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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature ionic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Sum frequency generation study on the orientation of room-temperature ionic liquid at the grapheneionic liquid interface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

such as dye-sensitized solar cells and super capacitors, room-temperature ionic liquids are considered

Bao, Jiming

2

Free Radical Polymerization of Styrene and Methyl Methacrylate in Various Room Temperature Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional free radical polymerization of styrene and methyl methacrylate was carried out in various room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). The RTILs used in this research encompass a wide range of cations and anions. Typical cations include imidazolium, phosphonium, pyridinium, and pyrrolidinium; typical anions include amide, borate, chloride, imide, phosphate, and phosphinate. Reactions are faster and polymers obtained usually have higher molecular weights when compared to polymerizations carried out in volatile organic solvents under the same conditions. This shows that rapid rates of polymerization and high molecular weights are general features of conventional radical polymerizations in RTILs. Attempts to correlate the polarities and viscosities of the RTILs with the polymerization behavior fail to yield discernible trends.

Zhang, Hongwei [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Metal-air cell comprising an electrolyte with a room temperature ionic liquid and hygroscopic additive  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical cell comprising an electrolyte comprising water and a hydrophobic ionic liquid comprising positive ions and negative ions. The electrochemical cell also includes an air electrode configured to absorb and reduce oxygen. A hydrophilic or hygroscopic additive modulates the hydrophobicity of the ionic liquid to maintain a concentration of the water in the electrolyte is between 0.001 mol % and 25 mol %.

Friesen, Cody A.; Krishnan, Ramkumar; Tang, Toni; Wolfe, Derek

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

4

81929 - Fission-Product Separation Based on Room - Temperature Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project has demonstrated that Sr2+ and Cs+ can be selectively extracted from aqueous solutions into ionic liquids using crown ethers and that unprecedented large distribution coefficients can be achieved for these fission products. The volume of secondary wastes can be significantly minimized with this new separation technology. Through the current EMSP funding, the solvent extraction technology based on ionic liquids has been shown to be viable and can potentially provide the most efficient separation of problematic fission products from high level wastes. The key results from the current funding period are the development of highly selective extraction process for cesium ions based on crown ethers and calixarenes, optimization of selectivities of extractants via systematic change of ionic liquids, and investigation of task-specific ionic liquids incorporating both complexant and solvent characteristics.

Robin D. Rogers

2004-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

5

Reverse Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China Received 14, the removal and recycling of the catalytic materials become important. It is expected that using ionic liquids as ATRP media. They performed the copper(I)-mediated ATRP of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in 1-butyl-3

Wan, Xin-hua

6

One electron oxygen reduction in room temperature ionic liquids: A comparative study of Butler-Volmer and Symmetric Marcus-Hush theories using microdisc electrodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The voltammetry for the reduction of oxygen at a microdisc electrode is reported in two room temperature ionic liquids: 1-butyl-1-methylpyyrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([Bmpyrr][NTf2]) and trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis9trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([P14,6,6,6][NTf2]) at 298 K. Simulated voltammograms using Butler-Volmer theory and Symmetric Marcus-Hush (SMH) theory were compared with experimental data. Butler-Volmer theory consistently provided experimental parameters with a higher level of certainty than SMH theory. A value of solvent reorganisation energy for oxygen reduction in ionic liquids was inferred for the first time as 0.4-0.5 eV, which is attributable to inner-sphere reorganisation with a negligible contribution from solvent reorganisation. The developed Butler-Volmer and Symmetric Marcus-Hush programs are also used to theoretically study the possibility of kinetically limited steady state currents, and to establish an approximate equivalence relationship between microdisc el...

Tanner, Eden E L; Barnes, Edward O; Compton, Richard G

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Determination of Thermal Diffusivities, Thermal Conductivities, and Sound Speeds of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids by the Transient Grating Technique  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Determination of Thermal Diffusivities, Thermal Conductivities, and Sound Speeds of Room. The experiments give thermal diffusivities from which thermal conductivities can be determined, sound speeds not only on the sound speed but also on the thermal diffusivity and acoustic damping of the RTILs

Reid, Scott A.

8

Novel room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Today's information world, bits of data are processed by semiconductor chips, and stored in the magnetic disk drives. But tomorrow's information technology may see magnetism (spin) and semiconductivity (charge) combined in one 'spintronic' device that exploits both charge and 'spin' to carry data (the best of two worlds). Spintronic devices such as spin valve transistors, spin light emitting diodes, non-volatile memory, logic devices, optical isolators and ultra-fast optical switches are some of the areas of interest for introducing the ferromagnetic properties at room temperature in a semiconductor to make it multifunctional. The potential advantages of such spintronic devices will be higher speed, greater efficiency, and better stability at a reduced power consumption. This Thesis contains two main topics: In-depth understanding of magnetism in Mn doped ZnO, and our search and identification of at least six new above room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors. Both complex doped ZnO based new materials, as well as a number of nonoxides like phosphides, and sulfides suitably doped with Mn or Cu are shown to give rise to ferromagnetism above room temperature. Some of the highlights of this work are discovery of room temperature ferromagnetism in: (1) ZnO:Mn (paper in Nature Materials, Oct issue, 2003); (2) ZnO doped with Cu (containing no magnetic elements in it); (3) GaP doped with Cu (again containing no magnetic elements in it); (4) Enhancement of Magnetization by Cu co-doping in ZnO:Mn; (5) CdS doped with Mn, and a few others not reported in this thesis. We discuss in detail the first observation of ferromagnetism above room temperature in the form of powder, bulk pellets, in 2-3 mu-m thick transparent pulsed laser deposited films of the Mn (<4 at. percent) doped ZnO. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectra recorded from 2 to 200nm areas showed homogeneous distribution of Mn substituting for Zn a 2+ state in the ZnO lattice. Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) technique is used to confirm the existence of ferromagnetic ordering at temperatures as high as 425K. The ab initio calculations were found to be consistent with the observation of ferromagnetism arising from fully polarized Mn 2+ state. The key to observed room temperature ferromagnetism in this system is the low temperature processing, which prevents formation of clusters, secondary phases and the host ZnO from becoming n-type. The electronic structure of the same Mn doped ZnO thin films studied using XAS, XES and RIXS, revealed a strong hybridization between Mn 3d and O 2p states, which is an important characteristic of a Dilute magnetic Semiconductor (DMS). It is shown that the various processing conditions like sintering temperature, dopant concentration and the properties of precursors used for making of DMS have a great influence on the final properties. Use of various experimental techniques to verify the physical properties, and to understand the mechanism involved to give rise to ferromagnetism is presented. Methods to improve the magnetic moment in Mn doped ZnO are also described. New promising DMS materials (such as Cu doped ZnO are explored). The demonstrated new capability to fabricate powder, pellets, and thin films of room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors thus makes possible the realization of a wide range of complex elements for a variety of new multifunctional phenomena related to Spintronic devices as well as magneto-optic components.

Gupta, Amita

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Low Temperature Reduction of Alumina Using Fluorine Containing Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major objective of the project is to establish the feasibility of using specific ionic liquids capable of sustaining aluminum electrolysis near room temperature at laboratory and batch recirculation scales. It will explore new technologies for aluminum and other valuable metal extraction and process methods. The new technology will overcome many of the limitations associated with high temperatures processes such as high energy consumption and corrosion attack. Furthermore, ionic liquids are non-toxic and could be recycled after purification, thus minimizing extraction reagent losses and environmental pollutant emissions. Ionic liquids are mixture of inorganic and organic salts which are liquid at room temperature and have wide operational temperature range. During the last several years, they were emerging as novel electrolytes for extracting and refining of aluminum metals and/or alloys, which are otherwise impossible using aqueous media. The superior high temperature characteristics and high solvating capabilities of ionic liquids provide a unique solution to high temperature organic solvent problems associated with device internal pressure build-up, corrosion, and thermal stability. However their applications have not yet been fully implemented due to the insufficient understanding of the electrochemical mechanisms involved in processing of aluminum with ionic liquids. Laboratory aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquids has been investigated in chloride and bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide based ionic liquids. The electrowinning process yielded current density in the range of 200-500 A/m2, and current efficiency of about 90%. The results indicated that high purity aluminum (>99.99%) can be obtained as cathodic deposits. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry studies have shown that initial stages of aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquid electrolyte at 30°C was found to be quasi-reversible, with the charge transfer coefficient (0.40). Nucleation phenomena involved in aluminum deposition on copper in AlCl3-BMIMCl electrolyte was found to be instantaneous followed by diffusion controlled three-dimensional growth of nuclei. Diffusion coefficient (Do) of the electroactive species Al2Cl7¯ ion was in the range from 6.5 to 3.9×10–7 cm2?s–1 at a temperature of 30°C. Relatively little research efforts have been made toward the fundamental understanding and modeling of the species transport and transformation information involved in ionic liquid mixtures, which eventually could lead to quantification of electrochemical properties. Except that experimental work in this aspect usually is time consuming and expensive, certain characteristics of ionic liquids also made barriers for such analyses. Low vapor pressure and high viscosity make them not suitable for atomic absorption spectroscopic measurement. In addition, aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquid electrolytes are considered to be governed by multi-component mass, heat and charge transport in laminar and turbulent flows that are often multi-phase due to the gas evolution at the electrodes. The kinetics of the electrochemical reactions is in general complex. Furthermore, the mass transfer boundary layer is about one order of magnitude smaller than the thermal and hydrodynamic boundary layer (Re=10,000). Other phenomena that frequently occur are side reactions and temperature or concentration driven natural convection. As a result of this complexity, quantitative knowledge of the local parameters (current densities, ion concentrations, electrical potential, temperature, etc.) is very difficult to obtain. This situation is a serious obstacle for improving the quality of products, efficiency of manufacturing and energy consumption. The gap between laboratory/batch scale processing with global process control and nanoscale deposit surface and materials specifications needs to be bridged. A breakthrough can only be realized if on each scale the occurring phenomena are understood and quantified. Multiscale numerical modeling nevertheless can help t

Dr. R. G. Reddy

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Topological Insulators at Room Temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Topological insulators are new states of quantum matter with surface states protected by the time-reversal symmetry. In this work, we perform first-principle electronic structure calculations for Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} crystals. Our calculations predict that Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, Bi{sub 2}T e{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} are topological insulators, while Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} is not. In particular, Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} has a topologically non-trivial energy gap of 0.3eV , suitable for room temperature applications. We present a simple and unified continuum model which captures the salient topological features of this class of materials. These topological insulators have robust surface states consisting of a single Dirac cone at the {Lambda} point.

Zhang, Haijun; /Beijing, Inst. Phys.; Liu, Chao-Xing; /Tsinghua U., Beijing; Qi, Xiao-Liang; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong; /Beijing, Inst. Phys.; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

2010-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

11

Metal-air low temperature ionic liquid cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present application relates to an electrochemical metal-air cell in which a low temperature ionic liquid is used.

Friesen, Cody A; Buttry, Daniel A

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

12

ULTRASONIC CAVITATION IN FREON AT ROOM TEMPERATURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ULTRASONIC CAVITATION IN FREON AT ROOM TEMPERATURE FR´ED´ERIC CAUPIN AND VINCENT FOURMOND on ultrasonic cavitation in freon (1,1,2-trichloro 1,2,2-trifluoro ethane). We use a high intensity 1 MHz observe the nucleation of bubbles. We describe the three different methods we use to detect cavitation

Caupin, Frédéric

13

Absorber Materials at Room and Cryogenic Temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We recently reported on investigations of RF absorber materials at cryogenic temperatures conducted at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The work was initiated to find a replacement material for the 2 Kelvin low power waveguide Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorbers employed within the original cavity cryomodules of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). This effort eventually led to suitable candidates as reported in this paper. Furthermore, though constrained by small funds for labor and resources, we have analyzed a variety of lossy ceramic materials, several of which could be usable as HOM absorbers for both normal conducting and superconducting RF structures, e.g. as loads in cavity waveguides and beam tubes either at room or cryogenic temperatures and, depending on cooling measures, low to high operational power levels.

F. Marhauser, T.S. Elliott, A.T. Wu, E.P. Chojnacki, E. Savrun

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Electrodrift purification of materials for room temperature radiation detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of purifying nonmetallic, crystalline semiconducting materials useful for room temperature radiation detecting devices by applying an electric field across the material is disclosed. The present invention discloses a simple technology for producing purified ionic semiconducting materials, in particular PbI{sub 2} and preferably HgI{sub 2}, which produces high yields of purified product, requires minimal handling of the material thereby reducing the possibility of introducing or reintroducing impurities into the material, is easy to control, is highly selective for impurities, retains the stoichiometry of the material and employs neither high temperatures nor hazardous materials such as solvents or liquid metals. An electric field is applied to a bulk sample of the material causing impurities present in the sample to drift in a preferred direction. After all of the impurities have been transported to the ends of the sample the current flowing through the sample, a measure of the rate of transport of mobile impurities, falls to a low, steady state value, at which time the end sections of the sample where the impurities have concentrated are removed leaving a bulk sample of higher purity material. Because the method disclosed here only acts on the electrically active impurities, the stoichiometry of the host material remains substantially unaffected. 4 figs.

James, R.B.; Van Scyoc, J.M. III; Schlesinger, T.E.

1997-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

15

Electrodrift purification of materials for room temperature radiation detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of purifying nonmetallic, crystalline semiconducting materials useful for room temperature radiation detecting devices by applying an electric field across the material. The present invention discloses a simple technology for producing purified ionic semiconducting materials, in particular PbI.sub.2 and preferably HgI.sub.2, which produces high yields of purified product, requires minimal handling of the material thereby reducing the possibility of introducing or reintroducing impurities into the material, is easy to control, is highly selective for impurities, retains the stoichiometry of the material and employs neither high temperatures nor hazardous materials such as solvents or liquid metals. An electric field is applied to a bulk sample of the material causing impurities present in the sample to drift in a preferred direction. After all of the impurities have been transported to the ends of the sample the current flowing through the sample, a measure of the rate of transport of mobile impurities, falls to a low, steady state value, at which time the end sections of the sample where the impurities have concentrated are removed leaving a bulk sample of higher purity material. Because the method disclosed here only acts on the electrically active impurities, the stoichiometry of the host material remains substantially unaffected.

James, Ralph B. (5420 Lenore Ave., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Van Scyoc, III, John M. (P.O. Box 93, 65 Main St., Apt. 1, Plainfield, Cumberland County, PA 17081); Schlesinger, Tuviah E. (8 Carleton Dr., Mt. Lebanon, Allegheny County, PA 15243)

1997-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

16

Carbon promoted water electrolysis to produce hydrogen at room temperature.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The objective of the work was to conduct water electrolysis at room temperature with reduced energy costs for hydrogen production. The electrochemical gasification of carbons… (more)

Ranganathan, Sukanya.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Determination of the Acceptable Room Temperature Range for Local Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Determination of the acceptable room temperature range is a key problem in satisfactory design of local cooling for energy savings. At the room temperatures ranging from neutral to warm, three sensitive body parts-the face, chest and back-were each...

Zhang, Y.; Zhao, R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Terahertz Room-Temperature Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Laser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe an efficient surface-passivated photonic crystal nanocavity laser, demonstrating room-temperature operation with 3-ps total pulse duration (detector response limited) and low-temperature operation with ultra-low-threshold near 9uW.

Dirk Englund; Hatice Altug; Ilya Fushman; Jelena Vuckovic

2007-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

19

Ionic liquid ion source emitter arrays fabricated on bulk porous substrates for spacecraft propulsion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ionic Liquid Ion Sources (ILIS) are a subset of electrospray capable of producing bipolar beams of pure ions from ionic liquids. Ionic liquids are room temperature molten salts, characterized by negligible vapor pressures, ...

Courtney, Daniel George

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Fast diffusion in a room temperature ionic liquid confined in...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1(a) , E. Mamontov 1 , S. Dai 2 , X. Wang 2(b) , P. F. Fulvio 2 and D. J. Wesolowski 2 1 Neutron Scattering Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN 37831,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature ionic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Control and Room Temperature Optimization of Energy Efficient Buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The building sector consumes a large part of the energy used in the United States and is responsible for nearly 40% of greenhouse gas emissions. It is therefore economically and environmentally important to reduce the building energy consumption to realize massive energy savings. In this paper, a method to control room temperature in buildings is proposed. The approach is based on a distributed parameter model represented by a three dimensional (3D) heat equation in a room with heater/cooler located at ceiling. The latter is resolved using finite element methods, and results in a model for room temperature with thousands of states. The latter is not amenable to control design. A reduced order model of only few states is then derived using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD). A Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) is computed based on the reduced model, and applied to the full order model to control room temperature.

Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL] [ORNL; Kuruganti, Phani Teja [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

The Influence of Operating Modes, Room Temperature Set Point and Curtain Styles on Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A field investigation was carried out in an office building of Changsha city in winter and summer, the influence of different running modes, curtain styles and room temperature set point on energy consumption of room air conditioner (RAC...

Yu, J.; Yang, C.; Guo, R.; Wu, D.; Chen, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Room Temperature Metastability of Multilayer Graphene Oxide Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Room Temperature Metastability of Multilayer Graphene Oxide Films Suenne Kim1 , Si Zhou2 , Yike Hu1 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique ­ Institut N´eel, Grenoble, B.P. 166, 38042 France Graphene oxide has multiple potential applications. The chemistry of graphene oxide and its response to external

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

24

Room-temperature magnetoelectric multiferroic thin films and applications thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides a novel class of room-temperature, single-phase, magnetoelectric multiferroic (PbFe.sub.0.67W.sub.0.33O.sub.3).sub.x (PbZr.sub.0.53Ti.sub.0.47O.sub.3).sub.1-x (0.2.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.8) (PFW.sub.x-PZT.sub.1-x) thin films that exhibit high dielectric constants, high polarization, weak saturation magnetization, broad dielectric temperature peak, high-frequency dispersion, low dielectric loss and low leakage current. These properties render them to be suitable candidates for room-temperature multiferroic devices. Methods of preparation are also provided.

Katiyar, Ram S; Kuman, Ashok; Scott, James F.

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

25

High Temperature/Low Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Ionic Liquids  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on High Temperature/Low Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Ionic Liquids to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

26

Phosphonium-based ionic liquids and uses  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Phosphonium-based room temperature ionic liquids ("RTILs") were prepared. They were used as matrices for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry and also for preparing samples of dyes for analysis.

Del Sesto, Rico E; Koppisch, Andrew T; Lovejoy, Katherine S; Purdy, Geraldine M

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

27

Temperature dependence of some liquid lithium properties from the ionic pseudopotential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF SCIEECE May 1977 Ma)or Sub)ect: Mnclear Engineering TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OP SOME LIQUID LITHIUM PROPERTIES PROM THE IONIC PSEUDOPOTENTIAL A Thesis by ANTHONY WELLS ENGEL Approved as to style and content by: ea o spar men em er em er May 1977... ABSTRACT Temperature Dependence of Some Liquid Lithium Properties from the Ionic Pseudopotential. (May 1977) Anthony Wells Engely A B y Rutgers University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Henri R. Ieribaux The purpose of this investigation...

Engel, Anthony Wells

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

A dynamic macroscopic quantum oscillator at room temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate a dynamic macroscopic quantum oscillator of a light--matter hybrid state in high-density plasmas created in an optically induced confining potential in a semiconductor microcavity at room temperature. One major advancement is the visualization of quantum oscillator states in a micrometer-scale optical potential at quantized energies up to 4 meV, an order of magnitude higher than that previously observed in spatially confined polariton condensates at cryogenic temperatures. Another advancement is the ability to characterize the time evolution and optical spin polarization of the quantum oscillator states directly from the consequent pulse radiation. The ability to control the macroscopic coherent state of plasma polaritons enables ultrafast multiple pulse lasing in a semiconductor microcavity.

Xie, Wei; Lee, Yi-Shan; Lin, Sheng-Di; Lai, Chih-Wei

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Room temperature ferromagnetism in a phthalocyanine based carbon material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on a simple method to fabricate a magnetic carbon material that contains nitrogen-coordinated transition metals and has a large magnetic moment. Highly chlorinated iron phthalocyanine was used as building blocks and potassium as a coupling reagent to uniformly disperse nitrogen-coordinated iron atoms on the phthalocyanine based carbon material. The iron phthalocyanine based carbon material exhibits ferromagnetic properties at room temperature and the ferromagnetic phase transition occurs at T{sub c}?=?490?±?10?K. Transmission electron microscopy observation, X-ray diffraction analysis, and the temperature dependence of magnetization suggest that the phthalocyanine molecules form three-dimensional random networks in the iron phthalocyanine based carbon material.

Honda, Z., E-mail: honda@fms.saitama-u.ac.jp; Sato, K.; Sakai, M.; Fukuda, T.; Kamata, N. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Hagiwara, M.; Kida, T. [KYOKUGEN (Center for Quantum Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions), Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

30

Synthesis of ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic liqand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Luo, Huimin [Knoxville, TN

2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

31

Room-Temperature Synthesis Leading to Nanocrystalline Frederic Sauvage,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.; Laffont, L.; Leriche, J.-B.; Masquelier, C. Solid State Ionics 2006, 177, 333­341. (3) Sauvage, F.; Baudrin, E.; Gengembre, L.; Tarascon, J.-M. Solid State Ionics 2005, 176, 1869­1876. (4) Drezen, T.; Kwon. Introduction The need for energy storage gave rise to the lithium-ion battery, while the effort given

Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

32

Ionic liquids and ionic liquid acids with high temperature stability for fuel cell and other high temperature applications, method of making and cell employing same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are developments in high temperature fuel cells including ionic liquids with high temperature stability and the storage of inorganic acids as di-anion salts of low volatility. The formation of ionically conducting liquids of this type having conductivities of unprecedented magnitude for non-aqueous systems is described. The stability of the di-anion configuration is shown to play a role in the high performance of the non-corrosive proton-transfer ionic liquids as high temperature fuel cell electrolytes. Performance of simple H.sub.2(g) electrolyte/O.sub.2(g) fuel cells with the new electrolytes is described. Superior performance both at ambient temperature and temperatures up to and above 200.degree. C. are achieved. Both neutral proton transfer salts and the acid salts with HSO.sup.-.sub.4 anions, give good results, the bisulphate case being particularly good at low temperatures and very high temperatures. The performance of all electrolytes is improved by the addition of a small amount of involatile base of pK.sub.a value intermediate between those of the acid and base that make the bulk electrolyte. The preferred case is the imidazole-doped ethylammonium hydrogensulfate which yields behavior superior in all respects to that of the industry standard phosphoric acid electrolyte.

Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Wu (Broadview Heights, OH); Belieres, Jean-Philippe (Chandler, AZ); Yoshizawa, Masahiro (Tokyo, JP)

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

33

Tailoring room temperature photoluminescence of antireflective silicon nanofacets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, a fluence-dependent antireflection performance is presented from ion-beam fabricated nanofaceted-Si surfaces. It is also demonstrated that these nanofacets are capable of producing room temperature ultra-violet and blue photoluminescence which can be attributed to inter-band transitions of the localized excitonic states of different Si-O bonds at the Si/SiO{sub x} interface. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements further confirm defect-induced radiative emission from the surface of silicon nanofacets. It is observed that the spectral characteristics remain unchanged, except an enhancement in the photoluminescence intensity with increasing ion-fluence. The increase in photoluminescence intensity by orders of magnitude stronger than that of a planar Si substrate is due to higher absorption of incident photons by nanofaceted structures.

Basu, Tanmoy; Kumar, M.; Ghatak, J.; Som, T., E-mail: tsom@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Schivalaya Marg. Bhubaneswar 751 005 (India); Kanjilal, A. [Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Gautam Budh Nagar, Uttar Pradesh 201 314 (India); Sahoo, P. K. [National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar 751 005 (India)

2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

34

14 MHz rate photon counting with room temperature InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

14 MHz rate photon counting with room temperature InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes PAUL L. VOSS based on InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes for use at 1.55 mm wavelength. Operation at room temperature at the above wavelengths for conventional high light-level measurements with PIN or ava- lanche photodiodes

Köprülü, Kahraman Güçlü

35

1250 IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL VOL. 6, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2006 Room-Temperature Hydrogen Sensitivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1250 IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL VOL. 6, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2006 Room-Temperature Hydrogen Sensitivity sensors for room-temperature hydrogen monitoring. The Pt/LaF3 interface leads to a Nernst-type response s and was independent of hydrogen concentration. A method for the stabilization of a long-term behavior of the sensor

Moritz, Werner

36

Matchstick: A Room-to-Room Thermal Model for Predicting Indoor Temperature from Wireless Sensor Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that our model can predict future indoor temperature trends with a 90th percentile aggregate error between thermo- stat actuates the heating, ventilation, and air condition- ing (HVAC) infrastructure to bring and these energy approaches, a heating model could allow future temperature trends to be predicted using

Hazas, Mike

37

Voltammetry and conductivity of a polyether-pyridinium room temperature molten salt electrolyte and of its polymer electrolyte solutions in polydimethylsiloxane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the synthesis, microelectrode voltammetry, and ionic conductivity of a new room temperature molten salt N-(methoxy(ethoxy){sub 2}ethyl)pyridinium p-toluene sulfonate (abbreviated as[Py(E{sub 3}M){sup +}][Tos{sup {minus}}]) and of its solution in a hydroxy-terminated polydimethylsiloxane. Both ionically conductive liquids (conductivity = 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} {Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1}) exhibit voltammetric potential windows of about 1.5 V. The negative potential limit is determined by the reduction of the [Py(E{sub 3}M){sup +}] pyridinium species, with subsequent radical coupling to form a voltammetrically observed viologen dimer. The estimated diffusivities of the [Py(E{sub 3}M){sup +}] species, of a diethyleneglycol-tailed ferrocene redox solute studied, and by application of Nernst-Einstein relation to the ionic charge carriers, all lie in the 10{sup {minus}7} to 10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2}/s range. Viscosities and glass transition thermal observations are reported as is the fit of the temperature dependencies of ionic conductivity in [Py(E{sub 3}M){sup +}][Tos{sup {minus}}] and in [Py(E{sub 3}M){sup +}][TOS{sup {minus}}]/PDMS mixtures to Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher predictions.

Pyati, R.; Murray, R.W. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Room-temperature direct bandgap electroluminesence from Ge-on-Si light-emitting diodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report what we believe to be the first demonstration of direct bandgap electroluminescence (EL) from Ge/Si heterojunction light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at room temperature. In-plane biaxial tensile strain is used to ...

Sun, Xiaochen

39

Room-Temperature Gas Sensing Based on Electron Transfer between Discrete Tin Oxide Nanocrystals and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Room-Temperature Gas Sensing Based on Electron Transfer between Discrete Tin Oxide Nanocrystals and the response time. Rutile-structured tin oxide (SnO2) is an n-type semiconducting material widely used in gas

Chen, Junhong

40

Energy Savings in Buildings Using Air Movement and Allowing Floating Temperature in Rooms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on and off at the proper times, the intelligent controller calculated temperature limits using a mathematical procedure that determined the percentage of people who would be comfortable in rooms of the building. Simulations showed the annual cost savings...

Spain, S.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature ionic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Optical gain and lasing from band-engineered Ge-on-Si at room temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present theoretical modeling and experimental results of optical gain and lasing from tensile-strained, n[superscript +] Ge-on-Si at room temperature. Compatible with silicon CMOS, these devices are ideal for large-scale ...

Liu, Jifeng

42

Selected room temperature magnetic parameters as a function of mineralogy, concentration and grain size  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Selected room temperature magnetic parameters as a function of mineralogy, concentration and grain literature. The aim was to propose the most effective methods for assessing mineralogy, concentration and domain state within environmental magnetic studies. Establishing the magnetic mineralogy is essential

Utrecht, Universiteit

43

Research on the Temperature Control Method of an Artificial Climate Room  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An artificial climate room plays an important role in the research of an apparatus test and indoor/outdoor environment simulation. Generally, the refrigerator is used to decrease temperature to simulate outdoor environment, while a heater is used...

Jiang, Y.; Tan, W.; Wei, B.; Guo, R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Room location (design) in accordance with the sol-air temperature and solar heat gain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ROOM LOCATION (DESIGN) IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE SOL-AIR TEMPERATURE AND SOLAR HEAT GAIN A Thesis GARY LYNN PORTER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in parital fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1977 Major Subject: Meteorology ROOM LOCATION (DESIGN) IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE SOL-AIR TEMPERATURE AND SOLAR HEAT GAIN A Thesis by GARY LYNN PORTER Approved as to style and content by: hairman of Committee) (Head of Department) ( (Q...

Porter, Gary Lynn

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Stability limit of room air temperature of a VAV system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To control heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, it has been necessary to accept an analog system controlled mainly by proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative (PID) action. However, when conventional PID controllers are replaced with new digital controllers by selecting the same PID parameters as before, the control loops have often got into hunting phenomena, which result in undamped oscillations. Unstable control characteristics (such as huntings) are thought to be one of the crucial problems faced by field operators. The PID parameters must be carefully selected to avoid instabilities. In this study, a room space is simulated as a thermal system that is air-conditioned by a variable-air-volume (VAV) control system. A dynamic room model without infiltration or exfiltration, which is directly connected to a simple air-handling unit without an economizer, is developed. To explore the possible existence of huntings, a numerical system model is formulated as a bilinear system with time-delayed feedback, and a parametric analysis of the stability limit is presented. Results are given showing the stability region affected by the selection of control and system parameters. This analysis was conducted to help us tune the PID controllers for optimal HVAC control.

Matsuba, Tadahiko; Kamimura, Kazuyuki [Yamatake-Honeywell Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Building System Div.; Kasahara, Masato; Kimbara, Akiomi; Kurosu, Shigeru [Oyama National Coll. of Technology (Japan); Murasawa, Itaru; Hashimoto, Yukihiko [Tonets Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Engineering Project Dept.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

46

aerobic room temperature: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

superconducting quantum interference device SQUID-temperature RT sample scanning superconduct- ing quantum interference device SQUID microscopy SSM is a very Weiss, Benjamin P....

47

Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tulsa, OK)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Epitaxy of Nanocrystalline Silicon Carbide on Si(111) at Room Temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Epitaxy of Nanocrystalline Silicon Carbide on Si(111) at Room Temperature Roberto Verucchi carbide (SiC) has unique chemical, physical, and mechanical properties. A factor strongly limiting Si or plastics that cannot withstand high temperatures. Silicon carbide (SiC) has unique properties that make

Alfè, Dario

49

Silicon single-electron quantum-dot transistor switch operating at room temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, which showed drain current oscillations at room temperature. These oscillations are attributed current­voltage characteristic indicates that the energy level separation is about 110 meV and the silicon current (Id) as a function of the gate voltage (Vg) (I­V) was measured at different temperatures

50

A UV light enhanced TiO2/graphene device for oxygen sensing at room temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A UV light enhanced TiO2/graphene device for oxygen sensing at room temperature Jia Zhang,ab Chao temperature oxygen sensor based on TiO2/graphene device was developed with an enhanced sensing performance­hole pairs in the TiO2 film and the photogenerated electrons were scavenged by graphene and percolated

Cao, Wenwu

51

Failure modes at room and elevated temperatures. Technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Successful development of reliable ceramic composites will depend on an understanding of matrix cracking and damage mechanisms in these materials. Therefore, the objective of the Failure Models subtask is to investigate failure and damage mechanisms in fiber reinforced ceramic composites. Issues such as how fiber coatings, the fiber/matrix interface, residual stresses, and fiber volume fraction affect frictional stresses, fiber debonding, fiber pull-out and failure modes will be examined. The effect of these microstructural parameters on matrix crack initiation, propagation and damage will also be determined. The resulting observations and measurements data will be used to develop theoretical models for damage mechanisms in fiber reinforced composites. This report presents results concerning the effect of temperature on the failure modes of continuous fiber ceramic composites performed during the last quarter of FY 1993 and FY 1994. The Raman stress measurements and calculations were performed during the last quarter of FY 1994 and the first quarter of FY 1995.

Braun, L.M.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Room-temperature spin-polarized organic light-emitting diodes with a single ferromagnetic electrode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we demonstrate the concept of a room-temperature spin-polarized organic light-emitting diode (Spin-OLED) structure based on (i) the deposition of an ultra-thin p-type organic buffer layer on the surface of the ferromagnetic electrode of the Spin-OLED and (ii) the use of oxygen plasma treatment to modify the surface of that electrode. Experimental results demonstrate that the brightness of the developed Spin-OLED can be increased by 110% and that a magneto-electroluminescence of 12% can be attained for a 150?mT in-plane magnetic field, at room temperature. This is attributed to enhanced hole and room-temperature spin-polarized injection from the ferromagnetic electrode, respectively.

Ding, Baofu, E-mail: b.ding@ecu.edu.au; Alameh, Kamal, E-mail: k.alameh@ecu.edu.au [Electron Science Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup WA 6027 Australia (Australia); Song, Qunliang [Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

53

Room temperature midinfrared electroluminescence from InSb/InAs quantum dot light emitting diodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Self-assembled InSb submonolayer quantum dots (QDs) in an InAs matrix have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy using Sb{sub 2} and As{sub 2} fluxes. The structures exhibit bright midinfrared photoluminescence up to room temperature. Intense room temperature electroluminescence with a peak at wavelength near 3.8 {mu}m was observed from p-i-n light emitting diode structures containing ten InSb submonolayer QD sheets inserted within the InAs active region.

Carrington, P. J.; Solov'ev, V. A.; Zhuang, Q.; Krier, A. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Ivanov, S. V. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Polytekhnicheskaya 26, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Room-Temperature Multiferroic Hexagonal LuFeO3 Films  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

The crystal and magnetic structures of single-crystalline hexagonal LuFeO3 films have been studied using x-ray, electron, and neutron diffraction methods. The polar structure of these films are found to persist up to 1050 K; and the switchability of the polar behavior is observed at room temperature, indicating ferroelectricity. An antiferromagnetic order was shown to occur below 440 K, followed by a spin reorientation resulting in a weak ferromagnetic order below 130 K. This observation of coexisting multiple ferroic orders demonstrates that hexagonal LuFeO3 films are room-temperature multiferroics.

Wang, Wenbin; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Wenbo; Gai, Zheng; Balke, Nina; Chi, Miaofang; Lee, Ho Nyung; Tian, Wei; Zhu, Leyi; Cheng, Xuemei; Keavney, David J.; Yi, Jieyu; Ward, Thomas Z.; Snijders, Paul C.; Christen, Hans M.; Wu, Weida; Shen, Jian; Xu, Xiaoshan

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Photoexcited Individual Nanowires: Key Elements in Room Temperature Detection of Oxidizing Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Illuminating metal oxide semiconductors with ultra-violet light is a feasible alternative to activate chemical reactions at their surface and thus, using them as gas sensors without the necessity of heating them. Here, the response at room temperature of individual single-crystalline SnO{sub 2} nanowires towards NO{sub 2} is studied in detail. The results reveal that similar responses to those obtained with thermally activated sensors can be achieved by choosing the optimal illumination conditions. This finding paves the way to the development of conductometric gas sensors operated at room temperature. The power consumption in these devices is in range with conventional micromachined sensors.

Prades, J. D.; Jimenez-Diaz, R.; Manzanares, M.; Andreu, T.; Cirera, A.; Romano-Rodriguez, A. [EME/XaRMAE/IN2 UB, Dept. Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona Spain (Spain); Hernandez-Ramirez, F. [Electronic Nanosystems S. L., Barcelona (Spain); Morante, J. R. [EME/XaRMAE/IN2 UB, Dept. Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona Spain (Spain); Institut de Recerca en Energia de Catalunya (IREC), C/Josep Pla 2, B3, PB, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain)

2009-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

56

Quantum confinement of zero-dimensional hybrid organic-inorganic polaritons at room temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the quantum confinement of zero-dimensional polaritons in perovskite-based microcavity at room temperature. Photoluminescence of discrete polaritonic states is observed for polaritons localized in symmetric sphere-like defects which are spontaneously nucleated on the top dielectric Bragg mirror. The linewidth of these confined states is found much sharper (almost one order of magnitude) than that of photonic modes in the perovskite planar microcavity. Our results show the possibility to study organic-inorganic cavity polaritons in confined microstructure and suggest a fabrication method to realize integrated polaritonic devices operating at room temperature.

Nguyen, H. S.; Lafosse, X.; Amo, A.; Bouchoule, S.; Bloch, J., E-mail: jacqueline.bloch@lpn.cnrs.fr [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, LPN/CNRS, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Han, Z. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, LPN/CNRS, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, École Normale Supérieure de Cachan, CNRS, Université Paris Sud, bat. 505, campus d'Orsay, 91405 Orsay (France); Abdel-Baki, K.; Lauret, J.-S.; Deleporte, E. [Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, École Normale Supérieure de Cachan, CNRS, Université Paris Sud, bat. 505, campus d'Orsay, 91405 Orsay (France)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

57

The use of ionic liquid ion sources (ILIS) in FIB applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new monoenergetic, high-brightness ion source can be constructed using an arrangement similar to liquid metal ion sources (LMIS) by substituting the liquid metal with an ionic liquid, or room temperature molten salt. Ion ...

Zorzos, Anthony Nicholas

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Room temperature "super-cooling" of water by interaction with hydrophobic groups in a lipidic gel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water, reflecting greater occupancy of higher energy vibrational states. In pure water, hydrogen bonding state between 250K and 240K. (Tiny droplets of water have been shown to spontaneously freeze at aboutRoom temperature "super-cooling" of water by interaction with hydrophobic groups in a lipidic gel F

59

Sensitive room-temperature terahertz detection via the photothermoelectric effect in graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sensitive room-temperature terahertz detection via the photothermoelectric effect in graphene . The hot-electron photothermoelectric effect in graphene is a prom- ising detection mechanism; photoexcited, we demonstrate a graphene thermoelectric terahertz photodetector with sensi- tivity exceeding 10 V W

Murphy, Thomas E.

60

Dye-doped cholesteric-liquid-crystal room-temperature single-photon source*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dye-doped cholesteric-liquid-crystal room-temperature single-photon source* SVETLANA G. LUKISHOVAy) increase the source efficiency, firstly, by aligning the dye molecules along the direction preferable output photons), secondly, by tuning the 1-D photonic-band-gap microcavity to the dye fluorescence band

Boyd, Robert W.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature ionic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Dye-sensitized near-infrared room-temperature photovoltaic photon detectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dye-sensitized near-infrared room-temperature photovoltaic photon detectors P. V. V. Jayaweera Studies, Hantana, Kandy, Sri Lanka (Received 5 August 2004; accepted 11 October 2004) Dye molecules bonded to a semiconductor surface could inject carriers to a band on photoexcitation. This process known as dye

Perera, A. G. Unil

62

Room temperature 1.6 m electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Room temperature 1.6 µm electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate Szu n+/p light emitting diode on a Si substrate. Unlike normal electrically pumped devices, this device.4670) Optical materials; (230.3670) Light-emitting diodes. References and links 1. L. C. Kimerling, "Silicon

Vuckovic, Jelena

63

Room-temperature stationary sodium-ion batteries for large-scale electric energy storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy and utility applications, such as pump hydro, compressed air, y-wheel and electrochemicalRoom-temperature stationary sodium-ion batteries for large-scale electric energy storage Huilin Pan attention particularly in large- scale electric energy storage applications for renewable energy and smart

Wang, Wei Hua

64

Molecular dynamics simulations of the nano-scale room-temperature oxidation of aluminum single crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molecular dynamics simulations of the nano-scale room-temperature oxidation of aluminum single Abstract The oxidation of aluminum single crystals is studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with dynamic charge transfer between atoms. The simulations are performed on three aluminum low-index surfaces

Southern California, University of

65

Optical Detection and Manipulation of Single Molecules in Room-Temperature Solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONCEPTS Optical Detection and Manipulation of Single Molecules in Room-Temperature Solutions. Keywords: single-moleculedetection - single-moleculema- nipulation - laser-induced fluorescence * optical, frcquency-modulated optical ab- sorption and fluorescence excitation have been used to investi- gate

Zare, Richard N.

66

Optical gain from the direct gap transition of Ge-on-Si at room temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report direct band gap optical gain of tensile strained n+ epitaxial Ge-on-Si at room temperature, which confirms that band-engineered Ge-on-Si is a promising gain medium for monolithic optical amplifiers and lasers on Si.

Liu, Jifeng

67

Room temperature broadband terahertz gains in graphene heterostructures based on inter-layer radiative transitions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We exploit inter-layer radiative transitions to provide gains to amplify terahertz waves in graphene heterostructures. This is achieved by properly doping graphene sheets and aligning their energy bands so that the processes of stimulated emissions can overwhelm absorptions. We derive an expression for the gain estimation and show the gain is insensitive to temperature variation. Moreover, the gain is broadband and can be strong enough to compensate the free carrier loss, indicating graphene based room temperature terahertz lasers are feasible.

Tang, Linlong [Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology, College of Physics and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Chongqing institute of green and intelligent technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing, 401122 (China); Du, Jinglei, E-mail: dujl@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology, College of Physics and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Shi, Haofei, E-mail: shi@cigit.ac.cn; Wei, Dongshan; Du, Chunlei, E-mail: cldu@cigit.ac.cn [Chongqing institute of green and intelligent technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing, 401122 (China)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

68

Use of ionic liquids as coordination ligands for organometallic catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aspects of the present invention relate to compositions and methods for the use of ionic liquids with dissolved metal compounds as catalysts for a variety of chemical reactions. Ionic liquids are salts that generally are liquids at room temperature, and are capable of dissolving a many types of compounds that are relatively insoluble in aqueous or organic solvent systems. Specifically, ionic liquids may dissolve metal compounds to produce homogeneous and heterogeneous organometallic catalysts. One industrially-important chemical reaction that may be catalyzed by metal-containing ionic liquid catalysts is the conversion of methane to methanol.

