momentum flux, and this difference in behavior induces intrinsic rotation. The momentum flux is evaluated using gyrokinetic equations that are corrected to higher order in the ratio of the poloidal Larmor radius to the minor radius, which requires evaluation of the diamagnetic corrections to Maxwellian equilibria. To study the momentum transport due to diamagnetic flow effects, three experimental observations of ion rotation are examined. First, a strong pressure gradient at the plasma edge is shown to result in a significant inward momentum transport due to the diamagnetic effect, which may explain the observed peaking of rotation in a high confinement mode. Second, the direction of momentum transport is shown to change as collisionality increases, which is qualitatively consistent with the observed reversal of intrinsic rotation by varying plasma density and current. Last, the dependence of the intrinsic momentum flux on the magnetic shear is found, and it may explain the observed rotation changes in the presence of lower hybrid current drive.

  14. Performance of a small underfed wood chip-fired stoker in a hot air-heated home

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, M.H.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of the study was to provide space heat for a home using forest biomass presently not in demand by industry, and by using a convenient, automatic, low-emission heating system. A stoker firing wood chips was installed in a home, and chips were prepared for it from the residues of a softwood clearcut. Residues from 1 and a quarter acre provided enough fuel to heat the house for the heating season. The chip-fired heating system was convenient, maintained the house at whatever temperature was set on the room thermostat, and generated little creosote or wood smoke. It was better at converting fuel to heat than the previous combustion heating systems in the house, with steady-state combustion efficiency of approximately 75% and longer-term appliance efficiency of 69%. Electric energy required for heating hot water was reduced approximately 27% as a result of a preheating coil located in the chip-fired furnace. The major cause of heat interruptions was jamming of the stoker which occurred on the average of every 18 and a half days. Clearing such jams was simple. The system operated safely throughout the test period.

  15. Characterization of ashes from co-combustion of refuse-derived fuel with coal, wood and bark in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zevenhoven, R.; Skrifvars, B.J.; Hupa, M.

    1998-12-31

    The technical and environmental feasibility of co-combustion of a recovered fuel (RF) prepared from combustible waste fractions (separated at the source), together with coal, peat, wood or wood-waste in thermal power/electricity generation has been studied in several R and D projects within Finland. The current work focuses on eventual changes in ash characteristics during co-combustion of RF with coal, wood or bark, which could lead to bed agglomeration, slagging, fouling and even corrosion in the boiler. Ashes were produced in a 15 kW bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustion reactor, the fly ash captured by the cyclone was further analyzed by XRF. The sintering tendency behavior of these ashes was investigated using a test procedure developed at Aabo Akademi University. Earlier, a screening program involved ashes from RF (from a waste separation scheme in Finland) co-combustion with peat, wood and bark, in which ash pellets were thermally treated in air. This showed significant sintering below 600 C as well as above 800 C for RF/wood and RF/bark, but not for RF/peat. This seemed to correlate with alkali chloride and sulfate concentrations in the ashes. The current work addresses a Danish refuse-derived fuel (RDF), co-combusted with bark, coal, bark+coal, wood, and wood+coal (eight tests). Ash pellets were thermally treated in nitrogen in order to avoid residual carbon combustion. The results obtained show no sintering tendencies below 600 C, significant changes in sintering are seen with pellets treated at 1,000 C. Ash from 100% RDF combustion does not sinter, 25% RDF co-combustion with wood and peat, respectively, gives an insignificant effect. The most severe sintering occurs during co-combustion of RDF with bark. Furthermore, it appears that the presence of a 25% coal fraction (on energy basis) seems to have a negative effect on all fuel blends. Analysis of the sintering results versus ash chemical composition shows that, in general, an increased level of alkali chlorides and sulfates gives increased sintering. At the same time, increased amounts calcium salts in the ash appear to reduce sintering tendency. Thus, the results suggest that a calcium based sorbent for SO{sub 2} and HCl capture might reduce problems related to ash sintering. An extensive literature exists, however, that states otherwise.

