National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for roofs water heaters

  1. Water Heaters | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Heaters Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Water Heaters Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWaterHeaters&oldid267202"...

  2. Selecting a new water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    This fact sheet describes the types of water heaters available (storage water heaters, demand water heaters, heat pump water heaters, tankless coil and indirect water heaters, and solar water heaters). The criteria for selection are discussed. These are capacity, efficiency rating, and cost. A resource list is provided for further information.

  3. Residential Absorption Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Absorption Water Heater 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Kyle ... Target MarketAudience: Residential gas water heating Key Partners: GE CRADA partner SRA ...

  4. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  5. Electric Storage Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  6. Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Storage Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over its lifetime. | Photo courtesy ...

  7. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters An indirect water heater. An indirect water heater. Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use a home's...

  8. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters An indirect water heater. An indirect water heater. Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use a home's ...

  9. Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heater Kyle Gluesenkamp Building Equipment Group, ETSD gluesenkampk@ornl.gov 865-241-2952 April 3, 2013 CRADA - GE Development of High Performance Residential Gas Water ...

  10. Chaudagaz condensation water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nocturne, P.

    1982-01-01

    The Chaudagaz water heater offers (1) a high heating capacity (40 kW) through the use of a ventilator-equipped burner, (2) quick warmup (less than 20 min), and (3) high heating efficiency (85% upper calorific value) obtained by a unique heat-recovery system. The combustion products rise through a central cylinder, then flow downward along stainless-steel spiral tubing, warming the water and exiting from the bottom of the tank. This natural flow allows easy discharge of condensates and prevents cold air from sweeping through the stack when the burner is off.

  11. Portable solar water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borodulin, G.; Baron, R.; Shkolnik, A.

    1985-11-12

    A combined table and portable solar water heater comprises a suitcase-like rigid casing molded from a rigid plastic material which contains a pair of solar collector panels and connected in series. The panels can be exposed to solar radiation when the casing is opened. Each collector panel or is formed by a copper plate with the solar radiation absorbing surface and copper pipe coil or in heat-transferring relationship with said copper plate. The casing is provided with compartments for accessories, such as adjustable legs for supporting the casing, adjusting its angle to incident sunlight, and for converting the casing into a table; containers for feeding cold water to the solar collector and for receiving hot water from the collector; and a tripod stand for supporting the feeding container at the level above the collector and for arranging a shower set. Temperature-insulating layers of the collectors are formed by separate pieces of rigid material which can be removed from the casing and assembled into a box-shaped container which can be utilized for maintaining water heated by means of the solar water heater at an elevated temperature.

  12. Water heater control module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammerstrom, Donald J

    2013-11-26

    An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

  13. Selecting a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat & Cool Water Heating Selecting a New Water Heater Selecting a New Water Heater Water heater testing facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Water heater testing ...

  14. Solar Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating Solar Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 3:01pm Addthis Illustration of an active, closed loop solar water heater. A large, flat panel ...

  15. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A diagram of a heat pump water heater. A diagram of a heat pump water heater. What does this mean for me? Heat pump water heaters can be two to three times more energy efficient...

  16. Do You Have a Solar Water Heater?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Earlier this week, Ernie wrote about the economics of getting a solar water heater. As Ernie explained, a solar water heater is more expensive than a normal water heater, but depending on your area...

  17. Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters June 15, 2012 - 6:00pm Addthis Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over...

  18. Water Heater Controller - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Water Heater Controller Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contact PNNL About This Technology Water heaters can be retrofitted to ...

  19. DOE_Water_Heater_Meeting_111612.pdf

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters", the comments filed therein, and ... that Joint Commenters had done with water heater manufacturers to identify ...

  20. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters B. Sparn, L. Earle, D. Christensen, J. ... 2013 Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters B. Sparn, L. Earle, D. ...

  1. Promising Technology: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A heat pump water heater uses electricity to transfer heat from the ambient air to stored water, as opposed to an electric resistance water heater, which uses electricity to generate the heat directly. This enables the heat pump water heater to be 2 to 3 times as efficient as an electric resistance water heater.

  2. Promising Technology: Tankless Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A tankless gas water heater does not have a storage tank, as a conventional water heater does. Instead, a tankless water heater instantaneously heats water flowing over the heat exchanger coils when there is hot water demand. Because there is no tank, tankless water heaters have no standby energy losses that are associated with storage units. Another non-energy saving benefit is that a tankless water heater is much more compact.

  3. Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    or Demand-Type Water Heaters Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Diagram of a tankless water heater. Diagram of a tankless water heater. Tankless water heaters, also known as ...

  4. Molded polymer solar water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.

    2004-11-09

    A solar water heater has a rotationally-molded water box and a glazing subassembly disposed over the water box that enhances solar gain and provides an insulating air space between the outside environment and the water box. When used with a pressurized water system, an internal heat exchanger is integrally molded within the water box. Mounting and connection hardware is included to provide a rapid and secure method of installation.

  5. Promising Technology: Condensing Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Condensing water heaters achieve higher efficiencies than conventional water heaters by capturing the latent heat from water vapor contained in the flue gases. Combustion gases are exhausted through a secondary heat exchanger where the latent heat of water vapor in the exhaust gas is transferred to the stored water. This technology enables the water heater to achieve thermal efficiencies up to 99%.

  6. A Combined Water Heater, Dehumidifier, and Cooler (WHDC) | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Combined Water Heater, Dehumidifier, and Cooler (WHDC) A Combined Water Heater, Dehumidifier, and Cooler (WHDC) Figure 1: The system model for the combined Water heater, ...

  7. Selecting a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water heater testing facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Water heater testing facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When selecting a new water heater for your home, ...

  8. Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a hot water heater ...

  9. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters A diagram of a heat pump water heater. A diagram of a heat pump water heater. Most homeowners who have heat pumps use them to heat and cool their homes. But a heat pump also can be used to heat water -- either as stand-alone water heating system, or as combination water heating and space conditioning system. How They Work Heat pump water heaters use electricity to move heat from one place to another instead of generating heat directly. Therefore,

  10. Residential CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Residential CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Residential CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Prototype
    Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater ...

  11. Solar Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Water Heating » Solar Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Solar panels heat water that is delivered to a storage tank.| Photo courtesy of David Springer, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar panels heat water that is delivered to a storage tank.| Photo courtesy of David Springer, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar water heaters -- also called solar domestic hot water systems -- can be a cost-effective way to generate hot water for your home. They can be used in

  12. Solar water heaters | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar water heaters Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from the United States Department of Energy's description of Solar Water Heating technology.)1...

  13. Solar water heaters | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar water heaters (Redirected from - Solar Hot Water) Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from the United States Department of Energy's description of...

  14. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CO 2 Heat Pump Water Heater 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Evaporator Kyle ... MarketAudience: Residential electric water heating Key Partners: GE Appliances CRADA ...

  15. Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Patrick ... The target market is the hospital, hotel and full service restaurant gas hot water heating ...

  16. Commercial Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heaters Commercial Water Heaters The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards. Commercial Water Heaters -- v2.0 (96.96 KB) More Documents & Publications

  17. Storage Electric Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Water Heaters Storage Electric Water Heaters The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards. Water Heaters, Storage Electric -- v2.0 (102.27 KB) More Documents

  18. Storage Gas Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gas Water Heaters Storage Gas Water Heaters The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards. Water Heaters, Storage Gas -- v2.0 (106.02 KB) More Documents &

  19. Storage Oil Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil Water Heaters Storage Oil Water Heaters The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards. Water Heaters, Storage Oil -- v2.0 (103.3 KB) More Documents & Publications

  20. Tankless Electric Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Water Heaters Tankless Electric Water Heaters The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards. Water Heaters, Tankless Electric -- v2.0 (98.91 KB) More Documents

  1. Tankless Gas Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gas Water Heaters Tankless Gas Water Heaters The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards. Water Heaters, Tankless Gas -- v1_2 (108.48 KB) More Documents &

  2. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards. Heat Pump Water Heaters -- v1.7 (350.5 KB) More Documents &

  3. Clark Public Utilities- Solar Water Heater Rebate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition, Clark Public Utilities offers a loan program for eligible solar water heater equipment. For additional information, call Energy Services at (360) 992-3355.

  4. Residential Water Heaters Webinar | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ...identialwaterheaterwebinar.pdf (1.77 MB) More Documents & Publications Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters 2014-10-14 Issuance: ...

  5. Solar Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    They are popular in climates prone to freezing temperatures. Illustration of an active, closed loop solar water heater. A large, flat panel called a flat plate collector is ...

  6. Sizing a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    systems: Tankless or demand-type water heaters Solar water heating system Storage and heat pump (with tank) water heaters. For sizing combination water and space heating systems --...

  7. Sizing a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat & Cool Water Heating Sizing a New Water Heater Sizing a New Water Heater Is your water heater the right size for you house? | Photo credit ENERGY STAR Is your water ...

  8. Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:57pm Addthis Illustration of an electric demand water heater. At the ...

  9. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    An indirect water heater. An indirect water heater. How does it work? Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use your home's heating system to heat water. Tankless coil and...

  10. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics | Department of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Homes & Buildings Water Heating Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 3:03pm Addthis Illustration of ...

  11. Strategy Guideline: Proper Water Heater Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-04-01

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  12. Strategy Guideline. Proper Water Heater Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-04-09

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  13. The Market - Who Needs Heat Pump Water Heaters? (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: The Market - Who Needs Heat Pump Water Heaters? Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Market - Who Needs Heat Pump Water Heaters? Heat pump water heaters ...

  14. Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and Federal ...

  15. Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heater Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heater Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN DOE Funding: 500,000 Project Term: Oct. 2013 - ...

  16. Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's ...

  17. EERE Success Story-Xergy Develops Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Xergy Develops Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor EERE Success Story-Xergy Develops Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor September 15, 2015 - 3:41pm Addthis Xergy Inc. and an ...

  18. Energy Cost Calculator for Electric and Gas Water Heaters | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Electric and Gas Water Heaters Energy Cost Calculator for Electric and Gas Water Heaters Vary equipment size, energy cost, hours of operation, and or efficiency level. INPUT ...

  19. Heat Pump Water Heater Using Solid-State Energy Converters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Water Heater Using Solid-State Energy Converters 2016 Building Technologies ... Project Goal: Demonstrate a home water heater product with affordable and reliable ...

  20. Heat Pump Water Heater Using Solid-State Energy Converters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Water Heater Using Solid-State Energy Converters 2015 Building Technologies ... Home Water Heaters with Affordable, Reliable Solid-State Heat Pumps Key Partners: ...

  1. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Solar Water Heaters ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Water Heaters Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Solar Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for residential solar ...

  2. Advanced Hybrid Water-Heater Using Electrochemical Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bamdad Bahar bamdad.bahar@xergyinc.com Xergy, Inc. Advanced Hybrid Water-Heater Using ... Project Goal: Develop a heat pump water heater utilizing electrochemical ...

  3. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gas Storage Water Heaters Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for ...

  4. Advanced Hybrid Water-Heater Using Electrochemical Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hybrid Water-Heater Using Electrochemical Compression (ECC) 2016 Building Technologies ... Key Partners: Project Goal: Develop a heat pump water heater utilizing electrochemical ...

  5. Solar Water Heater Roadmap Leads Path to Market Expansion (Fact...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovative strategy to reduce installed cost of solar water heater systems can rival conventional natural gas water heaters in the marketplace. Researchers in the Residential ...

  6. Heat Pump Water Heaters: Controlled Field Research of Impact...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water Heaters: Controlled Field Research of Impact on Space Conditioning and Demand Response Characteristics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Heat Pump Water Heaters: ...

  7. New Residential Water Heater Concept Promises High Efficiency...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Residential Water Heater Concept Promises High Efficiency, Lower Cost New Residential Water Heater Concept Promises High Efficiency, Lower Cost August 17, 2016 - 2:20pm Addthis A ...

  8. DOE Publishes Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Residential Water Heater and Certain Commercial Water Heater Test Procedures

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has published a notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for residential water heaters and certain commercial water heaters.

  9. Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit...

  10. Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a demand water heater at each hot water outlet. ENERGY STAR estimates that a typical family can save 100 or more per year with an ENERGY STAR qualified tankless water heater....

  11. Selecting a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    or demand-type water heaters heat water directly without the use of a storage tank Heat pump water heaters move heat from one place to another instead of generating heat...

  12. Covered Product Category: Commercial Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including commercial gas water heaters, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR® program. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  13. What to expect from a batch solar water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.

    1984-01-01

    Batch solar water heaters are becoming more popular because of their low initial cost and simplicity of operation. Batch type water heaters have the following features in common: a water tank or tanks, an insulated tank enclosure, a glazed collecter surface, and a reflector system. The advantages of this type of solar water heater are discussed.

  14. Consumer Water Heater, UEF - v1.0 | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Water Heater, UEF - v1.0 Consumer Water Heater, UEF - v1.0 Consumer Water Heater, UEF - v1.0 (502.56 KB) More Documents & Publications Tankless Gas Water Heaters Heat Pump Water ...

  15. Xergy Ships First Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor to GE...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Xergy Ships First Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor to GE Xergy Ships First Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor to GE September 15, 2015 - 3:41pm Addthis Xergy Inc. and GE...

  16. Measure Guideline. Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brozyna, K.; Rapport, A.

    2012-09-01

    This measure guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters.

  17. Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Sheetak will work on developing a full scale prototype of its low cost ...

  18. GeoSprings Hybrid Water Heater - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GeoSprings Hybrid Water Heater Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory&39;s facility tests several water heaters at one time. Because of ORNL&39;s ...

  19. Making Water Heaters More Efficient | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Making Water Heaters More Efficient Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) ... Making Water Heaters More Efficient Jigar Shah 2013.11.13 As children, many of us grow up ...

  20. Blue Ridge Electric Cooperative- Residential Water Heater Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Blue Ridge Electric Cooperative offers up to $300 for the purchase of an electric water heater. The rebate amount varies based on the size of the water heater purchased.

  1. Sizing a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Is your water heater the right size for you house? | Photo credit ENERGY STAR Is your water heater the right size for you house? | Photo credit ENERGY STAR A properly sized ...

  2. U.S. Virgin Islands- Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A household can receive a maximum of two solar water heater rebates. Rebate amounts vary slightly based upon installed equipment. Rebates will be $1,250 for solar water heaters with an OG-300 rat...

  3. Savings Project: Insulate Your Water Heater Tank | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Your Water Heater Tank Savings Project: Insulate Your Water Heater Tank Addthis Project Level medium Energy Savings 20-45 annually Time to Complete 1.5 hours Overall Cost 30 ...

  4. ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to 823 Million in the Next Five Years ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to 823 Million in the Next ...

  5. Technology Solutions Case Study: Heat Pump Water Heater Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-08-01

    In this project, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory studied heat pump water heaters, an efficient, cost-effective alternative to traditional electric resistance water heaters that can improve energy efficiency by up to 62%.

  6. NREL Evaluates Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.

  7. List of Water Heaters Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Heaters Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 975 Water Heaters Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-975) Incentive Incentive Type Place...

  8. Consumer Water Heater, UEF - v1.0 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heater, UEF - v1.0 Consumer Water Heater, UEF - v1.0 Consumer Water Heater, UEF - v1.0 (502.56 KB) More Documents & Publications Tankless Gas Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Storage Gas Water Heaters

  9. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  10. Solar Domestic Water Heating: a Roof-Integrated Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-09-03

    This fact sheet describes an evaluation of the performance of a roof-integrated solar water heating system.

  11. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems A. Rudd, K. Ueno, D. Bergey, R. Osser Building Science Corporation June 2012 i ...

  12. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of Water Heating Systems Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, ...

  13. Water Heater Enforcement Policy Statement | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heater Enforcement Policy Statement Water Heater Enforcement Policy Statement October 2, 2015 This enforcement policy statement explains DOE's policy with respect to the enforcement of certification requirements and compliance with standards with respect to consumer water heaters and residential-duty commercial water heating equipment during the interim period between July 13, 2015, and the publication of a conversion factor final rule. Enforcement Policy Statement - WH.pdf (74.46 KB) More

  14. Efficient Residential Water Heaters Webinar | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pilot Projects » Efficient Residential Water Heaters Webinar Efficient Residential Water Heaters Webinar On Feb. 22, 2011, Jerone Gagliano, director of Energy Engineering Performance Systems Development, presented a Webinar about residential water heating technology and how to choose the right water heater. It's one of the presentations in a series of Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Webinars sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program. View the

  15. Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a hot water heater measuring device mounted on the outside of a building wall. As improved thermal enclosures dramatically reduce heating and cooling loads, the water heating load continues to grow in importance. This Top Innovations profile describes Building America field testing by IBACOS that shed light on

  16. Measure Guideline: Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brozyna, K.; Rapport, A.

    2012-09-01

    This Measure Guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters. The report compares the differences between tankless and tank-type water heaters, highlighting the energy savings that can be realized by adopting tankless water heaters over tank-type water heaters. Selection criteria and risks discussed include unit sizing and location, water distribution system, plumbing line length and diameter, water quality, electrical backup, and code issues. Cost and performance data are provided for various types of tankless and tank-type water heaters, both natural gas fired and electric. Also considered are interactions between the tankless water heater and other functional elements of a house, such as cold water supply and low-flow devices. Operating costs and energy use of water distribution systems for single- and two-story houses are provided, along with discussion of the various types of distribution systems that can be used with tankless water heaters. Finally, details to prepare for proper installation of a tankless water heater are described.

  17. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CO 2 Heat Pump Water Heater 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Kyle Gluesenkamp, gluesenkampk@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory Evaporator 2 Project Summary Timeline: Start date: Oct 1, 2009 Planned end date: Sep 30, 2016 Key Milestones 1. Go/No-Go: Price premium <$750 compared to baseline HFC HPWH; FY15Q2 (MET) 2. Go/No-Go: EF>2.0 and FHR>50 gallon to meet ENERGY STAR qualification criteria; FY14Q4 (MET) Budget: Total DOE to Date: $2,367k Total Project: $2,435k Key

  18. Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR Solar water heating systems usually cost more to purchase and install than conventional water heating systems. However, a solar water heater can usually save you

  19. Monitoring SERC Technologies: On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Weatherization Assistance Program » Pilot Projects » Monitoring SERC Technologies: On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters Monitoring SERC Technologies: On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters On Oct. 4, 2011, Ethan MacCormick, VP for Services to Energy Businesses at Performance Systems Development, presented a Webinar about On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters and how to properly monitor their installation. View the webinar presentation. More Information Some resources and tools mentioned in the

  20. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Commercial Gas Water Heaters | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Gas Water Heaters Purchasing Energy-Efficient Commercial Gas Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial gas water heaters (CWHs), a product category covered by ENERGY STAR efficiency requirements. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products or FEMP-designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition actions that are not specifically

  1. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Gas Storage Water Heaters Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for residential gas storage water heaters, a product category covered by ENERGY STAR efficiency requirements. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products or FEMP-designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition

  2. Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partner: A.O. Smith Inc. - Milwaukee, WI DOE Funding: $2,000,000 Cost Share: Provided by CRADA partners Project Term: October 1, 2013 - September 30, 2016 Project Objective The objective of this project is to develop a gas-fired absorption heat pump water heater for the commercial

  3. NREL Evaluates Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models. 2012 ASHRAE Winter Conference, Chicago, IL, January 21-25, 2012. NREL Report ...