Li, Zaiwei (Moreno Valley, CA); Tang, Yongchun (Walnut, CA); Cheng; Jihong (Arcadia, CA)

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

69

Giant electrocaloric effect in asymmetric ferroelectric tunnel junctions at room temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Room-temperature electrocaloric properties of Pt/BaTiO{sub 3}/SrRuO{sub 3} ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) are studied by using a multiscale thermodynamic model. It is found that there is a divergence in the adiabatic temperature change ?T for the two opposite polarization orientations. This difference under a typical writing voltage of 3?V can reach over 1?K as the barrier thickness decreases. Thanks to the ultrahigh external stimulus, a giant electrocaloric effect (1.53?K/V) with ?T being over 4.5?K can be achieved at room temperature, which demonstrates the perspective of FTJs as a promising solid-state refrigeration.

Liu, Yang, E-mail: liuyangphy52@gmail.com; Infante, Ingrid C.; Dkhil, Brahim, E-mail: brahim.dkhil@ecp.fr [Laboratoire Structures, Propriétés et Modélisation des Solides, UMR 8580 CNRS-Ecole Centrale Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes, Châtenay-Malabry Cedex 92295 (France); Lou, Xiaojie [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, and State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

70

Iron-aluminum alloys having high room-temperature and method for making same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Iron-aluminum alloys having selectable room-temperature ductilities of greater than 20%, high resistance to oxidation and sulfidation, resistant pitting and corrosion in aqueous solutions, and possessing relatively high yield and ultimate tensile strengths are described. These alloys comprise 8 to 9.5% aluminum, up to 7% chromium, up to 4% molybdenum, up to 0.05% carbon, up to 0.5% of a carbide former such as zirconium, up to 0.1 yttrium, and the balance iron. These alloys in wrought form are annealed at a selected temperature in the range of 700.degree. C. to about 1100.degree. C. for providing the alloys with selected room-temperature ductilities in the range of 20 to about 29%.

Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); McKamey, Claudette G. (Knoxville, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Cu-Cu direct bonding achieved by surface method at room temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The metal bonding is a key technology in the processes for the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and the semiconductor devices to improve functionality and higher density integration. Strong adhesion between surfaces at the atomic level is crucial; however, it is difficult to achieve close bonding in such a system. Cu films were deposited on Si substrates by vacuum deposition, and then, two Cu films were bonded directly by means of surface activated bonding (SAB) at room temperature. The two Cu films, with the surface roughness Ra about 1.3nm, were bonded by using SAB at room temperature, however, the bonding strength was very weak in this method. In order to improve the bonding strength between the Cu films, samples were annealed at low temperatures, between 323 and 473 K, in air. As the result, the Cu-Cu bonding strength was 10 times higher than that of the original samples without annealing.

Utsumi, Jun [Advanced Technology Research Center, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 1-8-1 Sachiura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-8515 (Japan); Ichiyanagi, Yuko, E-mail: yuko@ynu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

72

Oxygen-assisted room-temperature deposition of CoPt3 films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen-assisted room-temperature deposition of CoPt3 films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy B Jolla, California 92093 Received 23 July 2002; accepted 30 September 2002 Trace amounts of oxygen CoPt3 grown by vapor deposition at or slightly above room temperature. Oxygen is known to act

Hellman, Frances

73

Quantum-confined single photon emission at room temperature from Silicon carbide tetrapods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Controlled engineering of isolated solid state quantum systems is one of the most prominent goals in modern nanotechnology. In this letter we demonstrate a previously unknown quantum system namely silicon carbide tetrapods. The tetrapods have a cubic polytype core (3C) and hexagonal polytype legs (4H) a geometry that creates a spontaneous polarization within a single tetrapod. Modeling of the tetrapod structures predict that a bound exciton should exist at the 3C 4H interface. The simulations are confirmed by the observation of fully polarized and narrowband single photon emission from the tetrapods at room temperature. The single photon emission provides important insights towards understanding the quantum confinement effects in non-spherical nanostructures. Our results pave the way to a new class of crystal phase nanomaterials that exhibit single photon emission at room temperature and therefore are suitable for sensing, quantum information and nanophotonics.

Castelletto, Stefania; Magyar, Andrew P; Gentle, Angus; Gali, Adam; Aharonovich, Igor

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Electroluminescence from isolated defects in zinc oxide, towards electrically triggered single photon sources at room temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Single photon sources are required for a wide range of applications in quantum information science, quantum cryptography and quantum communications. However, so far majority of room temperature emitters are only excited optically, which limits their proper integration into scalable devices. In this work, we overcome this limitation and present room temperature electrically triggered light emission from localized defects in zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and thin films. The devices emit at the red spectral range and show excellent rectifying behavior. The emission is stable over an extensive period of time, providing an important prerequisite for practical devices. Our results open up possibilities to build new ZnO based quantum integrated devices that incorporate solid-state single photon sources for quantum information technologies.

Choi, Sumin; Gentle, Angus; Ton-That, Cuong; Phillips, Matthew R; Aharonovich, Igor

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Coupling of PbS Quantum Dots to Photonic Crystal Cavities at Room Temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate the coupling of PbS quantum dot emission to photonic crystal cavities at room temperature. The cavities are defined in 33% Al, AlGaAs membranes on top of oxidized AlAs. Quantum dots were dissolved in Poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) and spun on top of the cavities. Quantum dot emission is shown to map out the structure resonances, and may prove to be viable sources for room temperature cavity coupled single photon generation for quantum information processing applications. These results also indicate that such commercially available quantum dots can be used for passive structure characterization. The deposition technique is versatile and allows layers with different dot densities and emission wavelengths to be re-deposited on the same chip.

Ilya Fushman; Dirk Englund; Jelena Vuckovic

2005-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

76

Energy Consumption Estimation for Room Air-conditioners Using Room Temperature Simulation with One-Minute Intervals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For the purpose of developing optimized control algorithm for room air-conditioners to ensure their energy efficiency, a short time interval (i.e., one minute) simulation of building thermal performance is necessary because the sampling time...

Wang, F.; Yoshida, H.; Matsumoto, K.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Synthesis of full-density nanocrystalline tungsten carbide by reduction of tungstic oxide at room temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Among the hard alloys, WC alloys find wide industrial applications as tips for cutting tools and wear-resistant parts. Their intrinsic resistance to oxidation and corrosion at high temperatures also makes them desirable as a protective coating for devices at elevated temperatures. In the industrial scale of production, WC is prepared by a direct union of the elements at a temperature of 3,273 to 3,473 K. Accordingly, the high cost of preparation is a disadvantage of this process. Here, the authors report a novel technique for preparing a large amount of WC powder using a simple method. This process is based on mechanical solid-state reduction (MSSR) followed y solid-state reaction (SSR) during room-temperature ball milling (a high energy ball mill, Fritsch P6, was used at a rotation speed of 4.2 s{sup {minus}1}) of a mixture of WO{sub 3}, Mg, and C powders.

El-Eskandarany, M.S.; Omori, M.; Ishikuro, M.; Konno, T.J.; Takada, K.; Sumiyama, K.; Hirai, T.; Suzuki, K. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Non-adiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics of supersonic beam epitaxy of silicon carbide at room temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non-adiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics of supersonic beam epitaxy of silicon carbide at room-adiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics of supersonic beam epitaxy of silicon carbide at room temperature Simone film crystal growth of silicon carbide (SiC), a semiconductor syn- thesized to replace silicon in harsh

Alfè, Dario

79

Acetonitrile Drastically Boosts Conductivity of Ionic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We apply a new methodology in the force field generation (PCCP 2011, 13, 7910) to study the binary mixtures of five imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) with acetonitrile (ACN). The investigated RTILs are composed of tetrafluoroborate (BF4) anion and dialkylimidazolium cations, where one of the alkyl groups is methyl for all RTILs, and the other group is different for each RTILs, being ethyl (EMIM), butyl (BMIM), hexyl (HMIM), octyl (OMIM), and decyl (DMIM). Specific densities, radial distribution functions, ionic cluster distributions, heats of vaporization, diffusion constants, shear viscosities, ionic conductivities, and their correlations are discussed. Upon addition of ACN, the ionic conductivity of RTILs is found to increase by more than 50 times, that significantly exceeds an impact of most known solvents. Remarkably, the sharpest conductivity growth is found for the long-tailed imidazolium-based cations. This new fact motivates to revisit an application of these binary systems as a...

Chaban, Vitaly V; Kalugin, Oleg N; Prezhdo, Oleg V

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

On the Mechanism of Above Room Temperature Superconductivity and Superfluidity by Relativistic Quantum Mechanics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A comprehensive theory of superconductivity (SC) and superfluidity (SF) is presented of new types III and IV at temperatures into millions of degrees involving phase transitions of fermions in heat reservoirs to form general relativistic triple quasi-particles of 3 fermions interacting to boson-fermion pairs. Types 0, I, and II SC/SF are deduced from such triples as: thermally dressed, relativistic fermionic vortices; spin coupled, dressed, fermionic vortical pairs (diamagnetic bosons); and spinrevorbitally coupled, dressed fermionic, vortical pairs (ferromagnetic bosons). All known SC, SF and trends in critical temperatures (Tc) are thereby explained. The recently observed SC/SF in nano-graphene systems is explained. The above room temperature SC/SF is predicted and modeled by transformations of intense thermal boson populations of heat reservoirs to relativistic mass, weight, spin and magnetism for further reasoning over compression to electricity, weak phenomena and strong phenomena for connecting general relativism and quantum mechanics.

Reginald B. Little

2014-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature ionic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Room temperature performance of mid-wavelength infrared InAsSb nBn detectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, we investigate the high temperature performance of mid-wavelength infrared InAsSb-AlAsSb nBn detectors with cut-off wavelengths near 4.5??m. The quantum efficiency of these devices is 35% without antireflection coatings and does not change with temperature in the 77–325?K temperature range, indicating potential for room temperature operation. The current generation of nBn detectors shows an increase of operational bias with temperature, which is attributed to a shift in the Fermi energy level in the absorber. Analysis of the device performance shows that operational bias and quantum efficiency of these detectors can be further improved. The device dark current stays diffusion limited in the 150?K–325?K temperature range and becomes dominated by generation-recombination processes at lower temperatures. Detector detectivities are D*(?)?=?1?×?10{sup 9} (cm Hz{sup 0.5}/W) at T?=?300?K and D*(?)?=?5?×?10{sup 9} (cm Hz{sup 0.5}/W) at T?=?250?K, which is easily achievable with a one stage TE cooler.

Soibel, Alexander; Hill, Cory J.; Keo, Sam A.; Hoglund, Linda; Rosenberg, Robert; Kowalczyk, Robert; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Fisher, Anita; Ting, David Z.-Y.; Gunapala, Sarath D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, California 91030 (United States)

2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

82

Light storage in a room temperature atomic vapor based on coherent population oscillations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the experimental observation of Coherent Population Oscillation (CPO) based light storage in an atomic vapor cell at room temperature. Using the ultranarrow CPO between the ground levels of a $\\Lambda$ system selected by polarization in metastable $^4$He, such a light storage is experimentally shown to be phase preserving. As it does not involve any atomic coherences it has the advantage of being robust to dephasing effects such as small magnetic field inhomogeneities. The storage time is limited by the population lifetime of the ground states of the $\\Lambda$ system.

M. -A. Maynard; F. Bretenaker; F. Goldfarb

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

83

Detection of pico-Tesla magnetic fields using magneto-electric sensors at room temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The measurement of low-frequency (10{sup -2}-10{sup 3} Hz) minute magnetic field variations (10{sup -12} Tesla) at room temperature in a passive mode of operation would be critically enabling for deployable neurological signal interfacing and magnetic anomaly detection applications. However, there is presently no magnetic field sensor capable of meeting all of these requirements. Here, we present new bimorph and push-pull magneto-electric laminate composites, which incorporate a charge compensation mechanism (or bridge) that dramatically enhances noise rejection, enabling achievement of such requirements.

Zhai Junyi; Xing Zengping; Dong Shuxiang; Li Jiefang; Viehland, D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

2006-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

84

Near-infrared single-photons from aligned molecules in ultrathin crystalline films at room temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the optical properties of Dibenzoterrylene (DBT) molecules in a spin-coated crystalline film of anthracence. By performing single molecule studies, we show that the dipole moments of the DBT molecules are oriented parallel to the plane of the film. Despite a film thickness of only 20 nm, we observe an exceptional photostability at room temperature and photon count rates around one million per second from a single molecule. These properties together with an emission wavelength around 800 nm make this system attractive for applications in nanophotonics and quantum optics.

C. Toninelli; K. Early; J. Bremi; A. Renn; S. Goetzinger; V. Sandoghdar

2010-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

85

Room temperature triggered single-photon source in the near infrared  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the realization of a solid-state triggered single-photon source with narrow emission in the near infrared at room temperature. It is based on the photoluminescence of a single nickel-nitrogen NE8 colour centre in a chemical vapour deposited diamond nanocrystal. Stable single-photon emission has been observed in the photoluminescence under both continuous-wave and pulsed excitations. The realization of this source represents a step forward in the application of diamond-based single-photon sources to Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) under practical operating conditions.

E. Wu; James Rabeau; Gérard Roger; François Treussart; Heping Zeng; Philippe Grangier; Steven Prawer; Jean-François Roch

2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

86

Room temperature all-silicon photonic crystal nanocavity light emitting diode at sub-bandgap wavelengths  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Silicon is now firmly established as a high performance photonic material. Its only weakness is the lack of a native electrically driven light emitter that operates CW at room temperature, exhibits a narrow linewidth in the technologically important 1300- 1600 nm wavelength window, is small and operates with low power consumption. Here, an electrically pumped all-silicon nano light source around 1300-1600 nm range is demonstrated at room temperature. Using hydrogen plasma treatment, nano-scale optically active defects are introduced into silicon, which then feed the photonic crystal nanocavity to enahnce the electrically driven emission in a device via Purcell effect. A narrow ({\\Delta}{\\lambda} = 0.5 nm) emission line at 1515 nm wavelength with a power density of 0.4 mW/cm2 is observed, which represents the highest spectral power density ever reported from any silicon emitter. A number of possible improvements are also discussed, that make this scheme a very promising light source for optical interconnects a...

Shakoor, A; Cardile, P; Portalupi, S L; Gerace, D; Welna, K; Boninelli, S; Franzo, G; Priolo, F; Krauss, T F; Galli, M; Faolain, L O

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Preparation of room temperature terahertz detector with lithium tantalate crystal and thin film  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research on room temperature terahertz (THz) detector is essential for promoting the application of THz science and technology. Both lithium tantalate crystal (LiTaO{sub 3}) and lithium tantalate thin film were used to fabricate the THz detector in this paper. Polishing process were used to reduce the thickness of LiTaO{sub 3} crystal slice by chemical mechanical polishing techniques and an improved sol-gel process was used to obtain high concentration LiTaO{sub 3} precursor solution to fabricate LiTaO{sub 3} thin film. Three dimension models of two THz detectors were set up and the temperature increasing map of two devices were simulated using finite element method. The lowest noise equivalent power value for terahertz detector using pyroelectric material reaches 6.8 × 10{sup ?9} W at 30 Hz operating frequency, which is suitable for THz imaging application.

Wang, Jun, E-mail: ueoewj@gmail.com; Gou, Jun; Li, Weizhi [State Key Lab of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)] [State Key Lab of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

88

Searching Room Temperature Ferromagnetism in Wide Gap Semiconductors Fe-doped Strontium Titanate and Zinc Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scientic findings in the very beginning of the millennium are taking us a step further in the new paradigm of technology: spintronics. Upgrading charge-based electronics with the additional degree of freedom of the carriers spin-state, spintronics opens a path to the birth of a new generation of devices with the potential advantages of non-volatility and higher processing speed, integration densities and power efficiency. A decisive step towards this new age lies on the attribution of magnetic properties to semiconductors, the building block of today's electronics, that is, the realization of ferromagnetic semiconductors (FS) with critical temperatures above room temperature. Unfruitful search for intrinsic RT FS lead to the concept of Dilute(d) Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS): ordinary semiconductor materials where 3 d transition metals randomly substitute a few percent of the matrix cations and, by some long-range mechanism, order ferromagnetically. The times are of intense research activity and the last few ...

Pereira, LMC; Wahl, U

89

Iron-aluminum alloys having high room-temperature and method for making same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A wrought and annealed iron-aluminum alloy is described consisting essentially of 8 to 9.5% aluminum, an effective amount of chromium sufficient to promote resistance to aqueous corrosion of the alloy, and an alloying constituent selected from the group of elements consisting of an effective amount of molybdenum sufficient to promote solution hardening of the alloy and resistance of the alloy to pitting when exposed to solutions containing chloride, up to about 0.05% carbon with up to about 0.5% of a carbide former which combines with the carbon to form carbides for controlling grain growth at elevated temperatures, and mixtures thereof, and the balance iron, wherein said alloy has a single disordered [alpha] phase crystal structure, is substantially non-susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, and has a room-temperature ductility of greater than 20%.

Sikka, V.K.; McKamey, C.G.

1993-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

90

Complexation and optimization of use of non-ionic ethoxylated surfactants in EOR from low temperature fields  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Complexation with aquated cations (e.g., Al/sup 3/, etc.) is shown to enable the extent of adsorption of ethoxylated non-ionic surfactants on sandstone and limestone reservoir rocks to be controlled and minimized. If such reservoirs are at temperatures below the cloud point of the complexed surfactants, such methods can allow EOR with such non-ionic surfactants in low concentrations, NMR evidence is presented to show how the complexation takes place and how it may be controlled. Its beneficial effect on oil recovery is demonstrated with microcapillary de-oiling and surfactant flood tests. Its effect is explained in terms of changes in surfactant characteristics, e.g., phase equilibria, rate and extent of adsorption, oil solubilization and solubility, interfacial tension, viscosity, and contact angles.

Lawrence, S.A.; Pilc, J.; Sermon, P.A.; Readman, J.; Hurd, B.G.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Room temperature ferromagnetism in Co defused CdTe nanocrystalline thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanocrystalline Co defused CdTe thin films were prepared using electron beam evaporation technique by depositing CdTe/Co/CdTe stacked layers with different Co thickness onto glass substrate at 373 K followed by annealing at 573K for 2 hrs. Structural, morphological and magnetic properties of of all the Co defused CdTe thin films has been investigated. XRD pattern of all the films exhibited zinc blende structure with <111> preferential orientation without changing the crystal structure of the films. The grain size of the films increased from 31.5 nm to 48.1 nm with the increase of Co layer thickness from 25nm to 100nm. The morphological studies showed that uniform texture of the films and the presence of Co was confirmed by EDAX. Room temperature magnetization curves indicated an improved ferromagnetic behavior in the films with increase of the Co thickness.

Rao, N. Madhusudhana; Kaleemulla, S.; Begam, M. Rigana [Materials Physics Division, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore - 632 014 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

92

Experimental Observation of the Inverse Spin Hall Effect at Room Temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We observe the inverse spin Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron gas confined in Al-GaAs/InGaAs quantum wells. Specifically, they find that an inhomogeneous spin density induced by the optical injection gives rise to an electric current transverse to both the spin polarization and its gradient. The spin Hall conductivity can be inferred from such a measurement through the Einstein relation and the onsager relation, and is found to have the order of magnitude of 0.5(e{sup 2}/h). The observation is made at the room temperature and in samples with macroscopic sizes, suggesting that the inverse spin Hall effects is a robust macroscopic transport phenomenon.

Liu, Baoli; Shi, Junren; Wang, Wenxin; Zhao, Hongming; Li, Dafang; /Beijing, Inst. Phys.; Zhang, Shoucheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Xue, Qikun; Chen, Dongmin; /Beijing, Inst. Phys.

2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

93

CW Room Temperature Re-Buncher for the Project X Front End  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At Fermilab there is a plan to construct the Project X Injector Experiment (PXIE) facility - a prototype of the front end of the Project X, a multi-MW proton source based on superconducting linac. The construction and successful operations of this facility will validate the concept for the Project X front end, thereby minimizing the primary technical risk element within the Project. The room temperature front end of the linac contains an ion source, an RFQ accelerator and a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) section comprising a high bandwidth bunch selective chopper. The MEBT length is about 10 m, so three re-bunching CW cavities are used to support the beam longitudinal dynamics. The paper reports a RF design of the re-bunchers along with preliminary beam dynamic and thermal analysis of the cavities.

Romanov, Gennady; Awida, Mohamed H.; Chen, Meiyu; Gonin, Ivan V.; Kazakov, Sergey; Kostin, Roman; Lebedev, Valeri; Solyak, Nikolay; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav P.; /Fermilab

2012-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

94

High-k (k=30) amorphous hafnium oxide films from high rate room temperature deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amorphous hafnium oxide (HfO{sub x}) is deposited by sputtering while achieving a very high k{approx}30. Structural characterization suggests that the high k is a consequence of a previously unreported cubiclike short range order in the amorphous HfO{sub x} (cubic k{approx}30). The films also possess a high electrical resistivity of 10{sup 14} {Omega} cm, a breakdown strength of 3 MV cm{sup -1}, and an optical gap of 6.0 eV. Deposition at room temperature and a high deposition rate ({approx}25 nm min{sup -1}) makes these high-k amorphous HfO{sub x} films highly advantageous for plastic electronics and high throughput manufacturing.

Li, Flora M.; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Hofmann, Stephan; Milne, William I.; Flewitt, Andrew J. [Department of Engineering, Electrical Engineering Division, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Dutson, James D.; Wakeham, Steve J.; Thwaites, Mike J. [Plasma Quest Ltd., Unit 1B, Rose Estate, Osborn Way, Hook, Hampshire RG27 9UT (United Kingdom)

2011-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

95

CDZNTE ROOM-TEMPERATURE SEMICONDUCTOR GAMMA-RAY DETECTOR FOR NATIONAL-SECURITY APPLICATIONS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One important mission of the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration is to develop reliable gamma-ray detectors to meet the widespread needs of users for effective techniques to detect and identify special nuclear- and radioactive-materials. Accordingly, the Nonproliferation and National Security Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory was tasked to evaluate existing technology and to develop improved room-temperature detectors based on semiconductors, such as CdZnTe (CZT). Our research covers two important areas: Improving the quality of CZT material, and exploring new CZT-based gamma-ray detectors. In this paper, we report on our recent findings from the material characterization and tests of actual CZT devices fabricated in our laboratory and from materials/detectors supplied by different commercial vendors. In particular, we emphasize the critical role of secondary phases in the current CZT material and issues in fabricating the CZT detectors, both of which affect their performance.

CAMARDA,G.S.; BOLOTNIKOV, A.E.; CUI, Y.; HOSSAIN, A.; KOHMAN, K.T.; JAMES, R.B.

2007-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

96

Could light harvesting complexes exhibit non-classical effects at room temperature?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mounting experimental and theoretical evidence suggests that coherent quantum effects play a role in the efficient transfer of an excitation from a chlorosome antenna to a reaction center in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein complex. However, it is conceivable that a satisfying alternate interpretation of the results is possible in terms of a classical theory. To address this possibility, we consider a class of classical theories satisfying the minimal postulates of macrorealism and frame Leggett-Garg-type tests that could rule them out. Our numerical simulations indicate that even in the presence of decoherence, several tests could exhibit the required violations of the Leggett-Garg inequality. Remarkably, some violations persist even at room temperature for our decoherence model.

Mark M. Wilde; James M. McCracken; Ari Mizel

2009-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

97

Method for stabilizing low-level mixed wastes at room temperature  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method to stabilize solid and liquid waste at room temperature is provided comprising combining solid waste with a starter oxide to obtain a powder, contacting the powder with an acid solution to create a slurry, said acid solution containing the liquid waste, shaping the now-mixed slurry into a predetermined form, and allowing the now-formed slurry to set. The invention also provides for a method to encapsulate and stabilize waste containing cesium comprising combining the waste with Zr(OH){sub 4} to create a solid-phase mixture, mixing phosphoric acid with the solid-phase mixture to create a slurry, subjecting the slurry to pressure; and allowing the now pressurized slurry to set. Lastly, the invention provides for a method to stabilize liquid waste, comprising supplying a powder containing magnesium, sodium and phosphate in predetermined proportions, mixing said powder with the liquid waste, such as tritium, and allowing the resulting slurry to set. 4 figs.

Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.

1997-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

98

Method for stabilizing low-level mixed wastes at room temperature  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method to stabilize solid and liquid waste at room temperature is provided comprising combining solid waste with a starter oxide to obtain a powder, contacting the powder with an acid solution to create a slurry, said acid solution containing the liquid waste, shaping the now-mixed slurry into a predetermined form, and allowing the now-formed slurry to set. The invention also provides for a method to encapsulate and stabilize waste containing cesium comprising combining the waste with Zr(OH).sub.4 to create a solid-phase mixture, mixing phosphoric acid with the solid-phase mixture to create a slurry, subjecting the slurry to pressure; and allowing the now pressurized slurry to set. Lastly, the invention provides for a method to stabilize liquid waste, comprising supplying a powder containing magnesium, sodium and phosphate in predetermined proportions, mixing said powder with the liquid waste, such as tritium, and allowing the resulting slurry to set.

Wagh, Arun S. (Joliet, IL); Singh, Dileep (Westmont, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Room temperature ferromagnetism in Co-doped amorphous carbon composites from the spin polarized semiconductor band  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study provides conclusive evidence of room temperature ferromagnetism in Co-doped amorphous carbon (a-C) composites from the spin polarized semiconductor band. These composites are constructed from discontinuous [Co(3?nm)/a-C(d{sub c} nm)]{sub 5} multilayers with d{sub c}?=?3?nm and d{sub c}?=?6?nm. Only remnant circular dichroism (CD) was observed from the d{sub c}?=?3?nm sample but not when d{sub c}?=?6?nm. In addition, the remnant CD peaks at 5.5?eV, which is comparable with the absorption peak associated with the C ?-?* gap transition. We suggest that the possible mechanism for this coupling can be considered as a magnetic proximity effect in which a ferromagnetic moment in the C medium is induced by Co/C interfaces.

Hsu, H. S., E-mail: hshsu@mail.nptu.edu.tw; Chien, P. C.; Chang, Y. Y. [Department of Applied Physics, National Pingtung University, Pingtung 900, Taiwan (China); Sun, S. J. [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China); Lee, C. H. [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

100

Ceramic stabilization of hazardous wastes: a high performance room temperature process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ANL has developed a room-temperature process for converting hazardous materials to a ceramic structure. It is similar to vitrification but is achieved at low cost, similar to conventional cement stabilization. The waste constituents are both chemically stabilized and physically encapsulated, producing very low leaching levels and the potential for delisting. The process, which is pH-insensitive, is ideal for inorganic sludges and liquids, as well as mixed chemical-radioactive wastes, but can also handle significant percentages of salts and even halogenated organics. High waste loadings are possible and densification occurs,so that volumes are only slightly increased and in some cases (eg, incinerator ash) are reduced. The ceramic product has strength and weathering properties far superior to cement products.

Maloney, M.D.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature ionic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Blue photoluminescence enhancement in laser-irradiated 6H-SiC at room temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Blue photoluminescence (PL) of 6H-SiC irradiated by an ultraviolet laser can be observed at room temperature in dark condition. PL spectra with Gaussian fitting curve of the irradiated SiC show that blue luminescence band (?440?nm) is more pronounced than other bands. The blue PL enhancement is the combined result of the improved shallow N-donor energy level and the unique surface state with Si nanocrystals and graphene/Si composite due to the effect of photon energy input by the short-wavelength laser irradiation. The study can provide a promising route towards the preparation of well-controlled blue photoluminescence material for light-emitting devices.

Wu, Yan; Ji, Lingfei, E-mail: ncltji@bjut.edu.cn; Lin, Zhenyuan; Jiang, Yijian [Institute of Laser Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Zhai, Tianrui [College of Applied Science, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

102

Direct Observation of Room-Temperature Polar Ordering in Colloidal GeTe Nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ferroelectrics and other materials that exhibit spontaneous polar ordering have demonstrated immense promise for applications ranging from non-volatile memories to microelectromechanical systems. However, experimental evidence of polar ordering and effective synthetic strategies for accessing these materials are lacking for low-dimensional nanomaterials. Here, we demonstrate the synthesis of size-controlled nanocrystals of the polar material germanium telluride (GeTe) using colloidal chemistry and provide the first direct evidence of room-temperature polar ordering in nanocrystals less than 5 nm in size using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman studies demonstrate a sizeable polar distortion and a reversible size-dependent polar phase transition in these nanocrystals. The stability of polar ordering in solution-processible nanomaterials suggests an economical avenue to Tbit/in2-density non-volatile memory devices and other applications.

Polking, Mark J.; Zheng, Haimei; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Milliron, Delia J.; Chan, Emory; Caldwell, Marissa A.; Raoux, Simone; Kisielowski, Christian F.; Ager III, Joel W.; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Alivisatos, A.P.

2009-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

103

Environmental effect on room-temperature ductility of isothermally forged TiAl-base alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isothermally forged TiAl-base alloy (Al-rich, Mn-containing, and Cr-containing TiAl) were heat-treated in various conditions, and equiaxed grain structures consisting of [gamma] and [alpha][sub 2] or [beta] phases were obtained. The heat-treated alloys were tensile tested in vacuum and air at room temperature, and the environmental effect on tensile elongation was studied. The ductility of the alloys consisting of equiaxed [gamma] grains and a large amount of [alpha][sub 2] grains was not largely affecting by laboratory air, and a decrease in the amount of [alpha][sub 2] grains resulted in a large reduction of ductility in air. The [beta] phase in the Cr-containing alloy improved the ductility in vacuum, but it resulted in a large reduction of ductility in air.

Nakamura, Morihiko; Hashimoto, Kenki (National Research Inst. for Metals, Tokyo (Japan)); Itoh, Naoyuki (Nippon Steel Corp., Chiba (Japan)); Tsujimoto, Tokuzo (Ibaraki Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Suzuki, Toshiyuki (Kougakuin Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Room temperature broadband coherent terahertz emission induced by dynamical photon drag in graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nonlinear couplings between photons and electrons in new materials give rise to a wealth of interesting nonlinear phenomena. This includes frequency mixing, optical rectification or nonlinear current generation, which are of particular interest for generating radiation in spectral regions that are difficult to access, such as the terahertz gap. Owing to its specific linear dispersion and high electron mobility at room temperature, graphene is particularly attractive for realizing strong nonlinear effects. However, since graphene is a centrosymmetric material, second-order nonlinearities a priori cancel, which imposes to rely on less attractive third-order nonlinearities. It was nevertheless recently demonstrated that dc-second-order nonlinear currents as well as ultrafast ac-currents can be generated in graphene under optical excitation. The asymmetry is introduced by the excitation at oblique incidence, resulting in the transfer of photon momentum to the electron system, known as the photon drag effect. Here...

Maysonnave, J; Wang, F; Maero, S; Berger, C; de Heer, W; Norris, T B; De Vaulchier, L A; Dhillon, S; Tignon, J; Ferreira, R; Mangeney, J

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Room-temperature condensation in whispering gallery microresonators assisted by longitudinal optical phonons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report condensation of hexagonal whispering gallery modes (WGM) at room temperature in ZnO microwires that embody nearly perfect polygonal whispering gallery microresonators. The condensate regime is achieved in the UV spectral range only at energies below the first longitudinal optical (LO) phonon replica of the free ZnO A-exciton transition and at non-zero wave vectors. We demonstrate that the multimodality of the WGM system and the high population of free excitons and phonons with various momenta strongly enhance the probability of an interaction of quasiparticles of the cavity exciton-photon system with LO phonons. We further examine the far-field mode pattern of lasing WGM and demonstrate their spatial coherence.

Dietrich, Christof P; Michalsky, Tom; Lange, Martin; Grundmann, Marius

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

SRNL PHASE II SHELF LIFE STUDIES - SERIES 1 ROOM TEMPERATURE AND HIGH RELATIVE HUMIDITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Phase II, Series 1 shelf-life corrosion testing for the Department of Energy Standard 3013 container is presented and discussed in terms of the localized corrosion behavior of Type 304 stainless steel in contact with moist plutonium oxide and chloride salt mixtures and the potential impact to the 3013 inner container. This testing was designed to address the influence of temperature, salt composition, initial salt moisture, residual stress and type of oxide/salt contact on the relative humidity inside a 3013 container and the initiation and propagation of localized corrosion, especially stress corrosion cracking. The integrated plan is being conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory and SRNL. SRNL is responsible for conducting a corrosion study in small scale vessels containing plutonium oxide and chloride salts under conditions of humidity, temperature and oxide/salt compositions both within the limits of 3013 storage conditions as well as beyond the 3013 storage requirements to identify margins for minimizing the initiation of stress corrosion cracking. These worst case conditions provide data that bound the material packaged in 3013 containers. Phase I of this testing was completed in 2010. The Phase II, Series 1 testing was performed to verify previous results from Phase I testing and extend our understanding about the initiation of stress corrosion cracking and pitting that occur in 304L under conditions of room temperature, high humidity, and a specific plutonium oxide/salt chemistry. These results will aid in bounding the safe storage conditions of plutonium oxides in 3013 containers. A substantial change in the testing was the addition of the capability to monitor relative humidity during test exposure. The results show that under conditions of high initial moisture ({approx}0.5 wt%) and room temperature stress corrosion cracking occurred in 304L teardrop coupons in contact with the oxide/salt mixture at times as short as 85 days. In all cases, the cracking appeared to be associated with pitting or localized general corrosion. Crack initiation at other sites, such as surface imperfections or inclusions, cannot be excluded. Cracks appear in most cases to initiate through an intergranular mode and transition to a transgranular mode.

Mickalonis, J.; Duffey, J.

2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

107

ROOM TEMPERATURE COMPRESSION PROPERTIES OF TWO HEATS OF UNIRRADIATED V-4Cr-4Ti  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vanadium alloys are of interest to the Fusion program as potential first wall structural materials. The expected irradiation conditions for the first wall structural material include a range of temperatures where very high hardening caused by a high density of small, but shearable defect clusters results in a type of deformation called "localized deformation". At the onset of yield in a tensile test, a dislocation may move through a grain shearing the obstacles and clearing out a channel. Subsequent dislocations may easily pass through this channel. As the test progresses, more channels form. In the early stages of deformation, it is thought that the plastic deformation is confined to these channels. One important macroscopic result of this deformation behavior is rapid onset of necking in a tensile test and very low uniform elongation. As a means to help understand the range of stress states where localized deformation may adversely affect macroscopic ductility in vanadium alloys, compression test specimens fabricated from two heats of V-4Cr-4Ti are currently under irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The results of room temperature compression tests on the unirradiated control materials are presented here and compared with uniaxial tensile values from the literature.

Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Kurtz, Richard J.

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

108

New insights into designing metallacarborane based room temperature hydrogen storage media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metallacarboranes are promising towards realizing room temperature hydrogen storage media because of the presence of both transition metal and carbon atoms. In metallacarborane clusters, the transition metal adsorbs hydrogen molecules and carbon can link these clusters to form metal organic framework, which can serve as a complete storage medium. Using first principles density functional calculations, we chalk out the underlying principles of designing an efficient metallacarborane based hydrogen storage media. The storage capacity of hydrogen depends upon the number of available transition metal d-orbitals, number of carbons, and dopant atoms in the cluster. These factors control the amount of charge transfer from metal to the cluster, thereby affecting the number of adsorbed hydrogen molecules. This correlation between the charge transfer and storage capacity is general in nature, and can be applied to designing efficient hydrogen storage systems. Following this strategy, a search for the best metallacarborane was carried out in which Sc based monocarborane was found to be the most promising H{sub 2} sorbent material with a 9 wt.% of reversible storage at ambient pressure and temperature.

Bora, Pankaj Lochan; Singh, Abhishek K. [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)] [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

2013-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

109

Nanowire-based frequency-selective capacitive photodetector for resonant detection of infrared radiation at room temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Characteristics of a capacitive infrared photodetector that works at room temperature by registering a change in capacitance upon illumination are reported. If used in an ideal resonant inductor-resistor-capacitor circuit, it can exhibit zero dark current, zero standby power dissipation, infinite detectivity, and infinite light-to-dark contrast ratio. It is also made frequency-selective by employing semiconductor nanowires that selectively absorb photons of energies close to the nanowire's bandgap. Based on measured parameters, the normalized detectivity is estimated to be ?3?×?10{sup 7} Jones for 1.6??m IR wavelength at room temperature.

Bandyopadhyay, Saumil, E-mail: saumilb@mit.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States)

2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

110

Static dielectric properties of dense ionic fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The static dielectric properties of dense ionic fluids, e.g., room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and inorganic fused salts, are investigated on different length scales by means of grandcanonical Monte Carlo simulations. A generally applicable scheme is developed which allows one to approximately decompose the electric susceptibility of dense ionic fluids into the orientation and the distortion polarization contribution. It is shown that at long range the well-known plasma-like perfect screening behavior occurs, which corresponds to a diverging distortion susceptibility, whereas at short range orientation polarization dominates, which coincides with that of a dipolar fluid of attached cation-anion pairs. This observation suggests that the recently debated interpretation of RTILs as dilute electrolyte solutions might not be simply a yes-no-question but it might depend on the considered length scale.

Zarubin, Grigory

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Room-Temperature Metal-Hydride Discharge Source, with Observations on NiH and FeH Raphael Vallon,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Room-Temperature Metal-Hydride Discharge Source, with Observations on NiH and FeH Raphae¨l Vallon laser excitation and dispersed fluorescence spectra of NiH have also been recorded. The source has been are strong enough to record dispersed fluorescence from NiH by Fourier transform interferometry in magnetic

Ashworth, Stephen H.

112

Room Temperature, Intrinsic Vacancy Mediated Ferromagnetism in Cr:Ga2Se3/Si E. N. Yitamben,1,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Room Temperature, Intrinsic Vacancy Mediated Ferromagnetism in Cr:Ga2Se3/Si E. N. Yitamben,1, T. C of 4 µB/Cr. The intrinsic- vacancy structure of defected-zinc-blende -Ga2Se3 enables Cr incorporation, as well as strong overlap between Cr 3d states and the Se 4p states lining the intrinsic vacancy rows, ob

Olmstead, Marjorie

113

Room temperature alcohol sensing by oxygen vacancy controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotube array  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxygen vacancy (OV) controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, having diameters of 50–70?nm and lengths of 200–250?nm, were synthesized by electrochemical anodization in the mixed electrolyte comprising NH{sub 4}F and ethylene glycol with selective H{sub 2}O content. The structural evolution of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Variation in the formation of OVs with the variation of the structure of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been evaluated by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor characteristics were correlated to the variation of the amount of induced OVs in the nanotubes. The efficient room temperature sensing achieved by the control of OVs of TiO{sub 2} nanotube array has paved the way for developing fast responding alcohol sensor with corresponding response magnitude of 60.2%, 45.3%, and 36.5% towards methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively.

Hazra, A.; Dutta, K.; Bhowmik, B.; Bhattacharyya, P., E-mail: pb-etc-besu@yahoo.com [Nano-Thin Films and Solid State Gas Sensor Devices Laboratory, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology (IIEST), Shibpur, Howrah (India); Chattopadhyay, P. P. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology (IIEST), Shibpur, Howrah (India)

2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

114

Line coupling effects in the isotropic Raman spectra of N{sub 2}: A quantum calculation at room temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present quantum calculations of the relaxation matrix for the Q branch of N{sub 2} at room temperature using a recently proposed N{sub 2}-N{sub 2} rigid rotor potential. Close coupling calculations were complemented by coupled states studies at high energies and provide about 10?200 two-body state-to state cross sections from which the needed one-body cross-sections may be obtained. For such temperatures, convergence has to be thoroughly analyzed since such conditions are close to the limit of current computational feasibility. This has been done using complementary calculations based on the energy corrected sudden formalism. Agreement of these quantum predictions with experimental data is good, but the main goal of this work is to provide a benchmark relaxation matrix for testing more approximate methods which remain of a great utility for complex molecular systems at room (and higher) temperatures.

Thibault, Franck, E-mail: franck.thibault@univ-rennes1.fr [Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR CNRS 6251, Université de Rennes I, Campus de Beaulieu, Bât. 11B, F-35042 Rennes (France)] [Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR CNRS 6251, Université de Rennes I, Campus de Beaulieu, Bât. 11B, F-35042 Rennes (France); Boulet, Christian [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, UMR CNRS 8214, Université Paris-Sud 11, Campus d’Orsay, Bât. 350, F-91405 Orsay (France)] [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, UMR CNRS 8214, Université Paris-Sud 11, Campus d’Orsay, Bât. 350, F-91405 Orsay (France); Ma, Qiancheng [NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies and Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University 2880 Broadway, New York, New York 10025 (United States)] [NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies and Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University 2880 Broadway, New York, New York 10025 (United States)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

115

Fluorescence spectroscopy of single molecules at room temperature and its applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We performed fluorescence spectroscopy of single and pairs of dye molecules on a surface at room temperature. Near field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and far field scanning optical microscope with multi-color excitation/detection capability were built. The instrument is capable of optical imaging with 100nm resolution and has the sensitivity necessary for single molecule detection. A variety of dynamic events which cannot be observed from an ensemble of molecules is revealed when the molecules are probed one at a time. They include (1) spectral jumps correlated with dark states, (2) individually resolved quantum jumps to and from the meta-stable triplet state, (3) rotational jumps due to desorption/readsorption events of single molecules on the surface. For these studies, a computer controlled optical system which automatically and rapidly locates and performs spectroscopic measurements on single molecules was developed. We also studied the interaction between closely spaced pairs of molecules. In particular, fluorescence resonance energy transfer between a single resonant pair of donor and acceptor molecules was measured. Photodestruction dynamics of the donor or acceptor were used to determine the presence and efficiency of energy transfer Dual molecule spectroscopy was extended to a non-resonant pair of molecules to obtain high resolution differential distance information. By combining NSOM and dual color scheme, we studied the co-localization of parasite proteins and host proteins on a human red blood cell membrane infected with malaria. These dual-molecule techniques can be used to measure distances, relative orientations, and changes in distances/orientations of biological macromolecules with very good spatial, angular and temporal resolutions, hence opening new capabilities in the study of such systems.