  16. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent flow in a rotating square duct

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Yi-Jun; Huang, Wei-Xi Xu, Chun-Xiao; Cui, Gui-Xiang

    2015-06-15

    A fully developed turbulent flow in a rotating straight square duct is simulated by direct numerical simulations at Re{sub ?} = 300 and 0 ? Ro{sub ?} ? 40. The rotating axis is parallel to two opposite walls of the duct and normal to the main flow. Variations of the turbulence statistics with the rotation rate are presented, and a comparison with the rotating turbulent channel flow is discussed. Rich secondary flow patterns in the cross section are observed by varying the rotation rate. The appearance of a pair of additional vortices above the pressure wall is carefully examined, and the underlying mechanism is explained according to the budget analysis of the mean momentum equations.

  17. Deformations and magnetic rotations in the {sup 60}Ni nucleus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres, D. A.; Cristancho, F.; Andersson, L.-L.; Johansson, E. K.; Rudolph, D.; Fahlander, C.; Ekman, J.; Rietz, R. du; Andreoiu, C.; Carpenter, M. P.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Charity, R. J.; Chiara, C. J.; Hoel, C.; Pechenaya, O. L.; Reviol, W.; Sarantites, D. G.; Sobotka, L. G.; Baktash, C.

    2008-11-15

    Data from three experiments using the heavy-ion fusion evaporation-reaction {sup 36}Ar+{sup 28}Si have been combined to study high-spin states in the residual nucleus {sup 60}Ni, which is populated via the evaporation of four protons from the compound nucleus {sup 64}Ge. The GAMMASPHERE array was used for all the experiments in conjunction with a 4{pi} charged-particle detector arrays (MICROBALL, LUWUSIA) and neutron detectors (NEUTRON SHELL) to allow for the detection of {gamma} rays in coincidence with the evaporated particles. An extended {sup 60}Ni level scheme is presented, comprising more than 270{gamma}-ray transitions and 110 excited states. Their spins and parities have been assigned via directional correlations of {gamma} rays emitted from oriented states. Spherical shell-model calculations in the fp-shell characterize some of the low-spin states, while the experimental results of the rotational bands are analyzed with configuration-dependent cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations.

  18. Semi-Implicit Reversible Algorithms for Rigid Body Rotational Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nukala, Phani K; Shelton Jr, William Allison

    2006-09-01

    This paper presents two semi-implicit algorithms based on splitting methodology for rigid body rotational dynamics. The first algorithm is a variation of partitioned Runge-Kutta (PRK) methodology that can be formulated as a splitting method. The second algorithm is akin to a multiple time stepping scheme and is based on modified Crouch-Grossman (MCG) methodology, which can also be expressed as a splitting algorithm. These algorithms are second-order accurate and time-reversible; however, they are not Poisson integrators, i.e., non-symplectic. These algorithms conserve some of the first integrals of motion, but some others are not conserved; however, the fluctuations in these invariants are bounded over exponentially long time intervals. These algorithms exhibit excellent long-term behavior because of their reversibility property and their (approximate) Poisson structure preserving property. The numerical results indicate that the proposed algorithms exhibit superior performance compared to some of the currently well known algorithms such as the Simo-Wong algorithm, Newmark algorithm, discrete Moser-Veselov algorithm, Lewis-Simo algorithm, and the LIEMID[EA] algorithm.

  19. BONA FIDE, STRONG-VARIABLE GALACTIC LUMINOUS BLUE VARIABLE STARS ARE FAST ROTATORS: DETECTION OF A HIGH ROTATIONAL VELOCITY IN HR CARINAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groh, J. H.; Damineli, A.; Moises, A. P.; Teodoro, M.; Hillier, D. J.; Barba, R.; Fernandez-Lajus, E.; Gamen, R. C.; Solivella, G.

