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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Room temperature terahertz polariton emitter  

SciTech Connect

Terahertz (THz) range electroluminescence from intersubband polariton states is observed in the ultra strong coupling regime, where the interaction energy between the collective excitation of a dense electron gas and a photonic mode is a significant portion of the uncoupled excitation energy. The polariton's increased emission efficiency along with a parabolic electron confinement potential allows operation up to room temperature in a nonresonant pumping scheme. This observation of room temperature electroluminescence of an intersubband device in the THz range is a promising proof of concept for more powerful THz sources.

Geiser, Markus; Scalari, Giacomo; Castellano, Fabrizio; Beck, Mattias; Faist, Jerome [Institute for Quantum Electronics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 16, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Solid particle erosion behavior of an Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-MoSi{sub 2} composite at room and elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The solid particle erosion behavior at room and elevated temperatures (180, 500, 700 and 900 C) of an Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-MoSi{sub 2} composite was studied. Alumina particles entrained in a stream of nitrogen gas impacted the target material at a velocity of 40 m/s. Impingement angles of either 60, 75 or 90{degree} were used. It was found that the erosion rate for the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-MoSi{sub 2} composite (measured at room temperature) was a maximum at the 90{degree} incident angle, erosion behavior typical of brittle materials. The erosion rate of the composite at a 75{degree} impingement angle increased slightly with increasing test temperature up to 700 C (i.e. from 4.1 to 4.9 mm{sup 3}/g). At 900 C, the measured erosion rate decreased to 2.9 mm{sup 3}/g. The erosion behavior of the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-MoSi{sub 2} composite was compared to that of commercially available Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, WC-6%Co, 304 SS, IN-800 (Ni-Fe-Cr alloy) and Stellite-6B (Co-Cr-W-Mo alloy).

Alman, D.E.; Tylczak, J.H.; Hawk, J.A.; Hebsur, M.G.

1999-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

3

Solid particle erosion behavior of an Si[sub 3]N[sub 4]-MoSi[sub 2] composite at room and elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The solid particle erosion behavior at room and elevated temperatures (180, 500, 700 and 900 C) of an Si[sub 3]N[sub 4]-MoSi[sub 2] composite was studied. Alumina particles entrained in a stream of nitrogen gas impacted the target material at a velocity of 40 m/s. Impingement angles of either 60, 75 or 90[degree] were used. It was found that the erosion rate for the Si[sub 3]N[sub 4]-MoSi[sub 2] composite (measured at room temperature) was a maximum at the 90[degree] incident angle, erosion behavior typical of brittle materials. The erosion rate of the composite at a 75[degree] impingement angle increased slightly with increasing test temperature up to 700 C (i.e. from 4.1 to 4.9 mm[sup 3]/g). At 900 C, the measured erosion rate decreased to 2.9 mm[sup 3]/g. The erosion behavior of the Si[sub 3]N[sub 4]-MoSi[sub 22048mposite was compared to that of commercially available Si[sub 3]N[sub 4], WC-6%Co, 304 SS, IN-800 (Ni-Fe-Cr alloy) and Stellite-6B (Co-Cr-W-Mo alloy).

Alman, D.E.; Tylczak, J.H.; Hawk, J.A.; Hebsur, M.G.

1999-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

4

Novel room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

Today's information world, bits of data are processed by semiconductor chips, and stored in the magnetic disk drives. But tomorrow's information technology may see magnetism (spin) and semiconductivity (charge) combined in one 'spintronic' device that exploits both charge and 'spin' to carry data (the best of two worlds). Spintronic devices such as spin valve transistors, spin light emitting diodes, non-volatile memory, logic devices, optical isolators and ultra-fast optical switches are some of the areas of interest for introducing the ferromagnetic properties at room temperature in a semiconductor to make it multifunctional. The potential advantages of such spintronic devices will be higher speed, greater efficiency, and better stability at a reduced power consumption. This Thesis contains two main topics: In-depth understanding of magnetism in Mn doped ZnO, and our search and identification of at least six new above room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors. Both complex doped ZnO based new materials, as well as a number of nonoxides like phosphides, and sulfides suitably doped with Mn or Cu are shown to give rise to ferromagnetism above room temperature. Some of the highlights of this work are discovery of room temperature ferromagnetism in: (1) ZnO:Mn (paper in Nature Materials, Oct issue, 2003); (2) ZnO doped with Cu (containing no magnetic elements in it); (3) GaP doped with Cu (again containing no magnetic elements in it); (4) Enhancement of Magnetization by Cu co-doping in ZnO:Mn; (5) CdS doped with Mn, and a few others not reported in this thesis. We discuss in detail the first observation of ferromagnetism above room temperature in the form of powder, bulk pellets, in 2-3 mu-m thick transparent pulsed laser deposited films of the Mn (<4 at. percent) doped ZnO. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectra recorded from 2 to 200nm areas showed homogeneous distribution of Mn substituting for Zn a 2+ state in the ZnO lattice. Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) technique is used to confirm the existence of ferromagnetic ordering at temperatures as high as 425K. The ab initio calculations were found to be consistent with the observation of ferromagnetism arising from fully polarized Mn 2+ state. The key to observed room temperature ferromagnetism in this system is the low temperature processing, which prevents formation of clusters, secondary phases and the host ZnO from becoming n-type. The electronic structure of the same Mn doped ZnO thin films studied using XAS, XES and RIXS, revealed a strong hybridization between Mn 3d and O 2p states, which is an important characteristic of a Dilute magnetic Semiconductor (DMS). It is shown that the various processing conditions like sintering temperature, dopant concentration and the properties of precursors used for making of DMS have a great influence on the final properties. Use of various experimental techniques to verify the physical properties, and to understand the mechanism involved to give rise to ferromagnetism is presented. Methods to improve the magnetic moment in Mn doped ZnO are also described. New promising DMS materials (such as Cu doped ZnO are explored). The demonstrated new capability to fabricate powder, pellets, and thin films of room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors thus makes possible the realization of a wide range of complex elements for a variety of new multifunctional phenomena related to Spintronic devices as well as magneto-optic components.

Gupta, Amita

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Room temperature nano- and microstructure photon detectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of room temperature infrared (IR) detectors for wavelengths beyond NIR will open up many applications that are currently limited due to cooling requirements. Three approaches are discussed, which show promise for room temperature IR detection. ... Keywords: Infrared, PbS quantum dot, Room temperature detector, Split-off band, Tunneling quantum dot

A. G. U. Perera; P. V. V. Jayaweera; G. Ariyawansa; S. G. Matsik; K. Tennakone; M. Buchanan; H. C. Liu; X. H. Su; P. Bhattacharya

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

BSA 07-22: Compact Room-Temperature Radiation Detector for Oil ...  

These small, solid-state radiation detectors can be used at room temperature, making them more practical, mobile, and cost-effective than existing devices.

7

Thermostat response and room temperature control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article examines the impact to thermal comfort of the operation of the room thermostat. The topics of the article include types of thermostat response, reset response, proportional response, digital systems, system response, verification of building temperatures, thermal comfort analysis, and productivity costs of implementing mandated setpoints.

Int-Hout, D. (Carrier Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Matchstick: A Room-to-Room Thermal Model for Predicting Indoor Temperature from Wireless Sensor Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Matchstick: A Room-to-Room Thermal Model for Predicting Indoor Temperature from Wireless Sensor present a room-to-room thermal model used to accurately predict temperatures in residential buildings. We that our model can predict future indoor temperature trends with a 90th percentile aggregate error between

Hazas, Mike

9

Absorber Materials at Room and Cryogenic Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We recently reported on investigations of RF absorber materials at cryogenic temperatures conducted at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The work was initiated to find a replacement material for the 2 Kelvin low power waveguide Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorbers employed within the original cavity cryomodules of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). This effort eventually led to suitable candidates as reported in this paper. Furthermore, though constrained by small funds for labor and resources, we have analyzed a variety of lossy ceramic materials, several of which could be usable as HOM absorbers for both normal conducting and superconducting RF structures, e.g. as loads in cavity waveguides and beam tubes either at room or cryogenic temperatures and, depending on cooling measures, low to high operational power levels.

F. Marhauser, T.S. Elliott, A.T. Wu, E.P. Chojnacki, E. Savrun

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Generation of coherent terahertz pulses in ruby at room temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have shown that a coherently driven solid state medium can potentially produce strong controllable short pulses of THz radiation. The high efficiency of the technique is based on excitation of maximal THz coherence by applying resonant optical pulses to the medium. The excited coherence in the medium is connected to macroscopic polarization coupled to THz radiation. We have performed detailed simulations by solving the coupled density matrix and Maxwell equations. By using a simple V-type energy scheme for ruby, we have demonstrated that the energy of generated THz pulses ranges from hundreds of pico-Joules to nano-Joules at room temperature and micro-Joules at liquid helium temperature, with pulse durations from picoseconds to tens of nanoseconds. We have also suggested a coherent ruby source that lases on two optical wavelengths and simultaneously generates THz radiation. We discussed also possibilities of extension of the technique to different solid-state materials.

Kuznetsova, Elena; Rostovtsev, Yuri; Kalugin, Nikolai G.; Kolesov, Roman; Kocharovskaya, Olga [Institute for Quantum Studies and Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Scully, Marlan O. [Institute for Quantum Studies and Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Princeton Institute for Material Science and Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

11

Electrorecovery of actinides at room temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are a large number of purification and processing operations involving actinide species that rely on high-temperature molten salts as the solvent medium. One such application is the electrorefining of impure actinide metals to provide high purity material for subsequent applications. There are some drawbacks to the electrodeposition of actinides in molten salts including relatively low yields, lack of accurate potential control, maintaining efficiency in a highly corrosive environment, and failed runs. With these issues in mind we have been investigating the electrodeposition of actinide metals, mainly uranium, from room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and relatively high-boiling organic solvents. The RTILs we have focused on are comprised of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium or quaternary ammonium cations and mainly the {sup -}N(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} anion [bis(trif1uoromethylsulfonyl)imide {equivalent_to} {sup -}NTf{sub 2}]. These materials represent a class of solvents that possess great potential for use in applications employing electrochemical procedures. In order to ascertain the feasibility of using RTILs for bulk electrodeposition of actinide metals our research team has been exploring the electron transfer behavior of simple coordination complexes of uranium dissolved in the RTIL solutions. More recently we have begun some fundamental electrochemical studies on the behavior of uranium and plutonium complexes in the organic solvents N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Our most recent results concerning electrodeposition will be presented in this account. The electrochemical behavior of U(IV) and U(III) species in RTILs and the relatively low vapor pressure solvents NMP and DMSO is described. These studies have been ongoing in our laboratory to uncover conditions that will lead to the successful bulk electrodeposition of actinide metals at a working electrode surface at room temperature or slightly elevated temperatures. The RTILs we have focused on thus far are based on 1,3-dialkylimidazolium or quaternary ammonium cations and {sup -}N(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} anions. Our results from XPS studies of e1ectrooxidized uranium metal surfaces indicate that uranium metal reacts with the anion from the RTIL, most likely through an initial f1uoride abstraction, forming decomposition products that inhibit the bulk electrodeposition of uranium metal. Similar results were found when the organic solvents were used with TBA[B(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 4}] as the supporting electrolyte, although the voltammetric data of uranium ions in these solutions is more encouraging in relation to electrodeposition of uranium metal. Preliminary results on the voltammetric behavior and bulk electrodeposition of plutonium species are also presented.

Stoll, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oldham, Warren J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Costa, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Carbon promoted water electrolysis to produce hydrogen at room temperature.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of the work was to conduct water electrolysis at room temperature with reduced energy costs for hydrogen production. The electrochemical gasification of carbons… (more)

Ranganathan, Sukanya.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Matchstick: a room-to-room thermal model for predicting indoor temperature from wireless sensor data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present a room-to-room thermal model used to accurately predict temperatures in residential buildings. We evaluate the accuracy of this model with ground truth data from four occupied family homes (two in the UK and two in the US). The ... Keywords: forced air, home automation, prediction, radiators, thermal modelling, underfloor heating

Carl Ellis; Mike Hazas; James Scott

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Road to room-temperature superconductivity: A universal model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a semiclassical view superconductivity is attributed exclusively to the advance of atoms' outer s electrons through the nuclei of neighbor atoms in a solid. The necessary progression of holes in the opposite direction has the electric and magnetic effect as if two electrons were advancing instead of each actual one. Superconductivity ceases when the associated lateral oscillation of the outer s electrons extends between neighbor atoms. If such overswing occurs already at T = 0, then the material is a normal conductor. Otherwise, lateral overswing can be caused by lattice vibrations at a critical temperature Tc or by a critical magnetic field Bc. Lateral electron oscillations are reduced - and Tc is increased - when the atoms of the outer s electrons are squeezed, be it in the bulk crystal, in a thin film, or under external pressure on the sample. The model is applied to alkali metals and alkali-doped fullerenes. Aluminum serves as an example of a simple metal with superconductivity. Application of the model to transition metals, intertransitional alloys and compounds of transition metals with other elements sheds light on the pattern of their critical temperature. More examples of the squeeze effect are provided by the superconductivity of PdH, MgB2, borocarbides, ferropnictides, and organic charge-transfer salts. The model also provides the superconduction mechanism in the oxide superconductors, exemplified by YBa2Cu3O7. Finally the model suggests which steps to take in order to reach superconductivity at room temperature and above.

Manfred Bucher

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

15

Quantitative room-temperature mineralization of airborne formaldehyde using  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quantitative room-temperature mineralization of airborne formaldehyde using Quantitative room-temperature mineralization of airborne formaldehyde using manganese oxide catalysts Title Quantitative room-temperature mineralization of airborne formaldehyde using manganese oxide catalysts Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2011 Authors Sidheswaran, Meera A., Hugo Destaillats, Douglas P. Sullivan, Joern Larsen, and William J. Fisk Journal Applied Catalysis B - Environmental Issue 107 Pagination 34-41 Date Published 2011 Keywords commercial building ventilation & indoor environmental quality group, commercial building ventilation and indoor environmental quality group, energy analysis and environmental impacts department, indoor environment department, indoor environment group DOI 10.1016/j.apcatb.2011.06.032 Attachment Size

16

Near room temperature lithographically processed metal-oxide transistors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A fully lithographic process at near-room-temperature was developed for the purpose of fabricating transistors based on metal-oxide channel materials. The combination of indium tin oxide (ITO) as the source/drain electrodes, ...

Tang, Hui, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Time Dependent Deformation of Metals at Room Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results have been compared to previous work on logarithmic and power law ... into a Solid State Coating Process for High Temperature and Marine Application.

18

Control and Room Temperature Optimization of Energy Efficient Buildings  

SciTech Connect

The building sector consumes a large part of the energy used in the United States and is responsible for nearly 40% of greenhouse gas emissions. It is therefore economically and environmentally important to reduce the building energy consumption to realize massive energy savings. In this paper, a method to control room temperature in buildings is proposed. The approach is based on a distributed parameter model represented by a three dimensional (3D) heat equation in a room with heater/cooler located at ceiling. The latter is resolved using finite element methods, and results in a model for room temperature with thousands of states. The latter is not amenable to control design. A reduced order model of only few states is then derived using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD). A Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) is computed based on the reduced model, and applied to the full order model to control room temperature.

Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Kuruganti, Phani Teja [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Determination of the Acceptable Room Temperature Range for Local Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Determination of the acceptable room temperature range is a key problem in satisfactory design of local cooling for energy savings. At the room temperatures ranging from neutral to warm, three sensitive body parts-the face, chest and back-were each exposed to local cooling airflow, where temperatures were 22, 25 and 28°C. Thirty randomly-selected male subjects, dressed in shorts, were exposed to each condition for 30 minutes. Data were collected on their local thermal sensations of each body part, overall thermal sensation, and overall thermal acceptability on voting scales at regular intervals during the exposure. Results show that the non-uniformity of thermal sensation is a key factor affecting thermal acceptability except for overall thermal sensation. A new assessment model for local cooling was proposed. The model shows that face cooling can improve thermal acceptability more than chest or back cooling, and the upper boundary of the acceptable range of room temperature can be shifted from 26°C to 30.5°C when face cooling is provided.

Zhang, Y.; Zhao, R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Method for stabilizing low-level mixed wastes at room temperature  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method to stabilize solid and liquid waste at room temperature is provided comprising combining solid waste with a starter oxide to obtain a powder, contacting the powder with an acid solution to create a slurry, said acid solution containing the liquid waste, shaping the now-mixed slurry into a predetermined form, and allowing the now-formed slurry to set. The invention also provides for a method to encapsulate and stabilize waste containing cesium comprising combining the waste with Zr(OH).sub.4 to create a solid-phase mixture, mixing phosphoric acid with the solid-phase mixture to create a slurry, subjecting the slurry to pressure; and allowing the now pressurized slurry to set. Lastly, the invention provides for a method to stabilize liquid waste, comprising supplying a powder containing magnesium, sodium and phosphate in predetermined proportions, mixing said powder with the liquid waste, such as tritium, and allowing the resulting slurry to set.

Wagh, Arun S. (Joliet, IL); Singh, Dileep (Westmont, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Method for stabilizing low-level mixed wastes at room temperature  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method to stabilize solid and liquid waste at room temperature is provided comprising combining solid waste with a starter oxide to obtain a powder, contacting the powder with an acid solution to create a slurry, said acid solution containing the liquid waste, shaping the now-mixed slurry into a predetermined form, and allowing the now-formed slurry to set. The invention also provides for a method to encapsulate and stabilize waste containing cesium comprising combining the waste with Zr(OH){sub 4} to create a solid-phase mixture, mixing phosphoric acid with the solid-phase mixture to create a slurry, subjecting the slurry to pressure; and allowing the now pressurized slurry to set. Lastly, the invention provides for a method to stabilize liquid waste, comprising supplying a powder containing magnesium, sodium and phosphate in predetermined proportions, mixing said powder with the liquid waste, such as tritium, and allowing the resulting slurry to set. 4 figs.

Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.

1997-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

22

Energy Consumption Estimation for Room Air-conditioners Using Room Temperature Simulation with One-Minute Intervals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For the purpose of developing optimized control algorithm for room air-conditioners to ensure their energy efficiency, a short time interval (i.e., one minute) simulation of building thermal performance is necessary because the sampling time interval for room air-conditioner control is one minute in general. This paper studies the short-time interval room air temperature simulation method using the response factor method. Using the simulated room air temperature, an air-conditioner's running time can be known so that its energy consumption can be estimated accurately. In order to verify the simulation accuracy, an actual room equipped with a gas-engine heat pump (GHP) air-conditioning system is studied by both simulation and measurement. The cooling amount produced by the GHP is calculated using measured refrigerant pressure and temperature at condenser and evaporator respectively. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between measured cooling amount and simulated cooling load is 18.9 percent of the average measured value. The profile of simulated room air temperature in both air-conditioned daytime and nighttime without air-conditioning can match the measured room air temperature. With respect to the estimated energy consumption, the profile of simulated energy consumption can match the measured data. The simulation accuracy of room air temperature and energy consumption during the air-conditioner start-up period is not good and needs to be improved in future research. But in general, the verification shows that this energy consumption simulation method is acceptable for evaluating the energy performance of a room air-conditioner, and can also be a useful tool for commissioning room air-conditioners.

Wang, F.; Yoshida, H.; Matsumoto, K.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Observation of visible luminescence from indium nitride at room temperature  

SciTech Connect

InN films were grown on sapphire substrates with AlN buffer layers by reactive sputtering. C-axis-oriented crystalline InN films with a wurtzite structure were confirmed by x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering. Strong photoluminescence (PL) at 1.87 eV, together with a clear absorption edge at 1.97 eV, was observed at room temperature, which clearly demonstrates that it is not accurate in the previous assignment of an {approx}0.7 eV fundamental band gap for intrinsic InN simply from PL and absorption data. The possible origin of the present large band gap was discussed in terms of the effects of oxygen and the Burstein-Moss shift.

Guo, Q.X.; Tanaka, T.; Nishio, M.; Ogawa, H.; Pu, X.D.; Shen, W.Z. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Laboratory of Condensed Matter Spectroscopy and Opto-Electronic Physics, Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Hua Shan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

2005-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

24

200-GeV ISA with room temperature magnets  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual design study of 200-GeV proton intersecting storage accclerators with room temperature magnets is presented. The key to this study was thc desire to keep the electric power consumptiom to an acceptable level (40 MW). The design has been optimized by choosing small-gap (4 cm) aluminum coil dipoles operating at about 15 kG. The luminosity of this machine is limited to about 10/sup 32/ cm-/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/ by transverse space-charg e effects. An order of magnitude higher luminositics can be obtained by adding a booster of modest cost. A novel vacuum system using distributed Ti-sublimation pumps results in considerable savings. A cost comparison with a high-luminosity superconducting machine is given. (auth)

Willis, W.J.; Danby, G.T.; Hahn, H.; Halama, H.J.; Maschke, A.W.; Month, M.; Parzen, G.; Polk, I.

1974-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

25

Method of production of pure hydrogen near room temperature from ...  

The present invention provides a cost-effective method of producing pure hydrogen gas from hydride-based solid materials. The hydride-based solid material is ...

26

Unusual Room Temperature Ferromagnetism in Bulk Sintered GaP Doped with Copper  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Robust room temperature ferromagnetism is obtained in single phase Gallium Phosphide doped with Cu{sup 2+} prepared by simple solid state reaction route. The saturation magnetization at 300 K is 1.5 times 10{sup -2} emu/g and the coercivity was found to be 125 Oe. A strong ferromagnetic resonance signal confirms the long range magnetic order which persists to temperatures as high as 739 K. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) indicate that Cu is in a +2 state. Ab initio calculations also show that the ferromagnetic ordering is energetically favorable in Cu doped GaP. When the spin-orbit coupling is included we get an enhanced total magnetic moment of 0.31 muB with a local moment on Cu 0.082 and on P 0.204 mu{sub B}. per atom.

Owens, F. J.; Gupta, A.; Rao, K. V.; Iqbal, Z.; Osorio Guillen, J. M.; Ahuja, R.; Guo, J.-H.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

10:20AM, P1 Room Temperature Lasing From Excited Stated of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Quantum dots formed by highly strained epilayers undergoing a ... The quantum dots demonstrate room temperature photoluminescence at 1.32 um with a full ...

28

BSA 07-22: Compact Room-Temperature Radiation Detector for Oil ...  

BSA 07-22: Compact Room-Temperature Radiation Detector for Oil & Gas Exploration. BNL Reference Number: BSA 07-22. Patent Status: U.S. Patent ...

29

The Influence of Operating Modes, Room Temperature Set Point and Curtain Styles on Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioner  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A field investigation was carried out in an office building of Changsha city in winter and summer, the influence of different running modes, curtain styles and room temperature set point on energy consumption of room air conditioner (RAC) was studied. The results show that: In summer automatic speed mode consumes the least refrigerating energy in different running modes, compared with low speed and high speed modes, it can conserve energy for 27.3% and 15.8%, respectively. In the same running mode, setting outer curtain can conserve energy for 40.9% and 20.4% compared with no curtain and inner curtain states, respectively. In winter high speed mode is the most efficient for saving energy which can decrease 40.3% and 30.9% compared with low speed and automatic speed modes. In the same running mode, setting inner curtain state makes the least heating energy consumption in cloudy day, about 10.8% and 2.7% less than no curtain and outer curtain states. However, it is not obvious when the day is fine. The heating energy consumption decreases as room temperature set point falls, compared with the energy consumption at 20.5 C and 19.5 C, it is decreases for 34.1% and17.0 % at 18.5 C, respectively. All the results will be the reference of environment design and control for air conditioning room.

Yu, J.; Yang, C.; Guo, R.; Wu, D.; Chen, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

The experimental evaluation and application of high temperature solid lubricants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A research program meant to develop an understanding of high temperature solid lubrication and experimental techniques through the development of a composite lubricant coating system was described. The knowledge gained through this research was then applied to a specific engineering challenge, the tribology of a sliding seal for hypersonic flight vehicles. The solid lubricant coating is a chromium carbide based composite combined with silver, which acts as a low temperature lubricant, and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic, which acts as a high temperature lubricant. This composite coating provides good wear resistance and low friction for sliding contacts from room temperature to over 900 C in reducing or oxidative environments. The specific research on this coating included a composition screening using a foil gas bearing test rig and the use of thin silver films to reduce initial wear using a pin-on-disk test rig. The chemical stability of the materials used was also addressed. This research indicated that soft metallic films and materials which become soft at elevated temperatures are potentially good lubricants. The general results from the experiments with the model solid libricant coating were then applied to a sliding seal design concept. This seal design requires that a braided ceramic fabric slide against a variety of metal counterface materials at temperatures from 25 to 850 C in an oxidative environment. A pin-on-disk tribometer was used to evaluate the tribological properties of these materials and to develop lubrication techniques. The results indicate that these materials must be lubricated to prevent wear and reduce friction. Thin films of silver, gold and calcium fluoride provided lubrication to the sliding materials. The data obtained and the lubrication techniques developed provide important information to designers of sliding seals.

Dellacorte, C.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Route to Room-Temperature Superconductivity from a Practical Point of View  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To synthesize a new superconductor which has a critical temperature, Tc, exceeding the room temperature, one needs to know what chemical components to start with. This chapter presents analysis of experimental data which allow one to draw a conclusion about components and the structure of a potential room-temperature superconductor. The two essential components of a roomtemperature superconductor are large organic molecules (polymers, tissues) and atoms/molecules which are magnetic in the intercalated state. This conclusion is fully based on experimental facts known today, and does not require any assumptions about the mechanism of room-temperature superconductivity. This, however, does not mean that to synthesize a room-temperature superconductor is an easy task. Never let them persuade you that things are too difficult or impossible.

A. Mourachkine

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Electrochemical Windows of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids from Molecular Dynamics and Density Functional Theory Calculations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigated the cathodic and anodic limits of six room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) formed from a combination of two common cations, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) and N,N-propylmethylpyrrolidinium (P13), and ...

Ong, Shyue Ping

33

Optical gain and lasing from band-engineered Ge-on-Si at room temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present theoretical modeling and experimental results of optical gain and lasing from tensile-strained, n[superscript +] Ge-on-Si at room temperature. Compatible with silicon CMOS, these devices are ideal for large-scale ...

Liu, Jifeng

34

Room-temperature direct bandgap electroluminesence from Ge-on-Si light-emitting diodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report what we believe to be the first demonstration of direct bandgap electroluminescence (EL) from Ge/Si heterojunction light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at room temperature. In-plane biaxial tensile strain is used to ...

Sun, Xiaochen

35

Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency energy conversion devices. Present materials set, using yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, limit the cell operating temperatures to 800 C or higher. It has become increasingly evident however that lowering the operating temperature would provide a more expeditious route to commercialization. The advantages of intermediate temperature (600 to 800 C) operation are related to both economic and materials issues. Lower operating temperature allows the use of low cost materials for the balance of plant and limits degradation arising from materials interactions. When the SOFC operating temperature is in the range of 600 to 700 C, it is also possible to partially reform hydrocarbon fuels within the stack providing additional system cost savings by reducing the air preheat heat-exchanger and blower size. The promise of Sr and Mg doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) electrolyte materials, based on their high ionic conductivity and oxygen transference number at the intermediate temperature is well recognized. The focus of the present project was two-fold: (a) Identify a cell fabrication technique to achieve the benefits of lanthanum gallate material, and (b) Investigate alternative cathode materials that demonstrate low cathode polarization losses at the intermediate temperature. A porous matrix supported, thin film cell configuration was fabricated. The electrode material precursor was infiltrated into the porous matrix and the counter electrode was screen printed. Both anode and cathode infiltration produced high performance cells. Comparison of the two approaches showed that an infiltrated cathode cells may have advantages in high fuel utilization operations. Two new cathode materials were evaluated. Northwestern University investigated LSGM-ceria composite cathode while Caltech evaluated Ba-Sr-Co-Fe (BSCF) based pervoskite cathode. Both cathode materials showed lower polarization losses at temperatures as low as 600 C than conventional manganite or cobaltite cathodes.

S. Elangovan; Scott Barnett; Sossina Haile

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

36

Room Temperature Aging Study of Butyl O-rings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During testing under the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign in 2001, preliminary data detected a previously unknown and potentially serious concern with recently procured butyl o-rings. All butyl o-rings molded from a proprietary formulation throughout the period circa 1999 through 2001 had less than a full cure. Tests showed that sealing force values for these suspect o-rings were much lower than expected and their physical properties were very sensitive to further post curing at elevated temperatures. Further testing confirmed that these o-rings were approximately 50% cured versus the typical industry standard of > 90% cured. Despite this condition, all suspect o-rings fully conformed to their QC acceptance requirements, including their individual product drawing requirements.

Mark Wilson

2009-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

37

Fabrication of a Miniaturized Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Gas Sensor for Human Health and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fabrication of a Miniaturized Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Gas Sensor for Human Health and Safety temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) gas sensors utilizing electrochemical instrumentation demonstrate promising that enables miniaturized, rapid response, gas sensors to be realized using RTIL interfaces on a permeable

Mason, Andrew

38

The role of hydrogen in room-temperature ferromagnetism at graphite surfaces  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present a x-ray dichroism study of graphite surfaces that addresses the origin and magnitude of ferromagnetism in metal-free carbon. We find that, in addition to carbon {pi} states, also hydrogen-mediated electronic states exhibit a net spin polarization with significant magnetic remanence at room temperature. The observed magnetism is restricted to the top {approx}10 nm of the irradiated sample where the actual magnetization reaches {approx_equal} 15 emu/g at room temperature. We prove that the ferromagnetism found in metal-free untreated graphite is intrinsic and has a similar origin as the one found in proton bombarded graphite.

Ohldag, Hendrik

2011-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

39

Ionic Solid Oxides for High Temperature Optical Gas Sensing in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Ionic Solid Oxides for High Temperature Optical Gas Sensing in Fossil Fuel Based Power Plants. Author(s), Junhang Dong, Xiling Tang, Kurtis  ...

40

Room-temperature electric-field controlled spin dynamics in ,,110... InAs quantum wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Room-temperature electric-field controlled spin dynamics in ,,110... InAs quantum wells K. C. Halla pseudomagnetic fields exceeding 1 T when only 140 mV is applied across a single quantum well. Using this large­11 and the influence of the Rashba pseudomagnetic fields on the electron spin relaxation time in GaAs quantum wells

Flatte, Michael E.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Room-temperature oxygen sensitization in highly textured, nanocrystalline PbTe films: A mechanistic study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we report large mid-wave infrared photoconductivity in highly textured, nanocrystalline PbTe films thermally evaporated on Si at room temperature. Responsivity as high as 25 V/W is measured at the 3.5 ?m ...

Wang, Jianfei

42

Electrical properties of room temperature sputtered Y2O3and MOSFET characteristics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We closely evaluated the properties of Y2O3 deposited by RF sputter system at room temperature for the application to a transparent thin film transistor. Although the leakage current density hardly depends on the deposition conditions, ... Keywords: IGZO, TTFT(transparent thin film transistor), Y2O3, electrical characterization, gate oxide, leakage current

Young-Je Cho; Ji-Hoon Shin; Jae-Kyu Lee; Young-Bae Kim; Duck-Kyun Choi

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

A room temperature CuO nanowire sensor for organic volatile gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CuO nanowires have been synthesised by the thermal method in 100% oxygen ambient at 600°C. Gas sensing property has been examined by measuring the resistance change of the materials to 1% of butane gas and 1% of ethanol vapour separately under the ... Keywords: copper oxide (CuO) nanowires, room temperature gas sensor and organic volatile gas

C. F. Dee; T. Y. Tiong; M. M. Salleh; M. M. Yahya; B. Y. Majlis

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Raman and IR spectra of butane: Anharmonic calculations and interpretation of room temperature spectra  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Raman and IR spectra of butane: Anharmonic calculations and interpretation of room temperature-principles anharmonic calculations are carried out for the IR and Raman spectra of the CAH stretch- ing bands in butane.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction n-Butane is of great importance in several disciplines

Potma, Eric Olaf

45

Room temperature 1.6 m electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Room temperature 1.6 µm electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate Szu n+/p light emitting diode on a Si substrate. Unlike normal electrically pumped devices, this device.4670) Optical materials; (230.3670) Light-emitting diodes. References and links 1. L. C. Kimerling, "Silicon

Vuckovic, Jelena

46

Room-temperature mid-infrared laser sensor for trace gas detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and pipeline leak detection. Applications such as landfill emissions monitoring require measurements of gasRoom-temperature mid-infrared laser sensor for trace gas detection Thomas To¨ pfer, Konstantin P. Petrov, Yasuharu Mine, Dieter Jundt, Robert F. Curl, and Frank K. Tittel Design and operation

47

Dye-doped cholesteric-liquid-crystal room-temperature single-photon source*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dye-doped cholesteric-liquid-crystal room-temperature single-photon source* SVETLANA G. LUKISHOVAy, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299, USA (Received 30 June 2003) Abstract. Fluorescence antibunching from single terrylene molecules embedded in a cholesteric-liquid-crystal host is used

Stroud, Carlos R.

48

Mirror thermal noise in laser interferometer gravitational wave detectors operating at room and cryogenic temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mirror thermal noise is and will remain one of the main limitations to the sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors based on laser interferometers. We report about projected mirror thermal noise due to losses in the mirror coatings and substrates. The evaluation includes all kind of thermal noises presently known. Several of the envisaged substrate and coating materials are considered. The results for mirrors operated at room temperature and at cryogenic temperature are reported.

Janyce Franc; Nazario Morgado; Raffaele Flaminio; Ronny Nawrodt; Iain Martin; Liam Cunningham; Alan Cumming; Sheila Rowan; James Hough

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Oxygen Reordering Near Room temperature in YBa2Cu3O6+x: A Thermodynamic Model  

SciTech Connect

We propose a thermodynamic model to explain an unusual phase transformation occurring near room temperature in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} that greatly affects properties of the superconductor. Based on our model, the material's thermodynamic response functions, specific heat, thermal-expansion coefficient, and elastic compliances are deduced at the critical temperature of the phase transformation. We discuss the change of critical temperature with stress, and analyze the anomaly of specific heat in critical temperature of the phase transformation.

Meng, Q.; Welch, D.; Zhu, Y.

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

50

The role of hydrogen in room-temperature ferromagnetism at graphite surfaces  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present a x-ray dichroism study of graphite surfaces that addresses the origin and magnitude of ferromagnetism in metal-free carbon. We find that, in addition to carbon {pi} states, also hydrogen-mediated electronic states exhibit a net spin polarization with significant magnetic remanence at room temperature. The observed magnetism is restricted to the top {approx}10 nm of the irradiated sample where the average magnetization reaches {approx_equal} 15 emu/g at room temperature. We prove that the ferromagnetism found in metal-free untreated graphite is intrinsic and has a similar origin as the one found in proton bombarded graphite. Also, our findings show that the magnetic properties of graphite surfaces, thin films or two dimensional graphene samples can be reliably studied using soft x-ray dichroism. Fundamental new insight into the magnetic properties of carbon based systems can thus be obtained.

Ohldag, H.; Esquinazi, P.; Arenholz, E.; Spemann, D.; Rothermel, M.; Setzer, A.; Butz, T.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Room temperature ferromagnetism in Mn, Ni and Co ions doped Cu{sub 2}O nanorods  

SciTech Connect

Here we report the synthesis and characterization of Cu{sub 2}O nanorods doped with Mn, Ni and Co transition metal ions and the study of their magnetic properties. Synthesis of the nanorods was carried out by the modified polyol method. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns clearly showed them to be polycrystalline single phase material. They exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature, however no such behavior was observed for the reference undoped sample, which indicated that unintentionally introduced magnetic impurities were not responsible for the observed phenomenon. Ferromagnetic behavior was found to be dependent on the dopant concentration and increased consistently with its increment in the material. The total magnetic moments contribution was calculated for the dopant concentration and was found to be insignificant to account for the observed ferromagnetism, therefore it was suggested that ferromagnetism could have conjured up from the induced magnetic moment in the defects created as cation vacancies in the material. The presence of the defects was supported by the room temperature photoluminescence study which showed that intensity of the peaks was dependent on the dopant concentration and increased consistently with it. There was strong correlation between the magnitude of the photoluminescence peak and the observed ferromagnetic property in the doped samples. -- Graphical Abstract: Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in the Cu{sub 2}O nanorods doped with Mn, Ni and Co ions. The origin seems to be the defects of cation vacancies created by the dopant ions. Display Omitted

Ahmed, Asar [Department of Chemistry, SL-214, Southern Lab, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh (India); Gajbhiye, Namdeo S., E-mail: nsg@iitk.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, SL-214, Southern Lab, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh (India)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

52

Above room-temperature operation of InAs/AlGaSb superlattice quantum cascade lasers emitting at 12 {mu}m  

SciTech Connect

The authors report on above-room-temperature operation of InAs/AlGaSb quantum cascade lasers emitting at 12 {mu}m. The laser structures are grown on a n-InAs (100) substrate using solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. An InAs/AlGaSb superlattice is used as an active part and an InAs double plasmon waveguide is used for optical confinement. Results show that increased doping concentration in the injection part of the active region expands the current operation range of the devices, allowing laser operation at and above room temperature. The observed threshold current density is 4.0 kA/cm{sup 2} at 300 K; the maximum operation temperature is 340 K.

Ohtani, K.; Moriyasu, Y.; Ohnishi, H.; Ohno, H. [Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Semiconductor Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2007-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

53

Room-Temperature Ferromagnetism in Ion-Implanted Co-Doped TiO?(110) Rutile  

SciTech Connect

Interest in diluted magnetic semiconductros (DMS) is growing rapidly within the emerging field of spintronics. For example, the ability to efficiently inject spin-polarized carriers into nonmagnetic semiconductor heterostructures creates new and exciting possibilities for utilizing DMS materials in spin-based devices. Several III-V and II-VI semiconductor materials doped with magnetic transition metal elements have been explored. Although these materials show promising behavior in some cases, most exhibit Curie temperatures of ~170 K or less. It has recently been shown that certain oxide semiconductors doped with magnetic transition elements show room-temperature ferromagnetism.

Shutthanandan, V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Heald, Steve M.; Droubay, Timothy; Engelhard, Mark H.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; McCready, David E.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Chambers, Scott A.; Mun, B. S.; Hamdan, N. M.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Taylor, B.; Sears, R.; Sinkovic, Boris

2004-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

54

Mechanical properties of solid oxide fuel cell glass-ceramic seal at high temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Mechanical properties of solid oxide fuel cell glass-ceramic seal material, G18, are studied at high temperatures. Samples of G18 are aged for either 4h or 100h, resulting in samples with different crystallinity. Reduced modulus, hardness, and time-dependent behavior are measured by nanoindentation. The nanoindentation is performed at room temperature, 550, 650, and 750°C, using loading rates of 5 mN/s and 25 mN/s. Results show a decrease in reduced modulus with increasing temperature, with significant decrease above the glass transition temperature (Tg). Hardness generally decreases with increasing temperature, with a slight increase before Tg for the 4h aged sample. Dwell tests show that creep increases with increasing temperature, but decrease with further aging.

Milhans, Jacqueline; Li, Dongsheng; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Sun, Xin; Al-Haik, Marwan; Harris, Adrian; Garmestani, Hamid

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

55

High temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell configurations and interconnections  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High temperature fuel cell configurations and interconnections are made including annular cells having a solid electrolyte sandwiched between thin film electrodes. The cells are electrically interconnected along an elongated axial outer surface.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Humidity-resistant ambient-temperature solid-electrolyte amperometric sensing apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and methods for detecting selected chemical compounds in air or other gas streams at room or ambient temperature includes a liquid-free humidity-resistant amperometric sensor comprising a sensing electrode and a counter and reference electrode separated by a solid electrolyte. The sensing electrode preferably contains a noble metal, such as Pt black. The electrolyte is water-free, non-hygroscopic, and substantially water-insoluble, and has a room temperature ionic conductivity [>=]10[sup [minus]4] (ohm-cm)[sup [minus]1], and preferably [>=]0.01 (ohm-cm)[sup [minus]1]. The conductivity may be due predominantly to Ag[sup +] ions, as in Ag[sub 2]WO[sub 4], or to F[sup [minus

Zaromb, S.