  4. NREL Develops Heat Pump Water Heater Simulation Model (Fact Sheet...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models. ASHRAE Transactions 2012, Vol. 118, Part 1. www.nrel.govdocsfy12osti...

  5. Which Water Heater Is Right for You? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Which Water Heater Is Right for You? Which Water Heater Is Right for You? March 5, 2015 - 11:07am Addthis Investing in a more energy efficient water heater can save you money in the long run. | Photo courtesy of Sarah Gerrity, U.S. Department of Energy Investing in a more energy efficient water heater can save you money in the long run. | Photo courtesy of Sarah Gerrity, U.S. Department of Energy Paige Terlip Paige Terlip Former Communicator, National Renewable Energy Laboratory What does this

  6. Residential Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing and promoting the market introduction of a residential absorption heat pump water heater that would use 40% less energy annually ...

  7. NREL Develops Heat Pump Water Heater Simulation Model (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudon, K.

    2012-05-01

    A new simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world impacts of heat pump water heaters in U.S. homes.

  8. Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP sets federal efficiency requirements and provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential electric resistance water heaters.

  9. Build-it-yourself solar water heater: reduce electric use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Drawings and instructions for a simple breadbox-style solar water heater are presented. This booklet is a step-by-step guide to building a solar water heater for approximately 15 percent of the cost of most commercially-installed systems. This system does not provide as much energy as the commercially available systems. (MHR)

  10. Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating » Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics July 30, 2013 - 3:39pm Addthis Illustration showing the components of a storage water heater. On top of the tank are two thin pipes; one pipe is the hot water outlet, and the other is the cold water inlet. A large pipe in the middle is called a vent pipe. A pressure/temperature relief valve is also on top of the tank and is connected to an open pipe that runs down the side of the tank. Another

  11. Heat Pump Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating » Heat Pump Water Heater Basics Heat Pump Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:59pm Addthis Illustration of a heat pump water heater, which looks like a tall cylinder with a small chamber on top and a larger one on the bottom. In the top chamber are a fan, a cylindrical compressor, and an evaporator that runs along the inside of the chamber. Jutting out from the exterior of the bottom chamber is a temperature and pressure relief valve. This valve has a tube called a hot water

  12. Utilization of Heat Pump Water Heaters for Load Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boudreaux, Philip R; Jackson, Roderick K; Munk, Jeffrey D; Gehl, Anthony C; Lyne, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    The Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters require residential electric storage water heaters with volumes larger than 55 gallons to have an energy factor greater than 2.0 after April 2015. While this standard will significantly increase the energy efficiency of water heaters, large electric storage water heaters that do not use heat pump technologies may no longer be available. Since utilities utilize conventional large-volume electric storage water heaters for thermal storage in demand response programs, there is a concern that the amended standard will significantly limit demand response capacity. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory partnered with the Tennessee Valley Authority to investigate the load management capability of heat pump water heaters that meet or exceed the forthcoming water heater standard. Energy consumption reduction during peak periods was successfully demonstrated, while still meeting other performance criteria. However, to minimize energy consumption, it is important to design load management strategies that consider the home s hourly hot water demand so that the homeowner has sufficient hot water.

  13. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim

    2008-08-13

    Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union's Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.

  14. Predictive Control of Hot Water Heaters - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publication Full Report on Heat Pump Water Heaters (15,810 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Water heating in residential homes can account for as much as 15% of total energy use. ...

  15. Enforcement Policy Statement Consumer Water Heaters and Certain...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Consumer Water Heaters and Certain Commercial Water Heating Equipment Issued: October 2, 2015 As required by 42 U.S.C. 6295(e)(5)(B), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ...

  16. A Combined Water Heater Dehumidifier and Cooler (WHDC)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Water Heater Dehumidifier and Cooler (WHDC) 2016 Building Technologies Office ... Project Outcome: - Develop a low-cost gas-fired water heat pump to meet the DOE MYPP 2020 ...

  17. Marshall Municipal Utilities- Solar Thermal Water Heater Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    To invest in a renewable resource, consider an ENERGY STAR Solar Thermal Water Heater and use free energy from the sun to heat your water. Marshall Municipal Utilities (MMU) offers rebates of $20...

  18. Max Tech Electric Heat Pump Water Heater with Lower GWP Halogenated...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Max Tech Electric Heat Pump Water Heater with Lower GWP Halogenated Refrigerant Max Tech Electric Heat Pump Water Heater with Lower GWP Halogenated Refrigerant Information flow ...

  19. Solar Water Heater Roadmap Leads Path to Market Expansion (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Innovative strategy to reduce installed cost of solar water heater systems can rival conventional natural gas water heaters in the marketplace.

  20. Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Xergy is using its Electro Chemical Compression (ECC) technology to operate a heat pump cycle using water as the working fluid<br /> Image: Xergy Xergy is using its Electro Chemical Compression (ECC) technology to operate a heat pump cycle using water as the working fluid Image: Xergy Xergy's technology has the potential to move away from vapor compression

  1. Comparative performance indices for solar batch water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.L.; Aaboe, E.H.

    1981-01-01

    A simple method is developed to allow direct comparison of various solar batch water heaters. Certain system variables must be determined by calculation or measurement which may vary with season. These include Thermal Efficiency of Collection, Tank R value, Collector Surface to Tank Volume Ratio, Clear Day Collection Period in Hours, System Cost, and Installed Solar Heatings Fraction (optional). These variables are used to compute any one of four performance indices. This method allows a valid comparison not only between various solar batch water heaters but between other types of solar water heaters as well. This system may be used by consumers or designers to choose the most cost and performance effective options.

  2. Aiken Electric Cooperative Inc- Residential Water Heater Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Aiken Electric Cooperative offers residential members rebates for installing high-efficiency electric water heaters and/or timers in their homes. Customers have four rebate options: 

  3. Rock Hill Utilities- Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Through the SmartChoice program, Rock Hill Utilities offers rebates for water heater and heat pump replacements. Information on financing for heat pumps can also be found on the web site listed...

  4. Performance comparison of several passive solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.L.; Nagy, C.

    1980-01-01

    Three .076 m/sup 3/ (20 gal.) batch water heaters were constructed for the purpose of side by side testing. The test models included an Inverted Batch Water Heater, a Greenhouse Integrated Skylight Heater, and a typical Breadbox Batch Heater. These designs were chosen because of their low initial cost, simple construction, ease of freeze protection, uncomplicated operation and heating effectiveness. The results of our testing show that our test models produced 35 to 70/sup 0/C (95 to 158/sup 0/F) average water temperatures with average collection efficiencies of about 34%. Materials costs for each of these systems were $200 to $400. These systems were tested side by side during periods of both low and high thermal demand, both with and without a selective surface foil on the absorber surfaces.

  5. Energy Saving Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Security Administration | (NNSA) Energy Saving "Cool Roofs" Installed at Y-12 October 17, 2012 The Y-12 National Security Complex has taken additional steps to reduce its energy costs by installing almost 100,000 square feet of new heat reflective "cool" roofs at the Oak Ridge, Tennessee facility. File 2012-10-17 NPO Y-12 Cool Roofs.docx

    Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Energy Saving Absorption Heat Pump Water

  6. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-05-14

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.

  7. WHAM: Simplified tool for calculating water heater energy use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, J.D.; Whitehead, C.D.; Lekov, A.B.; Rosenquist, G.J.; Winiarski, D.W.

    1999-07-01

    Water heating comprises a significant portion of residential energy consumption--17% in the US, according to the residential energy consumption survey (RECS) (EIA 1995). For such a significant energy end use, energy analysts need a method to quickly and reliably assess current and future energy requirements for a variety of conservation policies and programs. To fill this need, the water heater analysis model (WHAM) was developed as a simple energy equation that accounts for different operating conditions and water heater characteristics when calculating energy consumption. The results of WHAM are compared to the results of detailed water heater simulation programs and show a high level of accuracy in estimating energy consumption. WHAM energy calculations are based on assumptions that account for a variety of field conditions and water heater types. By including seven parameters--recovery efficiency (RE), standby heat loss coefficient (UA), rated input power (Pon), average daily hot water draw volume, inlet water temperature, thermostat setting, and air temperature around the water heater--WHAM provides an accurate estimate of energy consumption in the majority of cases.

  8. Water inflow into boreholes during the Stripa heater experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, P.H.; Rachiele, R.; Remer, J.S.; Carlsson, H.

    1981-04-01

    During the operation of three in-situ heater experiments at Stripa, Sweden, groundwater flowed into many of the instrumentation and heater boreholes. These flows were recovered and measured routinely. The records of water inflow indicate two origins: inflow attributed to local hydrological pressure gradients, and water migration from cracks closing under the rapidly increasing, thermal-induced stress changes. The latter component appeared as a main pulse that occurred when the heaters were turned on, and lasted about 30 to 40 days, steadily declining over the next several months, and decreasing sharply when heater power was decreased or stopped. The magnitude of the total inflow per hole ranged over more than five decades, from 0.1 to over 10,000 liters over the 500 to 600 day time periods. When plotted against the logarithm of total volume, the frequency distribution displays a normal curve dependence with a mean of approximately 10 liters. Of this amount, 1 to 2 liters of flow into 38-mm-diam boreholes accompanied an increase in applied heat load. These amounts are compatible with rock porosities of a fraction of one percent. Inflow into the 3.6 and 5.0 kW heater holes peaked within 3 to 6 days after heater turn on, then declined to zero inflow, with no further inflow measured for the remainder of the experiments. In the heater holes of the time-scaled experiment, which operated at 1.125 kW or less, the initial pulse of inflow took much longer to decay, and 7 of 8 heater holes continued to flow throughout the experiment. The packing off and isolation of a borehole some 40 m distant in the ventilation drift dramatically increased the inflow into the heater holes in one of the three heater experiments. This demonstrated the existence of permeable flow paths among a number of boreholes. The records of water inflow demonstrate the need for a thorough understanding of the nature of fluid flow and storage in fractured crystalline rock.

  9. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    2 Water Heater Stock for Residential Buildings, By Storage Type Small (30 gallons or less) 17.1 17% 1.4 14% 18.5 17% Medium (31 to 49 gallons) 52.4 53% 2.4 24% 54.8 50% Large (50 gallons or more) 27.1 27% 2.8 27% 29.9 27% Tankless water heater 1.1 1% 0.2 2% 1.3 1% No Separate Water Heater 1.9 2% 3.4 33% 5.3 5% Total (1) 99.6 100% 10.2 100% 109.8 100% Note(s): Souce(s): Number and Percent of Households in 2005 Used by One Unit Used by Multiple Units Total According to RECS, 1.1 million households

  10. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2011-09-01

    This report discusses how a significant opportunity for energy savings is domestic hot water heating, where an emerging technology has recently arrived in the U.S. market: the residential integrated heat pump water heater. A laboratory evaluation is presented of the five integrated HPWHs available in the U.S. today.

  11. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 Water Heater Manufacturer Market Shares 2006 2008 A.O. Smith/State Industries 23% 46% Rheem Manufacturing 37% 37% Bradford-White 14% 13% American Water Heater 14% (1) Others 12% 4% Total 100% 100% Total Units Shipped (2) Note(s): Source(s): 9,446,076 8,190,043 1) Included in A.O. Smith/State Industries. 2) Excludes exports. Appliance Magazine, A Portrait of the U.S. Appliance Industry, Sept. 2007, p. 63 for 2006; Appliance Magazine, U.S. Appliance Industry: Market Share, Life Expectancy &

  12. Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater March 2, 2015 - 3:09pm Addthis Solar water...

  13. Development of a Market Optimized Condensing Gas Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Pescatore

    2006-01-11

    This program covered the development of a market optimized condensing gas water heater for residential applications. The intent of the program was to develop a condensing design that minimized the large initial cost premium associated with traditional condensing water heater designs. Equally important was that the considered approach utilizes design and construction methods that deliver the desired efficiency without compromising product reliability. Standard condensing water heater approaches in the marketplace utilize high cost materials such as stainless steel tanks and heat exchangers as well as expensive burner systems to achieve the higher efficiencies. The key in this program was to develop a water heater design that uses low-cost, available components and technologies to achieve higher efficiency at a modest cost premium. By doing this, the design can reduce the payback to a more reasonable length, increasing the appeal of the product to the marketplace. Condensing water heaters have been in existence for years, but have not been able to significantly penetrate the market. The issue has typically been cost. The high purchase price associated with existing condensing water heaters, sometimes as much as $2000, has been a very difficult hurdle to overcome in the marketplace. The design developed under this program has the potential to reduce the purchase price of this condensing design by as much as $1000 as compared to traditional condensing units. The condensing water heater design developed over the course of this program led to an approach that delivered the following performance attributes: 90%+ thermal efficiency; 76,000 Btu/hr input rate in a 50 gallon tank; First hour rating greater than 180 gph; Rapid recovery time; and Overall operating condition well matched to combination heat and hot water applications. Over the final three years of the program, TIAX worked very closely with A.O. Smith Water Products Company as our commercial partner to optimize

  14. Outdoor Outfitter Gets Greener With Solar Water Heater

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Using Recovery Act funding, L.L. Bean, the popular outdoor apparel company, recently installed a 180-tube solar hot water collector array on the roof of their flagship store in Freeport, Maine. Find out some how much energy and money they're saving thanks to the new solar installation.

  15. Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including gas storage water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  16. Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including gas storage water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  17. Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including residential heat pump water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  18. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Commercial Gas Water Heaters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial gas water heaters (CWHs), a product category covered by ENERGY STAR efficiency requirements. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products or FEMP-designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  19. Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-07-01

    This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

  20. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 Water Heater Stock for Commercial Buildings, By Fuel Type Fuel Type Electric 41% Natural Gas 31% Fuel Oil 2% Propane/LPG 3% District Heat 1% No Water Heating 25% Note(s): Souce(s): Percent of Buildings in 2003 (1) (1) Percentages add to 103% because some buildings use more than one fuel for water heating. EIA, 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Buildings Characteristics, June 2006, Table B31, p. 175

  1. Exparte Memo: 4-26-16 Meeting on Test Procedures for Water Heaters...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Exparte Memo: 4-26-16 Meeting on Test Procedures for Water Heaters, EERE-2015-BT-TP-0007-0002 Exparte Memo: 4-26-16 Meeting on Test Procedures for Water Heaters, ...

  2. HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review Presenter: Tony Bouza, U.S. Department of Energy This ...

  3. Evaluation of the Demand Response Performance of Electric Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Steven A.; Pratt, Richard M.; Chassin, Forrest S.

    2015-03-17

    The purpose of this project is to verify or refute many of the concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large tank HPWHs to perform DR by measuring the performance of HPWHs compared to ERWHs in providing DR services. perform DR by measuring the performance of HPWHs compared to ERWHs in providing DR services. This project was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of week-long laboratory experiments designed to demonstrate technical feasibility of individual large-tank HPWHs in providing DR services compared to large-tank ERWHs. In Phase 2, the individual behaviors of the water heaters were then extrapolated to a population by first calibrating readily available water heater models developed in GridLAB-D simulation software to experimental results obtained in Phase 1. These models were used to simulate a population of water heaters and generate annual load profiles to assess the impacts on system-level power and residential load curves. Such population modeling allows for the inherent and permanent load reduction accomplished by the more efficient HPWHs to be considered, in addition to the temporal DR services the water heater can provide by switching ON or OFF as needed by utilities. The economic and emissions impacts of using large-tank water heaters in DR programs are then analyzed from the utility and consumer perspective, based on National Impacts Analysis in Phase 3. Phase 1 is discussed in this report. Details on Phases 2 and 3 can be found in the companion report (Cooke et al. 2014).

  4. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of U.S. climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt™ whole-house building simulations.

  5. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

  6. Residential Gas-Fired Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Gas-Fired Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heater Residential Gas-Fired Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heater Gas-fired adsorption heat pump water heater prototype. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Gas-fired adsorption heat pump water heater prototype. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN DOE Funding: $310,000 Project Term: October 1, 2013 - September 30, 2016 Funding Type: Annual Operating Plan (AOP) PROJECT

  7. Diagnosis of Solar Water Heaters Using Solar Storage Tank Surface Temperature Data: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Magnuson, L.; Barker, G.; Bullwinkel, M.

    2009-04-01

    Study of solar water heaters by using surface temperature data of solar storage tanks to diagnose proper operations.

  8. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-08-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  9. Solar Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The batch collector is a large box holding a tank and covered with a glaze that faces the sun. Water is heated in this tank, and another pipe takes the heated water from the batch...

  10. SMUD- Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Solar Domestic Hot Water Program provides rebates and/or loan financing to customers who install solar water heating systems. The amount of the...

  11. Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    cycle using water as the working fluid
    Image: Xergy Xergy is using its Electro Chemical Compression (ECC) technology to operate a heat pump cycle using water as the working ...

  12. Assessment of Unglazed Solar Domestic Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.; Hillman, T.

    2005-12-01

    Conference paper investigating cost-performance tradeoffs in replacing glazed collectors with unglazed collectors in solar domestic water heating systems.

  13. Recovery Act: Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, William P.; Buescher, Tom

    2014-04-30

    The objective of Emerson's Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller is to support the DOE's AARA priority for Clean, Secure Energy by designing a water heater control that levels out residential and small business peak electricity demand through thermal energy storage in the water heater tank.

  14. Solar Water Heaters and the Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One Coloradan examines the costs and benefits of passive versus conventional water heating systems - and it's effects on property value in the long-term.

  15. Salem Electric- Solar Water Heater Rebate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Salem Electric residential customers with electric water heating are eligible for a $600 rebate through Salem's Bright Way program. A program brochure with details is available on the program...

  16. Model for Aggregated Water Heater Load Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlachopoulou, Maria; Chin, George; Fuller, Jason C.; Lu, Shuai; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2012-07-19

    The transition to the new generation power grid, or smart grid, requires novel ways of using and analyzing data collected from the grid infrastructure. Fundamental functionalities like demand response (DR), that the smart grid needs, rely heavily on the ability of the energy providers and distributors to forecast the load behavior of appliances under different DR strategies. This paper presents a new model of aggregated water heater load, based on dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). The model has been validated against simulated data from an open source distribution simulation software (GridLAB-D). The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the DBN model accurately tracks the load profile curves of aggregated water heaters under different testing scenarios.

  17. Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

    2012-07-22

    Abstract Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

  18. Low-cost Batch Solar Water Heater research and development project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.L.