    2009-11-01

    We report optical observations of the luminous blue variable (LBV) HR Carinae which show that the star has reached a visual minimum phase in 2009. More importantly, we detected absorptions due to Si IV lambdalambda4088-4116. To match their observed line profiles from 2009 May, a high rotational velocity of v{sub rot} approx = 150 +- 20 km s{sup -1} is needed (assuming an inclination angle of 30 deg.), implying that HR Car rotates at approx =0.88 +- 0.2 of its critical velocity for breakup (v{sub crit}). Our results suggest that fast rotation is typical in all strong-variable, bona fide galactic LBVs, which present S-Dor-type variability. Strong-variable LBVs are located in a well-defined region of the HR diagram during visual minimum (the 'LBV minimum instability strip'). We suggest this region corresponds to where v{sub crit} is reached. To the left of this strip, a forbidden zone with v{sub rot}/v{sub crit}>1 is present, explaining why no LBVs are detected in this zone. Since dormant/ex LBVs like P Cygni and HD 168625 have low v{sub rot}, we propose that LBVs can be separated into two groups: fast-rotating, strong-variable stars showing S-Dor cycles (such as AG Car and HR Car) and slow-rotating stars with much less variability (such as P Cygni and HD 168625). We speculate that supernova (SN) progenitors which had S-Dor cycles before exploding (such as in SN 2001ig, SN 2003bg, and SN 2005gj) could have been fast rotators. We suggest that the potential difficulty of fast-rotating Galactic LBVs to lose angular momentum is additional evidence that such stars could explode during the LBV phase.

  20. ARM Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR): irradiances

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hodges, Gary

    1993-07-04

    The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) takes spectral measurements of direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. These measurements are at nominal wavelengths of 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. The measurements are made at a user-specified time interval, usually about one minute or less. The sampling rate for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility MFRSRs is 20 seconds. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's optical depth at the wavelengths mentioned above. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Michalsky et al. 1994) and other atmospheric constituents. A silicon detector is also part of the MFRSR. This detector provides a measure of the broadband direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. A MFRSR head that is mounted to look vertically downward can measure upwelling spectral irradiances. In the ARM system, this instrument is called a multifilter radiometer (MFR). At the Southern Great Plains (SGP) there are two MFRs; one mounted at the 10-m height and the other at 25 m. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites, the MFRs are mounted at 10 m. MFRSR heads are also used to measure normal incidence radiation by mounting on a solar tracking device. These are referred to as normal incidence multi-filter radiometers (NIMFRs) and are located at the SGP and NSA sites. Another specialized use for the MFRSR is the narrow field of view (NFOV) instrument located at SGP. The NFOV is a ground-based radiometer (MFRSR head) that looks straight up.

  1. Gravitational wave extraction in simulations of rotating stellar core collapse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reisswig, C.; Ott, C. D.; Sperhake, U.; Schnetter, E.

    2011-03-15

    We perform simulations of general relativistic rotating stellar core collapse and compute the gravitational waves (GWs) emitted in the core-bounce phase of three representative models via multiple techniques. The simplest technique, the quadrupole formula (QF), estimates the GW content in the spacetime from the mass-quadrupole tensor only. It is strictly valid only in the weak-field and slow-motion approximation. For the first time, we apply GW extraction methods in core collapse that are fully curvature based and valid for strongly radiating and highly relativistic sources. These techniques are not restricted to weak-field and slow-motion assumptions. We employ three extraction methods computing (i) the Newman-Penrose (NP) scalar {Psi}{sub 4}, (ii) Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli-Moncrief master functions, and (iii) Cauchy-characteristic extraction (CCE) allowing for the extraction of GWs at future null infinity, where the spacetime is asymptotically flat and the GW content is unambiguously defined. The latter technique is the only one not suffering from residual gauge and finite-radius effects. All curvature-based methods suffer from strong nonlinear drifts. We employ the fixed-frequency integration technique as a high-pass waveform filter. Using the CCE results as a benchmark, we find that finite-radius NP extraction yields results that agree nearly perfectly in phase, but differ in amplitude by {approx}1%-7% at core bounce, depending on the model. Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli-Moncrief waveforms, while, in general, agreeing in phase, contain spurious high-frequency noise of comparable amplitudes to those of the relatively weak GWs emitted in core collapse. We also find remarkably good agreement of the waveforms obtained from the QF with those obtained from CCE. The results from QF agree very well in phase and systematically underpredict peak amplitudes by {approx}5%-11%, which is comparable to the NP results and is certainly within the uncertainties associated with core collapse physics.