1994-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

57

Scanning tunneling microscopy reveals LiMnAs is a room temperature anti-ferromagnetic semiconductor  

SciTech Connect

We performed scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy on a LiMnAs(001) thin film epitaxially grown on an InAs(001) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. While the in situ cleavage exposed only the InAs(110) non-polar planes, the cleavage continued into the LiMnAs thin layer across several facets. We combined both topography and current mappings to confirm that the facets correspond to LiMnAs. By spectroscopy we show that LiMnAs has a band gap. The band gap evidenced in this study, combined with the known Neel temperature well above room temperature, confirms that LiMnAs is a promising candidate for exploring the concepts of high temperature semiconductor spintronics based on antiferromagnets.

Wijnheijmer, A. P.; Koenraad, P. M. [COBRA Inter-University Research Institute, Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P. O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Marti, X. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, 162 53 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Holy, V. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Cukr, M.; Novak, V. [Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, 162 53 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Jungwirth, T. [Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, 162 53 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

58

Room-Temperature Ferromagnetism in Chemically Synthesized Sn?-xCox O? Powders  

SciTech Connect

Room temperature ferromagnetism is observed in chemically synthesized powder samples of Sn??xCox O? with x = 0.005 and 0.01. Magnetic hysteresis loops are ovserved at 300K with coercivity Hc ~ 630 Oe, saturation magnetization Ms ~0.133?? and about 31% remenance. Analyses of the magnetization data of paramagnetic samples with x = 0.01 and 0.03, measured as a function of temperature (3-330K) and magnetic field (up to 50kOe), indicated the presence of Co²? ions with spin S = 3/2. Magnetic data obtained from samples prepared at different temperatures indicate that the observed ferromagnetism for x ? 0.01 might have been triggered by changes in the oxygen stiochiometry.

Punnoose, Alex; Hays, Jason S.; Gopal, Vidyut; Shutthanandan, V.

2004-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

59

Solid oxide fuel cell operable over wide temperature range  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

Baozhen, Li (Essex Junction, VT); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Floatabilities of treated coal in water at room temperature. Annual topical report, September 1992--August 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a research paper entitled ``Floatability of Treated Coal in Water at Room Temperature.`` Experimental data on equilibrium adsorption loadings of probe compounds on coal, and flotation of raw coals as well as treated coal were obtained, using Illinois No. 6 coal (PSOC-1539), Adaville No. 1 coal (PSOC-1544), Wyodak coal (PSOC-1545) and Pittsburgh No. 8 coal (PSOC-1549). The raw data of this Annual Topical Report are also available in the Quarterly Progress Report for the period April--June 1993 and the Quarterly Progress Report July--September 1993.

Kwon, K.C. [Tuskegee Univ., AL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Rohrer, R.L.; Lai, R.W.; Finseth, D.H. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Enhanced room temperature electronic and thermoelectric properties of the dilute bismuthide InGaBiAs  

SciTech Connect

We report room temperature electronic and thermoelectric properties of Si-doped In{sub 0.52}Ga{sub 0.48}Bi{sub y}As{sub 1-y} with varying Bi concentrations. These films were grown epitaxially on a semi-insulating InP substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. We show that low Bi concentrations are optimal in improving the conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermoelectric power factor, possibly due to the surfactant effects of bismuth. We observed a reduction in thermal conductivity with increasing Bi concentration, which is expected because of alloy scattering. We report a peak ZT of 0.23 at 300 K.

Dongmo, Pernell; Zhong Yujun; Bomberger, Cory; Zide, Joshua [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Attia, Peter [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Cheaito, Ramez; Hopkins, Patrick E. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 2294 (United States); Ihlefeld, Jon F. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, M.S. 1069, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

EA-0510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator Development Project (METC), Churchill, Pennsylvania EA-0510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator...

63

Interaction of Plutonium with Diverse Materials in Moist Air and Nitrogen-Argon Atmospheres at Room Temperature  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Chemical and radiolytic interactions of weapons-grade plutonium with metallic, inorganic, and hydrogenous materials in atmospheres containing moist air-argon mixtures have been characterized at room temperature from pressure-volume-temperature and mass spectrometric measurements of the gas phase. A reaction sequence controlled by kinetics and gas-phase composition is defined by correlating observed and known reaction rates. In all cases, O{sub 2} is eliminated first by the water-catalyzed Pu + O{sub 2} reaction and H{sub 2}O is then consumed by the Pu + H{sub 2}O reaction, producing a gas mixture of N{sub 2}, argon, and H{sub 2}. Hydrogen formed by the reaction of water and concurrent radiolysis of hydrogenous materials either reacts to form PuH{sub 2} or accumulates in the system. Accumulation of H{sub 2} is correlated with the presence of hydrogenous materials in liquid and volatile forms that are readily distributed over the plutonium surface. Areal rates of radiolytic H{sub 2} generation are determined and applied in showing that modest extents of H{sub 2} production are expected for hydrogenous solids if the contact area with plutonium is limited. The unpredictable nature of complex chemical systems is demonstrated by occurrence of the chloride-catalyzed Pu + H{sub 2}O reaction in some tests and hydride-catalyzed nitriding in another.

John M. Haschke; Raymond J. Martinez; Robert E. Pruner II; Barbara Martinez; Thomas H. Allen

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Supported Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Membranes for CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} Separation  

SciTech Connect

Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are organic salts which are liquid at or around room temperature. These compounds exhibit many outstanding physical properties such as great thermal stability and no measurable vapor pressure. In this work supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) were prepared by impregnating pores of ?-alumina inorganic supports with various ionic liquids. In addition to membranes prepared with pure RTILs we were able to synthesize membranes with RTIL mixtures using 1-aminopyridinium iodide dissolved in 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate or methyltrioctylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. This combination of an RTIL with an organic salt containing an amine group dramatically improved the membrane separation properties. The SILMs displayed CO{sub 2} permeance on the order of 5 × 10{sup ?10} to 5 × 10{sup ?9} mol m{sup ?2} s{sup ?1} Pa{sup ?1} combined with CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} selectivity of 5–30. Although these values are comparable with the current systems for CO{sub 2} purification, CO{sub 2} permeance is still rather low for these compounds.

Iarikov, D. D.; Hacarlioglu, P.; Oyama, S. T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Room temperature all-silicon photonic crystal nanocavity light emitting diode at sub-bandgap wavelengths  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Silicon is now firmly established as a high performance photonic material. Its only weakness is the lack of a native electrically driven light emitter that operates CW at room temperature, exhibits a narrow linewidth in the technologically important 1300- 1600 nm wavelength window, is small and operates with low power consumption. Here, an electrically pumped all-silicon nano light source around 1300-1600 nm range is demonstrated at room temperature. Using hydrogen plasma treatment, nano-scale optically active defects are introduced into silicon, which then feed the photonic crystal nanocavity to enahnce the electrically driven emission in a device via Purcell effect. A narrow ({\\Delta}{\\lambda} = 0.5 nm) emission line at 1515 nm wavelength with a power density of 0.4 mW/cm2 is observed, which represents the highest spectral power density ever reported from any silicon emitter. A number of possible improvements are also discussed, that make this scheme a very promising light source for optical interconnects a...

Shakoor, A; Cardile, P; Portalupi, S L; Gerace, D; Welna, K; Boninelli, S; Franzo, G; Priolo, F; Krauss, T F; Galli, M; Faolain, L O

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Room-temperature diluted magnetic semiconductors p-(Ga,Ni)N  

SciTech Connect

High concentration (5 at. %) Ni was incorporated into a chemical vapor deposition-grown GaN film by using a thin protecting Ni layer on top of the GaN film during ion implantation. After etching off the protecting layer, subsequent annealing up to 800 deg. C under flowing N{sub 2} resulted in a p-type GaN with apparent ferromagnetic behavior up to {approx}320 K. In addition, the ferromagnetic behavior became more manifest with increasing annealing temperature that increases hole concentration. No presence of any other second phases nor clusters in the Ni-implanted region was identifiable, at least to the 0.2 nm point-to-point resolution of high resolution transmission electron microscopy. This novel indirect implantation process that being easy to implement appears promising for attaining room-temperature diluted magnetic semiconductors which are applicable to magnetotransport, magneto-optical and spintronics devices, among others.

Huang, R.-T.; Hsu, C.-F.; Kai, J.-J.; Chen, F.-R.; Chin, T.-S. [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

2005-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

67

Room Temperature Control During Season Switchover with Single Duct Variable Air Volume System Without Reheat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Langford “A” building houses the College of Architecture on TAMU campus. There are ten singleduct variable air volume (VAV) air-handling units (AHUs) without reheat serving the building. The local pneumatic thermostats modulate the dampers of VAV boxes to maintain room temperature at their setpoints. The thermostat action is switched from direct acting (DA) to reverse acting (RA) when the season changes from fall to winter and vice versa from winter to spring, based on the out side air temperature, when season changes. This results in various parts of the building ether too cold or too hot during the season change. This paper presents that the thermostat action will be switched according to cooling loads or discharge air temperature, instead of outside air temperature. For the interior zone, thermostat action does not need to be switched at all. The comfort is improved and savings is achieved by the new control scheme. Because some air-handling units (AHUs) serve both interior and exterior zones, this system never worked as intended. The system must be modified to have zone reheat and the AHUs discharge air temperature is set below dew point for humidity control.

Liu, C.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.; Bruner, H.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Solid electrolytes for medium temperature steam electrolysis  

SciTech Connect

A research program has been initiated to screen and select electrolyte materials for use in steam electrolyzers in the 300 to 600/sup 0/C temperature range. Screening of a significant number of acid anhydrides, hydroxides, oxides, and phosphates for their electrolytic conductivity properties is underway. Of the binary materials examined to date, only polymerized phosphoric acid, immobilized on an H/sup +/ substituted zeolite, shows promise. A substantial number of ternary compounds remain to be synthesized and evaluated. 7 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

Findl, E.; Kulesa, F.; Montoneri, E.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

High temperature solid oxide fuel development activities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents an overview of the Westinghouse tubular SOFC development activities and current program status. Goal is to develop a cell that can operate for 50,000 to 100,000 h. Test results are presented for multiple single cell tests which have now successfully exceeded 40,000 hours of continuous power operation at temperature. Two 25-kW SOFC customer tests units were delivered in 1992; a 20-kW SOFC system is bein manufactured and will be operated by Southern California Edison in 1995. Megawatt class generators are being developed.

Ray, E.R.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Direct Observation of Room-Temperature Polar Ordering in Colloidal GeTe Nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect

Ferroelectrics and other materials that exhibit spontaneous polar ordering have demonstrated immense promise for applications ranging from non-volatile memories to microelectromechanical systems. However, experimental evidence of polar ordering and effective synthetic strategies for accessing these materials are lacking for low-dimensional nanomaterials. Here, we demonstrate the synthesis of size-controlled nanocrystals of the polar material germanium telluride (GeTe) using colloidal chemistry and provide the first direct evidence of room-temperature polar ordering in nanocrystals less than 5 nm in size using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman studies demonstrate a sizeable polar distortion and a reversible size-dependent polar phase transition in these nanocrystals. The stability of polar ordering in solution-processible nanomaterials suggests an economical avenue to Tbit/in2-density non-volatile memory devices and other applications.

Polking, Mark J.; Zheng, Haimei; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Milliron, Delia J.; Chan, Emory; Caldwell, Marissa A.; Raoux, Simone; Kisielowski, Christian F.; Ager III, Joel W.; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Alivisatos, A.P.

2009-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

71

Energy Savings in Buildings Using Air Movement and Allowing Floating Temperature in Rooms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of the research study was to determine if building loads could be reduced by using an intelligent controller rather than a thermostatic controller to operate heating and air conditioning equipment. In order to switch the equipment on and off at the proper times, the intelligent controller calculated temperature limits using a mathematical procedure that determined the percentage of people who would be comfortable in rooms of the building. Simulations showed the annual cost savings from intelligent controllers ranged from 6 to 37 percent for residences and from 6 to 29 percent for the offices. An ancillary study showed that a ceiling fan provided comfort in a 112 square foot floor area to 85 F and in a 200 to 250 square foot area to 82 F.

Spain, S.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Conjectured explanation for room-temperature superconductivity in narrow channels in oxidized polypropylene  

SciTech Connect

Two groups of scientists have observed conductivity at least five orders of magnitude higher than that of copper at room temperature in narrow channels perpendicular to surfaces of films in oxidized polypropylene. For pulsed currents, this conductivity starts at a minimum value of applied current, and is destroyed at a current of about 30-60 times this value. Because of the existence of an upper critical current and of the observation that electronic thermal conductivity is negligible in the channels, it is thought that the channels are superconducting. A study is made of the hypothesis that these results are due to enhanced pairing, as first suggested by Parameter, when the drift velocity of current carriers becomes close to the velocity of sound or, in work by Hone and by the present author, to an appropriate phase velocity of optical phonons. Such enhancements can be expected to be larger in quasi-one-dimensional systems. 10 refs.

Eagles, D.M. (NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (United States))

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Experimental Observation of the Inverse Spin Hall Effect at Room Temperature  

SciTech Connect

We observe the inverse spin Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron gas confined in Al-GaAs/InGaAs quantum wells. Specifically, they find that an inhomogeneous spin density induced by the optical injection gives rise to an electric current transverse to both the spin polarization and its gradient. The spin Hall conductivity can be inferred from such a measurement through the Einstein relation and the onsager relation, and is found to have the order of magnitude of 0.5(e{sup 2}/h). The observation is made at the room temperature and in samples with macroscopic sizes, suggesting that the inverse spin Hall effects is a robust macroscopic transport phenomenon.

Liu, Baoli; Shi, Junren; Wang, Wenxin; Zhao, Hongming; Li, Dafang; /Beijing, Inst. Phys.; Zhang, Shoucheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Xue, Qikun; Chen, Dongmin; /Beijing, Inst. Phys.

2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

74

From molten salts to room temperature ionic liquids: Simulation studies on chloroaluminate systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An interaction potential including chloride anion polarization effects, constructed from first-principles calculations, is used to examine the structure and transport properties of a series of chloroaluminate melts. A particular emphasis was given to the study of the equimolar mixture of aluminium chloride with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, which forms a room temperature ionic liquid EMI-AlCl 4. The structure yielded by the classical simulations performed within the framework of the polarizable ion model is compared to the results obtained from entirely electronic structure-based simulations: An excellent agreement between the two flavors of molecular dynamics is observed. When changing the organic cation EMI+ by an inorganic cation with a smaller ionic radius (Li+, Na+, K+), the chloroaluminate speciation becomes more complex, with the formation of Al2Cl 7- in small amounts. The calculated transport properties (diffusion coefficients, electrical conductivity and viscosity) of EMI-AlCl4 are in good ag...

Salanne, Mathieu; Seitsonen, Ari P; Madden, Paul A; Kirchner, Barbara; 10.1039/C1FD00053E

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

CDZNTE ROOM-TEMPERATURE SEMICONDUCTOR GAMMA-RAY DETECTOR FOR NATIONAL-SECURITY APPLICATIONS.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One important mission of the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration is to develop reliable gamma-ray detectors to meet the widespread needs of users for effective techniques to detect and identify special nuclear- and radioactive-materials. Accordingly, the Nonproliferation and National Security Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory was tasked to evaluate existing technology and to develop improved room-temperature detectors based on semiconductors, such as CdZnTe (CZT). Our research covers two important areas: Improving the quality of CZT material, and exploring new CZT-based gamma-ray detectors. In this paper, we report on our recent findings from the material characterization and tests of actual CZT devices fabricated in our laboratory and from materials/detectors supplied by different commercial vendors. In particular, we emphasize the critical role of secondary phases in the current CZT material and issues in fabricating the CZT detectors, both of which affect their performance.

CAMARDA,G.S.; BOLOTNIKOV, A.E.; CUI, Y.; HOSSAIN, A.; KOHMAN, K.T.; JAMES, R.B.

2007-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

76

SRNL PHASE II SHELF LIFE STUDIES - SERIES 1 ROOM TEMPERATURE AND HIGH RELATIVE HUMIDITY  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Phase II, Series 1 shelf-life corrosion testing for the Department of Energy Standard 3013 container is presented and discussed in terms of the localized corrosion behavior of Type 304 stainless steel in contact with moist plutonium oxide and chloride salt mixtures and the potential impact to the 3013 inner container. This testing was designed to address the influence of temperature, salt composition, initial salt moisture, residual stress and type of oxide/salt contact on the relative humidity inside a 3013 container and the initiation and propagation of localized corrosion, especially stress corrosion cracking. The integrated plan is being conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory and SRNL. SRNL is responsible for conducting a corrosion study in small scale vessels containing plutonium oxide and chloride salts under conditions of humidity, temperature and oxide/salt compositions both within the limits of 3013 storage conditions as well as beyond the 3013 storage requirements to identify margins for minimizing the initiation of stress corrosion cracking. These worst case conditions provide data that bound the material packaged in 3013 containers. Phase I of this testing was completed in 2010. The Phase II, Series 1 testing was performed to verify previous results from Phase I testing and extend our understanding about the initiation of stress corrosion cracking and pitting that occur in 304L under conditions of room temperature, high humidity, and a specific plutonium oxide/salt chemistry. These results will aid in bounding the safe storage conditions of plutonium oxides in 3013 containers. A substantial change in the testing was the addition of the capability to monitor relative humidity during test exposure. The results show that under conditions of high initial moisture ({approx}0.5 wt%) and room temperature stress corrosion cracking occurred in 304L teardrop coupons in contact with the oxide/salt mixture at times as short as 85 days. In all cases, the cracking appeared to be associated with pitting or localized general corrosion. Crack initiation at other sites, such as surface imperfections or inclusions, cannot be excluded. Cracks appear in most cases to initiate through an intergranular mode and transition to a transgranular mode.

Mickalonis, J.; Duffey, J.

2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

77

Impact Testing of Stainless Steel Material at Room and Elevated Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steels are used for the construction of numerous spent nuclear fuel or radioactive material containers that may be subjected to high strains and moderate strain rates during accidental drop events. Mechanical characteristics of these base materials and their welds under dynamic loads in the strain rate range of concern are not well documented. However, three previous papers [1, 2, 3] reported on impact testing and analysis results performed at the Idaho National Laboratory using 304/304L and 316/316L stainless steel base material specimens that began the investigation of these characteristics. The goal of the work presented herein is to add the results of additional tensile impact testing for 304/304L and 316/316L stainless steel material specimens. Utilizing a drop-weight impact test machine and 1/4-inch to 1/2-inch thick dog-bone shaped test specimens, additional tests achieved target strain rates of 5, 10, and 22 per second at room temperature, 300, and 600 degrees Fahrenheit. Elevated true stress-strain curves for these materials at each designated strain rate and temperature are presented herein.

Dana K. Morton; Spencer D. Snow; Tom E. Rahl; Robert K. Blandford

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Large Room Temperature Magnetoresistance in FeCo-SiN Granular ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Large magnetoresistance (MR) materials have broad applications in ... Giant Low-Field Magnetocaloric Effect with Small Hysteresis Near Room ...

79

Absence of molecular deuterium dissociation during room-temperature permeation into polystyrene ICF target shells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Polystyrene microshells filled with deuterium and tritium gas are important target shells for inertially confined fusion (ICF) and are particularly promising for target containing spin-polarized hydrogens fuels. A currently active approach to the latter uses polarized D in HD, in a method which requires preservation of the high purity of the initially prepared HD (very low specified H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} concentrations). This would not be possible if dissociation should occur during permeation into the target shells. We have thus tested polystyrene shells using a novel method which employs very pure polystyrene shells using a novel method which employs very pure ortho-D{sub 2} as the test gas. An upper limit of 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} was deduced for the dissociation of D{sub 2} upon room temperature permeation through an approximately 8 um wall of polystyrene, clearing the way for use of polystyrene target shells for ICF fusion experiments with spin-polarized hydrogens fuels. 19 refs., 1 fig.

Honig, A.; Alexander, N.; Fan, Q. (Syracuse Univ., NY (USA). Dept. of Physics); Gram, R.; Kim, H. (Rochester Univ., NY (USA). Lab. for Laser Energetics)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Benzyl-Functionalized Room Temperature Ionic Liquids for CO2/N2 Separation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, three classes of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), including imidazolium, pyridinium, and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids with a benzyl group appended to the cation, were synthesized and tested for their performance in separating CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. All RTILs contained the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion, permitting us to distinguish the impact of the benzyl moiety attached to the cation on gas separation performance. In general, the attachment of the benzyl group increased the viscosity of the ionic liquid compared with the unfunctionalized analogs and decreased the CO{sub 2} permeability. However, all of the benzyl-modified ionic liquids exhibited enhanced CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivities compared with alkyl-based ionic liquids, with values ranging from 22.0 to 33.1. In addition, CO{sub 2} solubilities in the form of Henry's constants were also measured and compared with unfunctionalized analogs. Results of the membrane performance tests and CO{sub 2} solubility measurements demonstrate that the benzyl-functionalized RTILs have significant potential for use in the separation of carbon dioxide from combustion products.

Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Dai, Thomas N [ORNL; Yeary, Joshua S [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, In: S.C. Singhal and M.Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology, U.S. Department ofOxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications by Jason

Nicholas, Jason.D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Thin film growth and characterization of Potassium-Tantalate-Niobate room temperature ferroelectric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The primary objective in fabricating ferroelectric thin films is to duplicate the polar properties and characteristics of the corresponding bulk material. Potassium Tantalate-Niobate (KTN), KTa(,-,)Nb,03-, is a continuous solid solution between the perovskite compounds KNbO3 and KTaO3. The Curie temperature of KTN can be varied by a4justing x i.e.., the composition of niobium. In the vicinity of the ferroto-paraelectric phase transition, high dielectric permittivities, large pyroelectric as well as electro-optical and nonlinear optical coefficients can be observed. Bulk KTN single crystals synthesized from high temperature melts have limited device utility due to the occurence of lamellar growth, twins, etc. For these reasons thin films of KTN find enormous applications in spatial light modulators., pyroelectric devices, holographic storage., parametric oscillators and variable delay lines. The research undertaken involved the growth of KTN thin films on lattice matched substrates. The preferential groath directions, optimum growth conditions, ideal charge composition, and ideal regime in phase diagram were established. Liquidphase epitaxy (LPE) was the technique employed for the growth of thin films. The as grown films were optically and electrically characterized.

Muntha, Nageswara Rao Venkat

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Room temperature green light emission from nonpolar cubic InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Room temperature green light emission from nonpolar cubic InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-wells Shunfeng Li Cubic InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-wells MQWs with high structural and optical quality are achieved by utilizing freestanding 3C-SiC 001 substrates and optimizing InGaN quantum well growth. Superlattice peaks up

As, Donat Josef

84

Room-temperature electroluminescence from germanium in an Al0.3Ga0.7As/Ge heterojunction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.7As/Ge heterojunction light-emitting diode without any complicated manipulation for alternating. ©2012 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (230.3670) Light-emitting diodes; (230.3990) Micro. Vuckovi, and Y. Nishi, "Room temperature 1.6 microm electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si

Kolner, Brian H.

85

Estimation of Thermal Resistance from Room Temperature Electrical Resistance Measurements for Different LHC Beam Screen Support Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this note the thermal resistance between the LHC beam screen and cold bore is estimated from room temperature electrical resistance measurements. The results indicate that the beam screen without supports should have a comparable, if not better, thermal performance than the one with the existing spring supports. This prediction from electrical resistance measurements is confirmed by recent preliminary thermal measurements.

Jenninger, B

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Ionic liquid pretreatment of poplar wood at room temperature: swelling and incorporation of nanoparticles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lignocellulosic biomass represents a potentially sustainable source of liquid fuels and commodity chemicals. It could satisfy the energy needs for transportation and electricity generation, while contributing substantially to carbon sequestration and limiting the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Potential feedstocks are abundant and include crops, agricultural wastes, forest products, grasses, and algae. Among those feedstocks, wood is mainly constituted of three components: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The conversion process of lignocellulosic biomass typically consists of three steps: (1) pretreatment; (2) hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars; and (3) fermentation of the sugars into liquid fuels (ethanol) and other commodity chemicals. The pretreatment step is necessary due to the complex structure of the plant cell wall and the chemical resistance of lignin. Most current pretreatments are energy-intensive and/or polluting. So it is imperative to develop new pretreatments that are economically viable and environmentally friendly. Recently, ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest, due to their ability to dissolve biopolymers, such as cellulose, lignin, native switchgrass, and others. Ionic liquids are also considered green solvents, since they have been successfully recycled at high yields for further use with limited efficiency loss. Also, a few microbial cellulases remain active at high ionic liquid concentration. However, all studies on the dissolution of wood in ionic liquids have been conducted so far at high temperatures, typically above 90 C. Development of alternative pretreatments at room temperature is desirable to eliminate the additional energy cost. In this study, thin sections of poplar wood were swollen at room temperature by a 3 h ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate or EMIMAc) pretreatment. The pretreated sample was then exposed to an aqueous suspension of nanoparticles that resulted in the sample contraction and the deposition of nanoparticles onto the surface and embedded into the cell wall. To date, both silver and gold particles ranging in size from 40-100 nm have been incorporated into wood. Penetration of gold nanoparticles of 100 nm diameter in the cell walls was best confirmed by near-infrared confocal Raman microscopy, since the deposition of gold nanoparticles induces a significant enhancement of the Raman signal from the wood in their close proximity, an enhancement attributed to the surface-enhanced Raman effect (SERS). After rinsing with water, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman images of the same areas show that most nanoparticles remained on the pretreated sample. Raman images at different depths reveal that a significant number of nanoparticles were incorporated into the wood sample, at depths up to 4 {micro}m, or 40 times the diameter of the nanoparticles. Control experiments on an untreated wood sample resulted in the deposition of nanoparticles only at the surface and most nanoparticles were removed upon rinsing. This particle incorporation process enables the development of new pretreatments, since the nanoparticles have a high surface-to-volume ratio and could be chemically functionalized. Other potential applications for the incorporated nanoparticles include isotope tracing, catalysis, imaging agents, drug-delivery systems, energy-storage devices, and chemical sensors.

Lucas, Marcel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Macdonald, Brian A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wagner, Gregory L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Joyce, Steven A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rector, Kirk D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Humidity-resistant ambient-temperature solid-electrolyte amperometric sensing apparatus and methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and methods for detecting selected chemical compounds in air or other gas streams at room or ambient temperature includes a liquid-free humidity-resistant amperometric sensor comprising a sensing electrode and a counter and reference electrode separated by a solid electrolyte. The sensing electrode preferably contains a noble metal, such as Pt black. The electrolyte is water-free, non-hygroscopic, and substantially water-insoluble, and has a room temperature ionic conductivity .gtoreq.10.sup.-4 (ohm-cm).sup.-1, and preferably .gtoreq.0.01 (ohm-cm).sup.-1. The conductivity may be due predominantly to Ag+ ions, as in Ag.sub.2 WO.sub.4.4AgI, or to F- ions, as in Ce.sub.0.95 Ca.sub.0.05 F.sub.2.95. Electrical contacts serve to connect the electrodes to potentiostating and detecting circuitry which controls the potential of the sensing electrode relative to the reference electrode, detects the signal generated by the sensor, and indicates the detected signal.

Zaromb, Solomon (9 S 706 William Dr., Hinsdale, IL 60521)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Humidity-resistant ambient-temperature solid-electrolyte amperometric sensing apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and methods for detecting selected chemical compounds in air or other gas streams at room or ambient temperature includes a liquid-free humidity-resistant amperometric sensor comprising a sensing electrode and a counter and reference electrode separated by a solid electrolyte. The sensing electrode preferably contains a noble metal, such as Pt black. The electrolyte is water-free, non-hygroscopic, and substantially water-insoluble, and has a room temperature ionic conductivity .gtoreq.10.sup.-4 (ohm-cm).sup.-1, and preferably .gtoreq.0.01 (ohm-cm).sup.-1. The conductivity may be due predominantly to Ag+ ions, as in Ag.sub.2 WO.sub.4.4AgI, or to F- ions, as in Ce.sub.0.95 Ca.sub.0.05 F.sub.2.95. Electrical contacts serve to connect the electrodes to potentiostating and detecting circuitry which controls the potential of the sensing electrode relative to the reference electrode, detects the signal generated by the sensor, and indicates the detected signal.

Zaromb, Solomon (9S 706 William Dr., Hinsdale, IL 60521)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deep-UV optical gain has been demonstrated in Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}N/AlN multiple quantum wells under femtosecond optical pumping. Samples were grown by molecular beam epitaxy under a growth mode that introduces band structure potential fluctuations and high-density nanocluster-like features within the AlGaN wells. A maximum net modal gain value of 118 {+-} 9 cm{sup -1} has been measured and the transparency threshold of 5 {+-} 1 {mu}J/cm{sup 2} was experimentally determined, corresponding to 1.4 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} excited carriers. These findings pave the way for the demonstration of solid-state lasers with sub-250 nm emission at room temperature.

Francesco Pecora, Emanuele; Zhang Wei; Nikiforov, A.Yu.; Yin Jian; Paiella, Roberto; Dal Negro, Luca; Moustakas, T. D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary's Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Zhou Lin; Smith, David J. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

2012-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

90

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is comprised of an electrically conducting doped or admixed cerium oxide composition with niobium oxide and/or tantalum oxide for electrochemical devices, characterized by the general formula: Nb{sub x}Ta{sub y}Ce{sub 1{minus}x{minus}y}O{sub 2} where x is about 0.0 to 0.05, y is about 0.0 to 0.05, and x+y is about 0.02 to 0.05, and where x is preferably about 0.02 to 0.05 and y is 0, and a method of making the same is also described. This novel composition is particularly applicable in forming a protective interlayer of a high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell, characterized by a first electrode; an electrically conductive interlayer of niobium and/or tantalum doped cerium oxide deposited over at least a first portion of the first electrode; an interconnect deposited over the interlayer; a solid electrolyte deposited over a second portion of the first electrode, the first portion being discontinuous from the second portion; and, a second electrode deposited over the solid electrolyte. The interlayer is characterized as being porous and selected from the group consisting of niobium doped cerium oxide, tantalum doped cerium oxide, and niobium and tantalum doped cerium oxide or admixtures of the same. The first electrode, an air electrode, is a porous layer of doped lanthanum manganite, the solid electrolyte layer is a dense yttria stabilized zirconium oxide, the interconnect layer is a dense, doped lanthanum chromite, and the second electrode, a fuel electrode, is a porous layer of nickel-zirconium oxide cermet. The electrochemical cell can take on a plurality of shapes such as annular, planar, etc. and can be connected to a plurality of electrochemical cells in series and/or in parallel to generate electrical energy. 5 figs.

Singh, P.; Vasilow, T.R.; Richards, V.L.

1996-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

91

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention comprises of an electrically conducting doped or admixed cerium oxide composition with niobium oxide and/or tantalum oxide for electrochemical devices, characterized by the general formula: Nb.sub.x Ta.sub.y Ce.sub.1-x-y O.sub.2 where x is about 0.0 to 0.05, y is about 0.0 to 0.05, and x+y is about 0.02 to 0.05, and where x is preferably about 0.02 to 0.05 and y is 0, and a method of making the same. This novel composition is particularly applicable in forming a protective interlayer of a high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell (10), characterized by a first electrode (12); an electrically conductive interlayer (14) of niobium and/or tantalum doped cerium oxide deposited over at least a first portion (R) of the first electrode; an interconnect (16) deposited over the interlayer; a solid electrolyte (18) deposited over a second portion of the first electrode, the first portion being discontinuous from the second portion; and, a second electrode (20) deposited over the solid electrolyte. The interlayer (14) is characterized as being porous and selected from the group consisting of niobium doped cerium oxide, tantalum doped cerium oxide, and niobium and tantalum doped cerium oxide or admixtures of the same. The first electrode (12), an air electrode, is a porous layer of doped lanthanum manganite, the solid electrolyte layer (18) is a dense yttria stabilized zirconium oxide, the interconnect layer (16) is a dense, doped lanthanum chromite, and the second electrode (20), a fuel electrode, is a porous layer of nickel-zirconium oxide cermet. The electrochemical cell (10) can take on a plurality of shapes such as annular, planar, etc. and can be connected to a plurality of electrochemical cells in series and/or in parallel to generate electrical energy.

Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Vasilow, Theodore R. (Manor, PA); Richards, Von L. (Angola, IN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

DEGRADATION ISSUES IN SOLID OXIDE CELLS DURING HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is performing high-temperature electrolysis research to generate hydrogen using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). The project goals are to address the technical and degradation issues associated with the SOECs. This paper provides a summary of various ongoing INL and INL sponsored activities aimed at addressing SOEC degradation. These activities include stack testing, post-test examination, degradation modeling, and a list of issues that need to be addressed in future. Major degradation issues relating to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are relatively better understood than those for SOECs. Some of the degradation mechanisms in SOFCs include contact problems between adjacent cell components, microstructural deterioration (coarsening) of the porous electrodes, and blocking of the reaction sites within the electrodes. Contact problems include delamination of an electrode from the electrolyte, growth of a poorly (electronically) conducting oxide layer between the metallic interconnect plates and the electrodes, and lack of contact between the interconnect and the electrode. INL's test results on high temperature electrolysis (HTE) using solid oxide cells do not provide a clear evidence whether different events lead to similar or drastically different electrochemical degradation mechanisms. Post-test examination of the solid oxide electrolysis cells showed that the hydrogen electrode and interconnect get partially oxidized and become non-conductive. This is most likely caused by the hydrogen stream composition and flow rate during cool down. The oxygen electrode side of the stacks seemed to be responsible for the observed degradation due to large areas of electrode delamination. Based on the oxygen electrode appearance, the degradation of these stacks was largely controlled by the oxygen electrode delamination rate. University of Utah (Virkar) has developed a SOEC model based on concepts in local thermodynamic equilibrium in systems otherwise in global thermodynamic non-equilibrium. This model is under continued development. It shows that electronic conduction through the electrolyte, however small, must be taken into account for determining local oxygen chemical potential, within the electrolyte. The chemical potential within the electrolyte may lie out of bounds in relation to values at the electrodes in the electrolyzer mode. Under certain conditions, high pressures can develop in the electrolyte just under the oxygen electrode (anode)/electrolyte interface, leading to electrode delamination. This theory is being further refined and tested by introducing some electronic conduction in the electrolyte.

M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; V. I. Sharma; B. Yildiz; A. Virkar

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Room Temperature ppb Level Chlorine Gas Sensor Based on Copper (II) 1, 4, 8, 11, 15, 18, 22, 25-octabutoxy-29 H, 31 H-phthalocyanine Films  

SciTech Connect

Spin coating technique has been used to fabricate room temperature chlorine gas sensor based on copper (II) 1, 4, 8, 11, 15, 18, 22, 25-octabutoxy-29 H, 31 H-phthalocyanine (CuPc(OBu){sub 8}) films. Gas sensor shows a response of 185% to few parts per billion level of Cl{sub 2} gas with response time of 9.5 minutes at room temperature. The interactions between sensor and analytes followed first order kinetics with rate constant 0.01{<=}k{<=}0.02. The chemiresistive sensor showed very good stability at room temperature over a long period of time.

Bedi, R. K.; Saini, Rajan; Mahajan, Aman [Material Science Laboratory, Department of PhysicsGuru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar-143005 (India)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

New Cathode Materials for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Operation of SOFCs at intermediate temperatures (500-800 C) requires new combinations of electrolyte and electrode materials that will provide both rapid ion transport across the electrolyte and electrode-electrolyte interfaces and efficient electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction and fuel oxidation reactions. This project concentrates on materials and issues associated with cathode performance that are known to become limiting factors as the operating temperature is reduced. The specific objectives of the proposed research are to develop cathode materials that meet the electrode performance targets of 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} at 0.7 V in combination with YSZ at 700 C and with GDC, LSGM or bismuth oxide based electrolytes at 600 C. The performance targets imply an area specific resistance of {approx}0.5 {Omega}cm{sup 2} for the total cell. The research strategy is to investigate both established classes of materials and new candidates as cathodes, to determine fundamental performance parameters such as bulk diffusion, surface reactivity and interfacial transfer, and to couple these parameters to performance in single cell tests. In this report, further measurements of the oxygen deficient double perovskite PrBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5+{delta}} are reported. The high electronic conductivity and rapid diffusion and surface exchange kinetics of PBCO suggest its application as cathode material in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells. Preliminary measurements in symmetric cells have shown low ASR values at 600 C. Here we describe the first complete cell measurements on Ni/CGO/CGO/PBCO/CGO cells.

Allan J. Jacobson

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

95

Materials System for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted between 600-800 C on symmetrical cells that employed strontium-and-magnesium-doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte, La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSGM). The objective of the study was to identify the materials system for fabrication and evaluation of intermediate temperature (600-800 C) solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The slurry-coated electrode materials had fine porosity to enhance catalytic activity. Cathode materials investigated include La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (LSM), LSCF (La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3}), a two-phase particulate composite consisting of LSM-doped-lanthanum gallate (LSGM), and LSCF-LSGM. The anode materials were Ni-Ce{sub 0.85}Gd{sub 0.15}O{sub 2} (Ni-GDC) and Ni-Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 2} (Ni-LDC) composites. Experiments conducted with the anode materials investigated the effect of having a barrier layer of GDC or LDC in between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-composite anode to prevent adverse reaction of the Ni with lanthanum in LSGM. For proper interpretation of the beneficial effects of the barrier layer, similar measurements were performed without the barrier layer. The ohmic and the polarization resistances of the system were obtained over time as a function of temperature (600-800 C), firing temperature, thickness, and the composition of the electrodes. The study revealed important details pertaining to the ohmic and the polarization resistances of the electrode as they relate to stability and the charge-transfer reactions that occur in such electrode structures.

Uday B. Pal; Srikanth Gopalan

2005-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

96

New Cathode Materials for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Operation of SOFCs at intermediate temperatures (500-800 C) requires new combinations of electrolyte and electrode materials that will provide both rapid ion transport across the electrolyte and electrode--electrolyte interfaces and efficient electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction and fuel oxidation reactions. This project concentrates on materials and issues associated with cathode performance that are known to become limiting factors as the operating temperature is reduced. The specific objectives of the proposed research are to develop cathode materials that meet the electrode performance targets of 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} at 0.7 V in combination with YSZ at 700 C and with GDC, LSGM or bismuth oxide based electrolytes at 600 C. The performance targets imply an area specific resistance of {approx}0.5 {Omega}cm{sup 2} for the total cell. The research strategy is to investigate both established classes of materials and new candidates as cathodes, to determine fundamental performance parameters such as bulk diffusion, surface reactivity and interfacial transfer, and to couple these parameters to performance in single cell tests. In this report, the oxygen exchange kinetics of a P2 composition are described in detail. The oxygen exchange kinetics of the oxygen deficient double perovskite LnBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5+{delta}} (Ln=Pr and Nd) have been determined by electrical conductivity relaxation. The high electronic conductivity and rapid diffusion and surface exchange kinetics of PBCO suggest its application as cathode material in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

Allan J. Jacobson

2005-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

97

Materials System for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this work was to obtain a stable materials system for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) capable of operating between 600-800 C with a power density greater than 0.2 W/cm{sup 2}. The solid electrolyte chosen for this system was La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}, (LSGM). To select the right electrode materials from a group of possible candidate materials, AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted between 600-800 C on symmetrical cells that employed the LSGM electrolyte. Based on the results of the investigation, LSGM electrolyte supported SOFCs were fabricated with La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}-La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSCF-LSGM) composite cathode and Nickel-Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (Ni-LDC) composite anode having a barrier layer of Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (LDC) between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-LDC anode. Electrical performance and stability of these cells were determined and the electrode polarization behavior as a function of cell current was modeled between 600-800 C. The electrical performance of the anode-supported SOFC was simulated assuming an electrode polarization behavior identical to the LSGM-electrolyte-supported SOFC. The simulated electrical performance indicated that the selected material system would provide a stable cell capable of operating between 600-800 C with a power density between 0.2 to 1 W/cm{sup 2}.

Uday B. Pal; Srikanth Gopalan

2006-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

98

Room Temperature Formability of Alloys 625LCF™, 718 and 718SPF  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dover, NJ 07801 ... affects the FLD is the work-hardening rate of the material. The plastic ... In metal-forming operations the strain rate and temperature can also.