Ha, Taekjip

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Digital Signal Processing Methods for Pixelated 3-D Position Sensitive Room-Temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Digital Signal Processing Methods for Pixelated 3-D Position Sensitive Room for Charge Collecting Signals . . . . 22 2.2.2 Optimal Filter for Transient signals . . . . . . . . . 26 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3.2.2 Maxwell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3.3 The Signal Induction

He, Zhong

117

hal-00133055,version1-29Mar2007 Nuclear spin interferences in bulk water at room temperature.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hal-00133055,version1-29Mar2007 Nuclear spin interferences in bulk water at room temperature. J in NMR pacs 03.67.-a: Quantum information pacs 67.57.Lm: Spin dynamics Abstract Nuclear spin interference in a static mag- netic field B0 4.7 T. For a homogeneity of B0 of the order of B0/B0 = 2 · 10-8 , the nuclear

Boyer, Edmond

118

Electrodeposition and room temperature ferromagnetic anisotropy of Co and Ni-doped ZnO nanowire arrays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cobalt and nickel doped ZnO nanowire arrays were synthesized by an electrochemical process at a temperature of 90 deg. C. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction show that the dopants are incorporated into the wurtzite-structure ZnO. Anisotropic ferromagnetism with an easy direction of magnetization either perpendicular or parallel to the wire axis, depending on the wire geometry and density, was observed in 1.7% Co and 2.2% Ni-doped ZnO nanowires at room temperature. The anisotropic magnetism was explained in terms of a competition between self-demagnetization and magnetostatic coupling among the nanowires.

Cui, J.B.; Gibson, U.J. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755-8000 (United States)

2005-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

119

Investigation of bonding strength and sealing behavior of aluminum/stainless steel bonded at room temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

], spark welding [3], explosive bonding [4], and diffusion bonding [5,6]. However, the processing such as diffusion bonding [5,6], friction welding [7e11], vacuum roll bonding [12] and hot roll bonding [13Investigation of bonding strength and sealing behavior of aluminum/stainless steel bonded at room

Howlader, Matiar R

120

FINAL REPORT: Room Temperature Hydrogen Storage in Nano-Confined Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOE continues to seek solid-state hydrogen storage materials with hydrogen densities of ?6 wt% and ?50 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at room temperature and moderate pressures enabling widespread use in transportation applications. Meanwhile, development including vehicle engineering and delivery infrastructure continues for compressed-gas hydrogen storage systems. Although compressed gas storage avoids the materials-based issues associated with solid-state storage, achieving acceptable volumetric densities has been a persistent challenge. This project examined the possibility of developing storage materials that would be compatible with compressed gas storage technology based on enhanced hydrogen solubility in nano-confined liquid solvents. These materials would store hydrogen in molecular form eliminating many limitations of current solid-state materials while increasing the volumetric capacity of compressed hydrogen storage vessels. Experimental methods were developed to study hydrogen solubility in nano-confined liquids. These methods included 1) fabrication of composites comprised of volatile liquid solvents for hydrogen confined within the nano-sized pore volume of nanoporous scaffolds and 2) measuring the hydrogen uptake capacity of these composites without altering the composite composition. The hydrogen storage capacities of these nano-confined solvent/scaffold composites were compared with bulk solvents and with empty scaffolds. The solvents and scaffolds were varied to optimize the enhancement in hydrogen solubility that accompanies confinement of the solvent. In addition, computational simulations were performed to study the molecular-scale structure of liquid solvent when confined within an atomically realistic nano-sized pore of a model scaffold. Confined solvent was compared with similar simulations of bulk solvent. The results from the simulations were used to formulate a mechanism for the enhanced solubility and to guide the experiments. Overall, the combined experimental measurements and simulations indicate that hydrogen storage based on enhanced solubility in nano-confined liquids is unlikely to meet the storage densities required for practical use. Only low gravimetric capacities of < 0.5 wt% were achieved. More importantly, solvent filled scaffolds had lower volumetric capacities than corresponding empty scaffolds. Nevertheless, several of the composites measured did show significant (>~ 5x) enhanced hydrogen solubility relative to bulk solvent solubility, when the hydrogen capacity was attributed only to dissolution in the confined solvent. However, when the hydrogen capacity was compared to an empty scaffold that is known to store hydrogen by surface adsorption on the scaffold walls, including the solvent always reduced the hydrogen capacity. For the best composites, this reduction relative to an empty scaffold was ~30%; for the worst it was ~90%. The highest capacities were obtained with the largest solvent molecules and with scaffolds containing 3- dimensionally confined pore geometries. The simulations suggested that the capacity of the composites originated from hydrogen adsorption on the scaffold pore walls at sites not occupied by solvent molecules. Although liquid solvent filled the pores, not all of the adsorption sites on the pore walls were occupied due to restricted motion of the solvent molecules within the confined pore space.

VAJO, JOHN

2014-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature ionic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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121

Regeneration tests of a room temperature magnetic refrigerator and heat pump  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A magnetic heat pump apparatus consisting of a solid magnetic refrigerant, gadolinium, and a liquid regenerator column of ethanol and water has been tested. Utilizing a 7T field, it produced a maximum temperature span of 80 K, and in separate tests, a lowest temperature of 241 K and a highest temperature of 328 K. Thermocouples, placed at intervals along the regenerator tube, permitted measurement of the temperature distribution in the regenerator fluid. No attempt was made to extract refrigeration from the device, but analysis of the temperature distributions shows that 34 watts of refrigeration was produced.

Brown, G V

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Photochemical preparation of CdS hollow microspheres at room temperature and their use in visible-light photocatalysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CdS hollow microspheres have been successfully prepared by a photochemical preparation technology at room temperature, using polystyrene latex particles as templates, CdSO{sub 4} as cadmium source and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} as both sulphur source and photo-initiator. The process involved the deposition of CdS nanoparticles on the surface of polystyrene latex particles under the irradiation of an 8 W UV lamp and the subsequent removal of the latex particles by dispersing in dichloromethane. Photochemical reactions at the sphere/solution interface should be responsible for the formation of hollow spheres. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Such hollow spheres could be used in photocatalysis and showed high photocatalytic activities in photodegradation of methyl blue (MB) in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The method is green, simple, universal and can be extended to prepare other sulphide and oxide hollow spheres. -- Graphical abstract: Taking polystyrene spheres dispersed in a precursor solution as templates, CdS hollow microspheres composed of nanoparticles were successfully prepared via a new photochemical route at room temperature. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Photochemical method was first employed to prepare hollow microspheres. {yields} CdS hollow spheres were first prepared at room temperature using latex spheres. {yields} The polystyrene spheres used as templates were not modified with special groups. {yields}The CdS hollow microspheres showed high visible-light photocatalytic activities.

Huang Yuying [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Sun Fengqiang, E-mail: fengqiangsun@yahoo.c [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Technology on Energy Storage and Power Generation in GuangDong Universities, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wu Tianxing; Wu Qingsong; Huang Zhong; Su Heng; Zhang Zihe [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

123

Room-Temperature in situ Nuclear Spin Hyperpolarization from Optically-Pumped Nitrogen Vacancy Centers in Diamond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report bulk, room-temperature hyperpolarization of 13C nuclear spins observed via high-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The hyperpolarization is achieved by optical pumping (OP) of nitrogen vacancy defect centers in diamond accompanied by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). The technique harnesses the large optically-induced spin polarization of NV- centers at room temperature, which is many orders of magnitude greater than thermal equilibrium polarization and typically achievable only at sub-Kelvin temperatures. Transfer of the spin polarization to the 13C nuclear spins is accomplished via a combination of OP and microwave irradiation. The OP/DNP is performed at 420 mT, where inductive detection of NMR is feasible, in contrast to the typically exploited level anticrossing regimes at 100 mT and 50 mT. Here, we report a bulk nuclear spin polarization of 6%. This polarization was generated in situ and detected with a standard, inductive NMR probe without the need for sample shuttling or precise crystal orientation. Hyperpolarization via OP/DNP should operate at arbitrary magnetic fields, enabling orders of magnitude sensitivity enhancement for NMR of solids and liquids at ambient conditions.

Jonathan P. King; Keunhong Jeong; Christophoros C. Vassiliou; Chang S. Shin; Ralph H. Page; Claudia E. Avalos; Hai-Jing Wang; Alexander Pines

2015-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

124

Room-Temperature Ferromagnetism in Ion-Implanted Co-Doped TiO(110) Rutile.  

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125

Infrared study on room-temperature atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} using tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)hafnium and remote plasma-excited oxidizing agents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Room-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) of HfO{sub 2} was examined using tetrakis (ethylmethylamino)hafnium (TEMAH) and remote plasma-excited water and oxygen. A growth rate of 0.26?nm/cycle at room temperature was achieved, and the TEMAH adsorption and its oxidization on HfO{sub 2} were investigated by multiple internal reflection infrared absorption spectroscopy. It was observed that saturated adsorption of TEMAH occurs at exposures of ?1?×?10{sup 5}?L (1 L?=?1?×?10{sup ?6} Torr s) at room temperature, and the use of remote plasma-excited water and oxygen vapor is effective in oxidizing the TEMAH molecules on the HfO{sub 2} surface, to produce OH sites. The infrared study suggested that Hf–OH plays a role as an adsorption site for TEMAH. The reaction mechanism of room temperature HfO{sub 2} ALD is discussed in this paper.

Kanomata, Kensaku [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510, Japan and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 5-3-1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Ohba, Hisashi; Pungboon Pansila, P.; Ahmmad, Bashir; Kubota, Shigeru; Hirahara, Kazuhiro; Hirose, Fumihiko, E-mail: fhirose@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan)

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Room Temperature Copper(II)-Catalyzed Oxidative Cyclization of Enamides to 2,5-Disubstituted Oxazoles via Vinylic C–H Functionalization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A copper(II)-catalyzed oxidative cyclization of enamides to oxazoles via vinylic C–H bond functionalization at room temperature is described. Various 2,5-disubstituted oxazoles bearing aryl, vinyl, alkyl, and heteroaryl ...

Cheung, Chi Wai

127

Room temperature strain rate sensitivity in precursor derived HfO{sub 2}/Si-C-N(O) ceramic nanocomposites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Investigation on the room temperature strain rate sensitivity using depth sensing nanoindentation is carried out on precursor derived HfO{sub 2}/Si-C-N(O) ceramic nanocomposite sintered using pulsed electric current sintering. Using constant load method the strain rate sensitivity values are estimated. Lower strain rate sensitivity of ? 3.7 × 10{sup ?3} is observed and the limited strain rate sensitivity of these ceramic nanocomposites is explained in terms of cluster model. It is concluded that presence of amorphous Si-C-N(O) clusters are responsible for the limited flowability in these ceramics.

Sujith, Ravindran; Kumar, Ravi, E-mail: nvrk@iitm.ac.in [Materials Processing Section, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai-600036, India. (India)] [Materials Processing Section, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai-600036, India. (India)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

128

Room-temperature lasing in microring cavities with an InAs/InGaAs quantum-dot active region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microring cavities (diameter D = 2.7-7 {mu}m) with an active region based on InAs/InGaAs quantum dots are fabricated and their characteristics are studied by the microphotoluminescence method and near-field optical microscopy. A value of 22 000 is obtained for the Q factor of a microring cavity with the diameter D = 6 {mu}m. Lasing up to room temperature is obtained in an optically pumped ring microlaser with a diameter of D = 2.7 {mu}m.

Kryzhanovskaya, N. V., E-mail: kryj@mail.ioffe.ru; Zhukov, A. E.; Nadtochy, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University, Nanotechnology Center for Research and Education (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University, Nanotechnology Center for Research and Education (Russian Federation); Maximov, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Moiseev, E. I. [St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation)] [St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Kulagina, M. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Savelev, A. V.; Arakcheeva, E. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University, Nanotechnology Center for Research and Education (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University, Nanotechnology Center for Research and Education (Russian Federation); Lipovskii, A. A. [St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation)] [St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Zubov, F. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University, Nanotechnology Center for Research and Education (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University, Nanotechnology Center for Research and Education (Russian Federation); Kapsalis, A.; Mesaritakis, C.; Syvridis, D. [University of Athens (Greece)] [University of Athens (Greece); Mintairov, A. [University of Notre Dame (United States)] [University of Notre Dame (United States); Livshits, D. [Innolume GmbH (Germany)] [Innolume GmbH (Germany)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

129

Room-temperature implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm with a single electronic spin in diamond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The nitrogen-vacancy defect center (NV center) is a promising candidate for quantum information processing due to the possibility of coherent manipulation of individual spins in the absence of the cryogenic requirement. We report a room-temperature implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm by encoding both a qubit and an auxiliary state in the electron spin of a single NV center. By thus exploiting the specific S=1 character of the spin system, we demonstrate how even scarce quantum resources can be used for test-bed experiments on the way towards a large-scale quantum computing architecture.

Fazhan Shi; Xing Rong; Nanyang Xu; Ya Wang; Jie Wu; Bo Chong; Xinhua Peng; Juliane Kniepert; Rolf-Simon Schoenfeld; Wolfgang Harneit; Mang Feng; Jiangfeng Du

2010-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

130

Near fifty percent sodium substituted lanthanum manganites—A potential magnetic refrigerant for room temperature applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nearly half of lanthanum sites in lanthanum manganites were substituted with monovalent ion-sodium and the compound possessed distorted orthorhombic structure. Ferromagnetic ordering at 300?K and the magnetic isotherms at different temperature ranges were analyzed for estimating magnetic entropy variation. Magnetic entropy change of 1.5?J·kg{sup ?1}·K{sup ?1} was observed near 300?K. An appreciable magnetocaloric effect was also observed for a wide range of temperatures near 300?K for small magnetic field variation. Heat capacity was measured for temperatures lower than 300?K and the adiabatic temperature change increases with increase in temperature with a maximum of 0.62?K at 280?K.

Sethulakshmi, N.; Anantharaman, M. R., E-mail: mraiyer@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India); Al-Omari, I. A. [Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, PC 123 Muscat, Sultanate of Oman (Oman); Suresh, K. G. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

131

Initial proof-of-principle for near room temperature Xe and Kr separation from air with MOFs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Materials were developed and tested in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Separations and Waste Forms Campaign. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal of Xenon and krypton from gaseous products of nuclear fuel reprocessing unit operations. During FY 2012, Three Metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated in greater detail for the removal and storage of Xe and Kr from air at room temperature. Our breakthrough measurements on Nickel based MOF could capture and separate parts per million levels of Xe from Air (40 ppm Kr, 78% N2, 21% O2, 0.9% Ar, 0.03% CO2). Similarly, the selectivity can be changed from Xe > Kr to Xe < Kr simply by changing the temperature in another MOF. Also for the first time we estimated the cost of the metal organic frameworks in bulk.

Thallapally, Praveen K.; Strachan, Denis M.

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

132

High temperature electron spin dynamics in bulk cubic GaN: Nanosecond spin lifetimes far above room-temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electron spin dynamics in n-doped bulk cubic GaN is investigated for very high temperatures from 293?K up to 500?K by time-resolved Kerr-rotation spectroscopy. We find extraordinarily long spin lifetimes exceeding 1?ns at 500?K. The temperature dependence of the spin relaxation time is in qualitative agreement with predictions of Dyakonov-Perel theory, while the absolute experimental times are an order of magnitude shorter than predicted. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed, including the role of phase mixtures of hexagonal and cubic GaN as well as the impact of localized carriers.

Buß, J. H.; Schaefer, A.; Hägele, D.; Rudolph, J. [Arbeitsgruppe Spektroskopie der kondensierten Materie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstraße 150, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Schupp, T.; As, D. J. [Department of Physics, University of Paderborn, Warburger Str. 100, D-33095 Paderborn (Germany)

2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

133

Phase-Changing Ionic Liquids: CO2 Capture with Ionic Liquids Involving Phase Change  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

IMPACCT Project: Notre Dame is developing a new CO2 capture process that uses special ionic liquids (ILs) to remove CO2 from the gas exhaust of coal-fired power plants. ILs are salts that are normally liquid at room temperature, but Notre Dame has discovered a new class of ILs that are solid at room temperature and change to liquid when they bind to CO2. Upon heating, the CO2 is released for storage, and the ILs re-solidify and donate some of the heat generated in the process to facilitate further CO2 release. These new ILs can reduce the energy required to capture CO2 from the exhaust stream of a coal-fired power plant when compared to state-ofthe- art technology.

None

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Selective-area room temperature visible photoluminescence from SiC/Si heterostructures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

shown8 to produce monocrystalline thin films, while minimizing the high temperature exposure. The Sic mismatch, heteroepitaxial growth of Sic films on Si has been achieved by several groups?-' In addition, SicSi. For example, polycrystalline Sic deposited on Si after it is rendered porous has been utilized9

Steckl, Andrew J.

135

Importance of glassy fragility for energy applications of ionic liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ionic liquids (ILs) are salts that are liquid close to room temperature. Their possible applications are numerous, e.g., as solvents for green chemistry in various electrochemical devices, and even for such "exotic" purposes as spinning-liquid mirrors for lunar telescopes. Here we concentrate on their use for new advancements in energy-storage and -conversion devices: Batteries, supercapacitors or fuel cells using ILs as electrolytes could be important building blocks for the sustainable energy supply of tomorrow. Interestingly, ILs show glassy freezing and the universal, but until now only poorly understood dynamic properties of glassy matter, dominate many of their physical properties. We show that the conductivity of ILs, an essential figure of merit for any electrochemical application, depends in a systematic way not only on their glass temperature but also on the so-called fragility, characterizing the non-canonical super-Arrhenius temperature dependence of their ionic mobility.

P. Sippel; P. Lunkenheimer; S. Krohns; E. Thoms; A. Loidl

2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

136

[Cu(I)(bpp)]BF4: the first extended coordination network prepared solvothermally in an ionic liquid solvent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the two-dimensional net- work [Cu(bpp)]BF4 [bpp = 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane], pro- duced via and 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane (bpp) ligand. [bmim][BF4], as a room temperature ionic liquid, is air

Li, Jing

137

Non-adiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics of supersonic beam epitaxy of silicon carbide at room temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, we investigate the processes leading to the room-temperature growth of silicon carbide thin films by supersonic molecular beam epitaxy technique. We present experimental data showing that the collision of fullerene on a silicon surface induces strong chemical-physical perturbations and, for sufficient velocity, disruption of molecular bonds, and cage breaking with formation of nanostructures with different stoichiometric character. We show that in these out-of-equilibrium conditions, it is necessary to go beyond the standard implementations of density functional theory, as ab initio methods based on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation fail to capture the excited-state dynamics. In particular, we analyse the Si-C{sub 60} collision within the non-adiabatic nuclear dynamics framework, where stochastic hops occur between adiabatic surfaces calculated with time-dependent density functional theory. This theoretical description of the C{sub 60} impact on the Si surface is in good agreement with our experimental findings.

Taioli, Simone [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science, FBK-Center for Materials and Microsystems and University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Department of Chemistry, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Garberoglio, Giovanni [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science, FBK-Center for Materials and Microsystems and University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Simonucci, Stefano [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science, FBK-Center for Materials and Microsystems and University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Camerino, Camerino (Italy); Beccara, Silvio a [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science, FBK-Center for Materials and Microsystems and University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Aversa, Lucrezia [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, IMEM-CNR, Trento (Italy); Nardi, Marco [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, IMEM-CNR, Trento (Italy); Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Verucchi, Roberto [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, FBK-CNR, Trento (Italy); Iannotta, Salvatore [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, IMEM-CNR, Parma (Italy); Dapor, Maurizio [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science, FBK-Center for Materials and Microsystems and University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Department of Materials Engineering and Industrial Technologies, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova (Italy); and others

2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

138

Room temperature continuous wave InGaAsN quantum well vertical cavity lasers emitting at 1.3 um  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Selectively oxidized vertical cavity lasers emitting at 1294 nm using InGaAsN quantum wells are reported for the first time which operate continuous wave at and above room temperature. The lasers employ two n-type Al{sub 0.94}Ga{sub 0.06}As/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors each with a selectively oxidized current aperture adjacent to the optical cavity, and the top output mirror contains a tunnel junction to inject holes into the active region. Continuous wave single mode lasing is observed up to 55 C. These lasers exhibit the longest wavelength reported to date for vertical cavity surface emitting lasers grown on GaAs substrates.

CHOQUETTE,KENT D.; KLEM,JOHN F.; FISCHER,ARTHUR J.; SPAHN,OLGA B.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.; FRITZ,IAN J.; KURTZ,STEVEN R.; BREILAND,WILLIAM G.; SIEG,ROBERT M.; GEIB,KENT M.; SCOTT,J.W.; NAONE,R.L.

2000-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

139

Room-temperature ferromagnetism of Fe-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles driven by oxygen vacancy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: A series of Ti{sub 1?x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 2??} (x ? 0.03) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by sol–gel route. The room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) has been explained in terms of vacancy induced bound magnetic polaron (BMP) model, where the Fe{sup 3+} ions ferromagnetically coupled mediated by oxygen vacancies. Display Omitted Highlights: ? The Fe-doped NPs have been synthesized by sol–gel method. ? Ferromagnetism of Fe-doped TiO{sub 2} NPs are intrinsic property. ? Room temperature ferromagnetism observed in all the Fe-doped samples. ? Variation in M{sub s} is attributed due to oxygen vacancies and defect formation. -- Abstract: A series of Ti{sub 1?x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 2??} (0 ? x ? 0.03) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by sol–gel route. The NPs had a size distribution in the range of 15–40 nm and were identified as the anatase TiO{sub 2} by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman analysis. XRD, selected area electron diffraction, Raman and Mössbauer analysis ruled out the signature of Fe-cluster or any other oxides of Fe. The redshifting of the band edge emission peak observed in UV–vis absorption studies further confirmed the doping of Fe ions in the TiO{sub 2} lattice. Raman studies show the shifting and broadening in E{sub g}(1) and E{sub g}(3) modes with Fe doping. It suggested that the activation of ferromagnetism with increasing Fe doping concentration was related to the oxygen vacancy defects. The presence of such defects was further confirmed from electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements. The observed ferromagnetism is interpreted in terms of bound magnetic polaron (BMP) model.

Patel, Sandeep K.S.; Kurian, Sajith [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, 208016 (India)] [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, 208016 (India); Gajbhiye, Namdeo S., E-mail: gajbhiyens@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, 208016 (India)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

140

Supercapacitors Based on Metal Electrodes Prepared from Nanoparticle Mixtures at Room Temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Films comprising Au and Ag nanoparticles are transformed into porous metal electrodes by desorption of weak organic ligands followed by wet chemical etching of silver. Thus prepared electrodes provide the basis for supercapacitors whose specific capacitances approach 70 F/g. Cyclic voltammetry measurement yield “rectangular” I?V curves even at high scan rates, indicating that the supercapacitors have low internal resistance. Owing to this property, the supercapacitors have a high power density ?12 kW/kg, comparable with that of the state-of-the-art carbon-based devices. The entire assembly protocol does not require high-temperature processing or the use of organic binders.

Nakanishi, Hideyuki [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Grzybowski, Bartosz A. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature ionic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Thin film growth and characterization of Potassium-Tantalate-Niobate room temperature ferroelectric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is al&says present in the solution due to additiou ol &cscess solute &naterial or due ]o cooliug ol the solutiou belov' its liquidus tempera]ure. Spon], aueous uuclea], ion ac], iva]es gro&vth. 3. Sl, ep-cooled gro&vth: The gro&vth occurs at a..., cvlindrica] sl eel rod ivas iiiscrtcd which ivould serve as flic seai foi I lie alumina. crucible. An S-type (Pt. ? 10'zh Pt/Ri&) thermo& ouple inserted throuzli this rod gives Ihe temperature at the bottom of the crucible. 39 The furnace was modified...

Muntha, Nageswara Rao Venkat

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Thermal analysis of adsorptive natural gas storages during dynamic charge phase at room temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal behavior of an adsorptive natural gas (ANG) vessel pressurized continuously with light hydrocarbon gases and their mixture at 27 C was analyzed using two different activated carbons. Activated carbon AC-L showed better isothermal storage capacity than AC-D due to its sufficient porous structure. However, higher adsorption capacity claimed more extreme thermal fluctuation represented by a temperature rise of 99.2 C at the center region of the bed charged continuously with methane at 1 L min{sup -1} up to pressure of 4 MPa, corresponding to 82.5 C in AC-D bed. Higher charge rate of 5 L min{sup -1} claimed severer thermal fluctuation of 116 C in AC-L/methane system calling for a serious reduction of 26.9% in the dynamic storage capacity with respect to the isothermal storage capacity. This reduction brought the storage system to a working pressure of about 2.5 MPa rather than the desired working pressure of {proportional_to}4 MPa (about 40% reduction in storage pressure). The severest temperature rise was at the center region caused by bed poor thermal conductivity leading to limited heat transfer. High ethane and propane portions in natural gas may contribute to the thermal fluctuation of the storage system as their heats of adsorption are higher than that for methane. (author)

Ridha, Firas N.; Yunus, Rosli M.; Rashid, Mohd. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Technology Malaysia, 81310 UTM, Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Ismail, Ahmad F. [Department of Gas Engineering, University of Technology Malaysia, 81310 UTM, Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

143

Room temperature organic exciton-polariton flow exploiting high-speed, high-Q propagating modes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Exciton-polaritons, bosonic quasi-particles formed by the interaction of light and matter, have shown a plethora of exciting phenomena that have been chiefly restricted to inorganic semiconductors and low temperature operation. Only recently, polariton condensation and non-linear effects have been demonstrated with polymers and organic molecules, making these systems suited for a realistic new generation of all-optical devices. However, polariton propagation in the plane of the device, essential for on-chip integration, is still limited by the very strong dissipation inherent to present organic microcavities. Here, we demonstrate strong-coupling of organic excitons with a Bloch surface wave (Q $\\approx$ 3000) which sustains polariton propagation for distances longer than 300 $\\mu$m and polariton lifetimes of about 1 ps, a record value in organic devices. The group velocity of the polariton mode is found to be $\\approx$ 50% the speed of light, about two order of magnitude higher than in any planar microcavity.

Lerario, Giovanni; Cannavale, Alessandro; Mangione, Federica; Gambino, Salvatore; Dominici, Lorenzo; De Giorgi, Milena; Gigli, Giuseppe; Sanvitto, Daniele

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Vibronic resonances sustain excited state coherence in light harvesting proteins at room temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Until recently it was believed that photosynthesis, a fundamental process for life on earth, could be fully understood with semi-classical models. However, puzzling quantum phenomena have been observed in several photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, prompting questions regarding the nature and role of these effects. Recent attention has focused on discrete vibrational modes that are resonant or quasi-resonant with excitonic energy splittings and strongly coupled to these excitonic states. Here we report a series of experiments that unambiguously identify excited state coherent superpositions that dephase on the timescale of the excited state lifetime. Low energy (56 cm-1) oscillations on the signal intensity provide direct experimental evidence for the role of vibrational modes resonant with excitonic splittings in sustaining coherences involving different excited excitonic states at physiological temperature.

Novelli, Fabio; Roozbeh, Ashkan; Wilk, Krystyna E; Curmi, Paul M G; Davis, Jeffrey A

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Lead iodide X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers for room and high temperature operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study the authors report on the results of the investigation of lead iodide material properties. The effectiveness of a zone refining purification method on the material purity is determined by ICP-MS and ICP-OES and correlated to the electrical and physical material properties. They show that this zone refining method is very efficient in removing impurities from lead iodide, and they also determine the segregation coefficient for some of these impurities. Triple axis X-ray diffraction (TAD) analysis has been used to determine the crystalline perfection of the lead iodide after applying various cutting, etching and fabrication methods. The soft lead iodide crystal was found to be damaged when cleaved by a razor blade, but by using a diamond wheel saw, followed by etching, the crystallinity of the material was much improved, as observed by TAD. Low temperature photoluminescence also indicates an improvement in the material properties of the purified lead iodide. Electrical properties of lead iodide such as carrier mobility, were calculated based on carrier-phonon scattering. The results for the electrical properties were in good agreement with the experimental data.

Hermon, H.; James, R.B.; Lund, J. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)] [and others

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

146

Lead iodide X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers for room and high temperature operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, we report on the results of the investigation of lead iodide material properties. The effectiveness of zone refining purification methods on the material purity is determined by ICP-MS and ICP-OES and correlated to the electrical and physical material properties. We show that this zone refining method is very efficient in removing impurities from lead iodide and we also determine the segregation coefficient for some of these impurities. Triple axis x- ray diffraction (TAD) analysis has been used to determine the crystalline perfection of the lead iodide after applying various cutting, etching, and fabrication methods. The soft lead iodide crystal was found to be damaged when cleaved by a razor blade, but by using a diamond wheel saw, followed by etching, the crystallinity of the material was improved, as observed by TAD. Low temperature photoluminescence also indicates an improvement in the material properties of the purified lead iodide. Electrical properties of lead iodide such as carrier mobility, were calculated based on carrier- phonon scattering. The results for the electrical properties were in good agreement with the experimental data.

Hermon, H.; James, R.B.; Cross, E. [and others

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Metalized T graphene: A reversible hydrogen storage material at room temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lithium (Li)-decorated graphene is a promising hydrogen storage medium due to its high capacity. However, homogeneous mono-layer coating graphene with lithium atoms is metastable and the lithium atoms would cluster on the surface, resulting in the poor reversibility. Using van der Waals-corrected density functional theory, we demonstrated that lithium atoms can be homogeneously dispersed on T graphene due to a nonuniform charge distribution in T graphene and strong hybridizations between the C-2p and Li-2p orbitals. Thus, Li atoms are not likely to form clusters, indicating a good reversible hydrogen storage. Both the polarization mechanism and the orbital hybridizations contribute to the adsorption of hydrogen molecules (storage capacity of 7.7?wt. %) with an optimal adsorption energy of 0.19?eV/H{sub 2}. The adsorption/desorption of H{sub 2} at ambient temperature and pressure is also discussed. Our results can serve as a guide in the design of new hydrogen storage materials based on non-hexagonal graphenes.

Ye, Xiao-Juan; Zhong, Wei, E-mail: csliu@njupt.edu.cn, E-mail: wzhong@nju.edu.cn; Du, You-Wei [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu, Chun-Sheng, E-mail: csliu@njupt.edu.cn, E-mail: wzhong@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Radio Frequency and Micro-Nano Electronics of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zeng, Zhi [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

148

Room temperature reduction of multilayer graphene oxide film on a copper substrate: Penetration and participation of coper phase in redox reactions.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A self-reduction of graphene oxide (GO) at room temperature after prolonged storage on a copper substrate is evidenced by decrease of oxygen content and a dramatic, 6 orders in magnitude, increase in dc conductivity. Experiments revealed that the stored GO film contains copper hydroxide phase embedded in the reduced GO structure.

Voylov, Dmitry N [ORNL] [ORNL; Agapov, Alexander L [ORNL] [ORNL; Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL] [ORNL; Shulga, Y.M. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Ac. Sci, Chernogolovka, Russia] [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Ac. Sci, Chernogolovka, Russia; Arbuzov, Artem [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Ac. Sci, Chernogolovka, Russia] [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Ac. Sci, Chernogolovka, Russia

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Core-shell multi-quantum wells in ZnO / ZnMgO nanowires with high optical efficiency at room temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanowire-based light-emitting devices require multi-quantum well heterostructures with high room temperature optical efficiencies. We demonstrate that such efficiencies can be attained through the use of ZnO/Zn(1-x)MgxO core shell quantum well heterostructures grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy. Varying the barrier Mg concentration from x=0.15 to x=0.3 leads to the formation of misfit induced dislocations in the multi quantum wells. Correlatively, temperature dependant photoluminescence reveals that the radial well luminescence intensity decreases much less rapidly with increasing temperature for the lower Mg concentration. Indeed, about 54% of the 10K intensity is retained at room temperature with x=0.15, against 2% with x=0.30. Those results open the way to the realization of high optical efficiency nanowire-based light emitting diodes.

Thierry, Robin; Jouneau, Pierre-Henri; Ferret, Pierre; Feuillet, Guy; 10.1088/0957-4484/23/8/085705

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Thermal ionization induced metal-semiconductor transition and room temperature ferromagnetism in trivalent doped ZnO codoped with lithium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal ionization induced metallic to semiconductor (MST) transition occurring at 460?K for Zn{sub 0.97}Al{sub 0.03}O, 463?K for Zn{sub 0.94}Al{sub 0.03}Li{sub 0.03}O, and 503?K for Zn{sub 0.91}Al{sub 0.03}Li{sub 0.03}Mn{sub 0.03}O has been found in the sol-gel synthesized (using hexamethylenetetramine), trivalent doped (Al, Mn) ZnO codoped with lithium. Increase in the thermally ionized carrier concentration due to Al doping is responsible for near band edge (NBE) peak shift causing Fermi level to move into conduction band making it metallic consistent with resistivity results. Free carrier (thermally activated) neutralization with ionized donor is responsible for semiconducting nature, which is supported from the free carrier screening produced energy shift in the NBE of photoluminescence peak. Furthermore, independently band gap shrinkage is also obtained from UV-Visible studies confirming localization induced MST. An anti-correlation is found between defect density (DLE) and room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) indicating intrinsic defects are not directly responsible for RTFM.

Sivagamasundari, A.; Chandrasekar, S.; Pugaze, R.; Kannan, R., E-mail: kannan@pec.edu [Department of Physics, Pondicherry Engineering College, Puducherry 605 014 (India); Rajagopan, S. [Department of Chemistry, Pondicherry Engineering College, Puducherry 605 014 (India)

2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

151

Electrical characterization of H{sub 2}S adsorption on hexagonal WO{sub 3} nanowire at room temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have characterized the electrical transport properties of Au/WO{sub 3} nanowire/Au devices in ambient air and gaseous H{sub 2}S to investigate the adsorption kinetics of H{sub 2}S molecules on the surface of WO{sub 3} nanowire at room temperature. The WO{sub 3} nanowire devices exhibit increasing linear conductance and electrical hysteresis in H{sub 2}S. Furthermore, the contact type between Au electrode and WO{sub 3} nanowire can be converted from original ohmic/Schottky to Schottky/ohmic after being exposed to H{sub 2}S. These results suggest that adsorbed H{sub 2}S molecules are oxidized by holes to form hydrogen ions and S atoms, which will result in formation of hydrogen tungsten bronze and desorption of previously chemically adsorbed H{sub 2}O molecules. Adsorbed H{sub 2}S molecules can also oxidize previously adsorbed and ionized oxygen, which will release the electrons from the ionized oxygen and then weaken upward band bending at the surface of WO{sub 3} nanowire.

Liu, Binquan; Tang, Dongsheng, E-mail: dstang@hunnu.edu.cn; Zhou, Yong; Yin, Yanling; Peng, Yuehua; Zhou, Weichang; Qin, Zhu'ai; Zhang, Yong [Key Laboratory of Low-dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, College of Physics and Information Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

152

Oxygen-vacancy-induced room-temperature magnetization in lamellar V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, we study the local atomic and electronic structures as well as oxygen-vacancy-induced magnetic properties of electrodeposited V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films. Unlike stoichiometric V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, which is a diamagnetic lamellar semiconductor, our oxygen-defective V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films are ferromagnetic at room-temperature and their saturation magnetization decreases with air exposure time. X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the aging effect on these films, revealing that freshly-made samples exhibit only local crystalline order, whereas the aged ones undoubtedly show an enhancement of crystallinity and coordination symmetry. The mean number of oxygen atoms around V tends to increase, indicating a decrease of oxygen vacancies with time. Concurrently with the decrease of oxygen vacancies, a loss of saturation magnetization is also observed. Hence, it can be concluded that the ferromagnetism of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films originates from a vacancy-induced mechanism, confirming the universality of this class of ferromagnetism.

Cezar, A. B. [Instituto Federal do Paraná (IFPR), Campus Paranaguá (Brazil); Graff, I. L., E-mail: graff@fisica.ufpr.br; Varalda, J.; Schreiner, W. H.; Mosca, D. H. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil)

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

153

Room-temperature optical absorption in the InAs/GaAs quantum-dot superlattice under an electric field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electroluminescence and absorption spectra of a ten-layer InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) superlattice built in a two-section laser with sections of equal length is experimentally studied at room temperature. The thickness of the GaAs spacer layer between InAs QD layers, determined by transmission electron microscopy, is {approx}6 nm. In contrast to tunnel-coupled QDs, QD superlattices amplify the optical polarization intensity and waveguide absorption of the TM mode in comparison with the TE mode. It is found that variations in the multimodal periodic spectrum of differential absorption of the QD superlattice structure are strongly linearly dependent on the applied electric field. Differential absorption spectra exhibit the Wannier-Stark effect in the InAs/GaAs QD superlattice, in which, in the presence of an external electric field, coupling of wave functions of miniband electron states is suppressed and a series of discrete levels called the Wannier-Stark ladder states are formed.

Sobolev, M. M., E-mail: m.sobolev@mail.ioffe.ru; Gadzhiev, I. M.; Bakshaev, I. O.; Nevedomskii, V. N.; Buyalo, M. S.; Zadiranov, Yu. M.; Portnoi, E. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

Conductance modulation in topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films with ionic liquid gating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} topological insulator field effect transistor is investigated by using ionic liquid as an electric double layer gating material, leading to a conductance modulation of 365% at room temperature. We discuss the role of charged impurities on the transport properties. The conductance modulation with gate bias is due to a change in the carrier concentration, whereas the temperature dependent conductance change is originated from a change in mobility. Large conductance modulation at room temperature along with the transparent optical properties makes topological insulators as an interesting (opto)electronic material.

Son, Jaesung; Banerjee, Karan; Yang, Hyunsoo, E-mail: eleyang@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Brahlek, Matthew; Koirala, Nikesh; Oh, Seongshik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Lee, Seoung-Ki [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of) [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jong-Hyun [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

155

Top-illuminated dye-sensitized solar cells with a room-temperature-processed ZnO photoanode on metal substrates and a Pt-coated Ga-doped ZnO counter electrode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Top-illuminated dye-sensitized solar cells with a room-temperature-processed ZnO photoanode.1088/0022-3727/44/4/045102 Top-illuminated dye-sensitized solar cells with a room-temperature-processed ZnO photoanode on metal in this article are in colour only in the electronic version) 1. Introduction Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs

Demir, Hilmi Volkan

156

Strength and ductility of room-dry and water-saturated igneous rocks at low pressures and temperatures to partial melting. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rock types that are likely candidates for drilling were tested. Reported herein are the short-time ultimate strengths and ductilities determined at temperatures of 25/sup 0/ to 1050/sup 0/C and a strain rate of 10/sup -4/s/sup -1/ of (a) room-dry Mt. Hood Andesite, Cuerbio Basalt, and Charcoal (St. Cloud Gray) Granodiorite at confining pressures of 0, 50, and 100 MPa, (b) water-saturated specimens of the same three rocks at zero effective pressure (both pore and confining pressures of 50 MPa), and (c) room-dry Newberry Rhyolite Obsidian at 0 and 50 MPa. These strengths are then compared with the stresses developed at the wall of a borehole in an elastic medium at the appropriate temperatures and mean pressures to assess the problem of borehole stability. (MHR)

Friedman, M.; Handin, J.; Higgs, N.G.; Lantz, J.R.; Bauer, S.J.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Capacitive Energy Storage from - 50o to 100o Using an Ionic Liquid Electrolyte  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Relying on redox reactions, most batteries are limited in their ability to operate at very low or very high temperatures. While performance of electrochemical capacitors is less dependent on the temperature, present-day devices still cannot cover the entire range needed for automotive and electronics applications under a variety of environmental conditions. We show that the right combination of the exohedral nanostructured carbon (nanotubes and onions) electrode and a eutectic mixture of ionic liquids can dramatically extend the temperature range of electrical energy storage, thus defying the conventional wisdom that ionic liquids can only be used as electrolytes above room temperature. We demonstrate electrical double layer capacitors able to operate from 50 to 100 C over a wide voltage window (up to 3.7 V) and at very high charge/discharge rates of up to 20 V/s.

Lin, Rongying [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse Cedex, France.; Taberna, Pierre-Louis [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse Cedex, France.; Santini, Sebastien [SOLVIONIC Company, Toulouse, France; Presser, Volker [ORNL; Perez, Carlos R. [Drexel University; Malbosc, Francois [SOLVIONIC Company, Toulouse, France; Rupesinghe, Nalin L. [AIXTRON, Cambridge, UK; Teo, Kenneth B. K. [AIXTRON, Cambridge, UK; Gogotsi, Yury G. [Drexel University; Simon, Patrice [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse Cedex, France.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Origin of room temperature d{sup 0} ferromagnetism and characteristic photoluminescence in pristine SnO{sub 2} nanowires: A correlation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Arrays of SnO{sub 2} nanowires are fabricated by employing a wet chemical template assisted sol-gel route using ordered nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide as the host. The origin of room temperature d{sup 0} ferromagnetism in pristine polycrystalline SnO{sub 2} nanowires is investigated by correlating photoluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies. It has been found that the naturally grown structural defects of oxygen vacancies namely singly ionised oxygen vacancy (V{sub O}{sup {center_dot}}) clusters induce the characteristic photoluminescence and contribute in ferromagnetism of pristine SnO{sub 2} nanowires at room temperature. The presence of the V{sub O}{sup {center_dot}} structural defects in the pure SnO{sub 2} nanowires is also assured by the EPR spectroscopy. Present study will help understand the puzzle about the unexpected magnetic phenomenon in these undoped wide band gap oxide semiconductors. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SnO{sub 2} NWs are fabricated by wet chemical AAO template assisted route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SnO{sub 2} NWs exhibit d{sup 0} ferromagnetism at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Origin of ferromagnetism is correlated with photoluminescence and EPR studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen vacancy clusters are attributed to boost ferromagnetism in SnO{sub 2} NWs.