  2. ARM Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR): irradiances

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hodges, Gary

    The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) takes spectral measurements of direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. These measurements are at nominal wavelengths of 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. The measurements are made at a user-specified time interval, usually about one minute or less. The sampling rate for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility MFRSRs is 20 seconds. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's optical depth at the wavelengths mentioned above. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Michalsky et al. 1994) and other atmospheric constituents. A silicon detector is also part of the MFRSR. This detector provides a measure of the broadband direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. A MFRSR head that is mounted to look vertically downward can measure upwelling spectral irradiances. In the ARM system, this instrument is called a multifilter radiometer (MFR). At the Southern Great Plains (SGP) there are two MFRs; one mounted at the 10-m height and the other at 25 m. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites, the MFRs are mounted at 10 m. MFRSR heads are also used to measure normal incidence radiation by mounting on a solar tracking device. These are referred to as normal incidence multi-filter radiometers (NIMFRs) and are located at the SGP and NSA sites. Another specialized use for the MFRSR is the narrow field of view (NFOV) instrument located at SGP. The NFOV is a ground-based radiometer (MFRSR head) that looks straight up.

  3. Verification of theoretically computed spectra for a point rotating in a vertical plane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, D.C.; Connell, J.R.; George, R.L.

    1985-03-01

    A theoretical model is modified and tested that produces the power spectrum of the alongwind component of turbulence as experienced by a point rotating in a vertical plane perpendicular to the mean wind direction. The ability to generate such a power spectrum, independent of measurement, is important in wind turbine design and testing. The radius of the circle of rotation, its height above the ground, and the rate of rotation are typical for those for a MOD-OA wind turbine. Verification of this model is attempted by comparing two sets of variances that correspond to individual harmonic bands of spectra of turbulence in the rotational frame. One set of variances is calculated by integrating the theoretically generated rotational spectra; the other is calculated by integrating rotational spectra from real data analysis. The theoretical spectrum is generated by Fourier transformation of an autocorrelation function taken from von Karman and modified for the rotational frame. The autocorrelation is based on dimensionless parameters, each of which incorporates both atmospheric and wind turbine parameters. The real data time series are formed by sampling around the circle of anemometers of the Vertical Plane Array at the former MOD-OA site at Clayton, New Mexico.

  4. A dynamo model of magnetic activity in solar-like stars with different rotational velocities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karak, Bidya Binay; Choudhuri, Arnab Rai; Kitchatinov, Leonid L.

    2014-08-10

    We attempt to provide a quantitative theoretical explanation for the observations that Ca II H/K emission and X-ray emission from solar-like stars increase with decreasing Rossby number (i.e., with faster rotation). Assuming that these emissions are caused by magnetic cycles similar to the sunspot cycle, we construct flux transport dynamo models of 1 M{sub ☉} stars rotating with different rotation periods. We first compute the differential rotation and the meridional circulation inside these stars from a mean-field hydrodynamics model. Then these are substituted in our dynamo code to produce periodic solutions. We find that the dimensionless amplitude f{sub m} of the toroidal flux through the star increases with decreasing rotation period. The observational data can be matched if we assume the emissions to go as the power 3-4 of f{sub m}. Assuming that the Babcock-Leighton mechanism saturates with increasing rotation, we can provide an explanation for the observed saturation of emission at low Rossby numbers. The main failure of our model is that it predicts an increase of the magnetic cycle period with increasing rotation rate, which is the opposite of what is found observationally. Much of our calculations are based on the assumption that the magnetic buoyancy makes the magnetic flux tubes rise radially from the bottom of the convection zone. Taking into account the fact that the Coriolis force diverts the magnetic flux tubes to rise parallel to the rotation axis in rapidly rotating stars, the results do not change qualitatively.

  5. The gasification of coal-peat and coal-wood chip mixtures in the University of Minnesota, two-stage coal gasifier: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, R.P.