99

Synthesis of Room-Temperature Ferromagnetic Cr-doped TiO?(110) Rutile Single Crystals using Ion Implantation  

SciTech Connect

Ferromagnetic Cr-doped rutile TiO? single crystals were synthesized by high-temperature ion implantation. The associated structural, compositional and magnetic properties were studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, proton induced x-ray emission, x-ray diffraction, Cr K- and L-shell near-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. Cr was distributed uniformly to the depth of about 300 nm with an average concentration of ~1 at. %. The samples are semiconducting and ferromagnetic as implanted, with a saturation magnetization of 0.29???B/Cr atom at room temperature. Cr is in a formal oxidation state of +3 throughout the implanted region, and no CrO? is detected.

Shutthanandan, V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Droubay, Timothy; Heald, Steve M.; Engelhard, Mark H.; McCready, David E.; Chambers, Scott A.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Mun, B. S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Dynamic polarization of single nuclear spins by optical pumping of NV color centers in diamond at room temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report a versatile method to efficiently polarize single nuclear spins in diamond, which is based on optical pumping of a single NV color center and mediated by a level-anti crossing in its excited state. A nuclear spin polarization higher than 98% is achieved at room temperature for the 15N nuclear spin associated to the NV center, corresponding to $\\mu$K effective nuclear spin temperature. We then show simultaneous deterministic initialization of two nuclear spins (13C and 15N) in close vicinity to a NV defect. Such robust control of nuclear spin states is a key ingredient for further scaling up of nuclear-spin based quantum registers in diamond.

V. Jacques; P. Neumann; J. Beck; M. Markham; D. Twitchen; J. Meijer; F. Kaiser; G. Balasubramanian; F. Jelezko; J. Wrachtrup

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Searching for room temperature ferromagnetism in transition metal implanted ZnO and GaN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Significant progress in the field of wide-gap dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) depends on the discovery of a material system which not only shows high-temperature ferromagnetism but is also simple to prepare and thus easy to reproduce. In this context

L. M. C. Pereira; J. P. Araújo; U. Wahl; S. Decoster; M. J. Van Bael; K. Temst; A. Vantomme

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Degradation in Solid Oxide Cells During High Temperature Electrolysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Idaho National Laboratory has an ongoing project to generate hydrogen from steam using solid oxide electrolysis cells. One goal of that project is to address the technical and degradation issues associated with solid oxide electrolysis cells. This report covers a variety of these degradation issues, which were discussed during a workshop on “Degradation in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells and Strategies for its Mitigation,” held in Phoenix, AZ on October 27, 2008. Three major degradation issues related to solid oxide electrolysis cells discussed at the workshop are: • Delamination of O2-electrode and bond layer on steam/O2-electrode side • Contaminants (Ni, Cr, Si, etc.) on reaction sites (triple-phase boundary) • Loss of electrical/ionic conductivity of electrolyte. This list is not all inclusive, but the workshop summary can be useful in providing a direction for future research related to the degradation of solid oxide electrolysis cells.

Manohar Sohal

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

EA-0510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator 510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator Development Project (METC), Churchill, Pennsylvania EA-0510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator Development Project (METC), Churchill, Pennsylvania SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to enter into a 5-year cooperative agreement with the Westinghouse Electric Corporation for the development of high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell generators near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD August 1, 1991 EA-0510: Final Environmental Assessment High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator Development Project (METC) August 1, 1991 EA-0510: Finding of No Significant Impact

104

Size Dependence of a Temperature-Induced Solid-Solid Phase Transition in Copper(I) Sulfide  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Determination of the phase diagrams for the nanocrystalline forms of materials is crucial for our understanding of nanostructures and the design of functional materials using nanoscale building blocks. The ability to study such transformations in nanomaterials with controlled shape offers further insight into transition mechanisms and the influence of particular facets. Here we present an investigation of the size-dependent, temperature-induced solid-solid phase transition in copper sulfide nanorods from low- to high-chalcocite. We find the transition temperature to be substantially reduced, with the high chalcocite phase appearing in the smallest nanocrystals at temperatures so low that they are typical of photovoltaic operation. Size dependence in phase trans- formations suggests the possibility of accessing morphologies that are not found in bulk solids at ambient conditions. These other- wise-inaccessible crystal phases could enable higher-performing materials in a range of applications, including sensing, switching, lighting, and photovoltaics.

Rivest, Jessy B; Fong, Lam-Kiu; Jain, Prashant K; Toney, Michael F; Alivisatos, A Paul

2011-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

105

Hydrogen incorporation induced metal-semiconductor transition in ZnO:H thin films sputtered at room temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The room temperature deposited ZnO:H thin films having high conductivity of 500 Ohm-Sign {sup -1} cm{sup -1} and carrier concentration reaching 1.23 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} were reactively sputter deposited on glass substrates in the presence of O{sub 2} and 5% H{sub 2} in Ar. A metal-semiconductor transition at 165 K is induced by the increasing hydrogen incorporation in the films. Hydrogen forms shallow donor complex with activation energy of {approx}10-20 meV at oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}) leading to increase in carrier concentration. Hydrogen also passivates V{sub O} and V{sub Zn} causing {approx}4 times enhancement of mobility to 25.4 cm{sup 2}/V s. These films have potential for use in transparent flexible electronics.

Singh, Anil; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, D. K. [Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

106

Photothermal and thermo-refractive effects in high reflectivity mirrors at room and cryogenic temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Increasing requirements in the sensitivity of interferometric measurements is a common feature of several research fields, from gravitational wave detection to quantum optics. This motivates refined studies of high reflectivity mirrors and of noise sources that are tightly related to their structure. In this work we present an experimental characterization of photothermal and thermo-refractive effects in high reflectivity mirrors, i.e., of the variations in the position of their effective reflection plane due to weak residual power absorption. The measurements are performed by modulating the impinging power in the range 10 Hz $\\div$ 100 kHz. The experimental results are compared with an expressly derived theoretical model in order to fully understand the phenomena and exploit them to extract useful effective thermo-mechanical parameters of the coating. The measurements are extended at cryogenic temperature, where most high sensitivity experiments are performed (or planned in future versions) and where characterizations of dielectric film coatings are still poor.

Alessandro Farsi; Mario Siciliani de Cumis; Francesco Marino; Francesco Marin

2011-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

107

Photothermal and thermo-refractive effects in high reflectivity mirrors at room and cryogenic temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Increasing requirements in the sensitivity of interferometric measurements is a common feature of several research fields, from gravitational wave detection to quantum optics. This motivates refined studies of high reflectivity mirrors and of noise sources that are tightly related to their structure. In this work we present an experimental characterization of photothermal and thermo-refractive effects in high reflectivity mirrors, i.e., of the variations in the position of their effective reflection plane due to weak residual power absorption. The measurements are performed by modulating the impinging power in the range 10 Hz $\\div$ 100 kHz. The experimental results are compared with an expressly derived theoretical model in order to fully understand the phenomena and exploit them to extract useful effective thermo-mechanical parameters of the coating. The measurements are extended at cryogenic temperature, where most high sensitivity experiments are performed (or planned in future versions) and where charact...

Farsi, Alessandro; Marino, Francesco; Marin, Francesco

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Photoluminescence in the Ca{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}WO{sub 4} system at room temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, a study was undertaken about the structural and photoluminescent properties, at room temperature, of powder samples from the Ca{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}WO{sub 4} (x=0-1.0) system, synthesized by a soft chemical method and heat treated between 400 and 700 deg. C. The material was characterized using Infrared, UV-vis and Raman spectroscopy and XRD. The most intense PL emission was obtained for the sample calcined at 600 deg. C, which is neither highly disordered (400-500 deg. C), nor completely ordered (700 deg. C). Corroborating the role of disorder in the PL phenomenon, the most intense PL response was not observed for pure CaWO{sub 4} or SrWO{sub 4}, but for Ca{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}WO{sub 4}. The PL emission spectra could be separated into two Gaussian curves. The lower wavelength peak is placed around 530 nm, and the higher wavelength peak at about 690 nm. Similar results were reported in the literature for both CaWO{sub 4} and SrWO{sub 4}. - Graphical abstract: The structural and room temperature photoluminescence of Ca{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}WO4 synthesized by a soft chemical method was studied. The most intense PL emission was obtained for the sample calcined at 600 deg. C, that is neither highly disordered (400-500 deg. C), nor completely ordered (700 deg. C). Corroborating the role of disorder in the PL phenomenon, the most intense PL response was not observed for pure CaWO{sub 4} or SrWO{sub 4}, but for Ca{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}WO{sub 4}.

Porto, S.L. [Laboratorio de Combustiveis e Materiais (LACOM/DQ/CCEN), Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Campus I, Cidade Universitaria, Joao Pessoa, PB, CEP 58059-900 (Brazil); Longo, E. [CMDMC/LIEC, Instituto de Quimica, UNESP-Araraquara, Rua Prof. Francisco Degni s/n, Araraquara, SP, CEP 14800-900 (Brazil); Pizani, P.S.; Boschi, T.M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luiz km 235, SP, CEP 13565-905 (Brazil); Simoes, L.G.P. [Centro Multidisciplinar de Desenvolvimento de Materiais Ceramicos (LIEC/DQ), Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luiz km 235, Sao Carlos, SP, CEP 13565-905 (Brazil); Lima, S.J.G. [Laboratorio de Solidificacao Rapida, Departamento de Tecnologia Mecanica (LSR/DTM/CT), Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Campus I, Cidade Universitaria, Joao Pessoa, PB, CEP 58059-900 (Brazil); Ferreira, J.M. [Laboratorio de Combustiveis e Materiais (LACOM/DQ/CCEN), Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Campus I, Cidade Universitaria, Joao Pessoa, PB, CEP 58059-900 (Brazil); COAMA, Area de Meio Ambiente, Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Paraiba, Av. 1o de Maio 720, Jaguaribe, Joao Pessoa, PB, CEP 58015-430 (Brazil); Soledade, L.E.B.; Espinoza, J.W.M.; Cassia-Santos, M.R.; Maurera, M.A.M.A. [Laboratorio de Combustiveis e Materiais (LACOM/DQ/CCEN), Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Campus I, Cidade Universitaria, Joao Pessoa, PB, CEP 58059-900 (Brazil); Paskocimas, C.A. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, CEP 59072-970 (Brazil); Santos, I.M.G. [Laboratorio de Combustiveis e Materiais (LACOM/DQ/CCEN), Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Campus I, Cidade Universitaria, Joao Pessoa, PB, CEP 58059-900 (Brazil)], E-mail: ieda@quimica.ufpb.br; Souza, A.G. [Laboratorio de Combustiveis e Materiais (LACOM/DQ/CCEN), Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Campus I, Cidade Universitaria, Joao Pessoa, PB, CEP 58059-900 (Brazil)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

109

Physical properties of Ce3-xTe4 below room temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The physical properties of polycrystalline Ce{sub 3-x}Te{sub 4} were investigated by measurements of the thermoelectric properties, Hall coefficient, heat capacity, and magnetization. The fully filled, metallic x = 0 compound displays a soft ferromagnetic transition near 4 K, and analysis of the corresponding heat capacity anomaly suggests a doublet ground state for Ce{sup 3+}. The transition is suppressed to below 2 K in the insulating x = 0.33 composition, revealing that magnetic order in Ce{sub 3-x}Te{sub 4} is driven by a Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY)-type interaction. The thermoelectric properties trend with composition as expected from simple electron counting, and the transport properties in Ce{sub 3}Te{sub 4} are observed to be similar to those in La{sub 3}Te{sub 4}. Trends in the low-temperature thermal conductivity data reveal that the phonons are efficiently scattered by electrons, while all compositions examined have a lattice thermal conductivity near 1.2 W/m K{sup -1} at 200 K.

May, Andrew F [ORNL; McGuire, Michael A [ORNL; Cantoni, Claudia [ORNL; Sales, Brian C [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

New Cathode Materials for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Operation of SOFCs at intermediate temperatures (500-800 C) requires new combinations of electrolyte and electrode materials that will provide both rapid ion transport across the electrolyte and electrode-electrolyte interfaces and efficient electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction and fuel oxidation reactions. This project concentrates on materials and issues associated with cathode performance that are known to become limiting factors as the operating temperature is reduced. The specific objectives of the proposed research are to develop cathode materials that meet the electrode performance targets of 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} at 0.7 V in combination with YSZ at 700 C and with GDC, LSGM or bismuth oxide based electrolytes at 600 C. The performance targets imply an area specific resistance of {approx}0.5 {Omega}cm{sup 2} for the total cell. The research strategy is to investigate both established classes of materials and new candidates as cathodes, to determine fundamental performance parameters such as bulk diffusion, surface reactivity and interfacial transfer, and to couple these parameters to performance in single cell tests. The initial choices for study were perovskite oxides based on substituted LaFeO{sub 3} (P1 compositions), where significant data in single cell tests exist at PNNL for example, for La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}FeO{sub 3} cathodes on both YSZ and CSO/YSZ. The materials selection was then extended to La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4} compositions (K1 compositions), and then in a longer range task we evaluated the possibility of completely unexplored group of materials that are also perovskite related, the ABM{sub 2}O{sub 5+{delta}}. A key component of the research strategy was to evaluate for each cathode material composition, the key performance parameters, including ionic and electronic conductivity, surface exchange rates, stability with respect to the specific electrolyte choice, and thermal expansion coefficients. In the initial phase, we did this in parallel with the perovskite compositions that were being investigated at PNNL, in order to assess the relative importance of the intrinsic properties such as oxygen ion diffusion and surface exchange rates as predictors of performance in cell tests. We then used these measurements to select new materials for scaled up synthesis and performance evaluation in single cell tests. The results of the single cell tests than provided feedback to the materials synthesis and selection steps. In this summary, the following studies are reported: (1) Synthesis, characterization, and DC conductivity measurements of the P1 compositions La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}FeO{sub 3-x} and La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}FeO{sub 3-x} were completed. A combinational approach for preparing a range P1 (La,Sr)FeO{sub 3} compositions as thin films was investigated. Synthesis and heat treatment of amorphous SrFeO{sub 3-x} and LaFeO{sub 3-x} films prepared by pulsed laser deposition are described. (2) Oxygen transport properties of K1 compositions La{sub x}Pr{sub 2-x}NiO{sub 4+d} (x =2.0, 1.9, 1.2, 1.0 and 0) measured by electrical conductivity relaxation are presented in this report. Area specific resistances determined by ac impedance measurements for La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} and Pr{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}} on CGO are encouraging and suggest that further optimization of the electrode microstructure will enable the target to be reached. (3) The oxygen exchange kinetics of the oxygen deficient double perovskite LnBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5+{delta}} (Ln=Pr and Nd) were determined by electrical conductivity relaxation. The high electronic conductivity and rapid diffusion and surface exchange kinetics of PBCO suggest its application as cathode material in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells. The first complete cell measurements were performed on Ni/CGO/CGO/PBCO/CGO cells. (4) The oxygen exchange kinetics of highly epitaxial thin films of PrBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5+{delta}} (PBCO) has been determined by electrical conductivity relaxation and isotope exchange and depth profiling and confirm the high electronic conductivit

Allan J. Jacobson

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

111

Strong room-temperature ferromagnetism of high-quality lightly Mn-doped ZnO grown by molecular beam epitaxy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Strong room-temperature ferromagnetism is demonstrated in single crystalline Mn-doped ZnO grown by molecular beam epitaxy. With a low Mn concentration of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, Mn-doped ZnO films exhibited room-temperature ferromagnetism with a coercivity field larger than 200 Oe, a large saturation moment of 6 {mu}{sub B}/ion, and a large residue moment that is {approx}70% of the saturation magnetization. Isolated ions with long range carrier mediated spin-spin coupling may be responsible for the intrinsic ferromagnetism.

Zuo Zheng; Zhou Huimei; Olmedo, Mario J.; Kong Jieying; Liu Jianlin [Quantum Structures Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California - Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Beyermann, Ward P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California - Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Zheng Jianguo [Laboratory for Electron and X-ray Instrumentation, California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology, University of California - Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Xin Yan [NHMFL, Florida State University, 1800 E. Paul Dirac Dr., Tallahassee, Florida 32310-3706 (United States)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Solid-State Radiometer Measurements of Sea Surface Skin Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite sea surface skin temperature (SSST) maps are readily available from precisely calibrated radiometer systems such as the ERS along-track scanning radiometer and, in the near future, from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer. ...

C. J. Donlon; S. J. Keogh; D. J. Baldwin; I. S. Robinson; I. Ridley; T. Sheasby; I. J. Barton; E. F. Bradley; T. J. Nightingale; W. Emery

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

The 3rd International Conference of IIR on Magnetic Refrigeration at Room Temperature, Des Moines, Iowa, U.S.A, 11-15 May 2009  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS USING DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS J. ROUDAUT1,2,* , H. BOUCHEKARA1 , A. KEDOUS-LEBOUC1 , J of Design of Experiments (DOE) method in magnetic refrigeration (MR) understanding and optimizationThe 3rd International Conference of IIR on Magnetic Refrigeration at Room Temperature, Des Moines

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

114

Optically pumped InxGa?â??xN/InyGa?â??yN multiple quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting laser operating at room temperature.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Room temperature vertical cavity lasing at the wavelength of 433nm has been successfully realized in InxGa?â??xN/InyGa?â??yN multiple quantum well without Bragg mirrors under photo-excitation. At high excitation intensity, ...

Chen, Zhen

115

Core-shell multi-quantum wells in ZnO / ZnMgO nanowires with high optical efficiency at room temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanowire-based light-emitting devices require multi-quantum well heterostructures with high room temperature optical efficiencies. We demonstrate that such efficiencies can be attained through the use of ZnO/Zn(1-x)MgxO core shell quantum well heterostructures grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy. Varying the barrier Mg concentration from x=0.15 to x=0.3 leads to the formation of misfit induced dislocations in the multi quantum wells. Correlatively, temperature dependant photoluminescence reveals that the radial well luminescence intensity decreases much less rapidly with increasing temperature for the lower Mg concentration. Indeed, about 54% of the 10K intensity is retained at room temperature with x=0.15, against 2% with x=0.30. Those results open the way to the realization of high optical efficiency nanowire-based light emitting diodes.

Thierry, Robin; Jouneau, Pierre-Henri; Ferret, Pierre; Feuillet, Guy; 10.1088/0957-4484/23/8/085705

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

HIGH-TEMPERATURE TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL GENERATOR DEVELOPMENT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the Westinghouse/USDOE Cooperative Agreement period of November 1, 1990 through November 30, 1997, the Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell has evolved from a 16 mm diameter, 50 cm length cell with a peak power of 1.27 watts/cm to the 22 mm diameter, 150 cm length dimensions of today's commercial prototype cell with a peak power of 1.40 watts/cm. Accompanying the increase in size and power density was the elimination of an expensive EVD step in the manufacturing process. Demonstrated performance of Westinghouse's tubular SOFC includes a lifetime cell test which ran for a period in excess of 69,000 hours, and a fully integrated 25 kWe-class system field test which operated for over 13,000 hours at 90% availability with less than 2% performance degradation over the entire period. Concluding the agreement period, a 100 kW SOFC system successfully passed its factory acceptance test in October 1997 and was delivered in November to its demonstration site in Westervoort, The Netherlands.

S.E. Veyo

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

System Design and New Materials for Reversible, Solid-Oxide, High Temperature Steam Electrolysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High temperature solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) offer high electrical efficiency and a potential path to large scale hydrogen production. Solid oxide technology is capable of both power generation and hydrogen production. That makes it possible for the development of a reversible solid-oxide system that can respond to market conditions to produce electricity or hydrogen on demand. New high-temperature electrolyzer cell materials are needed to enable cost-effective hydrogen production system designs based on reversible steam electrolysis. Two test methods were established for the eventual development of the reversible, durable electrode materials: the button cell test and the oxygen electrode test. The button cell test is capable of evaluating the performance and degradation of full solid oxide cells with dual atmosphere of air and hydrogen-steam. The oxygen electrode test is capable of isolating the performance and degradation of the oxygen electrode. It has higher throughput and sensitivity than the button cell test.

Ruud, J.A.

2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

118

MATERIALS SYSTEM FOR INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted on symmetrical cells of the type [gas, electrode/LSGM electrolyte/electrode, gas]. The electrode materials were slurry-coated on both sides of the LSGM electrolyte support. The electrodes selected for this investigation are candidate materials for SOFC electrodes. Cathode materials include La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (LSM), LSCF (La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3}), a two-phase particulate composite consisting of LSM + doped-lanthanum gallate (LSGM), and LSCF + LSGM. Pt metal electrodes were also used for the purpose of comparison. Anode material investigated was the Ni + GDC composite. The study revealed important details pertaining to the charge-transfer reactions that occur in such electrodes. The information obtained can be used to design electrodes for intermediate temperature SOFCs based on LSGM electrolyte.

Uday B. Pal; Srikanth Gopalan

2004-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

119

NEW CATHODE MATERIALS FOR INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Operation of SOFCs at intermediate temperatures (500-800 C) requires new combinations of electrolyte and electrode materials that will provide both rapid ion transport across the electrolyte and electrode-electrolyte interfaces and efficient electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction and fuel oxidation reactions. This project concentrates on materials and issues associated with cathode performance that are known to become limiting factors as the operating temperature is reduced. The specific objectives of the proposed research are to develop cathode materials that meet the electrode performance targets of 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} at 0.7 V in combination with YSZ at 700 C and with GDC, LSGM or bismuth oxide based electrolytes at 600 C. The performance targets imply an area specific resistance of {approx}0.5 {Omega}cm{sup 2} for the total cell. The research strategy is to investigate both established classes of materials and new candidates as cathodes, to determine fundamental performance parameters such as bulk diffusion, surface reactivity and interfacial transfer, and to couple these parameters to performance in single cell tests. The initial choices for study are perovskite oxides based on Sr substituted LaFeO{sub 3}, where significant data in single cell tests exists at PNNL for cathodes on both YSZ and CSO/YSZ, and of Ln{sub 2}NiO{sub 4} compositions. A key component of the research strategy is to evaluate for each cathode material composition, the key performance parameters, including ionic and electronic conductivity, surface exchange rates, stability with respect to the specific electrolyte choice, and thermal expansion coefficients. Results on electrical conductivity relaxation measurements on La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+x} and Pr{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+x} samples are reported and compared with results from previous studies. Studies of the crystallization of amorphous SrFeO{sub 3-x} and LaFeO{sub 3-x} films prepared by pulsed laser deposition are reported. Such studies are a preliminary to the combinatorial synthesis approach described in the first report.

Allan J. Jacobson

2004-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

120

New Cathode Materials for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Operation of SOFCs at intermediate temperatures (500-800 C) requires new combinations of electrolyte and electrode materials that will provide both rapid ion transport across the electrolyte and electrode - electrolyte interfaces and efficient electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction and fuel oxidation reactions. This project concentrates on materials and issues associated with cathode performance that are known to become limiting factors as the operating temperature is reduced. The specific objectives of the proposed research are to develop cathode materials that meet the electrode performance targets of 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} at 0.7 V in combination with YSZ at 700 C and with GDC, LSGM or bismuth oxide based electrolytes at 600 C. The performance targets imply an area specific resistance of {approx}0.5 {Omega}cm{sup 2} for the total cell. The research strategy is to investigate both established classes of materials and new candidates as cathodes, to determine fundamental performance parameters such as bulk diffusion, surface reactivity and interfacial transfer, and to couple these parameters to performance in single cell tests. The initial choices for study are perovskite oxides based on Sr substituted LaFeO{sub 3}, where significant data in single cell tests exists at PNNL for cathodes on both YSZ and CSO/YSZ, and Ln{sub 2}NiO{sub 4} compositions. A key component of the research strategy is to evaluate for each cathode material composition, the key performance parameters, including ionic and electronic conductivity, surface exchange rates, stability with respect to the specific electrolyte choice, and thermal expansion coefficients. Results on electrical conductivity relaxation measurements on additional compositions in the La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+x} and Pr{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+x} series are presented in this report. Studies of the inter-diffusion of amorphous SrFeO{sub 3-x} and LaFeO{sub 3-x} bilayer films prepared by pulsed laser deposition are described. Such studies are a preliminary to the combinatorial synthesis approach discussed in previous reports.

Allan J. Jacobson

2004-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Formation of an SEI on a LiMn(2)O(4) Cathode during Room Temperature Charge-Discharge Cycling Studied by Soft X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy at the Fluorine K-edge  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formation on the surface of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} electrodes during room temperature charge-discharge cycling was studied using soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Fluorine (F) K-edge. LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} electrodes without any binder were prepared by electrostatic spray deposition to eliminate the signal originating from the PVDF binder in the F K-edge X-ray absorption spectra. The F K-edge absorption spectra show that the SEI layer forms at a very early stage of cycling. SEI growth takes place during discharge. In addition, LiF formation is accelerated if the discharge step follows a charge step. The F K-edge absorption spectra suggest that the major component of the SEI is LiF.

Chung, K.Y.; Yang, X.; Yoon, W.-S.; Kim, K.-B.; Cho, B.-W.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Strength and ductility of room-dry and water-saturated igneous rocks at low pressures and temperatures to partial melting. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Rock types that are likely candidates for drilling were tested. Reported herein are the short-time ultimate strengths and ductilities determined at temperatures of 25/sup 0/ to 1050/sup 0/C and a strain rate of 10/sup -4/s/sup -1/ of (a) room-dry Mt. Hood Andesite, Cuerbio Basalt, and Charcoal (St. Cloud Gray) Granodiorite at confining pressures of 0, 50, and 100 MPa, (b) water-saturated specimens of the same three rocks at zero effective pressure (both pore and confining pressures of 50 MPa), and (c) room-dry Newberry Rhyolite Obsidian at 0 and 50 MPa. These strengths are then compared with the stresses developed at the wall of a borehole in an elastic medium at the appropriate temperatures and mean pressures to assess the problem of borehole stability. (MHR)

Friedman, M.; Handin, J.; Higgs, N.G.; Lantz, J.R.; Bauer, S.J.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Effect of small additions of silicon, iron, and aluminum on the room-temperature tensile properties of high-purity uranium  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Eleven binary and ternary alloys of uranium and very low concentrations of iron, silicon, and aluminum were prepared and tested for room-temperature tensile properties after various heat treatments. A yield strength approximately double that of high-purity derby uranium was obtained from a U-400 ppM Si-200 ppM Fe alloy after beta solution treatment and alpha aging. Higher silicon plus iron alloy contents resulted in increased yield strength, but showed an unacceptable loss of ductility.

Ludwig, R.L.

1983-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

124

Effect of pre-oxidation and environmental aging on the seal strength of a novel high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) sealing glass with metallic interconnect  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel high-temperature alkaline-earth silicate sealing glass was developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The glass was used to join two ferritic stainless steel coupons for strength evaluation. The steel coupons were pre-oxidized at elevated temperatures to promote thick oxide layers to simulate long-term exposure conditions. In addition, seals to as-received metal coupons were also tested after aging in oxidizing or reducing environments to simulate the actual SOFC environment. Room temperature tensile testing showed strength degradation when using pre-oxidized coupons, and more extensive degradation after aging in air. Fracture surface and microstructural analysis confirmed that the cause of degradation was formation of SrCrO4 at the outer sealing edges exposed to air.

Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

125

Modified Nose-Hoover thermostat for solid state for constant temperature molecular dynamics simulation  

SciTech Connect

Nose-Hoover (NH) thermostat methods incorporated with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation have been widely used to simulate the instantaneous system temperature and feedback energy in a canonical ensemble. The method simply relates the kinetic energy to the system temperature via the particles' momenta based on the ideal gas law. However, when used in a tightly bound system such as solids, the method may suffer from deriving a lower system temperature and potentially inducing early breaking of atomic bonds at relatively high temperature due to the neglect of the effect of the potential energy of atoms based on solid state physics. In this paper, a modified NH thermostat method is proposed for solid system. The method takes into account the contribution of phonons by virtue of the vibrational energy of lattice and the zero-point energy, derived based on the Debye theory. Proof of the equivalence of the method and the canonical ensemble is first made. The modified NH thermostat is tested on different gold nanocrystals to characterize their melting point and constant volume specific heat, and also their size and temperature dependence. Results show that the modified NH method can give much more comparable results to both the literature experimental and theoretical data than the standard NH. Most importantly, the present model is the only one, among the six thermostat algorithms under comparison, that can accurately reproduce the experimental data and also the T{sup 3}-law at temperature below the Debye temperature, where the specific heat of a solid at constant volume is proportional to the cube of temperature.

Chen, Wen-Hwa, E-mail: whchen@pme.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); National Applied Research Laboratories, Taipei 10622, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Chun-Hung [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Hsien-Chie [Department of Aerospace and Systems Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)

2011-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

126

Parameter Study of Transport Processes with Catalytic Reactions in Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cell is one of most promising types of fuel cells with advantages of high efficiencies, flexibility of usable fuel types. The performance of SOFC is strongly affected by cell overall parameters, e.g., temperature, pressure, reaction ... Keywords: parameter study, SOFC model, 3D CFD approach, refoming reactions

Chao Yang; Guogang Yang; Danting Yue; Jinliang Yuan

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

CHALLENGES IN GENERATING HYDROGEN BY HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS USING SOLID OXIDE CELLS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) high temperature electrolysis research to generate hydrogen using solid oxide electrolysis cells is presented in this paper. The research results reported here have been obtained in a laboratory-scale apparatus. These results and common scale-up issues also indicate that for the technology to be successful in a large industrial setting, several technical, economical, and manufacturing issues have to be resolved. Some of the issues related to solid oxide cells are stack design and performance optimization, identification and evaluation of cell performance degradation parameters and processes, integrity and reliability of the solid oxide electrolysis (SOEC) stacks, life-time prediction and extension of the SOEC stack, and cost reduction and economic manufacturing of the SOEC stacks. Besides the solid oxide cells, balance of the hydrogen generating plant also needs significant development. These issues are process and ohmic heat source needed for maintaining the reaction temperature (~830°C), high temperature heat exchangers and recuperators, equal distribution of the reactants into each cell, system analysis of hydrogen and associated energy generating plant, and cost optimization. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen assuming an internal rate of return of 10%. These issues need interdisciplinary research effort of federal laboratories, solid oxide cell manufacturers, hydrogen consumers, and other such stakeholders. This paper discusses research and development accomplished by INL on such issues and highlights associated challenges that need to be addressed for hydrogen to become an economical and viable option.

M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; M. G. McKellar; J. S. Herring; E. A. Harvego

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Solid sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams at low temperatures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

New low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents are provided that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. A new method is provided for making these sorbents that involves treating substrates with an amine and/or an ether so that the amine and/or ether comprise at least 50 wt. percent of the sorbent. The sorbent acts by capturing compounds contained in gaseous fluids via chemisorption and/or physisorption between the unit layers of the substrate's lattice where the polar amine liquids and solids and/or polar ether liquids and solids are located. The method eliminates the need for high surface area supports and polymeric materials for the preparation of CO.sub.2 capture systems, and provides sorbents with absorption capabilities that are independent of the sorbents' surface areas. The sorbents can be regenerated by heating at temperatures in excess of 35.degree. C.

Sirwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

129

Solid Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

New low-cost CO2 sorbents are provided that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. A new method is provided for making these sorbents that involves treating substrates with an amine and/or an ether so that the amine and/or ether comprise at least 50 wt. percent of the sorbent. The sorbent acts by capturing compounds contained in gaseous fluids via chemisorption and/or physisorption between the unit layers of the substrate's lattice where the polar amine liquids and solids and/or polar ether liquids and solids are located. The method eliminates the need for high surface area supports and polymeric materials for the preparation of CO2 capture systems, and provides sorbents with absorption capabilities that are independent of the sorbents' surface areas. The sorbents can be regenerated by heating at temperatures in excess of 35 degrees C.

Sirwardane, Ranjani V.

2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

130

Thin-film electrolytes for reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells produce electricity at very high efficiency and have very low to negligible emissions, making them an attractive option for power generation for electric utilities. However, conventional SOFC`s are operated at 1000{degrees}C or more in order to attain reasonable power density. The high operating temperature of SOFC`s leads to complex materials problems which have been difficult to solve in a cost-effective manner. Accordingly, there is much interest in reducing the operating temperature of SOFC`s while still maintaining the power densities achieved at high temperatures. There are several approaches to reduced temperature operation including alternative solid electrolytes having higher ionic conductivity than yttria stabilized zirconia, thin solid electrolyte membranes, and improved electrode materials. Given the proven reliability of zirconia-based electrolytes (YSZ) in long-term SOFC tests, the use of stabilized zirconia electrolytes in reduced temperature fuel cells is a logical choice. In order to avoid compromising power density at intermediate temperatures, the thickness of the YSZ electrolyte must be reduced from that in conventional cells (100 to 200 {mu}m) to approximately 4 to 10 {mu}m. There are a number of approaches for depositing thin ceramic films onto porous supports including chemical vapor deposition/electrochemical vapor deposition, sol-gel deposition, sputter deposition, etc. In this paper we describe an inexpensive approach involving the use of colloidal dispersions of polycrystalline electrolyte for depositing 4 to 10 {mu}m electrolyte films onto porous electrode supports in a single deposition step. This technique leads to highly dense, conductive, electrolyte films which exhibit near theoretical open circuit voltages in H{sub 2}/air fuel cells. These electrolyte films exhibit bulk ionic conductivity, and may see application in reduced temperature SOFC`s, gas separation membranes, and fast response sensors.

Visco, S.J.; Wang, L.S.; De Souza, S.; De Jonghe, L.C.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Advanced materials and electrochemical processes in high-temperature solid electrolytes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel cells for the direct conversion of fossil fuels to electric energy necessitates the use of high-temperature solid electrodes. This study has included: (1) determination of electrical transport, thermal and electrical properties to illucidate the effects of microstructure, phase equilibria, oxygen partial pressure, additives, synthesis and fabrication on these properties; (2) investigation of synthesis and fabrication of advanced oxide materials, such as La{sub 0.9}Sn{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3}; and (3) application of new analytical techniques using complex impedance coupled with conventional electrochemical methods to study the electrochemical processes and behavior of materials for solid oxide fuel cells and other high-temperature electrolyte electrochemical process. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs. (BM)

Bates, J.L.; Chick, L.A.; Youngblood, G.E.; Weber, W.J.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Solid Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 6,908,497 entitled "Solid Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures." Disclosed in this patent is a new low-cost carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sorbent that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. Researchers have developed a new method to prepare these sorbents by treating substrates with an amine and/or an ether in a way that either one comprises at least 50 weight percent of the sorbent. The sorbent captures compounds contained in gaseous fluids through chemisorptions and/or

133

High-temperature electrical testing of a solid oxide fuel cell cathode contact material  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development of high temperature solid state devices for energy generation and environmental control applications has advanced remarkably over the past decade. However, there remain a number technical barriers that still impede widespread commercial application. One of these, for example, is the development of a robust method of conductively joining the mixed-conducting oxide electrodes that lie at the heart of the device to the heat resistant metal interconnect used to transmit power to or from the electrodes and electrochemically active membrane. In the present study, we have investigated the high-temperature electrical and microstructural characteristics of a series of conductive glass composite paste junctions between two contact materials representative of those employed in solid-state electrochemical devices, lanthanum calcium manganate and 430 stainless steel.

Weil, K. Scott

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

High temperature solid lubricant materials for heavy duty and advanced heat engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Advanced engine designs incorporate higher mechanical and thermal loading to achieve efficiency improvements. This approach often leads to higher operating temperatures of critical sliding elements (e.g. piston ring/cylinder wall contacts and valve guides) which compromise the use of conventional and even advanced synthetic liquid lubricants. For these applications solid lubricants must be considered. Several novel solid lubricant composites and coatings designated PS/PM200 have been employed to dry and marginally oil lubricated contacts in advanced heat engines. These applications include cylinder kits of heavy duty diesels, and high temperature sterling engines, sidewall seals of rotary engines and various exhaust valve and exhaust component applications. The following paper describes the tribological and thermophysical properties of these tribomaterials and reviews the results of applying them to engine applications. Other potential tribological materials and applications are also discussed with particular emphasis to heavy duty and advanced heat engines.

DellaCorte, C.; Wood, J.C.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Sb[subscript 2]Te[subscript 3] and Bi[subscript 2]Te[subscript 3] Thin Films Grown by Room-Temperature MBE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sb{sub 2}Te3 and Bi{sub 2}Te3 thin films were grown on SiO{sub 2} and BaF{sub 2} substrates at room temperature using molecular beam epitaxy. Metallic layers with thicknesses of 0.2 nm were alternately deposited at room temperature, and the films were subsequently annealed at 250 C for 2 h. x-Ray diffraction and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with high-accuracy energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry revealed stoichiometric films, grain sizes of less than 500 nm, and a texture. High-quality in-plane thermoelectric properties were obtained for Sb{sub 2}Te3 films at room temperature, i.e., low charge carrier density (2.6 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, large thermopower (130 {micro}V K{sup -1}), large charge carrier mobility (402 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}), and resulting large power factor (29 {micro}W cm{sup -1} K{sup -2}). Bi{sub 2}Te3 films also showed low charge carrier density (2.7 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}), moderate thermopower (-153 {micro}V K{sup -1}), but very low charge carrier mobility (80 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}), yielding low power factor (8 {micro}W cm{sup -1} K{sup -2}). The low mobilities were attributed to Bi-rich grain boundary phases identified by analytical energy-filtered TEM.

Aabdin, Z.; Peranio, N.; Winkler, M.; Bessas, D.; König, J.; Hermann, R.P.; Böttner, H.; Eibl, O. (Julich); (Tubingen); (Fraunhofer)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

136

Influence of high temperature on solid state nuclear track detector parameters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work concerns the influence of high temperatures on tracks induced in solid state nuclear track detectors of the CR-39/PM-355 type. In order to investigate this effect some samples of the detectors were irradiated with energetic protons and {alpha} particles and subsequently heated under controlled temperatures for different periods of time. After heating the samples were etched and the track evolution was analyzed using an optical microscope. The bulk etch rate V{sub B} of the PM-355 material was also determined as a function of heating temperature. The track etch rate V{sub T} values were estimated for craters induced by protons and {alpha} particles from track diameter measurement as a function of heating temperature.

Malinowska, A.; Szydlowski, A.; Jaskola, M.; Korman, A. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Otwock 05-400 (Poland)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

137

Investigation of the Effect of Functional Group Substitutions on the Gas-Phase Electron Affinities and Ionization Energies of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids Ions using Density Functional Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cathodic and anodic stabilities of room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are important factors in their applications in electrochemical devices. In this work, we investigated the electron affinities of cations and ...

Ong, Shyue Ping

138

Stress-induced VO{sub 2} films with M2 monoclinic phase stable at room temperature grown by inductively coupled plasma-assisted reactive sputtering  

SciTech Connect

We report on growth of VO{sub 2} films with M2 monoclinic phase stable at room temperature under atmospheric pressure. The films were grown on quartz glass and Si substrates by using an inductively coupled plasma-assisted reactive sputtering method. XRD-sin{sup 2}{Psi} measurements revealed that the films with M2 phase are under compressive stress in contrast to tensile stress of films with M1 phase. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed characteristic crystal grain aspects with formation of periodical twin structure of M2 phase. Structural phase transition from M2 to tetragonal phases, accompanied by a resistance change, was confirmed to occur as the temperature rises. Growth of VO{sub 2} films composed of M2 phase crystalline is of strong interest for clarifying nature of Mott transition of strongly correlated materials.

Okimura, Kunio; Watanabe, Tomo [School of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Sakai, Joe [GREMAN, UMR 7347 CNRS, Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Parc de Grandmont 37200 Tours (France)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Giant tunneling magnetoresistance up to 410% at room temperature in fully epitaxial Co/MgO/Co magnetic tunnel junctions with bcc Co(001) electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Fully epitaxial Co(001)/MgO(001)/Co(001) magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with metastable bcc Co(001) electrodes were fabricated with molecular beam epitaxy. The MTJs exhibited giant magnetoresistance (MR) ratios up to 410% at room temperature, the highest value reported to date. Temperature dependence of the MR ratio was observed to be very small compared with fully epitaxial Fe/MgO/Fe and textured CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB MTJs. The MR ratio of the Co/MgO/Co MTJ showed larger bias voltage dependence than that of the epitaxial Fe/MgO/Fe MTJs, which probably reflects the band structures of bcc Co and Fe for the k{sub parallel}=0 direction.