Khan, Gobinda Gopal, E-mail: gobinda@bose.res.in [Department of Material Sciences, S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700098, West Bengal (India); Ghosh, S.; Mandal, Kalyan [Department of Material Sciences, S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700098, West Bengal (India)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

159

Effect of ultraviolet radiation exposure on room-temperature hydrogen sensitivity of nanocrystalline doped tin oxide sensor incorporated into microelectromechanical systems device  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure on the room-temperature hydrogen (H{sub 2}) sensitivity of nanocrystalline indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3})-doped tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) thin-film gas sensor is investigated in this article. The present sensor is incorporated into microelectromechanical systems device using sol-gel dip-coating technique. The present sensor exhibits a very high sensitivity, as high as 65 000-110 000, at room temperature, for 900 ppm of H{sub 2} under the dynamic test condition without UV exposure. The H{sub 2} sensitivity is, however, observed to reduce to 200 under UV radiation, which is contrary to the literature data, where an enhanced room-temperature gas sensitivity has been reported under UV radiation. The observed phenomenon is attributed to the reduced surface coverage by the chemisorbed oxygen ions under UV radiation, which is in consonance with the prediction of the constitutive equation, proposed recently by the authors, for the gas sensitivity of nanocrystalline semiconductor oxide thin-film sensors.

Shukla, Satyajit; Agrawal, Rajnikant; Cho, Hyoung J.; Seal, Sudipta; Ludwig, Lawrence; Parish, Clyde [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center (AMPAC) and Mechanical Materials Aerospace Engineering (MMAE) Department, Engineering 381, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), John F. Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida 32899 (United States)

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Room-temperature mid-infrared “M”-type GaAsSb/InGaAs quantum well lasers on InP substrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have demonstrated experimentally the InP-based “M”-type GaAsSb/InGaAs quantum-well (QW) laser lasing at 2.41??m at room temperature by optical pumping. The threshold power density per QW and extracted internal loss were about 234?W/cm{sup 2} and 20.5?cm{sup ?1}, respectively. The temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) and lasing spectra revealed interesting characteristics for this type of lasers. Two distinct regions in the temperature dependent threshold behavior were observed and the transition temperature was found to coincide with the cross over point of the PL and lasing emission peaks. The current-voltage characteristic of “M”-type QW laser was superior to the inverse “W”-type one due to its thinner barrier for holes. Further improvement of the “M”-type QW structure could lead to a cost-effective mid-infrared light source.

Chang, Chia-Hao; Li, Zong-Lin; Pan, Chien-Hung; Lu, Hong-Ting; Lee, Chien-Ping; Lin, Sheng-Di, E-mail: sdlin@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature ionic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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161

Dynamic Solvation in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids P. K. Chowdhury, M. Halder, L. Sanders, T. Calhoun, J. L. Anderson, D. W. Armstrong,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Calhoun, J. L. Anderson, D. W. Armstrong, X. Song, and J. W. Petrich* Department of Chemistry, Iowa State

Song, Xueyu

162

Thermochromic effect at room temperature of Sm{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sm{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} thermochromic thin films were synthesized using dc reactive magnetron co-sputtering and subsequent annealing in air. The film structure was studied by x-ray diffraction analysis. To validate the thermochromic potentiality of Sm{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3}, electrical resistivity and infrared transmittance spectra were recorded for temperatures ranging from 77 K to 420 K. The temperature dependence of the optical band gap was estimated in the near infrared range. Upon heating, the optical transmission decreases in the infrared domain showing a thermochromic effect over a wide wavelength range at room temperature.

Boileau, A.; Capon, F.; Barrat, S.; Pierson, J. F. [Universite de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, Departement CP2S, UMR CNRS 7198, Nancy, F-54042 (France); Laffez, P. [Groupe de Recherche Electronique, Materiaux, Acoustique, Nanoscience (GREMAN), Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, UMR CNRS 7347, IUT de Blois, 15 rue de la Chocolaterie, Blois, F-41000 (France)

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Single phase synthesis and room temperature neutron diffraction studies on multiferroic PbFe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The lead-iron-niobate, (PbFe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} or PFN) was synthesized by low temperature sintering Single Step / Solid State Reaction Method. The 700 Degree-Sign C/2 hrs. calcined powder was sintered at 1050 Degree-Sign C/1 hr. The sintered pellets were characterized through X-Ray Diffraction and Neutron Diffraction at room temperature. It is found from the XRD pattern that the materials is in single phase with no traces of pyrochlore phase. It was also confirmed from the neutron diffraction pattern, the structure of PFN to be monoclinic, space group Cm. Structural studies has been carried out by refining the obtained neutron diffraction data by Rietveld refinement method using Fullprof program. The neutron diffraction pattern at 300 K (room temperature) was selected to refine the structure. The lattice parameters obtained are; a = 5.6709 A, b = 5.6732 A, c = 4.0136 A, and {alpha}= 90, {beta}= 89.881, {gamma}= 90. The P-E measurements showed hysteretic behavior with high remnant polarization.

Matteppanavar, Shidaling; Angadi, Basavaraj [Department of Physics, JB Campus, Bangalore University, Bangalore -560056 (India); Rayaprol, Sudhindra [UGC-DAE-CSR, Mumbai Centre, BARC, Mumbai - 400085 (India)

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

164

Room temperature ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties of Bi{sub 1?x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3} thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bi{sub 1?x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (BCMO) thin films with x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 are successfully deposited on the n-type Si (100) substrate at two different temperatures of 400 °C and 800 °C using RF magnetron sputtering. The stoichiometry of the films and oxidation state of the elements have been described by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Dielectric measurement depicts the insulating property of BCMO films. Magnetic and ferroelectric studies confirm the significant enhancement in spin orientation as well as electric polarization at room temperature due to incorporation of Ca{sup 2+} ions into BiMnO{sub 3} films. The BCMO (x = 0.2) film grown at 400 °C shows better magnetization (M{sub sat}) and polarization (P{sub s})with the measured values of 869 emu / cc and 6.6 ?{sub C}/ cm{sup 2} respectively than the values of the other prepared films. Thus the realization of room temperature ferromagnetic and ferroelectric ordering in Ca{sup 2+} ions substituted BMO films makes potentially interesting for spintronic device applications.

Pugazhvadivu, K. S.; Tamilarasan, K., E-mail: dr.k.tamilarasan@gmail.com [Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai - 638 052 (India); Balakrishnan, L. [Materials Physics Division, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore - 632 014 (India); Mohan Rao, G. [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560 012 (India)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

165

Density dependence of the room temperature thermal conductivity of atomic layer deposition-grown amorphous alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3})  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the thermal conductivity of atomic layer deposition-grown amorphous alumina thin films as a function of atomic density. Using time domain thermoreflectance, we measure the thermal conductivity of the thin alumina films at room temperature. The thermal conductivities vary ?35% for a nearly 15% change in atomic density and are substrate independent. No density dependence of the longitudinal sound speeds is observed with picosecond acoustics. The density dependence of the thermal conductivity agrees well with a minimum limit to thermal conductivity model that is modified with a differential effective-medium approximation.

Gorham, Caroline S.; Gaskins, John T.; Hopkins, Patrick E., E-mail: phopkins@virginia.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Parsons, Gregory N.; Losego, Mark D. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

166

Luminescence thermometry below room temperature via up-conversion emission of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb{sup 3+},Er{sup 3+} nanophosphors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study explores potential of Er{sup 3+}-Yb{sup 3+} doped phosphors for up-conversion luminescence thermometry in the temperature range from 10?K to 300?K. Yttrium oxide nanopowder doped with trivalent ytterbium and erbium ions (Y{sub 1.97}Yb{sub 0.02}Er{sub 0.01}O{sub 3}) was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis as an example. The intensity ratios of up-conversion emissions from thermally coupled {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} levels of Er{sup 3+} show strong temperature dependence (in the range 150?K–300?K) with much higher relative sensitivity than those reported for thermometry above room temperature with Er{sup 3+}-Yb{sup 3+} based up-conversion materials. The maximal value of relative sensitivity is 5.28%K{sup ?1} at 150?K, with temperature resolution ranging from 0.81?K to 0.06?K. In addition, the intensity ratios of emission from thermally non-coupled Er{sup 3+} levels ({sup 2}H{sub 9/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}) and from {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} also show temperature dependence that can be approximated with an exponential function. With these up-conversion emission ratios, it is possible measure temperature in the range of 10?K to 300?K with excellent sensitivity and resolution.

Lojpur, V.; Nikoli?, G.; Drami?anin, M. D., E-mail: dramican@vinca.rs [Vin?a Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, Belgrade 11001 (Serbia)

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

167

Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Zn{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}O magnetic semiconductors prepared by sputtering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have used magnetron cosputtering to grow Zn{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}O magnetic dilute semiconductors. The growth has been performed on SiO{sub 2}/Si and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrates. The Co concentration has been varied between 0.1 and 0.25 and the substrate temperature between room temperature and 600 deg. C. X-ray diffraction analysis has shown that for the films grown on Si substrates the structural quality of the film is improved by increasing the growth temperature and/or postgrowth annealing. The films are textured with c axis of the wurtzite structure along the growth direction. However, for the films grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate quasi-epitaxial films have been obtained for 600 deg. C substrate temperature. Magnetization measurements have shown that the ferromagnetism is directly correlated to the structural quality and appears by increasing the growth temperature and/or postgrowth annealing. Moreover, for the highly textured film a clear magnetic perpendicular anisotropy has been evidenced with the easy magnetization axis along the growth direction. To evidence the intrinsic nature of the ferromagnetism in the films, transmission optical measurements have been used. They show three absorption bands that are characteristics of d-d transitions of tetrahedrally coordinated Co{sup 2+}. This has been supported by nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic thermal variation.

Dinia, A.; Schmerber, G.; Meny, C.; Pierron-Bohnes, V.; Beaurepaire, E. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux de Strasbourg IPCMS, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS-United Mixte de Recherche UMR 7504, Universite Louis Pasteur - ULP -Ecole Europeenne de Chimie, Polymeres et Materiaux ECPM, 23 rue du Loess, F-67034 Strasbourg (France)

2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

168

Evanescent-wave pumped room-temperature single-mode GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell nanowire lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Evanescent-wave pumped room-temperature single-mode GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell nanowire lasers are proposed and demonstrated. The nanowires are axially excited by evanescent wave outside a microfiber with a diameter about 10??m via a ns-pulse laser. The lasing emission with a low effective threshold less than 90 nJ is achieved at 868.62?nm along with a linewidth of ?1.8?nm. Moreover, multiple lasing lines in a wavelength range from 852.56?nm to 882.48?nm are observed. The mechanism of diverse lasing wavelengths is revealed. Furthermore, the proposed GaAs/AlGaAs nanowire laser has advantages such as simple structure, easy to operate, and controllable lasing wavelength, tending to be practical in optical communications and integrated photonic circuits.

Wei, Wei; Zhang, Xia, E-mail: xzhang@bupt.edu.cn; Ren, Xiaomin [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 66, Beijing 100876 (China); Liu, Yange, E-mail: ygliu@nankai.edu.cn; Wang, Zhi [Key Laboratory of Optical Information and Technology, Ministry of Education and Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

169

Observation of room temperature optical absorption in InP/GaAs type-II ultrathin quantum wells and quantum dots  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Room temperature optical absorption process is observed in ultrathin quantum wells (QWs) and quantum dots (QDs) of InP/GaAs type-II band alignment system using surface photovoltage spectroscopy technique, where no measurable photoluminescence signal is available. Clear signature of absorption edge in the sub band gap region of GaAs barrier layer is observed for the ultrathin QWs and QDs, which red shifts with the amount of deposited InP material. Movement of photogenerated holes towards the sample surface is proposed to be the main mechanism for the generation of surface photovoltage in type-II ultrathin QWs and QDs. QDs of smaller size are found to be free from the dislocations as confirmed by the high resolution transmission electron microscopy images.

Singh, S. D., E-mail: devsh@rrcat.gov.in; Porwal, S.; Mondal, Puspen; Srivastava, A. K.; Mukherjee, C.; Dixit, V. K.; Sharma, T. K.; Oak, S. M. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013, Madhya Pradesh (India)

2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

170

Role of Amorphous Boundary Layer in Enhancing Ionic Conductivity of Lithium–lanthanum–titanate Electrolyte  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The low ionic conductivity is a bottleneck of the inorganic solid state electrolyte used for lithium ion battery. In ceramic electrolytes, grain boundary usually dominates the total conductivity. In order to improve the grain boundary effect, an amorphous silica layer is introduced into grain boundary of ceramic electrolytes based on lithium-lanthanum-titanate, as evidenced by electron microscopy. The results showed that the total ionic conductivity could be to be enhanced over 1 x 10{sup -4} S/cm at room temperature. The reasons can be attributed to removing the anisotropy of outer-shell of grains, supplement of lithium ions in various sites in grain boundary and close bindings among grains by the amorphous boundary layer among grains.

Mei, A.; Wang, X.; Lana, J.-L.; Fenga, Y.-C.; Genga, H.-X.; Lina, Y.-H.; Nana, C.-W.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Waste Heat from Distributed Power Generation Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research project was the development of ionic liquids to capture and utilize waste heat from distributed power generation systems. Ionic Liquids (ILs) are organic salts that are liquid at room temperature and they have the potential to make fundamental and far-reaching changes in the way we use energy. In particular, the focus of this project was fundamental research on the potential use of IL/CO2 mixtures in absorption-refrigeration systems. Such systems can provide cooling by utilizing waste heat from various sources, including distributed power generation. The basic objectives of the research were to design and synthesize ILs appropriate for the task, to measure and model thermophysical properties and phase behavior of ILs and IL/CO2 mixtures, and to model the performance of IL/CO2 absorption-refrigeration systems.

Joan F. Brennecke; Mihir Sen; Edward J. Maginn; Samuel Paolucci; Mark A. Stadtherr; Peter T. Disser; Mike Zdyb

2009-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

172

Checkerboard Self-Patterning of an Ionic Liquid Film on Mercury  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

{angstrom}-resolution studies of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) interfaces are scarce, in spite of their long-recognized importance for the science and many applications of RTILs. We present an {angstrom}-resolution x-ray study of a Langmuir film of an RTIL on mercury. At low (high) coverage [90 (50) {angstrom}{sup 2}/molecule] a mono-(bi)layer of surface-parallel molecules is found. The molecules self-assemble in a lateral ionic checkerboard pattern, unlike the uniform-charge, alternate-ion layers of this RTIL at its bulk-solid interface. A 2D-smectic order is found, with molecules packed in parallel stripes, forming long-range order normal to, but none along, the stripes.

L Tamam; B Ocko; H Reichert; M Deutsch

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

173

Checkerboard Self-Patterning of an Ionic Liquid Film on Mercury  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

{angstrom}-resolution studies of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) interfaces are scarce, in spite of their long-recognized importance for the science and many applications of RTILs. We present an {angstrom}-resolution x-ray study of a Langmuir film of an RTIL on mercury. At low (high) coverage [90 (50) {angstrom}{sup 2}/molecule] a mono-(bi)layer of surface-parallel molecules is found. The molecules self-assemble in a lateral ionic checkerboard pattern, unlike the uniform-charge, alternate-ion layers of this RTIL at its bulk-solid interface. A 2D-smectic order is found, with molecules packed in parallel stripes, forming long-range order normal to, but none along, the stripes.

Ocko, B.M.; Tamam, L.; Reichert, H.; Deutsch, M.

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

174

Anion effects in the extraction of lanthanide 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone complexes into an ionic liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The extraction of trivalent lanthanides from an aqueous phase containing 1 M NaClO{sub 4} into the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nonafluoro-1-butane sulfonate by the beta-diketone extractant 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Htta) was studied. Radiotracer distribution, absorption spectroscopy, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption fine structure measurements point to the extraction of multiple lanthanide species. At low extractant concentrations, fully hydrated aqua cations of the lanthanides are present in the ionic liquid phase. As the extractant concentration is increased 1:2 and 1:3 lanthanide:tta species are observed. In contrast, 1:4 Ln:tta complexes were observed in the extraction of lanthanides by Htta into 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. (authors)

Jensen, Mark P.; Beitz, James V.; Rickert, Paul G. [Argonne Natl Lab, Chem Sci and Engn Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Borkowski, Marian [Argonne Natl Lab, Chem Sci and Engn Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Los Alamos Natl Lab, Earth and Environm Sci Div, Carlsbad, NM, (United States); Laszak, Ivan [Argonne Natl Lab, Chem Sci and Engn Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Commisariat Energie Atom, DEN DPC SERC LANIE, Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Dietz, Mark L. [Argonne Natl Lab, Chem Sci and Engn Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Wisconsin-Milwaukee Univ, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Milwaukee, WI, (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Ionic conductors for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolyte that operates at temperatures ranging from 600.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. is provided. The electrolyte conducts charge ionically as well as electronically. The ionic conductors include molecular framework structures having planes or channels large enough to transport oxides or hydrated protons and having net-positive or net-negative charges. Representative molecular framework structures include substituted aluminum phosphates, orthosilicates, silicoaluminates, cordierites, apatites, sodalites, and hollandites.

Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Bloom, Ira D. (Bolingbrook, IL); Pullockaran, Jose D. (Hanover Park, IL); Myles, Kevin M. (Downers Grove, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Heating remote rooms in passive solar buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Remote rooms can be effectively heated by convection through a connecting doorway. A simple steady-state equation is developed for design purposes. Validation of a dynamic model is achieved using data obtained over a 13-day period. Dynamic effects are investigated using a simulation analysis for three different cases of driving temperature; the effect is to reduce the temperature difference between the driving room and the remote room compared to the steady-state model. For large temperature swings in the driving room a strategy which uses the intervening door in a diode mode is effective. The importance of heat-storing mass in the remote room is investigated.

Balcomb, J.D.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Magnetic properties of epitaxial Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films with various crystal orientations and tunnel magnetoresistance effect at room temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} is a ferrimagnetic spinel ferrite that exhibits electric conductivity at room temperature (RT). Although the material has been predicted to be a half metal according to ab-initio calculations, magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} electrodes have demonstrated a small tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) effect. Not even the sign of the tunnel magnetoresistance ratio has been experimentally established. Here, we report on the magnetic properties of epitaxial Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films with various crystal orientations. The films exhibited apparent crystal orientation dependence on hysteresis curves. In particular, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}(110) films exhibited in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. With respect to the squareness of hysteresis, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (111) demonstrated the largest squareness. Furthermore, we fabricated MTJs with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}(110) electrodes and obtained a TMR effect of ?12% at RT. The negative TMR ratio corresponded to the negative spin polarization of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} predicted from band calculations.

Nagahama, Taro, E-mail: nagahama@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Matsuda, Yuya; Tate, Kazuya; Kawai, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Nozomi; Hiratani, Shungo; Watanabe, Yusuke; Yanase, Takashi; Shimada, Toshihiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita13 Nishi8, Kitak-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

178

Resonant tunneling with high peak to valley current ratio in SiO{sub 2}/nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} multi-layers at room temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have investigated carrier transport in SiO{sub 2}/nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} multi-layers by room temperature current-voltage measurements. Resonant tunneling signatures accompanied by current peaks are observed. Carrier transport in the multi-layers were analyzed by plots of ln(I/V{sup 2}) as a function of 1/V and ln(I) as a function of V{sup 1/2}. Results suggest that besides films quality, nc-Si and barrier sub-layer thicknesses are important parameters that restrict carrier transport. When thicknesses are both small, direct tunneling dominates carrier transport, resonant tunneling occurs only at certain voltages and multi-resonant tunneling related current peaks can be observed but with peak to valley current ratio (PVCR) values smaller than 1.5. When barrier thickness is increased, trap-related and even high field related tunneling is excited, causing that multi-current peaks cannot be observed clearly, only one current peak with higher PVCR value of 7.7 can be observed. While if the thickness of nc-Si is large enough, quantum confinement is not so strong, a broad current peak with PVCR value as high as 60 can be measured, which may be due to small energy difference between the splitting energy levels in the quantum dots of nc-Si. Size distribution in a wide range may cause un-controllability of the peak voltages.

Chen, D. Y., E-mail: cdy7659@126.com [Department of Physics, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and Key Laboratory of Advanced Photonic and Electronic, materials, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Nanjing University of posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210046 (China); Sun, Y.; He, Y. J. [Nanjing University of posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210046 (China); Xu, L.; Xu, J. [Department of Physics, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and Key Laboratory of Advanced Photonic and Electronic, materials, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

179

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180

Partially fluorinated ionic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Partially fluorinated ionic compounds are prepared. They are useful in the preparation of partially fluorinated dienes, in which the repeat units are cycloaliphatic.

Han, legal representative, Amy Qi (Hockessin, DE); Yang, Zhen-Yu (Hockessin, DE)

2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature ionic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Neutral-ionic transitions in organic mixed-stack compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Torrance et al. have made the interesting observation that several mixed-stack organic compounds undergo transitions from neutral states to ionic states as the temperature or pressure is varied. We examine a simple model of such transitions including Coulomb interaction and hybridization of neutral and ionic states. In the limit of weak hybridization and long-range repulsive interaction between ionic planes, it is proven that there is a complete devil's staircase where the degree of ionicity assumes an infinity of rational values. For attractive interactions between ionic planes, the neutral-ionic transition is shown to be first order for weak hybridization. Comparison with experiment indicates that this situation applies to tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) chloranil. For strong hybridization the transition is continuous but goes through a metallic phase. It is shown, for the first time, that the spectrum of the charge-transfer Hamiltonian contains both a bound spectrum, the observed charge-transfer excitations, and a continuum.

Bruinsma, R.; Bak, P.; Torrance, J.B.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Interfacial Ionic Liquids: Connecting Static and Dynamic Structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is well-known that room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) often adopt a charge-separated layered structure, i.e., with alternating cation- and anion-rich layers, at electrified interfaces. However, the dynamic response of the layered structure to temporal variations in applied potential is not well understood. We used in situ, real-time X-ray reflectivity (XR) to study the potential-dependent electric double layer (EDL) structure of an imidazolium-based RTIL on charged epitaxial graphene during potential cycling as a function of temperature. The results suggest that the graphene-RTIL interfacial structure is bistable in which the EDL structure at any intermediate potential can be described by the combination of two extreme-potential structures whose proportions vary depending on the polarity and magnitude of the applied potential. This picture is supported by the EDL structures obtained by fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at various static potentials. The potential-driven transition between the two structures is characterized by an increasing width but with an approximately fixed hysteresis magnitude as a function of temperature. The results are consistent with the coexistence of distinct anion and cation adsorbed structures separated by an energy barrier (~0.15 eV).

Ahmet Uysal; Hua Zhou; Guang Feng; Sang Soo Lee; Song Li; Peter T. Cummings; Pasquale F. Fulvio; Sheng Dai; John K. McDonough; Yury Gogotsi; Paul Fenter

2014-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

183

Mathematics Help Room  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Link to Help Room Schedule. The Mathematics Help Room is available to help you with your 100 and 200 level Algebra, Algebra/Trigonometry, or Calculus ...

184

Room temperature magnetocaloric effect, critical behavior, and magnetoresistance in Na-deficient manganite La{sub 0.8}Na{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The La{sub 0.8}Na{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} oxide was prepared by the solid-state reaction and annealed in air. The X-ray diffraction data reveal that the sample is crystallized in a rhombohedral structure with R3{sup ¯}c space group. Magnetic study shows a second-order magnetic phase transition from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic state at the Curie temperature T{sub C}?=?295?K. In addition, the magnetizations as a function of temperature and the magnetic field is used to evaluate the magnetic entropy change ?S{sub M}. Then, we have deduced that the La{sub 0.8}Na{sub 0.1}MnO{sub 3} oxide has a large magnetocaloric effect at room temperature. Such effect is given by the maximum of the magnetic entropy change ?S{sub Mmax}?=?5.56, and by the Relative cooling power (RCP) factor which is equal to 235 under a magnetic field of 5?T. Moreover, the magnetic field dependence of the magnetic entropy change is used to determine the critical exponents ?, ?, and ? which are found to be ??=?0.495, ??=?1.083, and ??=?3.18. These values are consistent with the prediction of the mean field theory (??=?0.5, ??=?1, and ??=?3). Above all, the temperature dependence of electrical resistivity shows a metal–insulator transition at T{sub ?}. The electrical resistivity decrease when we apply a magnetic field giving a magnetoresistance effect in the order of 60% at room temperature.

Khlifi, M., E-mail: khlifimouadh3000@yahoo.fr; Dhahri, E. [Laboratoire de Physique Appliquée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, B.P. 802, Université de Sfax, Sfax 3018 (Tunisia); Hlil, E. K. [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

185

Ionic (Proton) Transport Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

environments - #12;Technology Options -- Ionic Transport Separation Systems Central, Semi-Central (coal/Semi-Central Systems Coal is the cheapest fuel, but requires the greatest pre-conditioning Clean-up of syngas requires Energy Systems ChevronTexaco SRI Consulting SAIC ChevronTexaco Technology Ventures #12;Performance

186

Conductivity of ionic liquid-derived polymers with internal gold nanoparticle conduits.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The transport properties of self-supporting Au nanoparticle-ionic liquid-derived polymer composites were characterized. Topographic AFM images confirm the perforated lamellar composite architecture determined by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and further show that the in situ synthesized Au nanoparticles are localized within the hydrophilic (water) domains of the structure. At low Au nanoparticle content, the images reveal incomplete packing of spherical particles (i.e., voids) within these columns. The confinement and organization of the Au nanoparticles within the hydrophilic columns give rise to a large manifold of optical resonances in the near-IR region. The bulk composite conductivity, R{sub b}, was determined by ac electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for samples prepared with increasing Au{sup 3+} content over a frequency range of 10 Hz to 1 MHz. A 100-fold increase was observed in the bulk conductivity at room temperature for composites prepared with the highest amount of Au{sup 3+} (1.58 {+-} 0.065 {micro}mol) versus the no Au composite, with the former reaching a value of 1.3 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} at 25 C. The temperature dependence of the conductivity recorded over this range was well-modeled by the Arrhenius equation. EIS studies on samples containing the highest Au nanoparticle content over a broader range of frequencies (2 x 10{sup -2} Hz to 5 x 10{sup 5} Hz) identified a low frequency component ascribed to electronic conduction. Electronic conduction due to aggregated Au nanoparticles was further confirmed by dc conductivity measurements. This work identifies a nanostructured composite that exhibits both ionic transport through the polymeric ionic liquid and electronic conduction from the organized encapsulated columns of Au nanoparticles.

Lee, S.; Cummins, M. D.; Willing, G. A.; Firestone, M. A.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of Louisville

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Decoupling of Ionic Trasport from Segmental Relaxation in Polymer Electrolytes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present detailed studies of the relationship between ionic conductivity and segmental relaxation in polymer electrolytes. The analysis shows that the ionic conductivity can be decoupled from segmental dynamics and the strength of the decoupling correlates with the fragility but not with the glass transition temperature. These results call for a revision of the current picture of ionic transport in polymer electrolytes. We relate the observed decoupling phenomenon to frustration in packing of rigid polymers, where the loose local structure is also responsible for the increase in their fragility.

Wang, Yangyang [ORNL; Agapov, Alexander L [ORNL; Fan, Fei [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Yu, Xiang [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

SRO : single room occupancy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

During August of 1996, I stayed in a series of SRO hotels in New York City leaving a book and diary behind when I checked out of each room. The books that were left in the rooms differ from one room to the other but all ...

Shimada, Taketo

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Complex Capacitance Scaling in Ionic Liquids-Filled Nanopores  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent experiments have shown that the capacitance of subnanometer pores increases anomalously as the pore width decreases, thereby opening a new avenue for developing supercapacitors with enhanced energy density. However, this behavior is still subject to some controversy since its physical origins are not well understood. Using atomistic simulations, we show that the capacitance of slit-shaped nanopores in contact with room-temperature ionic liquids exhibits a U-shaped scaling behavior in pores with widths from 0.75 to 1.26 nm. The left branch of the capacitance scaling curve directly corresponds to the anomalous capacitance increase and thus reproduces the experimental observations. The right branch of the curve indirectly agrees with experimental findings that so far have received little attention. The overall U-shaped scaling behavior provides insights on the origins of the difficulty in experimentally observing the pore-width-dependent capacitance. We establish a theoretical framework for understanding the capacitance of electrical double layers in nanopores and provide mechanistic details into the origins of the observed scaling behavior. The framework highlights the critical role of 'ion solvation' in controlling pore capacitance and the importance of choosing anion/cation couples carefully for optimal energy storage in a given pore system.

Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Complex Capacitance Scaling in Ionic Liquids-filled Nanopores  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent experiments have shown that the capacitance of sub-nanometer pores increases anomalously as the pore width decreases, thereby opening a new avenue for developing supercapacitors with enhanced energy density. However, this behavior is still subject to some controversy since its physical origins are not well understood. Using atomistic simulations, we show that the capacitance of slit-shaped nanopores in contact with room-temperature ionic liquids exhibits a U-shaped scaling behavior in pores with width from 0.75 to 1.26 nm. The left branch of the capacitance scaling curve directly corresponds to the anomalous capacitance increase and thus reproduces the experimental observations. The right branch of the curve indirectly agrees with experimental findings that so far have received little attention. The overall U-shaped scaling behavior provides insights on the origins of the difficulty in experimentally observing the pore-width dependent capacitance. We establish a theoretical framework for understanding the capacitance of electrical double layers in nanopores and provide mechanistic details into the origins of the observed scaling behavior. The framework highlights the critical role of ion solvation in controlling pore capacitance and the importance of choosing anion/cation couples carefully for optimal energy storage in a given pore system.

Qiao, Rui [Clemson University; Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Peng, Wu [Clemson University

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Methods of using ionic liquids having a fluoride anion as solvents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method in one embodiment includes contacting a strongly hydrogen bonded organic material with an ionic liquid having a fluoride anion for solubilizing the strongly hydrogen bonded organic material; and maintaining the ionic liquid at a temperature of about 90.degree. C. or less during the contacting. A method in another embodiment includes contacting a strongly hydrogen bonded organic material with an ionic liquid having an acetate or formate anion for solubilizing the strongly hydrogen bonded organic material; and maintaining the ionic liquid at a temperature of less than about 90.degree. C. during the contacting.

Pagoria, Philip (Livermore, CA); Maiti, Amitesh (San Ramon, CA); Gash, Alexander (Brentwood, CA); Han, Thomas Yong (Pleasanton, CA); Orme, Christine (Oakland, CA); Fried, Laurence (Livermore, CA)

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

192

Common Help Room Hours  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Common Help Room Hours for Spring 2015. Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday. 10:30 am. 11:30 am. MA 16200 - MATH 205 - Nathanael Cox ...

193

Common Help Room Hours  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Common Help Room Hours for Spring 2015. Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday. 10:30 am. 11:30 am. MA 16010 - MATH 205 - Alessandra ...

194

Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Technologies  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy Health andofIan KalinResearch,IntroducingIonic Liquid Pretreatment EERE

195

Raman Investigation of The Uranium Compounds U3O8, UF4, UH3 and UO3 under Pressure at Room Temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our current state-of-the-art X-ray diffraction experiments are primarily sensitive to the position of the uranium atom. While the uranium - low-Z element bond (such as U-H or U-F) changes under pressure and temperature the X-ray diffraction investigations do not reveal information about the bonding or the stoichiometry. Questions that can be answered by Raman spectroscopy are (i) whether the bonding strength changes under pressure, as observed by either blue- or red-shifted peaks of the Raman active bands in the spectrum and (ii) whether the low-Z element will eventually be liberated and leave the host lattice, i.e. do the fluorine, oxygen, or hydrogen atoms form dimers after breaking the bond to the uranium atom. Therefore Raman spectra were also collected in the range where those decomposition products would appear. Raman is particularly well suited to these types of investigations due to its sensitivity to trace amounts of materials. One challenge for Raman investigations of the uranium compounds is that they are opaque to visible light. They absorb the incoming radiation and quickly heat up to the point of decomposition. This has been dealt with in the past by keeping the incoming laser power to very low levels on the tens of milliWatt range consequently affecting signal to noise. Recent modern investigations also used very small laser spot sizes (micrometer range) but ran again into the problem of heating and chemical sensitivity to the environment. In the studies presented here (in contrast to all other studies that were performed at ambient conditions only) we employ micro-Raman spectroscopy of samples situated in a diamond anvil cell. This increases the trustworthiness of the obtained data in several key-aspects: (a) We surrounded the samples in the DAC with neon as a pressure transmitting medium, a noble gas that is absolutely chemically inert. (b) Through the medium the sample is thermally heat sunk to the diamond anvils, diamond of course possessing the very best heat conductivity of any material. Therefore local heating and decomposition are avoided, a big challenge with other approaches casting doubts on their results. (c) This in turn benefits the signal/noise ratio tremendously since the Raman features of uranium-compounds are very small. The placement of the samples in DACs allows for higher laser powers to impinge on the sample spot while keeping the spot-size larger than in previous studies and keep the samples from heating up. Raman spectroscopy is a very sensitive non-invasive technique and we will show that it is even possible to distinguish the materials by their origin / manufacturer as we have studied samples from Cameco (Canada) and IBI-Labs (US-Florida) and can compare with ambient literature data for samples from Strem (US-MA) and Areva (Pierrelatte, France).

Lipp, M J; Jenei, Z; Park-Klepeis, J; Evans, W J

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

196

Energy Efficient Electrochromic Windows Incorporating Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One approach to increasing the energy efficiency of windows is to control the amount of solar radiation transmitted through a window by using electrochromic technology. What is unique about this project is that the electrochromic is based on the reduction/oxidation reactions of cathodic and anodic organic semi-conducting polymers using room temperature ionic liquids as ion transport electrolytes. It is believed that these types of coatings would be a lower cost alternative to traditional all inorganic thin film based electrochromic technologies. Although there are patents1 based on the proposed technology, it has never been reduced to practice and thoroughly evaluated (i.e. durability and performance) in a window application. We demonstrate that by using organic semi-conductive polymers, specific bands of the solar spectrum (specifically visible and near infrared) can be targeted for electrochemical variable transmittance responsiveness. In addition, when the technology is incorporated into an insulating glass unit, the energy parameters such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the light to solar gain ratio are improved over that of a typical insulating glass unit comprised of glass with a low emissivity coating. A minimum of {approx}0.02 quads of energy savings per year with a reduction of carbon emissions for electricity of {approx}320 MKg/yr benefit is achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. Note that these values include a penalty in the heating season. If this penalty is removed (i.e. in southern climates or commercial structures where cooling is predominate year-round) a maximum energy savings of {approx}0.05 quad per year and {approx}801 MKg/yr can be achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. In its current state, the technology is not durable enough for an exterior window application. The primary downfall is that the redox chemistry fails to recover to a bleached state upon exposure to heat and solar radiation while being cycled over time from the bleached to the dark state. Most likely the polymers are undergoing degradation reactions which are accelerated by heat and solar exposure while in either the reduced or oxidized states and the performance of the polymers is greatly reduced over time. For this technology to succeed in an exterior window application, there needs to be more work done to understand the degradation of the polymers under real-life application conditions such as elevated temperatures and solar exposure so that recommendations for improvements in to the overall system can be made. This will be the key to utilizing this type of technology in any future real-life applications.

Cheri Boykin; James Finley; Donald Anthony; Julianna Knowles; Richard Markovic; Michael Buchanan; Mary Ann Fuhry; Lisa Perrine

2008-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

197

Curvature Effect on the Capacitance of Electric Double Layers at Ionic Liquid/Onion-Like Carbon Interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent experiments have revealed that onion-like carbons (OLCs) offer high energy density and charging/discharging rates when used as the electrodes in supercapacitors. To understand the physical origin of this phenomenon, molecular dynamics simulations were performed for a room-temperature ionic liquid near idealized spherical OLCs with radii ranging from 0.356 to 1.223 nm. We find that the surface charge density increases almost linearly with the potential applied on electric double layers (EDLs) near OLCs. This leads to a nearly flat shape of the differential capacitance versus the potential, unlike the bell or camel shape observed on planar electrodes. Moreover, our simulations reveal that the capacitance of EDLs on OLCs increases with the curvature or as the OLC size decreases, in agreement with experimental observations. The curvature effect is explained by dominance of charge overscreening over a wide potential range and increased ion density per unit area of electrode surface as the OLC becomes smaller.

Feng, Guang [ORNL; Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Cummings, Peter T [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

TETRAALKYLPHOSPHONIUM POLYOXOMETALATES AS NOVEL IONIC LIQUIDS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pairing of a Lindqvist or Keggin polyoxometalate (POM) anion with an appropriate tetraalkylphosphonium cation, [R{sub 3}R{prime}P]{sup +}, has been shown to yield an original family of ionic liquids (POM-ILs), among them salts liquid at or near ambient temperature. The physicochemical properties of several such 'inorganic liquids', in particular their thermal properties, suggests the possible application of these compounds as robust, thermally-stable solvents for liquid-liquid extraction. A preliminary evaluation of the potential of POM-ILs in this application is presented.

DIETZ,M.L.; RICKERT, P.G.; ANTONIO, M.R.; FIRESTONE, M.A.; WISHART, J.F.; SZREDER, T.

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

199

Room temperature and productivity in office work  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2003. Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2003 Conference.building, Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2003 Conference.work. Proceedings of Healthy Buildings Conference 2003.

Seppanen, O.; Fisk, W.J.; Lei, Q.H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Room temperature and productivity in office work  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vigilance in a moving vehicle. Ergonomics 39 (1996)1,61-75.paired associate learning. Ergonomics, 21 [2] Berglund, L. ,

Seppanen, O.; Fisk, W.J.; Lei, Q.H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature ionic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Room Temperature Dispenser Photocathode Using Elemental Cesium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared0 Resource ProgramEnergyMaterials: Sulfur K-edgeDepartment

202

Hydrophobic ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ionic liquids having improved properties for application in non-aqueous batteries, electrochemical capacitors, electroplating, catalysis and chemical separations are disclosed. Exemplary compounds have one of the following formulas: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, and R.sub.6 are either H; F; separate alkyl groups of from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, respectively, or joined together to constitute a unitary alkylene radical of from 2 to 4 carbon atoms forming a ring structure converging on N; or separate phenyl groups; and wherein the alkyl groups, alkylene radicals or phenyl groups may be substituted with electron withdrawing groups, preferably F--, Cl--, CF.sub.3 --, SF.sub.5 --, CF.sub.3 S--, (CF.sub.3).sub.2 CHS-- or (CF.sub.3).sub.3 CS--; and X.sup.- is a non-Lewis acid-containing polyatomic anion having a van der Waals volume exceeding 100 .ANG..sup.3.

Koch, Victor R. (Lincoln, MA); Nanjundiah, Chenniah (Lynn, MA); Carlin, Richard T. (Nashua, NH)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Hydrophobic ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ionic liquids having improved properties for application in non-aqueous batteries, electrochemical capacitors, electroplating, catalysis and chemical separations are disclosed. Exemplary compounds have one of the following formulas shown in a diagram wherein R{sub 1}, R{sub 2}, R{sub 3}, R{sub 4}, R{sub 5}, and R{sub 6} are either H; F; separate alkyl groups of from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, respectively, or joined together to constitute a unitary alkylene radical of from 2 to 4 carbon atoms forming a ring structure converging on N; or separate phenyl groups; and wherein the alkyl groups, alkylene radicals or phenyl groups may be substituted with electron withdrawing groups, preferably F-, Cl-, CF{sub 3}-, SF{sub 5}-, CF{sub 3}S-, (CF{sub 3}){sub 2}CHS- or (CF{sub 3}){sub 3}CS-; and X{sup {minus}} is a non-Lewis acid-containing polyatomic anion having a van der Waals volume exceeding 100 {angstrom}{sup 3}. 4 figs.

Koch, V.R.; Nanjundiah, C.; Carlin, R.T.

1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

204

Ionic Liquid and Supercritical Fluid Hyphenated Techniques for Dissolution and Separation of Lanthanides, Actinides, and Fission Products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is investigating techniques involving ionic liquids (IL) and supercritical (SC) fluids for dissolution and separation of lanthanides, actinides, and fission products. The research project consists of the following tasks: Study direct dissolution of lanthanide oxides, uranium dioxide and other actinide oxides in [bmin][Tf{sub 2}N] with TBP(HNO{sub 3}){sub 1.8}(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.6} and similar types of Lewis acid-Lewis base complexing agents; Measure distributions of dissolved metal species between the IL and the sc-CO{sub 2} phases under various temperature and pressure conditions; Investigate the chemistry of the dissolved metal species in both IL and sc-CO{sub 2} phases using spectroscopic and chemical methods; Evaluate potential applications of the new extraction techniques for nuclear waste management and for other projects. Supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO{sub 2}) and ionic liquids are considered green solvents for chemical reactions and separations. Above the critical point, CO{sub 2} has both gas- and liquid-like properties, making it capable of penetrating small pores of solids and dissolving organic compounds in the solid matrix. One application of sc-CO{sub 2} extraction technology is nuclear waste management. Ionic liquids are low-melting salts composed of an organic cation and an anion of various forms, with unique properties making them attractive replacements for the volatile organic solvents traditionally used in liquid-liquid extraction processes. One type of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) based on the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cation [bmin] with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion [Tf{sub 2}N] is of particular interest for extraction of metal ions due to its water stability, relative low viscosity, high conductivity, and good electrochemical and thermal stability. Recent studies indicate that a coupled IL sc-CO{sub 2} extraction system can effectively transfer trivalent lanthanide and uranyl ions from nitric acid solutions. Advantages of this technique include operation at ambient temperature and pressure, selective extraction due to tunable sc-CO{sub 2} solvation strength, no IL loss during back-extraction, and no organic solvent introduced into the IL phase.