    1986-12-01

    The technical feasibility of gasifying coal-peat and coal-wood chip mixtures with the University of Minnesota, Duluth Campus commercially technology two-stage coal gasifier was demonstrated during a series of experimental tests. Three types of processed peat products were mixed with coal and gasified. The three peat products were: peat briquettes, peat pellets and sod peat. The best peat product for gasification and handling was found to be peat pellets with a diameter of 7/8 inch and a length of .75 to 2 inches. A mixture of 65% coal and 35% peat pellets was found to cause no loss in gasifier efficiency and no operational problems. However, there was found to be no economic advantage in using coal-peat mixtures. The very limited testing performed with coal-wood chip mixtures indicated that the wood chips would be difficult to handle with the coal handling-equipment and there would be no economic advantage in using wood chips. 3 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 6): Mid-South Wood Products, Polk County, Arkansas, November 1986. First remedial action. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-11-14

    The Mid-South Wood Products site is located in Polk County, Arkansas, approximately 1/2 mile southwest of Mena, Arkansas. The 57-acre site includes the following areas: the Old Plant site, the Small Old Pond and Old Pond areas, the North and South Landfarms, the landfill, Clear Lake and an existing chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treatment plant. The Old Plant site was used to treat wood with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote; the Small Old Pond was the original impoundment for waste PCP and creosote. These two areas have been covered with soil. The Old Pond area was used to store PCP and creosote sludge and has since been graded and covered with soil; materials from the Old Pond were spread over the Landfarm areas and mixed into the soil; the Landfill area contains deposits of sawdust, woodchips, and other waste-wood products; Clear Lake receives runoff from all the above areas; the CCA treatment plant contains an ongoing wood-treating operation where the surface drainage from the plant is put in sumps.

  7. General Nonextremal Rotating Black Holes in Minimal Five-Dimensional Gauged Supergravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chong, Z.-W.; Lue, H.; Pope, C.N.; Cvetic, M.

    2005-10-14

    We construct the general solution for nonextremal charged rotating black holes in five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity. They are characterized by four nontrivial parameters: namely, the mass, the charge, and the two independent rotation parameters. The metrics in general describe regular rotating black holes, providing the parameters lie in appropriate ranges so that naked singularities and closed timelike curves (CTCs) are avoided. We calculate the conserved energy, angular momenta, and charge for the solutions, and show how supersymmetric solutions arise in a Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield limit. These have naked CTCs in general, but for special choices of the parameters we obtain new regular supersymmetric black holes or smooth topological solitons.

  8. Estimation of the ion toroidal rotation source due to momentum transfer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from Lower Hybrid waves in Alcator C-Mod (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Estimation of the ion toroidal rotation source due to momentum transfer from Lower Hybrid waves in Alcator C-Mod Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimation of the ion toroidal rotation source due to momentum transfer from Lower Hybrid waves in Alcator C-Mod Significant ion toroidal rotation (50km/s) has been measured by X-Ray spectroscopy for impurities in Alcator C-Mod during lower hybrid (LH) RF power

  9. An elementary singularity-free Rotational Brownian Dynamics algorithm for anisotropic particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilie, Ioana M.; Briels, Wim J.; Otter, Wouter K. den

    2015-03-21

    Brownian Dynamics is the designated technique to simulate the collective dynamics of colloidal particles suspended in a solution, e.g., the self-assembly of patchy particles. Simulating the rotational dynamics of anisotropic particles by a first-order Langevin equation, however, gives rise to a number of complications, ranging from singularities when using a set of three rotational coordinates to subtle metric and drift corrections. Here, we derive and numerically validate a quaternion-based Rotational Brownian Dynamics algorithm that handles these complications in a simple and elegant way. The extension to hydrodynamic interactions is also discussed.