Yuasa, Shinji; Fukushima, Akio; Kubota, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Yoshishige; Ando, Koji [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Nanoelectronics Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan) and SORST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Nanoelectronics Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

2006-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

140

Low-Temperature Synthesis of Actinide Tetraborides by Solid-State Metathesis Reactions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The synthesis of actinide tetraborides including uranium tetraboride (UB,), plutonium tetraboride (PUB,) and thorium tetraboride (ThB{sub 4}) by a solid-state metathesis reaction are demonstrated. The present method significantly lowers the temperature required to {approx_equal}850 C. As an example, when UCl{sub 4}, is reacted with an excess of MgB{sub 2}, at 850 C, crystalline UB, is formed. Powder X-ray diffraction and ICP-AES data support the reduction of UCl{sub 3}, as the initial step in the reaction. The UB, product is purified by washing water and drying.

Lupinetti, Anthony J.; Garcia, Eduardo; Abney, Kent D.

2004-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

A STUDY OF GAS-SOLID SUSPENSIONS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND EFFECT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS. Technical Report IIL-7-P  

SciTech Connect

The equilibrium between thermionic emission from solid particles and space charges of the phases in a gas-solid suspension (thermal electrification) was previously studied. Some further considerations are examined. Investigation of the effects of the properties of the solid phase on thermal electrification indicates that solid particies in a gassolid system could be much hotter than the gas phase since thermal electrification depends mainly on solid particle temperature. Control of thermal electrification by the initial charge of solid particles, particularly removal of electrons by positively charged particles, is considered. The rate of solid particle dispersion is found to be the main factor in deionization of hot gases by charged solid particles. Investigation of the electrical conductivity of a mixture of electrons, charged solid particles, and the gas atoms of the suspending gas reveals that thermal electrification is not the only contributor to high electrical conductivity. Use of a gas-solid system for magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion is also examined. Solid particles of controlled size contribute favorably to MHD generation, but in plasma MHD accelerators would reduce performance. (D.C.W.)

Soo, S.L.

1962-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Recent developments in high-temperature photonic crystals for energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

After decades of intense studies focused on cryogenic and room temperature nanophotonics, scientific interest is also growing in high-temperature nanophotonics aimed at solid-state energy conversion. These latest extensive ...

Rinnerbauer, Veronika

143

STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the future of energy production in America. They offer great promise as a clean and efficient process for directly converting chemical energy to electricity while providing significant environmental benefits (they produce negligible hydrocarbons, CO, or NO{sub x} and, as a result of their high efficiency, produce about one-third less CO{sub 2} per kilowatt hour than internal combustion engines). Unfortunately, the current SOFC technology, based on a stabilized zirconia electrolyte, must operate in the region of 1000 C to avoid unacceptably high ohmic losses. These high temperatures demand (a) specialized (expensive) materials for the fuel cell interconnects and insulation, (b) time to heat up to the operating temperature and (c) energy input to arrive at the operating temperature. Therefore, if fuel cells could be designed to give a reasonable power output at low to intermediate1 temperatures tremendous benefits may be accrued. At low temperatures, in particular, it becomes feasible to use ferritic steel for interconnects instead of expensive and brittle ceramic materials such as those based on LaCrO{sub 3}. In addition, sealing the fuel cell becomes easier and more reliable; rapid start-up is facilitated; thermal stresses (e.g., those caused by thermal expansion mismatches) are reduced; radiative losses ({approx}T{sup 4}) become minimal; electrode sintering becomes negligible and (due to a smaller thermodynamic penalty) the SOFC operating cycle (heating from ambient) would be more efficient. Combined, all these improvements further result in reduced initial and operating costs. The problem is, at lower temperatures the conductivity of the conventional stabilized zirconia electrolyte decreases to the point where it cannot supply electrical current efficiently to an external load. The primary objectives of the proposed research are to develop a stable high conductivity (> 0.05 S cm{sup -1} at {le} 550 C) electrolyte for lower temperature SOFCs. This objective is specifically directed toward meeting the lowest (and most difficult) temperature criteria for the 21st Century Fuel Cell Program. Meeting this objective provides a potential for future transportation applications of SOFCs, where their ability to directly use hydrocarbon fuels could permit refueling within the existing transportation infrastructure. In order to meet this objective we are developing a functionally gradient bilayer electrolyte comprised of bismuth oxide on the air side and ceria on the fuel side. Bismuth oxide and doped ceria are among the highest ionic conducting electrolytes and in fact bismuth oxide based electrolytes are the only known solid oxide electrolytes to have an ionic conductivity that meets the program conductivity goal.

Eric D. Wachsman; Keith L. Duncan

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

144

X-ray spectroscopic study of the charge state and local orderingof room-temperature ferromagnetic Mn oped ZnO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The charge state and local ordering of Mn doped into a pulsed laser deposited single-phase thin film of ZnO are investigated by using X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the O K-, Mn K- and L-edges, and X-ray emission spectroscopy at the O K- and Mn L-edge. This film is found to be ferromagnetic at room temperature. EXAFS measurement shows that Mn{sup 2+} replaces Zn site in tetrahedral symmetry, and there is no evidence for either metallic Mn or MnO in the film. Upon Mn doping, the top of O 2p valence band extends into the bandgap indicating additional charge carries being created.

Guo, J.-H.; Gupta, Amita; Sharma, Parmanand; Rao, K.V.; Marcus,M.A.; Dong, C.L.; Guillen, J.M.O.; Butorin, S.M.; Mattesini, M.; Glans,P.A.; Smith, K.E.; Chang, C.L.; Ahuja, R.

2007-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

145

Photoluminescence recovery by in-situ exposure of plasma-damaged n-GaN to atomic hydrogen at room temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of in-situ exposure of n-GaN damaged by Cl{sub 2} plasma to atomic hydrogen (H radicals) at room temperature was investigated. We found that the PL intensities of the band-edge emission, which had been drastically reduced by plasma-beam irradiation at a Cl ion dose of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}, recovered to values close to those of as-grown samples after H radical exposure at a dose of 3.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}. XPS revealed the appearance of a peak at a binding energy of 18.3 eV, which is tentatively assigned to Ga-H, and confirmed the removal of Cl after H radical exposure.

Chen, Shang; Lu, Yi; Kometani, Ryosuke; Ishikawa, Kenji; Kondo, Hiroki; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru [Nagoya University, Furo, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Tokuda, Yutaka [Aichi Institute of Technology, Yakusa, Toyota 470-0392 (Japan)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

146

Giant tunneling magnetoresistance up to 330% at room temperature in sputter deposited Co{sub 2}FeAl/MgO/CoFe magnetic tunnel junctions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Magnetoresistance ratio up to 330% at room temperature (700% at 10 K) has been obtained in a spin-valve-type magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) consisting of a full-Heusler alloy Co{sub 2}FeAl electrode and a MgO tunnel barrier fabricated on a single crystal MgO (001) substrate by sputtering method. The output voltage of the MTJ at one-half of the zero-bias value was found to be as high as 425 mV, which is the largest reported to date in MTJs using Heusler alloy electrodes. The present finding suggests that Co{sub 2}FeAl may be one of the most promising candidates for future spintronics devices applications.

Wang Wenhong; Sukegawa, Hiroaki; Shan, Rong; Mitani, Seiji; Inomata, Koichiro [Magnetic Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

2009-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

147

Highest transmittance and high-mobility amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide films on flexible substrate by room-temperature deposition and post-deposition anneals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin films of the highest transmittance reported in literature were initially deposited onto flexible polymer substrates at room temperature. The films were annealed in vacuum, air, and oxygen to enhance their electrical and optical performances. Electrical and optical characterizations were done before and after anneals. A partial reversal of the degradation in electrical properties upon annealing in oxygen was achieved by subjecting the films to subsequent vacuum anneals. A model was developed based on film texture and structural defects which showed close agreement between the measured and calculated carrier mobility values at low carrier concentrations (2-6 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}).

Gadre, Mandar J. [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Alford, T. L. [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Flexible Display Center at Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85284 (United States)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

High Temperature Solid-Oxide Electrolyzer 2500 Hour Test Results At The Idaho National Laboratory  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing the concept of using solid oxide fuel cells as electrolyzers for large-scale, high-temperature (efficient), hydrogen production. This program is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. Utilizing a fuel cell as an electrolyzer introduces some inherent differences in cell operating conditions. In particular, the performance of fuel cells operated as electrolyzers degrades with time faster. This issue of electrolyzer cell and stack performance degradation over time has been identified as a major barrier to technology development. Consequently, the INL has been working together with Ceramatec, Inc. (Salt Lake City, Utah) to improve the long-term performance of high temperature electrolyzers. As part of this research partnership, the INL conducted a 2500 hour test of a Ceramatec designed and produced stack operated in the electrolysis mode. This paper will provide a summary of experimental results to date for this ongoing test.

Carl Stoots; James O'Brien; Stephen Herring; Keith Condie; Lisa Moore-McAteer; Joseph J. Hartvigsen; Dennis Larsen

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

2500-Hour High Temperature Solid-Oxide Electrolyzer Long Duration Test  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing the concept of using solid oxide fuel cells as electrolyzers for large-scale, high-temperature (efficient), hydrogen production. This program is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. Utilizing a fuel cell as an electrolyzer introduces some inherent differences in cell operating conditions. In particular, the performance of fuel cells operated as electrolyzers degrades with time faster. This issue of electrolyzer cell and stack performance degradation over time has been identified as a major barrier to technology development. Consequently, the INL has been working together with Ceramatec, Inc. (Salt Lake City, Utah) to improve the long-term performance of high temperature electrolyzers. As part of this research partnership, the INL conducted a 2500 hour test of a Ceramatec designed and produced stack operated in the electrolysis mode. This report will provide a summary of experimental results for this long duration test.

C. M. Stoots; J. E. O'Brien; K. G. Condie; L. Moore-McAteer; J. J. Hartvigsen; D. Larsen

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators. 4 figs.

Kuo, L.J.H.; Singh, P.; Ruka, R.J.; Vasilow, T.R.; Bratton, R.J.

1997-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

151

Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators.

Kuo, Lewis J. H. (Monroeville, PA); Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Vasilow, Theodore R. (Penn Township, PA); Bratton, Raymond J. (Delmont, PA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Solid Cold - A  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

By the early 20th century, the way in which temperatures of solid objects changed as they absorbed heat was considered strong evidence that matter was not made of atoms. Einstein used some recent discoveries about light to turn this assessment around. A B C D E F A. A puzzle, and a surprising solution Take equal masses of lead and aluminum. Heat them until their temperatures are both 10 degrees higher. Will it take the same amount of heat for each? Back in the 18th century, the chemist Joseph Black discovered that different materials required different amounts of heat to raise their temperatures by equal amounts. The amount by which the temperature of a material changes as it absorbs or gives off heat can even be used to help identify the material. Among solid materials near room temperature,

153

Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium OxideFilms for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect

Cerium gadolinium oxide (CGO) has been identified as an acceptable solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrolyte at temperatures (500-700 C) where cheap, rigid, stainless steel interconnect substrates can be used. Unfortunately, both the high sintering temperature of pure CGO, >1200 C, and the fact that constraint during sintering often results in cracked, low density ceramic films, have complicated development of metal supported CGO SOFCs. The aim of this work was to find new sintering aids for Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95}, and to evaluate whether they could be used to produce dense, constrained Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} films at temperatures below 1000 C. To find the optimal sintering aid, Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} was doped with a variety of elements, of which lithium was found to be the most effective. Dilatometric studies indicated that by doping CGO with 3mol% lithium nitrate, it was possible to sinter pellets to a relative density of 98.5% at 800 C--a full one hundred degrees below the previous low temperature sintering record for CGO. Further, it was also found that a sintering aid's effectiveness could be explained in terms of its size, charge and high temperature mobility. A closer examination of lithium doped Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 indicated that lithium affects sintering by producing a Li{sub 2}O-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CeO{sub 2} liquid at the CGO grain boundaries. Due to this liquid phase sintering, it was possible to produce dense, crack-free constrained films of CGO at the record low temperature of 950 C using cheap, colloidal spray deposition processes. This is the first time dense constrained CGO films have been produced below 1000 C and could help commercialize metal supported ceria based solid oxide fuel cells.

Nicholas, Jason.D.

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

154

Structure, optical, and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films prepared by sputtering at room temperature and annealed in air or nitrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films have been grown onto soda-lime glass substrates by sputtering at room temperature with various oxygen to argon partial pressure ratios. After deposition, the samples have been annealed at temperatures ranging from 100 to 500 degree sign C in nitrogen or in air. The structure, optical, and electrical characteristics of the ITO coatings have been analyzed as a function of the deposition and the annealing parameters by x-ray diffraction, spectrophotometry, and Hall effect measurements. It has been found that the as-grown amorphous layers crystallize in the cubic structure by heating above 200 degree sign C. Simultaneously, the visible optical transmittance increases and the electrical resistance decreases, in proportions that depend mainly on the sputtering conditions. The lowest resistivity values have been obtained by annealing at 400 degree sign C in nitrogen, where the highest carrier concentrations are achieved, related to oxygen vacancy creation. Some relationships between the analyzed properties have been established, showing the dependence of the cubic lattice distortion and the infrared optical characteristics on the carrier concentration.

Guillen, C.; Herrero, J. [Departamento de Energia, CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Solid State Joining of High Temperature Alloy Tubes for USC and Heat-Exchanger Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The principal objective of this project was to develop materials enabling joining technologies for use in forward looking heat-exchanger fabrication in Brayton cycle HIPPS, IGCC, FutureGen concepts capable of operating at temperatures in excess of 1000{degree}C as well as conventional technology upgrades via Ultra Super-Critical (USC) Rankine-cycle boilers capable of operating at 760{degree}C (1400F)/38.5MPa (5500psi) steam, while still using coal as the principal fossil fuel. The underlying mission in Rankine, Brayton or Brayton-Rankine, or IGCC combined cycle heat engine is a steady quest to improving operating efficiency while mitigating global environmental concerns. There has been a progressive move to higher overall cycle efficiencies, and in the case of fossil fuels this has accelerated recently in part because of concerns about greenhouse gas emissions, notably CO{sub 2}. For a heat engine, the overall efficiency is closely related to the difference between the highest temperature in the cycle and the lowest temperature. In most cases, efficiency gains are prompted by an increase in the high temperature, and this in turn has led to increasing demands on the materials of construction used in the high temperature end of the systems. Our migration to new advanced Ni-base and Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) alloys poses significant fabrication challenges, as these materials are not readily weldable or the weld performs poorly in the high temperature creep regime. Thus the joining challenge is two-fold to a) devise appropriate joining methodologies for similar/dissimilar Ni-base and ODS alloys while b) preserving the near baseline creep performance in the welded region. Our program focus is on solid state joining of similar and dissimilar metals/alloys for heat exchanger components currently under consideration for the USC, HIPPS and IGCC power systems. The emphasis is to manipulate the joining methods and variables available to optimize joint creep performance compared to the base material creep performance. Similar and dissimilar butt joints were fabricated of MA956, IN740 alloys and using inertia welding techniques. We evaluated joining process details and heat treatments and its overall effect on creep response. Fixed and incrementally accelerated temperature creep tests were performed for similar and dissimilar joints and such incremental creep life data is compiled and reported. Long term MA956-MA556 joint tests indicate a firm 2Ksi creep stress threshold performance at 850{degree}C with a maximum exposure of over 9725 hours recorded in the current program. A Larsen Miller Parameter (LMP) of 48.50 for a 2Ksi test at 850{degree}C was further corroborated with tests at 2Ksi stress at 900{degree}C yielding a LMP=48.80. Despite this threshold the joints exhibit immense temperature sensitivity and fail promptly when test temperature raised above 900{degree}C. In comparison the performance of dissimilar joints was inferior, perhaps dictated by the creep characteristics of the mating nickel-base alloys. We describe a parametric window of joint development, and post weld heat treatment (PWHT) in dissimilar joints with solid solution (IN601, IN617) and precipitate strengthened (IN740) materials. Some concerns are evident regarding the diffusion of aluminum in dissimilar joints during high temperature recrystallization treatments. It is noted that aggressive treatments rapidly deplete the corrosion protecting aluminum reservoir in the vicinity of the joint interface. Subsequently, the impact of varying PWHT has been evaluated in the context on ensuing creep performance.

Bimal Kad

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

156

NOVEL ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LOW-TEMPERATURE SOLID-OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Composite electrodes consisting of silver and bismuth vanadates exhibit remarkable catalytic activity for oxygen reduction at 500-550 C and greatly reduce the cathode-electrolyte (doped ceria) resistances of low temperature SOFCs, down to about 0.53 {Omega}cm{sup 2} at 500 C and 0.21 {Omega}cm{sup 2} at 550 C. The observed power densities of 231, 332, and 443 mWcm{sup -2} at 500, 525 and 550 C, respectively, make it possible to operate SOFCs at temperatures about 500 C. Using in situ potential dependent FTIR emission spectroscopy, we have found evidence for two, possibly three distinct di-oxygen species present on the electrode surface. We have successfully identified which surface oxygen species is present under a particular electrical or chemical condition and have been able to deduce the reaction mechanisms. This technique will be used to probe the gas-solid interactions at or near the TPB and on the surfaces of mixed-conducting electrodes in an effort to understand the molecular processes relevant to the intrinsic catalytic activity. Broad spectral features are assigned to the polarization-induced changes in the optical properties of the electrode surface layer. The ability of producing vastly different microstructures and morphologies of the very same material is critical to the fabrication of functionally graded electrodes for solid-state electrochemical devices, such as SOFCs and lithium batteries. By carefully adjusting deposition parameters of combustion CVD, we have successfully produced oxide nano-powders with the size of 30 {approx} 200 nm. Porous films with various microstructures and morphologies are also deposited on several substrates by systematic adjustment of deposition parameters. Symmetrical cells were fabricated by depositing cathode materials on both sides of GDC electrolytes.

X. Lu; C. Xia; Y. Liu; W. Rauch; M. Liu

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the future of energy production in America. They offer great promise as a clean and efficient process for directly converting chemical energy to electricity while providing significant environmental benefits (they produce negligible CO, HC, or NOx and, as a result of their high efficiency, produce about one-third less CO{sub 2} per kilowatt hour than internal combustion engines). Unfortunately, the current SOFC technology, based on a stabilized zirconia electrolyte, must operate in the region of 1000 C to avoid unacceptably high ohmic losses. These high temperatures demand (a) specialized (expensive) materials for the fuel cell interconnects and insulation, (b) time to heat up to the operating temperature and (c) energy input to arrive at the operating temperature. Therefore, if fuel cells could be designed to give a reasonable power output at lower temperatures tremendous benefits may be accrued, not the least of which is reduced cost. The problem is, at lower temperatures the conductivity of the conventional stabilized zirconia electrolyte decreases to the point where it cannot supply electrical current efficiently to an external load. The primary objectives of the proposed research is to develop a stable high conductivity (>0.05 S cm{sup -1} at 550 C) electrolyte for lower temperature SOFCs. This objective is specifically directed toward meeting the lowest (and most difficult) temperature criteria for the 21st Century Fuel Cell Program. Meeting this objective provides a potential for future transportation applications of SOFCs, where their ability to directly use hydrocarbon fuels could permit refueling within the existing transportation infrastructure. In order to meet this objective we are developing a functionally gradient bilayer electrolyte comprised of bismuth oxide on the air side and ceria on the fuel side. Bismuth oxide and doped ceria are among the highest ionic conducting electrolytes and in fact bismuth oxide based electrolytes are the only known solid oxide electrolytes to have an ionic conductivity that meets the program conductivity goal. We have previously demonstrated that this concept works, that a bismuth oxide/ceria bilayer electrolyte provides near theoretical open circuit potential (OCP) and is stable for 1400 h of fuel cell operation under both open circuit and maximum power conditions. More recently, we developed a computer model to determine the defect transport in this bilayer and have found that a bilayer comprised primarily of the more conductive component (bismuth oxide) is stable for 500 C operation. In this first year of the project we are obtaining necessary thermochemical data to complete the computer model as well as initial SOFC results based on thick 1-2 mm single and bilayer ceria/bismuth oxide electrolytes. We will use the computer model to obtain the optimum relative layer thickness as a function of temperature and air/fuel conditions. SOFCs will be fabricated with 1-2 mm single and bilayer electrolytes based on the modeling results, tested for OCP, conductivity, and stability and compared against the predictions. The computer modeling is a continuation of previous work under support from GRI and the student was available at the inception of the contract. However, the experimental effort was delayed until the beginning of the Spring Semester because the contract was started in October, 2 months after the start of our Fall Semester, and after all of the graduate students were committed to other projects. The results from both of these efforts are described in the following two sections: (1) Experimental; and (2) Computer Modeling.

Eric D. Wachsman

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Novel room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

would reduce the device size, power consumption, and exploitdevices will be higher speed, greater efficiency, and better stability at a reduced power consumption.

Gupta, Amita

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Heating remote rooms in passive solar buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Remote rooms can be effectively heated by convection through a connecting doorway. A simple steady-state equation is developed for design purposes. Validation of a dynamic model is achieved using data obtained over a 13-day period. Dynamic effects are investigated using a simulation analysis for three different cases of driving temperature; the effect is to reduce the temperature difference between the driving room and the remote room compared to the steady-state model. For large temperature swings in the driving room a strategy which uses the intervening door in a diode mode is effective. The importance of heat-storing mass in the remote room is investigated.

Balcomb, J.D.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Room temperature metathetic synthesis and characterization of {alpha}-hopeite, Zn{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis of crystalline zinc phosphates ({alpha}-hopeite phase) through the metathetic pathway has been investigated. The reaction has been carried out by room-temperature grinding. High lattice energy of the by-product NaCl has driven the reaction in the forward direction, and as a result, stable phosphate phases have been synthesized. Reaction of a different phosphorus source (like Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}, NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, and K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) with ZnCl{sub 2} has been attempted. The structural, vibrational, thermal, optical, and chemical properties of synthesized powders are determined by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and diffused reflectance spectra (DR) in the UV-vis range. The direct band gap of the title compound was determined to be 3.6 {+-} 0.2 eV.

Parhi, Purnendu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Manivannan, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States)], E-mail: mani@engr.colostate.edu; Kohli, Sandeep; McCurdy, Patrick [Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Effect of aluminizing of Cr-containing ferritic alloys on the seal strength of a novel high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell sealing glass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel high-temperature alkaline-earth silicate sealing glass was developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The glass was used to join two metallic coupons of Cr-containing ferritic stainless steel for seal strength evaluation. In previous work, SrCrO4 was found to form along the glass/steel interface, which led to severe strength degradation. In the present study, aluminization of the steel surface was investigated as a remedy to minimize or prevent the strontium chromate formation. Three different processes for aluminization were evaluated with Crofer22APU stainless steel: pack cementation, vapor phase deposition, and aerosol spraying. It was found that pack cementation resulted in a rough surface with occasional cracks in the Al-diffused region. Vapor phase deposition yielded a smoother surface, but the resulting high Al content increased the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), resulting in failure of joined coupons. Aerosol spraying of an Al-containing salt resulted in formation of a thin aluminum oxide layer without any surface damage. The room temperature seal strength was evaluated in the as-fired state and in environmentally aged conditions. In contrast to earlier results with uncoated Crofer22APU, the aluminized samples showed no strength degradation even for samples aged in air. Interfacial and chemical compatibility was also investigated. The results showed aluminization to be a viable candidate approach to minimize undesirable chromate formation between alkaline earth silicate sealing glass and Cr-containing interconnect alloys for SOFC applications.

Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Nanosize yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was synthesized by a unique approach based on molecular decomposition. In this approach, yttria-doped BaZrO{sub 3} (Y-BaZrO{sub 3}) or yttria-doped Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} (Y-Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}) precursors were first synthesized from BaCO{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, Y2O{sub 3} or BaCO{sub 3} and commercial YSZ for Y-BaZrO{sub 3}, and from Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and YSZ for Y-Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, by a conventional solid state reaction method. Then, the precursors were boiled to leach away the unwanted species, BaO or Na{sub 2}O, either in a dilute HNO{sub 3} solution in water in the case of Y-BaZrO{sub 3}, or in de-ionized water in the case of Y-Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}. During boiling in HNO{sub 3} or water, the insoluble residue of Zr-Y-O composition formed fine, nanosize YSZ particles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and specific surface area measurements on the as-synthesized powders confirmed the formation of nanosize YSZ. A subsequent heating in air led to particle growth. However, for a treatment at a temperature as high as 1000 C, the particle size was well in the nanosize range. XRD showed that the as-synthesized YSZ powders, as well as those heated up to 1000 C, the maximum temperature the powders were heated to after leaching, are of cubic structure.

Prof. Anil V. Virkar

2000-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

163

Novel Electrode Materials for Low-Temperature Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Composites electrodes consisting of silver and bismuth vanadates exhibit remarkable catalytic activity for oxygen reduction at 500-550 C and greatly reduce the cathode-electrolyte (doped ceria) resistances of low temperature SOFCs, down to about 0.53 {omega}cm{sup 2} at 500 C and 0.21 {omega}cm{sup 2} at 550 C. The observed power densities of 231, 332, and 443 mWcm-2 at 500, 525 and 550 C, respectively, make it possible to operate SOFCs at temperatures about 500 C. Fuel cell performance depends strongly on the anode microstructure, which is determined by the anode compositions and fabrication conditions. Four types of anodes with two kinds of NiO and GDC powders were investigated. By carefully adjusting the anode microstructure, the GDC electrolyte/anode interfacial polarization resistances reduced dramatically. The interfacial resistance at 600 C decreased from 1.61 {omega} cm{sup 2} for the anodes prepared using commercially available powders to 0.06 {omega} cm{sup 2} for those prepared using powders derived from a glycine-nitrate process. Although steam reforming or partial oxidation is effective in avoiding carbon deposition of hydrocarbon fuels, it increases the operating cost and reduces the energy efficiency. Anode-supported SOFCs with an electrolyte of 20 {micro}m-thick Gd-doped ceria (GDC) were fabricated by co-pressing. A catalyst (1 %wt Pt dispersed on porous Gd-doped ceria) for pre-reforming of propane was developed with relatively low steam to carbon (S/C) ratio ({approx}0.5), coupled with direct utilization of the reformate in low-temperature SOFCs. Propane was converted to smaller molecules during pre-reforming, including H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, and CO{sub 2}. A peak power density of 247 mW/cm{sup 2} was observed when pre-reformed propane was directly fed to an SOFC operated at 600 C. No carbon deposition was observed in the fuel cell for a continuous operation of 10 hours at 600 C. The ability of producing vastly different microstructures and morphologies of the very same material is critical to the fabrication of functionally graded electrodes for solid-state electrochemical devices such as SOFCs and lithium batteries. By carefully adjusting deposition parameters, we have successfully produced oxide nano-powders with the size of 30 {approx} 200 nm. Porous films with various microstructures and morphologies are also deposited on several substrates by systematic adjustment of the deposition parameters. Highly porous, excellently bonded and nano-structured electrodes fabricated by combustion CVD exhibit extremely high surface area and remarkable catalytic activities. Using in situ potential dependent FTIR emission spectroscopy, we have found evidence for two, possibly three distinct di-oxygen species present on the electrode surface. We have successfully identified which surface oxygen species is present under a particular electrical or chemical condition and have been able to deduce the reaction mechanisms. This technique will be used to probe the gas-solid interactions at or near the TPB and on the surfaces of mixed-conducting electrodes in an effort to understand the molecular processes relevant to the intrinsic catalytic activity. Broad spectral features are assigned to the electrochemical-polarization-induced changes in the optical properties of the electrode surface layer.

Shaowu Zha; Meilin Liu

2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

164

Evaluation of Cathode Materials for Low Temperature (500-700C) Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) have gained a great deal of interest, due to their potential for high efficiency power generation and ability to… (more)

Lassman, Alexander M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

A High Temperature Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operating on Phosphine Contaminated Coal Syngas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Solid oxide fuel cells that operate on phosphine contaminated coal syngas are subject to performance degradation due to alterations of the anode microstructure. Theoretical investigations… (more)

De Silva, Kandaudage Channa R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

ANALOG COMPUTATION OF TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN SOLIDS WITH ELECTRICAL HEAT-GENERATION AND TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT PROPERTIES  

SciTech Connect

A problem which frequently arises in experimentai heat transfer work is that of determining the surface temperature of a tube in which heat is generated electrically. Solution of this problem involves a temperature measurement of the opposite surface to which a correction factor, the temperature drop through the tube wall, must be applied. This temperature drop is obtnined through the solution of the diffurential equation governing the temperature distribution in the tube wall; however, in the case of temperature-dependent properties of thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity, the governing equation is nonlinear, which necessitates special solutions. In this study a hypothetical surface-temperature problem was established, and the solution of the governing nonlinear differential equation was accomplished by means of an electronic analog computer. Assuming variable properties, the example used in this study was that of a one-dimensional steadystate heat flow through both a thick- and a thin- walled tube. (auth)

Harden, D.G.; Bryant, L.T.

1962-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Promises and problems with metallic interconnects for reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proceedings of Ist European SOFC Forum, U. Bossel , Editor,on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC-VI) ed. S. C. Singhal etsolid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) development is towards lower

Hou, Peggy Y.; Huang, Keqin; Bakker, Wate T.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Solid Cold - D  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Diamond (carbon) has atoms of low mass, and absorbs far less heat per degree temperature increase than many other materials, even at room temperature. This is in clear...

169

Reversible temperature regulation of electrical and thermal conductivity using liquid–solid phase transitions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reversible temperature tuning of electrical and thermal conductivities of materials is of interest for many applications, including seasonal regulation of building temperature, thermal storage and sensors. Here we introduce ...

Zheng, Ruiting

170

Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode  

SciTech Connect

An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures.

Hobson, David O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

High temperature behavior of electrostatic precipitator ash from municipal solid waste combustors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

combustion may cause the oxidation of mercury, and chloride mercury #12;13 13 species may be the major form combustion and gasification flue gases, Environ. Sci. Technol. 30 (1996) 2421-2426. [23] S.B. Ghorishi, C Ms. Ref. No.: HAZMAT-D-07-00176 Accepted manuscript #12;2 2 Abstract Municipal solid waste (MSW) flue

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

172

Soft x-ray scattering using FEL radiation for probing near-solid density plasmas at few electronvolt temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report on soft x-ray scattering experiments on cryogenic hydrogen and simple metal targets. As a source of intense and ultrashort soft x-ray pulses we have used free-electron laser radiation at 92 eV photon energy from FLASH at DESY, Hamburg. X-ray pulses with energies up to 100 {micro}J and durations below 50 fs provide interaction with the target leading simultaneously to plasma formation and scattering. Experiments exploiting both of these interactions have been carried out, using the same experimental setup. Firstly, recording of soft x-ray inelastic scattering from near-solid density hydrogen plasmas at few electronvolt temperatures confirms the feasibility of this diagnostics technique. Secondly, the soft x-ray excitation of few electronvolt solid-density plasmas in simple metals could be studied by recording soft x-ray line and continuum emission integrated over emission times from fs to ns.

Toleikis, S; Faustlin, R R; Cao, L; Doppner, T; Dusterer, S; Forster, E; Fortmann, C; Glenzer, S H; Gode, S; Gregori, G; Irsig, R; Laarmann, T; Lee, H J; Li, B; Meiwes-Broer, K; Przystawik, A; Radcliffe, P; Redmer, R; Tavella, F; Thiele, R; Tiggesbaumker, J; Truong, N X; Uschmann, I; Zastrau, U; Tschentscher, T

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

173

A High Temperature Electrochemical Energy Storage System Based on Sodium Beta-Alumina Solid Electrolyte (Base)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work done during the period September 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008. Work was conducted in the following areas: (1) Fabrication of sodium beta{double_prime} alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) using a vapor phase process. (2) Mechanistic studies on the conversion of {alpha}-alumina + zirconia into beta{double_prime}-alumina + zirconia by the vapor phase process. (3) Characterization of BASE by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and conductivity measurements. (4) Design, construction and electrochemical testing of a symmetric cell containing BASE as the electrolyte and NaCl + ZnCl{sub 2} as the electrodes. (5) Design, construction, and electrochemical evaluation of Na/BASE/ZnCl{sub 2} electrochemical cells. (6) Stability studies in ZnCl{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2}, and SnI{sub 4} (7) Design, assembly and testing of planar stacks. (8) Investigation of the effect of porous surface layers on BASE on cell resistance. The conventional process for the fabrication of sodium ion conducting beta{double_prime}-alumina involves calcination of {alpha}-alumina + Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + LiNO{sub 3} at 1250 C, followed by sintering powder compacts in sealed containers (platinum or MgO) at {approx}1600 C. The novel vapor phase process involves first sintering a mixture of {alpha}-alumina + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) into a dense ceramic followed by exposure to soda vapor at {approx}1450 C to convert {alpha}-alumina into beta{double_prime}-alumina. The vapor phase process leads to a high strength BASE, which is also resistant to moisture attack, unlike BASE made by the conventional process. The PI is the lead inventor of the process. Discs and tubes of BASE were fabricated in the present work. In the conventional process, sintering of BASE is accomplished by a transient liquid phase mechanism wherein the liquid phase contains NaAlO{sub 2}. Some NaAlO{sub 2} continues to remain at grain boundaries; and is the root cause of its water sensitivity. In the vapor phase process, NaAlO{sub 2} is never formed. Conversion occurs by a coupled transport of Na{sup +} through BASE formed and of O{sup 2-} through YSZ to the reaction front. Transport to the reaction front is described in terms of a chemical diffusion coefficient of Na{sub 2}O. The conversion kinetics as a function of microstructure is under investigation. The mechanism of conversion is described in this report. A number of discs and tubes of BASE have been fabricated by the vapor phase process. The material was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), before and after conversion. Conductivity (which is almost exclusively due to sodium ion transport at the temperatures of interest) was measured. Conductivity was measured using sodium-sodium tests as well as by impedance spectroscopy. Various types of both planar and tubular electrochemical cells were assembled and tested. In some cases the objective was to determine if there was any interaction between the salt and BASE. The interaction of interest was mainly ion exchange (possible replacement of sodium ion by the salt cation). It was noted that Zn{sup 2+} did not replace Na+ over the conditions of interest. For this reason much of the work was conducted with ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode salt. In the case of Sn-based, Sn{sup 2+} did ion exchange, but Sn{sup 4+} did not. This suggests that Sn{sup 4+} salts are viable candidates. These results and implications are discussed in the report. Cells made with Na as the anode and ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode were successfully charged/discharged numerous times. The key advantages of the batteries under investigation here over the Na-S batteries are: (1) Steel wool can be used in the cathode compartment unlike Na-S batteries which require expensive graphite. (2) Planar cells can be constructed in addition to tubular, allowing for greater design flexibility and integration with other devices such as planar SOFC. (3) Comparable or higher open circuit voltage (OCV) than the Na-S battery. (4) Wider operating temperature range and higher temper

Anil Virkar

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

174

Sealant materials for solid oxide fuels and other high-temperature ceramics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Glass-ceramic sealing materials have been developed with mechanical and chemical properties suitable for a variety of high-temperature applications. We have demonstrated the ability to tailor the thermal expansion coefficient between 8 and 12 x 10{sup -6}/{degrees}C, and the softening temperature can be adjusted such that the materials have suitable viscosities for a soft, compliant seal at temperatures ranging from 650 to 1000{degrees}C. These materials form excellent bonds to a variety of ceramics and metals during heating to the target operation temperature. They have limited reactivity with the fuel cell materials tested and are stable in both air and reducing environments.

Kueper, T.W.; Bloom, I.D.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

175

Measurement of gas temperature field in a flame spreading over solid fuel.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??An experimental measurement is developed to measure the gas temperature field in a flame spreading downward over thermally thin filter paper. A flame stabilizer apparatus… (more)

Alghamdi, Abdulaziz Othman

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

SRO : single room occupancy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During August of 1996, I stayed in a series of SRO hotels in New York City leaving a book and diary behind when I checked out of each room. The books that were left in the rooms differ from one room to the other but all ...

Shimada, Taketo

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures. 2 figs.

Hobson, D.O.

1998-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

178

Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solid-State Lighting Search Solid-State Lighting Search Search Help Solid-State Lighting HOME ABOUT THE PROGRAM R&D PROJECTS MARKET-BASED PROGRAMS SSL BASICS INFORMATION RESOURCES FINANCIAL OPPORTUNITIES EERE » Building Technologies Office » Solid-State Lighting Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on AddThis.com... Pause/Resume Photo of a large room with people standing around poster boards.

179

An Insight into a Solid State Coating Process for High Temperature ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comparison with the coating produced via thermal spray, cold spray and arc cladding processes ... A Review of Metallic Systems Used in Offshore, Sour Environments: The Effect of ... High-temperature Foam-reinforced Thermal Insulation.

180

Strain-rate and temperature-driven transition in the shear transformation zone for two-dimensional amorphous solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We couple the recently developed self-learning metabasin escape algorithm, which enables efficient exploration of the potential energy surface (PES), with shear deformation to elucidate strain-rate and temperature effects on the shear transformation zone (STZ) characteristics in two-dimensional amorphous solids. In doing so, we report a transition in the STZ characteristics that can be obtained through either increasing the temperature or decreasing the strain rate. The transition separates regions having two distinct STZ characteristics. Specifically, at high temperatures and high strain rates, we show that the STZs have characteristics identical to those that emerge from purely strain-driven, athermal quasistatic atomistic calculations. At lower temperatures and experimentally relevant strain rates, we use the newly coupled PES + shear deformation method to show that the STZs have characteristics identical to those that emerge from a purely thermally activated state. The specific changes in STZ characteristics that occur in moving from the strain-driven to thermally activated STZ regime include a 33% increase in STZ size, faster spatial decay of the displacement field, a change in the deformation mechanism inside the STZ from shear to tension, a reduction in the stress needed to nucleate the first STZ, and finally a notable loss in characteristic quadrupolar symmetry of the surrounding elastic matrix that has previously been seen in athermal, quasistatic shear studies of STZs.

Penghui Cao; Harold S. Park; Xi Lin

2013-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

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181

Solids mass flow determination  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for determining the mass flow rate of solids mixed with a transport fluid to form a flowing mixture. A temperature differential is established between the solids and fluid. The temperature of the transport fluid prior to mixing, the temperature of the solids prior to mixing, and the equilibrium temperature of the mixture are monitored and correlated in a heat balance with the heat capacities of the solids and fluid to determine the solids mass flow rate.

Macko, Joseph E. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Public Reading Room  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

has established a Public Reading Room at 955 has established a Public Reading Room at 955 Mound Road, Miamisburg, Ohio, which contains documents and information related to Mound as required under Section 117(d) of SARA. Copies of key Mound records, including the CERCLA Administrative Record and Information Repository, are kept in the Public Reading Room. The Administrative Record and Information Repository for Mound are updated as new documents are created and an index of documents in the complete collections accompanies each update. The Public Reading Room also contains reference items consisting of technical documents, news clippings, videotapes, journal articles, annual reports, and environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning decisional documents. Stakeholders are

183

Room Air Conditioners  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners year month keywords appliance energy efficiency energy efficiency incentives Market Transformation standards url https isswprod lbl gov...

184

Heat removal from high temperature tubular solid oxide fuel cells utilizing product gas from coal gasifiers.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this work we describe the results of a computer study used to investigate the practicality of several heat exchanger configurations that could be used to extract heat from tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) . Two SOFC feed gas compositions were used in this study. They represent product gases from two different coal gasifier designs from the Zero Emission Coal study at Los Alamos National Laboratory . Both plant designs rely on the efficient use of the heat produced by the SOFCs . Both feed streams are relatively rich in hydrogen with a very small hydrocarbon content . One feed stream has a significant carbon monoxide content with a bit less hydrogen . Since neither stream has a significant hydrocarbon content, the common use of the endothermic reforming reaction to reduce the process heat is not possible for these feed streams . The process, the method, the computer code, and the results are presented as well as a discussion of the pros and cons of each configuration for each process .

Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A simple, approximate analysis of the effect of differing cathode and anode areas on the measurement of cell performance on anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells, wherein the cathode area is smaller than the anode area, is presented. It is shown that the effect of cathode area on cathode polarization, on electrolyte contribution, and on anode resistance, as normalized on the basis of the cathode area, is negligible. There is a small but measurable effect on anode polarization, which results from concentration polarization. Effectively, it is the result of a greater amount of fuel transported to the anode/electrolyte interface in cases wherein the anode area is larger than the cathode area. Experiments were performed on cells made with differing cathode areas and geometries. Cathodic and anodic overpotentials measured using reference electrodes, and the measured ohmic area specific resistances by current interruption, were in good agreement with expectations based on the analysis presented. At 800 C, the maximum power density measured with a cathode area of {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2} was {approx}1.65 W/cm{sup 2} compared to {approx}1.45 W/cm{sup 2} for cathode area of {approx}2 cm{sup 2}, for anode thickness of {approx}1.3 mm, with hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. At 750 C, the measured maximum power densities were {approx}1.3 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2}, and {approx}1.25 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}2 cm{sup 2}.

Anil V. Virkar

2001-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

186

LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells with Ni + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode, YSZ-samaria-doped ceria (SDC) bi-layer electrolyte and Sr-doped LaCoO{sub 3} (LSC) + SDC cathode were fabricated. Fuel used consisted of H{sub 2} diluted with He, N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O or CO{sub 2}, mixtures of H{sub 2} and CO, and mixtures of CO and CO{sub 2}. Cell performance was measured at 800 C with above-mentioned fuel gas mixtures and air as oxidant. For a given concentration of the diluent, the cell performance was higher with He as the diluent than with N{sub 2} as the diluent. Mass transport through porous Ni-YSZ anode for H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O, CO-CO{sub 2} binary systems and H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-diluent gas ternary systems was analyzed using multicomponent gas diffusion theory. At high concentrations of the diluent, the maximum achievable current density was limited by the anodic concentration polarization. From this measured limiting current density, the corresponding effective gas diffusivity was estimated. Highest effective diffusivity was estimated for fuel gas mixtures containing H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-He mixtures ({approx}0.34 cm{sup 2}/s), and the lowest for CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures ({approx}0.07 cm{sup 2}/s). The lowest performance was observed with CO-CO{sub 2} mixture as a fuel, which in part was attributed to the lowest effective diffusivity of the fuels tested.

Anil V. Virkar

2001-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

187

Apparatus for measuring tensile and compressive properties of solid materials at cryogenic temperatures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for evaluating the tensile and compressive properties of material samples at very low or cryogenic temperatures employs a stationary frame and a dewar mounted below the frame. A pair of coaxial cylindrical tubes extend downward towards the bottom of the dewar. A compressive or tensile load is generated hydraulically and is transmitted by the inner tube to the material sample. The material sample is located near the bottom of the dewar in a liquid refrigerant bath. The apparatus employs a displacement measuring device, such as a linear variable differential transformer, to measure the deformation of the material sample relative to the amount of compressive or tensile force applied to the sample.

Gonczy, John D. (Oaklawn, IL); Markley, Finley W. (St. Charles, IL); McCaw, William R. (Burr Ridge, IL); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Low temperature electron-spin relaxation in the crystalline and glassy states of solid ethanol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to study the spectral properties of a nitroxide spin probe in ethanol glass and crystalline ethanol, at 5 - 11.5 K. The different anisotropy of molecular packing in the two host matrices was evidenced by different rigid limit values for maximal hyperfine splitting in the signal of the spin probe. The significantly shorter phase memory time, , for the spin probe dissolved in crystalline ethanol, as compared to ethanol glass, was discussed in terms of contribution from spectral diffusion. The effect of low-frequency dynamics was manifested in the temperature dependence of and in the difference between the data measured at different spectral positions. This phenomenon was addressed within the framework of the slow-motional isotropic diffusion model [S. Lee, and S. Z. Tang, Phys. Rev. B 31, 1308 (1985)] predicting the spin probe dynamics within the millisecond range, at very low temperatures. The shorter spin-lattice relaxation time of the spin probe in ethanol glass was interpreted in terms of enhanced energy exchange between the spin system and the lattice in the glass matrix due to boson peak excitations.

Marina Kveder; Dalibor Merunka; Milan Joki?; Boris Rakvin

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

189

Demolishing Searle's Chinese Room  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Searle's Chinese Room argument is refuted by showing that he has actually given two different versions of the room, which fail for different reasons. Hence, Searle does not achieve his stated goal of showing ``that a system could have input and output capabilities that duplicated those of a native Chinese speaker and still not understand Chinese''.

Wolfram Schmied

2004-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

190

LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work done during the entire project period, between October 1, 1999 and March 31, 2003, which includes a six-month no-cost extension. During the project, eight research papers have, either been, published, accepted for publication, or submitted for publication. In addition, several presentations have been made in technical meetings and workshops. The project also has provided support for four graduate students working towards advanced degrees. The principal technical objective of the project was to analyze the role of electrode microstructure on solid oxide fuel cell performance. Prior theoretical work conducted in our laboratory demonstrated that the particle size of composite electrodes has a profound effect on cell performance; the finer the particle size, the lower the activation polarization, the better the performance. The composite cathodes examined consisted of electronically conducting perovskites such as Sr-doped LaMnO{sub 3} (LSM) or Sr-doped LaCoO{sub 3} (LSC), which is also a mixed conductor, as the electrocatalyst, and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or rare earth oxide doped CeO{sub 2} as the ionic conductor. The composite anodes examined were mixtures of Ni and YSZ. A procedure was developed for the synthesis of nanosize YSZ by molecular decomposition, in which unwanted species were removed by leaching, leaving behind nanosize YSZ. Anode-supported cells were made using the as-synthesized powders, or using commercially acquired powders. The electrolyte was usually a thin ({approx}10 microns), dense layer of YSZ, supported on a thick ({approx}1 mm), porous Ni + YSZ anode. The cathode was a porous mixture of electrocatalyst and an ionic conductor. Most of the cell testing was done at 800 C with hydrogen as fuel and air as the oxidant. Maximum power densities as high as 1.8 W/cm{sup 2} were demonstrated. Polarization behavior of the cells was theoretically analyzed. A limited amount of cell testing was done using liquid hydrocarbon fuels where reforming was achieved internally. Significant polarization losses also occur at the anode, especially at high fuel utilizations. An analysis of polarization losses requires that various contributions are isolated, and their dependence on pertinent parameters is quantitatively described. An investigation of fuel composition on gas transport through porous anodes was investigated and the role of fuel diluents was explored. This work showed that the molecular weight of the diluent has a significant effect on anode concentration polarization. This further showed that the presence of some molecular hydrogen is necessary to minimize polarization losses. Theoretical analysis has shown that the electrode microstructure has a profound effect on cell performance. In a series of experiments, cathode microstructural parameters were varied, without altering other parameters. Cathode microstructural parameters, especially three phase boundary (TPB) length, were estimated using techniques in quantitative stereology. Cell performance was quantitatively correlated with the relevant microstructural parameters, and charge transfer resistivity was explicitly evaluated. This is the first time that a fundamental parameter, which governs the activation polarization, has been quantitatively determined. An important parameter, which governs the cathodic activation polarization, and thus cell performance, is the ionic conductivity of the composite cathode. The traditional composite cathode is a mixture of LSM and YSZ. It is well known that Sr and Mg-doped LaGaO{sub 3} (LSGM), exhibits higher oxygen ion conductivity compared to YSZ. Cells were fabricated with composite cathodes comprising a mixture of LSM and LSGM. Studies demonstrated that LSGM-based composite cathodes exhibit excellent behavior. Studies have shown that Ni + YSZ is an excellent anode. In fact, in most cells, the principal polarization losses, at least at low fuel utilizations, are associated with the cathode. Theoretical analysis conducted in our group has also shown that anode-supported cells exhibi

Professor Anil V. Virkar

2003-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

191

NOVEL ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LOW-TEMPERATURE SOLID-OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel cell performance depends strongly on the anode microstructure, which is determined by the anode compositions and fabrication conditions. Four types of anodes with two kinds of NiO and GDC powders were investigated. By carefully adjusting the anode microstructure, the GDC electrolyte/anode interfacial polarization resistances reduced dramatically. The interfacial resistance at 600 C decreased from 1.61 {Omega} cm{sup 2} for the anodes prepared using commercially available powders to 0.06 {Omega} cm{sup 2} for those prepared using powders derived from a glycine-nitrate process. The critical issues facing the development of economically competitive SOFC systems include lowering the operation temperature and creating novel anode materials and microstructures capable of efficiently utilizing hydrocarbon fuels. Anode-supported SOFCs with an electrolyte of 20 {micro}m- thick Gd-doped ceria (GDC) were fabricated by co-pressing, and both Ni- and Cu-based anodes were prepared by a solution impregnation process. At 600 C, SOFCs fueled with humidified H{sub 2}, methane, and propane, reached peak power densities of 602, 519, and 433 mW/cm{sup 2}, respectively. Both microstructure and composition of the anodes, as fabricated using a solution impregnation technique, greatly influence fuel cell performance. Although steam reforming or partial oxidation is effective in avoiding carbon deposition of hydrocarbon fuels, it increases the operating cost and reduces the energy efficiency. A catalyst (1 %wt Pt dispersed on porous Gd-doped ceria) for pre-reforming of propane was developed with relatively low steam to carbon (S/C) ratio ({approx}0.5), coupled with direct utilization of the reformate in low-temperature SOFCs. Propane was converted to smaller molecules during pre-reforming, including H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, and CO{sub 2}. A peak power density of 247 mW/cm{sup 2} was observed when pre-reformed propane was directly fed to an SOFC operated at 600 C. No carbon deposition was observed in the fuel cell for a continuous operation of 10 hours at 600 C.

Shaowu Zha; Luis Aguilar; Meilin Liu

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Temperature activated absorption during laser-induced damage: The evolution of laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts  

SciTech Connect

Previously we have shown that the size of laser induced damage sites in both KDP and SiO{sub 2} is largely governed by the duration of the laser pulse which creates them. Here we present a model based on experiment and simulation that accounts for this behavior. Specifically, we show that solid-state laser-supported absorption fronts are generated during a damage event and that these fronts propagate at constant velocities for laser intensities up to 4 GW/cm{sup 2}. It is the constant absorption front velocity that leads to the dependence of laser damage site size on pulse duration. We show that these absorption fronts are driven principally by the temperature-activated deep sub band-gap optical absorptivity, free electron transport, and thermal diffusion in defect-free silica for temperatures up to 15,000K and pressures < 15GPa. In addition to the practical application of selecting an optimal laser for pre-initiation of large aperture optics, this work serves as a platform for understanding general laser-matter interactions in dielectrics under a variety of conditions.

Carr, C W; Bude, J D; Shen, N; Demange, P

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

193

One-step synthesis of lightly doped porous silicon nanowires in HF/AgNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution at room temperature  

SciTech Connect

One-step synthesis of lightly doped porous silicon nanowire arrays was achieved by etching the silicon wafer in HF/AgNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution at room temperature. The lightly doped porous silicon nanowires (pNWs) have circular nanopores on the sidewall, which can emit strong green fluorescence. The surface morphologies of these nanowires could be controlled by simply adjusting the concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which influences the distribution of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) along the nanowire axis. A mechanism based on Ag NPs-induced lateral etching of nanowires was proposed to explain the formation of pNWs. The controllable and widely applicable synthesis of pNWs will open their potential application to nanoscale photoluminescence devices. - Graphical abstract: The one-step synthesis of porous silicon nanowire arrays is achieved by chemical etching of the lightly doped p-type Si (100) wafer at room temperature. These nanowires exhibit strong green photoluminescence. SEM, TEM, HRTEM and photoluminescence images of pNWs. The scale bars of SEM, TEM HRTEM and photoluminescence are 10 {mu}m, 20 nm, 10 nm, and 1 {mu}m, respectively. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple one-step synthesis of lightly doped porous silicon nanowire arrays is achieved at RT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Etching process and mechanism are illustrated with etching model from a novel standpoint. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As-prepared porous silicon nanowire emits strong green fluorescence, proving unique property.

Bai, Fan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 165001 (China) [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 165001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Li, Meicheng, E-mail: mcli@ncepu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Su Zhou Institute, North China Electric Power University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Song, Dandan; Yu, Hang; Jiang, Bing; Li, Yingfeng [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

194

Multilayered YSZ/GZO films with greatly enhanced ionic conduction for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Strain confinement in heterostructured films significantly affects ionic conductivity of the electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells based on a multi-layered design strategy. Nearly ideal tensile strain can be achieved by a dedicated manipulation of the lattice mismatch between adjacent layers and fine control of the layer thicknesses to minimize the formation of dislocations and thus to achieve optimized ionic conduction. This strategy was demonstrated by a model system of multilayered 8 mol%Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) with Gd2Zr2O7 (GZO) films, which were epitaxially grown on Al2O3 (0001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with the {111} planes of YSZ/GZO along the Al2O3 [0 1 ?1 0] direction. The tensile strain (3%) resulting from the lattice mismatch can be confined in individual YSZ layers with the formation of a coherent, dislocation-free interface upon the manipulation of the layer thickness below a critical value, e.g., down to 5 nm. The strained heterostructure displays a two order-of-magnitude increase in oxide-ion conductivity as compared with bulk YSZ, and a high ionic conductivity of 0.01 S cm?1 at 475 °C can be achieved, five times greater than that of Gd-doped ceria/zirconia. The approach of strain confinement by fine control of lattice mismatch and layer thickness represents a promising strategy in developing advanced electrolytes enabling the miniaturization of solid-state ionic devices that can be operated at low temperatures below 500 °C.

Li, Bin; Zhang, Jiaming; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Shutthanandan, V.; Ewing, Rodney C.; Lian, Jie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

SRNL - News Room  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

& Development Projects in the "Press Room" at www.doe.gov for further details.) Expected funding for the SRNL project is estimated at approximately one-half million dollars a year...

196

Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lighting Lighting Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on AddThis.com... Pause/Resume Photo of a large room with people standing around poster boards. Register Now for DOE's 11th Annual SSL R&D Workshop January 28-30, join other SSL R&D professionals from industry, government, and academia to learn, share, and shape the future of lighting.

197

Raman Investigation of The Uranium Compounds U3O8, UF4, UH3 and UO3 under Pressure at Room Temperature  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our current state-of-the-art X-ray diffraction experiments are primarily sensitive to the position of the uranium atom. While the uranium - low-Z element bond (such as U-H or U-F) changes under pressure and temperature the X-ray diffraction investigations do not reveal information about the bonding or the stoichiometry. Questions that can be answered by Raman spectroscopy are (i) whether the bonding strength changes under pressure, as observed by either blue- or red-shifted peaks of the Raman active bands in the spectrum and (ii) whether the low-Z element will eventually be liberated and leave the host lattice, i.e. do the fluorine, oxygen, or hydrogen atoms form dimers after breaking the bond to the uranium atom. Therefore Raman spectra were also collected in the range where those decomposition products would appear. Raman is particularly well suited to these types of investigations due to its sensitivity to trace amounts of materials. One challenge for Raman investigations of the uranium compounds is that they are opaque to visible light. They absorb the incoming radiation and quickly heat up to the point of decomposition. This has been dealt with in the past by keeping the incoming laser power to very low levels on the tens of milliWatt range consequently affecting signal to noise. Recent modern investigations also used very small laser spot sizes (micrometer range) but ran again into the problem of heating and chemical sensitivity to the environment. In the studies presented here (in contrast to all other studies that were performed at ambient conditions only) we employ micro-Raman spectroscopy of samples situated in a diamond anvil cell. This increases the trustworthiness of the obtained data in several key-aspects: (a) We surrounded the samples in the DAC with neon as a pressure transmitting medium, a noble gas that is absolutely chemically inert. (b) Through the medium the sample is thermally heat sunk to the diamond anvils, diamond of course possessing the very best heat conductivity of any material. Therefore local heating and decomposition are avoided, a big challenge with other approaches casting doubts on their results. (c) This in turn benefits the signal/noise ratio tremendously since the Raman features of uranium-compounds are very small. The placement of the samples in DACs allows for higher laser powers to impinge on the sample spot while keeping the spot-size larger than in previous studies and keep the samples from heating up. Raman spectroscopy is a very sensitive non-invasive technique and we will show that it is even possible to distinguish the materials by their origin / manufacturer as we have studied samples from Cameco (Canada) and IBI-Labs (US-Florida) and can compare with ambient literature data for samples from Strem (US-MA) and Areva (Pierrelatte, France).

Lipp, M J; Jenei, Z; Park-Klepeis, J; Evans, W J

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

198

REALIZING PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE, AND LENGTH ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The basic concept behind the proposed apparatus is illustrated in ... at room temperature, requiring realization of thermodynamic temperature near 23 ...

2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

199

Room temperature ferroelectric and magnetic investigations and detailed phase analysis of Aurivillius phase Bi{sub 5}Ti{sub 3}Fe{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.3}O{sub 15} thin films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aurivillius phase Bi{sub 5}Ti{sub 3}Fe{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.3}O{sub 15} (BTF7C3O) thin films on {alpha}-quartz substrates were fabricated by a chemical solution deposition method and the room temperature ferroelectric and magnetic properties of this candidate multiferroic were compared with those of thin films of Mn{sup 3+} substituted, Bi{sub 5}Ti{sub 3}Fe{sub 0.7}Mn{sub 0.3}O{sub 15} (BTF7M3O). Vertical and lateral piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) measurements of the films conclusively demonstrate that BTF7C3O and BTF7M3O thin films are piezoelectric and ferroelectric at room temperature, with the major polarization vector in the lateral plane of the films. No net magnetization was observed for the in-plane superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry measurements of BTF7M3O thin films. In contrast, SQUID measurements of the BTF7C3O films clearly demonstrated ferromagnetic behavior, with a remanent magnetization, B{sub r}, of 6.37 emu/cm{sup 3} (or 804 memu/g), remanent moment = 4.99 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} emu. The BTF7C3O films were scrutinized by x-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray analysis mapping to assess the prospect of the observed multiferroic properties being intrinsic to the main phase. The results of extensive micro-structural phase analysis demonstrated that the BTF7C3O films comprised of a 3.95% Fe/Co-rich spinel phase, likely CoFe{sub 2-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 4}, which would account for the observed magnetic moment in the films. Additionally, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism photoemission electron microscopy (XMCD-PEEM) imaging confirmed that the majority of magnetic response arises from the Fe sites of Fe/Co-rich spinel phase inclusions. While the magnetic contribution from the main phase could not be determined by the XMCD-PEEM images, these data however imply that the Bi{sub 5}Ti{sub 3}Fe{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.3}O{sub 15} thin films are likely not single phase multiferroics at room temperature. The PFM results presented demonstrate that the naturally 2D nanostructured Bi{sub 5}Ti{sub 3}Fe{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.3}O{sub 15} phase is a novel ferroelectric and has potential commercial applications in high temperature piezoelectric and ferroelectric memory technologies. The implications for the conclusive demonstration of ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties in single-phase materials of this type are discussed.

Keeney, Lynette; Kulkarni, Santosh; Deepak, Nitin; Schmidt, Michael; Petkov, Nikolay; Zhang, Panfeng F.; Roy, Saibal; Pemble, Martyn E.; Whatmore, Roger W. [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, 'Lee Maltings', Dyke Parade, Cork (Ireland); Cavill, Stuart [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

DOE Solar Decathlon: Press Room  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bios Press Releases Photos Videos Education Sponsors Volunteers History FAQs Contacts Solar Decathlon Press Room The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon press room provides...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte containing poly(ethylene oxide), lithium tetrafluoroborate and titanium dioxide is provided in the form of an annealed film having a room temperature conductivity of from 10.sup.-5 S cm.sup.-1 to 10.sup.-3 S cm.sup.-1 and an activation energy of about 0.5 eV.

Kumar, Binod (Dayton, OH); Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G. (Fairborn, OH)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Room Temperature Single Phase Multiferroics for Multifunctional ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Advances in Dielectric Materials and Electronic Devices. Presentation Title ...

203

Room Temperature Dispenser Photocathode Using Elemental Cesium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of devices depending upon the application, while offering a considerable reduction in power consumption and maintenance costs. Typically, alkali-metal coatings with generally...

204

Room Temperature Mechanical Properties of Tin Telluride ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Thermal Energy Storage Density LiNO3-KNO3-NaNO2-KNO2 Quaternary Molten Salt System for Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power Generation.

205

098 Room Temperature Multiferroism in Nanocapacitors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

129 Minimization of Diametric Tolerance of U3O8-added UO2 Annular Pellet .... 220 Microwave Processing of Polymer Coatings on Instrument-Grade Wood.

206

Anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste combining two pretreatment modalities, high temperature microwave and hydrogen peroxide  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microwave and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pretreatment were studied to enhance anaerobic digestion of organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The whole waste pretreated at 115 Degree-Sign C or 145 Degree-Sign C had the highest biogas production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biogas production of the whole waste decreased at 175 Degree-Sign C due to formation of refractory compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pretreatment to 145 Degree-Sign C and 175 Degree-Sign C were the best when considering only the free liquid fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pretreatment had a lag phase and the biogas production was not higher than MW pretreated samples. - Abstract: In order to enhance anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), pretreatment combining two modalities, microwave (MW) heating in presence or absence of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) were investigated. The main pretreatment variables affecting the characteristics of the OFMSW were temperature (T) via MW irradiation and supplemental water additions of 20% and 30% (SWA20 and SW30). Subsequently, the focus of this study was to evaluate mesophilic batch AD performance in terms of biogas production, as well as changes in the characteristics of the OFMSW post digestion. A high MW induced temperature range (115-175 Degree-Sign C) was applied, using sealed vessels and a bench scale MW unit equipped with temperature and pressure controls. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted on the whole OFMSW as well as the liquid fractions. The whole OFMSW pretreated at 115 Degree-Sign C and 145 Degree-Sign C showed 4-7% improvement in biogas production over untreated OFMSW (control). When pretreated at 175 Degree-Sign C, biogas production decreased due to formation of refractory compounds, inhibiting the digestion. For the liquid fraction of OFMSW, the effect of pretreatment on the cumulative biogas production (CBP) was more pronounced for SWA20 at 145 Degree-Sign C, with a 26% increase in biogas production after 8 days of digestion, compared to the control. When considering the increased substrate availability in the liquid fraction after MW pretreatment, a 78% improvement in biogas production vs. the control was achieved. Combining MW and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} modalities did not have a positive impact on OFMSW stabilization and enhanced biogas production. In general, all samples pretreated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} displayed a long lag phase and the CBP was usually lower than MW irradiated only samples. First order rate constant was calculated.

Shahriari, Haleh, E-mail: haleh.shahriari@gmail.com [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur St., P.O. Box 450, Stn. A, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Warith, Mostafa [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur St., P.O. Box 450, Stn. A, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Hamoda, Mohamed [Department of Environmental Technology and Management, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait); Kennedy, Kevin J. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur St., P.O. Box 450, Stn. A, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

207

Electronic Reading Room  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electronic Reading Room - making information about the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and Privacy Act process accessible to the public electronically. Electronic Reading Room - making information about the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and Privacy Act process accessible to the public electronically. Major Information Systems - Final Opinions - [5 USC 552 (a)(2)](A) final opinions, including concurring and dissenting opinions, as well as orders, made in the adjudication of cases within the Office of Hearings and Appeals Statements of Policy and Interpretation and Administrative Staff Manuals and Instructions - [5 USC 552 (a)(2)](B) those statements of policy and interpretation which have been adopted by the agency and are not published in the Federal Register - Directives, DOE Orders, Headquarters Orders, Secretarial Notices, Technical Standards, Forms, Delegations, Electronic Library Public Reading Facilities - making information available for public inspection and copying

208

Reading Room Locations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FOIA Offices and Reading Rooms FOIA Offices and Reading Rooms FOIA Office Locations Our FOIA Officers are located at various sites throughout the DOE complex, each with responsibility for records located at or under the jurisdiction of the site. We recommend that you send your request directly to that specific site. This will shorten the processing time. However, if you do not know which location has responsive records, you may either call the Headquarters FOIA office at (202) 586-5955 to determine the appropriate office, or mail the request to the Headquarters FOIA office. Other records are publicly available in the facilities listed below: Headquarters U.S. Department of Energy FOIA/Privacy Act Group 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, D.C. 20585 Phone: 202-586-5955 Fax: 202-586-0575

209

Room-temperature MBE deposition, thermoelectric properties, and advanced structural characterization of binary Bi[subscript 2]Te[subscript 3] and Sb[subscript 2]Te[subscript 3] thin films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films were grown at room temperature on SiO{sub 2} and BaF{sub 2} substrates using molecular beam epitaxy. A layer-by-layer growth was achieved such that metallic layers of the elements with 0.2 nm thickness were deposited. The layer structure in the as-deposited films was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and was seen more clearly in Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films. Subsequent annealing was done at 250 C for 2 h and produced the Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} crystal structure as confirmed by high-energy X-ray diffraction. This preparation process is referred to as nano-alloying and it was demonstrated to yield single-phase thin films of these compounds. In the thin films a significant texture could be identified with the crystal c axis being almost parallel to the growth direction for Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and tilted by about 30{sup o} for Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films. In-plane transport properties were measured for the annealed films at room temperature. Both films yielded a charge carrier density of about 2.6 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. The Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} films were p-type, had a thermopower of +130 {micro}V K{sup -1}, and surprisingly high mobilities of 402 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. The Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} films were n-type, showed a thermopower of -153 {micro}V K{sup -1}, and yielded significantly smaller mobilities of 80 cm2 V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. The chemical composition and microstructure of the films were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on cross sections of the thin films. The grain sizes were about 500 nm for the Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and 250 nm for the Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} films. In the Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin film, energy-filtered TEM allowed to image a Bi-rich grain boundary phase, several nanometers thick. This secondary phase explains the poor mobilities of the Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin film. With these results the high potential of the nano-alloying deposition technique for growing films with a more complex layer architecture is demonstrated.

Peranio, N.; Winkler, M.; Bessas, D.; Aabdin, Z.; König, J.; Böttner, H.; Hermann, R.P.; Eibl, O. (Julich); (Tubingen); (Fraunhofer)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

210

Experimental investigation of solid hydrogen pellet ablation in high-temperature plasmas using holographic interferometry and other diagnostics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technology currently most favored for the refueling of fusion reactors is the high-velocity injection of solid hydrogen pellets. Design details are presented for a holographic interferometer/shadowgraph used to study the microscopic characteristics of a solid hydrogen pellet ablating in an approx. 1-keV plasma. Experimental data are presented for two sets of experiments in which the interferometer/shadowgraph was used to study approx. 1-mm-diam solid hydrogen pellets injected into the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX-B) tokamak at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at velocities of 1000 m/s. In addition to the use of the holographic interferometer, the pellet ablation process is diagnosed by studying the emission of Balmer-alpha photons and by using the available tokamak diagnostics (Thomson scattering, microwave/far-infrared interferometer, pyroelectric radiometer, hard x-ray detector).

Thomas, Jr., C. E.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Nano-structured solid oxide fuel cell design with superior power output at high and intermediate operation temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a thin-film yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte was developed and tested. This novel SOFC shows a similar multilayer set-up as other current anode-supported SOFCs and is composed of a Ni/8YSZ anode, a gas-tight ...

Tim Van Gestel; Feng Han; Doris Sebold; Hans Peter Buchkremer; Detlev Stöver

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Simulation of a mannequin's thermal plume in a small room  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulation results are presented for the buoyancy-driven flow in a small room containing a seated mannequin that is maintained at a constant temperature. The study was motivated, in part, by a published experimental study of the thermal plume around ... Keywords: Heated mannequin, Lattice Boltzmann method, Particle trajectories, Small room, Thermal plume

Xinli Jia; John B. Mclaughlin; Jos Derksen; Goodarz Ahmadi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Research on Thermal Properties in a Phase Change Wallboard Room Based on Air Conditioning Cold Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

After comparing the thermal performance parameters of an ordinary wall room to a phase change wall (PCW) room, we learn that phase change wallboard affects the fluctuation of temperature in air-conditioning room in the summer. We built a PCW room and an ordinary wall room, which are cooled by an air-conditioner. We used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to test the temperature field and heat flow fluctuation in these rooms. Through analyzing the data tested, we found that the mean temperature of PCW is lower than that of ordinary wall room by 1 to 2?, and PCW can lower the heat flow by 4.6W/m2. Combining phase change material with the building envelope can lower the indoor temperature, make the room thermally comfortable, and cut down the turn-on-and-off frequency of the air-conditioner and the primary investment and operating costs. It alleviates the urgent need for electricity.

Feng, G.; Li, W.; Chen, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Media Room | National Nuclear Security Administration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog The National Nuclear Security Administration Media Room Home > Media Room Media Room NNSA's Office of...

215

Solid Cold - C  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

R&D Nuggets Home Page DOE R&D Accomplishments Celebrating Einstein "Solid Cold" (continued) A B C D E F C. Temperature and energy Most basically, temperature is related to energy...

216

High-Temperature Processing of Solids Through Solar Nebular Bow Shocks: 3D Radiation Hydrodynamics Simulations with Particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A fundamental, unsolved problem in Solar System formation is explaining the melting and crystallization of chondrules found in chondritic meteorites. Theoretical models of chondrule melting in nebular shocks has been shown to be consistent with many aspects of thermal histories inferred for chondrules from laboratory experiments; but, the mechanism driving these shocks is unknown. Planetesimals and planetary embryos on eccentric orbits can produce bow shocks as they move supersonically through the disk gas, and are one possible source of chondrule-melting shocks. We investigate chondrule formation in bow shocks around planetoids through 3D radiation hydrodynamics simulations. A new radiation transport algorithm that combines elements of flux-limited diffusion and Monte Carlo methods is used to capture the complexity of radiative transport around bow shocks. An equation of state that includes the rotational, vibrational, and dissociation modes of H$_2$ is also used. Solids are followed directly in the simulati...

Boley, A C; Desch, S J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

SRNL - News Room  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coveted R&D 100 Award Coveted R&D 100 Award ( PDF button Download printer-friendly, PDF version) SRNL Wins Coveted R&D 100 Award AIKEN, S.C. (Sept. 12, 2006) - Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory, along with team members from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, have been named winners of an R&D 100 Award for their invention, the MilliWave Thermal Analyzer. The R&D 100 awards, considered the "Oscars of research and development," are presented each year by R&D magazine to the 100 most technologically significant inventions of the year. The MilliWave Thermal Analyzer, developed by SRNL's Gene Daniel and Don Miller and their colleagues, uses millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation for non-contact, real-time measurements of temperature, amount of energy emitted, and physical changes of materials under extreme temperatures or corrosive environments.

218

Interfacial temperature measurements, high-speed visualization and finite-element simulations of droplet impact and evaporation on a solid surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to investigate the coupling of fluid dynamics, heat transfer and mass transfer during the impact and evaporation of droplets on a heated solid substrate. A laser-based thermoreflectance method is used to measure the temperature at the solid-liquid interface, with a time and space resolution of 100 {\\mu}s and 20 {\\mu}m, respectively. Isopropanol droplets with micro- and nanoliter volumes are considered. A finite-element model is used to simulate the transient fluid dynamics and heat transfer during the droplet deposition process, considering the dynamics of wetting as well as Laplace and Marangoni stresses on the liquid-gas boundary. For cases involving evaporation, the diffusion of vapor in the atmosphere is solved numerically, providing an exact boundary condition for the evaporative flux at the droplet-air interface. High-speed visualizations are performed to provide matching parameters for the wetting model used in the simulations. Numerical and experimental results are compar...

Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Attinger, Daniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Hypercomputation in the Chinese Room  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

I rehearse a number of objections to John Searle's famous Chinese room argument. One is the 'hypercomputational objection' (Copeland 2002a). Hypercomputation is the computation of functions that cannot be computed in the sense of Turing (1936); the term ...

B. Jack Copeland

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Solid-State Lighting: Hotel Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hotel Information to someone by Hotel Information to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Hotel Information on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Hotel Information on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Hotel Information on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Hotel Information on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Hotel Information on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Hotel Information on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings Past Conferences Presentations Publications Webcasts Videos Tools Hotel Information Hilton Tampa Downtown 211 N. Tampa St. Tampa, FL 33602 A block of hotel rooms has been reserved at the Hilton Tampa at a special rate for DOE workshop attendees. The rate for a standard room is $116 per night from January 25-February 1. The room block has been extended until noon ET on Friday, January 17,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Nuclear reactor control room construction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control room for a nuclear plant is disclosed. In the control room, objects labelled 12, 20, 22, 26, 30 in the drawing are no less than four inches from walls labelled 10.2. A ceiling contains cooling fins that extend downwards toward the floor from metal plates. A concrete slab is poured over the plates. Studs are welded to the plates and are encased in the concrete. 6 figures.

Lamuro, R.C.; Orr, R.

1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

222

The Effect of Orientation, Temperature and Gamma Prime Size on ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

along the to Oil> boundry of the standard stereographic triangle ..... strength results between room temperature and the peak temperature since.

223

Reading Room | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Freedom of Information Act » Reading Freedom of Information Act » Reading Room Reading Room Welcome to the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Electronic Reading Room for the Department of Energy at Headquarters. The FOIA requires certain kinds of documents to be made available to the public for inspection and copying. This is a requirement for agencies of the executive branch of the federal government. The documents that are required to be made available by the FOIA are: Final Opinions [5 USC 552 (a)(2)](A) final opinions, including concurring and dissenting opinions, as well as orders, made in the adjudication of cases. Office of Hearings and Appeal - FOIA Appeals Initial agency determinations in response to FOIA and Privacy Act requests may be appealed to the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA). Decisions of

224

Reading Room | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reading Reading Room Reading Room Welcome to the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Electronic Reading Room for the Department of Energy at Headquarters. The FOIA requires certain kinds of documents to be made available to the public for inspection and copying. This is a requirement for agencies of the executive branch of the federal government. The documents that are required to be made available by the FOIA are: Final Opinions [5 USC 552 (a)(2)](A) final opinions, including concurring and dissenting opinions, as well as orders, made in the adjudication of cases. Office of Hearings and Appeal - FOIA Appeals Initial agency determinations in response to FOIA and Privacy Act requests may be appealed to the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA). Decisions of the OHA constitute the agency's final determinations on requests made under

225

(Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co,Zn)4O7 cathodes with superior high-temperature phase stability for solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

(Y0.5In0.5)BaCo4-xZnxO7 (1.0 x 2.0) oxides crystallizing in a trigonal P31c structure have been synthesized and explored as cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). At a given Zn content, the (Y0.5In0.5)BaCo4-xZnxO7 sample with 50 % Y and 50 % In exhibits much improved phase stability at intermediate temperatures (600 - 800 oC) compared to the samples with 100 % Y or In. However, the substitution of Zn for Co in (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co4-xZnx)O7 (1.0 x 2.0) decreases the amount of oxygen loss on heating, total electrical conductivity, and cathode performance in SOFC while providing good long-term phase stability at high temperatures. Among the various chemical compositions investigated in the (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co4-xZnx)O7 system, the (Y0.5In0.5)BaCo3ZnO7 sample offers a combination of good electrochemical performance and low thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) while maintaining superior phase stability at 600 800 oC for 100 h. Fuel cell performances of the (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co3Zn)O7 + Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 (GDC) (50 : 50 wt. %) composite cathodes collected with anode-supported single cell reveal a maximum power density value of 521 mW cm-2 at 700 oC.

Young Nam, Kim [University of Texas, Austin; Kim, Jung-Hyun [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Manthiram, Arumugam [University of Texas, Austin; Huq, Ashfia [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - Meeting Rooms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

41 144D 3117 30-C Blue Room (20) 41 207 2868 30-C Castle Craigs Conference Room 280B 241 2804 29-D Cedar Room (15) 48 101 3485 30-B CEF Conference Room 35 4A 3534 27-E Controls...

227

Solids irradiator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel facility for irradiation of solids embodying pathogens wherein solids are conveyed through an irradiation chamber in individual containers of an endless conveyor.

Morris, Marvin E. (Albuquerque, NM); Pierce, Jim D. (Albuquerque, NM); Whitfield, Willis J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

DOE Solar Decathlon: Press Room  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Press Room Press Room The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon is an award-winning program that challenges collegiate teams to design, build, and operate solar-powered houses that are cost-effective, energy-efficient, and attractive. The winner of the competition is the team that best blends affordability, consumer appeal, and design excellence with optimal energy production and maximum efficiency. The first Solar Decathlon was held in 2002; the competition has since occurred every two years in 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011. The last event was held at the National Mall's West Potomac Park in Washington, D.C., Sept. 23-Oct. 2, 2011. Solar Decathlon 2013 takes place Oct. 3-13, 2013, at Orange County Great Park in Irvine, California. Open to the public free of charge, the Solar Decathlon gives visitors the

229

News Room | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

News Room News Room In a 3D structure of the protein, the binding site is shown in pink, representing a potential drug target. The green molecule shows binding of an antibiotic to the protein. Click to enlarge. Image courtesy of Wladek Minor. Newly ID'd protein provides target for antibiotic-resistant hospital bacterium Full Story » Researchers have made inroads into tackling a bacterium that plagues hospitals and is highly resistant to most antibiotics. Andrey Elagin (left), postdoctoral scholar at the Enrico Fermi Institute at the University of Chicago, and Matthew Wetstein, the Grainger Postdoctoral Fellow at the Enrico Fermi Institute at the University of Chicago, adjust the optics in the Large Area Picosecond Photodetector testing facility. The facility uses extremely short laser pulses to precisely measure the time resolution of the photodetectors. Click to enlarge.

230

Forecasting Uncertain Hotel Room Demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Economic systems are characterized by increasing uncertainty in their dynamics. This increasing uncertainty is likely to incur bad decisions that can be costly in financial terms. This makes forecasting of uncertain economic variables an instrumental activity in any organization. This paper takes the hotel industry as a practical application of forecasting using the Holt-Winters method. The problem here is to forecast the uncertain demand for rooms at a hotel for each arrival day. Forecasting is part of hotel revenue management system whose objective is to maximize the revenue by making decisions regarding when to make rooms available for customers and at what price. The forecast approach discussed in this paper is based on quantitative models and does not incorporate management expertise. Even though, forecast results are found to be satisfactory for certain days, this is not the case for other arrival days. It is believed that human judgment is important when dealing with ...

Mihir Rajopadhye Mounir; Mounir Ben Ghaliay; Paul P. Wang; Timothy Baker; Craig V. Eister

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

NETL: NewsRoom - Multimedia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NewsRoom NewsRoom Multimedia Now you can download videos to your computer by right clicking the "download" link and selecting the "Save target as" option. It is suggested that mac users use this link. Carbon Cycle Animation Carbon Cycle Animation - 2012 Animation that depicts the carbon cycle as it relates to nature, land use, and energy production. Movie Icon Windows Media Video (WMV-5.7MB) [ view | download ] Earth Day Animation Earth Day Animation - 2011 A compilation of three Earth Day animations that demonstrate being green around your home, office, and community Movie Icon Windows Media Video (WMV-16MB) [ view | download ] Interview with Anthony Cugini Interview with Anthony Cugini - 2011 Interview at the International Pittsburgh Coal Conference with Dr. Cugini regarding Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage technologies.

232

ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF SOLIDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is presented for altering physical properties of certain solids, such as enhancing the usefulness of solids, in which atomic interchange occurs through a vacancy mechanism, electron irradiation, and temperature control. In a centain class of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, diffusion or displacement of atoms occurs through a vacancy mechanism, i.e., an atom can only move when there exists a vacant atomic or lattice site in an adjacent position. In the process of the invention highenergy electron irradiation produces additional vacancies in a solid over those normally occurring at a given temperature and allows diffusion of the component atoms of the solid to proceed at temperatures at which it would not occur under thermal means alone in any reasonable length of time. The invention offers a precise way to increase the number of vacancies and thereby, to a controlled degree, change the physical properties of some materials, such as resistivity or hardness.

Damask, A.C.