Wai, Chien M. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Bruce Mincher

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

The Partitioning of Americium and the Lanthanides Using Tetrabutyldiglycolamide (TBDGA) in Octanol and in Ionic Liquid Solution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Separations among the lanthanides and the separation of Am from the lanthanides remain challenging, and research in this area continues to expand. The separation of adjacent lanthanides is of interest to high-tech industries because individual lanthanides have specialized uses and are in short supply. In nuclear fuel cycle applications Am would be incorporated into fast reactor fuels, yet the lanthanides are not desired. In this work the diamide N,N,N',N'-tetrabutyldiglycolamide (TBDGA) was investigated as a ligand for lanthanide and Am solvent extraction in both molecular and room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) diluents. The RTIL [C4MIM][Tf2N-] showed very high extraction efficiency for these trivalent metals from low nitric acid concentrations, while the molecular diluent 1-octanol showed high extraction efficiency at high acid concentrations. This was attributed to the extraction of ionic nitrate complexes by the RTIL, whereas 1-octanol extracted neutral nitrate complexes. TBDGA in RTIL did not provide adequate separation factors for Am/lanthanide partitioning, but 1-octanol did show reasonable separation possibilities. Lanthanide intergroup separations appeared to be feasible in both diluents, but with higher separation factors from 1-octanol.

M.E. Mincher; D.L. Quach; Y.J. Liao; B.J. Mincher; C.M. Wai

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Refreshments will be served For more information contact Kim Coleman at kcole@wustl.edu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and solid poly- mers, proteins, asphaltenes, and Room Temperature Ionic Liquids as well as numerical

Subramanian, Venkat

207

Humidity-resistant ambient-temperature solid-electrolyte amperometric sensing apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus and methods for detecting selected chemical compounds in air or other gas streams at room or ambient temperature includes a liquid-free humidity-resistant amperometric sensor comprising a sensing electrode and a counter and reference electrode separated by a solid electrolyte. The sensing electrode preferably contains a noble metal, such as Pt black. The electrolyte is water-free, non-hygroscopic, and substantially water-insoluble, and has a room temperature ionic conductivity [>=]10[sup [minus]4] (ohm-cm)[sup [minus]1], and preferably [>=]0.01 (ohm-cm)[sup [minus]1]. The conductivity may be due predominantly to Ag[sup +] ions, as in Ag[sub 2]WO[sub 4], or to F[sup [minus

Zaromb, S.

1994-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

208

Adsorption of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN) on Si(111)-7x7 at room temperature studied by synchrotron radiation core-level spectroscopies and excited-state density functional theory calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The room temperature adsorption of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}-C{identical_to}N) on Si(111)-7x7 is examined by synchrotron radiation N 1s x-ray photoemission and x-ray absorption spectroscopies. The experimental spectroscopic data point to multiple adsorption geometries. Candidate structures are optimized using density functional theory (DFT), the surface being simulated by silicon clusters encompassing one (adjacent) adatom-rest atom pair. This is followed by the DFT calculation of electron transition energies and cross sections. The comparison of theoretical spectra with experimental ones indicates that the molecule is adsorbed on the surface under two forms, a nondissociated geometry (an sp{sup 2}-hybridized CN) and a dissociated one (leading to a pendent sp-hybridized CN). In the nondissociative mode, the molecule bridges an adatom-rest atom pair. For bridge-type models, the discussion of the core-excited state calculations is focussed on the so-called silicon-molecule mixed-state transitions that strongly depend on the breaking or not of the adatom backbonds and on the attachment of the nitrogen end either to the adatom or to the rest atom. Concerning the dissociated state, the CH bond cleavage leads to a cyanomethyl (Si-CH{sub 2}-CN) plus a silicon monohydride, which accounts for the spectroscopic evidence of a free C{identical_to}N group (we do not find at 300 K any spectroscopic evidence for a C{identical_to}N group datively bonded to a silicon atom via its nitrogen lone pair). Therefore the reaction products of acetonitrile on Si(111)-7x7 are similar to those detected on the Si(001)-2x1 surface at the same temperature, despite the marked differences in the reconstruction of those two surfaces, especially the distance between adjacent silicon broken bonds. In that respect, we discuss how adatom backbond breaking in the course of adsorption may explain why both surface orientations react the same way with acetonitrile.

Bournel, F.; Carniato, S.; Dufour, G.; Gallet, J.-J.; Ilakovac, V.; Rangan, S.; Rochet, F.; Sirotti, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Matiere et Rayonnement, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Synchrotron SOLEIL, L'Orme des Merisiers Saint-Aubin, Boite Postale 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

209

Room temperature multiferroic properties of Pb(Fe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}–Co{sub 0.65}Zn{sub 0.35}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the crystal structure, magnetic, ferroelectric, dielectric, and magneto-dielectric properties of [Pb(Fe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}]{sub (1?x)}[Co{sub 0.65}Zn{sub 0.35}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}]{sub x}: (x?=?0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4) composites. Rietveld refinement results of X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the formation of these composites for all x values. All the composites show well-saturated ferroelectric and ferromagnetic hysteresis (multiferroic-composite behavior) at room temperature. With increase in Co{sub 0.65}Zn{sub 0.35}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (CZFO) content an increase in saturation magnetization, and decrease in saturation polarization, remanent polarization, and dielectric constant are observed. The ferroelectric phase transition temperature increases with increase in CZFO content. All of the compositions undergo second-order ferroelectric phase transitions, which can be explained by Landau-Devonshire theory. The recoverable energy density (?0.20 to 0.04?J/cm{sup 3}) and charge-curve energy density (?0.84 to 0.11?J/cm{sup 3}) decrease with increase in the CZFO content. The room-temperature magneto-dielectric measurements provide direct evidence of magneto-electric coupling via strain at room temperature.

Pradhan, Dhiren K., E-mail: dhirenkumarp@gmail.com, E-mail: rkatiyar@hpcf.upr.edu; Katiyar, Ram S., E-mail: dhirenkumarp@gmail.com, E-mail: rkatiyar@hpcf.upr.edu [Department of Physics and Institute of Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936 (United States); Puli, Venkata S. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States); Narayan Tripathy, Satya; Pradhan, Dillip K. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769008 (India); Scott, J. F. [Department of Physics and Institute of Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936 (United States); Department of Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

210

Examination of the fundamental relation between ionic transport and segmental relaxation in polymer electrolytes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Replacing traditional liquid electrolytes by polymers will significantly improve electrical energy storage technologies. Despite significant advantages for applications in electrochemical devices, the use of solid polymer electrolytes is strongly limited by their poor ionic conductivity. The classical theory predicts that the ionic transport is dictated by the segmental motion of the polymer matrix. As a result, the low mobility of polymer segments is often regarded as the limiting factor for development of polymers with sufficiently high ionic conductivity. Here, we show that the ionic conductivity in many polymers can be strongly decoupled from their segmental dynamics, in terms of both temperature dependence and relative transport rate. Based on this principle, we developed several polymers with superionic conductivity. The observed fast ion transport suggests a fundamental difference between the ionic transport mechanisms in polymers and small molecules and provides a new paradigm for design of highly conductive polymer electrolytes.

Wang, Yangyang [ORNL; Fan, Fei [ORNL; Agapov, Alexander L [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Yang, Jun [ORNL; Yu, Xiang [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Geothermal Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objective: to develop ionic liquids for two geothermal energy related applications.

212

Nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat transfer fluid created from nanoparticles that are dispersed into an ionic liquid is provided. Small volumes of nanoparticles are created from e.g., metals or metal oxides and/or alloys of such materials are dispersed into ionic liquids to create a heat transfer fluid. The nanoparticles can be dispersed directly into the ionic liquid during nanoparticle formation or the nanoparticles can be formed and then, in a subsequent step, dispersed into the ionic liquid using e.g., agitation.

Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

213

Charge Transport and Glassy Dynamics in Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ionic liquids (ILs) exhibit unique features such as low melting points, low vapor pressures, wide liquidus temperature ranges, high thermal stability, high ionic conductivity, and wide electrochemical windows. As a result, they show promise for use in variety of applications: as reaction media, in batteries and supercapacitors, in solar and fuel cells, for electrochemical deposition of metals and semiconductors, for protein extraction and crystallization, and many others. Because of the ease with which they can be supercooled, ionic liquids offer new opportunities to investigate long-standing questions regarding the nature of the dynamic glass transition and its possible link to charge transport. Despite the significant steps achieved from experimental and theoretical studies, no generally accepted quantitative theory of dynamic glass transition to date has been capable of reproducing all the experimentally observed features. In this Account, we discuss recent studies of the interplay between charge transport and glassy dynamics in ionic liquids as investigated by a combination of several experimental techniques including broadband dielectric spectroscopy, pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance, dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Based on EinsteinSmoluchowski relations, we use dielectric spectra of ionic liquids to determine diffusion coefficients in quantitative agreement with independent pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, but spanning a broader range of more than 10 orders of magnitude. This approach provides a novel opportunity to determine the electrical mobility and effective number density of charge carriers as well as their types of thermal activation from the measured dc conductivity separately. We also unravel the origin of the remarkable universality of charge transport in different classes of glass-forming ionic liquids.

Sangoro, Joshua R [ORNL; Kremer, Friedrich [University of Leipzig

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Prediction of Room Air Diffusion for Reduced Diffuser Flow Rates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?, IEA Annex 20 project. The simulated results, in terms of maximum velocity, distribution of velocity and temperature in the room are validated against the experimental data. 3.1.1 Study the effect of various parameters on the CFD simulation. A study... and the walls of the room. The window is assumed to have a surface temperature of 30 0C.The diffuser used is a ?HESCO? type diffuser, which was used in the International Energy Agency (IEA) Annex 20 project (1993): ?Room air and contaminant flow, evaluation...

Gangisetti, Kavita

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

215

Press Room | JCESR  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest RegionatSearch Welcome to theNews &User ServicesRadioPress Room Tesla

216

Room to grow | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared0 Resource ProgramEnergyMaterials: Sulfur K-edgeDepartment|Room to

217

Tribological characteristics of aluminum alloys against steel lubricated by ammonium and imidazolium ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sliding friction and wear characteristics of aluminum alloys against AISI 52100 steel lubricated by ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated at both room and elevated temperatures. The tested aluminum alloys include a commercially pure aluminum Al 1100, a wrought alloy Al 6061-T6511, and a cast alloy Al 319-T6. The lubricating performance of two ILs with the same anion, one ammonium-based [C8H17]3NH.Tf2N and one imidazolium-based C10mim.Tf2N, were compared each other and benchmarked against that of a conventional fully-formulated engine oil. Significant friction (up to 35%) and wear (up to 55%) reductions were achieved by the ammonium IL when lubricating the three aluminum alloys compared to the engine oil. The imidazolium IL performed better than the oil but not as well as the ammonium IL for Al 1100 and 319 alloys. However, accelerated wear was unexpectedly observed for Al 6061 alloy when lubricated by C10mim.Tf2N. Surface chemical analyses implied complex tribochemical reactions between the aluminum surfaces and ILs during the wear testing, which has been demonstrated either beneficial by forming a protective boundary film or detrimental by causing severe tribo-corrosion. The effects of the IL cation structure, aluminum alloy composition, and tribo-testing condition on the friction and wear results have been discussed.

Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Truhan, John J. [Caterpillar Inc.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Lithium-sulfur batteries based on nitrogen-doped carbon and ionic liquid electrolyte  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon (NC) and sulfur were used to prepare an NC/S composite cathode, which was evaluated in an ionic liquid electrolyte of 0.5 M lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (MPPY.TFSI) by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cycle testing. To facilitate the comparison, a C/S composite based on activated carbon (AC) without nitrogen doping was also fabricated under the same conditions as those for the NC/S composite. Compared with the AC/S composite, the NC/S composite showed enhanced activity toward sulfur reduction, as evidenced by the early onset sulfur reduction potential, higher redox current density in the CV test, and faster charge transfer kinetics as indicated by EIS measurement. At room temperature under a current density of 84 mA g-1 (C/20), the battery based on the NC/S composite exhibited higher discharge potential and an initial capacity of 1420 mAh g-1 whereas that based on the AC/S composite showed lower discharge potential and an initial capacity of 1120 mAh g-1. Both batteries showed similar capacity fading with cycling due to the intrinsic polysulfide solubility and the polysulfide shuttle mechanism; the capacity fading can be improved by further modification of the cathode.

Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

New electrolytes and electrolyte additives to improve the low temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this program, two different approaches were undertaken to improve the role of electrolyte at low temperature performance - through the improvement in (i) ionic conductivity and (ii) interfacial behavior. Several different types of electrolytes were prepared to examine the feasibil.ity of using these new electrolytes in rechargeable lithium-ion cells in the temperature range of +40°C to -40°C. The feasibility studies include (a) conductivity measurements of the electrolytes, (b) impedance measurements of lithium-ion cells using the screened electrolytes with di.fferent electrochemical history such as [(i) fresh cells prior to formation cycles, (ii) after first charge, and (iii) after first discharge], (c) electrical performance of the cells at room temperatures, and (d) charge discharge behavior at various low temperatures. Among the different types of electrolytes investigated in Phase I and Phase II of this SBIR project, carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes with the proposed additives and the low viscous ester as a third component to the carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes show promising results at low temperatures. The latter electrolytes deliver over 80% of room temperature capacity at -20{degrees}C when the lithium-ion cells containing these electrolytes were charged at -20 °C. Also, there was no lithium plating when the lithium­-ion cells using C-C composite anode and LiPF{sub 6} in EC/EMC/MP electrolyte were charged at -20{degrees}C at C/5 rate. The studies of ionic conductivity and AC impedance of these new electrolytes, as well as the charge discharge characteristics of lithium-ion cells using these new electrolytes at various low temperatures provide new findings: The reduced capacity and power capability, as well as the problem of lithium plating at low temperatures charging of lithium-ion cells are primarily due to slow the lithium-ion intercalation/de-intercalation kinetics in the carbon structure.

Yang, Xiao-Qing

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

220

Temperature-Dependent Chemical Properties of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Silberstein #12;What is a fuel cell? #12;Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Two phase ionomer (ionic polymer temperatures (thermal history) and relative humidities Temperatures 150o C for 1 hour 100o C, 90o C, 80o C, 70o

Petta, Jason

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature ionic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Clean Room Orientation/Protocols  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

shoes Shoe covers before entering gowning room Head cover, then coverall. Boots over shoe covers. Gloves If gloves get ripped or soiled during your time in...

222

Early Events in Ionic Liquid Radiation Chemistry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ionic liquids are interesting and useful materials whose solvation time scales are up to thousands of times longer than in conventional solvents. The extended lifetimes of pre-solvated electrons and other energetic species in ionic liquids has profound consequences for the radiolytic product distributions and reactivity patterns. We use a newly developed, multiplexed variation of pulse-probe spectroscopy to measure the kinetics of the early dynamical and reactive events in ionic liquids.

Wishart, J.F.; Cook, A.; Rimmer, R.D.; Gohdo, M.

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

223

Partially fluorinated cyclic ionic polymers and membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ionic polymers are made from selected partially fluorinated dienes, in which the repeat units are cycloaliphatic. The polymers are formed into membranes.

Yang, Zhen-Yu

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

224

Ionic Liquids as templating agents in formation of uranium-containing nanomaterials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for forming nanoparticles containing uranium oxide is described. The method includes combining a uranium-containing feedstock with an ionic liquid to form a mixture and holding the mixture at an elevated temperature for a period of time to form the product nanoparticles. The method can be carried out at low temperatures, for instance less than about 300.degree. C.

Visser, Ann E; Bridges, Nicholas J

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

225

Cryo Utilities Room Cooling System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many of the mechanical equipment failures at the Laboratory are due to the loss of cooling water. In order to insure the proper operating temperatures and to increase the reliability of the mechanical equipment in the D0 Cryo Utilities Room it is necessary to provide an independent liquid cooling system. To this end, an enclosed glycoVwater cooling system which transfers heat from two vane-type vacuum pumps and an air compressor to the outside air has been installed in the Cryo Utilities Room. From the appended list it can be seen that only the Thermal Precision PFC-121-D and Ingersoll-Rand WAC 16 deserve closer investigation based on price. The disadvantages of the WAC 16 are that: it runs a little warmer, it requires more valving to properly install a backup pump, inlet and outlet piping are not included, and temperature and pressure indicators are not included. Its only advantage is that it is $818 cheaper than the PFC-121-D. The advantages of the PFC-121-D are that: it has automatic pump switching during shutdown, it has a temperature regulator on one fan control, it has a switch which indicates proper operation, has a sight glass on the expansion tank, and comes with an ASME approved expansion tank and relief valve. For these reasons the Thermal Precision PFC-121-D was chosen. In the past, we have always found the pond water to be muddy and to sometimes contain rocks of greater than 1/2 inch diameter. Thus a system completely dependent on the pond water from the accelerator was deemed unacceptable. A closed system was selected based on its ability to greatly improve reliability, while remaining economical. It is charged with a 50/50 glycol/water mixture capable of withstanding outside temperatures down to -33 F. The fluid will be circulated by a totally enclosed air cooled Thermal Precision PFC-121-D pump. The system will be on emergency power and an automatically controlled backup pump, identical to the primary, is available should the main pump fail. The fan unit is used as a primary cooler and the trim cooler cools the fluid further on extremely hot days. The trim cooler has also been sized to cool the system in the event of a total shutdown provided that the pond water supply has adequate pressure. Due to a broken filter, we found it necessary to install a strainer in the pond water supply line. The expansion tank separates air bubbles, ensures a net positive suction head, protects against surges and over pressurization of the system, and allows for the filling of the system without shutting it off. All piping has been installed, flushed, charged with the glycol/water mix, and hydrostatically tested to 55 psi. The condition of all pumps and flow conditions will be recorded at the PLC. It has been decided not to include the regulator valve in the pond water return line. This valve was designated by the manufacturer to reduce the amount of water flowing through the trim cooler. This is not necessary in our application. There is some concern that the cooling fluid may cool the mechanical eqUipment too much when they are not operating or during very cold days. This issue will be addressed and the conclusion appended to this engineering note.

Ball, G.S.; /Fermilab

1989-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

226

Carbon Ionic Conductors for use in Novel Carbon-Ion Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon-consuming fuel cells have many potential advantages, including increased efficiency and reduced pollution in power generation from coal. A large amount of work has already been done on coal fuel cells that utilize yttria-stabilized zirconium carbide as an oxygen-ion superionic membrane material. But high-temperature fuel cells utilizing yttria-stabilized zirconium require partial combustion of coal to carbon monoxide before final oxidation to carbon dioxide occurs via utilization of the oxygen- ion zirconia membrane. A carbon-ion superionic membrane material would enable an entirely new class of carbon fuel cell to be developed, one that would use coal directly as the fuel source, without any intervening combustion process. However, a superionic membrane material for carbon ions has not yet been found. Because no partial combustion of coal would be required, a carbon-ion superionic conductor would allow the direct conversion of coal to electricity and pure CO{sub 2} without the formation of gaseous pollutants. The objective of this research was to investigate ionic lanthanide carbides, which have an unusually high carbon-bond ionicity as potential superionic carbide-ion conductors. A first step in this process is the stabilization of these carbides in the cubic structure, and this stabilization has been achieved via the preparation of pseudobinary lanthanide carbides. The diffusion rates of carbon have been measured in these carbides as stabilized to preserve the high temperature cubic structure down to room temperature. To prepare these new compounds and measure these diffusion rates, a novel, oxide-based preparation method and a new C{sup 13}/C{sup 12} diffusion technique have been developed. The carbon diffusion rates in La{sup 0.5}Er{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, Ce{sup 0.5}Er{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, and La{sup 0.5}Y{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, and Ce{sup 0.5}Tm0.5C{sub 2} modified by the addition of 5 wt %Be{sub 2}C, have been determined at temperatures from 850 C to 1150 C. The resulting diffusion constants as measured were all less than 10{sup -11} cm{sup 2}/sec, and therefore these compounds are not superionic. However, there remain a large number of potentially superionic pseudobinary lanthanide compounds and a number of alternate ionic carbides which might act as dopants to produce vacancies on the carbon-ion sublattice and thereby increase carbon-ion diffusion rates. The discovery of a superionic carbon conductor would usher in a truly revolutionary new coal technology, and could dramatically improve the way in which we generate electricity from coal. The work completed to date is a promising first step towards this end.

Franklin H. Cocks; W. Neal Simmons; Paul A. Klenk

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Reactions of Lignin Model Compounds in Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin, a readily available form of biomass, awaits novel chemistry for converting it to valuable aromatic chemicals. Recent work has demonstrated that ionic liquids are excellent solvents for processing woody biomass and lignin. Seeking to exploit ionic liquids as media for depolymerization of lignin, we investigated reactions of lignin model compounds in these solvents. Using Brønsted acid catalysts in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium triflate at moderate temperatures, we obtained up to 11.6% yield of the dealkylation product guaiacol from the model compound eugenol and cleaved phenethyl phenyl ether, a model for lignin ethers. Despite these successes, acid catalysis failed in dealkylation of the unsaturated model compound 4-ethylguaiacol and did not produce monomeric products from organosolv lignin, demonstrating that further work is required to understand the complex chemistry of lignin depolymerization.

Holladay, John E.; Binder, Joseph B.; Gray, Michel J.; White, James F.; Zhang, Z. Conrad

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

228

Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully Implemented at Larger Scale Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully Implemented at Larger Scale...

229

Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes...

230

New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization...

231

Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and computational study. Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and...

232

Infrared spectroscopy of ionic clusters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This thesis describes new experiments wherein the infrared vibrational predissociation spectra of a number of mass-selected ionic cluster systems have been obtained and analyzed in the 2600 to 4000 cm{sup {minus}1} region. The species studied include: the hydrated hydronium ions, H{sub 3}O{sup +} (H{sub 2}O){sub 3 {minus}10}, ammoniated ammonium ions, NH{sub 4}{sup +}(NH{sub 3}){sub 1 {minus}10} and cluster ions involving both water and ammonia around an ammonium ion core, (mixed clusters) NH{sub 4}{sup +}(NH{sub 3}){sub n}(H{sub 2}O){sub m} (n+m=4). In each case, the spectra reveal well resolved structures that can be assigned to transitions arising from the vibrational motions of both the ion core of the clusters and the surrounding neutral solvent molecules. 154 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

Price, J.M. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Chemistry Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Computer Room Fresh Air Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper discusses the concept of a computer room fresh air cooling system with evaporative humidification. The system offers significantly lower energy consumption than conventional cooling units, with 24% reduction for Dallas and 56% reduction...

Wenger, J. D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Nuclear reactor control room construction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A control room 10 for a nuclear plant is disclosed. In the control room, objects 12, 20, 22, 26, 30 are no less than four inches from walls 10.2. A ceiling 32 contains cooling fins 35 that extend downwards toward the floor from metal plates 34. A concrete slab 33 is poured over the plates. Studs 36 are welded to the plates and are encased in the concrete.

Lamuro, Robert C. (Pittsburgh, PA); Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Nuclear reactor control room construction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A control room for a nuclear plant is disclosed. In the control room, objects labelled 12, 20, 22, 26, 30 in the drawing are no less than four inches from walls labelled 10.2. A ceiling contains cooling fins that extend downwards toward the floor from metal plates. A concrete slab is poured over the plates. Studs are welded to the plates and are encased in the concrete. 6 figures.

Lamuro, R.C.; Orr, R.

1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

236

The importance of ion size and electrode curvature on electrical double layers in ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are an emerging class of electrolytes for supercapacitors. We investigate the effects of ion size and electrode curvature on the electrical double layers (EDLs) in two ILs 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM][Cl] and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM][PF{sub 6}], using a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) and quantum density functional theory (DFT) simulations. The sizes of the counter-ion and co-ion affect the ion distribution and orientational structure of EDLs. The EDL capacitances near both planar and cylindrical electrodes were found to follow the order: [BMIM][Cl] (near the positive electrode) > [BMIM][PF{sub 6}] (near the positive electrode) ? [BMIM][Cl] (near the negative electrode) ? [BMIM][PF{sub 6}] (near the negative electrode). The EDL capacitance was also found to increase as the electrode curvature increases. These capacitance data can be fit to the Helmholtz model and the recently proposed exohedral electrical double-cylinder capacitor (xEDCC) model when the EDL thickness is properly parameterized, even though key features of the EDLs in ILs are not accounted for in these models. To remedy the shortcomings of existing models, we propose a “Multiple Ion Layers with Overscreening” (MILO) model for the EDLs in ILs that takes into account two critical features of such EDLs, i.e., alternating layering of counter-ions and co-ions and charge overscreening. The capacitance computed from the MILO model agrees well with the MD prediction. Although some input parameters of the MILO model must be obtained from MD simulations, the MILO model may provide a new framework for understanding many important aspects of EDLs in ILs (e.g., the variation of EDL capacitance with the electrode potential) that are difficult to interpret using classical EDL models and experiments.

Feng, G.; Qiao, R.; Huang, J; Dai, S.; Sumpter, B. G.; Meunier, V.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

The Importance of Ion Size and Electrode Curvature on Electrical Double Layers in Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are an emerging class of electrolytes for supercapacitors. We investigate the effects of ion size and electrode curvature on the electrical double layers (EDLs) in two ILs 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM][Cl] and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM][PF(6)], using a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) and quantum density functional theory (DFT) simulations. The sizes of the counter-ion and co-ion affect the ion distribution and orientational structure of EDLs. The EDL capacitances near both planar and cylindrical electrodes were found to follow the order: [BMIM][Cl] (near the positive electrode) > [BMIM][PF(6)] (near the positive electrode) {approx} [BMIM][Cl] (near the negative electrode) {approx} [BMIM][PF(6)] (near the negative electrode). The EDL capacitance was also found to increase as the electrode curvature increases. These capacitance data can be fit to the Helmholtz model and the recently proposed exohedral electrical double-cylinder capacitor (xEDCC) model when the EDL thickness is properly parameterized, even though key features of the EDLs in ILs are not accounted for in these models. To remedy the shortcomings of existing models, we propose a 'Multiple Ion Layers with Overscreening' (MILO) model for the EDLs in ILs that takes into account two critical features of such EDLs, i.e., alternating layering of counter-ions and co-ions and charge overscreening. The capacitance computed from the MILO model agrees well with the MD prediction. Although some input parameters of the MILO model must be obtained from MD simulations, the MILO model may provide a new framework for understanding many important aspects of EDLs in ILs (e.g., the variation of EDL capacitance with the electrode potential) that are difficult to interpret using classical EDL models and experiments.

Feng, Guang [Clemson University; Qiao, Rui [ORNL; Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Superbase-derived protic ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Protic ionic liquids having a composition of formula (A.sup.-)(BH.sup.+) wherein A.sup.- is a conjugate base of an acid HA, and BH.sup.+ is a conjugate acid of a superbase B. In particular embodiments, BH.sup.+ is selected from phosphazenium species and guanidinium species encompassed, respectively, by the general formulas: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to films and membranes containing these protic ionic liquids, with particular application as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells.

Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Baker, Gary A.

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

239

Spin reorientation transition and near room-temperature multiferroic properties in a W-type hexaferrite SrZn{sub 1.15}Co{sub 0.85}Fe{sub 16}O{sub 27}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this Letter, we investigate the magnetic and multiferroic properties of a W-type hexaferrite SrZn{sub 1.15}Co{sub 0.85}Fe{sub 16}O{sub 27}. Due to the strong planar contribution to the anisotropy provided by Co{sup 2+} ions, this hexaferrite shows a spin reorientation transition from easy-axis to easy-cone at 302?K, which is different from the onset temperature of ferroelectric polarization, 275?K. By applying magnetic field, a remarkable drop of polarization is observed, suggesting a large magnetoelectric effect in this multiferroics. The difference between spin reorientation and ferroelectric phase transition temperature as well as the origin of magnetoelectric effect are discussed.

Song, Y. Q.; Fang, Y.; Wang, L. Y.; Zhou, W. P.; Cao, Q. Q.; Wang, D. H., E-mail: wangdh@nju.edu.cn; Du, Y. W. [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

240

News Room | Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature ionic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Strong Electronic Polarization of the C60 Fullerene by the Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids: Accurate Insights from Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fullerenes are known to be polarizable due to the strained carbon-carbon bonds and high surface curvature. Electronic polarization of fullerenes is of steady practical importance, since it leads to non-additive interactions and, therefore, to unexpected phenomena. For the first time, hybrid density functional theory (HDFT) powered Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) simulations have been conducted to observe electronic polarization and charge transfer phenomena in the C60 fullerene at finite temperature (350 K). The non-additive phenomena are fostered by the three selected imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). We conclude that although charge transfer appears nearly negligible in these systems, an electronic polarization is indeed significant leading to a systematically positive effective electrostatic charge on the C60 fullerene: +0.14e in [EMIM][Cl], +0.21e in [EMIM][NO3], +0.17e in [EMIM][PF6]. These results are, to certain extent, unexpected providing an inspiration to consider ...

Chaban, Vitaly V

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Ionic liquid assisted hydrothermal fabrication of hierarchically organized ?-AlOOH hollow sphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? The ?-AlOOH hollow spheres were synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal treatment. ? Ionic liquid plays an important role in the morphology of the product. ? Ionic liquid can be easily removed from the product and reused in next experiment. ? A “aggregation–solution–recrystallization” formation mechanism may occur in the system. -- Abstract: Hierarchically organized ?-AlOOH hollow spheres with nanoflake-like porous surface texture have been successfully synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal synthesis method in citric acid monohydrate (CAMs). It was found that ionic liquid [bmim]{sup +}Cl{sup ?} played an important role in the morphology of the product due to its strong interactions with reaction particles. The samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The results show that the product has narrow particle size distribution (500–900 nm particle diameter range), high specific surface area (240.5 m{sup 2}/g) and large pore volume (0.61 cm{sup 3}/g). The corresponding ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hollow spheres can be obtained by calcining it at 550 °C for 3 h. The proposed formation mechanism and other influencing factors of the ?-AlOOH hollow sphere material, such as reaction temperature, reaction duration, CAMs and urea, have also been investigated.

Tang, Zhe, E-mail: tangzhe1983@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China); Liu, Yunqi, E-mail: liuyq@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China); Li, Guangci, E-mail: liguangci1984@yahoo.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China); Hu, Xiaofu, E-mail: hjj19850922@126.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China); Liu, Chenguang, E-mail: cgliu@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

243

Integrated experimental and modeling study of the ionic conductivity...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

modeling study of the ionic conductivity of samaria-doped ceria thin films. Abstract: Oxygen diffusion and ionic conductivity of samaria-doped ceria (SDC) thin films have been...

244

The Live Room : transducing resonant architectures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Live Room is a temporary site specific installation presented in building N 51, room 117 on the MIT campus on May 7, 1998 and concluded on June 10, 1998. Using small acoustic intensifying equipment which mount directly ...

Bain, Mark, 1966-

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Energy Integration Visualization Room (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This two-page fact sheet describes the new Energy Integration Visualization Room in the ESIF and talks about some of the capabilities and unique visualization features of the the room.

Not Available

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Development of an Ionic-Liquid Absorption Heat Pump  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solar Fueled Products (SFP) is developing an innovative ionic-liquid absorption heat pump (ILAHP). The development of an ILAHP is extremely significant, as it could result in annual savings of more than 190 billion kW h of electrical energy and $19 billion. This absorption cooler uses about 75 percent less electricity than conventional cooling and heating units. The ILAHP also has significant environmental sustainability benefits, due to reduced CO2 emissions. Phase I established the feasibility and showed the economic viability of an ILAHP with these key accomplishments: • Used the breakthrough capabilities provided by ionic liquids which overcome the key difficulties of the common absorption coolers. • Showed that the theoretical thermodynamic performance of an ILAHP is similar to existing absorption-cooling systems. • Established that the half-effect absorption cycle reduces the peak generator temperature, improving collector efficiency and reducing collector area. • Component testing demonstrated that the most critical components, absorber and generator, operate well with conventional heat exchangers. • Showed the economic viability of an ILAHP. The significant energy savings, sustainability benefits, and economic viability are compelling reasons to continue the ILAHP development.

Holcomb, Don

2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

247

Open Data: the elephant in the room?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Journal of the European Association for Health Information and Libraries (November 2008) vol.4(4) pp.4-6 Open Data: the elephant in the room?(*) Peter Morgan Cambridge University Medical... elephant in the room ... is an English idiom for an obvious truth that is being ignored or goes unaddressed. It is based on the idea that an elephant in a room would be impossible to overlook; thus, people in the room who pretend the elephant...

Morgan, Peter

248

Library Reserved Room Policy All Meeting Spaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Library Reserved Room Policy All Meeting Spaces Room reservation To make a reservation for any Library meeting space, complete the room reservation form at http://library.syr.edu/services/space/form-findroom.php. In order to provide equitable access to library spaces, the Library may impose limitations on frequency

Mather, Patrick T.

249

Multisurface Interaction in the WILD Room  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- 1 - Multisurface Interaction in the WILD Room Michel Beaudouin-Lafon, Stéphane Huot, Mathieu University Abstract The WILD room (wall-sized interaction with large datasets) serves as a testbed. (2012), "Multisurface Interaction in the WILD Room", IEEE Computer, vol 45, nº 4, pp. 48-56. DOI

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

250

1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to compositions of matter that are ionic liquids, the compositions comprising substituted 1,2,3-triazolium cations combined with any anion. Compositions of the invention should be useful in the separation of gases and, perhaps, as catalysts for many reactions.

Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Tang, Chau

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

251

Hyperfine Effects in Ionic Orbital Electron Capture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The K-orbital electron capture in ions with one or two electrons is analized for a general allowed nuclear transition. For ionic hyperfine states the angular neutrino distribution and the electron capture rate are given in terms of nuclear matrix elements. A possible application towards the determination of neutrino parameters is outlined.

M. A. Goñi

2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

252

Nonlinear theory of ionic sound waves in a hot quantum-degenerate electron-positron-ion plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A collisionless nonmagnetized e-p-i plasma consisting of quantum-degenerate gases of ions, electrons, and positrons at nonzero temperatures is considered. The dispersion equation for isothermal ionic sound waves is derived and analyzed, and an exact expression is obtained for the linear velocity of ionic sound. Analysis of the dispersion equation has made it possible to determine the ranges of parameters in which nonlinear solutions in the form of solitons should be sought. A nonlinear theory of isothermal ionic sound waves is developed and used for obtaining and analyzing the exact solution to the system of initial equations. Analysis has been carried out by the method of the Bernoulli pseudopotential. The ranges of phase velocities of periodic ionic sound waves and soliton velocities are determined. It is shown that in the plasma under investigation, these ranges do not overlap and that the soliton velocity cannot be lower than the linear velocity of ionic sound. The profiles of physical quantities in a periodic wave and in a soliton are constructed, as well as the dependences of the velocity of sound and the critical velocity on the ionic concentration in the plasma. It is shown that these velocities increase with the ion concentration.

Dubinov, A. E., E-mail: dubinov-ae@yandex.ru; Sazonkin, M. A., E-mail: figma@mail.r [Sarov State Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

253

Last Updated 8/12/2013 Page 1 of 2 Meeting Room 2 Meeting Room 3 Meeting Room 4 Meeting Room 5 Meeting Room 6  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cities Light Rail Monitoring Bioretention and Rainwater Harvesting Systems Urban Trees as a LID Source Meeting Room 6 8:00 a.m.-12:00 noon Intro to LID Rainwater Harvesting 1:00-5:00 p.m. Advances in Design for CSO Communities LID Research Panel Urban Trees and Stormwater Management LID Education Approaches

Minnesota, University of

254

Modification of Deeply Buried Hydrophobic Interfaces by Ionic Surfactants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrophobicity, the spontaneous segregation of oil and water, can be modified by surfactants. The way this modification occurs is studied at the oil-water interface for a range of alkanes and two ionic surfactants. A liquid interfacial monolayer, consisting of a mixture of alkane molecules and surfactant tails, is found. Upon cooling, it freezes at T{sub s}, well above the alkane's bulk freezing temperature, T{sub b}. The monolayer's phase diagram, derived by surface tensiometry, is accounted for by a mixtures-based theory. The monolayer's structure is measured by high-energy X-ray reflectivity above and below T{sub s}. A solid-solid transition in the frozen monolayer, occurring approximately 3 C below T{sub s}, is discovered and tentatively suggested to be a rotator-to-crystal transition.

Ocko, B.M.; Tamam, L.; Pontoni, D.; Sapir, Z.; Yefet, S.; Sloutskin, E.; Reichert, H.; Deutsch, M.

2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

255

Low velocity ion stopping in binary ionic mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Attention is focused on the low ion velocity stopping mechanisms in multicomponent and dense target plasmas built of quasiclassical electron fluids neutralizing binary ionic mixtures, such as, deuterium-tritium of current fusion interest, proton-heliumlike iron in the solar interior or proton-helium ions considered in planetology, as well as other mixtures of fiducial concern in the heavy ion beam production of warm dense matter at Bragg peak conditions. The target plasma is taken in a multicomponent dielectric formulation a la Fried-Conte. The occurrence of projectile ion velocities (so-called critical) for which target electron slowing down equals that of given target ion components is also considered. The corresponding multiquadrature computations, albeit rather heavy, can be monitored analytical through a very compact code operating a PC cluster. Slowing down results are systematically scanned with respect to target temperature and electron density, as well as ion composition.

Tashev, Bekbolat; Baimbetov, Fazylkhan [Department of Physics, Kazakh National University, Tole Bi 96, Almaty 480012 (Kazakhstan); Deutsch, Claude [LPGP (UMR-CNRS 8578), Universite Paris XI, 91405 Orsay (France); Fromy, Patrice [Direction de l'Informatique, Universite Paris XI, 91405 Orsay (France)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

256

Modification of Deeply Buried Hydrophobic Interfaces by Ionic Surfactants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrophobicity, the spontaneous segregation of oil and water, can be modified by surfactants. The way this modification occurs is studied at the oil-water interface for a range of alkanes and two ionic surfactants. A liquid interfacial monolayer, consisting of a mixture of alkane molecules and surfactant tails, is found. Upon cooling, it freezes at T{sub s}, well above the alkane's bulk freezing temperature, T{sub b}. The monolayer's phase diagram, derived by surface tensiometry, is accounted for by a mixtures-based theory. The monolayer's structure is measured by high-energy X-ray reflectivity above and below T{sub s}. A solid-solid transition in the frozen monolayer, occurring approximately 3 C below T{sub s}, is discovered and tentatively suggested to be a rotator-to-crystal transition.

L Tamam; D Pontoni Z Sapir; S Yefet; S Sloutskin; B Ocko; H Reichert; M Deutsch

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

257

Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Monolithic lasers on Si are ideal for high-volume and large-scale electronic–photonic integration. Ge is an interesting candidate owing to its pseudodirect gap properties and compatibility with Si complementary metal oxide ...

Liu, Jifeng

258

Numerical modelling and analysis of a room temperature magnetic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are separated by channels of a heat transfer fluid. The time-dependent model solves the momentum and continuity equations of the flow of the heat transfer fluid and the coupled energy equations of the heat transfer and it was concluded that the model has energy conservation and that the solution is independent of the chosen grid

259

Efficient room-temperature source of polarized single photons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An efficient technique for producing deterministically polarized single photons uses liquid-crystal hosts of either monomeric or oligomeric/polymeric form to preferentially align the single emitters for maximum excitation efficiency. Deterministic molecular alignment also provides deterministically polarized output photons; using planar-aligned cholesteric liquid crystal hosts as 1-D photonic-band-gap microcavities tunable to the emitter fluorescence band to increase source efficiency, using liquid crystal technology to prevent emitter bleaching. Emitters comprise soluble dyes, inorganic nanocrystals or trivalent rare-earth chelates.

Lukishova, Svetlana G. (Honeoye Falls, NY); Boyd, Robert W. (Rochester, NY); Stroud, Carlos R. (Rochester, NY)

2007-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

260

Aqueous, Room Temperature Electrochemical Deposition of Compact Si Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. For all Si deposi- tion experiments, the Al sample was rotated at 850 rpm with a rotat- ing disc electrode scanning electron microscope (FESEM), following Au=Pd sputtering. X-ray diffraction measure- ments were

Suni, Ian Ivar

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature ionic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

AB Electronic Tubes and Quasi-Superconductivity at Room Temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Author offers and researches a new idea - filling tubes by electronic gases. He shows: If the insulating envelope (cover) of the tube is charged positively, the electrons within the tube are not attracted to covering. Tube (as a whole) remains a neutral (uncharged) body. The electron gas in the tube has very low density and very high conductivity, close to superconductivity. If we take the density (pressure) of electron gas as equal to atmospheric pressure, the thickness of insulator film may be very small and the resulting tube is very light. Author shows the offered tubes can be applied to many technical fields. For example: (1) Transfer of energy over very long distance with very small electric losses. (2) Design of cheap high altitude electric lines without masts. (3) Transfer of energy from one continent to another continent through the ionosphere. (4) Transfer of a plasma beam (which can convey thrust and energy) from Earth surface to a space ship. (5) Observation of the sky by telescope without atmospheric hindrances. (6) Dirigibles (air balloons) of the highest lift force. (7) Increasing of gun range severalfold. (8) Transfer of matter. And so on. Key words: AB tubes, electronic tubes, superconductivity, transmission energy.