  10. Permitting: Lessons from a case study--the U.S. EPA`s Wood Products Enforcement Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umberger, N.,

    1995-12-01

    U.S. EPA`s Wood Products Initiative has resulted in the settlement with Louisiana-Pacific (L-P) for over eleven million dollars in fines and much more in expenditures for corporate environmental improvements. EPA claimed that L-P`s corporate environmental structure inadequately addressed the environmental requirements of the Clean Air Act. L-P failed to obtain the necessary permits and provide the permitting authorities with accurate and complete information on air emissions. The author concentrates on the steps companies must follow to ensure that adequate permitting is obtained. The paper states clearly the expectations EPA has of permitting authorities and permit applicants. A checklist of criteria necessary to avoid permitting dilemmas is presented, along with practical advice for environmental managers responsible for permitting and interactions with regulatory authorities. The steps of source identification, emissions quantification, control technology selection, and permit completion are detailed.

  11. Characterization of Lignin Derived from Water-only and Dilute Acid Flowthrough Pretreatment of Poplar Wood at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Libing; Yan, Lishi; Wang, Zheming; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti D.; Swita, Marie S.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Background: Flowthrough pretreatment of biomass has high potential to valorize lignin derivatives to high-value products, which is vital to enhance the economy of biorefinery plants. Comprehensive understanding of lignin behaviors and solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of providing flexible platform for lignin utilization. Results: In this study, the effects of flowthrough pretreatment conditions on lignin separation from poplar wood were reported as well as the characteristics of three sub-sets of lignin produced from the pretreatment, including residual lignin in pretreated solid residues (ReL), recovered insoluble lignin in pretreated liquid (RISL), and recovered soluble lignin in pretreatment liquid (RSL). Both the water-only and 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid pretreatments were performed at temperatures from 160 to 270C on poplar wood in a flowthrough reactor system for 2-10 min. Results showed that water-only flowthrough pretreatment primarily removed syringyl (S units). Increased temperature and/or the addition of sulfuric acid enhanced the removal of guaiacyl (G units) compared to water-only pretreatments at lower temperatures, resulting in nearly complete removal of lignin from the biomass. Results also suggested that more RISL was recovered than ReL and RSL in both dilute acid and water-only flowthrough pretreatment at elevated temperatures. NMR spectra of the RISL revealed significant ?-O-4 cleavage, ?-? deoxygenation to form cinnamyl-like end groups, and slight ?-5 repolymerization in both water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatments. Conclusions: Elevated temperature and/or dilute acid greatly enhanced lignin removal to almost 100% by improving G unit removal besides S unit removal in flowthrough system. A new lignin chemistry transformation pathway was proposed and revealed the complexity of lignin structural change during hot water and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment.

  12. Proteomic and Functional Analysis of the Cellulase System Expressed by Postia placenta during Brown Rot of Solid Wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryu, Jae San; Shary, Semarjit; Houtman, Carl J.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Korripally, Premsagar; St John, Franz J.; Crooks, Casey; Siika-aho, Matti; Magnuson, Jon K.; Hammel, Ken

    2011-11-01

    Abstract Brown rot basidiomycetes have an important ecological role in lignocellulose recycling and are notable for their rapid degradation of wood polymers via oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms. However, most of these fungi apparently lack processive (exo-acting) cellulases, such as cellobiohydrolases, which are generally required for efficient cellulolysis. The recent sequencing of the Postia placenta genome now permits a proteomic approach to this longstanding conundrum. We grew P. placenta on solid aspen wood, extracted proteins from the biodegrading substrate, and analyzed tryptic digests by shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Comparison of the data with the predicted P. placenta proteome revealed the presence of 34 likely glycoside hydrolases, but only four of these-two in glycoside hydrolase family 5, one in family 10, and one in family 12-have sequences that suggested possible activity on cellulose. We expressed these enzymes heterologously and determined that they all exhibited endoglucanase activity on phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose. They also slowly hydrolyzed filter paper, a more crystalline substrate, but the soluble/insoluble reducing sugar ratios they produced classify them as nonprocessive. Computer simulations indicated that these enzymes produced soluble/insoluble ratios on reduced phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose that were higher than expected for random hydrolysis, which suggests that they could possess limited exo activity, but they are at best 10-fold less processive than cellobiohydrolases. It appears likely that P. placenta employs a combination of oxidative mechanisms and endo-acting cellulases to degrade cellulose efficiently in the absence of a significant processive component.