1959-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Classified Reading Room Instructions/Guidelines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Classified Reading Room Instructions/Guidelines Classified Reading Room Instructions/Guidelines * Reading Room Points of Contact: Milesha Grier, (202) 586-8210, milesha.gier@nnsa.doe.gov Reading Room Location: DOE Forrestal Building, 1000 Independence Ave., Washington, D.C. Room 4A-045, 4 th Floor, "A" Corridor, Behind Glass Doors, dial 6-8210 Reading Room Availability: By Appointment - Reading Room will be available until RFP Closes except (12/5/11 thru 12/16/11, December 23, January 2, 2012 and January 16, 2012). Reading Room Hours: Morning, 9:00 a.m. - 11:30 a.m.; and Afternoon 1:00 p.m. - 3:30 p.m. Reading Room Will Accommodate: Up to 5-6 people * All personnel must: a. submit a formal Intent to Bid IAW Section L of the RFP, via email to: SEB1@doeal.gov

234

Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Room Air Conditioners Room Air Conditioners Room Air Conditioners July 1, 2012 - 5:35pm Addthis A window air conditioner is one solution to cooling part of a house. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/kschulze. A window air conditioner is one solution to cooling part of a house. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/kschulze. What does this mean for me? Room air conditioners are less expensive and disruptive to install than central air conditioning systems. Room air conditioners can be a cost-effective alternative to central air conditioning systems. How does it work? Room air conditioners work by cooling one part of your home. Room or window air conditioners cool rooms rather than the entire home or business. If they provide cooling only where they're needed, room air conditioners are less expensive to operate than central units, even though

235

Solid-State Lighting: Hotel Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program » Solid-State Lighting » Program » Solid-State Lighting » Information Resources Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: Hotel Information to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Hotel Information on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Hotel Information on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Hotel Information on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Hotel Information on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Hotel Information on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Hotel Information on AddThis.com... Home Conferences & Meetings Past Conferences Presentations Publications Webcasts Videos Hotel Information Wyndham Grand Pittsburgh, 600 Commonwealth Place, Pittsburgh, PA 15222 The Wyndham Grand Pittsburgh room block has expired; however,

236

Media Room | National Nuclear Security Administration  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Media Room | National Nuclear Security Administration Media Room | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog The National Nuclear Security Administration Media Room Home > Media Room Media Room NNSA's Office of Congressional, Intergovernmental, and Public Affairs regularly updates the web site with current press releases, newsletters,

237

Energy Integration Visualization Room (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This two-page fact sheet describes the new Energy Integration Visualization Room in the ESIF and talks about some of the capabilities and unique visualization features of the the room.

Not Available

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

The room noise criteria (RNC) metric.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The recent ANSI S12.2:2008 room noise criteria contains both a survey and an engineering method to specify room noise criteria. The methods use A?weighting and extended NC

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

FOIA Reading Room - privacy act  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reading Room - pricacy act Reading Room - pricacy act CH Frequently Requested Documents Under FOIA Administrative Electronic FOIA Form Privacy Act Advisory (Microsoft Word(tm) document) DOE-CH Government Purchase Card Cardholders: December 2012 CH Organizational Chart: Current Version Policies and Procedures - Office of Science (including Chicago Office) Office of Hearings and Appeals Decisions Department of Justice Cases and Legal Documents Department of Energy Directives DOE Office of Inspector General Reports Responses Under FOIA FY10 Management and Operating Contracts "FY2012 Laboratory Performance Report Cards" The following management and operating prime contracts under the jurisdiction of DOE-CH have been renewed and posted for your convenience. Modifications that change, delete, or add language to any portion of these contracts (referred to as "M" Mods) will be posted as expeditiously as possible after execution. It is at the discretion of the Contractors whether or not they include modifications that change the amount obligated by the Government. Ames Laboratory - Contract No. No.DE-AC02-07CH11358

240

Solid state radiative heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid state radiative heat pump (10, 50, 70) operable at room temperature (300.degree. K.) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of charge carriers as compared to thermal equilibrium. In one form of the invention (10, 70) an infrared semiconductor photodiode (21, 71) is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention (50), a homogeneous semiconductor (51) is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation through the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-reflection layer (19) is coated into the active surface (13) of the semiconductor (11), the anti-reflection layer (19) having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor (11). In the second method, a passive layer (75) is spaced from the active surface (73) of the semiconductor (71) by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler (91) with a paraboloid reflecting surface (92) is in contact with the active surface (13, 53) of the semiconductor (11, 51), the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Solid state radiative heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

Berdahl, P.H.

1984-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

242

Reading Room | National Nuclear Security Administration  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Reading Room | National Nuclear Security Administration Reading Room | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog The National Nuclear Security Administration Reading Room Home > About Us > Our Operations > Acquisition and Project Management > Major Contract Solicitations > Environmental Program Services Contract > Reading Room

243

Spray Cooling in Room Fires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... power of the volumetric median drop diameter* of the spray. ... The temperature, velocity and concentrations (CO, CO2, 02 and total hydro- ...

2008-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

244

Public Reading Room: Environmental Documents, Reports  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Public Reading Room: Environmental Documents, Reports Public Reading Room: Environmental Documents, Reports Public Reading Room: Environmental Documents, Reports Environmental documents and reports are available online. Hard copies are available at the Laboratory's Public Reading Room in Pojoaque, New Mexico. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Public Reading Room: Environmental Documents, Reports Online Annual Environmental Report Electronic Public Reading Room (EPRR) Plans, Procedures A listing of procedures available in the EPRR Hard copy Public Reading Room 94 Cities of Gold Road Pojoaque, NM Vie Screen reader users: click here for plain HTML Go to Google Maps Home 94 cities of gold Road, Pojoaque, NM Loading... Map Sat Ter Did you mean a different:

245

Formation of CoAl2O4 nanoparticles via low-temperature solid-state reaction of fine gibbsite and cobalt precursor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanocrystalline cobalt aluminate (CoAl2O4) was synthesized by the solid-state reaction method with cobalt chloride hexahydrate (CoCl2 ? 6H2O) as the source of Co and gibbsite (Al(OH)3) as the ...

Natpakan Srisawad, Wasu Chaitree, Okorn Mekasuwandumrong, Piyasan Praserthdam, Joongjai Panpranot

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Numerical method for computing nonlinear, time dependent, buoyant circulation of air in rooms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is described which solves the dynamic equations for air circulation at Grashof numbers that are in the range of environmental temperatures of rooms. Previous two-dimensional computation techniques were limited to G ? 105 ...

J. E. Fromm

1971-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

NEPA Reading Room | National Nuclear Security Administration  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Reading Room | National Nuclear Security Administration Reading Room | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog NEPA Reading Room Home > About Us > Our Operations > NNSA Office of General Counsel > National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) > NEPA Reading Room NEPA Reading Room Welcome to the National Nuclear Security Administration's NEPA Reading

248

Study of gadolinia-doped ceria solid electrolyte surface by XPS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gadolinia-doped ceria (CGO) is an important material to be used as electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell for intermediate temperature operation. Ceria doped with 10 mol% gadolinia (Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95}) was prepared by conventional solid state synthesis and found to be single phase by room temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD). The chemical states of the surface of the prepared sample were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Though Gd was present in its characteristic chemical state, Ce was found in both Ce{sup 4+} and Ce{sup 3+} states. Presence of Ce{sup 3+} state was ascribed to the differential yield of oxygen atoms in the sputtering process.

Datta, Pradyot [Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Institut fuer Metallurgie, 42 Robert-Koch Strasse, 38678, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung and Institut fuer Nichtmetallische and Anorganische Materialien, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pulvermetallurgisches Laboratorium, Heisenbergstrasse 3, Stuttgart 70569 (Germany)], E-mail: pdatta@rediffmail.com; Majewski, Peter [University of South Australia, School of Advanced Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering, Mawson Institute, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Aldinger, Fritz [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung and Institut fuer Nichtmetallische and Anorganische Materialien, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pulvermetallurgisches Laboratorium, Heisenbergstrasse 3, Stuttgart 70569 (Germany)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

249

026- Room Temperature Properties of Electrical Contacts to Alumina ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

125- Influence of Gas Flow Rate Ratio on the Structural Properties of a-SiC:H Prepared by ... 145- The Synergy of XRD and XRF in a Shale and Slate Analysis.

250

HVAC Room Temperature Prediction Control Based on Neural Network Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HVAC (Heating Ventilating &Air-conditioning) system is a nonlinear complex system with delay. It is very difficult to build a mathematical model of HVAC and implement model-based control. Since a BP (Back Propagation) neural network can fully approximate ... Keywords: BP neural network, predictive control, HVAC, least squares method

Shujiang Li, Shuang Ren, Xiangdong Wang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Room Temperature Hydrogen Storage in Nano-Confined Liquids -...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

measurements of * hydrogen solubility in volatile liquid solvents in both bulk form and nano-confined liquidscaffold composites. Demonstrate volumetric measurements of hydrogen *...

252

Numerical modelling and analysis of a room temperature magnetic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are separated by channels of a heat transfer fluid. The time-dependent model solves the momentum and continuity equations of the flow of the heat transfer fluid and the coupled energy equations of the heat transfer and it was concluded that the model has energy conservation and that the solution is independent of the chosen grid

253

Communications to the Editor Room-Temperature Desulfurization of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

difficult to remove in the hydroprocessing of crude oil.3 In homogeneous models, orga- nometallic nickel of polynuclear complexes in the desulfurization of various thiophenes,6 led us to prepare a dinuclear nickel

Jones, William D.

254

FEATURE ARTICLE Room Temperature Ballistic Conduction in Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of tens of microns. The measurements are performed both in air and in high vacuum in the transmission scattering can explain why the measured conductances are about half of the expected theoretical value of 2 G0) and anomalous I-V dependences result from impurities and surfactants on the tubes. Evidence is presented

Wang, Zhong L.

255

Structural, optical and transport properties of room temperature ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simplex Network Modeling for Press-Molded Ceramic Bodies Incorporated with Granite Waste · Solidification mechanisms of carbon as graphene, graphite and ...

256

Crystallite Size Study of Room-Temperature Tetragonal Zirconia ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biological Properties of Zinc Oxide-Coated Anodized Aluminum Oxide ... Zirconia Stabilisation Nano-Confined by Using Electroless Nickel Cladding .... Metal Oxide Nanofibers Produced by a ForceSpinning Method for Battery Electrodes.

257

Novel Fission-Product Separation Based on Room Temperature ...  

macrocyclic extractants and transport in new ... Future Research Plans 1. Synthesis and Optimization of ILs Tailored for Solvent Extraction of Fission ...

258

Method of Production of Pure Hydrogen Near Room Temperature ...  

Energy Storage ... The described method of hydrogen production is useful for energy conversion and production technologies that consume pure gaseous h ...

259

AB Electronic Tubes and Quasi-Superconductivity at Room Temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Author offers and researches a new idea - filling tubes by electronic gases. He shows: If the insulating envelope (cover) of the tube is charged positively, the electrons within the tube are not attracted to covering. Tube (as a whole) remains a neutral (uncharged) body. The electron gas in the tube has very low density and very high conductivity, close to superconductivity. If we take the density (pressure) of electron gas as equal to atmospheric pressure, the thickness of insulator film may be very small and the resulting tube is very light. Author shows the offered tubes can be applied to many technical fields. For example: (1) Transfer of energy over very long distance with very small electric losses. (2) Design of cheap high altitude electric lines without masts. (3) Transfer of energy from one continent to another continent through the ionosphere. (4) Transfer of a plasma beam (which can convey thrust and energy) from Earth surface to a space ship. (5) Observation of the sky by telescope without atmospheric hindrances. (6) Dirigibles (air balloons) of the highest lift force. (7) Increasing of gun range severalfold. (8) Transfer of matter. And so on. Key words: AB tubes, electronic tubes, superconductivity, transmission energy.

Alexander Bolonkin

2008-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

260

Evaluation of Station Post Porcelain Insulators with Room Temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Industrial environment include sources of soluble pollution from steel mills, refineries or sources of inert research on challenges facing the electric power industry and educating the next generation of power&E for their assistance in this project. PSERC is a National Science Foundation Industry/University Cooperative Research

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Monolithic lasers on Si are ideal for high-volume and large-scale electronic–photonic integration. Ge is an interesting candidate owing to its pseudodirect gap properties and compatibility with Si complementary metal oxide ...

Liu, Jifeng

262

Aluminum Recycling Via Near Room Temperature Electrolysis In ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 1, 2000 ... At a cell voltage of 1 volt, the energy consumption of about 3 kWh/kg-Al was obtained. The process has advantages of low energy consumption ...

263

Plenary session Room F2 Chairman: Doc. J. Langer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. O Modeling of Bacterial Chemotaxis in Steady-state System 17:15 Poster Session Symposium Room M1., Glosik J. O State-selective Recombination of H3 + Ions with Electrons at Temperatures 50­300 K 14:55 f2 Referee: Prof. F. Marsik 13:30 f11 Netusil M. O Modeling of Arterial Wall ­ The Current State of Knowledge

264

Data for Room Fire Model Comparisons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of the burn room; and, possibly, a load platform. ... by the use of the oxygen consumption principle ... be used to estimate the rate of energy production of ...

2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

265

NEPA Reading Room | National Nuclear Security Administration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NEPA Reading Room | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing...

266

NEPA Reading Room | National Nuclear Security Administration  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Reading Room | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our...

267

Growth of Cr- and Co-doped CdSe crystals from high-temperature selenium solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transition metals in the group II-VI semiconductors have attracted considerable attention for their application as tunable mid-infrared (IR) lasers at room temperature. Very recently, Co-doped II-VI hosts have been considered as saturable absorber materials. ... Keywords: Beer-Lambert law, II-VI semiconductor, electrical resistivity, glow discharge mass spectrometric (GDMS), mid-infrared solid-state laser, optical transmission

O. O. Adetunji; N. Roy; Y. Cui; G. Wright; J.-O. Ndap; A. Burger

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Composite Solid-State Scintillators for Neutron Detection  

Using a room temperature process, a new type of transparent, crack-free, monolithicscintillator has been developed at ORNL. This invention uses ...

269

The Live Room: transducing resonant architectures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Live Room was a temporary site-specific installation presented in building N51, room 117 on the MIT campus on 7 May 1998 and concluded on 10 June 1998. Using small acoustic-intensifying equipment which mounted directly to the structure of ...

Mark Bain

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

DOE-ID FOIA Reading Room  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reading Room Reading Room READING ROOM Eectronic Freedom of Information Act, E-FOIA RECORDS UNDER THE E-FOIA The Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments of 1996 addresses the issues and procedural aspects of FOIA administration. The amendment: defines the term "record" as including "any information that would be an agency record subject to the requirements of the FOIA when maintained by an agency in any format, including an electronic format; addresses the form or format in which a requested record is disclosed providing the record is readily reproducible by the agency in the requestor's desired form or format; directs Federal agencies to maintain both conventional reading rooms and electronic reading rooms to meet FOIA responsibilities.

271

Los Alamos test-room results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fourteen Los Alamos test rooms have been operated for several years; this paper covers operation during the winters of 1980-81 and 1981-82. Extensive data have been taken and computer analyzed to determine performance parameters such as efficiency, solar savings fraction, and comfort index. The rooms are directly comparable because each has the same net coefficient and solar collection area and thus the same load collector ratio. Configurations include direct gain, unvented Trombe walls, water walls, phase change walls, and two sunspace geometries. Strategies for reducing heat loss include selective surfaces, two brands of superglazing windows, a heat pipe system, and convection-suppression baffles. Significant differences in both backup heat and comfort are observed among the various rooms. The results are useful, not only for direct room-to-room comparisons, but also to provide data for validation of computer simulation programs.

McFarland, R.D.; Balcomb, J.D.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

STUDIES OF METAL-WATER REACTIONS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES: I. THE CONDENSER DISCHARGE EXPERIMENT: PRELIMINARY RESULTS WITH ZIRCONIUM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The condenser-discharge method of conducting molten metal- water reactions at high temperatures was refined. Two methods to measure energy input to specimen wires and, therefore, to compute initial metal temperatures were developed. Calculated metal temperatures were estimated to be accurate to within 100 deg C. Two reaction cells were designed, one for operation at atmospheric pressure with water at room temperature, and the other for operation at high pressure and with water at elevated temperature. Means were developed to determine the surface area of metal exposed to reaction and to determine the total extent of reaction. Pressure transducers were used to record the rate of reactions. The zirconium- water reaction was studied with initial metal temperatures from 1100 to 4000 deg C with 30 and 60-mil wires in room-temperature water. Initial pressures in these runs were the vapor pressures of water at room temperature (20-30 mm). Runs were made with 60-mil wires in water heated to 200 deg C (225 psi). Results in room-temperature water indicated that the reaction became explosive at an initial metal temperature of 2600 deg C. Below this temperature, 20% or less reaction occurred. At higher water temperatures, reaction ranged from 40 to 70%. Runs in heated water showed markedly greater reaction, reaching 50% for fully melted metal at the melting point (1840 deg C). Results suggested that the rates of both solid-state processes and the diffusion of water vapor through the hydrogen blanket surrounding reacting particles must be considered. (auth)

Baker, L. Jr.; Warchal, R.L.; Vogel, R.C.; Kilpatrick, M.

1961-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Sorption of organic gases in residential rooms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

residential rooms residential rooms Title Sorption of organic gases in residential rooms Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-59303 Year of Publication 2007 Authors Singer, Brett C., Alfred T. Hodgson, Toshifumi Hotchi, Katherine Y. Ming, Richard G. Sextro, Emily E. Wood, and Nancy J. Brown Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 41 Start Page Chapter Pagination 3251-3265 Keywords adsorption, hazardous air pollutants, nerve agents, sink effect, volatile organic compounds Abstract Experiments were conducted to characterize organic gas sorption in residential rooms studied ''as-is'' with furnishings and material surfaces unaltered and in a furnished chamber designed to simulate a residential room. Results are presented for 10 rooms (five bedrooms, two bathrooms, a home office, and two multi-function spaces) and the chamber. Exposed materials were characterized and areas quantified. A mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was rapidly volatilized within each room as it was closed and sealed for a 5-h Adsorb phase; this was followed by 30-min Flush and 2-h closed-room Desorb phases. Included were alkane, aromatic, and oxygenated VOCs representing a range of ambient and indoor air pollutants. Three organophosphorus compounds served as surrogates for Sarin-like nerve agents. Measured gas-phase concentrations were fit to three variations of a mathematical model that considers sorption occurring at a surface sink and potentially a second, embedded sink. The 3-parameter sink-diffusion model provided acceptable fits for most compounds and the 4-parameter two-sink model provided acceptable fits for the others. Initial adsorption rates and sorptive partitioning increased with decreasing vapor pressure for the alkanes, aromatics and oxygenated VOCs. Best-fit sorption parameters obtained from experimental data from the chamber produced best-fit sorption parameters similar to those obtained from the residential rooms

274

Production of high-density high-temperature plasma by collapsing small solid-density plasma shell with two ultra-intense laser pulses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that the anisotropic collapse of a plasma microshell by impact of two oppositely directed intense laser pulses can create at the center of the shell cavity a submicron-sized plasma of high density and temperature suitable for generating fusion neutrons.

Xu, H. [National Laboratory for Parallel and Distributed Processing, School of Computer Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Yu Wei [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yu, M. Y. [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Institute for Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr University, Bochum D-44780 (Germany); Wong, A. Y. [Department of Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Sheng, Z. M.; Zhang, J. [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Murakami, M. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

275

Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

you need to mount the air conditioner at the narrow end of a long room, then look for a fan control known as "Power Thrust" or "Super Thrust" that sends the cooled air farther...

276

Design of the CTX diagnostics screen room  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The design of a shielded enclosure (or screen room) to house data acquisition equipment in an area in which substantial, time varying magnetic fields are present and capable of producing significant interference is described.

Chandler, G.I. II

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Enzymatic temperature change indicator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A temperature change indicator is described which is composed of an enzyme and a substrate for that enzyme suspended in a solid organic solvent or mixture of solvents as a support medium. The organic solvent or solvents are chosen so as to melt at a specific temperature or in a specific temperature range. When the temperature of the indicator is elevated above the chosen, or critical temperature, the solid organic solvent support will melt, and the enzymatic reaction will occur, producing a visually detectable product which is stable to further temperature variation.

Klibanov, Alexander M. (Newton, MA); Dordick, Jonathan S. (Iowa City, IA)

1989-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

278

Software Support during a Control Room Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

In 2004, after 14 years of accelerator operations and commissioning, Jefferson Lab renovated its main control room. Changes in technology and lessons learned during those 14 years drove the control room redesign in a new direction, one that optimizes workflow and makes critical information and controls available to everyone in the control room. Fundamental changes in a variety of software applications were required to facilitate the new operating paradigm. A critical component of the new control room design is a large-format video wall that is used to make a variety of operating information available to everyone in the room. Analog devices such as oscilloscopes and function generators are now displayed on the video wall through two crosspoint switchers: one for analog signals and another for video signals. A new software GUI replaces manual configuration of the oscilloscopes and function generators and helps automate setup. Monitoring screens, customized for the video wall, now make important operating information visible to everyone, not just a single operator. New alarm handler software gives any operator, on any workstation, access to all alarm handler functionality, and multiple users can now contribute to a single electronic logbook entry. To further support the shift to distributed access and control, many applications have been redesigned to run on servers instead of on individual workstations.

Michele Joyce; Michael Spata; Thomas Oren; Anthony Cuffe; Theo McGuckin; Isadoro Carlino; C. Higgins; Harry Fanning; Matthew Bickley; Brian Bevins

2005-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

279

Study of the operational conditions for anaerobic digestion of urban solid wastes  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an experimental evaluation of anaerobic digestion technology as an option for the management of organic solid waste in developing countries. As raw material, a real and heterogeneous organic waste from urban solid wastes was used. In the first experimental phase, seed selection was achieved through an evaluation of three different anaerobic sludges coming from wastewater treatment plants. The methanization potential of these sludges was assessed in three different batch digesters of 500 mL, at two temperature levels. The results showed that by increasing the temperature to 15 deg. C above room temperature, the methane production increases to three times. So, the best results were obtained in the digester fed with a mixed sludge, working at mesophilic conditions (38-40 deg. C). Then, this selected seed was used at the next experimental phase, testing at different digestion times (DT) of 25, 20 and 18 days in a bigger batch digester of 20 L with a reaction volume of 13 L. The conversion rates were registered at the lowest DT (18 days), reaching 44.9 L/kg{sup -1} of wet waste day{sup -1}. Moreover, DT also has a strong influence over COD removal, because there is a direct relationship between solids removal inside the reactor and DT.

Castillo M, Edgar Fernando [Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Ambientales, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Calle 9a Carrera 27, Aptdo. Aereo 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia)]. E-mail: efcastil@uis.edu.co; Cristancho, Diego Edison [Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Ambientales, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Calle 9a Carrera 27, Aptdo. Aereo 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Victor Arellano, A. [Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Ambientales, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Calle 9a Carrera 27, Aptdo. Aereo 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Method of remotely constructing a room  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The testing of nuclear devices of high explosive yield has required that cavities of relatively large size be provided at considerable distances below the surface of the earth for the pre-detonation emplacement of the device. The construction of an essentially watertight chamber or room in the cavity is generally required for the actual emplacement of the device. A method is described of constructing such a room deep within the earth by personnel at the surface. A dual wall bladder of a watertight, pliable fabric material is lowered down a shaft into a selected position. The bladder is filled with a concrete grout while a heavy fluid having essentially the same density as the grout is maintained on both sides of the bladder, to facilitate complete deployment of the bladder by the grout to form a room of desired configuration. (10 claims)

Michie, J.D.; De Hart, R.C.

1971-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Carbon War Room | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

War Room War Room Jump to: navigation, search Name Carbon War Room Place Washington, DC Number of employees 1-10 Website http://www.carbonwarroom.com/ Coordinates 38.8951118°, -77.0363658° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":38.8951118,"lon":-77.0363658,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

282

A New Control Room for SLAC Accelerators  

SciTech Connect

We are planning to construct a new control room at SLAC to unify and improve the operation of the LCLS, SPEAR3, and FACET accelerator facilities, and to provide the space and flexibility needed to support the LCLS-II and proposed new test beam facilities. The existing control rooms for the linac and SPEAR3 have been upgraded in various ways over the last decade, but their basic features have remained unchanged. We propose to build a larger modern Accelerator Control Room (ACR) in the new Research Support Building (RSB) which is currently under construction at SLAC. Shifting the center of control for the accelerator facilities entails both technical and administrative challenges. In this paper, we describe the history, concept, and status of this project.

Erickson, Roger; Guerra, E.; Stanek, M.; Hoover, Z.Van; Warren, J.; /SLAC

2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

283

Texas Union Pizza Order Form ROOM RESERVED ______________________________________________________  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;#12;Texas Union Pizza Order Form ROOM RESERVED: ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Pick-up All orders are to be picked up at the Texas Union Hospitality Center desk in the south end West with the Texas Union Policies and Procedures. I understand that I will be held responsible for any debts incurred

Texas at Austin, University of

284

Advanced nuclear plant control room complex  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Mitigation of chromium poisoning in solid oxide fuel cell system by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ionic Solid Oxides for High Temperature Optical Gas Sensing in Fossil Fuel Based Power Plants · Mitigation of chromium poisoning in solid oxide fuel cell ...

286

Operating Room Pooling and Parallel Surgery Processing Under Uncertainty  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Operating room (OR) scheduling is an important operational problem for most hospitals. In this study, we present a novel two-stage stochastic mixed-integer programming model to minimize total expected operating cost given that scheduling decisions are ... Keywords: multiple operating rooms, operating room pooling, operating room scheduling, parallel surgery processing, two-stage stochastic mixed-integer programs

Sakine Batun; Brian T. Denton; Todd R. Huschka; Andrew J. Schaefer

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

CRACK GROWTH ANALYSIS OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELECTROLYTES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Defects and Flaws control the structural and functional property of ceramics. In determining the reliability and lifetime of ceramics structures it is very important to quantify the crack growth behavior of the ceramics. In addition, because of the high variability of the strength and the relatively low toughness of ceramics, a statistical design approach is necessary. The statistical nature of the strength of ceramics is currently well recognized, and is usually accounted for by utilizing Weibull or similar statistical distributions. Design tools such as CARES using a combination of strength measurements, stress analysis, and statistics are available and reasonably well developed. These design codes also incorporate material data such as elastic constants as well as flaw distributions and time-dependent properties. The fast fracture reliability for ceramics is often different from their time-dependent reliability. Further confounding the design complexity, the time-dependent reliability varies with the environment/temperature/stress combination. Therefore, it becomes important to be able to accurately determine the behavior of ceramics under simulated application conditions to provide a better prediction of the lifetime and reliability for a given component. In the present study, Yttria stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) of 9.6 mol% Yttria composition was procured in the form of tubes of length 100 mm. The composition is of interest as tubular electrolytes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. Rings cut from the tubes were characterized for microstructure, phase stability, mechanical strength (Weibull modulus) and fracture mechanisms. The strength at operating condition of SOFCs (1000 C) decreased to 95 MPa as compared to room temperature strength of 230 MPa. However, the Weibull modulus remains relatively unchanged. Slow crack growth (SCG) parameter, n = 17 evaluated at room temperature in air was representative of well studied brittle materials. Based on the results, further work was planned to evaluate the strength degradation, modulus and failure in more representative environment of the SOFCs.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

High-temperature Material Systems for Energy Conversion and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ionic Solid Oxides for High Temperature Optical Gas Sensing in Fossil Fuel Based Power Plants · Mitigation of Chromium Poisoning in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

289

Priority coding for control room alarms  

SciTech Connect

Indicating the priority of a spatially fixed, activated alarm tile on an alarm tile array by a shape coding at the tile, and preferably using the same shape coding wherever the same alarm condition is indicated elsewhere in the control room. The status of an alarm tile can change automatically or by operator acknowledgement, but tones and/or flashing cues continue to provide status information to the operator.

Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Filled glass composites for sealing of solid oxide fuel cells.  

SciTech Connect

Glasses filled with ceramic or metallic powders have been developed for use as seals for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Program. The composites of glass (alkaline earth-alumina-borate) and powders ({approx}20 vol% of yttria-stabilized zirconia or silver) were shown to form seals with SOFC materials at or below 900 C. The type and amount of powder were adjusted to optimize thermal expansion to match the SOFC materials and viscosity. Wetting studies indicated good wetting was achieved on the micro-scale and reaction studies indicated that the degree of reaction between the filled glasses and SOFC materials, including spinel-coated 441 stainless steel, at 750 C is acceptable. A test rig was developed for measuring strengths of seals cycled between room temperature and typical SOFC operating temperatures. Our measurements showed that many of the 410 SS to 410 SS seals, made using silver-filled glass composites, were hermetic at 0.2 MPa (2 atm.) of pressure and that seals that leaked could be resealed by briefly heating them to 900 C. Seal strength measurements at elevated temperature (up to 950 C), measured using a second apparatus that we developed, indicated that seals maintained 0.02 MPa (0.2 atm.) overpressures for 30 min at 750 C with no leakage. Finally, the volatility of the borate component of sealing glasses under SOFC operational conditions was studied using weight loss measurements and found by extrapolation to be less than 5% for the projected SOFC lifetime.

Tandon, Rajan; Widgeon, Scarlett Joyce; Garino, Terry J.; Brochu, Mathieu; Gauntt, Bryan D.; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Designing for man: advances in control room operation  

SciTech Connect

Considers the human factor in nuclear power plants in relation to improving control room and maintenance operations. Control room operators face thousands of dials, meters, and indicator lights dispersed over large control boards. Components may not be arranged in clearly identifiable panels of related elements; sometimes related controls may not be near each other. Extensive alarm systems may sometimes confuse rather than alert the operators; communications with other parts of the plant may be difficult. Maintenance personnel may have to squeeze past pipes and similar obstructions to make repairs while carrying equipment and tools, sometimes while wearing protective gear. EPRI has developed a cool suit consisting of 16 pounds of water-filled compartments built into a two-piece repair suit that can be frozen to keep body temperatures at acceptable levels for up to 2 hrs. in high-heat areas of the plant. An ergonomics guide, which examines alternative solutions to heat stress (such as rest cycles and worker screening) is also being developed. Because few new nuclear plants are currently being built, many of the improvements will be retrofits in existing plants. EPRI's human factors work emphasizes thorough validation of new techniques through simulators and mockups.

Lihach, N.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

High Temperature Electrochemistry Center - HiTEC  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation discusses the High Temperature Electrochemistry Center (HiTEC). The mission of HiTEC is to advance the solid oxide technology, such as solid oxide, high temperature electrolysers, reversible fuel cells, energy storage devices, proton conductors, etc., for use in DG and FutureGen applications, and to conduct fundamental research that aids the general development of all solid oxide technology.

McVay, G.; Williams, M.

2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

293

Active devices for high temperature microcircuitry. [Silicon and gallium arsenide devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of a program to develop high temperature electronics for geothermal well instrumentation, a number of solid state diode and transistor types were characterized from room temperature to 300/sup 0/C. The temperature dependence and aging stability of transport and leakage properties were measured. Included in the study were silicon diodes, bipolar transistors, JFETs, MOSFETs, and GaAs MESFETs and JFETs. In summary the results are: diodes and bipolar transistors became extremely leaky at high temperature and are therefore of limited use; silicon MOSFETs and GaAs devices showed unacceptable aging instabilities at high temperatures; silicon JFETs from certain manufacturers were sufficiently stable and had suitable temperature dependent characteristics so that operational circuits could be made. Comparisons were made of experimental device characteristics and those predicted by theory. The theoretical calculations were done using standard equations revised to include appropriate temperature dependent parameters. Close agreement between theory and experiment was found, indicating that unexpected high temperature effects were insignificant. In order to facilitate the use of devices in high temperature hybrids, it was necessary to develop bonding and prescreening techniques. A large variance of JFET 300/sup 0/C operating parameters was found even within a single production lot. Consequently, high temperature prescreening allowed each circuit to be specifically ''pretuned.'' Standard solder, epoxy, and chip and wire attachment technologies were not functional at 300/sup 0/C. Gold-germanium solder, aluminum wire to DuPont 9910 gold film, and diffusion barrier pads were developed to allow high temperature attachment.

Palmer, D.W.; Draper, B.L.; McBrayer, J.D.; White, K.R.

1978-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Room Air  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Room Air Conditioners to someone by E-mail Room Air Conditioners to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Room Air Conditioners on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Room Air Conditioners on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Room Air Conditioners on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Room Air Conditioners on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Room Air Conditioners on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Room Air Conditioners on AddThis.com... Energy-Efficient Products Federal Requirements Covered Product Categories Product Designation Process

295

Release of DRAFT RFP Headquarters Reading Room Instructions/Guidelines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Release of DRAFT RFP Release of DRAFT RFP Headquarters Reading Room Instructions/Guidelines 1. Reading Room Points of Contact: 7/21 - 8/8, Mike Baehre, (202) 586-6575 8/9 - Close of Draft RFP, John Bernier, (202) 586-6416 Reading Room Availability: By Appointment - Reading Room will be available until DRAFT RFP Closes. Reading Room Hours: Morning, 9:00 a.m. - 11:30 a.m.; and Afternoon 1:00 p.m. - 3:30 p.m. Reading Room Will Accommodate: Up to 5-6 people 2. All personnel must: a. Sign-in b. Identify their Company or Firm they work for or are affiliated c. Indicate if they have a "Q" clearance 3. Personnel must stay in the Reading Room to view documents. The "A" corridor is inside a classified area and all visitors to the Reading Room must be escorted at all times.

296

Evaluation of Energy-Efficiency Standards for Room Air Conditioners...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy-Efficiency Standards for Room Air Conditioners in the US Title Evaluation of Energy-Efficiency Standards for Room Air Conditioners in the US Publication Type Journal Article...

297

Valance heating/cooling system attains largest application in 1,000-room hotel  

SciTech Connect

Room temperatures in the 1,000 guest rooms of Chicago's Hyatt Regency Hotel are controlled by a valance heating and cooling system that functions by means of radiation and convection. The valances are mounted below the ceiling and consists of finned tubes and a drain tube contained within a wall-mounted enclosure. The finned tubes and drain are connected to a riser system, that is connected to a hot and cold water supply. The economics of the system is discussed and with no fans, motors, or blowers to run, energy is conserved. (MCW)

1976-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Solid-State Lighting Issue 18: Scientific Literature (Late May...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

efficient room temperature spin injection in a metal-insulator-semiconductor light-emitting diode." P Van Dorpe, VF Motsnyi, M Nijboer, E Goovaerts, VI Safarov, J Das, W Van...

299

Electrolysis – High Temperature – Hydrogen  

INL has developed a high-temperature process the utilizes solid oxide fuel cells that are operated in the electrolytic mode. The first process includes combining a high-temperature heat source (e.g. nuclear reactor) with a hydrogen production facility ...

300

THE CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF EXPERIMENTAL ROOMS FOR THE STUDY OF AIR-BORNE INFECTION*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to carry out adequately controlled studies on the effects of temperature and humidity on the behavior of bacteria and viruses suspended in the air under various experimental conditions, it became necessary to have available enclosed spaces in which any desired atmospheric state could be produced and maintained. The use of conventional methods of air conditioning is unsuitable for this purpose because all of these depend upon exchange of the air inside the experimental space with conditioned air. Hence, two identical air-tight, glass-walled rooms 8 feet X 10 feet and 8 feet high were built each within a separate air-conditioned shell which can be kept constantly at any temperature and relative humidity likely to be encountered in spaces occupied by human beings. Rapid circulation of the conditioned air over all surfaces of the inner room provides a sufficiently high rate of heat transfer to insure constant temperature conditions within that space. The relative humidity of the inner room can be maintained at the same level as the air of the outer shell or can be increased by the introduction of steam. Two rooms provide much greater

O. H. Robertson; Theodore T. Puck, Ph.D.; Henry Wise

1946-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Commissioning Tools for Heating/Cooling System in Residence - Verification of Floor Heating System and Room Air Conditioning System Performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tools of evaluating the performance of floor heating and room air conditioner are examined as a commissioning tool. Simple method is needed to check these performance while in use by residents, because evaluation currently requires significant time and effort. Therefore, this paper proposes a) two methods of evaluating the floor heating efficiency from the room / crawl space temperature and the energy consumption and b) method of evaluating COP of the room air conditioner from the data measured at the external unit. Case studies in which these tools were applied to actual residences are presented to demonstrate their effectiveness.

Miura, H.; Hokoi, S.; Iwamae, A.; Umeno, T.; Kondo, S.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Pre-validation of nuclear power plant control room design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evaluation of the design of complex automation and control room systems is an essential phase in the design process in the nuclear field. For example, in order to meet the nuclear regulatory requirements, the new control room systems have to be evaluated ... Keywords: concept of operations, control room, pre-validation, verification & validation

Jari Laarni; Paula Savioja; Hannu Karvonen; Leena Norros

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Application of Computational Thermodynamics in Solid Oxide Fuel ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Heat Index Based on the Hot Metal Silicon Content and Temperature Prediction Model ... Mechanical Stability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Materials: A ...

304

Thin film techniques for solid oxide fuel cells  

Thin film techniques for solid oxide fuel cells V.E.J. van Dieten and J. Schoonman Laboratory ... ticles stay in the hot temperature region can be ...

305

Tritium Room Air Monitor Operating Experience Review  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring the breathing air in tritium facility rooms for airborne tritium is a radiological safety requirement and a best practice for personnel safety. Besides audible alarms for room evacuation, these monitors often send signals for process shutdown, ventilation isolation, and cleanup system actuation to mitigate releases and prevent tritium spread to the environment. Therefore, these monitors are important not only to personnel safety but also to public safety and environmental protection. This paper presents an operating experience review of tritium monitor performance on demand during small (1 mCi to 1 Ci) operational releases, and intentional airborne inroom tritium release tests. The tritium tests provide monitor operation data to allow calculation of a statistical estimate for the reliability of monitors annunciating in actual tritium gas airborne release situations. The data show a failure to operate rate of 3.5E-06/monitor-hr with an upper bound of 4.7E-06, a failure to alarm on demand rate of 1.4E-02/demand with an upper bound of 4.4E-02, and a spurious alarm rate of 0.1 to 0.2/monitor-yr.

L. C. Cadwallader; B. J. Denny

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Solid-State Lighting: Postings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solid-State Lighting: Postings on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Postings on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Postings on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting:...

307

Laser sheet light flow visualization for evaluating room air flowsfrom Registers  

SciTech Connect

Forced air heating and cooling systems and whole house ventilation systems deliver air to individual rooms in a house via supply registers located on walls ceilings or floors; and occasionally less straightforward locations like toe-kicks below cabinets. Ideally, the air velocity out of the registers combined with the turbulence of the flow, vectoring of air by register vanes and geometry of register placement combine to mix the supply air within the room. A particular issue that has been raised recently is the performance of multiple capacity and air flow HVAC systems. These systems vary the air flow rate through the distribution system depending on the system load, or if operating in a ventilation rather than a space conditioning mode. These systems have been developed to maximize equipment efficiency, however, the high efficiency ratings do not include any room mixing effects. At lower air flow rates, there is the possibility that room air will be poorly mixed, leading to thermal stratification and reduced comfort for occupants. This can lead to increased energy use as the occupants adjust the thermostat settings to compensate and parts of the conditioned space have higher envelope temperature differences than for the well mixed case. In addition, lack of comfort can be a barrier to market acceptance of these higher efficiency systems To investigate the effect on room mixing of reduced air flow rates requires the measurement of mixing of supply air with room air throughout the space to be conditioned. This is a particularly difficult exercise if we want to determine the transient performance of the space conditioning system. Full scale experiments can be done in special test chambers, but the spatial resolution required to fully examine the mixing problem is usually limited by the sheer number of thermal sensors required. Current full-scale laboratory testing is therefore severely limited in its resolution. As an alternative, we used a water-filled scale model of a room in which whole-field supply air mixing maps of two vertical planes were measured using a Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) measurement technique. Water marked with fluorescent dye was used to simulate the supply airflow; and the resulting concentrations within the water filled model show how the supply air mixes with the room air and are an analog for temperature (for thermal loads) or fresh air (for ventilation). In addition to performing experiments over a range of flow rates, we also changed register locations and examined the effects for both heating and cooling operation by changing the water density (simulating air density changes due to temperature changes) using dissolved salt.

Walker, Iain S.; Claret, Valerie; Smith, Brian

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Solid Waste (New Mexico)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The New Mexico Environment Department's Solid Waste Bureau manages solid waste in the state. The Bureau implements and enforces the rules established by the Environmental Improvement Board.