Alexander Bolonkin

2008-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

262

Generating Ultrafast Inhomogeneous Strain in Room-Temperature Multiferroics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Big Sky Learning Fun withGenepoolCrystals. | EMSL

263

Mechanistic Studies on Room Temperature Photoexcitation Effects on  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping the NanoscaleMechanical Behavior ofAPS ...Mixtures: the Source

264

LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and testing of Planar Single Cells. Substantial progress has been made on both characterizing thin films as well as developing methods to produce films on nanoporous substrates. The results of electrical conductivity measurements on ZrO{sub 2}:16%Sc nanocrystalline thin films under controlled oxygen partial pressure and temperature are presented. The experimental data have been interpreted using a defect model, which describes the interaction between Sc and oxygen vacancies resulting in the formation of donor - (Sc{sub Zr} - V{sub o} - e){sup x} and acceptor - (Sc{sub Zr}-h){sup x} levels. From this the electronic and ionic contribution to the electrical transport has been determined and correlated with the band structure. These results suggest that ZrO{sub 2}:16%Sc possesses higher electronic conductivity than ZrO{sub 2}:16%Y, which dominates the total conductivity in reducing atmospheres. This is an important result since it indicates that Sc-YSZ maybe useful in the anode regions of the cell. We have made important breakthroughs on depositing dense Ceria films on to porous LSM substrates. In previous studies we have found that in order to produce a surface which is smooth enough to coat with dense polymer precursor derived films, the required thickness of the colloidal film layer is determined by the maximum surface roughness. That is, if we wish to make 2 micron thick colloidal oxide layers, the roughness of the LSM surface can not exceed 2 microns. Currently, we are producing the composite CeO{sub 2}/LSM structures that can be coated with polymer precursor to produce 0.5 to 1.5 micron thickness dense YSZ films. In the next quarter, we will be testing SOFC's using these structures. YSZ/CeO{sub 2}/LSM composites have been formed by annealing at 800 C. Our studies show that the YSZ films are very dense with a 20 nm grain size. SOFC's using these composites are being fabricated and we expect to obtain cell data during the next quarter. As we reported in November 2000, we have had difficulties in making pore free films with larger areas that about 0.2cm{sup 2} which is due to problems in our clean room. Modifications have now been completed on the clean room and we should be approaching a class 100 in the film making area. This level of cleanliness is sufficient to obtain films without pores over areas up to 100cm{sup 2}.

Harlan U. Anderson; Wayne Huebner; Igor Kosacki

2001-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

265

Final Technical Report: SISGR: The Influence of Electrolyte Structure and Electrode Morphology on the Performance of Ionic-Liquid Based Supercapacitors: A Combined Experimental and Simulation Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Obtaining fundamental understanding and developing predictive modeling capabilities of electrochemical interfaces can significantly shorten the development cycles of electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). A notable improvement in EDLC performance has been achieved due to recent advances in understanding charge storage mechanisms, development of advanced nanostructured electrodes and electrochemically stable electrolytes. The development of new generation of EDLCs is intimately linked to that of nanostructured carbon materials which have large surface area, good adsorption/desorption properties, good electrical conductivity and are relatively inexpensive. To address these scientific challenges the efforts of an interdisciplinary team of modelers and experimentalists were combined to enhance our understanding of molecular level mechanisms controlling the performance of EDLCs comprised of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolytes and nanostructured carbon-based electrodes and to utilize these knowledge in the design of a new generation of materials and devices for this energy storage application. Specifically our team efforts included: atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, materials science and electrode/device assembly, and synthesis and characterization of RTIL electrolytes.

Bedrov, Dmitry [University of Utah] [University of Utah

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

266

Temperature Sensor Data Michael W. Bigrigg  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the room. Sensor networks can be used to identify larger trends in temperature which could be used to report energy usage, HVAC problems, computer failures based on high temperatures, and fire evacuation

Sadeh, Norman M.

267

Fluorescent temperature sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

Baker, Gary A [Los Alamos, NM; Baker, Sheila N [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

268

NATURAL CONVECTION IN ROOM GEOMETRIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Computer programs have been developed to numerically simulate natural convection in room geometries in two and three dimensions. The programs have been validated using published data from the literature, results from a full-scale experiment performed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and results from a small-scale experiment reported here. One of the computer programs has been used to study the influence of natural convection on the thermal performance of a single thermal zone in a direct-gain passive solar building. The results indicate that the building heating loads calculated by standard building energy analysis methods may be in error by as much as 50% as a result of their use of common assumptions regarding the convection processes which occur in an enclosure. It is also found that the convective heat transfer coefficients between the air and the enclosure surfaces can be substantially different from the values assumed in the standard building energy analysis methods, and can exhibit significant variations across a given surface.

Gadgil, A.; Bauman, Fred; Kammerud, R.; Ruberg, K.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

UTEPBioinformaticsProgram Bell Hall, Room 138  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UTEPBioinformaticsProgram Bell Hall, Room 138 The University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX 79968:www.bioinformatics.utep.edu UTEPBioinformatics BellHall,Room138 TheUniversityofTexasatElPaso 500W.UniversityAvenue ElPaso,TX79968 and Student Fitness Center with its two swimming pools underline the University's commitment to provide

Fuentes, Olac

270

Utrecht University's High Potential Programme Making Room  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Utrecht University's High Potential Programme Making Room for Talent 2 #12;Making Room for Talent Utrecht University has a worldwide reputation for excellence in research across a broad range. This is why in 2003 Utrecht University created the High Potential Programme, an incentive scheme which gives

Utrecht, Universiteit

271

Also Known As (Room or Building)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Room No. Also Known As (Room or Building) Hearing Assistance Type 702 InfraRed 704 InfraRed 706 Smith Building Adam Smith Building Adam Smith Building Adam Smith Building Adam Smith Building Adam Smith Building Adam Smith Building Adam Smith Building Adam Smith Building Adam Smith Building Adam

Mottram, Nigel

272

Compositions and methods useful for ionic liquid treatment of biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present invention provides for novel compositions and methods for recycling or recovering ionic liquid used in IL pretreated cellulose and/or lignocellulosic biomass (LBM).

Dibble, Dean C.; Cheng, Aurelia; George, Anthe

2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

273

Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries....

274

Ionic Liquids as Novel Engine Lubricants or Lubricant Additives...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Additives Ionic Liquids as Novel Engine Lubricants or Lubricant Additives Bench test results showed that compared with fully-formulated engine oils, selected low-viscosity...

275

Lipid extraction from microalgae using a single ionic liquid  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A one-step process for the lysis of microalgae cell walls and separation of the cellular lipids for use in biofuel production by utilizing a hydrophilic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium. The hydrophilic ionic liquid both lyses the microalgae cell walls and forms two immiscible layers, one of which consists of the lipid contents of the lysed cells. After mixture of the hydrophilic ionic liquid with a suspension of microalgae cells, gravity causes a hydrophobic lipid phase to move to a top phase where it is removed from the mixture and purified. The hydrophilic ionic liquid is recycled to lyse new microalgae suspensions.

Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

276

Aprotic Heterocyclic Anion Triazolide Ionic Liquids - A New Class of Ionic Liquid Anion Accessed by the Huisgen Cycloaddition Reaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The triazole core is a highly versatile heterocyclic ring which can be accessed easily with the Cu(I)-catalyzed Huisgen cycloaddition reaction. Herein we present the preparation of ionic liquids that incorporate a 1,2,3-triazolide anion. These ionic liquids were prepared by a facile procedure utilizing a base-labile pivaloylmethyl group at the 1-position, which can act as precursors to 1H- 4-substituted 1,2,3-triazole. These triazoles were then subsequently converted into ionic liquids after deprotonation using an appropriate ionic liquid cation hydroxide. The densities and thermal decompositions of these ionic liquids were measured. These novel ionic liquids have potential applications in gas separations and in metal-free catalysis.

Thompson, Robert L.; Damodaran, Krishnan; Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Los Alamos test-room results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fourteen Los Alamos test rooms have been operated for several years; this paper covers operation during the winters of 1980-81 and 1981-82. Extensive data have been taken and computer analyzed to determine performance parameters such as efficiency, solar savings fraction, and comfort index. The rooms are directly comparable because each has the same net coefficient and solar collection area and thus the same load collector ratio. Configurations include direct gain, unvented Trombe walls, water walls, phase change walls, and two sunspace geometries. Strategies for reducing heat loss include selective surfaces, two brands of superglazing windows, a heat pipe system, and convection-suppression baffles. Significant differences in both backup heat and comfort are observed among the various rooms. The results are useful, not only for direct room-to-room comparisons, but also to provide data for validation of computer simulation programs.

McFarland, R.D.; Balcomb, J.D.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF NANOPARTICLE-ENHANCED IONIC LIQUIDS HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental investigation was completed on nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids as an alternative to conventional organic based heat transfer fluids (HTFs). These nanoparticle-based HTFs have the potential to deliver higher thermal conductivity than the base fluid without a significant increase in viscosity at elevated temperatures. The effect of nanoparticle morphology and chemistry on thermophysical properties was examined. Whisker shaped nanomaterials were found to have the largest thermal conductivity temperature dependence and were also less likely to agglomerate in the base fluid than spherical shaped nanomaterials.

Fox, E.

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

279

Durable electrooptic devices comprising ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrolyte solutions for electrochromic devices such as rear view mirrors and displays with low leakage currents are prepared using inexpensive, low conductivity conductors. Preferred electrolytes include bifunctional redox dyes and molten salt solvents with enhanced stability toward ultraviolet radiation. The solvents include lithium or quaternary ammonium cations, and perfluorinated sulfonylimide anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF3SO3-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF3SO2)2N-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF3CF2SO2)2N-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF3SO2)3C-). Electroluminescent, electrochromic and photoelectrochromic devices with nanostructured electrodes include ionic liquids with bifunctional redox dyes.

Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Cronin, John P. (Tucson, AZ); Tonazzi, Juan C. L. (Tucson, AZ); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Sandia National Laboratories: solid-state ionics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1developmentturbineredox-activeNational Solar Thermal Testthermalstate ionics Joint

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature ionic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Ionic Power Systems Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429 Throttled (bot load)InternationalRenewable Energy6.3091865°,Power IncIonic

282

Temperature effects on the electronic conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The room-temperature electronic conductivity and temperature dependence of conductivity were measured for samples of carbon nanotubes of three types: pristine; functionalized with a nitrobenzene covalent functionalization, ...

Mascaro, Mark Daniel

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury P  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our long-term goal is to enable highly productive plant species to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic heavy metal pollutants as an environmentally friendly alternative to physical remediation methods. We have focused this phytoremediation research on soil and water-borne ionic and methylmercury. Mercury pollution is a serious world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wild-life populations. Methylmercury, produced by native bacteria at mercury-contaminated wetland sites, is a particularly serious problem due to its extreme toxicity and efficient biomagnification in the food chain. We engineered several plant species (e.g., Arabidopsis, tobacco, canola, yellow poplar, rice) to express the bacterial genes, merB and/or merA, under the control of plant regulatory sequences. These transgenic plants acquired remarkable properties for mercury remediation. (1) Transgenic plants expressing merB (organomercury lyase) extract methylmercury from their growth substrate and degrade it to less toxic ionic mercury. They grow on concentrations of methylmercury that kill normal plants and accumulate low levels of ionic mercury. (2) Transgenic plants expressing merA (mercuric ion reductase) extract and electrochemically reduce toxic, reactive ionic mercury to much less toxic and volatile metallic mercury. This metal transformation is driven by the powerful photosynthetic reducing capacity of higher plants that generates excess NADPH using solar energy. MerA plants grow vigorously on levels of ionic mercury that kill control plants. Plants expressing both merB and merA degrade high levels of methylmercury and volatilize metallic mercury. These properties were shown to be genetically stable for several generations in the two plant species examined. Our work demonstrates that native trees, shrubs, and grasses can be engineered to remediate the most abundant toxic mercury pollutants. Building on these data our working hypothesis for the next grant period is that transgenic plants expressing the bacterial merB and merA genes will (a) remove mercury from polluted soil and water and (b) prevent methylmercury from entering the food chain. Our specific aims center on understanding the mechanisms by which plants process the various forms of mercury and volatilize or transpire mercury vapor. This information will allow us to improve the design of our current phytoremediation strategies. As an alternative to volatilizing mercury, we are using several new genes to construct plants that will hyperaccumulate mercury in above-ground tissues for later harvest. The Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory have sites with significant levels of mercury contamination that could be cleaned by applying the scientific discoveries and new phytoremediation technologies described in this proposal. The knowledge and expertise gained by engineering plants to hyperaccumulate mercury can be applied to the remediation of other heavy metals pollutants (e.g., arsenic, cesium, cadmium, chromium, lead, strontium, technetium, uranium) found at several DOE facilities.

Meagher, Richard B.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Ionic Conductivity of Block Copolymer Electrolytes in the Vicinity of Order?Disorder and Order?Order Transitions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Order-order and order-disorder phase transitions in mixtures of poly(styrene-block-ethylene oxide) (SEO) copolymers and lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonimide) (LiTFSI), a common lithium salt used in polymer electrolytes, were studied using a combination of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), birefringence, and ac impedance spectroscopy. The SEO/LiTFSI mixtures exhibit lamellar, hexagonally packed cylinders, and gyroid microphases. The molecular weight of the blocks and the salt concentration was adjusted to obtain order-order and order-disorder transition temperatures within the available experimental window. The ionic conductivities of the mixtures, normalized by the ionic conductivity of a 20 kg/mol homopolymer PEO sample at the salt concentration and temperature of interest, were independent of temperature, in spite of the presence of the above-mentioned phase transitions.

Wanakule, Nisita S.; Panday, Ashoutosh; Mullin, Scott A.; Gann, Eliot; Hexemer, Alex; Balsara, Nitash P.; (UCB); (LBNL)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Development of a Universal Method Based on Ionic Liquids for Determination of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at room temperature. They have unique chemical and physical properties, including being air and moisture of Enantiomeric Compositions of Pharmaceutical Products Chieu D. Tran* Department of Chemistry, Marquette with either new anions and/or cations and determining © 2010 American Chemical Society Downloadedby

Reid, Scott A.

286

The Advanced Photon Source main control room  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory is a third-generation light source built in the 1990s. Like the machine itself, the Main Control Room (MCR) employs design concepts based on today`s requirements. The discussion will center on ideas used in the design of the MCR, the comfort of personnel using the design, and safety concerns integrated into the control room layout.

Pasky, S.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Training Room Equipment Instructions Projector and TV Display  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Training Room Equipment Instructions Projector and TV Display The control panel on the wall are connected to a training room computer and room is equipped with a keyboard, mouse and clicker. Connect USB

Crawford, T. Daniel

288

Method for measuring surface temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

Baker, Gary A. (Los Alamos, NM); Baker, Sheila N. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

289

Durable Electrooptic Devices Comprising Ionic Liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrolyte solutions for electrochromic devices such as rear view mirrors and displays with low leakage currents are prepared using inexpensive, low conductivity conductors. Preferred electrolytes include bifunctional redox dyes and molten salt solvents with enhanced stability toward ultraviolet radiation. The solvents include lithium or quaternary ammonium cations, and perfluorinated sulfonylimide anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Electroluminescent, electrochromic and photoelectrochromic devices with nanostructured electrodes include ionic liquids with bifunctional redox dyes. Some of the electrolyte solutions color to red when devices employing the solutions are powered, leading to red or neutral electrooptic devices.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Cronin, John P. (Tucson, AZ); Tonazzi, Juan C. L. (Tucson, AZ); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

290

Durable electrooptic devices comprising ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrolyte solutions for electrochromic devices such as rear view mirrors and displays with low leakage currents are prepared using inexpensive, low conductivity conductors. Preferred electrolytes include bifunctional redox dyes and molten salt solvents with enhanced stability toward ultraviolet radiation. The solvents include lithium or quaternary ammonium cations, and perfluorinated sulfonylimide anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Electroluminescent, electrochromic and photoelectrochromic devices with nanostructured electrodes include ionic liquids with bifunctional redox dyes.

Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM)

2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

291

Durable electrooptic devices comprising ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrolyte solutions for electrochromic devices such as rear view mirrors and displays with low leakage currents are prepared using inexpensive, low conductivity conductors. Preferred electrolytes include bifunctional redox dyes and molten salt solvents with enhanced stability toward ultraviolet radiation. The solvents include lithium or quaternary ammonium cations, and perfluorinated sulfonylimide anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Electroluminescent, electrochromic and photoelectrochromic devices with nanostructured electrodes include ionic liquids with bifunctional redox dyes. Some of the electrolyte solutions color to red when devices employing the solutions are powered, leading to red or neutral electrooptic devices.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Cronin; John P. (Tucson, AZ); Tonazzi, Juan C. L. (Tucson, AZ); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

292

EFFECTS OF GAMMA RADIATION ON ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF IONIC LIQUIDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electrochemical properties of ionic liquids (ILs) make them attractive for possible replacement of inorganic salts in high temperature molten salt electrochemical processing of nuclear fuel. To be a feasible replacement solvent, ILs need to be stable in moderate and high doses of radiation without adverse chemical and physical effects. Here, we exposed seven different ILs to a 1.2 MGy dose of gamma radiation to investigate their physical and chemical properties as they related to radiological stability. The azolium-based ILs experienced the greatest change in appearance, but these ILs were chemically more stable to gamma radiation than some of the other classes of ILs tested, due to the presence of aromatic electrons in the azolium ring. All the ILs exhibited a decrease in their conductivity and electrochemical window (at least 1.1 V), both of which could affect the utility of ILs in electrochemical processing. The concentration of the irradiation decomposition products was less than 3 mole %, with no impurities detectable using NMR techniques.

Visser, A; Nicholas Bridges, N; Thad Adams, T; John Mickalonis, J; Mark02 Williamson, M

2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

293

Tool Improves Electricity Demand Predictions to Make More Room...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Tool Improves Electricity Demand Predictions to Make More Room for Renewables Tool Improves Electricity Demand Predictions to Make More Room for Renewables October 3, 2011 -...

294

John S. Wright Forestry Center Room Sizes, Capacities, and Rates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Appendix 1 John S. Wright Forestry Center Room Sizes, Capacities, and Rates Room College the Wright Center contact: Marlene Mann, Administrative Assistant Forestry and Natural Resources Voice: 765

295

Field Test of Room-to-Room Distribution of Outside Air with Two Residential Ventilation Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uniform distribution of outside air is one way to ensure that residential dilution ventilation systems will provide a known amount of fresh air to all rooms.

Hendron, R.; Anderson, R.; Barley, D.; Rudd, A.; Townsend, A.; Hancock, E.

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1- Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?] ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC); Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; L.Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam; Leone, Stephen R.

2012-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

297

Structural simulations of nanomaterials self-assembled from ionic macrocycles.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent research at Sandia has discovered a new class of organic binary ionic solids with tunable optical, electronic, and photochemical properties. These nanomaterials, consisting of a novel class of organic binary ionic solids, are currently being developed at Sandia for applications in batteries, supercapacitors, and solar energy technologies. They are composed of self-assembled oligomeric arrays of very large anions and large cations, but their crucial internal arrangement is thus far unknown. This report describes (a) the development of a relevant model of nonconvex particles decorated with ions interacting through short-ranged Yukawa potentials, and (b) the results of initial Monte Carlo simulations of the self-assembly binary ionic solids.

van Swol, Frank B.; Medforth, Craig John (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Kinetics and Solvent Effects in the Synthesis of Ionic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in diesel fuel 19 and extractants in the recovery of ethanol and butanol for biofuel applications. 20 1.1. IL Background ILs have shown versatility in many fields of research and applications, so the question is what are ILs, and what makes ILs so... with ionic liquids. Chem. Commun. 2001, 2494-2495. 20. Fadeev, A. G.; Meagher, M. M., Opportunities for ionic liquids in recovery of biofuels. Chem. Commun. 2001, 295-296. 21. Lancaster, L., Organic reactivity in ionic liquids: some mechanistic insights...

Schleicher, Jay C.

2007-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

299

Ionic conductivity and dielectric relaxation in {gamma}-irradiated TlGaTe{sub 2} crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The switching effect, field and temperature dependences of the permittivity and conductivity of TlGaTe{sub 2} crystals subjected to various {gamma}-irradiation doses are studied. Under rather low electric fields, the phenomenon of threshold switching with an S-shaped current-voltage characteristic containing a portion with negative differential resistance is observed in the crystals. In the region of critical voltages, current and voltage oscillations and imposed modulation are observed. Possible mechanisms of switching, ionic conductivity, disorder, and electrical instability in TlGaTe{sub 2} crystals are discussed.

Sardarli, R. M., E-mail: sardarli@yahoo.com; Samedov, O. A.; Abdullayev, A. P. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Radiation Problems (Azerbaijan); Huseynov, E. K. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan); Salmanov, F. T.; Alieva, N. A.; Agaeva, R. Sh. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Radiation Problems (Azerbaijan)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

300

RoomZoner: Occupancy-based Room-Level Zoning of a Centralized HVAC System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RoomZoner: Occupancy-based Room-Level Zoning of a Centralized HVAC System Tamim Sookoor & Kamin. In this paper we present a CPS that enables a centralized Heating, Ventila- tion, and Air Conditioning (HVAC application due to residential HVAC systems ac- counting for over 15% of all U.S. energy usage, making it one

Whitehouse, Kamin

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature ionic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Method and apparatus using an active ionic liquid for algae biofuel harvest and extraction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to use of an active ionic liquid to dissolve algae cell walls. The ionic liquid is used to, in an energy efficient manner, dissolve and/or lyse an algae cell walls, which releases algae constituents used in the creation of energy, fuel, and/or cosmetic components. The ionic liquids include ionic salts having multiple charge centers, low, very low, and ultra low melting point ionic liquids, and combinations of ionic liquids. An algae treatment system is described, which processes wet algae in a lysing reactor, separates out algae constituent products, and optionally recovers the ionic liquid in an energy efficient manner.

Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

302

Tribological Properties of Ionic Liquids Lubricants Containing Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recently, there has been an increase in research in the application of ionic liquids containing nanoparticles as lubricants due to their properties such as thermally stability, non-volatility and non-flammability. The purpose of this thesis...

Lu, Wei

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

303

Molecular Dynamics Modeling of Ionic Liquids in Electrospray Propulsion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Lozano June 2010 SSL # 6-10 #12;#12;Molecular Dynamics Modeling of Ionic Liquids in Electrospray Propulsion Nanako Takahashi, Paulo C. Lozano June 2010 SSL # 6-10 This work is based on the unaltered text

304

Shear and Extensional Rheology of Cellulose/Ionic Liquid Solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this study, we characterize the shear and extensional rheology of dilute to semidilute solutions of cellulose in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIAc). In steady shear flow, the semidilute solutions ...

Haward, Simon J.

305

The radiation chemistry of ionic liquids: a review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ionic liquids have received increasing attention as media for radiochemical separations. Recent literature includes examinations of the efficiencies and mechanisms of the solvent extraction of lanthanides, actinides and fission products into ionic liquid solutions. For radiochemical applications, including as replacement solvents for nuclear fuel reprocessing, a thorough understanding of the radiation chemistry of ionic liquids will be required. Such an understanding can be achieved based upon a combination of steady-state radiolysis experiments coupled with post-irradiation product identification and pulse-radiolysis experiments to acquire kinetic information. These techniques allow for the elucidation of radiolytic mechanisms. This contribution reviews the current ionic liquid radiation chemistry literature as it affects separations, with these considerations in mind.

Bruce J. Mincher; James F. Wishart

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Membrane contactor assisted extraction/reaction process employing ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a functionalized membrane contactor extraction/reaction system and method for extracting target species from multi-phase solutions utilizing ionic liquids. One preferred embodiment of the invented method and system relates to an extraction/reaction system wherein the ionic liquid extraction solutions act as both extraction solutions and reaction mediums, and allow simultaneous separation/reactions not possible with prior art technology.

Lin, Yupo J. (Naperville, IL); Snyder, Seth W. (Lincolnwood, IL)

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

307

A counter-charge layer in generalized solvents framework for electrical double layers in neat and hybrid ionic liquid electrolytes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have received significant attention as electrolytes due to a number of attractive properties such as their wide electrochemical windows. Since electrical double layers (EDLs) are the cornerstone for the applications of RTILs in electrochemical systems such as supercapacitors, it is important to develop an understanding of the structure capacitance relationships for these systems. Here we present a theoretical framework termed counter-charge layer in generalized solvents (CGS) for describing the structure and capacitance of the EDLs in neat RTILs and in RTILs mixed with different mass fractions of organic solvents. Within this framework, an EDL is made up of a counter-charge layer exactly balancing the electrode charge, and of polarized generalized solvents (in the form of layers of ion pairs, each of which has a zero net charge but has a dipole moment the ion pairs thus can be considered as a generalized solvent) consisting of all RTILs inside the system except the counter-ions in the counter-charge layer, together with solvent molecules if present. Several key features of the EDLs that originate from the strong ion ion correlation in RTILs, e.g., overscreening of electrode charge and alternating layering of counter-ions and co-ions, are explicitly incorporated into this framework. We show that the dielectric screening in EDLs is governed predominately by the polarization of generalized solvents (or ion pairs) in the EDL, and the capacitance of an EDL can be related to its microstructure with few a priori assumptions or simplifications. We use this framework to understand two interesting phenomena observed in molecular dynamics simulations of EDLs in a neat IL of 1-butyl-3- methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4]) and in a mixture of [BMIM][BF4] and acetonitrile (ACN): (1) the capacitance of the EDLs in the [BMIM][BF4]/ACN mixture increases only slightly when the mass fraction of ACN in the mixture increases from zero to 50% although the dielectric constant of bulk ACN is more than two times higher than that of neat [BMIM][BF4]; (2) the capacitance of EDLs near negative electrodes (with BMIM+ ion as the counter-ion) is smaller than that near positive electrodes (with BF4as counter-ion) although the closest approaches of both ions to the electrode surface are nearly identical.

Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Feng, Guang [Clemson University; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Qiao, Rui [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Abstract. --Practical problems encountered in a number of advanced technology applications, particularly those related to energy conversion, are discussed. Refractory ionic compounds which are  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, particularly those related to energy conversion, are discussed. Refractory ionic compounds which are abundant, b) high temperature gas turbine blades, c) insulators in controlled thermonuclear reactors, and d how important it nance and vibronic spectra were first studied in these is to use the insight

Boyer, Edmond

309

Room Q data report: Test borehole data from April 1989 through November 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pore-pressure and fluid-flow tests were performed in 15 boreholes drilled into the bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation from within the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The tests measured fluid flow and pore pressure within the Salado. The boreholes were drilled into the previously undisturbed host rock around a proposed cylindrical test room, Room Q, located on the west side of the facility about 655 m below ground surface. The boreholes were about 23 m deep and ranged over 27.5 m of stratigraphy. They were completed and instrumented before excavation of Room Q. Tests were conducted in isolated zones at the end of each borehole. Three groups of 5 isolated zones extend above, below, and to the north of Room Q at increasing distances from the room axis. Measurements recorded before, during, and after the mining of the circular test room provided data about borehole closure, pressure, temperature, and brine seepage into the isolated zones. The effects of the circular excavation were recorded. This data report presents the data collected from the borehole test zones between April 25, 1989 and November 25, 1991. The report also describes test development, test equipment, and borehole drilling operations.

Jensen, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howard, C.L. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, R.L.; Peterson, T.P. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Operation Manual for the TA Instruments TGA Q-500: Temperature Range: Room Temperature 1000C  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sample Weight: 10 mg ­ 1 g Platinum Sample Pans are supplied by the lab. 1. If the TGA Q-500 experimental by EQUILIBRATE at 60°C. This will cool the furnace down without collecting data. The instrument is set to cool

Alpay, S. Pamir

311

Temperature Dependent Neutron Scattering Sections for Polyethylene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This note presents neutron scattering cross sections for polyethylene at 296 K, 77 K and 4 K derived from a new scattering kernel for neutron scattering off of hydrogen in polyethylene. The kernel was developed in ENDF-6 format as a set of S(alpha,beta) tables using the LEAPR module of the NJOY94 code package. The polyethylene density of states (from 0 to sub eV) adopted to derive the new kernel is presented. We compare our calculated room temperature total scattering cross sections and double differential cross sections at 232 meV at various angles with the available experimental data (at room temperature), and then extrapolate the calculations to lower temperatures (77K and 4K). The new temperature dependent scattering kernel gives a good quantitative fit to the available room temperature data and has a temperature dependence that is qualitatively consistent with thermodynamics.

Roger E. Hill; C. -Y. Liu

2003-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

312

Mixed Ionic and Electonic Conductors for Hydrogen Generation and Separation: A New Approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Composite mixed conductors comprising one electronic conducting phase, and one ionic conducting phase (MIECs) have been developed in this work. Such MIECs have applications in generating and separating hydrogen from hydrocarbon fuels at high process rates and high purities. The ionic conducting phase comprises of rare-earth doped ceria and the electronic conducting phase of rare-earth doped strontium titanate. These compositions are ideally suited for the hydrogen separation application. In the process studied in this project, steam at high temperatures is fed to one side of the MIEC membrane and hydrocarbon fuel or reformed hydrocarbon fuel to the other side of the membrane. Oxygen is transported from the steam side to the fuel side down the electrochemical potential gradient thereby enriching the steam side flow in hydrogen. The remnant water vapor can then be condensed to obtain high purity hydrogen. In this work we have shown that two-phase MIECs comprising rare-earth ceria as the ionic conductor and doped-strontium titanate as the electronic conductor are stable in the operating environment of the MIEC. Further, no adverse reaction products are formed when these phases are in contact at elevated temperatures. The composite MIECs have been characterized using a transient electrical conductivity relaxation technique to measure the oxygen chemical diffusivity and the surface exchange coefficient. Oxygen permeation and hydrogen generation rates have been measured under a range of process conditions and the results have been fit to a model which incorporates the oxygen chemical diffusivity and the surface exchange coefficient from the transient measurements.

Srikanth Gopalan

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

313

Covered Product Category: Room Air Conditioners  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including room air conditioners, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

314

Forensic Entomology & Taphonomy Smith Hall Room 125  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENTM 295T Forensic Entomology & Taphonomy Smith Hall Room 125 Monday 8:30 ­ 11:20 a.m. Fall and on the postmortem fate of human remains. Ralph Williams, Ph.D. D-ABFE Professor of Entomology Entomology, Smith B9

Ginzel, Matthew

315

Biology Advising Office Building 44, Room 135  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biology Advising Office Building 44, Room 135 Mailing Address: Biology Advising Office, University of Utah, 257 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0840 http://www.biology.utah.edu/undergraduate/advising.php Email: advising@biology.utah.edu Phone: (801) 581-6244 Fax: (801) 581-8571 Dr. David Gard, Director

Tipple, Brett

316

Advanced nuclear plant control room complex  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and /or Lubricant Additives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This ORNL-GM CRADA developed ionic liquids (ILs) as novel lubricants or oil additives for engine lubrication. A new group of oil-miscible ILs have been designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Mechanistic analysis attributes the superior lubricating performance of IL additives to their physical and chemical interactions with metallic surfaces. Working with a leading lubricant formulation company, the team has successfully developed a prototype low-viscosity engine oil using a phosphonium-phosphate IL as an anti-wear additive. Tribological bench tests of the IL-additized formulated oil showed 20-33% lower friction in mixed and elastohydrodynamic lubrication and 38-92% lower wear in boundary lubrication when compared with commercial Mobil 1 and Mobil Clean 5W-30 engine oils. High-temperature, high load (HTHL) full-size engine tests confirmed the excellent anti-wear performance for the IL-additized engine oil. Sequence VID engine dynamometer tests demonstrated an improved fuel economy by >2% for this IL-additized engine oil benchmarked against the Mobil 1 5W-30 oil. In addition, accelerated catalyst aging tests suggest that the IL additive may potentially have less adverse impact on three-way catalysts compared to the conventional ZDDP. Follow-on research is needed for further development and optimization of IL chemistry and oil formulation to fully meet ILSAC GF-5 specifications and further enhance the automotive engine efficiency and durability.

Qu, J. [ORNL; Viola, M. B. [General Motors Company

2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

318

Lactation Room Locations Building Location Room Details Contact Name Contact Info Instructions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, hot water heater, educational info Natalie Blais narnold@pitt.edu Contact Natalie to receive and request a key to this locked room. Public Health A712 Crabtree Hall table, chairs, storage cabinet, fridge

Jiang, Huiqiang

319

Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The degradation of the ionic pathway throughout the catalyst layer in proton exchange membrane fuel cells was studied under an accelerated stress test of catalyst support (potential hold at 1.2 V). Electrochemical behaviors of the cathode based on graphitic mesoporous carbon supported Pt catalyst were examined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Impedance data were plotted and expressed in the complex capacitance form to determine useful parameters in the transmission line model: the double-layer capacitance, peak frequency, and ionic resistance. Electrochemical surface area and hydrogen crossover current through the membrane were estimated from cyclic voltammogram, while cathode Faradaic resistance was compared with ionic resistance as a function of test time. It was observed that during an accelerated stress test of catalyst support, graphitic mesoporous carbon becomes hydrophilic which increases interfacial area between the ionomer and the catalyst up to 100 h. However, the ionic resistance in the catalyst layer drastically increases after 100 h with further carbon support oxidation. The underlying mechanism has been studied and it was found that significant degradation of ionic pathway throughout the catalyst layer due to catalyst support corrosion induces uneven hydration and mechanical stress in the ionomer.

Park, Seh Kyu; Shao, Yuyan; Wan, Haiying; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Towne, Silas A.; Rieke, Peter C.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

2011-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

320

Local public document room directory. Revision 7  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This directory (NUREG/BR-0088, Revision 7) lists local public document rooms (LPDRs) for commercial nuclear power plants with operating or possession-only licenses or under construction, plus the LPDRs for potential high-level radioactive waste repository sites, gaseous diffusion plants, certain fuel cycle facilities, certain low-level waste disposal facilities, and any temporary LPDRs established for the duration of licensing proceedings. In some instances, the LPDR libraries maintain document collections for more than one licensed facility. The library staff members listed are the persons most familiar with the LPDR collections. Reference librarians in the NRC Headquarters Public Document Room (PDR) are also available to assist the public in locating NRC documents.

NONE

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature ionic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Priority coding for control room alarms  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Indicating the priority of a spatially fixed, activated alarm tile on an alarm tile array by a shape coding at the tile, and preferably using the same shape coding wherever the same alarm condition is indicated elsewhere in the control room. The status of an alarm tile can change automatically or by operator acknowledgement, but tones and/or flashing cues continue to provide status information to the operator.

Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

NEPA Reading Room | National Nuclear Security Administration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recovery challengeMultiscale Subsurface Biogeochemical ModelingMySSTReading Room |

323

Laser sheet light flow visualization for evaluating room air flowsfrom Registers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Forced air heating and cooling systems and whole house ventilation systems deliver air to individual rooms in a house via supply registers located on walls ceilings or floors; and occasionally less straightforward locations like toe-kicks below cabinets. Ideally, the air velocity out of the registers combined with the turbulence of the flow, vectoring of air by register vanes and geometry of register placement combine to mix the supply air within the room. A particular issue that has been raised recently is the performance of multiple capacity and air flow HVAC systems. These systems vary the air flow rate through the distribution system depending on the system load, or if operating in a ventilation rather than a space conditioning mode. These systems have been developed to maximize equipment efficiency, however, the high efficiency ratings do not include any room mixing effects. At lower air flow rates, there is the possibility that room air will be poorly mixed, leading to thermal stratification and reduced comfort for occupants. This can lead to increased energy use as the occupants adjust the thermostat settings to compensate and parts of the conditioned space have higher envelope temperature differences than for the well mixed case. In addition, lack of comfort can be a barrier to market acceptance of these higher efficiency systems To investigate the effect on room mixing of reduced air flow rates requires the measurement of mixing of supply air with room air throughout the space to be conditioned. This is a particularly difficult exercise if we want to determine the transient performance of the space conditioning system. Full scale experiments can be done in special test chambers, but the spatial resolution required to fully examine the mixing problem is usually limited by the sheer number of thermal sensors required. Current full-scale laboratory testing is therefore severely limited in its resolution. As an alternative, we used a water-filled scale model of a room in which whole-field supply air mixing maps of two vertical planes were measured using a Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) measurement technique. Water marked with fluorescent dye was used to simulate the supply airflow; and the resulting concentrations within the water filled model show how the supply air mixes with the room air and are an analog for temperature (for thermal loads) or fresh air (for ventilation). In addition to performing experiments over a range of flow rates, we also changed register locations and examined the effects for both heating and cooling operation by changing the water density (simulating air density changes due to temperature changes) using dissolved salt.

Walker, Iain S.; Claret, Valerie; Smith, Brian

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Methods for separating medical isotopes using ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for extracting a radioisotope from an aqueous solution, the method comprising: a) intimately mixing a non-chelating ionic liquid with the aqueous solution to transfer at least a portion of said radioisotope to said non-chelating ionic liquid; and b) separating the non-chelating ionic liquid from the aqueous solution. In preferred embodiments, the method achieves an extraction efficiency of at least 80%, or a separation factor of at least 1.times.10.sup.4 when more than one radioisotope is included in the aqueous solution. In particular embodiments, the method is applied to the separation of medical isotopes pairs, such as Th from Ac (Th-229/Ac-225, Ac-227/Th-227), or Ra from Ac (Ac-225 and Ra-225, Ac-227 and Ra-223), or Ra from Th (Th-227 and Ra-223, Th-229 and Ra-225).

Luo, Huimin; Boll, Rose Ann; Bell, Jason Richard; Dai, Sheng

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

325

Release of DRAFT RFP Headquarters Reading Room Instructions/Guidelines  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Release of DRAFT RFP Headquarters Reading Room InstructionsGuidelines 1. Reading Room Points of Contact: 721 - 88, Mike Baehre, (202) 586-6575 89 - Close of Draft RFP, John...

326

Observation of Kerr nonlinearity inObservation of Kerr nonlinearity in micromicro--cavities at room temperaturecavities at room temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

phenomenanonlinear phenomena nn High quality factorHigh quality factor (Q)(Q) and smalland small mode volumesmode 2 2 xC Vn n QQP P P eff pumpeff pump total probepump probe probe = sfthermal µ 52/1 == s n R DD

327

HELP ROOMS AND PRIVATE TUTORING The following list of private tutors and departmental help rooms is intended as a resource for Columbia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 HELP ROOMS AND PRIVATE TUTORING The following list of private tutors and departmental help rooms is intended as a resource for Columbia students seeking extra academic help. This is all publicly available://www.columbia.edu/cu/chemistry/undergrad/tutors/index.html Help Room Schedule (Help Room Schedule (Help Room Schedule (Help Room Schedule (Spring 2013Spring 2013

Hone, James

328

INFLUENCE OF SUPPLY AIR TEMPERATURE ON UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION (UFAD) SYSTEM ENERGY PERFORMANCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

chilled water cooling coil, and supply fan. The fan is aspecify the VAV box cooling design supply air temperature (the underfloor supply plenum (thereby, reducing room cooling

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Characterization of an iodine-based ionic liquid ion source and studies on ion fragmentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrosprays are a well studied source of charged droplets and ions. A specific subclass is the ionic liquid ion source (ILIS), which produce ion beams from the electrostatically stressed meniscus of ionic liquids. ILIS ...

Fedkiw, Timothy Peter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Growth of flower-like CdSe dendrites from a Brnsted acidbase ionic liquid precursor{  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solution of water, ethanol and ionic liquid based on formic acid and N,N-dimethylformamide. Experimental, ethanol, an ionic liquid based on formic acid and N,N-dimethylformamide, cadmium chloride and sel

Utrecht, Universiteit

331

Conductive Filler Morphology Effect on Performance of Ionic Polymer Conductive Network Composite Actuators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Several generations of ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuators have been developed since 1992. It has been discovered that the composite electrodes which are composed of electronic and ionic conductors, have great ...

Liu, Sheng

332

E-Print Network 3.0 - alginate microparticle ionic Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Naturally Summary: , crosslinked'' indicates alginate was crosslinked with CaCl2, and uncrosslinked'' indicates ionic crosslinks... ), and alginate, a...

333

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Sc???Ce????Zr????O? ELECTROLYTE MATERIAL FOR INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scandia doped zirconia has been considered a candidate for electrolyte material in intermediate temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) due to its high ionic conductivity, chemical stability and good electrochemical performance. The aim...

Lim, Wendy

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

334

Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-Action Solvents for Efficient CO2 Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed a novel class of CO{sub 2} capture solvents, Reversible Ionic Liquids (RevILs), that offer high absorption capacity through two modes of capture: chemical reaction (chemisorption) and physical solubility (physisorption). These solvents are silicon containing alkaline compounds such as silylamines that form a liquid salt (ionic liquid) upon reaction with CO{sub 2}. Subsequently, modest elevations in temperature reverse the reaction and yield pure CO{sub 2} for sequestration. By incorporating Si in the molecules we have reduced the viscosity, thereby improving the mass transfer rates of CO{sub 2} absorption/desorption and decreasing the processing costs for pumping the solvent. In this project, we have made systematic changes to the structure of these compounds to improve several physical and thermodynamic properties important for CO{sub 2} capture. Through these structure-property paradigms, we have obtained a RevIL which requires only a third of the energy required by conventional aqueous MEA process for 90% CO{sub 2} capture.