    1983-06-01

    This report presents a summary of the development and testing of Batch Solar Water Heaters. Batch Heaters tested include several kinds of tank-under-glass (Breadbox) models and several types of Inverted Batch Solar Water Heaters with both fixed and moveable reflector systems. Temperature graphs and tables of performance indices are presented for each water heater tested. An Inverted Batch Water Heater was developed based upon the test results called the Bottomgainer. Two prototypes of the Bottomgainer model were installed and monitored in use on residences. The Bottomgainer concept could be adapted to commercial production.

  19. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    1 Water Heater Stock for Residential Buildings, By Fuel Type Electric Natural Gas Fuel Oil Propane/LPG Other 0.2 0.2% Total (1) Note(s): Souce(s): According to RECS, 1.1 million households did not use hot water.The total only includes those households that used hot water. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey 2005, Table HC 2.8, June 2008. 4.0 3.6% 4.0 3.6% 110.0 100.0% Households in 2005 (millions) Percent 43.1 39.2% 58.7 53.4%

  20. ISSUANCE 2015-08-14: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Definitions and Standards for Grid-Enabled Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Definitions and Standards for Grid-Enabled Water Heaters

  1. Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; Thompson, Lisa; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-11-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently completed a rulemaking process in which it amended the existing energy efficiency standards for residential water heaters. A key factor in DOE?s consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers. Determining such impacts requires a comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. This paper describes the method used to conduct the life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period analysis for gas and electric storage water heaters. It presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment, including heat pump electric water heaters and condensing gas water heaters, for a representative sample of U.S. homes. The study included a detailed accounting of installation costs for the considered design options, with a focus on approaches for accommodating the larger dimensions of more efficient water heaters. For heat pump water heaters, the study also considered airflow requirements, venting issues, and the impact of these products on the indoor environment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design reduces the LCC in the majority of homes for both gas and electric storage water heaters, and heat pump electric water heaters and condensing gas water heaters provide a lower LCC for homes with large rated volume water heaters.

  2. WPN 00-5: Approval of Replacement Refrigerators and Electric Water Heaters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as Allowable Weatherization Measures | Department of Energy 0-5: Approval of Replacement Refrigerators and Electric Water Heaters as Allowable Weatherization Measures WPN 00-5: Approval of Replacement Refrigerators and Electric Water Heaters as Allowable Weatherization Measures Effective: Oct. 6, 2000 Provides states with the approval to include refrigerator and electric water heater replacements as an allowable measure. WPN 00-5: Approval of Replacement Refrigerators and Electric Water

  3. High Efficiency R-744 Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elbel, Dr. Stefan W.; Petersen, Michael

    2013-04-25

    The project investigated the development and improvement process of a R744 (CO2) commercial heat pump water heater (HPWH) package of approximately 35 kW. The improvement process covered all main components of the system. More specific the heat exchangers (Internal heat exchanger, Evaporator, Gas cooler) as well as the expansion device and the compressor were investigated. In addition, a comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint was made in order to compare performance as well as package size reduction potential.

  4. Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Sheetak will work on developing a full scale prototype of its low cost heat pump water heater. These solid state heat pumping elements can be implemented in low cost manner which have the potential to dramatically change the way in which he heat water.<BR />Image: Sheetak Sheetak will work on developing a full scale prototype of its low cost heat pump water heater. These

  5. Energy Factor Analysis for Gas Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R

    2016-01-01

    Gas heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) can improve water heating efficiency with zero GWP and zero ODP working fluids. The energy factor (EF) of a gas HPWH is sensitive to several factors. In this work, expressions are derived for EF of gas HPWHs, as a function of heat pump cycle COP, tank heat losses, burner efficiency, electrical draw, and effectiveness of supplemental heat exchangers. The expressions are used to investigate the sensitivity of EF to each parameter. EF is evaluated on a site energy basis (as used by the US DOE for rating water heater EF), and a primary energy-basis energy factor (PEF) is also defined and included. Typical ranges of values for the six parameters are given. For gas HPWHs, using typical ranges for component performance, EF will be 59 80% of the heat pump cycle thermal COP (for example, a COP of 1.60 may result in an EF of 0.94 1.28). Most of the reduction in COP is due to burner efficiency and tank heat losses. Gas-fired HPWHs are theoretically be capable of an EF of up to 1.7 (PEF of 1.6); while an EF of 1.1 1.3 (PEF of 1.0 1.1) is expected from an early market entry.

  6. Assessing the Energy Savings of Tankless Water Heater Retrofits in Public Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ries, R.; Walters, R.; Dwiantoro, D.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis, and findings from a case study of a 110 unit retrofit of gas tankless water heaters in a hot/humid climate in Alachua County, Florida. The housing units had their gas-fired tank type water heaters replaced with gas-fired tankless water heaters as part of a federal program that targeted reduced energy use in public housing.

  7. Assessing the Energy Savings of Tankless Water Heater Retrofits in Public Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ries, R.; Walters, R.; Dwiantoro, D.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis, and findings from a case study of a 110 unit retrofit of gas tankless water heaters in a hot/humid climate in Alachua County, Florida.The gas-fired tank type water heaters in the housing units were replaced with gas-fired tankless water heaters as part of a federal program that targeted reduced energy use in public housing.

  8. An Evaluation of the Water Heater Load Potential for Providing Regulation Service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondoh, Junji; Lu, Ning; Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2011-08-31

    This paper investigates the possibility of providing aggregated regulation services with small loads, such as water heaters or air conditioners. A direct-load control algorithm is presented to aggregate the water heater load for the purpose of regulation. A dual-element electric water heater model is developed, which accounts for both thermal dynamics and users’ water consumptions. A realistic regulation signal was used to evaluate the number of water heaters needed and the operational characteristics of a water heater when providing 2-MW regulation service. Modeling results suggest that approximately 33,333 water heaters are needed to provide a 2-MW regulation service 24 hours a day. However, if water heaters only provide regulation from 6:00 to 24:00, approximately 20,000 will be needed. Because the control algorithm has considered the thermal setting of the water heater, the customer comfort is obstructed little. Therefore, the aggregated regulation service provided by water heater loads can become a major source of revenue for load-service entities when the smart grid enables the direct load control.

  9. Mountain Association for Community Economic Development- Solar Water Heater Loan Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Kentucky Solar Partnership (KSP) and the Mountain Association for Community Economic Development (MACED) partner to offer low interest loans for the installation of solar water heaters. Loans...

  10. Ex Parte Memorandum on Grid-Enabled Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on Grid-Enabled Water Heaters Ex Parte Memorandum on Grid-Enabled Water Heaters On September 26, 2013 a number of stakeholders met with DOE representatives regarding water heater standards and thermal storage and demand response programs. DOE exparte memo_10_02_13 (99.23 KB) Grid-Enabled_Water_Heater_Amendment (27.15 KB) More Documents & Publications EPAct 2005. Conference Report, July 27, 2005 E:\BILLS\H6.PP In the Senate of the United States,June 28, 2005.

  11. DOE_EnergyEfficiencyStandardsForLargeVolumeWaterHeaters.pdf

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and information on the use of electric thermal storage water heaters in utility demand response programs, and on the impact that the energy efficiency standards established by ...

  12. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Calculating the efficiency and operating cost of your water heater can help you decide which model is right for your household.

  13. Technical Highlight: NREL Tests Integrated Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in Different Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, Bethany

    2012-01-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL tests to capture information about heat pump performance across a wide range of ambient conditions for five heat pump water heaters.

  14. HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review Presenter: Tony Bouza, U.S. Department of Energy This presentation at the 2014 Peer Review provided an overview of the Building Technologies Office's HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D activities. Through robust feedback, the BTO Program Peer Review enhances existing efforts and improves future designs. View the Presentation HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D

  15. A Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. This paper proposes a more realistic ratings draw that eliminates most bias by improving mains inlet temperature and by specifying realistic hot water use. Presented at the 2012 World Renewable Energy Forum; Denver, Colorado; May 13-17, 2012.

  16. Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dieckmann, John T.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Teagan, W. Peter; Zogg, Robert

    1999-09-07

    A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

  17. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, Alan L.; Anderson, David M.; Winiarski, David W.; Carmichael, Robert T.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Fisher, Andrew R.

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  18. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    5 Water Heater Efficiencies 2005 2010 Efficiency Stock Minimum Best-Available Residential Type Parameter (1) Efficiency New Efficiency New Efficiency Electric Storage EF 0.90 0.90 (2) 0.95 (2) Electric Instantaneous EF 0.82 0.82 0.98 Electric Heat Pump EF 2.00 2.00 2.35 Gas-Fired Storage EF 0.60 0.59 (3) 0.85 (3) Gas-Fired Instantaneous EF 0.82 0.82 0.98 Oil-Fired Storage EF 0.50 0.53 (4) 0.68 (4) Solar SEF 2.50 N.A. 2.50 2007 2010 Efficiency Stock Minimum Best-Available Commercial Type

  19. Heat pump water heater and method of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C.; Tomlinson, John J.; Chen, Fang C.

    2001-01-01

    An improved heat pump water heater wherein the condenser assembly of the heat pump is inserted into the water tank through an existing opening in the top of the tank, the assembly comprising a tube-in-a-tube construction with an elongated cylindrical outer body heat exchanger having a closed bottom with the superheated refrigerant that exits the compressor of the heat pump entering the top of the outer body. As the refrigerant condenses along the interior surface of the outer body, the heat from the refrigerant is transferred to the water through the outer body. The refrigerant then enters the bottom of an inner body coaxially disposed within the outer body and exits the top of the inner body into the refrigerant conduit leading into the expansion device of the heat pump. The outer body, in a second embodiment of the invention, acts not only as a heat exchanger but also as the sacrificial anode in the water tank by being constructed of a metal which is more likely to corrode than the metal of the tank.

  20. Exparte Memo: 4-26-16 Meeting on Test Procedures for Water Heaters,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EERE-2015-BT-TP-0007-0002 | Department of Energy Exparte Memo: 4-26-16 Meeting on Test Procedures for Water Heaters, EERE-2015-BT-TP-0007-0002 Exparte Memo: 4-26-16 Meeting on Test Procedures for Water Heaters, EERE-2015-BT-TP-0007-0002 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Industrial Equipment: Test Procedures for Water Heaters, EERE-2015-BT-TP-0007-0002, specifically issues surrounding the Conversion Factor status. EXPARTE MEMO 4 26-rbc (83.88 KB) More Documents

  1. Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. A more-realistic ratings draw is proposed that eliminates most bias by improving mains inlet temperature and by specifying realistic hot water use. This paper outlines the current and the proposed draws and estimates typical ratings changes from draw specification changes for typical systems in four cities.

  2. Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc- Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Clay Electric Cooperative (CEC) provides a rebate of $0.01 per BTU output to its residential members when they purchase qualified solar water heaters. This rebate is capped at 60,000 BTUs per...

  3. Tri-County Electric Cooperative- Energy Efficient Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Tri-County Electric Cooperative offers a $75 rebate on the purchase of energy-efficient electric water heaters. The rebate is valid for new or replacement units which have an Energy Factor Rating...

  4. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

    2012-07-01

    The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

  5. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, Jeff; Burch, Jay; Merrigan, Tim; Ong, Sean

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  6. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  7. Max Tech Electric Heat Pump Water Heater with Lower GWP Halogenated

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refrigerant | Department of Energy Max Tech Electric Heat Pump Water Heater with Lower GWP Halogenated Refrigerant Max Tech Electric Heat Pump Water Heater with Lower GWP Halogenated Refrigerant Information flow schematic for an integrated heat pump design model and wrapped tank model. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Information flow schematic for an integrated heat pump design model and wrapped tank model. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Information flow schematic

  8. Commercial CO2 Electric Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CO2 Electric Heat Pump Water Heater Commercial CO2 Electric Heat Pump Water Heater Planned enhanced modeling approach to facilitate analyses of wrapped-tank options for the project. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Planned enhanced modeling approach to facilitate analyses of wrapped-tank options for the project. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN FY16 DOE Funding: $150,000 Project Term: October 1, 2015 - TBD

  9. Geodesic-dome tank roof cuts water contamination, vapor losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, A.E. )

    1989-07-10

    Colonial Pipeline Co. has established an ongoing program for using geodesic-dome roofs on tanks in liquid petroleum-product service. As its standard, Colonial adopted geodesicodone roofs, in conjunction with internal floating decks, to replace worn external floating roofs on existing tanks used in gasoline service and for use on new tanks in all types of product service. Geodesic domes are clear-span structures requiring no internal-support columns. This feature allows the associated use of a floating deck that is as vapor tight as is possible to construct. Further, geodesic domes can practically eliminate rainwater contamination, eliminate wind-generated vapor losses, and greatly reduce filling losses associated with conventional external floating roofs.

  10. Method and apparatus for enhanced heat recovery from steam generators and water heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knight, Richard A.; Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Wang, Dexin

    2006-06-27

    A heating system having a steam generator or water heater, at least one economizer, at least one condenser and at least one oxidant heater arranged in a manner so as to reduce the temperature and humidity of the exhaust gas (flue gas) stream and recover a major portion of the associated sensible and latent heat. The recovered heat is returned to the steam generator or water heater so as to increase the quantity of steam generated or water heated per quantity of fuel consumed. In addition, a portion of the water vapor produced by combustion of fuel is reclaimed for use as feed water, thereby reducing the make-up water requirement for the system.

  11. Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Yuill

    2008-06-30

    The following document is the final report for DE-FC26-05NT42327: Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater. This work was carried out under a cooperative agreement from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with additional funding from Keltech, Inc. The objective of the project was to improve the temperature control performance of an electric tankless water heater (TWH). The reason for doing this is to minimize or eliminate one of the barriers to wider adoption of the TWH. TWH use less energy than typical (storage) water heaters because of the elimination of standby losses, so wider adoption will lead to reduced energy consumption. The project was carried out by Building Solutions, Inc. (BSI), a small business based in Omaha, Nebraska. BSI partnered with Keltech, Inc., a manufacturer of electric tankless water heaters based in Delton, Michigan. Additional work was carried out by the University of Nebraska and Mike Coward. A background study revealed several advantages and disadvantages to TWH. Besides using less energy than storage heaters, TWH provide an endless supply of hot water, have a longer life, use less floor space, can be used at point-of-use, and are suitable as boosters to enable alternative water heating technologies, such as solar or heat-pump water heaters. Their disadvantages are their higher cost, large instantaneous power requirement, and poor temperature control. A test method was developed to quantify performance under a representative range of disturbances to flow rate and inlet temperature. A device capable of conducting this test was designed and built. Some heaters currently on the market were tested, and were found to perform quite poorly. A new controller was designed using model predictive control (MPC). This control method required an accurate dynamic model to be created and required significant tuning to the controller before good control was achieved. The MPC design

  12. NREL Tests Integrated Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in Different Climates (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL tests to capture information about heat pump performance across a wide range of ambient conditions for five heat pump water heaters (HPWH). These water heaters have the potential to significantly reduce water heater energy use relative to traditional electric resistance water heaters. These tests have provided detailed performance data for these appliances, which have been used to evaluate the cost of saved energy as a function of climate. The performance of HPWHs is dependent on ambient air temperature and humidity and the logic controlling the heat pump and the backup resistance heaters. The laboratory tests were designed to measure each unit's performance across a range of air conditions and determine the specific logic controlling the two heat sources, which has a large effect on the comfort of the users and the energy efficiency of the system. Unlike other types of water heaters, HPWHs are both influenced by and have an effect on their surroundings. Since these effects are complex and different for virtually every house and climate region, creating an accurate HPWH model from the data gathered during the laboratory tests was a main goal of the project. Using the results from NREL's laboratory tests, such as the Coefficient of Performance (COP) curves for different air conditions as shown in Figure 1, an existing HPWH model is being modified to produce more accurate whole-house simulations. This will allow the interactions between the HPWH and the home's heating and cooling system to be evaluated in detail, for any climate region. Once these modeling capabilities are in place, a realistic cost-benefit analysis can be performed for a HPWH installation anywhere in the country. An accurate HPWH model will help to quantify the savings associated with installing a HPWH in the place of a standard electric water heater. In most locations, HPWHs are not yet a cost-effective alternative to natural gas water heaters. The detailed

  13. The Newest Addition to the ENERGY STAR Lineup: Water Heaters | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy The Newest Addition to the ENERGY STAR Lineup: Water Heaters The Newest Addition to the ENERGY STAR Lineup: Water Heaters February 17, 2009 - 9:48am Addthis Elizabeth Spencer Communicator, National Renewable Energy Laboratory If you've gone shopping for new appliances sometime in the last decade, then you're probably familiar with the ENERGY STAR® label. ENERGY STAR is a partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that sets

  14. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  15. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged on the U.S. market. These units have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine what actual in use energy consumption of a HPWH may be in different regions of the U.S., annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the U.S. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  16. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, Jeff; Burch, Jay; Merrigan, Tim; Ong, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged on the U.S. market, and they have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine the actual energy consumption of a HPWH in different U.S. regions, annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the United States. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  17. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS IN COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS USING CARBON DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOWERS C.D.; ELBEL S.; PETERSEN M.; HRNJAK P.S.

    2011-07-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82?ºC (180?ºF), as required by sanitary codes in the U.S.(Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20%.

  18. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost-effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads and found that the tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system, among other key findings.

  19. Covered Product Category: Residential Whole-Home Gas Tankless Water Heaters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including whole-home gas tankless water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  20. Covered Product Category: Residential Whole-Home Gas Tankless Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including whole-home gas tankless water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  1. Development of High Efficiency Carbon Dioxide Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael PETERSEN; Chad D. BOWERS; Stefan ELBEL; Pega HRNJAK

    2012-07-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in both Japan and Europe, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such products in the US has been limited. While this trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but acceptance remains low in the commercial sector. The objective of the presented work is the development of a high efficiency R744 heat pump water heater for commercial applications with effective utilization of the cooling capability for air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The ultimate goal is to achieve total system COP of up to 8. This unit will be targeted at commercial use where some cooling load is typically needed year round, such as restaurants, hotels, nursing homes, and hospitals. This paper presents the performance results from the development of four R744 commercial heat pump water heater packages of approximately 35 kW and comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, the influences of an internal heat exchanger and an enhanced evaporator on the system performance are described and recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system.

  2. Measure Guideline. Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, Carl; Puttagunta, Srikanth; Owens, Douglas

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs

  3. Aqueous propylene-glycol concentrations for the freeze protection of thermosyphon solar energy water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, B. ); Edmonds, J.E.J. )

    1991-01-01

    Using a validated dynamic simulation model, the thermal performance of an indirect thermosyphon solar energy water heater was examined. The heat transfer fluids employed were aqueous solutions of propylene glycol. The effect of varying the glycol concentration on the hot water output and efficacy of freeze protection was determined for a specific pattern of hot water withdrawal and weather for the temperature maritime climate of London, England. The heat output is compared with that of a drain-down direct system.

  4. Cool Roofs

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... Selecting cool roof type that retains better surface properties can give better lifetime energy savings for the cool roof. For the metal roof, these metal roofs have better ...