  13. Low torque hydrodynamic lip geometry for bi-directional rotation seals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietle, Lannie L. (Houston, TX); Schroeder, John E. (Richmond, TX)

    2011-11-15

    A hydrodynamically lubricating geometry for the generally circular dynamic sealing lip of rotary seals that are employed to partition a lubricant from an environment. The dynamic sealing lip is provided for establishing compressed sealing engagement with a relatively rotatable surface, and for wedging a film of lubricating fluid into the interface between the dynamic sealing lip and the relatively rotatable surface in response to relative rotation that may occur in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction. A wave form incorporating an elongated dimple provides the gradual convergence, efficient impingement angle, and gradual interfacial contact pressure rise that are conducive to efficient hydrodynamic wedging. Skewed elevated contact pressure zones produced by compression edge effects provide for controlled lubricant movement within the dynamic sealing interface between the seal and the relatively rotatable surface, producing enhanced lubrication and low running torque.

  14. Low torque hydrodynamic lip geometry for bi-directional rotation seals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietle, Lannie L. (Houston, TX); Schroeder, John E. (Richmond, TX)

    2009-07-21

    A hydrodynamically lubricating geometry for the generally circular dynamic sealing lip of rotary seals that are employed to partition a lubricant from an environment. The dynamic sealing lip is provided for establishing compressed sealing engagement with a relatively rotatable surface, and for wedging a film of lubricating fluid into the interface between the dynamic sealing lip and the relatively rotatable surface in response to relative rotation that may occur in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction. A wave form incorporating an elongated dimple provides the gradual convergence, efficient impingement angle, and gradual interfacial contact pressure rise that are conducive to efficient hydrodynamic wedging. Skewed elevated contact pressure zones produced by compression edge effects provide for controlled lubricant movement within the dynamic sealing interface between the seal and the relatively rotatable surface, producing enhanced lubrication and low running torque.

  15. Apparatus and method for forming a workpiece surface into a non-rotationally symmetric shape

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dow, Thomas A. (Raleigh, NC); Garrard, Kenneth P. (Raleigh, NC); Moorefield, II, George M. (Raleigh, NC); Taylor, Lauren W. (Cary, NC)

    1995-11-21

    A turning machine includes a controller for generating both aspherical and non-symmetrical shape components defining the predetermined shape, and a controller for controlling a spindle and a positionable cutting blade to thereby form a predetermined non-rotationally symmetric shape in a workpiece surface. The apparatus includes a rotatable spindle for rotatably mounting the workpiece about an axis, a spindle encoder for sensing an angular position of the rotating workpiece, the cutting blade, and radial and transverse positioners for relatively positioning the cutting blade and workpiece along respective radial and transverse directions. The controller cooperates with a fast transverse positioner for positioning the cutting blade in predetermined varying transverse positions during a revolution of the workpiece.

  16. Principles and biophysical applications of single particle super-localization and rotational tracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Yan