Eckert, Charles; Liotta, Charles

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

335

Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-Action Solvents for Efficient CO{sub 2} Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed a novel class of CO{sub 2} capture solvents, Reversible Ionic Liquids (RevILs), that offer high absorption capacity through two modes of capture: chemical reaction (chemisorption) and physical solubility (physisorption). These solvents are silicon containing alkaline compounds such as silylamines that form a liquid salt (ionic liquid) upon reaction with CO{sub 2}. Subsequently, modest elevations in temperature reverse the reaction and yield pure CO{sub 2} for sequestration. By incorporating Si in the molecules we have reduced the viscosity, thereby improving the mass transfer rates of CO{sub 2} absorption/desorption and decreasing the processing costs for pumping the solvent. In this project, we have made systematic changes to the structure of these compounds to improve several physical and thermodynamic properties important for CO{sub 2} capture. Through these structure-property paradigms, we have obtained a RevIL which requires only a third of the energy required by conventional aqueous MEA process for 90% CO{sub 2} capture.

Charles Eckert; Charles Liotta

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

336

Xian Kong  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nano Res 1 Molecular dynamics for the charging behavior of nanostructured electric double layer capacitors containing room temperature ionic liquids Xian Kong 1,2 , Diannan Lu 2...

337

Media Room | National Nuclear Security Administration  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

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338

News Room | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Regionat Cornell BatteriesArchives Events/News Archives NewsRoomNews

339

OMEGA Control Room - Laboratory for Laser Energetics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Regionat Cornell BatteriesArchivesNuclearControl Room - Laboratory for

340

Carbon War Room | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORTOpenWendeGuo FengBoulder,ResearchInformation Sector ofWar Room

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature ionic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF NATURAL CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER OF IONIC LIQUID IN A RECTANGULAR ENCLOSURE HEATED FROM BELOW  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents an experimental study of natural convection heat transfer for an Ionic Liquid. The experiments were performed for 1-butyl-2, 3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([C{sub 4}mmim][NTf{sub 2}]) at a Raleigh number range of 1.26 x 10{sup 7} to 8.3 x 10{sup 7}. In addition to determining the convective heat transfer coefficients, this study also included experimental determination of thermophysical properties of [C{sub 4}mmim][NTf{sub 2}] such as, density, viscosity, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity. The results show that the density of [C{sub 4}mmim][NTf{sub 2}] varies from 1.437-1.396 g/cm{sup 3} within the temperature range of 10-50 C, the thermal conductivity varies from 0.105-0.116 W/m.K between a temperature of 10 to 60 C, the heat capacity varies from 1.015 J/g.K - 1.760 J/g.K within temperature range of 25-340 C and the viscosity varies from 18cp-243cp within temperature range 10-75 C. The results for density, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and viscosity were in close agreement with the values in the literature. Measured dimensionless Nusselt number was observed to be higher for the ionic liquid than that of DI water. This is expected as Nusselt number is the ratio of heat transfer by convection to conduction and the ionic liquid has lower thermal conductivity (approximately 18%) than DI water.

Fox, E.; Visser, A.; Bridges, N.

2011-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

342

High performance ultracapacitors with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to the use of carbon nanotubes and/or electrolyte structures in various electrochemical devices, such as ultracapacitors having an ionic liquid electrolyte. The carbon nanotubes are preferably aligned carbon nanotubes. Compared to randomly entangled carbon nanotubes, aligned carbon nanotubes can have better defined pore structures and higher specific surface areas.

Lu, Wen; Henry, Kent Douglas

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

343

Method for synthesis of titanium dioxide nanotubes using ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The invention is directed to a method for producing titanium dioxide nanotubes, the method comprising anodizing titanium metal in contact with an electrolytic medium containing an ionic liquid. The invention is also directed to the resulting titanium dioxide nanotubes, as well as devices incorporating the nanotubes, such as photovoltaic devices, hydrogen generation devices, and hydrogen detection devices.

Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng

2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

344

High performance batteries with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to lithium-ion batteries in general and more particularly to lithium-ion batteries based on aligned graphene ribbon anodes, V.sub.2O.sub.5 graphene ribbon composite cathodes, and ionic liquid electrolytes. The lithium-ion batteries have excellent performance metrics of cell voltages, energy densities, and power densities.

Lu, Wen (Littleton, CO)

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

345

Physically and chemically stable ionic liquid-infused textured surfaces showing excellent dynamic omniphobicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fluorinated and hydrophobic ionic liquid (IL), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide, effectively served as an advantageous lubricating liquid for the preparation of physically and chemically stable omniphobic surfaces based on slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces. Here, we used particulate microstructures as supports, prepared by the chemical vapor deposition of 1,3,5,7-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane and subsequent surface modification with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane. Confirmed by SEM and contact angle measurements, the resulting IL-infused microtextured surfaces are smooth and not only water but also various low surface tension liquids can easily slide off at low substrate tilt angles of <5°, even after exposure to high temperature, vacuum, and UV irradiation.

Miranda, Daniel F.; Urata, Chihiro; Masheder, Benjamin; Dunderdale, Gary J.; Hozumi, Atsushi, E-mail: a.hozumi@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98, Anagahora, Shimo-Shidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 463-8560 (Japan); Yagihashi, Makoto [Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute, Rokuban, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-0058 (Japan)

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

A Preliminary Study of Oxidation of Lignin from Rubber Wood to Vanillin in Ionic Liquid Medium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this study, lignin was oxidised to vanillin by means of oxygen in ionic liquid (1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulphate) medium. The parameters of the oxidation reaction that have been investigated were the following: concentration of oxygen (5, 10, 15 and 20 ft3 h-1), reaction time (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h) and reaction temperature (25, 40, 60, 80 and 100{\\deg}C). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet-visible analyses were used to characterise the product. The results revealed vanillin as the product obtained via the oxidation reaction. The optimum parameters of vanillin production were 20 ft3 h-1 of oxygen for 10 h at 100{\\deg}C. In conclusion, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulphate could be used as an oxidation reaction medium for the production of vanillin from rubber wood lignin.

Shamsuri, A A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Tunable ionic-conductivity of collapsed Sandia octahedral molecular sieves (SOMS).  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This proposal focuses on the synthesis and characterization of ''tunable'' perovskite ceramics with resulting controlled strength and temperature of dielectric constants and/or with ionic conductivity. Traditional methods of synthesis involve high temperature oxide mixing and baking. We developed a new methodology of synthesis involving the (1) low temperature hydrothermal synthesis of metastable porous phases with ''tuned'' stoichiometry, and element types, and then (2) low temperature heat treatment to build exact stoichiometry perovskites, with the desired vacancy concentrations. This flexible pathway can lead to compositions and structures not attainable by conventional methods. During the course of this program, a series of Na-Nb perovskites were synthesized by calcining and collapsing microporous Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieve (SOMS) phases. These materials were studied by various characterization techniques and conductivity measurements to better delineate stability and stoichiometry/bulk conductivity relationships. The conductivity can be altered by changing the concentration and type of the substituting framework cation(s) or by ion exchange of sodium. To date, the Na{sub 0.9}Mg{sub 0.1}Nb{sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} shows the best conductivity.

Pless, Jason; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Garino, Terry J.; Axness, Marlene

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Room air monitor for radioactive aerosols  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-preamplifier combination. 2 figs.

Balmer, D.K.; Tyree, W.H.

1987-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

349

A holistic investigation of complexity sources in nuclear power plant control rooms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The nuclear power community in the United States is moving to modernize aging power plant control rooms as well as develop control rooms for new reactors. New generation control rooms, along with modernized control rooms, ...

Sasangohar, Farzan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

The influence of hydrogen gas exposure and low temperature on the tribological characteristics of ti-6al-4v  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tests. Each group was tested at two normal loads, 10N and 20N, at the same linear speed. Group 1 was unexposed and tested at room temperature, Group 2 was unexposed and tested at low temperature, Group 3 was exposed and tested at room temperature...

Gola, Ryan Travis

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

351

How the Number and Placement of Sensors Controlling Room Air Distribution Systems Affect Energy Use and Comfort  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, ISRACVE, ASHRAE, 1993 Li, Y., M. Sandberg, and L. Fuchs. ?Vertical temperature profiles in rooms ventilated by displacement: full-scale measurement and nodal modeling.? Indoor Air, 1992. Vol. 2, pp. 225-243. Linden, P.F., G.F. Lane-Serff,, and D...

Wang, D.; Arens, E.; Webster, T.; Shi, M.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Versatile, fuel-powered active gas mask or room air purifier Paul D. Ronney, Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature (250°C ­ 400°C), a catalyst is required. Breakdown products of chemical-agent molecules eitherVersatile, fuel-powered active gas mask or room air purifier Paul D. Ronney, Department Number: CBDIF-2006-PRO01 (Individual Protection) Motivation and approach Practically all chemical

353

Carbon films produced from ionic liquid carbon precursors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is directed to a method for producing a film of porous carbon, the method comprising carbonizing a film of an ionic liquid, wherein the ionic liquid has the general formula (X.sup.+a).sub.x(Y.sup.-b).sub.y, wherein the variables a and b are, independently, non-zero integers, and the subscript variables x and y are, independently, non-zero integers, such that ax=by, and at least one of X.sup.+ and Y.sup.- possesses at least one carbon-nitrogen unsaturated bond. The invention is also directed to a composition comprising a porous carbon film possessing a nitrogen content of at least 10 atom %.

Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Lee, Je Seung

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

354

Mixed ionic and electronic conducting ceramic membranes for hydrocarbon processing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to mixed phase materials for the preparation of catalytic membranes which exhibit ionic and electronic conduction and which exhibit improved mechanical strength compared to single phase ionic and electronic conducting materials. The mixed phase materials are useful for forming gas impermeable membranes either as dense ceramic membranes or as dense thin films coated onto porous substrates. The membranes and materials of this invention are useful in catalytic membrane reactors in a variety of applications including synthesis gas production. One or more crystalline second phases are present in the mixed phase material at a level sufficient to enhance the mechanical strength of the mixture to provide membranes for practical application in CMRs.

Van Calcar, Pamela (Superior, CO); Mackay, Richard (Lafayette, CO); Sammells, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Extraordinarily Efficient Conduction in a Redox-Active Ionic Liquid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Iodine added to iodide-based ionic liquids leads to extraordinarily efficient charge transport, vastly exceeding that expected for such viscous systems. Using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, in conjunction with dc conductivity, diffusivity and viscosity measurements we unravel the conductivity pathways in 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide melts. This study presents evidence of the Grotthuss mechanism as a significant contributor to the conductivity, and provides new insights into ion pairing processes as well as the formation of polyiodides. The terahertz and transport results are reunited in a model providing a quantitative description of the conduction by physical diffusion and the Grotthuss bond-exchange process. These novel results are important for the fundamental understanding of conduction in molten salts and for applications where ionic liquids are used as charge-transporting media such as in batteries and dye-sensitized solar cells.

Verner K. Thorsmølle; Guido Rothenberger; Daniel Topgaard; Jan C. Brauer; Dai-Bin Kuang; Shaik M. Zakeeruddin; Björn Lindman; Michael Grätzel; Jacques-E. Moser

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

356

Ionic liquids for separation of olefin-paraffin mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is directed to an ionic liquid comprising (i) a cationic portion containing a complex of a silver (I) ion and one or more neutral ligands selected from organoamides, organoamines, olefins, and organonitriles, and (ii) an anionic portion having the chemical formula ##STR00001## wherein m and n are independently 0 or an integer of 1 or above, and p is 0 or 1, provided that when p is 0, the group --N--SO.sub.2--(CF.sub.2).sub.nCF.sub.3 subtended by p is replaced with an oxide atom connected to the shown sulfur atom. The invention is also directed to a method for separating an olefin from an olefin-paraffin mixture by passing the mixture through a layer of the ionic liquid described above.

Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Huang, Jing-Fang

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

357

Ionic liquids for separation of olefin-paraffin mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is directed to an ionic liquid comprising (i) a cationic portion containing a complex of a silver (I) ion and one or more neutral ligands selected from organoamides, organoamines, olefins, and organonitriles, and (ii) an anionic portion having the chemical formula ##STR00001## wherein m and n are independently 0 or an integer of 1 or above, and p is 0 or 1, provided that when p is 0, the group --N--SO.sub.2--(CF.sub.2).sub.nCF.sub.3 subtended by p is replaced with an oxide atom connected to the shown sulfur atom. The invention is also directed to a method for separating an olefin from an olefin-paraffin mixture by passing the mixture through a layer of the ionic liquid described above.

Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Huang, Jing-Fang

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

358

ESM of Ionic and Electrochemical Phenomena on the Nanoscale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Operation of energy storage and conversion devices is ultimately controlled by series of intertwined ionic and electronic transport processes and electrochemical reactions at surfaces and interfaces, strongly mediated by strain and mechanical processes [1-4]. In a typical fuel cell, these include chemical species transport in porous cathode and anode materials, gas-solid electrochemical reactions at grains and triple-phase boundaries (TPBs), ionic and electronic flows in multicomponent electrodes, and chemical and electronic potential drops at internal interfaces in electrodes and electrolytes. All these phenomena are sensitively affected by the microstructure of materials from device level to the atomic scales as illustrated in Fig. 1. Similar spectrum of length scales and phenomena underpin operation of other energy systems including primary and secondary batteries, as well as hybrid systems such flow and metal-air/water batteries.

Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Kumar, Amit [Pennsylvania State University; Balke, Nina [ORNL; McCorkle, Morgan L [ORNL; Guo, Senli [ORNL; Arruda, Thomas M [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Non-Fickian ionic diffusion across high-concentration gradients  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A non-Fickian physico-chemical model for electrolyte transport in high-ionic strength systems is developed and tested with laboratory experiments with copper sulfate as an example electrolyte. The new model is based on irreversible thermodynamics and uses measured mutual diffusion coefficients, varying with concentration. Compared to a traditional Fickian model, the new model predicts less diffusion and asymmetric diffusion profiles. Laboratory experiments show diffusion rates even smaller than those predicted by our non-Fickian model, suggesting that there are additional, unaccounted for processes retarding diffusion. Ionic diffusion rates maybe a limiting factor in transporting salts whose effect on fluid density will in turn significantly affect the flow regime. These findings have important implications for understanding and predicting solute transport in geologic settings where dense, saline solutions occur. 30 refs., 5 figs.

Carey, A.E.; Wheatcraft, S.W. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)] [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Glass, R.J. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others] [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States); and others

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

MINOR ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS USING ION EXCHANGERS OR IONIC LIQUIDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project seeks to determine if (1) inorganic-based ion exchange materials or (2) electrochemical methods in ionic liquids can be exploited to provide effective Am and Cm separations. Specifically, we seek to understand the fundamental structural and chemical factors responsible for the selectivity of inorganic-based ion-exchange materials for actinide and lanthanide ions. Furthermore, we seek to determine whether ionic liquids can serve as the electrolyte that would enable formation of higher oxidation states of Am and other actinides. Experiments indicated that pH, presence of complexants and Am oxidation state exhibit significant influence on the uptake of actinides and lanthanides by layered sodium titanate and hybrid zirconium and tin phosphonate ion exchangers. The affinity of the ion exchangers increased with increasing pH. Greater selectivity among Ln(III) ions with sodium titanate materials occurs at a pH close to the isoelectric potential of the ion exchanger. The addition of DTPA decreased uptake of Am and Ln, whereas the addition of TPEN generally increases uptake of Am and Ln ions by sodium titanate. Testing confirmed two different methods for producing Am(IV) by oxidation of Am(III) in ionic liquids (ILs). Experimental results suggest that the unique coordination environment of ionic liquids inhibits the direct electrochemical oxidation of Am(III). The non-coordinating environment increases the oxidation potential to a higher value, while making it difficult to remove the inner coordination of water. Both confirmed cases of Am(IV) were from the in-situ formation of strong chemical oxidizers.

Hobbs, D.; Visser, A.; Bridges, N.

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature ionic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Integrated Temperature and Humidity Control: A Unique Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as in Singapore. The results presented herein are from one of these sites, consisting of two adjacent unoccupied guest rooms in a hotel, each equipped with chilled- water fan coil units. The two, virtually identical adja- cent rooms were selected primarily... for comparing the operation and performance of the ITHC with that of a dry-bulb temperature controller (DBTC) under the exact same conditions (solar, outdoor temperature and humidity, internal loads, etc.). To obtain com- parative results, the fan coil unit...

Shah, D. J.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

An analysis of the impact of datacenter temperature on energy efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The optimal air temperature for datacenters is one of ways to improve energy efficiency of datacenter cooling systems. Many datacenter owners have been interested in raising the room temperature as a quick and simple method ...

Lee, Heechang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

DEVELOPMENT AND SELECTION OF IONIC LIQUID ELECTROLYTES FOR HYDROXIDE CONDUCTING POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE MEMBRANES IN ALKALINE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) operation is currently limited to specialty applications such as low temperatures and pure H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} due to the corrosive nature of the electrolyte and formation of carbonates. AFCs are the cheapest and potentially most efficient (approaching 70%) fuel cells. The fact that non-Pt catalysts can be used, makes them an ideal low cost alternative for power production. The anode and cathode are separated by and solid electrolyte or alkaline porous media saturated with KOH. However, CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere or fuel feed severely poisons the electrolyte by forming insoluble carbonates. The corrosivity of KOH (electrolyte) limits operating temperatures to no more than 80?C. This chapter examines the development of ionic liquids electrolytes that are less corrosive, have higher operating temperatures, do not chemically bond to CO{sub 2}, and enable alternative fuels. Work is detailed on the IL selection and characterization as well as casting methods within the polybenzimidazole based solid membrane. This approach is novel as it targets the root of the problem (the electrolyte) unlike other current work in alkaline fuel cells which focus on making the fuel cell components more durable.

Fox, E.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Aerodynamics simulation of operating rooms N. El Gharbi*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aerodynamics simulation of operating rooms N. El Gharbi* A. Benzaoui*R. Bennacer** * Faculty. Keywords: Operating room, aerodynamics simulation, turbulent model, comfort, Airflow, Indoor air quality distribution scheme. To ensure these optimal conditions, a study of the aerodynamics flow in a conditioned

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

365

Exploring former interaction qualities for tomorrow's control room design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.g. in power plants or industrial production plants. One essential task in operating control rooms consists by virtual control elements that are operated through desktop computers. However this kind of interaction between power and reality as stated by Jacob et al. (2008): While digitization gave control rooms more

Reiterer, Harald

366

INVENTORY FOR ELGAR COURT FLAT NO. BLOCK NO. ROOM NO.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INVENTORY FOR ELGAR COURT FLAT NO. BLOCK NO. ROOM NO. Staff on the Vale Village try to ensure and cleaned to a high standard. Please make sure that you complete this inventory and note down anything which seat x 1 Toilet roll holder x 1 INVENTORY FOR SHACKLETON FLAT NO: BLOCK NO: ROOM NO: NAME: TELEPHONE

Birmingham, University of

367

INVENTORY FOR ELGAR COURT FLAT NO. BLOCK NO. ROOM NO.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INVENTORY FOR ELGAR COURT FLAT NO. BLOCK NO. ROOM NO. Staff on the Vale Village try to ensure and cleaned to a high standard. Please make sure that you complete this inventory and note down anything which Toilet seat x 1 Toilet roll holder x 1 INVENTORY FOR MASON FLAT NO: BLOCK NO: ROOM NO: NAME: TELEPHONE

Birmingham, University of

368

INVENTORY FOR ELGAR COURT FLAT NO. BLOCK NO. ROOM NO.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INVENTORY FOR ELGAR COURT FLAT NO. BLOCK NO. ROOM NO. Staff on the Vale Village try to ensure and cleaned to a high standard. Please make sure that you complete this inventory and note down anything which holder x 1 INVENTORY FOR TENNIS COURT BLOCK NO: FLAT NO: ROOM NO: NAME: TELEPHONE EXT. NO: #12;How

Birmingham, University of

369

INVENTORY FOR ELGAR COURT FLAT NO. BLOCK NO. ROOM NO.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INVENTORY FOR ELGAR COURT FLAT NO. BLOCK NO. ROOM NO. Staff on the Vale Village try to ensure and cleaned to a high standard. Please make sure that you complete this inventory and note down anything which Toilet seat x 1 Toilet roll holder x 1 INVENTORY FOR ELGAR COURT FLAT NO: BLOCK NO: ROOM NO: NAME

Birmingham, University of

370

INVENTORY FOR ELGAR COURT FLAT NO. BLOCK NO. ROOM NO.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INVENTORY FOR ELGAR COURT FLAT NO. BLOCK NO. ROOM NO. Staff on the Vale Village try to ensure and cleaned to a high standard. Please make sure that you complete this inventory and note down anything which rail x 1 INVENTORY FOR MAPLE BANK FLAT NO: BLOCK NO: ROOM NO: NAME: TELEPHONE EXT. NO: #12;How

Birmingham, University of

371

Housing & Residential Services Room and Board Rates 20112012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Housing & Residential Services Room and Board Rates 2011­2012 Campus housing offers a variety, please view the Housing & Residential Services website at: housing.iit.edu. McCormick Student Village to participate in the Residential 5 meal plan. Winter Break is included in MSV, Gunsaulus Hall and SSV. DAS room

Heller, Barbara

372

2012 MOLECULAR AND IONIC CLUSTERS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JANUARY 29 - FEBRUARY 3, 2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Gordon Research Conference on 'Molecular and Ionic Clusters' focuses on clusters, which are the initial molecular species found in gases when condensation begins to occur. Condensation can take place solely from molecules interacting with each other, mostly at low temperatures, or when molecules condense around charged particles (electrons, protons, metal cations, molecular ions), producing ion molecule clusters. These clusters provide models for solvation, allow a pristine look at geometric as well as electronic structures of molecular complexes or matter in general, their interaction with radiation, their reactivity, their thermodynamic properties and, in particular, the related dynamics. This conference focuses on new ways to make clusters composed of different kinds of molecules, new experimental techniques to investigate the properties of the clusters and new theoretical methods with which to calculate the structures, dynamical motions and energetics of the clusters. Some of the main experimental methods employed include molecular beams, mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy (from infrared to XUV; in the frequency as well as the time domain) and photoelectron spectroscopy. Techniques include laser absorption spectroscopy, laser induced fluorescence, resonance enhanced photoionization, mass-selected photodissociation, photofragment imaging, ZEKE photoelectron spectroscopy, etc. From the theoretical side, this conference highlights work on potential surfaces and measurable properties of the clusters. The close ties between experiment, theory and computation have been a hallmark of the Gordon Research Conference on Molecular and Ionic Clusters. In the 2012 meeting, we plan to have sessions that will focus on topics including: (1) The use of cluster studies to probe fundamental phenomena; (2) Finite size effects on structure and thermodynamics; (3) Intermolecular forces and cooperative effects; (4) Molecular clusters as models for solvation; and (5) Studies of clusters at XUV light sources.

Anne McCoy

2012-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

373

E-Print Network 3.0 - antimony oxide ionic Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

results for: antimony oxide ionic Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 IOP PUBLISHING NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology 20 (2009) 264003 (7pp) doi:10.10880957-44842026264003 Summary:...

374

E-Print Network 3.0 - ammonium ionic liquids Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atomic Data Center (CFADC) Collection: Plasma Physics and Fusion 2 "Control of protein folding and misfolding in ionic liquid media, and a conjecture on early earth biology"....

375

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous ionic conductivity Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Science 25 ORNL 2010-G00986jcn UT-B ID 200902213 Summary: . Advantages Superior thermal stability over other protic ionic liquids Proton conducting mechanism does......

376

About Influence of Ionic Beams of Metals of IVB-VIB Groups on Structure and Properties of a Target at Various Modes of Irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A complex of special properties of materials and a threshold of their working temperatures which is frequently limited 500-550 degree sign C define the level of modern technological development and, first of all, for nuclear-industrial plants. The alloys on the basis of iron are the most widespread kind of constructional materials, and therefore an increase of their special properties (high-temperature strength, corrosion stability, durability and other characteristics) is of great value. The ionic beams with a low energy (300-1,500 eV) which can change the structure and the properties of a target, in particular iron and its alloys were used for the solution of these problems in the present work. In this work theoretical and experimental results of the research of the process of impact interaction of the ionic beams with iron are also given. The properties of a iron surface with the help of modern methods of physical and chemical analyse are investigated. The opportunities to produce new surface properties of iron using the ionic beams are shown. On the basis of the results obtained the supplementary work directions are analyzed.

Kurbatova, E. I.; Klimanov, V. A.; Ksenofontov, A. I.; Fridlyander, I. N. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, 31 Kashirskoe shosse, Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation)

2006-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

377

Fabrication of fiber supported ionic liquids and methods of use  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

One or more embodiments relates to the production of a fabricated fiber having an asymmetric polymer network and having an immobilized liquid such as an ionic liquid within the pores of the polymer network. The process produces the fabricated fiber in a dry-wet spinning process using a homogenous dope solution, providing significant advantage over current fabrication methods for liquid-supporting polymers. The fabricated fibers may be effectively utilized for the separation of a chemical species from a mixture based on the selection of the polymer, the liquid, and the solvent utilized in the dope.

Luebke, David R; Wickramanayake, Shan

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

378

Regenerating cellulose from ionic liquids for an accelerated enzymatic hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The efficient conversion of lignocellulosic materials into fuel ethanol has become a research priority in producing affordable and renewable energy. The pretreatment of lignocelluloses is known to be key to the fast enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Recently, certain ionic liquids (ILs)were found capable of dissolving more than 10 wt% cellulose. Preliminary investigations [Dadi, A.P., Varanasi, S., Schall, C.A., 2006. Enhancement of cellulose saccharification kinetics using an ionic liquid pretreatment step. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 95, 904 910; Liu, L., Chen, H., 2006. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose materials treated with ionic liquid [BMIM]Cl. Chin. Sci. Bull. 51, 2432 2436; Dadi, A.P., Schall, C.A., Varanasi, S., 2007. Mitigation of cellulose recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis by ionic liquid pretreatment. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 137 140, 407 421] suggest that celluloses regenerated from IL solutions are subject to faster saccharification than untreated substrates. These encouraging results offer the possibility of using ILs as alternative and nonvolatile solvents for cellulose pretreatment. However, these studies are limited to two chloride-based ILs: (a) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl), which is a corrosive, toxic and extremely hygroscopic solid (m.p. 70 C), and (b) 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([AMIM]Cl), which is viscous and has a reactive side-chain. Therefore, more in-depth research involving other ILs is much needed to explore this promising pretreatment route. For this reason, we studied a number of chloride- and acetate-based ILs for cellulose regeneration, including several ILs newly developed in our laboratory. This will enable us to select inexpensive, efficient and environmentally benign solvents for processing cellulosic biomass. Our data confirm that all regenerated celluloses are less crystalline (58 75% lower) and more accessible to cellulase (>2 times) than untreated substrates. As a result, regenerated Avicel cellulose, filter paper and cottonwere hydrolyzed 2 10 times faster than the respective untreated celluloses. A complete hydrolysis of Avicel cellulose could be achieved in 6 h given the Trichoderma reesei cellulase/substrate ratio (w/w) of 3:20 at 50 C. In addition,we observed that cellulase is more thermally stable (up to 60 C) in the presence of regenerated cellulose. Furthermore, our systematic studies suggest that the presence of various ILs during the hydrolysis induced different degrees of cellulase inactivation. Therefore, a thorough removal of IL residues after cellulose regeneration is highly recommended, and a systematic investigation on this subject is much needed.

Zhao, Hua [Savannah State University; Jones, Cecil L [Savannah State University; Baker, Gary A [ORNL; Xia, Shuqian [Tianjin University, Tianjin, China; Olubajo, Olarongbe [Savannah State University; Person, Vernecia [Savannah State University

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Hydrogen Fluoride Capture by Imidazolium Acetate Ionic Liquid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extraction of hydrofluoric acid (HF) from oils is a drastically important problem in petroleum industry, since HF causes quick corrosion of pipe lines and brings severe health problems to humanity. Some ionic liquids (ILs) constitute promising scavenger agents thanks to strong binding to polar compounds and tunability. PM7-MD simulations and hybrid density functional theory are employed here to consider HF capture ability of ILs. Discussing the effects and impacts of the cation and the anion separately and together, I will evaluate performance of imidazolium acetate and outline systematic search guidelines for efficient adsorption and extraction of HF.

Chaban, Vitaly

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricant Additives for Next-Generation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickrinformation for andFuel-Efficient Engines | ornl.gov Ionic

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature ionic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

AGING EFFECTS ON THE PROPERTIES OF IMIDAZOLIUM, QUATERNARY AMMONIUM, PYRIDINIUM AND PYRROLIDINIUM-BASED IONIC LIQUIDS USED IN FUEL AND ENERGY PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ionic liquids are often cited for their excellent thermal stability, a key property for their use as solvents and in the chemical processing of biofuels. However, there has been little supporting data on the long term aging effect of temperature on these materials. Imizadolium, quaternary ammonium, pyridinium, and pyrrolidnium-based ionic liquids with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide anions were aged for 2520 hours (15 weeks) at 200?C in air to determine the effects of an oxidizing environment on their chemical structure and thermal stability over time. It was found that the minor changes in the cation chemistry could greatly affect the properties of the ILs over time.

Fox, E.

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

382

Pressure &Pressure & TemperatureTemperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer to measure air temperature.measure air temperature.measure air temperature.measure air temperature

California at Santa Cruz, University of

383

Influence of magnetic field on laser-produced barium plasmas: Spectral and dynamic behaviour of neutral and ionic species  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The expansion dynamics and spectral behaviour of plasma produced by a Nd:YAG laser (??=?1.064??m, pulse width: 8?ns) from barium target and expanding in 0.45?T transverse magnetic field in vacuum (10{sup ?5?}Torr pressure) are investigated using time-of-flight optical emission spectroscopy. The experiments are carried out at various laser fluences from 12 to 31?J/cm{sup 2}. The temporal profiles of neutral (Ba I 553.5 and 577.7?nm) lines are temporally broadened, while that of ionic (Ba II 413.0 and 455.4?nm) lines show strong confinement in the presence of a magnetic field. In the absence of magnetic field, the temporal profile of Ba I 553.5?nm is exactly reproduced by fitting with two Shifted Maxwell Boltzmann (SMB) Distribution components, while in the presence of a magnetic field the profile could only be fitted with three components. The field enhanced and field induced SMB components of neutral profile are correlated with populations of ground state, metastable states, and long-lived Rydberg states present in the barium plasma, while SMB components of ionic lines are explained on the basis of the presence of super-elastic collisions among the excited species in the plasma. The spatial variation of electron temperature and temporal variation of electron density are deduced and correlated to the different collisional processes in the barium plasma. The ionic profiles show efficient confinement in the presence of a magnetic field at higher fluences.

Raju, Makaraju Srinivasa; Gopinath, Pramod, E-mail: pramod@iist.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 695547 (India); Singh, R. K.; Kumar, Ajai [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

384

Using Ionic Liquids in Selective Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the Final Report of the five-year project Using Ionic Liquids in Selective Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes (DE-FC36-04GO14276, July 1, 2004- June 30, 2009), in which we present our major accomplishments with detailed descriptions of our experimental and theoretical efforts. Upon the successful conduction of this project, we have followed our proposed breakdown work structure completing most of the technical tasks. Finally, we have developed and demonstrated several optimized homogenously catalytic methane conversion systems involving applications of novel ionic liquids, which present much more superior performance than the Catalytica system (the best-to-date system) in terms of three times higher reaction rates and longer catalysts lifetime and much stronger resistance to water deactivation. We have developed in-depth mechanistic understandings on the complicated chemistry involved in homogenously catalytic methane oxidation as well as developed the unique yet effective experimental protocols (reactors, analytical tools and screening methodologies) for achieving a highly efficient yet economically feasible and environmentally friendly catalytic methane conversion system. The most important findings have been published, patented as well as reported to DOE in this Final Report and our 20 Quarterly Reports.

Tang, Yongchun; Periana, Roy; Chen, Weiqun; van Duin, Adri; Nielsen, Robert; Shuler, Patrick; Ma, Qisheng; Blanco, Mario; Li, Zaiwei; Oxgaard, Jonas; Cheng, Jihong; Cheung, Sam; Pudar, Sanja

2009-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

385

Interactions of Ionic Liquids with Uranium and its Bioreduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigated the influence of ionic liquids (ILs) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM]{sup +}[PF{sub 6}]{sup -}, N-ethylpyridinium trifluoroacetate [EtPy]{sup +}[CF{sub 3}COO]{sup -} and N-ethylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [Et-Py]{sup +}[BF{sub 4}]{sup -} on uranium reduction by Clostridium sp. under anaerobic conditions. Potentiometric titration, UV-vis spectrophotometry, LC-MS and EXAFS analyses showed monodentate complexation between uranyl and BF{sub 4}{sup -} PF{sub 6}{sup -}; and bidentate complexation with CF{sub 3}COO{sup -}. Ionic liquids affected the growth of Clostridium sp. as evidenced by decrease in optical density, changes in pH, gas production, and the extent of U(VI) reduction and precipitation of U(IV) from solution. Reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) was observed in the presence of [EtPy][BF{sub 4}] and [BMIM][PF{sub 6}] but not with [EtPy][CF{sub 3}COO].

Zhang, C.; Francis, A.

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

386

Modeling control room crews for accident sequence analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This report describes a systems-based operating crew model designed to simulate the behavior of an nuclear power plant control room crew during an accident scenario. This model can lead to an improved treatment of potential ...

Huang, Y. (Yuhao)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

FOR ASSESSING ROOM ACOUSTICS Jasper van Dorp Schuitman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AUDITORY MODELLING FOR ASSESSING ROOM ACOUSTICS Jasper van Dorp Schuitman #12;Auditory modelling Promoties, in het openbaar te verdedigen op donderdag 15 september 2011 om 10:00 uur door Jasper VAN DORP

388

Innis Library Directory Kenneth Taylor Hall (KTH), Room 108  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Innis Library Directory Kenneth Taylor Hall (KTH), Room 108 We may be small, but we've got it all, Directories, Encyclopedias, etc.] New Books Periodicals [Magazines & Newspapers] Bookstacks [A-HD] Group

Hitchcock, Adam P.

389

Sheets (most beds are Twin XL, room assignment will specify)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and DVD player Desk and desk chair Waste basket and recycle bin Room Décor Posters and pictures Dry Extension cords and multi-plug adapters Halogen lamps All pets except your fish (10 gal tank or less

Cina, Jeff

390

Clean Room Challenge: Nanoscientist Quiz 1 | GE Global Research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nanoscientist Quiz 1 Clean Room Challenge: Nanoscientist Quiz 1 Ron Olson 2011.03.23 Hello everybody As you know, I have been sharing with you a series of videos discussing the...

391

Thermomechanical room and canister region benchmark analyses between STEALTH-WI and SPECTROM-32: Draft final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the benchmarking of the two-dimensional waste isolation version of STEALTH (designated STEALTH-WI) against the thermomechanical performance assessment calculations performed by RE/SPEC using SPECTROM-32. An axisymmetric, canister-scale (very-near-field) analysis was performed to compute the peak stress exerted by the salt on the waste package. A plane strain, room-scale (near-field) analysis was also performed to predict disposal room roof-to-floor closure and the temperatures at key locations in the vicinity of the disposal room. Comparisons between the STEALTH and SPECTROM-32 results showed that the temperature predictions agreed to within 5/degree/C, peak canister stresses better than 10%, and the average roof-to-floor closures within 30%. The stress and displacement differences were attributed to differences in the treatment of plasticity in the constitutive laws for salt employed in STEALTH and SPECTROM-32. The temperature differences were due to minor differences in the thermal models employed in STEALTH and SPECTROM- 41, the thermal analysis code which supplies temperatures for SPECTROM-32. 9 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.

Dial, B.W.; Maxwell, D.E.; Yee, G.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Surface Tension of Electrolyte Interfaces: Ionic Specificity within a Field-Theory Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface Tension of Electrolyte Interfaces: Ionic Specificity within a Field-Theory Approach Tomer, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia (Dated: November 19, 2014) We study the surface tension of ionic solutions expansion beyond the mean-field result. We calculate the excess surface tension and obtain analytical

Andelman, David

393

Method of purifying a gas stream using 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for separating a target gas from a gaseous mixture using 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids is presented. Industrial effluent streams may be cleaned by removing carbon dioxide from the stream by contacting the effluent stream with a 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquid compound.

Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunald; Tang, Chau

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

394

Millisecond switching in solid state electrochromic polymer devices fabricated from ionic self-assembled multilayers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Millisecond switching in solid state electrochromic polymer devices fabricated from ionic self The electrochromic switching times of solid state conducting polymer devices fabricated by the ionic self shown to decrease with the active area of the electrochromic device suggesting that even faster

Heflin, Randy

395

Short Communication Bioreduction and precipitation of uranium in ionic liquid aqueous  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with uranium from mining and milling operations, radioactive wastes, and from nuclear accidents is a majorShort Communication Bioreduction and precipitation of uranium in ionic liquid aqueous solution t s Uranium forms various complexes with ionic liquids. Uranium bioreduction was affected by the type

Ohta, Shigemi

396

An Analysis of Efficiency Improvements in Room Air Conditioner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NAECA NATIONAL APPLIANCE ENERGY CONSERVATION ACT NBS NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS NECPA NATIONAL ENERGY CONSERVATION POLICY ACT NTU NUMBER OF TRANSFER UNITS OEM ORIGINAL EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURER ORNL OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY RAC ROOM AIR CONDITIONER.... There are two public domain models that we have considered using for this analysis: the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) heat pump model [1] and the Arthur D. Little (ADL) room air conditioner model [2]. The ORNL model was completed in 1981. Although...

O'Neal, D. L.; Penson, S. B.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Using a Research Simulator for Validating Control Room Modernization Concepts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is a research, development, and deployment program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy. The program is operated in close collaboration with industry research and development programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of nuclear power plants that are currently in operation. Advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies are needed to support the continued safe and reliable production of power from nuclear energy systems during sustained periods of operation up to and beyond their expected licensed lifetime. This requires that new capabilities to achieve process control be developed and eventually implemented in existing nuclear control rooms. It also requires that approaches be developed and proven to achieve sustainability of I&C systems throughout the period of extended operation. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe life extension of current reactors. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Current analog control rooms are growing obsolete, and it is difficult for utilities to maintain them. Using its reconfigurable control room simulator adapted from a training simulator, INL serves as a neutral test bed for implementing new control room system technologies and assisting in control room modernization efforts across.

Ronald L. Boring; Vivek Agarwal; Julius J. Persensky; Jeffrey C. Joe

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Avoiding 100 New Power Plants by Increasing Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners in India: Opportunities and Challenges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners in India: OpportunitiesStar Labeled room Air Conditioners. ” Ministry of Power (of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners,” Lawrence Berkeley

Phadke, Amol

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

P:\\Room Numbering Standard\\MSU Room Number Standard 2012.doc 3/12/2012 Page 1 MSU Room Numbering Standard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and other spaces in university facilities. Numbering standards ensure continuity within the buildings is a customized standard that: · Accommodates a logical flow and pedestrian movement through buildings Numbering Standard. Minor renovations or additions to an existing building may continue to use existing room

Maxwell, Bruce D.

400

3 ThInK Space (301) iSci Faculty Work Room (306)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(B109-10) Silent Study Room (B115) McMaster Social Innovation Lab (B117/A) Group Study Rooms ­ Book

Haykin, Simon

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature ionic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Cooling the Planet: Opportunities for Deployment of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

chapter we discuss market, energy consumption and technologyeffective Room AC energy efficiency market transformation42 Chapter 3 Room AC Market and Energy Consumption

Shah, Nihar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

E-Print Network 3.0 - allergy counselling room Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

be obtained from the Texas Tech Certification Officer (ED, Room 106). Graduate Counseling Certificates Mental... of Education Office of Graduate Studies and Research (ED, Room...

403

Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering Spring 2013 Preliminary Plant Design For Bitumen Separation Using Ionic Liquid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For Bitumen Separation Using Ionic Liquid Overview IL Fuels LLC invented a novel way to separate bitumen from of producing 5,000 barrels of bitumen per day while maximizing the recovery of ionic liquid and water of bitumen/day Maintain a maximum of 0.2% loss of ionic liquids to the cleaned sands Improve overall

Demirel, Melik C.

404

Ionic Liquids: Radiation Chemistry, Solvation Dynamics and Reactivity Patterns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ionic liquids (ILs) are a rapidly expanding family of condensed-phase media with important applications in energy production, nuclear fuel and waste processing, improving the efficiency and safety of industrial chemical processes, and pollution prevention. ILs generally have low volatilities and are combustion-resistant, highly conductive, recyclable and capable of dissolving a wide variety of materials. They are finding new uses in chemical synthesis, catalysis, separations chemistry, electrochemistry and other areas. Ionic liquids have dramatically different properties compared to conventional molecular solvents, and they provide a new and unusual environment to test our theoretical understanding of primary radiation chemistry, charge transfer and other reactions. We are interested in how IL properties influence physical and dynamical processes that determine the stability and lifetimes of reactive intermediates and thereby affect the courses of reactions and product distributions. We study these issues by characterization of primary radiolysis products and measurements of their yields and reactivity, quantification of electron solvation dynamics and scavenging of electrons in different states of solvation. From this knowledge we wish to learn how to predict radiolytic mechanisms and control them or mitigate their effects on the properties of materials used in nuclear fuel processing, for example, and to apply IL radiation chemistry to answer questions about general chemical reactivity in ionic liquids that will aid in the development of applications listed above. Very early in our radiolysis studies it became evident that the slow solvation dynamics of the excess electron in ILs (which vary over a wide viscosity range) increase the importance of pre-solvated electron reactivity and consequently alter product distributions and subsequent chemistry. This difference from conventional solvents has profound effects on predicting and controlling radiolytic yields, which need to be quantified for the successful use under radiolytic conditions. Electron solvation dynamics in ILs are measured directly when possible and estimated using proxies (e.g. coumarin-153 dynamic emission Stokes shifts or benzophenone anion solvation) in other cases. Electron reactivity is measured using ultrafast kinetics techniques for comparison with the solvation process.