  5. ISSUANCE 2015-05-12: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Test Procedures for Consumer and Commercial Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Test Procedures for Consumer and Commercial Water Heaters

  6. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast, Massachusetts and Rhode Island (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-12-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring, A.O. Smith Voltex, and Stiebel Eltron Accelera 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  7. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America field testing that shed light on how real-world water usage affects energy saving estimates of high-efficiency water heating systems.

  8. Measure Guideline: Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Owens, D.

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) promise to significantly reduce energy consumption for domestic hot water (DHW) over standard electric resistance water heaters (ERWHs). While ERWHs perform with energy factors (EFs) around 0.9, new HPWHs boast EFs upwards of 2.0. High energy factors in HPWHs are achieved by combining a vapor compression system, which extracts heat from the surrounding air at high efficiencies, with electric resistance element(s), which are better suited to meet large hot water demands. Swapping ERWHs with HPWHs could result in roughly 50% reduction in water heating energy consumption for 35.6% of all U.S. households. This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. While HPWHs promise to significantly reduce energy use for DHW, proper installation, selection, and maintenance of HPWHs is required to ensure high operating efficiency and reliability. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding HPWHs to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Section 1 of this guideline provides a brief description of HPWHs and their operation. Section 2 highlights the cost and energy savings of HPWHs as well as the variables that affect HPWH performance, reliability, and efficiency. Section 3 gives guidelines for proper installation and maintenance of HPWHs, selection criteria for locating HPWHs, and highlights of important differences between ERWH and HPWH installations. Throughout this document, CARB has included results from the evaluation of 14 heat pump water heaters (including three recently released HPWH

  9. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    other refrigerants), CO2 also has greater potential for use in residentialcommercial demand response units, as well as for high-temperature commercial water heating applications. ...

  10. Heat Pump Water Heaters: Controlled Field Research of Impact on Space Conditioning and Demand Response Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Graham B.; Widder, Sarah H.; Eklund, Ken; Petersen, Joseph M.; Sullivan, Greg

    2015-10-05

    A new generation of heat pump water heaters (HPWH) has been introduced into the U.S. market that promises to provide significant energy savings for water heating. Many electric utilities are promoting their widespread adoption as a key technology for meeting energy conservation goals and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, considerable uncertainty regarding the space conditioning impact of an HPWH installed in a conditioned space. There is also uncertainty regarding the potential for deployment of HPWHs in demand response (DR) programs to help manage and balance peak utility loads in a similar manner as conventional electric resistance water heaters (ERWH). To help answer these uncertainties, controlled experiments have been undertaken over 30 months in a matched pair of unoccupied Lab Homes located on the campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington.

  11. The elimination of the reverse circulation in thermosiphon solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prapas, D.E.; Sotiropoulos, B.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Thermosiphon solar water heaters (TSWH), employing either closed or open collector loops, are widely used today to cover a substantial part of the hot water needs, mostly in residential small scale applications. Their cost is lower in comparison to pumped systems, because no pumps, controls etc. are required. However, the storage tank has to be mounted above the collector in order to promote the thermosiphon flow; this could be a serious drawback in some applications. An undesirable characteristic of TSWH is the reverse circulation (RC) of the working liquid when the temperature of the collector is lower than that of the storage tank. The causes of reverse circulation in thermosyphon solar water heaters, the geometry of the systems, and the affects of nocturnal radiative cooling of the collector are discussed. A means of interconnecting collector and tank to drastically reduce reverse circulation is presented.

  12. Impact on Water Heater Performance of Heating Methods that Promote Tank Temperature Stratification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R; BushPE, John D

    2016-01-01

    During heating of a water heater tank, the vertical temperature stratification of the water can be increased or decreased, depending on the method of heating. Methods that increase stratification during heating include (1) removing cold water from the tank bottom, heating it, and re-introducing it to the tank top at relatively low flow rate, (2) using a heat exchanger wrapped around the tank, through which heating fluid (with finite specific heat) flows from top to bottom, and (3) using an immersed heat element that is relatively high in the tank. Using such methods allows for improved heat pump water heater (HPWH) cycle efficiencies when the heat pump can take advantage of the lower temperatures that exist lower in the tank, and accommodate the resulting glide. Transcritical cycles are especially well-suited to capitalize on this opportunity, and other HPWH configurations (that have been proposed elsewhere) may benefit as well. This work provides several stratification categories of heat pump water heater tank configurations relevant to their stratification potential. To illustrate key differences among categories, it also compiles available experimental data for (a) single pass pumped flow, (b) multi-pass pumped flow, and (c) top-down wrapped tank with transcritical refrigerant.

  13. EERE Success Story—Xergy Develops Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    New HVAC, water heating, and appliance technologies that work without conventional refrigerants are critical for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to reach its long-term goal of cutting building...

  14. Xergy Ships First Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor to GE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    New HVAC, water heating, and appliance technologies that work without conventional refrigerants are critical for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to reach its long-term goal of cutting building...

  15. Orlando Utilities Commission- Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Through a partnership with the Orlando Federal Credit Union (OFCU), OUC also offers a Residential Solar Loan Program to finance the solar hot water system. Customers who choose to finance through...

  16. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudon, K.; Sparn, B.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.

    2012-02-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. Laboratory results demonstrate the efficiency of this technology under most of the conditions tested and show that differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the individual units. These results were used to understand current model limitations, and then to bracket the energy savings potential for HPWH technology in various US climate regions. Simulation results show that HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in many climate zones when compared to other types of water heaters (up to 64%, including impact on HVAC systems).

  17. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  18. Study Design And Realization Of Solar Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lounis, M.; Boudjemaa, F.; Akil, S. Kouider

    2011-01-17

    Solar is one of the most easily exploitable energy, it is moreover inexhaustible. His applications are many and are varied. The heating of the domestic water is one of the most immediate, simplest and also of most widespread exploitation of the solar energy. Algeria, from its geographical situation, it deposits one of the largest high sun surface expositions in the world. The exposition duration of the almost territory exceeds 2000 hours annually and can reach the 3900 hours (high plateaus and Sahara). By knowing the daily energy received by 1 m{sup 2} of a horizontal surface of the solar thermal panel is nearly around 1700 KWh/m{sup 2} a year in the north and 2263 KWh/m{sup 2} a year in the south of the country, we release the most important and strategic place of the solar technologies in the present and in the future for Algeria. This work consists to study, conceive and manufacture solar water heating with the available local materials so, this type of the energy will be profitable for all, particularly the poor countries. If we consider the illumination duration of the panel around 6 hours a day, the water heat panel manufactured in our laboratory produce an equivalent energy of 11.615 KWh a day so, 4239 KWh a year. These values of energy can be easily increased with performing the panel manufacture.

  19. ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to $823 Million in the Next Five Years

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced the availability of ENERGY STAR® residential water heaters. With today's announcement, the ENERGY STAR® program now addresses every...

  20. Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

    2013-01-21

    For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

  1. Solar conductive spa water heater and safety cover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ely, G.W.

    1987-04-28

    This patent describes a solar conductive portable cover for a spa which has an opening for access comprising a rigid plastic member vacuum formed in a series of interconnected parallel U-shaped channels. Each channel is separated from an adjacent channel by a wall. A shape conforms plastic top solvent or heat is welded to a top surface of the walls to form a cover wider in diameter than the opening of the spa, such that the cover rests on coping at the top of the spa. Method is described for heating water for a spa comprising covering the top of the spa with a portable rigid thin plastic member forming a cover wider than the opening of the spa such that the cover rests on coping at the top of the spa and having a series of parallel U-shaped channels.

  2. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2016-07-05

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, and methods of managing refrigerant charge. Various embodiments remove idle refrigerant from a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat by opening a refrigerant recovery valve and delivering the idle refrigerant from the heat exchanger to an inlet port on the compressor. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled by controlling how much refrigerant is drawn from the heat exchanger, by letting some refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and various components can be interconnected with refrigerant conduit. Some embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to the heat exchanger and drive liquid refrigerant out prior to isolating the heat exchanger.

  3. Building America Expert Meeting: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

  4. Revisions to the SRCC Rating Process for Solar Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Huggins, J.; Long, S.; Thornton, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are computed with component-based simulation models driven by typical meteorological year weather and specified water draw. Changes in the process are being implemented to enhance credibility through increased transparency and accuracy. Changes to the process include using a graphical rather than text-based model-building tool, performing analytical tests on all components and systems, checking energy balances on every component, loop, and system at every time step, comparing the results to detect outliers and potential errors, and documenting the modeling process in detail. Examples of changes in ratings are shown, along with analytical and comparative testing results.

  5. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads with the following key findings: 1) The tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system. 2) The tankless combo system consistently achieved better daily efficiencies (i.e. 84%-93%) than the storage combo system (i.e. 81%- 91%) when the air handler was sized adequately and adjusted properly to achieve significant condensing operation. When condensing operation was not achieved, both systems performed with lower (i.e. 75%-88%), but similar efficiencies. 3) Air handlers currently packaged with combo systems are not designed to optimize condensing operation. More research is needed to develop air handlers specifically designed for condensing water heaters. 4) System efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved only on days where continual and steady space heating loads were required with significant condensing operation. For days where heating was more intermittent, the system efficiencies fell below 90%.

  6. Impact of Pilot Light Modeling on the Predicted Annual Performance of Residential Gas Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.

    2013-08-01

    Modeling residential water heaters with dynamic simulation models can provide accurate estimates of their annual energy consumption, if the units? characteristics and use conditions are known. Most gas storage water heaters (GSWHs) include a standing pilot light. It is generally assumed that the pilot light energy will help make up standby losses and have no impact on the predicted annual energy consumption. However, that is not always the case. The gas input rate and conversion efficiency of a pilot light for a GSWH were determined from laboratory data. The data were used in simulations of a typical GSWH with and without a pilot light, for two cases: 1) the GSWH is used alone; and 2) the GSWH is the second tank in a solar water heating (SWH) system. The sensitivity of wasted pilot light energy to annual hot water use, climate, and installation location was examined. The GSWH used alone in unconditioned space in a hot climate had a slight increase in energy consumption. The GSWH with a pilot light used as a backup to an SWH used up to 80% more auxiliary energy than one without in hot, sunny locations, from increased tank losses.

  7. Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2014-07-21

    Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes’ space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.

  8. 2015-03-25 Issuance: Definitions Regarding Consumer Water Heaters Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding definitions for consumer water heaters, as issued by the Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on March 25, 2015. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  9. 2015-03-26 Issuance: Residential Water Heaters; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Withdrawal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking withdrawal regarding Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, as issued by the Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on March 26, 2015. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  10. 2014-06-27 Issuance: Test Procedures for Residential and Commercial Water Heaters; Final Rule

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding test procedures for residential and commercial water heaters, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on June 27, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  11. Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Williamson, J.

    2013-11-01

    Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more readily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a GE Geospring HPWH in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

  12. Technology Solutions Case Study: Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-11-01

    Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more readily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a GE Geospring HPWH in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

  13. Modeling of Electric Water Heaters for Demand Response: A Baseline PDE Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Zhijie; Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Yu

    2014-09-05

    Demand response (DR)control can effectively relieve balancing and frequency regulation burdens on conventional generators, facilitate integrating more renewable energy, and reduce generation and transmission investments needed to meet peak demands. Electric water heaters (EWHs) have a great potential in implementing DR control strategies because: (a) the EWH power consumption has a high correlation with daily load patterns; (b) they constitute a significant percentage of domestic electrical load; (c) the heating element is a resistor, without reactive power consumption; and (d) they can be used as energy storage devices when needed. Accurately modeling the dynamic behavior of EWHs is essential for designing DR controls. Various water heater models, simplified to different extents, were published in the literature; however, few of them were validated against field measurements, which may result in inaccuracy when implementing DR controls. In this paper, a partial differential equation physics-based model, developed to capture detailed temperature profiles at different tank locations, is validated against field test data for more than 10 days. The developed model shows very good performance in capturing water thermal dynamics for benchmark testing purposes

  14. ISSUANCE 2015-06-25: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Test Procedures for Residential and Commercial Water Heaters; Correction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Test Procedures for Residential and Commercial Water Heaters; Correction

  15. Assessing Consumer Values and the Supply-Chain Market for the Integrated Water Heater/Dehumidifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashdown, BG

    2005-01-11

    This paper presents a case study of the potential market for the dual-service residential integrated water heater/dehumidifier (WHD). Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which this integrated appliance might penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to assess market readiness as well as factor preferred product attributes into the design to drive consumer demand for this product. This study also supports analysis for prototype design. A full market analysis for potential commercialization should be conducted after prototype development. The integrated WHD is essentially a heat-pump water heater (HPWH) with components and controls that allow dedicated dehumidification. Adequate residential humidity control is a growing issue for newly constructed residential homes, which are insulated so well that mechanical ventilation may be necessary to meet fresh air requirements. Leveraging its successful experience with the energy-efficient design improvement for the residential HPWH, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Engineering Science and Technology Division's (ESTD's) Building Equipment Group designed a water-heating appliance that combines HPWH efficiency with dedicated dehumidification. This integrated appliance could be a low-cost solution for dehumidification and efficient electric water heating. ORNL is partnering with Western Carolina University, Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College, American Carolina Stamping Company, and Clemson University to develop this appliance and assess its market potential. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to how water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost, operating cost, performance

  16. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, Vi H.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-03-01

    The research summarized in this report is part of a larger effort to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of using liquefied natural gas in California. A difference of potential importance between many liquefied natural gas blends and the natural gas blends that have been distributed in California in recent years is the higher Wobbe number of liquefied natural gas. Wobbe number is a measure of the energy delivery rate for appliances that use orifice- or pressure-based fuel metering. The effect of Wobbe number on pollutant emissions from residential water heaters was evaluated in controlled experiments. Experiments were conducted on eight storage water heaters, including five with “ultra low-NO{sub X}” burners, and four on-demand (tankless) water heaters, all of which featured ultra low-NO{sub X} burners. Pollutant emissions were quantified as air-free concentrations in the appliance flue and fuel-based emission factors in units of nanogram of pollutant emitter per joule of fuel energy consumed. Emissions were measured for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), nitrogen oxide (NO), formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as the water heaters were operated through defined operating cycles using fuels with varying Wobbe number. The reference fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number ranging from 1344 to 1365. Test fuels had Wobbe numbers of 1360, 1390 and 1420. The most prominent finding was an increase in NO{sub X} emissions with increasing Wobbe number: all five of the ultra low-NO{sub X} storage water heaters and two of the four ultra low-NO{sub X} on-demand water heaters had statistically discernible (p<0.10) increases in NO{sub X} with fuel Wobbe number. The largest percentage increases occurred for the ultra low-NO{sub X} water heaters. There was a discernible change in CO emissions with Wobbe number for all four of the on-demand devices tested. The on-demand water heater with the highest CO emissions also had the largest CO increase

  17. Accuracy of the European solar water heater test procedure. Part 1: Measurement errors and parameter estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabl, A.; Leide, B. ); Carvalho, M.J.; Collares-Pereira, M. ); Bourges, B.

    1991-01-01

    The Collector and System Testing Group (CSTG) of the European Community has developed a procedure for testing the performance of solar water heaters. This procedure treats a solar water heater as a black box with input-output parameters that are determined by all-day tests. In the present study the authors carry out a systematic analysis of the accuracy of this procedure, in order to answer the question: what tolerances should one impose for the measurements and how many days of testing should one demand under what meteorological conditions, in order to be able to quarantee a specified maximum error for the long term performance The methodology is applicable to other test procedures as well. The present paper (Part 1) examines the measurement tolerances of the current version of the procedure and derives a priori estimates of the errors of the parameters; these errors are then compared with the regression results of the Round Robin test series. The companion paper (Part 2) evaluates the consequences for the accuracy of the long term performance prediction. The authors conclude that the CSTG test procedure makes it possible to predict the long term performance with standard errors around 5% for sunny climates (10% for cloudy climates). The apparent precision of individual test sequences is deceptive because of large systematic discrepancies between different sequences. Better results could be obtained by imposing tighter control on the constancy of the cold water supply temperature and on the environment of the test, the latter by enforcing the recommendation for the ventilation of the collector.

  18. Roof Renovations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The roof of a Federal building is a common placement for a number of renewable energy technologies, so they should be addressed anytime a roof renovation is undertaken, including roof-mounted...

  19. National Solar Water Heater Workshop Present at DOE Region V meeting for managers of State Energy Extension Service and State Energy Conservation Plan, March 18-19, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mumma, S.A.; Marinello, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    After a brief description of the National Solar Water Heater Workshop and some comments by users of the solar water heater, the hardware supplier handbook is presented. The performance expected of a hardware supplier is described, solar system components and their specifications are listed, and information is provided to assist the hardware supplier in obtaining necessary materials. (LEW)

  20. Characteristics and experiences of applicants for HUD grants for solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-eight winners and 45 losers of HUD solar water heater grants in the Florida panhandle were interviewed in 1978 concerning their experiences, and their solar installations were inspected. Operational problems were mostly attributable to control system failure. Grantees were generally pleased with the subsidy program. Grant recipients were not typical of the general public, in that they were mostly middle-aged, well-educated, reasonably affluent people who had a technical background, liked to do things on their own, and were fairly sophisticated so far as energy problems were concerned. It may be that the grant program is not having a great effect on solar energy commercialization, except perhaps in terms of publicity; the recipients generally would have installed systems without a grant, and most of the losers had gone ahead with a solar installation or were planning to do so.

  1. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 1: Transmittal documents; Executive summary; Project summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described.

  2. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To evaluate the performance of central heat pump water heaters for multifamily applications, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California, for 16 months.

  3. White Roofs

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chu, Steven

    2013-05-29

    Secretary Steven Chu discusses the benefits of switching to white roofs and light colored pavements.

  4. West Village Community: Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. The project when complete will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community's impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  5. West Village Community. Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. When complete, the project will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community’s impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  6. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology: Experiences of Residential Consumers and Utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashdown, BG

    2004-08-04

    This paper presents a case study of the residential heat pump water heater (HPWH) market. Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which the HPWH will penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to compare readiness and to factor attributes of market demand back into product design. This study is a rapid prototype analysis rather than a detailed case analysis. For this reason, primary data collection was limited and reliance on secondary sources was extensive. Despite having met its technical goals and having been on the market for twenty years, the HPWH has had virtually no impact on contributing to the nation's water heating. In some cases, HPWH reliability and quality control are well below market expectations, and early units developed a reputation for unreliability, especially when measured against conventional water heaters. In addition to reliability problems, first costs of HPWH units can be three to five times higher than conventional units. Without a solid, well-managed business plan, most consumers will not be drawn to this product. This is unfortunate. Despite its higher first costs, efficiency of an HPWH is double that of a conventional water heater. The HPWH also offers an attractive payback period of two to five years, depending on hot water usage. On a strict life-cycle basis it supplies hot water very cost effectively. Water heating accounts for 17% of the nation's residential consumption of electricity (see chart at left)--water heating is second only to space heating in total residential energy use. Simple arithmetic suggests that this figure could be reduced to the extent HPWH technology displaces conventional water heating. In addition, the HPWH offers other benefits. Because it

  7. 2014-10-14 Issuance: Test Procedures and Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Solar Water Heaters; Request for Information

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register request for information regarding test procedures and energy conservation standards for residential solar water heaters, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on October 14, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  8. ISSUANCE 2015-03-27: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Test Procedures for Consumer and Commercial Water Heaters, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Test Procedures for Consumer and Commercial Water Heaters, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  9. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  10. Green Roofs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  11. Convective heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorogood, Robert M.