309

SolidEnergy Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SolidEnergy Systems SolidEnergy Systems National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition SolidEnergy Systems Massachusetts Institute of Technology The Polymer Ionic Liquid (PIL) lithium battery combines the safety and energy density of a solid polymer lithium battery and the high performance of a lithium-ion battery. The battery developed by SolidEnergy achieves high energy density that works safely over a wide temperature range, which makes it ideal for electric vehicles and consumer electronics where both energy density and safety are essential. The PIL battery would also be successful in oil and gas drilling applications where the ability to recharge, store, transport, and perform at both very low and very high temperatures safely is mission critical. The PIL lithium battery dramatically improves both the safety and energy

310

SolidEnergy Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SolidEnergy Systems SolidEnergy Systems National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition SolidEnergy Systems Massachusetts Institute of Technology The Polymer Ionic Liquid (PIL) lithium battery combines the safety and energy density of a solid polymer lithium battery and the high performance of a lithium-ion battery. The battery developed by SolidEnergy achieves high energy density that works safely over a wide temperature range, which makes it ideal for electric vehicles and consumer electronics where both energy density and safety are essential. The PIL battery would also be successful in oil and gas drilling applications where the ability to recharge, store, transport, and perform at both very low and very high temperatures safely is mission critical. The PIL lithium battery dramatically improves both the safety and energy

311

Reduced Temperature Range for the Solar To Fuel Energy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Active Titania-Based Nanoparticles for Composite Propellant Combustion ... of Novel Nanostructured Electrolytes for Low Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells ...

312

NETL: NewsRoom - LabNotes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LabNotes LabNotes NewsRoom LabNotes January 2014 Chemical Looping 101: The Basics NETL's Chemical Looping Research Facilities Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion Chemical Looping Modeling and Simulation Research at NETL December 2013 Foamed Cement Can Seal Tricky Oil and Gas Wells November 2013 High-Performance Rechargeable Batteries May Help Keep the Lights On Rocks Demystified in Geomechanical Properties Lab October 2013 NETL's Morgantown Supercomputer Sets a High Bar for Energy Efficiency September 2013 NETL's Energy Data Exchange (EDX): Providing Access to Quality Energy Data Sorbents Capturing CO2 Will Make Power Plants Cleaner August 2013 Collaborative Technology Demonstrates Potential in Diabetes Testing Quantifying Uncertainty in Computer Model Predictions

313

Room air monitor for radioactive aerosols  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-pre The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP03533 between the Department of Energy and Rockwell International Corporation.

Balmer, David K. (Broomfield, CO); Tyree, William H. (Boulder, CO)

1989-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

314

Room air monitor for radioactive aerosols  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-preamplifier combination. 2 figs.

Balmer, D.K.; Tyree, W.H.

1987-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

315

Interfacial material for solid oxide fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

Baozhen, Li (Essex Junction, VT); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Mn solid solutions in self-assembled Ge/Si (001) quantum dot heterostructures  

SciTech Connect

Heteroepitaxial Ge{sub 0.98}Mn{sub 0.02} quantum dots (QDs) on Si (001) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The standard Ge wetting layer-hut-dome-superdome sequence was observed, with no indicators of second phase formation in the surface morphology. We show that Mn forms a dilute solid solution in the Ge quantum dot layer, and a significant fraction of the Mn partitions into a sparse array of buried, Mn-enriched silicide precipitates directly underneath a fraction of the Ge superdomes. The magnetic response from the ultra-thin film indicates the absence of robust room temperature ferromagnetism, perhaps due to anomalous intermixing of Si into the Ge quantum dots.

Kassim, J.; Nolph, C.; Reinke, P.; Floro, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Jamet, M. [Institut Nanosciences et Cryogenie/SP2M, CEA-UJF, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

317

Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

Sullivan, Neal P. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Theoretical Predictions of the thermodynamic Properties of Solid Sorbents Capture CO2 Applications  

SciTech Connect

We are establishing a theoretical procedure to identify most potential candidates of CO{sub 2} solid sorbents from a large solid material databank to meet the DOE programmatic goal for energy conversion; and to explore the optimal working conditions for the promising CO{sub 2} solid sorbents, especially from room to warm T ranges with optimal energy usage, used for both pre- and post-combustion capture technologies.

Duan, Yuhua; Sorescu, Dan; Luebke David; Pennline, Henry

2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

319

Process and material that encapsulates solid hazardous waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of encapsulating mixed waste in which a thermoplastic polymer having a melting temperature less than about 150.degree. C. and sulfur and mixed waste are mixed at an elevated temperature not greater than about 200.degree. C. and mixed for a time sufficient to intimately mix the constituents, and then cooled to a solid. The resulting solid is also disclosed.

O' Brien, Michael H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Erickson, Arnold W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Process and material that encapsulates solid hazardous waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for encapsulating mixed waste in which a thermoplastic polymer having a melting temperature less than about 150 C and sulfur and mixed waste are mixed at an elevated temperature not greater than about 200 C and mixed for a time sufficient to intimately mix the constituents, and then cooled to a solid. The resulting solid is also disclosed.

O' Brien, Michael H.; Erickson, Arnold W.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Cold Room Calc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

skills helpful but not required. Users More than 200 around the world. Audience Cold room design engineers, refrigeration equipment suppliers and contractors, owners of...

322

A holistic investigation of complexity sources in nuclear power plant control rooms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The nuclear power community in the United States is moving to modernize aging power plant control rooms as well as develop control rooms for new reactors. New generation control rooms, along with modernized control rooms, ...

Sasangohar, Farzan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Global Failure Criteria for Positive/Electrolyte/Negative Structure of Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to mismatch of the coefficients of thermal expansion of various layers in the positive/electrolyte/negative (PEN) structures of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), thermal stresses and warpage on the PEN are unavoidable due to the temperature changes from the stress-free sintering temperature to room temperature during the PEN manufacturing process. In the meantime, additional mechanical stresses will also be created by mechanical flattening during the stack assembly process. In order to ensure the structural integrity of the cell and stack of SOFC, it is necessary to develop failure criteria for SOFC PEN structures based on the initial flaws occurred during cell sintering and stack assembly. In this paper, the global relationship between the critical energy release rate and critical curvature and maximum displacement of the warped cells caused by the temperature changes as well as mechanical flattening process is established so that possible failure of SOFC PEN structures may be predicted deterministically by the measurement of the curvature and displacement of the warped cells.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Qu, Jianmin

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

Advanced Intermediate-Temperature Na-S Battery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, we reported an intermediate-temperature (~150°C) sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery. With a reduced operating temperature, this novel battery can potentially reduce the cost and safety issues associated with the conventional high-temperature (300~350°C) Na-S battery. A dense ?"-Al2O3 solid membrane and tetraglyme were utilized as the electrolyte separator and catholyte solvent in this battery. Solubility tests indicated that cathode mixture of Na2S4 and S exhibited extremely high solubility in tetraglyme (e.g., > 4.1 M for Na2S4 + 4 S). CV scans of Na2S4 in tetraglyme revealed two pairs of redox couples with peaks at around 2.22 and 1.75 V, corresponding to the redox reactions of polysulfide species. The discharge/charge profiles of the Na-S battery showed a slope region and a plateau, indicating multiple steps and cell reactions. In-situ Raman measurements during battery operation suggested that polysulfide species were formed in the sequence of Na2S5 + S ? Na2S5 + Na2S4? Na2S4 + Na2S2 during discharge and in a reverse order during charge. This battery showed dramatic improvement in rate capacity and cycling stability over room-temperature Na-S batteries, which makes it attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Kirby, Brent W.; Xu, Wu; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo (Gary)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Physical Education Building Building Room Material Amount Percentage Priority Action  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Physical Education Building Building Room Material Amount Percentage Priority Action Phys Ed Level Mechanical Insulation 250 LF 70.00 P6 Manage Phys Ed Level 1 East PE1H2 Pipe Fitting Mud 6 each 85.00 P5 #12;Building Room Material Amount Percentage Priority Action Phys Ed Level 2 West PE200 Pipe Fitting

Seldin, Jonathan P.

326

Service Building 4 Building Room Material Amount Percentage Priority Action  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Service Building 4 Building Room Material Amount Percentage Priority Action Service Building 4 S160 65 sqft 15.00 P5 Manage S1J74 Friday, February 18, 2011 Page 1 of 2 #12;Building Room Material Amount Manage Mechanical Insulation 100 LF 55.00 P5 Manage Service Buliding 4 S16H6A Gypsum Wallboard Joint

Seldin, Jonathan P.

327

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, which offers many advantages over traditional energy conversion systems including low emission and high efficiency, has become increasingly attractive to the utility, automotive, and defense industries (as shown in Figure 1). As an all solid-state energy conversion device, the SOFC operates at high temperatures (700-1,000 C) and produces electricity by electrochemically combining the fuel and oxidant gases across an ionically conducting oxide membrane. To build up a useful voltage, a number of cells or PENs (Positive cathode-Electrolyte-Negative anode) are electrically connected in series in a stack through bi-polar plates, also known as interconnects. Shown in Figure 2 (a) is a schematic of the repeat unit for a planar stack, which is expected to be a mechanically robust, high power-density and cost-effective design. In the stack (refer to Figure 2 (b)), the interconnect is simultaneously exposed to both an oxidizing (air) environment on the cathode side and a reducing (fuels such as hydrogen or natural gas) environment on the anode side for thousands of hours at elevated temperatures (700-1,000 C). Other challenges include the fact that water vapor is likely to be present in both of these environments, and the fuel is likely to contain sulfide impurities. Also, the interconnect must be stable towards any sealing materials with which it is in contact, under numerous thermal cycles. Furthermore, the interconnect must also be stable towards electrical contact materials that are employed to minimize interfacial contact resistance, and/or the electrode materials. Considering these service environments, the interconnect materials should possess the following properties: (1) Good surface stability (resistance to oxidation and corrosion) in both cathodic (oxidizing) and anodic (reducing) atmospheres. (2) Thermal expansion matching to the ceramic PEN and other adjacent components, all of which typically have a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) in the range of 10.5-12.0 x 10{sup -6} K{sup -1}. (3) High electrical conductivity through both the bulk material and in-situ formed oxide scales. (4) Satisfactory bulk and interfacial mechanical/thermomechanical reliability and durability at the SOFC operating temperatures. (5) Good compatibility with other materials in contact with interconnects such as seals and electrical contact materials. Until recently, the leading candidate material for the interconnect was doped lanthanum chromite (LaCrO3), which is a ceramic material which can easily withstand the traditional 1000 C operating temperature. However, the high cost of raw materials and fabrication, difficulties in obtaining high-density chromite parts at reasonable sintering temperatures, and the tendency of the chromite interconnect to partially reduce at the fuel gas/interconnect interface, causing the component to warp and the peripheral seal to break, have plagued the commercialization of planar SOFCs for years. The recent trend in developing lower temperature, more cost-effective cells which utilize anode-supported, several micron-thin electrolytes and/or new electrolytes with improved conductivity make it feasible for lanthanum chromite to be supplanted by metals or alloys as the interconnect materials. Compared to doped lanthanum chromite, metals or alloys offer significantly lower raw material and fabrication costs.

Yang, Z Gary; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2003-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

ENERGY STAR Qualified Room Air Conditioners | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Room Air Conditioners Room Air Conditioners Consumer Data Apps Challenges Resources About Blogs Let's Talk Feedback Consumer You are here Data.gov » Communities » Consumer » Data ENERGY STAR Qualified Room Air Conditioners Dataset Summary Description Room Air Conditioners that have earned the ENERGY STAR are more efficient than standard models. ENERGY STAR is the trusted symbol for energy efficiency helping consumers save money and protect the environment through energy-efficient products and practices. More information on ENERGY STAR is available at www.energystar.gov. Tags {"Room Air Conditioners","Energy Star",products,"energy efficiency",efficient,"greenhouse gas emissions",climate,utility,utilities,household,savings,labels,partners,certification}

329

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Room Air Conditioner Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Room Air Conditioner Cost Estimator Room Air Conditioner Cost Estimator Screen capture of Room Air Conditioner Cost Estimator The cost estimator compares high-efficiency room air conditioners to standard equipment in terms of life cycle cost. It provides an alternative to complicated building simulation models, while offering more precision than simplified estimating tools that are commonly available. The cost estimator assists decision-making regarding the purchase or replacement of room air conditioning equipment, by estimating a product�s lifetime energy cost savings at various efficiency levels. Screen Shots Keywords air conditioner, life-cycle cost, energy performance, residential buildings, energy savings Validation/Testing Internal reviews at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

330

Rotary bulk solids divider  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

Maronde, Carl P. (McMurray, PA); Killmeyer, Jr., Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Laser cooling of solids  

SciTech Connect

We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Solid-State Lighting: Registration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lighting: Registration on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Registration on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Registration on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting:...

333

Tribological Characterization of Carbon Based Solid Lubricants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High performance machines such as gas turbine engines demand efficient solid lubricants at high temperature and in vacuum. The current conventional solid lubricants need to be further improved. This research evaluates carbon based solid lubricants using a high vacuum, high temperature pin-on-disc tribometer. The objectives of this research were to develop an understanding of the tribological properties of solid lubricant coatings under extreme operating conditions, and to determine whether using a carbon based solid lubricant would be acceptable for use in those conditions. Experimentally, two solid lubricant coatings on tungsten carbide substrate were tested against two different materials. The coatings were carbon based and molybdenum disulfide based. The other materials were 440C stainless steel and tungsten carbide. The temperature, pressure, and relative humidity are independent variables. The results showed that the carbon based coating increases friction and wears out quickly due to high temperature, high vacuum, and low humidity. Abrasive wear is the dominating mechanism. At elevated temperatures and in dry environment, the carbon based coating underwent significant oxidation and phase transformation. This research is beneficial for future design and development of solid lubricants for aerospace applications, as well as other industries requiring lubricants that must operate in extreme conditions. This thesis includes five chapters. Chapter I is an introduction to tribology and to the materials being used in this research. Chapter II describes the motivation and objectives behind this research. Chapter III discusses the experimental procedure and further explains the materials used. Chapter IV presents and discusses the results obtained. Chapter V discusses the major conclusions obtained from the results and offers some future work that may be conducted concerning this research.

Sanchez, Carlos Joel

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Solid State Division  

SciTech Connect

This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Solid aerosol generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates.

Prescott, Donald S. (Shelley, ID); Schober, Robert K. (Midwest City, OK); Beller, John (Idaho Falls, ID)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Videos  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solid-State Lighting Videos to Solid-State Lighting Videos to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Videos on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Videos on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Videos on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Videos on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Videos on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Videos on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings Presentations Publications Webcasts Videos Tools Solid-State Lighting Videos On this page you can access DOE Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Program videos. Photo of a museum art gallery with LED lights in track fixtures overhead. The City of Los Angeles LED Streetlight Program

337

Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Contacts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

About the About the Program Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Contacts to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Contacts on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Contacts on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Contacts on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Contacts on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Contacts on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Contacts on AddThis.com... Contacts Partnerships Solid-State Lighting Contacts For information about Solid-State Lighting, contact James Brodrick Lighting Program Manager Building Technologies Office U.S. Department of Energy

338

Solid-state proton conductors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this program was to survey the field of solid-state proton conductors (SSPC), identify conductors that could be used to develop solid-state fuel cells suitable for use with coal derived fuel gases, and begin the experimental research required for the development of these fuel cells. This document covers the following topics: the history of developments and current status of the SSPC, including a review of proton conducting electrolyte structures, the current status of the medium temperature SSPC development, electrodes for moderate temperature (SSPC) fuel cell, basic material and measurement techniques applicable for SSPC development, modeling and optimization studies. Correlation and optimization studies, to include correlation studies on proton conduction and oxide cathode optimization for the SSPC fuel cell. Experiments with the SSPC fuel cells including the fabrication of the electrolyte disks, apparatus for conducting measurements, the strontium-cerium based electrolyte, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with solid foil electrodes, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with porous electrodes, and conduction mechanisms. 164 refs., 27 figs., 13 tabs.

Jewulski, J.R.; Osif, T.L.; Remick, R.J.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Solids fluidizer-injector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and process are described for fluidizing solid particles by causing rotary motion of the solid particles in a fluidizing chamber by a plurality of rotating projections extending from a rotatable cylinder end wall interacting with a plurality of fixed projections extending from an opposite fixed end wall and passing the solid particles through a radial feed orifice open to the solids fluidizing chamber on one side and a solid particle utilization device on the other side. The apparatus and process are particularly suited for obtaining intermittent feeding with continual solids supply to the fluidizing chamber. The apparatus and process are suitable for injecting solid particles, such as coal, to an internal combustion engine. 3 figs.

Bulicz, T.R.

1990-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

340

Structural phase transitions in the Ag{sub 2}Nb{sub 4}O{sub 11}-Na{sub 2}Nb{sub 4}O{sub 11} solid solution  

SciTech Connect

The phase transitions between various structural modifications of the natrotantite-structured system xAg{sub 2}Nb{sub 4}O{sub 11}-(1-x)Na{sub 2}Nb{sub 4}O{sub 11} have been investigated and a phase diagram constructed as a function of temperature and composition. This shows three separate phase transition types: (1) paraelectric-ferroelectric, (2) rhombohedral-monoclinic and (3) a phase transition within the ferroelectric rhombohedral zone between space groups R3c and R3. The parent structure for the entire series has space group R3{sup Macron }c. Compositions with x>0.75 are rhombohedral at all temperatures whereas compositions with x<0.75 are all monoclinic at room temperature and below. At x=0.75, rhombohedral and monoclinic phases coexist with the phase boundary below room temperature being virtually temperature-independent. The ferroelectric phase boundary extends into the monoclinic phase field. No evidence was found for the R3-R3c phase boundary extending into the monoclinic phase field and it is concluded that a triple point is formed. - Graphical abstract: Phase diagram for xAg{sub 2}Nb{sub 4}O{sub 11}-(1-x)Na{sub 2}Nb{sub 4}O{sub 11} solid solution showing changes in crystal symmetry as a function of temperature and composition. The crystal structure is depicted. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Ferroelectric, rhombohedral Ag{sub 2}Nb{sub 4}O{sub 11} in solid solution with monoclinic Na{sub 2}Nb{sub 4}O{sub 11}. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Three phase boundaries were studied as a function of composition and temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Both rhombohedral and monoclinic variants exhibit ferroelectricity. The parent phase of the series has space group R3{sup Macron }c.

Woodward, David I., E-mail: d.i.woodward@warwick.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Lees, Martin R.; Thomas, Pam A. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Solid-State Lighting: Tools  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

about Solid-State Lighting: Tools on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Tools on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Tools on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Tools on...

342

Solid-State Lighting: News  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

about Solid-State Lighting: News on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: News on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: News on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: News on...

343

Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solid-State Lighting Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings Past Conferences Presentations Publications Webcasts Videos Tools Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop Nearly 200 lighting industry leaders, chip makers, fixture and component

344

Monitoring radioactive xenon gas in room air using activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect

A method for monitoring room air for radioactive xenon gas is described. It uses activated charcoal vials, a vacuum source and a well-type scintillation counter. The method may be adapted for detection and identification of any radioactive gas excluding those with ultra-short half-lives. Sampling room air during xenon-133 ({sup 133}Xe) ventilation lung studies was performed using this technique. The results show that low concentrations of {sup 133}Xe in room air can be reliably detected and that staff exposure to {sup 133}Xe at this institution was within ICRP recommendations.

Langford, J.; Thompson, G. (Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Perth (Australia) Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth (Australia))

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

How much sense do room occupancy sensor controls make  

SciTech Connect

Hotel operators are faced with a confusing array of both remote and local guest room energy control devices. A wide variety of decentralized electronic room controllers, each with its own control logic and vendor claims are in competition with remote front desk microprocessor controls which are essentially ''blind'' to actual occupancy. This paper is a review of the characteristics of various controllers, their behaviour with different in-room environmental equipment, and guest reactions to the potpourri of available devices.

Becker, H.P.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Using CrAIN Multilayer Coatings to Improve Oxidation Resistance of Steel Interconnects for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The requirements of low cost and high-tempurature corrosion resistance for bipolar interconnect plates in solid oxide fuel cell stacks has directed attention to the use of metal plates with oxidation resistant coatings. We have investigatedt he performance of steel plates with multilayer coatings consisting of CrN for electrical conductivity and CrAIN for oxidation resistance. The coatings were deposited usin large area filterd arc deposition technolgy, and subsequently annealed in air for up to 25 hours at 800 degrees celsius. The composition, structer and morphology of the coated plates were characterized using RBS, nuclear reaction analysis, AFM and TEM techniques. By altering the architecture of the layers within the coatings, the rate of oxidation was reduced by more than an order of magnitute. Electrical resistance was measured at room temperature.

Smith, Richard J.; Tripp, C.; Knospe, Anders; Ramana, C. V.; Gorokhovsky, Vladimir I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Gelles, David S.

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Gasification of carbonaceous solids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for converting coal and other carbonaceous solids to an intermediate heating value fuel gas or to a synthesis gas. A stream of entrained pulverized coal is fed into the combustion stage of a three-stage gasifier along with a mixture of oxygen and steam at selected pressure and temperature. The products of the combustion stage pass into the second or quench stage where they are partially cooled and further reacted with water and/or steam. Ash is solidified into small particles and the formation of soot is suppressed by water/steam injections in the quench stage. The design of the quench stage prevents slag from solidifying on the walls. The products from the quench stage pass directly into a heat recovery stage where the products pass through the tube, or tubes, of a single-pass, shell and tube heat exchanger and steam is generated on the shell side and utilized for steam feed requirements of the process.

Coates, Ralph L. (Provo, UT)

1976-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

348

Solid hydrogen structure  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The J=0{minus}>2 Raman signal from solid J=0 D{sub 2} or H{sub 2} reveals HCP structure when deposited at a rate 0.1 {le} R({mu}/min) {le} 40 onto MgF{sub 2} at T{sub d}/T{sub tp} > 0.3, a mixture of HCP and FCC crystals at 0.2 < T{sub d}/T{sub tp} < 0.3 and possibly a randomly stacked close packed structure at T{sub d}/T{sub tp} < 0.2, where T{sub tp} is the triple point temperature. Non-HCP crystals transform to HCP continuously and irreversibly with increasing T. Finally, the crystal size decreases with decreasing T{sub d} and increasing R, from {approximately} 1 mm at T{sub d} {approximately} 0.8 T{sub tp} and R {approximately} 2 {mu}/min to {approximately} 1 {mu}m at 0.25 T{sub tp} and R {approximately} 40 {mu}/min.

Collins, G.W.; Unites, W.G.; Mapoles, E.R.; Magnotta, F.; Bernat, T.P.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

WIPP Reaches Milestone „ First Disposal Room Filled  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

WIPP Reaches Milestone - First Disposal Room Filled CARLSBAD, N.M., September 4, 2001 - The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office today announced that Room 7 of Panel 1 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the first underground room used for disposal operations, has been filled to capacity with transuranic waste. The milestone was reached at about 3:30 p.m. on August 24, as Waste Handling personnel emplaced a shipment of waste from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. On August 25, Underground Operations personnel completed installation of a chain link mesh barrier and cloth drape across the entrance to the room to officially declare the area "closed." The first shipment of waste, which came

350

Dorm Room Idea Now Revolutionizing Energy | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Dorm Room Idea Now Revolutionizing Energy Dorm Room Idea Now Revolutionizing Energy Dorm Room Idea Now Revolutionizing Energy April 16, 2010 - 11:07am Addthis Joshua DeLung What does this project do? Princeton Power Systems is currently installing a 200-kW solar array and advanced battery system on company grounds to provide clean power to its building and to showcase advancements in renewable energy technology to businesses, municipalities and utilities that may be curious about renewable energy projects. While many college students might spend their time playing Ultimate Frisbee or enjoying the nightlife, Darren Hammell and several other Princeton University classmates transformed an idea fostered in a dorm room into one of the fastest-growing businesses in the energy industry, creating jobs and

351

Virtual Reading Room prior to 2000 | National Nuclear Security  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

prior to 2000 | National Nuclear Security prior to 2000 | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Virtual Reading Room prior to 2000 Home > About Us > Our Operations > NNSA Office of General Counsel > Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) > Virtual Reading Room prior to 2000 Virtual Reading Room prior to 2000 Printer-friendly version Printer-friendly version

352

Covered Product Category: Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Room Air Conditioners Room Air Conditioners Covered Product Category: Room Air Conditioners October 7, 2013 - 10:40am Addthis ENERGY STAR Qualified Products FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including room air conditioners, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Most manufacturers display the ENERGY STAR label on complying models. For a model not displaying this label, check the manufacturer's literature to determine if it meets the efficiency requirements outlined by ENERGY STAR. Performance Requirements for Federal Purchases For the most up-to-date efficiency levels required by ENERGY STAR, look for

353

Demonstration of Intelligent Control and Fan Improvements in Computer Room  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demonstration of Intelligent Control and Fan Improvements in Computer Room Demonstration of Intelligent Control and Fan Improvements in Computer Room Air Handlers Title Demonstration of Intelligent Control and Fan Improvements in Computer Room Air Handlers Publication Type Report Refereed Designation Unknown LBNL Report Number LBNL-6007E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Coles, Henry C., Steve E. Greenberg, and Corrine Vita Document Number LBNL-6007E Date Published 12/2012 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley, CA Keywords air distribution, building technology and urban systems department, computer room air handler, crah control, data center, data center crah, ec fan, ecm, ecm fan, fan speed control, high tech and industrial systems group, plug fan, variable frequency drive, vfd, wireless control Abstract

354

Covered Product Category: Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Room Air Conditioners Room Air Conditioners Covered Product Category: Room Air Conditioners October 7, 2013 - 10:40am Addthis ENERGY STAR Qualified Products FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including room air conditioners, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Most manufacturers display the ENERGY STAR label on complying models. For a model not displaying this label, check the manufacturer's literature to determine if it meets the efficiency requirements outlined by ENERGY STAR. Performance Requirements for Federal Purchases For the most up-to-date efficiency levels required by ENERGY STAR, look for

355

MODELING OF HEAT TRANSFER IN ROOMS IN THE MODELICA  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MODELING MODELING OF HEAT TRANSFER IN ROOMS IN THE MODELICA "BUILDINGS" LIBRARY Michael Wetter, Wangda Zuo, Thierry Stephane Nouidui Simulation Research Group, Building Technologies Department Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, CA 94720, USA ABSTRACT This paper describes the implementation of the room heat transfer model in the free open-source Modelica "Buildings" library. The model can be used as a single room or to compose a multizone building model. We discuss how the model is de- composed into submodels for the individual heat transfer phenomena. We also discuss the main physical assumptions. The room model can be parameterized to use di↵erent modeling assump- tions, leading to linear or non-linear di↵erential algebraic systems of equations. We present nu- merical experiments that show

356

Press Room - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Search EIA.gov. A-Z Index; A-Z Index A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XYZ. Press Room. Glossary ...

357

Design of a multisystem remote maintenance control room  

SciTech Connect

The Remote Systems Development Section of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Japan's Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) recently collaborated in the development of a control room concept for remote operations. This report describes design methods and the resulting control room concept. The design project included five stages. The first was compilation of a complete function list; functions are tasks performed by operators in the control room while operating equipment located in the remote area. The second step was organization of the function list into ''function groups;'' function groups are sets of functions that operate one piece of equipment. The third stage was determination of crew size and requirements for supervision. The fourth stage was development of conceptual designs of displays and controls. The fifth stage was development of plans for placement of crew stations within the control room. 5 figs., 1 tab.

Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.J.; Kring, C.T.; Kawatsuma, S.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Jeremiah Holzbauer Michigan State University Bldg. 401, Room...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Jeremiah Holzbauer Michigan State University Bldg. 401, Room B-4100 Wednesday February 8, 1:30 pm Host: Ali Nassiri The Beams and Applications Seminar Series For more information...

359

Grid Support for Collaborative Control Room in Fusion Science  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Fusion Collaboratory project seeks to enable fusion scientists to exploit Grid capabilities in support of experimental science. To this end we are exploring the concept of a collaborative control room that harnesses Grid and collaborative ...

K. Keahey; M. E. Papka; Q. Peng; D. Schissel; G. Abla; T. Araki; J. Burruss; E. Feibush; P. Lane; S. Klasky; T. Leggett; D. Mccune; L. Randerson

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

NETL: NewsRoom - This Week at NETL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NewsRoom This Week at NETL 2013 October September August July October 15, 2013 October 7, 2013 September 30, 2013 September 23, 2013 September 16, 2013 September 9, 2013 September...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Second Panel of Disposal Rooms Completed in WIPP Underground  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Isolation Pilot Plant P.O. Box 3090 Carlsbad, New Mexico 88221 DOENews -2- Underground waste disposal panels are arranged in parallel sets of seven rooms each. Each set of seven...

362

Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Variable-Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer-Room Air Conditioners Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program Technology Case Study Bulletin By...

363

Five ENERGY STAR Room Air Conditioners Fail Testing  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Enforcement announced today that DOE testing has identified five Friedrich room air conditioners that do not meet the ENERGY STAR Program’s energy...

364

Virtual Reading Room after to 2000 | National Nuclear Security  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

after to 2000 | National Nuclear Security after to 2000 | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Virtual Reading Room after to 2000 Home > About Us > Our Operations > NNSA Office of General Counsel > Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) > Virtual Reading Room after to 2000 Virtual Reading Room after to 2000 Printer-friendly version Printer-friendly version

365

How the Number and Placement of Sensors Controlling Room Air Distribution Systems Affect Energy Use and Comfort  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study assesses the impact of sensor number and placement on the energy needed to condition a typical office using several likely variants of an underfloor air distribution system (UFAD). The study uses an empirical-based room stratification model developed from full-scale tests of UFAD systems. Annual energy consumption is calculated for an interior zone using outside air temperature bin data. The comfort criteria are taken from ASHRAE standard 55-92. The simulations indicate that there are benefits derived from using more than one temperature sensor to control conditions in the occupied zone of a room. Among these are: 1. By adjusting both supply air temperature and volume to maintain the maximum allowable thermal gradient in the occupied (lower) part of the room, an optimal supply air condition can reduce energy use (relative to the best arrangement of a single sensor) while maintaining comfort; 2. Discomfort caused by stratification can be detected by having one of the sensors located at foot level; 3. For the simulated UFAD interior zone of a typical office building in Sacramento, an overall energy saving of 8%/24% (VAV/CAV respectively) can be achieved when two sensors as opposed to one are used to control room conditions.

Wang, D.; Arens, E.; Webster, T.; Shi, M.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Tertiary Containment in a Multi-Room Tritium Facility  

SciTech Connect

An experimental system to provide tertiary containment at Mound has been upgraded to support a new multi-room tritium handling facility. This system is used to remove tritium from room air in the event of primary (process) and secondary (glovebox) containment failure. The upgraded system includes a faster response time, piping and valves that are more leaktight, and a new control panel that better indicates the system status and operating conditions.

Kent, L. R.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

How (and where) to book rooms This guide will tell you how and where to book rooms and spaces in the Students'  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

How (and where) to book rooms This guide will tell you how and where to book rooms and spaces are completely FREE to use for societies and committees. All you need is a current Room Booking Card to show per society/committee). If you want a valid room booking card for the academic year 12/13 you MUST

Dixon, Peter

368

Using a Research Simulator for Validating Control Room Modernization Concepts  

SciTech Connect

The Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is a research, development, and deployment program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy. The program is operated in close collaboration with industry research and development programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of nuclear power plants that are currently in operation. Advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies are needed to support the continued safe and reliable production of power from nuclear energy systems during sustained periods of operation up to and beyond their expected licensed lifetime. This requires that new capabilities to achieve process control be developed and eventually implemented in existing nuclear control rooms. It also requires that approaches be developed and proven to achieve sustainability of I&C systems throughout the period of extended operation. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe life extension of current reactors. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Current analog control rooms are growing obsolete, and it is difficult for utilities to maintain them. Using its reconfigurable control room simulator adapted from a training simulator, INL serves as a neutral test bed for implementing new control room system technologies and assisting in control room modernization efforts across.

Ronald L. Boring; Vivek Agarwal; Julius J. Persensky; Jeffrey C. Joe

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

SolidEnergy Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Science & Innovation » Innovation » Commercialization » National Science & Innovation » Innovation » Commercialization » National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition » SolidEnergy Systems National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition SolidEnergy Systems Massachusetts Institute of Technology The Polymer Ionic Liquid (PIL) lithium battery combines the safety and energy density of a solid polymer lithium battery and the high performance of a lithium-ion battery. The battery developed by SolidEnergy achieves high energy density that works safely over a wide temperature range, which makes it ideal for electric vehicles and consumer electronics where both energy density and safety are essential. The PIL battery would also be successful in oil and gas drilling applications where the ability to recharge, store, transport, and perform at both very low and very high

370

Molecular Solids I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 17, 2010 ... However, milling brings multiple transformations produced in the API. These transformations and the resulting behavior of certain organic solid ...

371

Solid Waste Permits (Louisiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality administers the rules and regulations governing the storage, collection, processing, recovery, and reuse of solid waste protect the air,...

372

Solid Catalyst – Alkylation  

This is a method used to reactivate solid/liquid catalysts used in INL’s super critical process to produce alkylates. The method brings the catalyst ...

373

Improvements in solid desiccant cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The DINC (Direct-Indirect Evaporative Cooling) cycle was proposed in 1986 by Texas A and M researchers. The idea was to combine the benefits of direct and indirect evaporative cooling with desiccant dehumidifying using a rotating solid silica-gel dehumidifier. Recent parametric studies completed for the Texas Energy Research in Applications Program have developed a computer design for a nominal 3-ton system that would minimize the energy consumption (both thermal and electric) while maintaining a sensible heat ratio of 75% or less. That optimum design for the original 1986 DINC cycle was modified to improve its energy efficiency. The modifications described in this paper were: (1) staging the desiccant regeneration air and (2) recirculation of the primary air to the secondary side of the indirect evaporative cooling. Computer simulations were run to study the effect of the modifications on the performance of the system. American Refrigeration Institute (AIR) standard conditions (Ambient air at 35C, 40% R.H. and Room air at 26.7C, 50% R.H.) were used for all the modifications. Results were also compared to the familiar Pennington (ventilation) cycle. The study indicated that recirculating the indirect evaporative cooler air only degenerated the performance. However, staging a portion of the regeneration air could improve the thermal coefficient of Performance by 25% over the non-staged DINC cycle. Compared to a similar staged-regeneration Pennington cycle it is a 16% improvement in thermal COP and the sensible heat ratio was 70%.

Waugaman, D.; Kini, A.; Kettleborough, C.F. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

Kumar, Binod (Dayton, OH); Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G. (Fairborn, OH)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

ARIEL: automatic wi-fi based room fingerprinting for indoor localization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

People spend the majority of their time indoors, and human indoor activities are strongly correlated with the rooms they are in. Room localization, which identifies the room a person or mobile phone is in, provides a powerful tool for characterizing ...

Yifei Jiang; Xin Pan; Kun Li; Qin Lv; Robert P. Dick; Michael Hannigan; Li Shang

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

High solids fermentation reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO); Grohmann, Karel (Littleton, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO); Richard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Pilot Study: Measurement of Room Illuminance to Assess Automatic Brightness  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Study: Measurement of Room Illuminance to Assess Automatic Brightness Study: Measurement of Room Illuminance to Assess Automatic Brightness Control in Televisions Title Pilot Study: Measurement of Room Illuminance to Assess Automatic Brightness Control in Televisions Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2012 Authors Greenblatt, Jeffery B., Mia Forbes Pirie, Louis-Benoit Desroches, Sally M. Donovan, Clancy Donnelly, Craig Billingsley, and Chris Calwell Pagination 13 Date Published August 12 Conference Location Berkeley Abstract Automatic brightness control (ABC) is an increasingly common feature found in newtelevisions (TVs) and computer monitors. ABC is intended to adjust TV screen brightness(luminance) according to the ambient light level (room illuminance). When implementedcorrectly, this can both reduce energy consumption and improve viewing quality. The currentENERGY STAR test procedure provides for a more favorable energy use rating for TVs withABC, by measuring power consumption at two light levels (0 and 300 lux) and reporting aweighted-average energy use. However, this and other studies suggest that these levels are notrepresentative of actual TV viewing conditions.As there were currently only limited data available concerning room illuminance, weundertook a small pilot study in 2011 to begin to answer two key questions: 1. To what extent doroom illuminance levels vary depending on the location of measurement (e.g., center of theroom, on the couch, or at the TV)? 2. What room illuminance conditions are prevalent whenpeople watch TV?We measured room illuminance in the homes of nine volunteers in California andColorado to begin addressing the above two questions. Although the study had the usualdrawbacks of a pilot (limited sample size, time duration, etc.), it has, nonetheless, yielded usefulresults. The study shows definitively that there is large variability between measurements madeat different locations in the room and, therefore, that location of room illuminance measurementsis critical. Moreover, the majority (over 75%) of TV viewing occurred at illuminance levels ofless than 50 lux (though measurements of up to several hundred lux were also recorded), a resultthat was consistent with subsequent larger-scale studies. This type of information can helpdetermine how ABC-enabled TVs should be tested to best represent actual viewing conditions.

378

Solids decomposition kinetics for LASL bismuth sulfate cycle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The LASL Bismuth Sulfate Cycle includes a solid-decomposition step as an alternative to the high-temperature evaporation and decomposition of concentrated sulfuric acid, with its attendant drying and materials problems. A solids decomposition facility was constructed and used to study the handling of solid sulfates and the kinetics of their decomposition. The decomposition of Bi/sub 2/O(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ has been measured as a function of temperature and transit time through a laboratory-scale rotary kiln, constructed from quartz. Temperatures from 973 to 1143/sup 0/K were investigated. The transit time was controlled by varying the slope of the kiln, its rotational speed, and the rate of feed of a bismuth oxysulfate prepared in the prescribed manner. The preparation and characterization of this solid, which has reasonable feeding properties and minimal solution retention, are described. Significant amounts of decomposition were measured in short reaction times at the temperatures investigated.

Peterson, C.L.; Bowman, M.G.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Ris National Laboratory Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Doped ceria has 1 #12;2 advantages over conventional zirconia oxide, temperature and oxygen activty. High leak current densities may be deduced from reports on SOFCs with ceria

380

When Emergency Rooms Close: Ambulance Diversion in the West San Fernando Valley  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multiple critical patients APP: When Emergency Rooms Closeparamedics sit in a crowded emergency room. 16 These waitsS. Chan. “The effect of emergency department crowding on

Natasha Mihal; Renee Moilanen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Solid-State Lighting: 2013 Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2013 Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop Presentations and Materials to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: 2013 Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D...

382

SOLID SOLUTION EFFECTS ON THE THERMAL PROPERTIES IN THE MgAl2O4-MgGa2O4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid solution eects on thermal conductivity within the MgO-Al2O3-Ga2O3 system were studied. Samples with systematically varied additions of MgGa2O4 to MgAl2O4 were prepared and the laser ash technique was used to determine thermal diusivity at temperatures between 200C and 1300C. Heat capacity as a function of temperature from room temperature to 800C was also determined using dierential scanning calorimetry. Solid solution in the MgAl2O4-MgGa2O4 system decreases the thermal conductivity up to 1000C. At 200C thermal conductivity decreased 24% with a 5 mol% addition of MgGa2O4 to the system. At 1000C the thermal conductivity decreased 13% with a 5 mol% addition. Steady state calculations showed a 12.5% decrease in heat ux with 5 mol% MgGa2O4 considered across a 12 inch thickness.

O'Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Sander, Todd P. [Missouri University of Science and Technology; Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Delivery system for molten salt oxidation of solid waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a delivery system for safety injecting solid waste particles, including mixed wastes, into a molten salt bath for destruction by the process of molten salt oxidation. The delivery system includes a feeder system and an injector that allow the solid waste stream to be accurately metered, evenly dispersed in the oxidant gas, and maintained at a temperature below incineration temperature while entering the molten salt reactor.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Squire, Dwight V. (Livermore, CA); Robinson, Jeffrey A. (Manteca, CA); House, Palmer A. (Walnut Creek, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Fabrication of Solid Electrolyte Dendrites for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fabrication of Solid Electrolyte Dendrites for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Miniaturizations · Fabrication of TiN Nanoparticle Dispersed Si3N4 Ceramics by Wet Jet ...

385

Evaluation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnect Coatings: Reaction Layer Microstructure, Chemistry and Formation Mechanisms.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The implementation of improved electrolyte materials have led to modern solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) which operate at lower temperatures (600-800 °C) than previously… (more)

Magdefrau, Neal J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

NETL: Optimizing the Costs of Solid Sorbent-Based CO2 Capture...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

testing and computer modeling of select concepts to address the technology gap of a cross heat exchanger for solids. Processes that depend chiefly on temperature-swing adsorption...