Wishart, J.F.

2011-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

405

Energy Efficiency in Small Server Rooms: Field Surveys and Findings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fifty-seven percent of US servers are housed in server closets, server rooms, and localized data centers, in what are commonly referred to as small server rooms, which comprise 99percent of all server spaces in the US. While many mid-tier and enterprise-class data centers are owned by large corporations that consider energy efficiency a goal to minimize business operating costs, small server rooms typically are not similarly motivated. They are characterized by decentralized ownership and management and come in many configurations, which creates a unique set of efficiency challenges. To develop energy efficiency strategies for these spaces, we surveyed 30 small server rooms across eight institutions, and selected four of them for detailed assessments. The four rooms had Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) values ranging from 1.5 to 2.1. Energy saving opportunities ranged from no- to low-cost measures such as raising cooling set points and better airflow management, to more involved but cost-effective measures including server consolidation and virtualization, and dedicated cooling with economizers. We found that inefficiencies mainly resulted from organizational rather than technical issues. Because of the inherent space and resource limitations, the most effective measure is to operate servers through energy-efficient cloud-based services or well-managed larger data centers, rather than server rooms. Backup power requirement, and IT and cooling efficiency should be evaluated to minimize energy waste in the server space. Utility programs are instrumental in raising awareness and spreading technical knowledge on server operation, and the implementation of energy efficiency measures in small server rooms.

Cheung, Iris [Hoi; Greenberg, Steve; Mahdavi, Roozbeh; Brown, Richard; Tschudi, William

2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

406

Calculation of multicomponent ionic diffusion from zero to high concentration: II. Inclusion of associated ion species  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a theoretical model of multicomponent ionic diffusion which is valid to high concentration for systems which show ion association. The results of the authors' formulations are contrasted with those of more simplified models for systems containing Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and MgSO{sub 4}, as well as for multicomponent natural seawater. The differences between their model and simplified models are significant, especially at high concentration. Inconsistencies which may develop with the use of the simplified approaches are demonstrated. The authors' approach requires considerable data which are not available at temperatures other than 25{degree}C. Therefore, other approaches which are based only on data at infinite dilution are of great interest. They show here that, if chemical potential derivatives are included in the infinite dilution model of Nernst and Hartley which uses only infinite dilution mobilities, the model can be extended to slightly concentrated solutions. This extended Nernst-Hartley model gives good agreement with all of the existing experimental mutual diffusion coefficient data at concentrations below about 0.2 M in the six component system Na-K-Ca-Mg-Cl-SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O. This may be the most reliable way to extend infinite dilution data into more concentrated regions. In the systems they have studied, the inclusion of ion-association species for weakly interacting species does not appear to provide significant improvement over the generalized Nernst-Hartley model.

Felmy, A.R.; Weare, J.H. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Design and fabrication of electron energy filters for room temperature inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Odor detection has wide range of applications in a variety of industries, including the agricultural, clinical diagnosis, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food analysis, environmental and defense fields. Spectroscopic techniques ...

Patil, Prashant (Prashant Tarachand)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Room-Temperature Z-Selective Homocoupling of alpha-Olefins by Tungsten Catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3,5-Dimethylphenylimido complexes of tungsten can be prepared using procedures analogous to those employed for other tungsten catalysts, as can bispyrrolide species and MonoAryloxide-Pyrrolide (MAP) species. Homocouplings ...

Marinescu, Smaranda C.

409

Room-temperature quantum noise limited spectrometry and methods of the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In one embodiment, a heterodyne detection system for detecting light includes a first input aperture adapted for receiving first light from a scene input, a second input aperture adapted for receiving second light from a local oscillator input, a broadband local oscillator adapted for providing the second light to the second input aperture, a dispersive element adapted for dispersing the first light and the second light, and a final condensing lens coupled to an infrared detector. The final condensing lens is adapted for concentrating incident light from a primary condensing lens onto the infrared detector, and the infrared detector is a square-law detector capable of sensing the frequency difference between the first light and the second light. More systems and methods for detecting light are described according to other embodiments.

Stevens, Charles G.; Tringe, Joseph W.; Cunningham, Christopher Thomas

2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

410

Quantitative room-temperature mineralization of airborne formaldehyde using manganese oxide catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building TechnologiesEfficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies

Sidheswaran, Meera A.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Electrospun Polyaniline Fibers as Highly Sensitive Room Temperature Chemiresistive Sensors for Ammonia and Nitrogen Dioxide Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrospun polyaniline (PAni) fibers doped with different levels of (+)-camphor-10-sulfonic acid (HCSA) are fabricated and evaluated as chemiresistive gas sensors. The experimental results, based on both sensitivity and ...

Zhang, Yuxi

412

Direct-gap optical gain of Ge on Si at room temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lasers on Si are crucial components of monolithic electronic–photonic integration. Recently our theoretical analysis has shown that Ge, a pseudodirect bandgap material compatible with Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor ...

Liu, Jifeng

413

Bleaching of F-centers in sodium chloride at room temperature by electron tunneling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, ronhot, o- met, er f LL', ali 1161ido crvs~&1? shat have been exposed tc io1Q. cinT radia bioni snch as z "aPJi MkiLbit absorption bands in the visible and near ultraviolet, which sm attributed to "color centers" crested in the orris...'-sls by the radiation. The caLm' centew consisb of various combi- nations of pvsitiv'c and, no@at, ive ion-vacancies with electrons and electron holes i hose with which She present, work is concei'ned are shown in H. g. 1. below. The F-center is a negative ion...

Carroll, Herbert Burnett

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

MC-CAM Publications "Allyl Glycidyl Ether-Based Polymer Electrolytes for Room Temperature Lithium Batteries"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­Acceptor Low Band Gap Polymers" Weibin Cui and Fred Wudl Macromolecules, 46 (18): 7232-7238 (2013). DOI Link "A

Bigelow, Stephen

415

Direct Observation of Room-Temperature Polar Ordering in Colloidal GeTe Nanocrystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

99.997 %), 1-dodecanethiol (1-DDT, > 98 %), anhydrous 1,2Then, 0.03 g of dried 1-DDT was mixed with 1.5 mL of a 10stirring, and the 1-DDT/TOP-Te solution was immediately

Polking, Mark J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Displacement currents in semiconductor quantum dots embedded dielectric media: A method for room temperature photon detection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­13 In photovoltaic detectors, interpenetrating networks of polymer and Qds communicate with two electrodes and photo- conductive photon detectors have been made from QD blended conducting polymers.11 by deri- vation of a current by an external voltage via movement of carriers across the polymer medium

Matsik, Steven G.

417

Origin of room temperature ferromagnetic moment in Rh-rich Rh/Fe multilayer thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

films of FeRh was done by electron beam melting on amorphous substrates3 but the low extent of ordering

Laughlin, David E.

418

Magnetic and structural properties of nickel zinc ferrite nanoparticles synthesized at room temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

oxide systems.11­13 Briefly, reverse micelles are water-in-oil emulsions in which the water. This ``excess'' of diamagnetic Zn can thus contribute to the overall decrease in magnetism. Further, this model

McHenry, Michael E.

419

Electrochemical study of the properties of indium in room temperature chloroaluminate molten salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electrochemistry of indium was studied with voltammetry and chronoamperometry at glassy carbon, tungsten, and nickel electrodes in the basic and acidic aluminum chloride-1,2-dimethyl-3-propylimidazolium chloride molten salt at 27 C. In the basic melt, In(III) is complexed as [InCl{sub 5}]{sup 2{minus}}, which could be reduced to indium metal through a three-electron reduction process. The electrodeposition of indium on glassy carbon and tungsten electrodes involves progressive three-dimensional nucleation on a finite number of active sites with diffusion-controlled growth of the nuclei. The electrodeposition of indium metal on a nickel electrode entails progressive three-dimensional nucleation on a large number of active sites. The formal potentials of the In(III)/In couple in the 44.4 to 55.6 and 49.0 to 51.0 mole percent (m/o) melts are {minus}1.096 and {minus}1.009 V, respectively, vs. Al(III)Al in the 66.7 to 33.3 m/o.

Liu, J.S.Y.; Sun, I.W. [National Cheng-Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemistry

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Thermal plasma processed ferro-magnetically ordered face-centered cubic iron at room temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Here, we report tailor made phase of iron nanoparticles using homogeneous gas phase condensation process via thermal plasma route. It was observed that crystal lattice of nano-crystalline iron changes as a function of operating parameters of the plasma reactor. In the present investigation iron nanoparticles have been synthesized in presence of argon at operating pressures of 125–1000?Torr and fixed plasma input DC power of 6?kW. It was possible to obtain pure fcc, pure bcc as well as the mixed phases for iron nanoparticles in powder form as a function of operating pressure. The as synthesized product was characterized for understanding the structural and magnetic properties by using X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The data reveal that fcc phase is ferromagnetically ordered with high spin state, which is unusual whereas bcc phase is found to be ferromagnetic as usual. Finally, the structural and magnetic properties are co-related.

Raut, Suyog A.; Kanhe, Nilesh S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mathe, V. L., E-mail: vlmathe@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India); Das, A. K. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature ionic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Ultrafast infrared studies of chemical reaction dynamics in room-temperature liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ultrafast pulses ..analyses of the ultrafast pulses. (a) A spectral analysis ofExperimentally, an ultrafast UV pulse dissociates a photo

Yang, H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Enhanced Room-Temperature Formability in High-Strength Aluminum Alloys through Pulse-Pressure Forming  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

423

Room Temperature Ring-Opening Metathesis of Pyridines by a Transient TitC Linkage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), a reaction in which N-heterocycles present in petroleum or coal-based liquids are catalytically converted

Baik, Mu-Hyun

424

Ferromagnetism in Ti-Doped ZnO Nanoclusters above Room Temperature...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engelhard D Meyer AM Sharma Y Qiang Capabilities: Spectroscopy and Diffraction NMR and EPR Facility: Radiochemistry Annex Science Theme: Energy Materials & Processes Biosystem...

425

Room Temperature Control During Season Switchover with Single Duct Variable Air Volume System Without Reheat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is energized in summer mode or de-energized in winter mode, the output of the PRV is 20psi or 15 psi, respectively. AHU#7 AHU#9 AHU#8 AHU#10 W E AHU#6 AHU#4 AHU #2 AHU#5 AHU#3 S Figure 3. Typical Floor Plan of the 1st through the 4th Floors where...

Liu, C.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.; Bruner, H.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Ultrafast infrared studies of chemical reaction dynamics in room-temperature liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for acetonitrile MD simulation ..0VE for the eN stretch of acetonitrile and benzonitrile.shows the results for acetonitrile. The directions of the

Yang, H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

8E-17 fractional laser frequency instability with a long room-temperature cavity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a laser system based on a 48 cm long optical glass resonator. The large size requires a sophisticated thermal control and optimized mounting design. A self balancing mounting was essential to reliably reach sensitivities to acceleration of below $\\Delta \

Häfner, Sebastian; Grebing, Christian; Vogt, Stefan; Legero, Thomas; Merimaa, Mikko; Lisdat, Christian; Sterr, Uwe

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Metal-supported De-NOx SCR Catalysts Prepared by Room Temperature Aerosol  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department of EnergyDevelopmentTechnologies |Charles PageDeposition for Potential Marine

429

Room Temperature Ferromagnetism in Ion-implanted Co-doped TiO(110) Rutile.  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared0 Resource ProgramEnergyMaterials: Sulfur K-edgeDepartment|

430

Ferromagnetism in Ti-Doped ZnO Nanoclusters above Room Temperature. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicyFeasibility ofSmall15.000TechnologyTune ITFerrin| EMSLTi-Doped

431

Synthesis of Room-Temperature Ferromagnetic Cr-doped TiO(110) Rutile Single  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security AdministrationcontrollerNanocrystallineForeign Object Damage 3 B.Catalysts. | EMSL

432

ANL/APS/TB-19 A Finite Element Analysis of Room Temperature Silicon Crystals  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience4AJ01) (See95TI07)Operations2 Print258Department of31 . Wiggler9 A

433

Method of Production of Pure Hydrogen Near Room Temperature From Ultra High  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping theEnergyInnovation Portal Biomass andForCapacity Hydride

434

PNA-peptide Assembly in a 3D DNA Nanocage at Room Temperature  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recoveryLaboratorySpeedingOptimizingTools Software and Tools ChosServices »

435

Strong Room-temperature Negative Transconductance In An Axial Si/Ge  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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436

Single-Molecule Triplet-State Photon Antibunching at Room Temperature. |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBi (2)Sharing Smart GridShiftMethodSimwYpes(tm)SingleB.

437

Room-temperature quantum noise limited spectrometry and methods of the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In one embodiment, a heterodyne detection system for detecting light includes a first input aperture adapted for receiving a first light from a scene input, a second input aperture adapted for receiving a second light from a local oscillator input, a broadband local oscillator adapted for providing the second light to the second input aperture, a dispersive element adapted for dispersing the first light and the second light, and a final condensing lens coupled to an infrared detector. The final condensing lens is adapted for concentrating incident light from a primary condensing lens onto the detector, and the detector is a square-law detector capable of sensing the frequency difference between the first light and the second light. More systems and methods for detecting light are disclosed according to more embodiments.

Stevens, Charles G; Tringe, Joseph W

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

438

Replacement of the Advanced Test Reactor control room  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The control room for the Advanced Test Reactor has been replaced to provide modern equipment utilizing current standards and meeting the current human factors requirements. The control room was designed in the early 1960 era and had not been significantly upgraded since the initial installation. The replacement did not change any of the safety circuits or equipment but did result in replacement of some of the recorders that display information from the safety systems. The replacement was completed in concert with the replacement of the control room simulator which provided important feedback on the design. The design successfully incorporates computer-based systems into the display of the plant variables. This improved design provides the operator with more information in a more usable form than was provided by the original design. The replacement was successfully completed within the scheduled time thereby minimizing the down time for the reactor. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Durney, J.L.; Klingler, W.B. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Integrated intelligent systems in advanced reactor control rooms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An intelligent, reactor control room, information system is designed to be an integral part of an advanced control room and will assist the reactor operator's decision making process by continuously monitoring the current plant state and providing recommended operator actions to improve that state. This intelligent system is an integral part of, as well as an extension to, the plant protection and control systems. This paper describes the interaction of several functional components (intelligent information data display, technical specifications monitoring, and dynamic procedures) of the overall system and the artificial intelligence laboratory environment assembled for testing the prototype. 10 refs., 5 figs.

Beckmeyer, R.R.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Concrete calcium leaching at variable temperature: experimental data and numerical model inverse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, concrete porous solution is very basic (pH around 13) and several ionic species are highly concentrated [1Concrete calcium leaching at variable temperature: experimental data and numerical model inverse/DSU/SSIAD/BERIS, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France Abstract A simplified model for calcium leaching in concrete is presented

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature ionic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

LOW TEMPERATURE PHYSICS The effect of neutron and gamma radiation on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PHYSICS Outlook · Radiation environment in a fission reactor ­ Neutron and - spectrum · Damage production, iterlaminar shear strength, fatigue behavior ­ Gas evolution · Conclusions #12;LOW TEMPERATURE PHYSICS Fission to displace one atom: (epithermal and fast neutrons) Bp EE > ~4 eV C-H ~few eV in metals ~5-40 eV in ionic

McDonald, Kirk

442

Correlating Humidity-Dependent Ionically Conductive Surface Area with Transport Phenomena in Proton-Exchange Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this effort was to correlate the local surface ionic conductance of a Nafion? 212 proton-exchange membrane with its bulk and interfacial transport properties as a function of water content. Both macroscopic and microscopic proton conductivities were investigated at different relative humidity levels, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CSAFM). We were able to identify small ion-conducting domains that grew with humidity at the surface of the membrane. Numerical analysis of the surface ionic conductance images recorded at various relative humidity levels helped determine the fractional area of ion-conducting active sites. A simple square-root relationship between the fractional conducting area and observed interfacial mass-transport resistance was established. Furthermore, the relationship between the bulk ionic conductivity and surface ionic conductance pattern of the Nafion? membrane was examined.

He, Qinggang; Kusoglu, Ahmet; Lucas, Ivan T.; Clark, Kyle; Weber, Adam Z.; Kostecki, Robert

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Mixed ionic and electronic conducting electrode studies for an alkali metal thermal to electric converter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This research focuses on preparation, kinetics, and performance studies of mixed ionic and electronic conducting electrodes (MIEE) applied in an alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC). Two types of MIEE, metal/sodium titanate and metal...

Guo, Yuyan

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

444

Project Profile: Thermally-Stable Ionic Liquid Carriers forNanopartic...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Awards A. Visser, N. Bridges, E.B. Fox, J. Gray, and B. Garcia-Diaz, "Thermal and Corrosion Properties of Nanoparticle Enhanced Ionic Liquids (NEILs)," Prepr. Pap.-Am. Chem....

445

Nanopatterned Protein Films Directed by Ionic Complexation with Water-Soluble Diblock Copolymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The use of ionic interactions to direct both protein templating and block copolymer self-assembly into nanopatterned films with only aqueous processing conditions is demonstrated using block copolymers containing both ...

Kim, Bokyung

446

Theoretical Investigations on Nanoporpus Materials and Ionic Liquids for Energy Storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by adsorption. In this regard carbon nanotube and Metal Organic Framework (MOFs) based materials are worth studying. Ionic liquids (IL) are potential electrolytes that can improve energy storage capacity and safety in Li ion batteries. Therefore it is important...

Mani Biswas, Mousumi

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

447

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous ionic liquids Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

jcis Summary: experiments: ethanol, ultra- pure water, and four aqueous solutions of CaCl2 of different ionic strength... the correlations given by Weissenborn et al. 16, who...

448

Free-standing graphene membranes on glass nanopores for ionic current measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A method is established to reliably suspend graphene monolayers across glass nanopores as a simple, low cost platform to study ionic transport through graphene membranes. We systematically show that the graphene seals glass nanopore openings...

Walker, Michael I.; Weatherup, Robert S.; Bell, Nicholas A. W.; Hofmann, Stephan; Keyser, Ulrich F.

2015-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

449

Prospects for high temperature ferromagnetism in (Ga,Mn)As semiconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-quality metallic samples increases linearly with the number of uncompensated local moments on Mn-Ga acceptors, with no sign of saturation. Room temperature ferromagnetism is expected for a 10% concentration of these local moments. Our magnetotransport...

Jungwirth, T.; Wang, KY; Masek, J.; Edmonds, KW; Konig, J.; Sinova, Jairo; Polini, M.; Goncharuk, NA; MacDonald, AH; Sawicki, M.; Rushforth, AW; Campion, RP; Zhao, LX; Foxon, CT; Gallagher, BL.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Science Career & Cooperative Education Burke Science Building Room 127  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Science Career & Cooperative Education Burke Science Building Room 127 www.science event. Visit the SCCE website to find event dates and details: www.science.mcmaster.ca/scce Attend a Co visit: www.science.mcmaster.ca/scce Enroll in SCIENCE 2C00 to learn the skills for career success

Hitchcock, Adam P.

451

Model-Based Commissioning for Filters in Room Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper proposes a model that can estimate filter resistance. Two sorts of value are used as inputs to estimate filter resistance. One is the power consumed by the fan in the indoor unit and the other is the thermal performance. For the room air...

Wang, F.; Yoshida, H.; Kitagawa, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Goto, K.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

audiometric test rooms: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

audiometric test rooms First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Energy performance of air...

453

Astronomy in room 309 with Professor David Cohen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Astronomy in room 309 with Professor David Cohen March 1, 2006 The Moon You can see the moon up these out on your computer, with your parents - Information and pictures about the moon and astronomy: http://www.calculatorcat.com/moon_phases/moon_phases.phtml http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/astropix.html (Astronomy Picture of the Day ­ check out their "search

Cohen, David

454

Physical Biology: Is There an Elephant in the Room?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Physical Biology: Is There an Elephant in the Room? In physics we are attracted by simple and universal phenomena. In biology problems turn out to be often more complicated than anticipated and universality is approximate and rare. One possible reason for this is that biology is essentially a historical

Goldberg, Bennett

455

Room to Grow How California Agriculture Can Help Reduce  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Room to Grow March 2010 How California Agriculture Can Help Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions #12 for helping to edit this report. Additional information was provided by Drs. James Fadel, William Horwath to Grow: How California Agriculture Can Help Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions Berkeley Law \\ UCLA Law #12

Kammen, Daniel M.

456

Syllabus for Ec 122: Econometrics Room: 125 Baxter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Syllabus for Ec 122: Econometrics Fall, 2013 Room: 125 Baxter Days and Times: Tuesdays and Thursdays, 1 - 2:30pm Required Text: Principles of Econometrics, 4th Edition, Hill, Griffiths, and Lim, Wiley, 2011. Recommended Text: Applied Econometrics in R, Kleiber and Zeileis, Springer, 2008

Low, Steven H.

457

Computer codes for evaluation of control room habitability (HABIT)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the Computer Codes for Evaluation of Control Room Habitability (HABIT). HABIT is a package of computer codes designed to be used for the evaluation of control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. Given information about the design of a nuclear power plant, a scenario for the release of toxic chemicals or radionuclides, and information about the air flows and protection systems of the control room, HABIT can be used to estimate the chemical exposure or radiological dose to control room personnel. HABIT is an integrated package of several programs that previously needed to be run separately and required considerable user intervention. This report discusses the theoretical basis and physical assumptions made by each of the modules in HABIT and gives detailed information about the data entry windows. Sample runs are given for each of the modules. A brief section of programming notes is included. A set of computer disks will accompany this report if the report is ordered from the Energy Science and Technology Software Center. The disks contain the files needed to run HABIT on a personal computer running DOS. Source codes for the various HABIT routines are on the disks. Also included are input and output files for three demonstration runs.

Stage, S.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Pressure Differential Analysis of a Laboratory Animal Room  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

differential can prevent air flow from a low pressure region to a high pressure region. We tested whether the differential pressure is reasonable to regulate the code between the indoors and outdoors, and among laboratory animal rooms, so as to provide a...

Jiang, X.; Liu, Z.; Yoshida, H.; Tang, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Sustainable Ecotourism Development Room 222 Newins-Ziegler Hall  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FOR 4664: Sustainable Ecotourism Development Fall, 2011 Room 222 Newins-Ziegler Hall Tuesday Period Objectives: Students will learn how the emerging concept of ecotourism and outdoor recreation fits, and environmental benefits associated with recreation and ecotourism. The course will take a practical approach

Watson, Craig A.

460

China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-3502E China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners Nan Zhou Berkeley National Laboratory is an equal opportunity employer. #12;i Table of Contents I. Air Conditioner.......................................................................................................................... 6 I.2.1 Necessity for Air Conditioner Round Robin Testing

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature ionic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Structure and phase transitions into ionic adsorption layers on liquid interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The structure of ionic adsorption layers is studied via a proper thermodynamic treatment of the electrostatic and non-electrostatic interactions between the surfactant ions as well as of the effect of thermodynamic non-locality. The analysis is also applied to phase transitions into the ionic adsorption layer, which interfere further with the oscillatory-diffusive structure of the electric double layer and hydrodynamic stability of squeezing waves in thin liquid films.

R. Tsekov

2014-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

462

Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and computational study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interfacial region between graphene and an imidazolium based ionic liquid is studied using spectroscopic analysis and computational modelling. This combined approach reveals that the molecular level structure of the interfacial region is significantly influenced by functional group defects on the graphene surface.The combined experimental and computational study reveals that the molecular structure at interfacial region between graphene and imidazolium based ionic liquid is defined by the hydroxyl functional groups on the graphene surface

Vijayakumar, M.; Schwenzer, Birgit; Shutthanandan, V.; Hu, Jian Z.; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.

2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

463

Ionic strength independence of charge distributions in solvation of biomolecules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrostatic forces enormously impact the structure, interactions, and function of biomolecules. We perform all-atom molecular dynamics simulations for 5 proteins and 5 RNAs to determine the dependence on ionic strength of the ion and water charge distributions surrounding the biomolecules, as well as the contributions of ions to the electrostatic free energy of interaction between the biomolecule and the surrounding salt solution (for a total of 40 different biomolecule/solvent combinations). Although water provides the dominant contribution to the charge density distribution and to the electrostatic potential even in 1M NaCl solutions, the contributions of water molecules and of ions to the total electrostatic interaction free energy with the solvated biomolecule are comparable. The electrostatic biomolecule/solvent interaction energies and the total charge distribution exhibit a remarkable insensitivity to salt concentrations over a huge range of salt concentrations (20 mM to 1M NaCl). The electrostatic potentials near the biomolecule's surface obtained from the MD simulations differ markedly, as expected, from the potentials predicted by continuum dielectric models, even though the total electrostatic interaction free energies are within 11% of each other.

Virtanen, J. J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Sosnick, T. R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Computation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Freed, K. F. [Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Computation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2014-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

464

DETERMINATION OF IN-SITU THERMAL PROPERTIES OF STRIPA GRANITE FROM TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN THE FULL-SCALE HEATER EXPERIMENTS: METHOD AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

observed temperatures for the Lulea University pilot heaterPower room '--_I, I\\'~ \\,1 Lulea drift I I I I I I I I Ithe temperature data from the LUlea University pilot heater

Jeffry, J.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Water Recycling removal using temperature-sensitive hydronen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project was to study the proposed Water Recycling/Removal Using Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogels. The main element of this technology is the design of a suitable hydrogel that can perform needed water separation for pulp and paper industry. The specific topics studied are to answer following questions: (a) Can water be removed using hydrogel from large molecules such as lignin? (b) Can the rate of separation be made faster? (c) What are the molecular interactions with hydrogel surface? (d) Can a hydrogel be designed for a high ionic strength and high temperature? Summary of the specific results are given.

Rana B. Gupta

2002-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

466

Passive Room-to-Room Air Transfer, Fresno, California (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Field testing was performed in a retrofit unoccupied test house in Fresno, California. Three air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems - a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms - were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each of the three systems was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling also was performed and refined based on comparison to field test results to determine the air flow rate into the bedrooms of over-door and bottom-of-door air transfer grilles.

Not Available

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Neptunium (V) Adsorption to a Halophilic Bacterium Under High Ionic Strength Conditions: A Surface Complexation Modeling Approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rationale for experimental design: Np(V) -- important as analog for Pu(V) and for HLW scenarios; High ionic strength -- relevant to salt-based repositories such as the WIPP; Halophilic microorganisms -- representative of high ionic strength environments. For the first time showed: Significant adsorbant to halophilic microorganisms over entire pH range under high ionic strength conditions; Strong influence of ionic strength with increasing adsorption with increasing ionic strength (in contrast to trends of previous low ionic strength studies); Effect of aqueous Np(V) and bacterial surface site speciation on adsorption; and Developed thermodynamic models that can be incorporated into geochemical speciation models to aid in the prediction of the fate and transport of Np(V) in more complex systems.

Ams, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

468

FRAMEWORK AND APPLICATION FOR MODELING CONTROL ROOM CREW PERFORMANCE AT NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes an emerging project regarding the utilization of high-fidelity MIDAS simulations for visualizing and modeling control room crew performance at nuclear power plants. The key envisioned uses for MIDAS-based control room simulations are: (i) the estimation of human error associated with advanced control room equipment and configurations, (ii) the investigative determination of contributory cognitive factors for risk significant scenarios involving control room operating crews, and (iii) the certification of reduced staffing levels in advanced control rooms. It is proposed that MIDAS serves as a key component for the effective modeling of cognition, elements of situation awareness, and risk associated with human performance in next generation control rooms.

Ronald L Boring; David I Gertman; Tuan Q Tran; Brian F Gore

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

A comparison of nuclear reactor control room display panels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

complex and time consuming task. It is expected that the control room of future commercial nuclear reactor power plants will change considerably as a result of these studies. Currently there are literally hundreds of displays and controls... in the average commercial nuclear reactor power plant. This posed a significant problem when the NRC determined that a new set of displays was required in order to manage emergencies. It has been suggested that digital computers with graphics capabilities...

Bowers, Frances Renae

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Dorm Room Idea Now Revolutionizing Energy | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office of Audit ServicesMirant Potomac River Compliance Plan |DocumentDoingDorm Room Idea

471

Recent Developments in High Temperature Superconductivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

three-dimensional superconductor which can be teclmologically important if its superconducting transition Tc can be enhanced to be above the temperature liquid nitrogen. Possible superconductivity above room temperature has been reported in a... mixture of CuBr and CuBr2 system [8]. A mid-point resistive transition of 346K (73C) is observed but it is not confirmed by magnetic measurements. BCSCO and TCBCO The new series of high Tc superconductors is characterized by the chemical formula A2B2...

Hor, P. H.

472

Surface Tension of Electrolyte Interfaces: Ionic Specificity within a Field-Theory Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the surface tension of ionic solutions at air/water and oil/water interfaces. By using field-theoretical methods and including a finite proximal surface-region with ionic-specific interactions. The free energy is expanded to first-order in a loop expansion beyond the mean-field result. We calculate the excess surface tension and obtain analytical predictions that reunite the Onsager-Samaras pioneering result (which does not agree with experimental data), with the ionic specificity of the Hofmeister series. We derive analytically the surface-tension dependence on the ionic strength, ionic size and ion-surface interaction, and show consequently that the Onsager-Samaras result is consistent with the one-loop correction beyond the mean-field result. Our theory fits well a wide range of salt concentrations for different monovalent ions using one fit parameter, and reproduces the reverse Hofmeister series for anions at the air/water and oil/water interfaces.

Markovich, Tomer; Podgornik, Rudolf

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Studies of ionic liquids in lithium-ion battery test systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, thermal and electrochemical properties of neat and mixed ionic liquid - lithium salt systems have been studied. The presence of a lithium salt causes both thermal and phase-behavior changes. Differential scanning calorimeter DSC and thermal gravimetric analysis TGA were used for thermal analysis for several imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, trifluoromethansulfonate, BF{sub 4}, and PF{sub 6} systems. Conductivities and diffusion coefficient have been measured for some selected systems. Chemical reactions in electrode - ionic liquid electrolyte interfaces were studied by interfacial impedance measurements. Lithium-lithium and lithium-carbon cells were studied at open circuit and a charged system. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazolium systems that are already known to be electrochemically unstable in the presence of lithium metal. In this work the development of interfacial resistance is shown in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell as well as results from some cycling experiments. As the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode the interfacial resistance increases. The results show the magnitude of reactivity due to reduction of the ionic liquid electrolyte that eventually has a detrimental effect on battery performance.

Salminen, Justin; Prausnitz, John M.; Newman, John

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Surface Tension of Electrolyte Interfaces: Ionic Specificity within a Field-Theory Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the surface tension of ionic solutions at air/water and oil/water interfaces. By using field-theoretical methods and including a finite proximal surface-region with ionic-specific interactions. The free energy is expanded to first-order in a loop expansion beyond the mean-field result. We calculate the excess surface tension and obtain analytical predictions that reunite the Onsager-Samaras pioneering result (which does not agree with experimental data), with the ionic specificity of the Hofmeister series. We derive analytically the surface-tension dependence on the ionic strength, ionic size and ion-surface interaction, and show consequently that the Onsager-Samaras result is consistent with the one-loop correction beyond the mean-field result. Our theory fits well a wide range of salt concentrations for different monovalent ions using one fit parameter per electrolyte, and reproduces the reverse Hofmeister series for anions at the air/water and oil/water interfaces.

Tomer Markovich; David Andelman; Rudolf Podgornik

2015-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

475

The Elephant in the Room: The Invisibility of Poverty in Research on Type 2 Diabetes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Zerubavel, E. 2006. The Elephant in the Room: Silence and2004. Don't Think of An Elephant: Know Your Values and Frameturn poverty into a proverbial “elephant in the room,” whose

Chaufan, Claudia MD, PhD; Weitz, PhD, Rose

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Control of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT Equipment Sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

graphics that allowed facility operators to choose which server temperature data points were used for control.graphics that allowed facility operators to choose which server temperature data points were used for control.

Bell, Geoffrey C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

THE POTENTIAL OF NANOPARTICLE ENHANCED IONIC LIQUIDS (NEILS) AS ADVANCED HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interest in capturing the energy of the sun is rising as demands for renewable energy sources increase. One area of developing research is the use of concentrating solar power (CSP), where the solar energy is concentrated by using mirrors to direct the sunlight towards a collector filled with a heat transfer fluid (HTF). The HTF transfers the collected energy into pressurized steam, which is used to generate energy. The greater the energy collected by the HTF, the more efficent the electrical energy production is, thus the overall efficiency is controlled by the thermal fluid. Commercial HTFs such as Therminol{reg_sign} (VP-1), which is a blend of biphenyl and diphenyl oxide, have a significant vapor pressure, especially at elevated temperatures. In order for these volatile compounds to be used in CSP systems, the system either has to be engineered to prevent the phase change (i.e., volatilization and condensation) through pressurization of the system, or operate across the phase change. Over thirty years ago, a class of low-melting organic compounds were developed with negligible vapor pressure. These compounds are referred to as ionic liquids (ILs), which are organic-based compounds with discrete charges that cause a significant decrease in their vapor pressure. As a class, ILs are molten salts with a melting point below 100 C and can have a liquidus range approaching 400 C, and in several cases freezing points being below 0 C. Due to the lack of an appreciable vapor pressure, volatilization of an IL is not possible at atmospheric pressure, which would lead to a simplification of the design if used as a thermal fluid and for energy storage materials. Though the lack of a vapor pressure does not make the use of ILs a better HTF, the lack of a vapor pressure is a compliment to their higher heat capacity, higher volummetric density, and thus higher volumetric heat capacity. These favorable physical properties give ILs a pontential advantage over the current commerically used thermal fluids. Also within the past decade nanofluids have gained attention for thermal conductivity enhancment of fluids, but little analysis has been completed on the heat capacity effects of the nanoparticle addition. The idea of ILs or nanofluids as a HTF is not new, as there are several references that have proposed the idea. However, the use of ionic liquid nanofluids containing nanomaterials other than carbon nanotubes has never before been studied. Here, for the first time, nano-particle enhanced ILs (NEILs) have been shown to increase the heat capacity of the IL with no adverse side effects to the ILs thermal stability and, only at high nanoparticle loading, are the IL physical properties affected. An increase of volumetric heat capacity translates into a better heat transfer fluid as more energy is stored per volumetric unit in the solar concentrating section, thus more efficency in increased steam pressure. Results show that the properties of the NEIL are highly dependant on the suspended nanomaterial and careful materials selection is required to fully optimize the nanofluid properties.

Fox, E.; Bridges, N.; Visser, A.

2011-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

478

Welcome new and returning residents! Help us make USC greener by recycling! Your Room Recycling Bin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Welcome new and returning residents! Help us make USC greener by recycling! Your Room Recycling Bin Every room is provided with a recycling bin to make it easy for you to recycle while living in University Housing. Use this bin to collect mixed recyclables in your room and take them to your nearest

Almor, Amit

479

INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During this reporting period, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement literature, the ultrasonic application and its background study in cleaning application, and spray coating process are completed. The gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted. Four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied to analyze the test data. The analysis shows that all four factors are significant to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator (cold model). The regression analysis for the case with the normalized room temperature shows that linear model fits the temperature data with 82% accuracy (18% error). The regression analysis for the case without the normalized room temperature shows 72.5% accuracy (27.5% error). The nonlinear regression analysis indicates a better fit than that of the linear regression. The nonlinear regression model's accuracy is 88.7% (11.3% error) for normalized room temperature case, which is better than the linear regression analysis. The hot model thermocouple sleeve design and fabrication are completed. The gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication are completed. The system tests of the gasifier simulator (hot model) have been conducted and some modifications have been made. Based on the system tests and results analysis, the gasifier simulator (hot model) has met the proposed design requirement and the ready for system test. The ultrasonic cleaning method is under evaluation and will be further studied for the gasifier simulator (hot model) application. The progress of this project has been on schedule.

Seong W. Lee

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Electrochemical Polishing Applications and EIS of a Novel Choline Chloride-Based Ionic Liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Minimal surface roughness is a critical feature for high-field superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities used to engineer particle accelerators. Current methods for polishing Niobium cavities typically utilize solutions containing a mixture of concentrated sulfuric and hydrofluoric acid. Polishing processes such as these are effective, yet there are many hazards and costs associated with the use (and safe disposal) of the concentrated acid solutions. An alternative method for electrochemical polishing of the cavities was explored using a novel ionic liquid solution containing choline chloride. Potentiostatic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to analyze the ionic polishing solution. Final surface roughness of the Nb was found to be comparable to that of the acid-polishing method, as assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). This indicates that ionic liquid-based electrochemical polishing of Nb is a viable replacement for acid-based methods for preparation of SRF cavities.

Wixtrom, Alex I. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States); Buhler, Jessica E. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States); Reece, Charles E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States)

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "room temperature ionic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Beamline Temperatures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAboutScience ProgramBackground8.0.1 PrintTemperatures Energy: 3.0000 GeV

482

Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals Using Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project provides critical innovations and fundamental understandings that enable development of an economically-viable process for catalytic conversion of biomass (sugar) to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A low-cost ionic liquid (Cyphos 106) is discovered for fast conversion of fructose into HMF under moderate reaction conditions without any catalyst. HMF yield from fructose is almost 100% on the carbon molar basis. Adsorbent materials and adsorption process are invented and demonstrated for separation of 99% pure HMF product and recovery of the ionic liquid from the reaction mixtures. The adsorbent material appears very stable in repeated adsorption/regeneration cycles. Novel membrane-coated adsorbent particles are made and demonstrated to achieve excellent adsorption separation performances at low pressure drops. This is very important for a practical adsorption process because ionic liquids are known of high viscosity. Nearly 100% conversion (or dissolution) of cellulose in the catalytic ionic liquid into small molecules was observed. It is promising to produce HMF, sugars and other fermentable species directly from cellulose feedstock. However, several gaps were identified and could not be resolved in this project. Reaction and separation tests at larger scales are needed to minimize impacts of incidental errors on the mass balance and to show 99.9% ionic liquid recovery. The cellulose reaction tests were troubled with poor reproducibility. Further studies on cellulose conversion in ionic liquids under better controlled conditions are necessary to delineate reaction products, dissolution kinetics, effects of mass and heat transfer in the reactor on conversion, and separation of final reaction mixtures.

Liu, Wei; Zheng, Richard; Brown, Heather; Li, Joanne; Holladay, John; Cooper, Alan; Rao, Tony; ,

2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

483

Human factors evaluation of the engineering test reactor control room  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Reactor and Process Control Rooms at the Engineering Test Reactor were evaluated by a team of human factors engineers using available human factors design criteria. During the evaluation, ETR, equipment and facilities were compared with MIL-STD-1472-B, Human Engineering design Criteria for Military Systems. The focus of recommendations centered on: (a) displays and controls; placing displays and controls in functional groups; (b) establishing a consistent color coding (in compliance with a standard if possible); (c) systematizing annunciator alarms and reducing their number; (d) organizing equipment in functional groups; and (e) modifying labeling and lines of demarcation.

Banks, W.W.; Boone, M.P.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Simulation of a plant minicomputer in reactor control room simulator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A control room simulator for the N-Reactor at Hanford is being developed. An important aspect of reactor operation is provided by the plant minicomputer. This paper discusses the simulation of the plant minicomputer. The original commitments in developing the model are set out, as well as the actual requirements at the start of implementation of the model. Original estimates of costs and times for the simulation are presented; actual costs and times were lower by large factors, and the reasons for better performance are examined.

Forrester, A.; Anderson, J.L.

1984-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

485

OMEGA EP Control Room - Laboratory for Laser Energetics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Regionat Cornell BatteriesArchivesNuclearControl Room

486

Fermilab | Press Room | Subscribe to Press Release mailing list  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series toESnet4:Epitaxialtransatlantic network toProcurementsPress Room

487

Covered Product Category: Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: Top FiveDepartmentfor EngineeringDepartment| Department of EnergyRoom Air

488

Gelled Ionic Liquid-Based Membranes: Achieving a 10,000 GPU Permeance for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture with Gelled Ionic Liquid-Based Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

IMPACCT Project: Alongside Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Electric Power Research Institute, CU-Boulder is developing a membrane made of a gelled ionic liquid to capture CO2 from the exhaust of coal-fired power plants. The membranes are created by spraying the gelled ionic liquids in thin layers onto porous support structures using a specialized coating technique. The new membrane is highly efficient at pulling CO2 out of coal-derived flue gas exhaust while restricting the flow of other materials through it. The design involves few chemicals or moving parts and is more mechanically stable than current technologies. The team is now working to further optimize the gelled materials for CO2 separation and create a membrane layer that is less than 1 micrometer thick.

None

2011-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

489

Water dynamics at neutral and ionic interfaces Emily E. Fenn, Daryl B. Wong, and M. D. Fayer1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water dynamics at neutral and ionic interfaces Emily E. Fenn, Daryl B. Wong, and M. D. Fayer1 (sent for review June 12, 2009) The orientational dynamics of water at a neutral surfactant reverse, and the results are compared to orienta- tional relaxation of water interacting with an ionic interface

Fayer, Michael D.