    1986-01-01

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.

  12. Convective heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorogood, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.

  13. Convective heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorogood, R.M.

    1983-12-27

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation. 14 figs.

  14. Accuracy of the European solar water heater test procedure. Part 2: Prediction of long-term performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabl, A. ); Carvalho, M.J.; Collares-Pereira, M. ); Bourges, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper continues the evaluation of the European test procedure for solar water heaters, by considering what consequences the errors of the parameters (derived in Part 1, the companion paper) will have for the prediction of the long-term performance. A simple criterion is derived for the required length of the test period, as a function of climatic variables and desired accuracy of the long-term performance prediction. Typically a duration of 10 to 50 days will suffice. Since the actual conditions during a test cannot be foreseen, it will be more efficient to calculate the error of the long-term performance prediction on line at the end of each test day and terminate the series whenever acceptable accuracy is reached.

  15. Low-Cost Batch Solar Water Heater Research and Development Project: results from extended field monitoring. Final report, January 1, 1983-May 15, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.L.

    1984-02-01

    This report contains the results of a four month field test and evaluation of a 30 gallon inverted batch solar water heater known as the Bottomgainer. It was installed on a residence in Santa Fe and monitored with automatic data recorders including solar radiation meter, dual channel Btu meters, water meter and 16 channel strip chart temperature recorder. Average values of heat gain, heat loss, collection efficiency, solar heating fraction and cash benefits are presented and discussed.

  16. Performance of Gas-fired Water Heaters in a 10-home Field Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 25, 2012, and addressed the question "Are high-efficiency hot water heating systems worth the cost?"

  17. Promising Technology: Cool Roofs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A cool roof increases the solar reflectance of the roof surface. By reflecting more sunlight, the roof surface maintains a cooler temperature. This decrease in temperature leads to less heat transfer through the roof into the building below. During the cooling season, the addition of a cool roof can decrease the cooling load of the building.

  18. Bounding Limitations in the Practical Design of Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Sharma, Vishaldeep; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R

    2016-01-01

    The boundary temperatures for any sorption-based technology can be estimated on the basis of Trouton s hypothesis that isosteres, extrapolated to infinite pressure (or analogously to infinite temperature) meet at a single point. In this paper we discuss the consequences of this hypothesis for many sorption devices that are thermally operated, suitable for exploiting renewable energy resources, or making better use of high or low level thermal energy. Trouton s hypothesis is independent of the working fluids making it particularly useful to both liquid-vapor and solid-vapor systems. We exemplify the use of the derived boundary temperatures derived from Trouton s hypothesis to important processes such as ice making, space cooling in hot climates, deep freezing, and residential hot water production. The boundary temperatures help determine which sorption or solar heating technology may be better suited to serve the given application, or whether it is beyond the scope of sorption systems.

  19. Gas Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    How They Work Gas pool heaters use either natural gas or propane. As the pump circulates the pool's water, the water drawn from the pool passes through a filter and then to the ...

  20. Residential Water Heaters Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ENERGY LABORATORY Technology Overview - Condensing Storage * Fuels: Natural Gas, Propane * Much greater surface area of flue pipe, more heat transfer and combustion gases...

  1. Solar Water Heater Rebate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Residential utility customers in Hawaii, Honolulu, and Maui counties can choose between a direct upfront rebate of $1,000 or a $1,000 interest rate buydown. They cannot receive both. The upfront...

  2. Roof bolting improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-11-15

    Suppliers partner with mine operators to offer safer, more productive tools for roof bolting. 4 figs.

  3. One Cool Roof

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 134,629 sq. ft. (about 3 acres) roof of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) building in Oak Ridge, Tennessee is now officially a "Cool Roof" -- making it energy efficient in ways that darker roofs are not. Cool roofs are light in color, and therefore, reflect rather than absorb sunlight.

  4. Portable solar heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilar, L.J.

    1981-08-18

    A portable solar heater combines a self-contained hot air and heat storage system having a collector area with adjustable reflectors in a unit that can be moved from room to room as needed. The heater has fans for circulation of the solar heater air and provides both direct and indirect heat transfer to the ambient room air.

  5. Water Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Basics Water Heating Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:15am Addthis A variety of systems are available for water heating in homes and buildings. Learn about: Conventional Storage Water Heaters Demand (Tankless or Instantaneous) Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Addthis Related Articles Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics Heat Pump Water Heater Basics Energy Basics Home Renewable Energy Homes &

  6. Packaged die heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  7. Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James D.; Biermayer, Peter; King, Derek

    2008-10-27

    Energy required for water heating accounts for approximately 40percent of national residential natural gas consumption in California. With water heating contributing such a substantial portion of natural gas consumption, it is important to pay attention to water heater efficiencies. This paper reports on an investigation of a patented, buoyancy-operated flue damper. It is an add-on design to a standard atmospherically vented natural-draft gas-fired storage water heater. The flue damper was expected to reduce off-cycle standby losses, which would lead to improvements in the efficiency of the water heater. The test results showed that the Energy Factor of the baseline water heater was 0.576. The recovery efficiency was 0.768. The standby heat loss coefficient was 10.619 (BTU/hr-oF). After the damper was installed, the test results show an Energy Factor for the baseline water heater of 0.605. The recovery efficiency was 0.786. The standby heat loss coefficient was 9.135 (BTU/hr-oF). The recovery efficiency increased 2.3percent and the standby heat loss coefficient decreased 14percent. When the burner was on, the baseline water heater caused 28.0 CFM of air to flow from the room. During standby, the flow was 12.4 CFM. The addition of the damper reduced the flow when the burner was on to 23.5 CFM. During standby, flow with the damper was reduced to 11.1 CFM. The flue damper reduced off-cycle standby losses, and improved the efficiency of the water heater. The flue damper also improved the recovery efficiency of the water heater by restricting on-cycle air flows through the flue.With or without the flue damper, off-cycle air flow upthe stack is nearly half the air flow rate as when the burner is firing.

  8. New "Cool Roof Time Machine" Will Accelerate Cool Roof Deployment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    "Cool Roof Time Machine" Will Accelerate Cool Roof Deployment New "Cool Roof Time Machine" Will Accelerate Cool Roof Deployment April 24, 2015 - 4:21pm Addthis Berkeley Lab...

  9. Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate Windermere, Florida Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more read- ily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. A key feature of an HPWH unit is that it is a hybrid system. When conditions are favorable, the unit will operate in heat pump mode (using a vapor compression system that extracts heat from the surrounding air) to effciently provide domestic hot water (DHW). Homeowners need not

  10. Water Heating Products and Services | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Find ENERGY STAR Gas Tankless Water Heaters ENERGY STAR Find ENERGY STAR Heat Pump Water Heaters ENERGY STAR Find ENERGY STAR Solar Water Heaters ENERGY STAR Find Product ...

  11. Guide to Cool Roofs

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    beautify your home. The immediate and long-term benefits of roofs that stay cool in the sun have made cool roofing the fastest growing sector of the building industry. Studies...

  12. Portable solar heater structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holley, D.; Holley, D.E.

    1981-09-08

    Portable solar heater structure is described. A substantially rectangular frame has a back with openings therethrough for permitting air to be drawn into the solar heater. A layer of insulating materials is in contact with the back. A plurality of cupshaped solar collectors open toward the front of the solar heater structure are positioned adjacent the insulating material. A cover is over the front of the solar heater having openings therein adjacent the top thereof through which air heated by the solar heater is passed. A passage is between the openings in the back and cover of the solar heater through which relatively cool air is drawn through the openings in the back over the collectors to be heated for subsequent withdrawal through the openings in the cover.

  13. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Coit, William George; Griffin, Peter Terry; Hamilton, Paul Taylor; Hsu, Chia-Fu; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Samuel, Allan James; Watkins, Ronnie Wade

    2012-07-31

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  14. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Coit, William George; Griffin, Peter Terry; Hamilton, Paul Taylor; Hsu, Chia-Fu; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Samuel, Allan James; Watkins, Ronnie Wade

    2010-11-09

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  15. Regional Climate Zone Modeling of a Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Hot Water Heater Part 1: Southern and South Central Climate Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geoghegan, Patrick J; Shen, Bo; Keinath, Christopher M.; Garrabrant, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial hot water heating accounts for approximately 0.78 Quads of primary energy use with 0.44 Quads of this amount from natural gas fired heaters. An ammonia-water based commercial absorption system, if fully deployed, could achieve a high level of savings, much higher than would be possible by conversion to the high efficiency nonheat-pump gas fired alternatives. In comparison with air source electric heat pumps, the absorption system is able to maintain higher coefficients of performance in colder climates. The ammonia-water system also has the advantage of zero Ozone Depletion Potential and low Global Warming Potential. A thermodynamic model of a single effect ammonia-water absorption system for commercial space and water heating was developed, and its performance was investigated for a range of ambient and return water temperatures. This allowed for the development of a performance map which was then used in a building energy modeling software. Modeling of two commercial water heating systems was performed; one using an absorption heat pump and another using a condensing gas storage system. The energy and financial savings were investigated for a range of locations and climate zones in the southern and south central United States. A follow up paper will analyze northern and north/central regions. Results showed that the system using an absorption heat pump offers significant savings.

  16. Solar collector roof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marossy, G.; Mueller, W.E.

    1983-07-19

    A solar roof is disclosed for providing air heated by solar energy to the interior of a prefabricated building of the type having a relatively low pitched roof structure formed by a plurality of interlocking ribbed roof panels. A solar radiation transmissive glazing is attached between the roof panel ribs or other support members to form air passageways. A duct-like inlet plenum communicates with the inlet of each passageway for selectively directing air from inside or outside of the building passageways. A duct-like exhaust plenum communicates with the outlet of each passageway for directing heated air to the building interior. The roof surface may be provided with a darkened coating to increase the absorptivity of the surface and increase the collecting efficiency. The glazing material may be thin flexible solar radiation transmissive sheets or relatively rigid panels of solar radiation transmissive material. The solar roof may be retrofitted to an existing roof structure to provide supplemental solar heating capability.

  17. Roof Savings Calculator Suite

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-11-22

    The software options currently supported by the simulation engine can be seen/experienced at www.roofcalc.com. It defaults all values to national averages with options to test a base-case (residential or commercial) building versus a comparison building with inputs for building type, location, building vintage, conditioned area, number of floors, and window-to-wall ratio, cooling system efficiency, type of heating, heating system efficiency, duct location, roof/ceiling insulation level, above-sheathing ventilation, radiant barrier, roof thermal mass, roof solar reflectance,more » roof thermal emittance, utility costs, roof pitch. The Roof Savings Caculator Suite adds utilities and website/web service and the integration of AtticSim with DOE-2.1E, with the end-result being Roof Savings Calculator.« less

  18. Roof Savings Calculator Suite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    New, Joshua R; Garrett, Aaron; Erdem, Ender; Huang, Yu

    2013-11-22

    The software options currently supported by the simulation engine can be seen/experienced at www.roofcalc.com. It defaults all values to national averages with options to test a base-case (residential or commercial) building versus a comparison building with inputs for building type, location, building vintage, conditioned area, number of floors, and window-to-wall ratio, cooling system efficiency, type of heating, heating system efficiency, duct location, roof/ceiling insulation level, above-sheathing ventilation, radiant barrier, roof thermal mass, roof solar reflectance, roof thermal emittance, utility costs, roof pitch. The Roof Savings Caculator Suite adds utilities and website/web service and the integration of AtticSim with DOE-2.1E, with the end-result being Roof Savings Calculator.

  19. SolarRoofs com | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    95608 Sector: Solar Product: California-based manufacturer of the patented Skyline solar water heating systems. References: SolarRoofs.com1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  20. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Public Services Homes Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water...

  1. Mine roof support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bollmann, A.

    1981-02-24

    A mine roof support has a base and a roof shield pivoted to the base and carrying at its upper end a pivoted cap which is urged upwardly against the mine roof by a hydraulic pit prop reacting between the cap and the base. The lower end of the roof shield is connected to the base by two links each having a pivot cooperating with a pivot on the roof shield, and a pivot cooperating with a pivot on the base. In addition, the base and/or the lower end of the roof shield has an auxiliary for each link and each link has an auxiliary pivot which can be connected with one of the auxiliary pivots of the base or lower end.

  2. Portable kerosene heater controversy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Decker, M.O.

    1982-04-01

    The National Kerosene Heater Association reports sales of slightly fewer than two million heaters in the United States between 1975 and 1979. More than one million were sold in 1980 and they project sales of eight to ten million by 1985. Kerosene heater dealers are urged to post warnings to customers specifying the grade of kerosene to be used. 1-K kerosene has a maximum sulfur content of .04% and is generally suitable for use in nonflue-connected burners. 2-K kerosene, with a sulfur content of as much as .30% should be used only in flue-connected burner applications. (JMT)

  3. Energy 101: Cool Roofs

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    This edition of Energy 101 takes a look at how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment.

  4. Cool Roofing Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cool Roofing Technologies Hashem Akbari Heat Island Group Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Tel: 510-486-4287 E_mail: H_Akbari@LBL.gov http://HeatIsland.LBL.gov STEAB Visit to LBNL August 14, 2007 2 Orthophoto of Sacramento 3 Under the Canopy Fabric of Sacramento, CA 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Downtown Industrial Industrial Office Com. Com. Res. % of surface area Grass Roofs Pavements Others Cooling roofs by increasing solar reflectance * A conventional dark roof absorbs most

  5. Cool Roofs: An Introduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    I've been hearing a lot about cool roof technologies, so I welcomed the chance to learn more at a recent seminar.

  6. Energy 101: Cool Roofs

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    This edition of Energy 101 takes a look at how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment.

  7. Explosives tester with heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Del Eckels, Joel; Nunes, Peter J.; Simpson, Randall L.; Whipple, Richard E.; Carter, J. Chance; Reynolds, John G.

    2010-08-10

    An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

  8. Why Cool Roofs?

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chu, Steven

    2013-05-29

    By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

  9. Guide to Cool Roofs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-02-01

    Traditional dark-colored roofing materials absorb sunlight, making them warm in the sun and increasing the need for air conditioning. White or special "cool color" roofs absorb less sunlight, stay cooler in the sun and transmit less heat into the building.

  10. Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of forced circulation solar water heater system fitted with helical twisted tapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaisankar, S.; Radhakrishnan, T.K.; Sheeba, K.N.

    2009-11-15

    Experimental investigation of heat transfer, friction factor and thermal performance of twisted tape solar water heater with various twist ratios has been conducted and the results are compared with plain tube collector for the same operating conditions with Reynolds number varied from 3000 to 23,000. Experimental data from plain tube collector is validated with the fundamental equations and found that the discrepancy is less than {+-}5.35% and {+-}8.80% for Nusselt number and friction factor, respectively. Correlations have been developed for Nusselt number and friction factor with various twist ratios (Y = 3, 4, 5, 6) and are compared with the experimental values. Results conclude that, heat transfer and pressure drop are higher in twisted tape collector compared to the plain one. Among the various twist ratios, the minimum twist ratio 3 is found to enhance the heat transfer and pressure drop due to swirl generation. As the twist ratio increases, the swirl generation decreases and minimizes the heat transfer and friction factor. (author)

  11. Roof bolting equipment & technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-04-15

    Technology provides an evaluator path to improvement for roof bolting machines. Bucyrus offers three different roof bolts models for various mining conditions. The LRB-15 AR is a single-arm boiler recommended for ranges of 32 inches and above; the dual-arm RB2-52A for ranges of 42 inches and above; and the dual-arm RB2-88A for ranges of 54 inches and above. Design features are discussed in the article. Developments in roof bolting technology by Joy Mining Machinery are reported. 4 photos.

  12. Mine roof support system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Culley, D.H.

    1982-01-26

    A mine roof support system is disclosed having sets of laterally spaced pairs of elongated support members adapted to be moved into and out of abutting relation with a mine roof. Wheel supported frames extend between and connect adjacent end portions of each pair of support members with adjacent wheel supported frames at the ends of the support members being in spaced tandem relation and connected to each other by connector members. Extensible prop members are connected to and move the wheel supported frames and the elongated support members connected thereto selectively toward and away from the mine roof.

  13. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water heating costs. Read more Selecting a New Water Heater Selecting a New Water Heater Tankless? Storage? Solar? Save money on your water heating bill by choosing the right type of energy-efficient water heater for your needs. Read more Sizing a New Water Heater Sizing a New Water Heater When buying a new water heater, bigger is not always better. Learn

  14. Cool Roofs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design » Design for Efficiency » Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Learn how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment. A cool roof is one that has been designed to reflect more sunlight and absorb less heat than a standard roof. Cool roofs can be made of a highly reflective type of paint, a sheet covering, or highly reflective tiles or shingles. Nearly any type of building can benefit from a cool roof, but consider the climate and other factors before deciding to install

  15. Mine roof support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bollmann, A.

    1982-01-05

    A mine roof support has a base, a supporting prop extending upwardly from the base, an elongated roof-supporting element having one portion supported by the supporting prop and another portion telescopable relative to the one portion toward a mine face and having a free end formed as a housing with a width corresponding to the width of the one portion, and a thrust prop arranged to support the free end section of the telescopable portion of the roof-supporting element and having a roof-side end section which is forcedly displaceable in the housing in direction of elongation of a mine and pivotable in a substantially vertical plane about an axle arranged in the housing.

  16. Why Cool Roofs?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple,...

  17. Solar Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Swimming Pool Heaters Solar Swimming Pool Heaters An example of a solar pool heater. An example of a solar pool heater. You can significantly reduce swimming pool heating costs by...

  18. Hot gas engine heater head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berntell, John O.

    1983-01-01

    A heater head for a multi-cylinder double acting hot gas engine in which each cylinder is surrounded by an annular regenerator unit, and in which the tops of each cylinder and its surrounding regenerator are interconnected by a multiplicity of heater tubes. A manifold for the heater tubes has a centrally disposed duct connected to the top of the cylinder and surrounded by a wider duct connecting the other ends of the heater tubes with the regenerator unit.

  19. Development of a gas backup heater for solar domestic hot-water systems. Final report, April 1978-April 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, D.J.; Grunes, H.E.; de Winter, F.; Armstrong, P.R.

    1980-06-01

    A comprehensive program was undertaken to develop a unique gas fired backup for solar domestic hot water systems. Detailed computer design tools were written. A series of heat transfer experiments were performed to characterize the performance of individual components. A full scale engineering prototype, including the solar preheat tank and solar heat exchanger, was designed, fabricated and subjected to limited testing. Firing efficiency for the backup system was found to be 81.4% at a firing rate of 50,000 Btu/h. Long term standby losses should be negligible.