    2013-05-15

    While conventional Single Particle Tracking (SPT) techniques acquire 2D or 3D trajectories of particle probes, we have developed Single Particle Orientation and Rotational Tracking (SPORT) techniques to extract orientation and rotational information. Combined with DIC microscopy, the SPORT technique has been applied in biophysical studies, including membrane diffusion and intracellular transport. The rotational dynamics of nanoparticle vectors on live cell membranes was recorded and its influence on the fate of these nanoparticle vectors was elucidated. The rotational motions of gold nanorods with various surface modifiers were tracked continuously at a temporal resolution of 5 ms under a DIC microscope. We found that the rotational behaviors of gold nanorod vectors are strongly related to their surface charge, specific surface functional groups, and the availability of receptors on cell membranes. The study of rotational Brownian motion of nanoparticles on cell membranes will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of drug delivery and provide guidance in designing surface modification strategies for drug delivery vectors under various circumstances. To characterize the rotation mode of surface functionalized gold nanorods on cell membranes, the SPORT technique is combined with the correlation analysis of the bright and dark DIC intensities. The unique capabilities of visualizing and understanding rotational motions of functionalized nanoparticles on live cell membranes allow us to correlate rotational and translational dynamics in unprecedented detail and provide new insights for complex membrane processes, including electrostatic interactions, ligand-receptor binding, and lateral (confined and hopping) diffusion of membrane receptors. Surface-functionalized nanoparticles interact with the membrane in fundamentally different ways and exhibit distinct rotational modes. The early events of particle-membrane approach and attachment are directly visualized for the first time. The rotational dynamics of cargos in both active directional transport and pausing stages of axonal transport was also visualized using high-speed SPORT with a temporal resolution of 2 ms. Both long and short pauses are imaged, and the correlations between the pause duration, the rotational behaviour of the cargo at the pause, and the moving direction after the pause are established. Furthermore, the rotational dynamics leading to switching tracks are visualized in detail. These first-time observations of cargo's rotational dynamics provide new insights on how kinesin and dynein motors take the cargo through the alternating stages of active directional transport and pause. To improve the localization precision of the SPT technique with DIC microscopy, a precise three-dimensional (3D) localization method of spherical gold nanoparticle probes using model-based correlation coefficient mapping was introduced. To accomplish this, a stack of sample images at different z-positions are acquired, and a 3D intensity profile of the probe serving as the model is used to map out the positions of nanoparticles in the sample. By using this model-based correlation imaging method, precise localization can be achieved in imaging techniques with complicated point spread functions (PSF) such as differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. The 3D superlocalization method was applied to tracking gold nanospheres during live endocytosis events. Finally, a novel dual-modality imaging technique has been developed to super-localize a single gold nanorod while providing its orientation and rotational information. The super-localization of the gold nanorod can be accomplished by curve fitting the modified bright-field images generated by one of the two beams laterally shifted by the first Nomarski prism in a DIC microscope. The orientation and rotational information is derived from the DIC images of gold nanorods. The new imaging setup has been applied to study the steric hindrance induced by relatively large cargos in the microtubule gliding assay and to track

  17. Measurement of core plasma temperature and rotation on W7-X made...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Measurement of core plasma temperature and rotation on W7-X made available by ... This diagnostic will contribute to the study of ion and electron thermal transport and ...

  18. MAGNETIC BRAKING FORMULATION FOR SUN-LIKE STARS: DEPENDENCE ON DIPOLE FIELD STRENGTH AND ROTATION RATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matt, Sean P.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Greene, Thomas P. E-mail: kmac@ucar.edu E-mail: thomas.p.greene@nasa.gov

    2012-08-01

    We use two-dimensional axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations to compute steady-state solutions for solar-like stellar winds from rotating stars with dipolar magnetic fields. Our parameter study includes 50 simulations covering a wide range of relative magnetic field strengths and rotation rates, extending from the slow- and approaching the fast-magnetic-rotator regimes. Using the simulations to compute the angular momentum loss, we derive a semi-analytic formulation for the external torque on the star that fits all of the simulations to a precision of a few percent. This formula provides a simple method for computing the magnetic braking of Sun-like stars due to magnetized stellar winds, which properly includes the dependence on the strength of the magnetic field, mass loss rate, stellar radius, surface gravity, and spin rate, and which is valid for both slow and fast rotators.

  19. E-Alerts: Combustion, engines, and propellants (reciprocation and rotating combustion engines). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-04-01

    Design, performance, and testing of reciprocating and rotating engines of various configurations for all types of propulsion. Includes internal and external combustion engines; engine exhaust systems; engine air systems components; engine structures; stirling and diesel engines.

  20. Rotating Disk-Electrode Aqueous Electrolyte Accelerated Stress Tests for PGM Electrocatalyst/Support Durability Evaluation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rotating disk-electrode aqueous electrolyte accelerated stress test protocols developed by the DOE Durability Working Group for platinum group metal (PGM) electrocatalyst/support durability evaluation, October 4, 2011.