387

Solid-State Lighting: Events  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Events Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: Events to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Events on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State...

388

Community Activity Room (CAR) Painter, Version 4.0  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The CAR V4 software visualizes transmission congestion and grid reliability in both a two-dimensional painting and a three-dimension rendering of walls enclosing a Community Activity Room. EPRI developed the concept of the Community Activity Room in the spring of 2002. It was implemented in the CAR Painter software. A demonstration software was issued in September 2002. In April, 2004, version 2.0 was released with many features added to the CAR Painter, including a 3-D visualization module. Version 3.0 ...

2005-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

389

Inelastic x-ray scattering study of supercooled liquid and solid silicon.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Momentum-resolved inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) technique is one of the powerful methods for the study of dynamical properties of a given system even in extreme conditions like high temperature and high pressure. At the same time, experimental studies of physical and structural properties of liquids have multiplied in recent years with the advent of containerless techniques. These methods reduce the possibility of contamination of specimens and remove external nucleation sites. Therefore, by combining the IXS method with the levitation method, the dynamical properties of stable liquids up to 3000 K and supercooled phase of liquids can be studied. Silicon is a basic material in the semiconductor industry and has been the subject of a large amount of experimental and theoretical studies over a long time. In the crystalline phase at ambient conditions, silicon is a diamond-structured semiconductor, but upon melting it undergoes a semiconductor-to-metal transition accompanied by significant changes in the structure and density. The coordination number increases from 4 in the solid to about 6.5 in the liquid, and liquid density is increased by about 10%. The principal purpose of the present study was to determine silicon's elastic modulus from the measurement of averaged sound speed determined from IXS. The experiments were carried out at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) beamline 3-ID with a high-resolution monochromator consisting of two nested channel-cut crystals and four backscattering analyzer setups in the horizontal scattering plane 6 m from the sample. The requirements for very high energy resolution and the basic principles of such instrumentation are discussed elsewhere as referenced. The levitation apparatus was enclosed in a bell jar specially designed for backscattering geometry with a separation of 10 cm between the sample and the detector. Silicon spheres of 2 to 3 mm in diameter were suspended in an argon gas jet and heated with a 270 W CO{sub 2} laser beam. Temperatures were measured during the experiment with a pyrometer whose operating wavelength was 0.65 {micro}m. The temperature gradient on the sample was estimated to be about +/- 20 K. The energy scans were taken for supercooled-liquid and hot-solid silicon at temperature T=1620 K. Sound velocities were determined from the initial slope of the excitation frequencies. Then, the longitudinal moduli for hotsolid and supercooled-liquid silicon were calculated from L = v{sub L}{sup 2}{rho} using measured velocities. In these calculations, density values were taken from Ohsaka et al. as referenced. Results are presented in Table 1. together with room-temperature, hot-solid single-crystal measurements, and stable-liquid values. Room-temperature longitudinal moduli were calculated from the values of the single-crystal elastic constants. They were measured between 300 K and 870 K. Since there was no phase transition up to temperature 1620 K for hot-solid silicon, it is reasonable to extrapolate these data to 1620 K in order to compare to our results for the hot solid. A significant difference (about 20%) is observed between our measurement and the extrapolated single-crystal value of the longitudinal modulus for solid silicon at temperature 1620K. This reduction of the longitudinal modulus may be an indication of the pre-melting. The factor of more than two change in the elastic modulus between supercooled liquid and hot solid at the same temperature can be attributed to the semiconductor-to-metal transition in silicon associated with melting. Also, the longitudinal modulus of the stable liquid is reported in Table 1. About a 10% difference is observed between the modulus of the supercooled and the stable liquid silicon. This can be interpreted as silicon still maintaining metallic properties with a significant increase in the degree of the directional bonding upon supercooling, as found in the x-ray diffraction and ab initio MD studies. All these results are discussed in reference.

Alatas, A.; Said, A.; Sinn, H.; Alp, E.E.; Kodituwakku, C.N.; Saboungi, M.L.; Price, D.L.; X-Ray Science Division; Western Michigan Univ.; Purdue Univ.; CRMD-CNRS; CRMHT-CNRS

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Polymeric electrolytes for ambient temperature lithium batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new type of highly conductive Li{sup +} polymer electrolyte, referred to as the Innovision polymer electrolyte, is completely amorphous at room temperature and has an ionic conductivity in the range of 10{sup {minus}3} S/cm. This report discusses the electrochemical characteristics (lithium oxidation and reduction), conductivity, and physical properties of Innovision electrolytes containing various dissolved salts. These electrolytes are particularly interesting since they appear to have some of the highest room-temperature lithium ion conductivities yet observed among polymer electrolytes. 13 refs. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Farrington, G.C. (Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

A New Method of Metal Temperature Estimation for Service-Run ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

phase fields between room temperature and 1200ºC. The largest changes ... beta phase depletion over the temperature range 865ºC to 1050ºC have shown that ...

392

An analysis of the impact of datacenter temperature on energy efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The optimal air temperature for datacenters is one of ways to improve energy efficiency of datacenter cooling systems. Many datacenter owners have been interested in raising the room temperature as a quick and simple method ...

Lee, Heechang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Room-temperature fuel cells and their integration into portable and embedded systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are a promising nextgeneration energy source for portable applications, due to their high energy density and the ease of handling of the liquid fuel. However, the limited range of output power obtainable from a fuel ...

Naehyuck Chang; Jueun Seo; Donghwa Shin; Younghyun Kim

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Quantitative room-temperature mineralization of airborne formaldehyde using manganese oxide catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

extent of mineralization Carbon dioxide levels produced as athe formation of carbon dioxide and water. The concentrationformaldehyde and carbon dioxide concentrations were recorded

Sidheswaran, Meera A.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Synthesis and Characterization of Thiazolium-Based Room Temperature Ionic Liquids for Gas Separations  

SciTech Connect

A series of novel thiazolium-bis(triflamide) based ionic liquids has been synthesized and characterized. Physicochemical properties of the ionic liquids such as thermal stability, phase transitions, and infrared spectra were analysed and compared to the imidazolium-based congeners. Several unique classes of ancillary substitutions are examined with respect to impacts on overall structure, in addition to their carbon dioxide absorption properties in supported ionic-liquid membranes for gas separation.

Hillesheim, Patrick C [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Fulvio, Pasquale F [ORNL; Yeary, Joshua S [ORNL; Oyola, Yatsandra [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Room Temperature Magneto-caloric Effect In Fe Substituted Ni-Mn ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bonded Magnetocaloric Powders for the Refrigeration Application · Coercivity ... Industrial Needs and Applications for Soft Magnetic Materials · Industrial ...

397

Electrodeposition of cobalt and cobalt-aluminum alloys from a room temperature chloroaluminate molten salt  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electrodeposition of magnetic cobalt-aluminum alloys was investigated in the Lewis acidic aluminum chloride-1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride [60.0--40.0 mole percent (m/o)] molten salt containing electrogenerated Co(II) at 25 C. rotating disk electrode voltammetry indicated that it is possible to produce alloy deposits containing up to 62 atomic (a/o) aluminum at potentials positive of that for the bulk deposition of aluminum. The onset of the underpotential-driven aluminum codeposition process occurred at around 0.40 V vs. the Al/Al(III) couple in a 5.00 mmol/liter Co(II) solution but decreased as the Co(II) concentration increased. The Co-Al alloy composition displayed an inverse dependence on the Co(II) concentration but tended to become independent of concentration as the potential was decreased to 0 V. A rotating ring-disk electrode voltammetry technique was developed to analyze the composition and structure of the Co-Al alloy deposits. This technique takes advantage of the fact that the mass-transport-limited reduction of cobalt(II) occurs at potentials considerably more positive than that at which aluminum codeposition occurs. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis of bulk electrodeposits revealed that deposit morphology depends strongly upon aluminum content/deposition potential; deposits produced at 0.40 V from 50.0 mmol/liter Co(II) solutions consisted of 10 to 20 {micro}m diam multifaceted nodules of pure hcp cobalt, whereas those obtained at 0.20 V were dense and fine grained, containing about 4 a/o Al. Deposits produced at 0 V had the visual appearance of a loosely adherent black powder. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed a lattice expansion and a decrease in grain size as the hcp cobalt was alloyed with increasing amounts of aluminum.

Mitchell, J.A.; Pitner, W.R.; Hussey, C.L. [Univ. of Mississippi, University, MS (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Stafford, G.R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Materials Science and Engineering Lab.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Short-Term Solubility of Eight Alloys Circulating in Mercury at Room Temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the alloy. To make the posttest mass measurements, those samples that were compatible with nitric acid were briefly rinsed in 8N nitric acid, washed in water and alcohol, and then dried. This was not possible in Table 2. Although the copper and aluminum experienced considerable mass loss due to dissolution

McDonald, Kirk

399

Room temperature study of a strain-induced electronic superstructure on a magnetite (111) surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A magnetite (Fe3O4) single crystal (111) surface has been studied at various oxygen-iron surface stoichiometries. The stoichiometry was modified by controlling the in-situ sample anneal conditions. We have found the conditions that lead to the formation of an oxygen-rich surface that forms a quasi-hexagonal superstructure with a 42A periodicity. The superstructure is highly regular and was observed by both LEED and STM. The superstructure consists of three regions, two of which have identical atomic scale structures with a periodicity of 2.8A, and a third having a periodicity that is about 10% larger (3.1A). The subtle difference in the atomic periodicities between the three areas results from the modulation of intrinsic strain developed along the surface. The superstructure results from electronic effects rather than being a mosaic of different iron oxide terminations. The onset of the superstructure is sensitive to the surface stoichiometry. From our results we could estimate the critical density of defects leading to the disappearance of the superstructure. We have modelled the experimental results and calculated the electron density using a DFT algorithm. The model clearly shows the development of strain along the surface.

N. Berdunov; S. Murphy; G. Mariotto; I. V. Shvets

2004-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

400

Studies of Room Temperature Accelerator Structures for the ILC Positron Source  

SciTech Connect

There are many challenges in the design of the normal-conducting portion of the ILC positron injector system such as achieving adequate cooling with the high RF and particle loss heating, and sustaining high accelerator gradients during millisecond-long pulses in a strong magnetic field. The proposed design for the positron injector contains both standing-wave and traveling-wave L-band accelerator structures for high RF efficiency, low cost and ease of fabrication. This paper presents results from several studies including particle energy deposition for both undulator based and conventional positron sources, cooling system design, accelerator structure optimization, RF pulse heating, cavity frequency stabilization, and RF feed system design.

Wang, J.W.; Adolphsen, C.; Bharadwaj, V.; Bowden, G.B.; Dolgashev, V.A.; Jones, R.M.; Jongewaard, E.N.; Lewandowski, J.R.; Li, Z.; Miller, R.H.; /SLAC

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Characterization of Thallium Bromide (TlBr) for Room Temperature Radiation Detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 Motivation: Radiation Detection for HomelandSecurity . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Semiconductor Radiationand related features of radiation ionization energies in

Smith, Holland McTyeire

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Crystal structure of graphite under room-temperature compression and decompression  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, sophisticated theoretical computational studies have proposed several new crystal structures of carbon (e.g., bct-C{sub 4}, H-, M-, R-, S-, W-, and Z-carbon). However, until now, there lacked experimental evidence to verify the predicted high-pressure structures for cold-compressed elemental carbon at least up to 50 GPa. Here we present direct experimental evidence that this enigmatic high-pressure structure is currently only consistent with M-carbon, one of the proposed carbon structures. Furthermore, we show that this phase transition is extremely sluggish, which led to the observed broad x-ray diffraction peaks in previous studies and hindered the proper identification of the post-graphite phase in cold-compressed carbon.

Wang, Yuejian; Panzik, Joseph E.; Kiefer, Boris; Lee, Kanani K.M. (Yale); (New Mexico State)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

403

The role of hydrogen in room-temperature ferromagnetism at graphite surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and stimulating discussions. SSRL and ALS are national userO?ce of Basic Energy Sciences. SSRL is operated by Stanford

Ohldag, H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

ANL/APS/TB-19 A Finite Element Analysis of Room Temperature Silicon...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

M. Mills Contents I. Introduction 1 II. Parameters Used for FEA Calculations 2 A. The heat transfer coefficient 2 B. Materials properties 3 III. The Bending Magnet...

405

MANUFACTURER OF THE FIRST 100% ROOM TEMPERATURE nc-Si SOLAR PV ...  

Nanoparticle quantum conf. Monolithic printed layers. Sintering min. ~400 ºC. PV Effic.: 5 – 19%. Economic Advantages ...

406

Atomic magnetic gradiometer for room temperature high sensitivity magnetic field detection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser-based atomic magnetometer (LBAM) apparatus measures magnetic fields, comprising: a plurality of polarization detector cells to detect magnetic fields; a laser source optically coupled to the polarization detector cells; and a signal detector that measures the laser source after being coupled to the polarization detector cells, which may be alkali cells. A single polarization cell may be used for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) by prepolarizing the nuclear spins of an analyte, encoding spectroscopic and/or spatial information, and detecting NMR signals from the analyte with a laser-based atomic magnetometer to form NMR spectra and/or magnetic resonance images (MRI). There is no need of a magnetic field or cryogenics in the detection step, as it is detected through the LBAM.

Xu,Shoujun (Berkeley, CA); Lowery, Thomas L. (Belmont, MA); Budker, Dmitry (El Cerrito, CA); Yashchuk, Valeriy V. (Richmond, CA); Wemmer, David E. (Berkeley, CA); Pines, Alexander (Berkeley, CA)

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

407

Experimental Results in the Comparison of Search Algorithms Used with Room Temperature Detectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of time sequence data was run for several higher resolution scintillation detectors using a variety of search algorithms, and results were obtained in predicting the relative performance for these detectors, which included a slightly superior performance by CeBr{sub 3}. Analysis of several search algorithms shows that inclusion of the RSPRT methodology can improve sensitivity.

Guss, P., Yuan, D., Cutler, M., Beller, D.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were scanned after tank supernatant was removed. 4. Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds. This sampler was designed and built to remove small sections of the mounds to evaluate concentrations of the stainless steel solids at different special locations. 5. Computer driven positioner that placed the laser rangefinders and the core sampler in appropriate locations over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank where mixing is poor. These devices and techniques were effective to estimate the movement, location, and concentrations of the solids representing heavier particles and could perform well at a larger scale The experiment contained two campaigns with each comprised of ten cycles to fill and empty the scaled staging tank. The tank was filled without mixing, but emptied, while mixing, in seven batches; the first six were of equal volumes of 13.1 gallons each to represent the planned fullscale batches of 145,000 gallons, and the last, partial, batch of 6.9 gallons represented a full-scale partial batch of 76,000 gallons that will leave a 72-inch heel in the staging tank for the next cycle. The sole difference between the two campaigns was the energy to mix the scaled staging tank, i.e., the nozzle velocity and jet rotational speed of the two jet pumps. Campaign 1 used 22.9 ft/s, at 1.54 rpm based on past testing and Campaign 2 used 23.9 ft/s at 1.75 rpm, based on visual observation of minimum velocity that allowed fast settling solids, i.e., sand and stainless steel, to accumulate on the scaled tank bottom.

Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

409

SOLIDS ACCUMULATION SCOUTING STUDIES  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were scanned after tank supernatant was removed. 4. Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds. This sampler was designed and built to remove small sections of the mounds to evaluate concentrations of the stainless steel solids at different special locations. 5. Computer driven positioner that placed the laser rangefinders and the core sampler in appropriate locations over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank where mixing is poor. These devices and techniques were effective to estimate the movement, location, and concentrations of the solids representing heavier particles and could perform well at a larger scale The experiment contained two campaigns with each comprised of ten cycles to fill and empty the scaled staging tank. The tank was filled without mixing, but emptied, while mixing, in seven batches; the first six were of equal volumes of 13.1 gallons each to represent the planned fullscale batches of 145,000 gallons, and the last, partial, batch of 6.9 gallons represented a full-scale partial batch of 76,000 gallons that will leave a 72-inch heel in the staging tank for the next cycle. The sole difference between the two campaigns was the energy to mix the scaled staging tank, i.e., the nozzle velocity and jet rotational speed of the two jet pumps. Campaign 1 used 22.9 ft/s, at 1.54 rpm based on past testing and Campaign 2 used 23.9 ft/s at 1.75 rpm, based on visual observation of minimum velocity that allowed fast settling solids, i.e., sand and stainless steel, to accumulate on the scaled tank bottom.

Duignan, M.; Steeper, T.; Steimke, J.

2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

410

Solid Cold - F  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

F. Progress in science F. Progress in science Aside from what it tells us about the thermodynamics of solids, this analysis by Einstein illustrates some important things about the way scientific progress is made. For one, it serves as a typical example of how discoveries about one phenomenon often help us understand others that had no obvious relation to it earlier. In this case, newly discovered properties of light suggested significant facts about solids-and about whether or not solids were made of atoms. Einstein thus found another significant relation between thermodynamics and optics besides the ones already known earlier. Another point this work illustrates is that progress doesn't always require understanding everything at once. It turned out that solids do act like

411

Solid polymer electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to Li ion (Li{sup +}) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}, LiAsF{sub 6}, and LiClO{sub 4}. 2 figs.

Abraham, K.M.; Alamgir, M.; Choe, H.S.

1995-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

412

Solid polymer electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Choe, Hyoun S. (Waltham, MA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Solid State Division progress report, September 30, 1981  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress made during the 19 months from March 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981, is reported in the following areas: theoretical solid state physics (surfaces, electronic and magnetic properties, particle-solid interactions, and laser annealing); surface and near-surface properties of solids (plasma materials interactions, ion-solid interactions, pulsed laser annealing, and semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion); defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, and defects and impurities in insulating crystals); transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, and physical properties of insulating materials); neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, and magnetic properties); crystal growth and characterization (nuclear waste forms, ferroelectric mateirals, high-temperature materials, and special materials); and isotope research materials. Publications and papers are listed. (WHK)

Not Available

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Patient/Family Waiting Room Analysis For Susquehanna Health's  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for WRMC against others in the industry, the team found that the industry average cost was $1.57 per square objectives included measuring the square footage of the waiting rooms, researching utility costs, utilization foot. This value is less than the WRMC maintenance costs, so the team provided recommendations

Demirel, Melik C.

415

Information Foraging in Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms  

SciTech Connect

nformation foraging theory articulates the role of the human as an 'informavore' that seeks information and follows optimal foraging strategies (i.e., the 'information scent') to find meaningful information. This paper briefly reviews the findings from information foraging theory outside the nuclear domain and then discusses the types of information foraging strategies operators employ for normal and off-normal operations in the control room. For example, operators may employ a predatory 'wolf' strategy of hunting for information in the face of a plant upset. However, during routine operations, the operators may employ a trapping 'spider' strategy of waiting for relevant indicators to appear. This delineation corresponds to information pull and push strategies, respectively. No studies have been conducted to determine explicitly the characteristics of a control room interface that is optimized for both push and pull information foraging strategies, nor has there been empirical work to validate operator performance when transitioning between push and pull strategies. This paper explores examples of control room operators as wolves vs. spiders and con- cludes by proposing a set of research questions to investigate information foraging in control room settings.

R.L. Boring

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Measurement of Absorption in Rooms with Sound Absorbing Ceilings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Serious difficulties have been encountered in attempts to measure the absorption coefficients of sound absorbing ceilings in large offices. An analysis of the sound field is made and it is concluded (1) that the reverberation time formula is usually invalid if the absorption is concentrated on one surface of the room

J. R. Power

1938-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Science Career & Cooperative Education Burke Science Building Room 127  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Science Career & Cooperative Education Burke Science Building Room 127 www.science event. Visit the SCCE website to find event dates and details: www.science.mcmaster.ca/scce Attend a Co visit: www.science.mcmaster.ca/scce Enroll in SCIENCE 2C00 to learn the skills for career success

Hitchcock, Adam P.

418

Press Room - Testimony - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XYZ. Press Room. ... Subcommittee on Energy Committee on Science, Space and Technology U.S. House of Representatives ...

419

FUEL HANDLING FACILITY BACKUP CENTRAL COMMUNICATIONS ROOM SPACE REQUIREMENTS CALCULATION  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Fuel Handling Facility Backup Central Communications Room Space Requirements Calculation is to determine a preliminary estimate of the space required to house the backup central communications room in the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF). This room provides backup communications capability to the primary communication systems located in the Central Control Center Facility. This calculation will help guide FHF designers in allocating adequate space for communications system equipment in the FHF. This is a preliminary calculation determining preliminary estimates based on the assumptions listed in Section 4. As such, there are currently no limitations on the use of this preliminary calculation. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Design and Engineering and are intended solely for the use of Design and Engineering in its work regarding the FHF Backup Central Communications Room Space Requirements. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from Design and Engineering should be consulted before the use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in Design and Engineering.

B. SZALEWSKI

2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

420

China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-3502E China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners Nan Zhou Round Robin Testing Results and Analysis by China National Institute of Standardization..................................................................................................................... 1 I.1.1 China's Energy Constraint Problem and the Need to Improve the Energy Efficiency of Energy

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

A green-yellow emitting oxyfluoride solid solution phosphor Sr[subscript 2]Ba(AlO[subscript 4]F)[subscript 1;#8722;x](SiO[subscript 5])x:Ce[superscript 3+] for thermally stable, high color rendition solid state white lighting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A near-UV excited, oxyfluoride phosphor solid solution Sr{sub 1.975}Ce{sub 0.025}Ba(AlO{sub 4}F){sub 1-x}(SiO{sub 5}){sub x} has been developed for solid state white lighting applications. An examination of the host lattice, and the local structure around the Ce{sup 3+} activator ions through a combination of density functional theory, synchrotron X-ray and neutron powder diffraction and total scattering, and electron paramagnetic resonance, points to how chemical substitutions play a crucial role in tuning the optical properties of the phosphor. The maximum emission wavelength can be tuned from green ({lambda}{sub em} = 523 nm) to yellow ({lambda}{sub em} = 552 nm) by tuning the composition, x. Photoluminescent quantum yield is determined to be 70 {+-} 5% for some of the examples in the series. Excellent thermal properties were found for the x = 0.5 sample, with the photoluminescence intensity at 160 C only decreased to 82% of its room temperature value. Phosphor-converted LED devices fabricated using an InGaN LED ({lambda}{sub max} = 400 nm) exhibit high color rendering white light with R{sub a} = 70 and a correlated color temperature near 7000 K. The value of R{sub a} could be raised to 90 by the addition of a red component, and the correlated color temperature lowered to near 4000 K.

Denault, Kristin A.; George, Nathan C.; Paden, Sara R.; Brinkley, Stuart; Mikhailovsky, Alexander A.; Neuefeind, Jörg; DenBaars, Steven P.; Seshadri, Ram (UCSB); (ORNL)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

422

Thermodynamic modeling for organic solid precipitation  

SciTech Connect

A generalized predictive model which is based on thermodynamic principle for solid-liquid phase equilibrium has been developed for organic solid precipitation. The model takes into account the effects of temperature, composition, and activity coefficient on the solubility of wax and asphaltenes in organic solutions. The solid-liquid equilibrium K-value is expressed as a function of the heat of melting, melting point temperature, solubility parameter, and the molar volume of each component in the solution. All these parameters have been correlated with molecular weight. Thus, the model can be applied to crude oil systems. The model has been tested with experimental data for wax formation and asphaltene precipitation. The predicted wax appearance temperature is very close to the measured temperature. The model not only can match the measured asphaltene solubility data but also can be used to predict the solubility of asphaltene in organic solvents or crude oils. The model assumes that asphaltenes are dissolved in oil in a true liquid state, not in colloidal suspension, and the precipitation-dissolution process is reversible by changing thermodynamic conditions. The model is thermodynamically consistent and has no ambiguous assumptions.

Chung, T.H.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Low friction and wear surface for application over a wide range of temperature. Final report, 27 September 1996-26 May 1997  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

here is a strong demand for solid lubricant coatings that can function over a wide range of temperatures. Since none material can provide adequate lubricating properties over a wide temperature range, an approach of a composite coating was evaluated in Phase I. Composite coatings of ZnO and MoS2 were deposited by sputtering on M5O steel and Si3N4 substrates. Coatings were characterized by Rutherford back scattering (RBS), Auger electron spectroscopy (ABS) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), both before and after exposure to high temperatures (up to 700 deg C) in air. Friction measurements were performed at temperatures in the range of room temperature to 700 deg C in air. Results indicate that layered ZnO+MoS2/ZnO coating performed better at high temperature than the mixed composite coatings. Friction coefficients were in the range 0.2 to 0.3 at temperatures below 400 deg C for coated M50 substrate against uncoated M5O ball. At higher temperatures, the friction coefficient increased to greater or equal to 0.4 for coated Si3N4 substrate against uncoated Si3N4 ball.

Bhattacharya, R.S.

1997-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

424

Airflow Simulation and Energy Analysis in Ventilated Room with a New Type of Air Conditioning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Airflow simulation in one ventilated room with radiant heating and natural ventilation has been carried out. Three cases are compared: the closed room, the room with full openings, and the room with small openings. The radiator heating room with small openings is recommended. The airflow and thermal comfort are discussed for the last case. It is suitable for two kinds of civil buildings, housing buildings and office buildings, which take up the largest part of all functional buildings.

Liu, D.; Tang, G.; Zhao, F.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Thermal and electrical stabilities of solid nitrogen (SN2) cooled YBCO coated conductors for HTS magnet applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently, a cooling system using a solid cryogen such as solid nitrogen (SN2), was introduced for high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet applications. In order to apply the SN2 cooling system successfully to HTS ...

Song, J. B.

426

Architectures for individual and stacked micro single chamber solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrochemical conversion devices that convert various fuel sources directly into electrical energy at temperatures ranging from 600°C to 1000°C. These high temperatures could potentially ...

Crumlin, Ethan J

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

High pressure/high temperature thermogravimetric apparatus. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this instrumentation grant was to acquire a state-of-the-art, high pressure, high temperature thermogravimetric apparatus (HP/HT TGA) system for the study of the interactions between gases and carbonaceous solids for the purpose of solving problems related to coal utilization and applications of carbon materials. The instrument that we identified for this purpose was manufactured by DMT (Deutsche Montan Technologies)--Institute of Cokemaking and Coal Chemistry of Essen, Germany. Particular features of note include: Two reactors: a standard TGA reactor, capable of 1100 C at 100 bar; and a high temperature (HT) reactor, capable of operation at 1600 C and 100 bar; A steam generator capable of generating steam to 100 bar; Flow controllers and gas mixing system for up to three reaction gases, plus a separate circuit for steam, and another for purge gas; and An automated software system for data acquisition and control. The HP/TP DMT-TGA apparatus was purchased in 1996 and installed and commissioned during the summer of 1996. The apparatus was located in Room 128 of the Prince Engineering Building at Brown University. A hydrogen alarm and vent system were added for safety considerations. The system has been interfaced to an Ametek quadruple mass spectrometer (MA 100), pumped by a Varian V250 turbomolecular pump, as provided for in the original proposed. With this capability, a number of gas phase species of interest can be monitored in a near-simultaneous fashion. The MS can be used in a few different modes. During high pressure, steady-state gasification experiments, it is used to sample, measure, and monitor the reactant/product gases. It can also be used to monitor gas phase species during nonisothermal temperature programmed reaction (TPR) or temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments.

Calo, J.M.; Suuberg, E.M.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Generator configuration for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are improvements in a solid oxide fuel cell generator 1 having a multiplicity of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells 2, where a fuel gas is passed over one side of said cells and an oxygen-containing gas is passed over the other side of said cells resulting in the generation of heat and electricity. The improvements comprise arranging the cells in the configuration of a circle, a spiral, or folded rows within a cylindrical generator, and modifying the flow rate, oxygen concentration, and/or temperature of the oxygen-containing gases that flow to those cells that are at the periphery of the generator relative to those cells that are at the center of the generator. In these ways, a more uniform temperature is obtained throughout the generator.

Reichner, Philip (Plum Boro, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Press Room - Radio - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Press Room Press Room Glossary › FAQS › Overview Press Releases Testimony Presentations Radio Events Radio Spots Ready-to-broadcast news stories. Transcripts provided so radio spots can be re-recorded in whole or in part. Residential heating oil prices virtually unchanged mp3 Date: December 18, 2013 Description: The average retail price for home heating oil fell 4-tenths of a penny from a week ago to $3.95 per gallon. That's down 8-tenths of a penny from a year ago, based on the residential heating fuel survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Heating oil prices in the New England region rose 3.92 per gallon, up 3-tenths of a cent from last week, and up 3 cents from a year ago. Contact/Author: Amerine Woodyard, 202-586-1256 Transcript: http://www.eia.gov/radio/transcript/heating_oil_prices_12182013.pdf

430

List of Room Air Conditioners Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Conditioners Incentives Conditioners Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 112 Room Air Conditioners Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 112) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP Ohio - Commercial New Construction Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Ohio) Utility Rebate Program Ohio Commercial Industrial Local Government Municipal Utility Nonprofit Schools State Government Central Air conditioners Chillers Comprehensive Measures/Whole Building Custom/Others pending approval Energy Mgmt. Systems/Building Controls Heat pumps Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Motor VFDs Motors Water Heaters Commercial Cooking Equipment Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Room Air Conditioners Yes Alexandria Light and Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Minnesota) Utility Rebate Program Minnesota Residential Central Air conditioners

431

Press Room - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Press Room Press Room Glossary › FAQS › Overview Press Releases Testimony Presentations Radio Events Press Releases State Energy Profiles enhanced and renewables sections added December 19, 2013 Growing oil and natural gas production continues to reshape the U.S. energy economy December 16, 2013 MEDIA ADVISORY: EIA to Release Updated Energy Forecasts to 2040 December 4, 2013 EIA initiates new monthly Drilling Productivity Report October 22, 2013 More press releases... Congressional Testimony U.S. petroleum supply system pdf Subject: EIA, Petroleum Presented by: Adam Sieminski, Administrator Presented to: Committee on Energy and Natural Resources U.S. Senate Washington, DC-July 16, 2013 Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program pdf Subject: EIA, Renewable, Forecasts Presented by: Adam Sieminski, Administrator

432

Intermediate temperature electrolytes for SOFC  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to identify a new set of materials that would allow the operation of the solid oxide fuel cell in the 600--800{sup degrees}C temperature range. The approach that is being used is to start with a systematic evaluation of new electrolyte materials and then to develop compatible electrode and interconnect materials.

Bloom, I.; Krumpelt, M.; Hash, M.C.; Zebrowski, J.P.; Zurawski, D.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Intermediate temperature electrolytes for SOFC  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to identify a new set of materials that would allow the operation of the solid oxide fuel cell in the 600--800{sup degrees}C temperature range. The approach that is being used is to start with a systematic evaluation of new electrolyte materials and then to develop compatible electrode and interconnect materials.

Bloom, I.; Krumpelt, M.; Hash, M.C.; Zebrowski, J.P.; Zurawski, D.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Solid handling valve  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a solids handling valve for use in combination with lock hoppers utilized for conveying pulverized coal to a coal gasifier. The valve comprises a fluid-actuated flow control piston disposed within a housing and provided with a tapered primary seal having a recessed seat on the housing and a radially expandable fluid-actuated secondary seal. The valve seals are highly resistive to corrosion, erosion and abrasion by the solids, liquids, and gases associated with the gasification process so as to minimize valve failure.

Williams, William R. (Morgantown, WV)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Chelan County Public Works Department would like to thank the following organizations and individuals for their assistance in the development of this plan: ? Chelan County’s Solid Waste Council members, past and present, and the municipalities they represent. ? Chelan County’s Solid Waste Advisory Committee members, past and present, and the agencies and businesses they represented. ? the Chelan–Douglas Health District staff. ? Washington Department of Ecology staff. Chelan County residents and businesses also contributed to this document through comments provided during public meetings and through various other channels. The Board of County Commissioners and the Public Works Department gratefully acknowledge this input by the

unknown authors

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a furnished room a furnished room Title Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-53943 Year of Publication 2004 Authors Singer, Brett C., Kenneth L. Revzan, Toshifumi Hotchi, Alfred T. Hodgson, and Nancy J. Brown Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 38 Start Page Chapter Issue 16 Pagination 2483-2494 Abstract We present experimental data and semi-empirical models describing the sorption of organic gases in a simulated indoor residential environment. Two replicate experiments were conducted with 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a 50-m3 room finished with painted wallboard, carpet and cushion, draperies and furnishings. The VOCs span a wide volatility range and include ten Hazardous Air Pollutants. VOCs were introduced to the static chamber as a pulse and their gas-phase concentrations were measured during a net adsorption period and a subsequent net desorption period. Three sorption models were fit to the measured concentrations for each compound to determine the simplest formulation needed to adequately describe the observed behavior. Sorption parameter values were determined by fitting the models to adsorption period data then checked by comparing measured and predicted behavior during desorption. The adequacy of each model was evaluated using a goodness of fit parameter calculated for each period. Results indicate that sorption usually does not greatly affect indoor concentrations of methyl-tert-butyl ether, 2-butanone, isoprene and benzene. In contrast, sorption appears to be a relevant indoor process for many of the VOCs studied, including C8-C10 aromatic hydrocarbons (HC), terpenes, and pyridine. These compounds sorbed at rates close to typical residential air change rates and exhibited substantial sorptive partitioning at equilibrium. Polycyclic aromatic HCs, aromatic alcohols, ethenylpyridine and nicotine initially adsorbed to surfaces at rates of 1.5 to >6 h-1 and partitioned 95 to >99% in the sorbed phase at equilibrium

437

Room Air Conditioning Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Potential  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Room or window air conditioners are a common appliance in parts of the United States residential sector for providing summertime cooling. The technology is based on the same vapor compression cycle common in central air conditioning and refrigeration applications, but with all system components in one enclosure, which is generally small and comparatively inexpensive. The systems are simple and modular enough to be installed by the homeowner, and can be installed in windows without major modification, or ...

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

438

Community Activity Room (CAR) Code, Demo Version 1.0  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Examining a computer image akin to a weather map, transmission system operators are now able to visualize congestion on the high voltage power lines that make up our nation's massive regional electricity grids. The multi-dimensional image, which represents power market activities, is made possible by a new software tool called the Community Activity Room, or CAR (TM). The colorful graphic shows the current state of wholesale power transactions and their effect on the reliability of an interconnected powe...

2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

439

OSU WEBVIEWER PROVIDING WEB BASED ACCESS TO ROOM SCHEDULING INFORMATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for a specific room. You can also search for an event name. For example, entering ANTH will display all and the starting date of next term's CS 419 course. You'll notice there is no way to filter this search by date be ignored. If we want all 400 level CS courses, we just enter "cs 4". SPACE QUICK SEARCH OR LOOKUP You can

Escher, Christine

440

Thin Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) design that can be fabricated entirely using low-temperature, thin-film processing is described. Potential advantages of the cell are reduced materials costs and improved fuel-cell characteristics. The critical design feature is the use of thin (approximately equal to 50 nanometers), catalytically-active oxide layers on a < 10 micrometer thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) supported electrolyte to minimize reaction overpotentials and ohmic losses. Doped ceria at th...

1995-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature solid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Solid-solid collapse transition in a two dimensional model molecular system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solid-solid collapse transition in open framework structures is ubiquitous in nature. The real difficulty in understanding detailed microscopic aspects of such transitions in molecular systems arises from the interplay between different energy and length scales involved in molecular systems, often mediated through a solvent. In this work we employ Monte Carlo (MC) simulations to study the collapse transition in a model molecular system interacting via both isotropic as well as anisotropic interactions having different length and energy scales. The model we use is known as Mercedes-Benz (MB) which for a specific set of parameters sustains three solid phases: honeycomb, oblique and triangular. In order to study the temperature induced collapse transition, we start with a metastable honeycomb solid and induce transition by heating. High density oblique solid so formed has two characteristic length scales corresponding to isotropic and anisotropic parts of interaction potential. Contrary to the common believe and classical nucleation theory, interestingly, we find linear strip-like nucleating clusters having significantly different order and average coordination number than the bulk stable phase. In the early stage of growth, the cluster grows as linear strip followed by branched and ring-like strips. The geometry of growing cluster is a consequence of the delicate balance between two types of interactions which enables the dominance of stabilizing energy over the destabilizing surface energy. The nuclei of stable oblique phase are wetted by intermediate order particles which minimizes the surface free energy. We observe different pathways for pressure and temperature induced transitions.

Rakesh S. Singh; Biman Bagchi

2013-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

442

Quality Services: Solid Wastes, Part 360: Solid Waste Management Facilities  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0: Solid Waste Management 0: Solid Waste Management Facilities (New York) Quality Services: Solid Wastes, Part 360: Solid Waste Management Facilities (New York) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fuel Distributor Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Transportation Utility Program Info State New York Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider NY Department of Environmental Conservation These regulations apply to all solid wastes with the exception of hazardous or radioactive waste. Proposed solid waste processing facilities are required to obtain permits prior to construction, and the regulations provide details about permitting, construction, registration, and operation requirements. The regulations contain specific guidance for land

443

Sealants for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Basic requirements for a sealant are good bonding to the materials of interest, chemical stability in the operating environment, and low gas permeability. For high-temperature operation as in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs), the sealant must also have a thermal expansion which is reasonably close to that of the other materials involved and must have some compliance, or softness, to allow for some mismatch between the components to be joined. In this paper, we discuss a family of glass-ceramic materials with mechanical, chemical, and electrical properties that are suitable for these demanding high-temperature applications.

Kueper, T.W.; Bloom, I.D.; Krumpelt, M.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Solid polymer electrolyte compositions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolyte composition is featured that includes a solid, ionically conductive polymer, organically modified oxide particles that include organic groups covalently bonded to the oxide particles, and an alkali metal salt. The electrolyte composition is free of lithiated zeolite. The invention also features cells that incorporate the electrolyte composition.

Garbe, James E. (Stillwater, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Hamrock, Steven J. (St. Paul, MN); Le, Dinh Ba (St. Paul, MN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Solid State Phase Transformations in Uranium-Zirconium Alloys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Uranium-10wt% zirconium (U-10Zr) alloy nuclear fuels have been used for decades and new variations are under consideration ranging from U-5Zr to U-50Zr. As a precursor to understanding the fission gas behavior in U-Zr alloys using ion implantation, a basic study on the U-Zr metallurgy was completed using EPMA, DSC, XRD, Optical microscopy, and TEM with a focus on solid state phase transformations in alloys containing 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50wt% zirconium. Alloys were cast by crucible melting using high temperature furnace under argon atmosphere in yttrium oxide crucibles and various thermal profiles were used to study phase transformations in these alloys. Using TEM, XRD, and DSC data, it was ascertained that athermal-?, along with martensitic ?1, formed in all alloys quenched from ? phase. XRD could detect the presence of athermal-? only in U-20, 30 and 50wt%Zr alloys. BSE images for as-cast alloys of 2, 5, 10, 20, and 30wt%Zr had lamellar microstructure with lamellae rich in zirconium. All alloy samples clearly showed a heating transformation pertaining to ? ? ? in DSC data while XRD could only confirm the presence of ? phase in U-20, 30, and 50wt%Zr alloys. An explanation is offered for the absence of ? phase peaks in uranium-rich alloys based on its formation mechanism. Alloy samples of U-2, 5, and 10wt%Zr were step-cooled from ? phase by annealing in the (? + ?) phase field before cooling to room temperature revealed broad peaks for ? phase indicating incomplete collapse of {111}? planes. Both as cast and ?- quenched alloys were annealed at 600degreeC, in the (? + ?) phase field for 1, 3, 7, and 30 days. Microstructures of the samples in both cases contained uranium-rich matrix and zirconium-rich precipitates and WDS analyses were consistent with their being ?-U and ? phase respectively. However, XRD data for annealed alloys never showed peaks for ? phase even though it’s area fraction was within the detection limits. Moreover, the peaks which were present in U-20wt%Zr vanished after annealing for 7 days. Based on the data obtained, it is suggested that it is more appropriate to consider the presence of metastable diffusional-? instead of a stable ? in the as-cast alloys and that it is not stable at 600degreeC.

Irukuvarghula, Sandeep

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) Project Summary Full Title: High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) Project I