  20. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1995-01-01

    An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  1. Cool Roofs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Spray polyurethane foam roofs are constructed by mixing two liquid chemicals together that react and expand to form one solid piece that adheres to the roof. Foams are highly ...

  2. Corrosion-related failures in feedwater heaters. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beavers, J.A.; Agrawal, A.K.; Berry, W.E.

    1983-07-01

    A survey of the literature was performed for the Electric Power Research Institute on corrosion-related failures in feedwater heaters. The survey was directed toward failures in fossil and in pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants, but includes some pertinent information related to failures in boiling water reactor (BWR) power plants. The survey was organized into sections on the commonly used feedwater heater materials; C steel, brasses, Cu-Ni alloys, MONEL Alloy 400, and Type 304 Stainless Steel. A section on Ti as a potential feedwater heater material also is given in the appendices. Each section is divided into subsections on field experience and laboratory studies tat relate to the field failures that have been observed. Appendices are given on a feedwater heater description, water quality in power plants, forms of corrosion, and failure analysis techniques.

  3. Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    If you want an energy-efficient way to heat your swimming pool, consider using a heat pump pool heater in mild climates.

  4. Regenerative air heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, Paul B.; Baldner, Richard

    1982-01-01

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  5. Regenerative air heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, P.B.; Baldner, R.

    1980-11-26

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  6. Hygrothermal Performance of West Coast Wood Deck Roofing System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pallin, Simon B; Kehrer, Manfred; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2014-02-01

    Simulations of roofing assemblies are necessary in order to understand and adequately predict actual the hygrothermal performance. At the request of GAF, simulations have been setup to verify the difference in performance between white and black roofing membrane colors in relation to critical moisture accumulation for traditional low slope wood deck roofing systems typically deployed in various western U.S. Climate Zones. The performance of these roof assemblies has been simulated in the hygrothermal calculation tool of WUFI, from which the result was evaluated based on a defined criterion for moisture safety. The criterion was defined as the maximum accepted water content for wood materials and the highest acceptable moisture accumulation rate in relation to the risk of rot. Based on the criterion, the roof assemblies were certified as being either safe, risky or assumed to fail. The roof assemblies were simulated in different western climates, with varying insulation thicknesses, two different types of wooden decking, applied with varying interior moisture load and with either a high or low solar absorptivity at the roof surface (black or white surface color). The results show that the performance of the studied roof assemblies differs with regard to all of the varying parameters, especially the climate and the indoor moisture load.

  7. Gas Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Gas Swimming Pool Heaters Gas-fired pool heaters remain the most popular system for heating swimming pools. Today you can find new gas-fired heater models with much higher...

  8. Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    John, Randy Carl; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-12-10

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a heater having an elongated ferromagnetic metal heater section. The heater is located in an opening in a formation. The heater section is configured to heat the hydrocarbon containing formation. The exposed ferromagnetic metal has a sulfidation rate that goes down with increasing temperature of the heater, when the heater is in a selected temperature range.

  9. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-07-11

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

  10. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  11. Mine roof bolt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillespie, H.D.

    1993-07-27

    A mine roof bolt is described comprising: (a) a length of multi-strand cable defining a bolt shank; (b) a tapered plug comprising a body portion having an internal bore and a frusto-conical outer surface essentially concentric with said internal bore, said tapered plug being mounted about an end of said cable at said internal bore; and (c) an internally tapered drive collar having a frusto-conical inner surface that engages said frusto-conical outer surface of said tapered plug, and having an outer surface defining a drive head that accepts a driving mechanism for rotating and linearly translating said bolt, wherein said tapered plug is mounted on an end of said cable, and said drive collar is pressed down upon said tapered plug, forcing said tapered plug against said cable, such that said drive collar, said tapered plug, and said cable, when fitted tightly together, define said mine roof bolt.

  12. DOE Science Showcase - Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE | OSTI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE Science Accelerator returns cool roof documents from 6 ... for Selecting Cool Roofs DOE Cool Roof Calculator Visit the Science Showcase homepage.

  13. Process Heater for Stoichiometric Combustion Control | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heater for Stoichiometric Combustion Control Process Heater for Stoichiometric Combustion Control An Enhanced, CO-Based, Low Excess Air Control System Saves Energy While Reducing ...

  14. Mine roof supporting system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curry, P.F.

    1981-06-23

    A stabilizing arrangement for mine roof support systems of the type in which a series of support units, each including a transverse beam supported at opposite ends by extensible props, are interconnected by extensible struts in a manner to be selfadvancing by alternate retraction of support units from a roof supporting condition and extension of the struts to advance such retracted units relative to others of such units which are in an extended roof engaging condition. The connection of each prop to the beam in a given unit is pivotal to allow deflection of the beam and props of a supporting unit from a normal perpendicular relationship under load. The stabilizing means restores the props and beam to a normal perpendicular relationship for advancing movement of each support unit. The supporting units are further stabilized relative to the struts by prop supporting brackets permitting canting movement of the props from a perpendicular relationship with respect to the struts but maintaining the props in a generally upright position for unit advance.

  15. Aging and weathering of cool roofing membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Berhe, Asmeret A.; Levinson, Ronnen; Graveline,Stanley; Foley, Kevin; Delgado, Ana H.; Paroli, Ralph M.

    2005-08-23

    Aging and weathering can reduce the solar reflectance of cool roofing materials. This paper summarizes laboratory measurements of the solar spectral reflectance of unweathered, weathered, and cleaned samples collected from single-ply roofing membranes at various sites across the United States. Fifteen samples were examined in each of the following six conditions: unweathered; weathered; weathered and brushed; weathered, brushed and then rinsed with water; weathered, brushed, rinsed with water, and then washed with soap and water; and weathered, brushed, rinsed with water, washed with soap and water, and then washed with an algaecide. Another 25 samples from 25 roofs across the United States and Canada were measured in their unweathered state, weathered, and weathered and wiped. We document reduction in reflectivity resulted from various soiling mechanisms and provide data on the effectiveness of various cleaning approaches. Results indicate that although the majority of samples after being washed with detergent could be brought to within 90% of their unweathered reflectivity, in some instances an algaecide was required to restore this level of reflectivity.

  16. Plug improves stability of shaly roofs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unrug, K.F.; Nandy, S.; Thompson, E. )

    1991-04-01

    Although geologic conditions and over-stressing play major roles in roof falls, an especially common cause of falls of shaly roof is the gradual deterioration of the shale itself. The culprit in such deteriorations is the hydrophilic nature of the shale's clay mineral components, a trait causing some of the clay minerals to swell due to absorption of water from the atmosphere. Moisture enters the annular space between the bolt rod and the walls of the borehole, and then condenses on the cooler surfaces. It can then be absorbed by the shale through capillary attraction into micro cracks and bedding planes. When the condensation forms at the anchorage level, it can cause weakening of the rock, especially where the shale is under high stress with the anchor shell. To prevent migration of moisture into the roof through bolt holes, a patented plastic plug has been designed to seal the annular space between the rock and the bolt rod at the entrance of the hole. The plug consists of two halves that snap in and lock together. It can be assembled on a bolt rod in just three seconds by squeezing the two halves together just before the bolt is inserted into the bolt hole. The external and internal flanges of the plug create tight contact between the perimeter of the hole and the bolt rod, thereby sealing the annular space between the rock and the roof bolt at the entrance of the hole.

  17. Mine roof geology information system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, S.S.; Sasaoka, T.; Tang, D.X.; Wilson, Y.; Wilson, G.

    2005-05-01

    A project sponsored by the US Department of Energy under the Industry of Future (Mining) program was initiated five years ago. In this project a patented drill control unit (DCU) installed DIN. the J.H. Flecher & Co.'s roof bolter was used to record the drilling parameter for experiments conducted in the mines and laboratory. Today, the drilling parameters have been recorded for more than 1,000 roof bolt holes. This article summarizes the results to date including the methods for determining quantitatively the location of voids/fractures and estimation of roof rock strength from the recorded roof bolter drilling parameters. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Accelerated Aging of Roofing Surfaces

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Accelerated aging of roofing surfaces Hugo Destaillats, Ph.D. Lawrence Berkeley National ... H. Laboratory method mimicking natural soiling and weathering of outdoor surfaces. Ser. ...

  19. Cool Roofs | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    How they can be made cool: Reformulate or coat black membranes to make them reflective. ... Tips: energy efficient roofs Energy efficient home design Whole-house systems approach ...

  20. Methods for forming long subsurface heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Dong Sub

    2013-09-17

    A method for forming a longitudinal subsurface heater includes longitudinally welding an electrically conductive sheath of an insulated conductor heater along at least one longitudinal strip of metal. The longitudinal strip is formed into a tubular around the insulated conductor heater with the insulated conductor heater welded along the inside surface of the tubular.

  1. Portable Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Space heater capacities generally range between 10,000 Btu and 40,000 Btu per hour, and commonly run on electricity, propane, natural gas, and kerosene (see wood and pellet heating ...

  2. Heater head for stirling engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A.

    1985-07-09

    A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

  3. Cool Roofs Webinar | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cool Roofs Webinar Cool Roofs Webinar On April 11, 2011, Blaise Stoltenberg and Kosol Kiatreungwattana of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory presented a Webinar about roofs that are designed to maintain a lower roof temperature than traditional roofs do, in order to reduce energy bills by decreasing air conditioning needs, improve indoor thermal comfort, and decrease room operating temperature to try to extend roof service life. It's one of the presentations in a series of Sustainable

  4. Phase change material storage heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goswami, D. Yogi; Hsieh, Chung K.; Jotshi, Chand K.; Klausner, James F.

    1997-01-01

    A storage heater for storing heat and for heating a fluid, such as water, has an enclosure defining a chamber therein. The chamber has a lower portion and an upper portion with a heating element being disposed within the enclosure. A tube through which the fluid flows has an inlet and an outlet, both being disposed outside of the enclosure, and has a portion interconnecting the inlet and the outlet that passes through the enclosure. A densely packed bed of phase change material pellets is disposed within the enclosure and is surrounded by a viscous liquid, such as propylene glycol. The viscous liquid is in thermal communication with the heating element, the phase change material pellets, and the tube and transfers heat from the heating element to the pellets and from the pellets to the tube. The viscous fluid has a viscosity so that the frictional pressure drop of the fluid in contact with the phase change material pellets substantially reduces vertical thermal convection in the fluid. As the fluid flows through the tube heat is transferred from the viscous liquid to the fluid flowing through the tube, thereby heating the fluid.

  5. Roof control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stankus, J.C.

    1993-08-03

    Roof control system for underground strata is described, comprising: (a) an elongated bolt adapted for insertion into a hole bored in underground strata; (b) anchor means for securely anchoring the bolt in the hole at a location where a significant length of the bolt remains between the opening of the borehole and the anchor means; (c) tension means for placing said significant length of said bolt in tension by rotating the bolt at a predetermined torque, the torque means including a plate mounted on the bolt and located adjacent to the outer surface of the strata, and a nut means on the end of the bolt for engaging the plate; (d) tension/torque adjustment means for selectively adjusting friction between adjacent surfaces which rub against each other when the bolt is rotated, whereby the tension/torque ratio of the bolt is selected to match the desired level for a particular type of underground strata, the tension/torque adjustment means including an array of friction reducing washers with different contact surface areas, for location between the nut means and plate. A method of mine control for underground strata is also described using this roof bolt.

  6. OCR Solar Roofing Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    OCR Solar Roofing Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: OCR Solar & Roofing Inc Place: Vacaville, California Product: US installer of turnkey PV rooftops, focussing on the Northern...

  7. Solar Roofing Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc Place: Aurora, Ontario, Canada Zip: L4G 3S8 Product: Manufactures and develops photovoltaic roofing and portable products. References: Solar Roofing Systems Inc1 This...

  8. Measuring mine roof bolt strains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steblay, Bernard J.

    1986-01-01

    A mine roof bolt and a method of measuring the strain in mine roof bolts of this type are disclosed. According to the method, a flat portion on the head of the mine roof bolt is first machined. Next, a hole is drilled radially through the bolt at a predetermined distance from the bolt head. After installation of the mine roof bolt and loading, the strain of the mine roof bolt is measured by generating an ultrasonic pulse at the flat portion. The time of travel of the ultrasonic pulse reflected from the hole is measured. This time of travel is a function of the distance from the flat portion to the hole and increases as the bolt is loaded. Consequently, the time measurement is correlated to the strain in the bolt. Compensation for various factors affecting the travel time are also provided.

  9. Twenty-year progress report on the Copper Development Association do-it-yourself solar swimming pool heating manual and on the associated prototype heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Winter, F. )

    1994-07-01

    A prototype do-it-yourself solar swimming pool heater was built of copper parts in 1973, combining the solar collector and a copper roof of the flat seam type. It has now heated a pool in Pasadena, California successfully for over 20 years. During those years the associated do-it-yourself manual has been distributed to about 100,000 readers, who have used to make an unknown number of heaters. Some have used the manual as the basis for a business, building repeated customer heater installations. The present paper represents a progress report.

  10. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Electric Storage Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy-Efficient Residential Electric Storage Water Heaters Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Electric Storage Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) ...

  11. Building America Case Study: Field Testing an Unvented Roof with Fibrous Insulation and Tiles, Orlando, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-11-01

    This research is a test implementation of an unvented tile roof assembly in a hot-humid climate (Orlando, FL; Zone 2A), insulated with air permeable insulation (netted and blown fiberglass). Given the localized moisture accumulation and failures seen in previous unvented roof field work, it was theorized that a 'diffusion vent' (water vapor open, but air barrier 'closed') at the highest points in the roof assembly might allow for the wintertime release of moisture, to safe levels. The 'diffusion vent' is an open slot at the ridge and hips, covered with a water-resistant but vapor open (500+ perm) air barrier membrane. As a control comparison, one portion of the roof was constructed as a typical unvented roof (self-adhered membrane at ridge). The data collected to date indicate that the diffusion vent roof shows greater moisture safety than the conventional, unvented roof design. The unvented roof had extended winter periods of 95-100% RH, and wafer (wood surrogate RH sensor) measurements indicating possible condensation; high moisture levels were concentrated at the roof ridge. In contrast, the diffusion vent roofs had drier conditions, with most peak MCs (sheathing) below 20%. In the spring, as outdoor temperatures warmed, all roofs dried well into the safe range (10% MC or less). Some roof-wall interfaces showed moderately high MCs; this might be due to moisture accumulation at the highest point in the lower attic, and/or shading of the roof by the adjacent second story. Monitoring will be continued at least through spring 2016 (another winter and spring).

  12. Oklahoma Tribe to Install Solar Roof

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An Indian tribe in Anadarko, Oklahoma is installing solar panel roofs on two tribal government buildings.

  13. Sustainable roofs with real energy savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, J.E.; Petrie, T.W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper addresses the general concept of sustainability and relates it to the building owner`s selection of a low-slope roof. It offers a list of performance features of sustainable roofs. Experiences and data relevant to these features for four unique roofs are then presented which include: self-drying systems, low total equivalent warming foam insulation, roof coatings and green roofs. The paper concludes with a list of sustainable roofing features worth considering for a low-slope roof investment. Building owners and community developers are showing more interest in investing in sustainability. The potential exists to design, construct, and maintain roofs that last twice as long and reduce the building space heating and cooling energy loads resulting from the roof by 50% (based on the current predominant design of a 10-year life and a single layer of 1 to 2 in. (2.5 to 5.1 cm) of insulation). The opportunity to provide better low-slope roofs and sell more roof maintenance service is escalating. The general trend of outsourcing services could lead to roofing companies` owning the roofs they install while the traditional building owner owns the rest of the building. Such a situation would have a very desirable potential to internalize the costs of poor roof maintenance practices and high roof waste disposal costs, and to offer a profit for installing roofs that are more sustainable. 14 refs., 12 figs.

  14. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study describes Building Science Corporation’s research into spray polyurethane foams in residential roofs, performing hygrothermal modeling of a range of rain water leakage scenarios and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs.

  15. Accelerated Aging of Roofing Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project aims to reduce the time to rate aged materials from three years to a few days, which will speed next-generation cool roofing materials to market.

  16. Roof Separation Highlights Bolting Priority

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WIPP UPDATE: January 21, 2015 Roof Separation Highlights Bolting Priority On January 15, Mining and Ground Control Engineers at WIPP discovered that a portion of the ceiling in the Panel 3 access drift had fallen in a restricted access area. The roof fall was discovered during routine ground control and bulkhead inspections conducted by WIPP geotechnical staff, and the section that fell was estimated to be approximately 8' long by 8'wide and 24" thick. Access to this area has been

  17. Gas Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and pool use, they may not be the most energy-efficient option when compared to heat pump and solar pool heaters. How They Work Gas pool heaters use either natural gas or...

  18. WPN 08-4: Space Heater Policy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To update the policy relation to space heaters for the low-income Weatherization Assistance Program. This policy supersedes the previous space heater policy issued by memoranda on March 18, 1992.

  19. Versatile roof bolt assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hipkins, E.C. Sr.; Locotos, F.M.

    1987-11-03

    In an anchor bolt assembly of the type used in mine roofs and the like in which the anchor bolt assembly is positioned in a bore hole of a rock formation, where the bolt assembly includes an elongated bolt shaft with an upper end and with a head on a lower end, wherein a quick-setting resin cartridge is positioned in the bore hole above the upper end of the bolt shaft, and wherein the anchor bolt assembly is secured to the rock formation by at least the quick-setting resin, the improvement is described comprising an entrant plug provided at the upper end of the bolt shaft and adapted to rupture the resin cartridge and an elongated helical coil external of and surrounding the bolt shaft. It has a direction of coil for mixing the quick-setting resin and urging the quick-setting resin upwardly toward the upper end while the bolt shaft is rotated in one continuous direction. The helical coil is disposed below the entrant plug and connected to the entrant plug or the bolt shaft and extending a substantial length along the bolt shaft to achieve the mixing.

  20. Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs Guide covers how to understand, evaluate, and implement cool roof technologies. PDF icon coolroofguide.pdf ...

  1. Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Roofs at DOE and Across the Federal Government Energy Department Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters Building to Save Money by Saving Energy Energy 101: Cool Roofs

  2. Roof screening for underground coal mines: recent developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compton, C.S.; Gallagher, S.; Molinda, G.M.; Mark, C.; Wilson, G.

    2008-06-15

    The use of screens to control falls of the immediate roof or roof skin (that is between the installed primary and secondary roof supports) is described. 5 figs.

  3. Covered Product Category: Cool Roof Products | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High emittance lowers roof temperature by increasing the release of heat by thermal radiation. To ensure a high-emittance roof, avoid unpainted metal roofs and aluminum coatings. ...

  4. SCE Roof Project Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SCE Roof Project Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name SCE Roof Project Solar Power Plant Facility SCE Roof Project Sector Solar Facility Type Photovoltaic Developer...

  5. Tips: Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Tips: Water Heating Keep your energy bills out of hot water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even ...

  6. Cool Roofs | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Posted: July 18, 2012 - 1:59pm | Y-12 Report | Volume 9, Issue 1 | 2012 Hot, sunny days call for light-colored clothing to reflect the heat. As it turns out, the same principle works for roofs. Consider the results from a Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory study in Austin, Texas, which measured a dark roof to average a whopping 43 degrees hotter than a light roof. The hotter the roof, the hotter the building becomes, and the more air-conditioning is needed - 11 percent,

  7. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syd S. Peng

    2003-04-15

    Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. More field tests have been performed. A trendline analysis method has been developed. This method would improve the accuracy in detecting the locations of fractures and in determining the rock strength.

  8. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syd S. Peng

    2002-10-15

    Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. Additional field tests have been performed in this quarter. The development of the data interpretation methodology and other related tasks are still continuing.

  9. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syd S. Peng

    2003-01-15

    Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. Additional field tests have been performed. It is found that the drilling power can be used as a supplementary method for detecting voids/fractures and rock interfaces.

  10. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The

  11. Welding shield for coupling heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menotti, James Louis

    2010-03-09

    Systems for coupling end portions of two elongated heater portions and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include a holding system configured to hold end portions of the two elongated heater portions so that the end portions are abutted together or located near each other; a shield for enclosing the end portions, and one or more inert gas inlets configured to provide at least one inert gas to flush the system with inert gas during welding of the end portions. The shield may be configured to inhibit oxidation during welding that joins the end portions together. The shield may include a hinged door that, when closed, is configured to at least partially isolate the interior of the shield from the atmosphere. The hinged door, when open, is configured to allow access to the interior of the shield.

  12. Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heaters | Department of Energy Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Provides and overview of field testing of 18 pre-production prototype residential heat pump water heaters heat_pump_water_heater_testing.pdf (565.45 KB) More Documents & Publications Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid

  13. Rehab guide: Roofs. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-03-01

    Nine volumes will eventually make up The Rehab Guide in its entirety, and they are listed on the back cover of this volume. Each one is devoted to distinct elements of the house, and within each volume is a range of issues that are common to that element of home rehabilitation work. This volume, Roofs, for example, covers the major roofing systems including framing and sheathing; protective strategies such as underlayments and flashing; energy and air infiltration issues; roofing materials; and gutters and down-spouts. Each volume addresses a wide range techniques, materials, and tools, and recommendations based on regional differences around the country. Throughout The Rehab Guide, special attention is given to issues related to energy efficiency, sustainability, and accessibility.

  14. Silicon photonic heater-modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zortman, William A.; Trotter, Douglas Chandler; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-07-14

    Photonic modulators, methods of forming photonic modulators and methods of modulating an input optical signal are provided. A photonic modulator includes a disk resonator having a central axis extending along a thickness direction of the disk resonator. The disk resonator includes a modulator portion and a heater portion. The modulator portion extends in an arc around the central axis. A PN junction of the modulator portion is substantially normal to the central axis.

  15. Self advancing mine roof supports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seddon, J.; Jones, F.

    1985-03-19

    A self-advancing mine-roof-support for use in or aligned with a main roadway or gate has a floor-engaging part and a roof engaging part spaced apart by extensible load-bearing prop or jack means, and engagement means for a face-conveyor and a transversely acting transfer conveyor whereby their relative positions are constrained to facilitate discharge of mineral from one conveyor to the other. The engagement means for the face conveyor comprises sliding anchor beams that assure maintenance of the relative attitudes of the support and the face conveyor and the transfer conveyor is held fore and aft of the support.

  16. IDENTIFYING ROOF FALL PREDICTORS USING FUZZY CLASSIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K.

    2010-02-22

    Microseismic monitoring involves placing geophones on the rock surfaces of a mine to record seismic activity. Classification of microseismic mine data can be used to predict seismic events in a mine to mitigate mining hazards, such as roof falls, where properly bolting and bracing the roof is often an insufficient method of preventing weak roofs from destabilizing. In this study, six months of recorded acoustic waveforms from microseismic monitoring in a Pennsylvania limestone mine were analyzed using classification techniques to predict roof falls. Fuzzy classification using features selected for computational ease was applied on the mine data. Both large roof fall events could be predicted using a Roof Fall Index (RFI) metric calculated from the results of the fuzzy classification. RFI was successfully used to resolve the two significant roof fall events and predicted both events by at least 15 hours before visual signs of the roof falls were evident.

  17. Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In this edition of Energy 101 we take a look at one of Secretary Chu's favorite energy efficiency techniques, cool roofs. Traditional dark-colored roofing materials absorb a great ...

  18. Adjusting alloy compositions for selected properties in temperature limited heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady; Michael Patrick , Horton, Jr.; Joseph Arno , Vitek; John Michael

    2010-03-23

    Heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Such heaters can be obtained by using the systems and methods described herein. The heater includes a heater section including iron, cobalt, and carbon. The heater section has a Curie temperature less than a phase transformation temperature. The Curie temperature is at least 740.degree. C. The heater section provides, when time varying current is applied to the heater section, an electrical resistance.

  19. End Calorimeter Warm Tube Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Primdahl, K.; /Fermilab

    1991-08-06

    The Tevatron accelerator beam tube must pass through the End Calorimeter cryostats of the D-Zero Collider Detector. Furthermore, the End Calorimeter cryostats must be allowed to roll back forty inches without interruption of the vacuum system; hence, the Tev tube must slide through the End Calorimeter cryostat as it is rolled back. The Tev pass through the End Calorimeter can actually be thought of as a cluster of concentric tubes: Tev tube, warm (vacuum vessel) tube, IS layers of superinsulation, cold tube (argon vessel), and Inner Hadronic center support tube. M. Foley generated an ANSYS model to study the heat load. to the cryostat. during collider physics studies; that is, without operation of the heater. A sketch of the model is included in the appendix. The vacuum space and superinsulation was modeled as a thermal solid, with conductivity derived from tests performed at Fermilab. An additional estimate was done. by this author, using data supplied by NR-2. a superinsulation manufacturer. The ANSYS result and hand calculation are in close agreement. The ANSYS model was modified. by this author. to incorporate the effect of the heater. Whereas the earlier model studied steady state operation only. the revised model considers the heater-off steady state mode as the initial condition. then performs a transient analysis with a final load step for time tending towards infinity. Results show the thermal gradient as a function of time and applied voltage. It should be noted that M. Foley's model was generated for one half the warm tube. implying the tube to be symmetric. In reality. the downstream connection (relative to the collision point) attachment to the vacuum shell is via several convolutions of a 0.020-inch wall bellows; hence. a nearly adiabatic boundary condition. Accordingly. the results reported in the table reflect extrapolation of the curves to the downstream end of the tube. Using results from the ANSYS analysis, that is, tube temperature and

  20. Evaluation of Roof Bolting Requirements Based on In-Mine Roof Bolter Drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syd S. Peng

    2005-10-01

    Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on this information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. For the prediction of roof geology and stability condition in real time, a micro processor was used and a program developed to monitor and record the drilling parameters of roof bolter. These parameters include feed pressure, feed flow (penetration rate), rotation pressure, rotation rate, vacuum pressure, oil temperature of hydraulic circuit, and signals for controlling machine. From the results of a series of laboratory and underground tests so far, feed pressure is found to be a good indicator for identifying the voids/fractures and estimating the roof rock strength. The method for determining quantitatively the location and the size of void/fracture and estimating the roof rock strength from the drilling parameters of roof bolter was developed. Also, a set of computational rules has been developed for in-mine roof using measured roof drilling parameters and implemented in MRGIS (Mine Roof Geology Information System), a software package developed to allow mine engineers to make use of the large amount of roof drilling parameters for predicting roof geology properties automatically. For the development of roof bolting criteria, finite element models were developed for tensioned and fully grouted bolting

  1. Joint used for coupling long heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menottie, James Louis

    2013-02-26

    Systems for coupling ends of elongated heaters and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include two elongated heaters with an end portion of one heater abutted or near to an end portion of the other heater and a core coupling material. The core coupling material may extend between the two elongated heaters. The elongated heaters may include cores and at least one conductor substantially concentrically surrounds the cores. The cores may have a lower melting point than the conductors. At least one end portion of the conductor may have a beveled edge. The gap formed by the beveled edge may be filled with a coupling material for coupling the one or more conductors. One end portion of at least one core may have a recessed opening and the core coupling material may be partially inside the recessed opening.

  2. Roof bolt assembly having a sealing plug for preventing a deterioration of the mine roof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unrug, K.F.; Thompson, E.D.; Nandy, S.K.

    1987-09-15

    This patent describes a roof bolt assembly for preserving the natural geological structure of a mine roof which consists of an elongated bolt rod with first and second distal ends, an expandable anchor threaded on the first end for operatively engaging the walls of a roof bolt hole bored in the mine roof at points inboard of the roof surface, a bolt head on the second end of the bolt rod, and a roof plate sandwiched between the roof surface and the bolt head. The entire assembly is pre-tensioned to tightly hold the roof plate against the roof surface. The hole bored in the roof is larger in diameter than the diameter of the roof bolt rod defining an annular space around the rod. The improvement comprises sealing means totally disposed within the annular space adjacent the second end of the bolt but spaced from the roof plate. The sealing means further being spaced from the roof surface such that a gap is formed between the roof surface and the sealing means. The sealing means preclude the entrance of air and moisture into the hole and the annular space around the rod is generally free from material in a region between the anchor and the sealing means such that the bolt is generally out of contact with the mine roof in this region.

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Windows, Roofs, Motors, Motor VFDs, Other EE, Food Service Equipment, Reflective Roofs, LED Lighting, Tankless Water Heater, Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Energy Management...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DuctAir sealing, Building Insulation, Windows, Roofs, Motors, Motor VFDs, Other EE, Food Service Equipment, Reflective Roofs, LED Lighting, Tankless Water Heater, Commercial...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, DuctAir sealing, Building Insulation, Windows, Roofs, Other EE, Reflective Roofs Small Business Energy Loan Program The maximum...

  6. CO2 Conversion By Nano Heaters

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-23

    A graduate student named Oshadha Ranasingha created this animation on the research he performed on nano heaters while working at NETL.

  7. CO2 Conversion By Nano Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-03-11

    A graduate student named Oshadha Ranasingha created this animation on the research he performed on nano heaters while working at NETL.

  8. Parallel heater system for subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

    2011-10-25

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

  9. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.; Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  10. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  11. SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.B. Cho

    1999-05-01

    The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M&O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied not just to the hardware, but also to the teamwork and cooperation between

  12. Assessment of technologies for constructing self-drying low-slope roofs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, D.M.; Desjarlais, A.O.

    1994-05-01

    Issues associated with removing excessive moisture from low-slope roofs have been assessed. The economic costs associated with moisture trapped in existing roofs have been estimated. The evidence suggests that existing moisture levels cause approximately a 40% overall reduction in the R-value of installed roofing insulation in the United States. Excess operating costs are further increased by a summertime heat transfer mode unique to wet insulation, caused by the daily migration of water within the roof. By itself, this effect can increase peak electrical demand for air conditioning by roughly 15 W/m{sup 2} of roofing, depending on the type of insulation. This effect will increase peak demand capacity required of utilities in any geographic region (e.g., 900 MW in the South). A simple formula has been derived for predicting the effect that self-drying roofs can have upon time-averaged construction costs. It is presumed that time-averaged costs depend predominantly upon (1) actual service life and (2) the likelihood that the less expensive recover membranes can be installed safely over old roofs. For example, an increase in service life from 15 to 20 years should reduce the current cost of roofing ($12 billion/year) by 21%. Another simple formula for predicting the reroofing waste volume indicates that an increase in service life from 15 to 20 years might reduce the current estimated 0.4 billion ft{sup 3}/year of waste by 25%. A finite-difference computer program has been used to study the flow of heat and moisture within typical existing roofs for a variety of US climates. Nearly all publicly available experimental drying data have been consulted. The drying times for most existing low-slope roofs in the United States are controlled largely climate and the permeability of the structural deck to water vapor.

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Category: Biomass, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Building Insulation, Windows, Roofs, Other EE Community Energy Education Management...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roofs, LED Lighting, Tankless Water Heater, Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Eau Claire Energy Cooperative- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Eau Claire...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roofs, LED Lighting, Tankless Water Heater, Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Montgomery County- Residential Energy Conservation Property Tax Credit Note: As originally...

  16. Marietta Power & Water- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Marietta Power & Water provides rebates for electric water heaters ($250) and electric and dual-fuel heat pumps ($150). If both a water heater and heat pump are installed simultaneously, a...

  17. Tips: Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Keep your energy bills out of hot water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Keep your energy bills out...

  18. Demonstration of energy savings of cool roofs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konopacki, S.; Gartland, L.; Akbari, H.; Rainer, L.

    1998-06-01

    Dark roofs raise the summertime air-conditioning demand of buildings. For highly-absorptive roofs, the difference between the surface and ambient air temperatures can be as high as 90 F, while for highly-reflective roofs with similar insulative properties, the difference is only about 20 F. For this reason, cool roofs are effective in reducing cooling energy use. Several experiments on individual residential buildings in California and Florida show that coating roofs white reduces summertime average daily air-conditioning electricity use from 2--63%. This demonstration project was carried out to address some of the practical issues regarding the implementation of reflective roofs in a few commercial buildings. The authors monitored air-conditioning electricity use, roof surface temperature, plenum, indoor, and outdoor air temperatures, and other environmental variables in three buildings in California: two medical office buildings in Gilroy and Davis and a retail store in San Jose. Coating the roofs of these buildings with a reflective coating increased the roof albedo from an average of 0.20--0.60. The roof surface temperature on hot sunny summer afternoons fell from 175 F--120 F after the coating was applied. Summertime average daily air-conditioning electricity use was reduced by 18% (6.3 kWh/1000ft{sup 2}) in the Davis building, 13% (3.6 kWh/1000ft{sup 2}) in the Gilroy building, and 2% (0.4 kWh/1000ft{sup 2}) in the San Jose store. In each building, a kiosk was installed to display information from the project in order to educate and inform the general public about the environmental and energy-saving benefits of cool roofs. They were designed to explain cool-roof coating theory and to display real-time measurements of weather conditions, roof surface temperature, and air-conditioning electricity use. 55 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Bass, Ronald Marshall; Kim, Dong Sub; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Stegemeier, George Leo; Keltner, Thomas Joseph; Carl, Jr., Frederick Gordon

    2010-12-28

    A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a first elongated heater in a first opening in the formation. The first elongated heater includes an exposed metal section in a portion of the first opening. The portion is below a layer of the formation to be heated. The exposed metal section is exposed to the formation. A second elongated heater is in a second opening in the formation. The second opening connects to the first opening at or near the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated. At least a portion of an exposed metal section of the second elongated heater is electrically coupled to at least a portion of the exposed metal section of the first elongated heater in the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated.

  20. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syd S. Peng

    2001-10-15

    Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. The retrofitting works for a dedicated roof bolter for this research has been completed. The laboratory tests performed using this machine on simulated roof blocks have been conducted. The analysis performed on the testing data showed promising signs to detect the rock interface, fractures, as well as the rock types. The other tasks were progressing as planned.

  1. Solar Hot Water Heater Industry in Barbados

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Transition Initiative: Islands lesson learned detailing work done in the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  2. Tankless Water Heaters: Do They Really Work?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Technical Update meeting on July 24-26, 2012.

  3. Solar Hot Water Heater Industry in Barbados

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the SWH was appropriate for each household were crucial for maintaining suffcient ... Adams saw the beneft of the SWH when his annual gas consumption was reduced by 70%. With ...

  4. Strategy Guideline: Proper Water Heater Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2012-08-01

    This document is no longer available. Please contact Cheryn.Metzger@nrel.gov for further information.

  5. Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Technical Update meeting on April 29-30, 2013, in Denver, Colorado.

  6. Xergy Develops Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This technique has several advantages over traditional mechanical heat pumps. While current heat pump technology is noisy and carries a high global warming impact, ECC uses ...

  7. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Do the following when selecting a qualified professional: Request cost estimates in writing Ask for references Check the company with your local Better Business Bureau See if the ...

  8. Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Be sure to do the following when selecting a contractor: Request cost estimates in writing Ask for references Check the company with your local Better Business Bureau See if the ...

  9. Next Generation Attics and Roof Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... of Buildings, XII, proceedings of ASHRAE THERM X, Clearwater, FL., Dec. 2013. Olsen, R., Miller, W. and Graves, R. 2013. "The Equivalent Thermal Resistance of Tile Roofs ...

  10. List of Roofs Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Central Air conditioners CustomOthers pending approval Heat pumps Lighting Roofs Photovoltaics Yes Electric Efficiency Standard (Indiana) Energy Efficiency Resource...

  11. Lafarge Roofing Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kingdom Zip: RH4 1TG Product: Distributes and installs roofing tiles, including photovoltaic ones. Coordinates: 48.231575, -101.134114 Show Map Loading map......

  12. Cool Roof Calculator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TOOL Name: Cool Roof Calculator AgencyCompany Organization: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Buildings, Energy Efficiency Resource Type: Online...

  13. Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Also featured in this video are green roofs, which grow vegetation on top of a building to provide several benefits, including reduced energy use, reduced air pollution and ...

  14. A small self-powered space heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menchen, W.R.; McAlonan, M.

    1995-12-31

    The work described combines the use of thermoelectric energy conversion with diesel burner technology, yielding a forced convection heater that does not require the use of external electric power. A heater of this type has both commercial and military application if, at reasonable cost, it is safe, portable and easy to operate. Self-powered refers to a design approach where part of the heat generated by a burner is used to produce all of the electrical power required to run system components. A successful self-powered heater requires careful attention to heat transfer and pressure drop so that power requirements and hence cost can be minimized.

  15. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  16. New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt Shingles Meng-Dawn Cheng Oak ... roof coatings and asphalt shingles to reduce energy consumption of new and existing roofs. ...

  17. Building America Case Study: Field Testing an Unvented Roof with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    multiple roof ridges (both diffusion vent and unvented), hips, and roof-wall interfaces. ... Some roof-wall interfaces showed moderately high MCs; this might be because of moisture ...

  18. Water Heating Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    HVAC, Water Heating, & Appliances Water Heating Projects Water Heating Projects Figure 1: The system model for the combined Water heater, dehumidifier and cooler (WHDC). A ...

  19. Device for collecting emissions from kerosene heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilloti, N.J.

    1984-09-04

    An apparatus for both improving the heat distribution throughout a room from a portable kerosene heater and for collecting undesirable emissions resulting from the burning of the kerosene, includes a base adapted to be mounted on the top of the heater, the base supporting a vertically extending shaft on which is mounted a heat-driven fan formed of either paper or metal, and a disposable disk mounted a spaced distance above the fan on the same shaft, the disk serving as a collector for the undesirable emissions. When the device is placed on an operating kerosene heater, the rising hot air and gases from the heater cause the fan to rotate, which in turn causes emissions from the burning fuel to move upwardly in a more or less cylindrical path. As the products of combustion move upwardly, certain emissions therein such as soot, oily vapors, etc. deposit or condense onto the surface of the spinner and disposable disk.

  20. Heater head for a Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darooka, D.K.

    1988-09-06

    A heater head is described for a compound Stirling engine modules, each including a displacer cylinder coaxially aligned with the displacer cylinder of the other of the engine modules, a displacer piston mounted for reciprocation in the displacer cylinder.

  1. Small Space Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Space heater capacities generally range between 10,000 Btu to 40,000 Btu per hour. Common fuels used for this purpose are electricity, propane, natural gas, and kerosene. Although ...

  2. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2006-02-28

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the pre-formed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  3. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    1998-01-01

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the preformed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  4. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinwoodie, T.L.

    1998-05-05

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the preformed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  5. Secretary Chu Announces Steps to Implement Cool Roofs at DOE...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... Labs Join with Dow Chemical to Develop Next-Generation Cool Roofs Energy Department Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters Building to Save Money by Saving Energy

  6. Comparison of Software Models for Energy Savings from Cool Roofs...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Comparison of Software Models for Energy Savings from Cool Roofs A web-based Roof ... This tool employs modern web technologies, usability design, and national average defaults ...

  7. Tips: Energy-Efficient Roofs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    your property and consult a professional before deciding to install a green roof. Learn More Energy efficient home design Cool roofs Incentives and financing for energy ...

  8. Tips: Energy-Efficient Roofs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    deciding to install a green roof. Learn More Energy efficient home design Cool roofs Incentives and financing for energy efficient homes Whole-house systems approach ...

  9. Tips: Energy-Efficient Roofs | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    carefully assess your property and consult a professional before deciding to install a green roof. Learn More Energy-Efficient Home Design Cool Roofs Financing Energy-Efficient...

  10. Daylighter Daily Solar Roof Light | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Daylighter Daily Solar Roof Light Jump to: navigation, search Name: Daylighter Daily Solar Roof Light Address: 1991 Crocker Road, Suite 600 Place: Cleveland, Ohio Zip: 44145...

  11. Fluorescent Pigments for High-Performance Cool Roofing

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Target Market and Audience: The target market is the steep metal roof market. Residential market roofs in ... Spectrometer determines SR * Temperature measurements taken outside in ...

  12. Hawaii Marine Base Installs Solar Roofs | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Lorelei Laird Writer, Energy Empowers What does this project do? Marine Corps Base Hawaii replaced roofs on two buildings with polyvinyl chloride membrane 'cool' roofs and solar...

  13. Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Xie, Xueying; Miller, David Scott; Ginestra, Jean Charles

    2011-07-26

    A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes an elongated heater in an opening in the formation. The elongated heater includes two or more portions along the length of the heater that have different power outputs. At least one portion of the elongated heater includes at least one temperature limited portion with at least one selected temperature at which the portion provides a reduced heat output. The heater is configured to provide heat to the formation with the different power outputs. The heater is configured so that the heater heats one or more portions of the formation at one or more selected heating rates.

  14. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  15. Consumer-products minimum energy-efficiency-standards program. Topical report on Subtask 3. 1. Evaluation of energy consumption savings of boost heaters in dishwashers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    An analysis of the energy conservation and life cycle cost benefits of boost heaters for dishwashers is presented to provide technical information to assist in determining whether to modify the dishwasher test procedure to include boost heaters. Two manufacturers are offering dishwashers which have an inlet water temperature requirement of 120/sup 0/F. Cleaning performance in these appliances is maintained with an electric coil in the sump of the dishwasher, which boosts the incoming water to its final temperature. Both manufacturers have petitioned DOE for exemption from efficiency standards, since current DOE test procedures give no credit for water heater energy savings. The evaluation shows boost heaters to be energy conserving for all conditions. The life cycle cost analysis indicates boost heaters are cost effective in all cases for homes with electric water heaters, and in most cases for homes having gas water heaters. Additionally the proposed standards for dishwashers will lower water consumption in 1985 model dishwashers such that boost heaters will become cost effective in all cases.

  16. Measuring mine roof bolt strains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steblay, B.J.

    1986-07-22

    A method is described of measuring the strain in mine roof bolts comprising the steps of: machining a flat portion on the head of the bolt before loading; drilling a reflector hole radially through the diameter of the bolt at a predetermined distance from the bolt head before loading, the ratio of the diameter of the hole to the diameter of the bolt being less than 0.10 to prevent weakening of the loaded bolt; generating an ultrasonic pulse at the flat portion after loading; measuring the time of travel of the ultrasonic pulse reflected from the hole, which increases as the bolt is loaded; and correlating the time measurement of the strain in the bolt.

  17. Performance Study of Swimming Pool Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to perform a controlled laboratory study on the efficiency and emissions of swimming pool heaters based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected variations in operational parameters. Swimming pool heater sales trends have indicated a significant decline in the number of conventional natural gas-fired swimming pool heaters (NGPH). On Long Island the decline has been quite sharp, on the order of 50%, in new installations since 2001. The major portion of the decline has been offset by a significant increase in the sales of electric powered heat pump pool heaters (HPPH) that have been gaining market favor. National Grid contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to measure performance factors in order to compare the relative energy, environmental and economic consequences of using one technology versus the other. A field study was deemed inappropriate because of the wide range of differences in actual load variations (pool size), geographic orientations, ground plantings and shading variations, number of hours of use, seasonal use variations, occupancy patterns, hour of the day use patterns, temperature selection, etc. A decision was made to perform a controlled laboratory study based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected operational variations in parameters. Critical to this are the frequency of use, temperature selection, and sizing of the heater to the associated pool heating loads. This would be accomplished by installing a limited amount of relatively simple compact field data acquisition units on selected pool installations. This data included gas usage when available and alternately heater power or gas consumption rates were inferred from the manufacturer's specifications when direct metering was not available in the field. Figure 1 illustrates a typical pool heater installation layout.

  18. Performance characterization of a hydrogen catalytic heater.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2010-04-01

    This report describes the performance of a high efficiency, compact heater that uses the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen to provide heat to the GM Hydrogen Storage Demonstration System. The heater was designed to transfer up to 30 kW of heat from the catalytic reaction to a circulating heat transfer fluid. The fluid then transfers the heat to one or more of the four hydrogen storage modules that make up the Demonstration System to drive off the chemically bound hydrogen. The heater consists of three main parts: (1) the reactor, (2) the gas heat recuperator, and (3) oil and gas flow distribution manifolds. The reactor and recuperator are integrated, compact, finned-plate heat exchangers to maximize heat transfer efficiency and minimize mass and volume. Detailed, three-dimensional, multi-physics computational models were used to design and optimize the system. At full power the heater was able to catalytically combust a 10% hydrogen/air mixture flowing at over 80 cubic feet per minute and transfer 30 kW of heat to a 30 gallon per minute flow of oil over a temperature range from 100 C to 220 C. The total efficiency of the catalytic heater, defined as the heat transferred to the oil divided by the inlet hydrogen chemical energy, was characterized and methods for improvement were investigated.

  19. A Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters Preprint J. Burch National Renewable Energy Laboratory J. Thornton Thermal Energy System Specialists, Inc. ...

  20. Temperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vitek, John Michael [Oak Ridge, TN; Brady, Michael Patrick [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-10-06

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Systems and methods for making heaters are described herein. At least one heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The heater provides a first amount of heat at a lower temperature. The heater may provide a second reduced amount of heat when the heater reaches a selected temperature, or enters a selected temperature range, at which the ferromagnetic conductor undergoes a phase transformation.

  1. Substrate heater for thin film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, Steve R. (111 Beryl St., Los Alamos, NM 87544)

    1996-01-01

    A substrate heater for thin film deposition of metallic oxides upon a target substrate configured as a disk including means for supporting in a predetermined location a target substrate configured as a disk, means for rotating the target substrate within the support means, means for heating the target substrate within the support means, the heating means about the support means and including a pair of heating elements with one heater element situated on each side of the predetermined location for the target substrate, with one heater element defining an opening through which desired coating material can enter for thin film deposition and with the heating means including an opening slot through which the target substrate can be entered into the support means, and, optionally a means for thermal shielding of the heating means from surrounding environment is disclosed.

  2. Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar PV Racking System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peek, Richard T.

    2015-01-23

    The objective of this project was to reduce the cost of racking for PV solar on flat commercial rooftops. Cost reductions would come from both labor savings and material savings related to the installation process. The rack would need to accommodate the majority of modules available on the market. Cascade Engineering has a long history of converting traditional metal type applications over to plastic. Injection molding of plastics have numerous advantages including selection of resin for the application, placing the material exactly where it is needed, designing in features that will speed up the installation process, and weight reduction of the array. A plastic rack would need to meet the requirements of UL2703, Mounting systems, mounting devices, clamping/retention devices, and ground lugs for use with flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels. Comparing original data to the end of project racking design, racking material costs were reduced 50% and labor costs reduced 64%. The racking product accommodates all 60 and 72 cell panels on the market, meets UL2703 requirements, contributes only 1.3 pounds per square foot of weight to the array, requires little ballast to secure the array, automatically grounds the module when the module is secured, stacks/nests well for shipping/fewer lifts to the roof, provides integrated wire routing, allows water to drain on the roof, and accommodates various seismic roof connections. Project goals were achieved as noted in the original funding application.

  3. Roof Installation at 2009 Solar Decathlon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Iowa State student Timothy Lentz, foreground, and Team Alberta student Leah Battersdy, right, work on the roofs of their houses during the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2009.

  4. Cool Roofs Through Time and Space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Ronnen

    2014-10-17

    Ronnen Levinson, from the Lab's Heat Island Group, presents his research on cool roofs and introduces the California Cities Albedo Map at our '8 Big Ideas' Science at the Theater event on October 8th, 2014, in Oakland, California

  5. Accelerated Aging of Roofing Materials - 2013 BTO Peer Review | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Accelerated Aging of Roofing Materials - 2013 BTO Peer Review Accelerated Aging of Roofing Materials - 2013 BTO Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review emrgtech24_destaillats_040413.pdf (1.02 MB) More Documents & Publications Accelerated Aging of Roofing Materials Stay-Clean and Durable White Elastomeric Roof Coatings New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt

  6. Installation of Cool Roofs on Department of Energy Buildings | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Installation of Cool Roofs on Department of Energy Buildings Installation of Cool Roofs on Department of Energy Buildings 2010.06.01 S-1 memo, Installation of Cool Roofs on DOE Buildings.pdf (388.81 KB) More Documents & Publications Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs CX-002735: Categorical Exclusion Determination Impact of Solar PV Laminate Membrane Systems on Roofs

  7. Weatherization Installer/Technician Fundamentals 2.0 - Roofing, Flashing,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Attic Ventilation Installation Needs | Department of Energy Roofing, Flashing, and Attic Ventilation Installation Needs Weatherization Installer/Technician Fundamentals 2.0 - Roofing, Flashing, and Attic Ventilation Installation Needs Roofing, Flashing, and Attic Ventilation Installation Needs - Complete (4.45 MB) Lesson Plan: Roofing, Flashing, and Attic Ventilation Installation Needs (127.32 KB) PowerPoint: Roofing, Flashing, and Attic Ventilation Installation Needs (4.39 MB) More

  8. NREL and Industry Advance Low-Cost Solar Water Heating R&D (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    NREL and Rhotech develop cost-effective solar water heating prototype to rival natural gas water heater market.

  9. NEXT GENERATION COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMPWATER HEATER USING CARBON DIOXIDE USING DIFFERENT IMPROVEMENT APPROACHES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad Bowers; Michael Petersen; Stefan Elbel; Pega Hrnjak

    2012-04-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82?ºC, as required by sanitary codes in the U.S. (Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35 kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20 %.

  10. Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Pump Swimming Pool Heaters Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters How a heat pump works. How a heat pump works. How They Work Heat pumps use electricity to capture heat and move it from ...

  11. Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Illustration of a solar water heater. Illustration of a solar water heater. Heat-transfer fluids carry heat through solar collectors and a heat exchanger to the heat storage tanks...

  12. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ying, David H. S.

    1984-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is constructed with a heat transfer tube having U-bends at regular intervals along the length thereof to increase the slug frequency of the multi-phase mixture flowing therethrough to thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency.

  13. An optimized periodic inspection program for condensers and feedwater heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinhart, E.R.; Kaminski, S.

    1996-12-31

    Tube failures in steam plant surface condensers and feedwater heaters are a significant reliability problem for the electric power industry. Tube failures can also result in an increase in replacement power costs. In addition, condenser leaks from failed tubes have potentially harmful effects on major components such as steam generators and turbines. To reduce the number of tube failures and consequent leakage, periodic maintenance programs have used the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method of eddy-current testing (ET) to inspect the condition of the tubes from the water side. This NDE method can identify tubes that have experienced major degradation and should be plugged to prevent in-service failure. However, the use of NDE methods in plant maintenance of condensers and feedwater heaters is not standard practice and varies significantly throughout the utility industry. Variability of inspection results and difficulty in inspecting some types of tubing (monel, carbon steel) have caused many utility sites to question the value of in-service inspection of heat transfer tubing from the water side. Recognizing the above problem, advanced ET systems have been developed that use multi-frequency, remote field and digital data processing techniques to inspect a wide variety of tubing materials and produce on-site inspection reports. Recent field examination results will be presented.

  14. Eleana near-surface heater experiment final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lappin, A R; Thomas, R K; McVey, D F

    1981-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a near-surface heater experiment operated at a depth of 23 m in argillite within the Eleana Formation on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test geometrically simulated emplacement of a single canister of High-Level Waste (HLW) and was operated at a power level of 2.5 kW for 21 days, followed by 3.8 kW to 250 days, when the power was turned off. Below 85 to 100{sup 0}C, there was good agreement between modeled and measured thermal results in the rock and in the emplacement hole, except for transient transport of water in the heater hole. Above 100{sup 0}C, modeled and measured thermal results increasingly diverged, indicating that the in-situ rock-mass thermal conductivity decreased as a result of dehydration more than expected on the basis of matrix properties. Correlation of thermomechanical modeling and field results suggests that this decrease was caused by strong coupling of thermal and mechanical behavior of the argillite at elevated temperatures. No hole-wall decrepitation was observed in the experiment; this fact and the codrrelation of modeled and measured results at lower temperatures indicate that there is no a priori reason to eliminate argillaceous rocks from further consideration as a host rock for nuclear wastes.

  15. MSR Innovations Modular Solar Roofing | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: MSR Innovations (Modular Solar Roofing) Place: Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada Zip: V5J 5H8 Product: British Columbia-based PV roofing systems maker. Coordinates:...

  16. Cool Roofs: An Easy Upgrade | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cathy Zoi Former Assistant Secretary, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy What does this mean for me? Dark roofs can be 50 degrees hotter than light roofs. Combined with ...

  17. Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from a Solar PV System at the San Jos Convention Center Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from a ...

  18. Lid heater for glass melter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, T.D.

    1993-12-14

    A glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes. 3 figures.

  19. Lid heater for glass melter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Terrance D.

    1993-01-01

    A glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes.

  20. Electric heater for nuclear fuel rod simulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCulloch, Reginald W.; Morgan, Jr., Chester S.; Dial, Ralph E.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an electric cartridge-type heater for use as a simulator for a nuclear fuel pin in reactor studies. The heater comprises an elongated cylindrical housing containing a longitudinally extending helically wound heating element with the heating element radially inwardly separated from the housing. Crushed cold-pressed preforms of boron nitride electrically insulate the heating element from the housing while providing good thermal conductivity. Crushed cold-pressed preforms of magnesia or a magnesia-15 percent boron nitride mixture are disposed in the cavity of the helical heating element. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the magnesia or the magnesia-boron nitride mixture is higher than that of the boron nitride disposed about the heating element for urging the boron nitride radially outwardly against the housing during elevated temperatures to assure adequate thermal contact between the housing and the boron nitride.

  1. Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Spray polyurethane foams (SPFs) have advantages over alternative insulation methods because they provide air sealing in complex assemblies, particularly roofs. Spray foam can provide the thermal, air, and vapor control layers in both new and retrofit construction. Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell SPF insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990s to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated incidents of failures (either sheathing rot or SPF delamination) that raise some general concerns about the hygrothermal performance and durability of these systems. The primary risks for roof systems are rainwater leaks, condensation from diffusion and air leakage, and built-in construction moisture. This project directly investigated rain and indirectly investigated built-in construction moisture and vapor drives. Research involved both hygrothermal modeling of a range of rain water leakage scenarios and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs. Other variables considered were climate zone, orientation, interior relative humidity, and the vapor permeance of the coating applied to the interior face of open cell SPF.

  2. Technology Solutions Case Study: Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-11-01

    Spray polyurethane foams (SPFs) have advantages over alternative insulation methods because they provide air sealing in complex assemblies, particularly roofs. Spray foam can provide the thermal, air, and vapor control layers in both new and retrofit construction. Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell SPF insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990s to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated incidents of failures (either sheathing rot or SPF delamination) that raise some general concerns about the hygrothermal performance and durability of these systems. The primary risks for roof systems are rainwater leaks, condensation from diffusion and air leakage, and built-in construction moisture. In this project, Building Science Corporation investigated rain and built-in construction moisture and vapor drives. Research involved both hygrothermal modeling of a range of rain water leakage scenarios and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs. Other variables considered were climate zone, orientation, interior relative humidity, and the vapor permeance of the coating applied to the interior face of open cell SPF.

  3. Cryostat including heater to heat a target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pehl, Richard H.; Madden, Norman W.; Malone, Donald F.

    1990-01-01

    A cryostat is provided which comprises a vacuum vessel; a target disposed within the vacuum vessel; a heat sink disposed within the vacuum vesssel for absorbing heat from the detector; a cooling mechanism for cooling the heat sink; a cryoabsorption mechanism for cryoabsorbing residual gas within the vacuum vessel; and a heater for maintaining the target above a temperature at which the residual gas is cryoabsorbed in the course of cryoabsorption of the residual gas by the cryoabsorption mechanism.

  4. Cryostat including heater to heat a target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pehl, R.H.; Madden, N.W.; Malone, D.F.

    1990-09-11

    A cryostat is provided which comprises a vacuum vessel; a target disposed within the vacuum vessel; a heat sink disposed within the vacuum vessel for absorbing heat from the detector; a cooling mechanism for cooling the heat sink; a cryoabsorption mechanism for cryoabsorbing residual gas within the vacuum vessel; and a heater for maintaining the target above a temperature at which the residual gas is cryoabsorbed in the course of cryoabsorption of the residual gas by the cryoabsorption mechanism. 2 figs.

  5. Tubular electric heater with a thermocouple assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    House, R.K.; Williams, D.E.

    1975-08-01

    This patent relates to a thermocouple or other instrumentation which is installed within the walls of a tubular sheath surrounding a process device such as an electric heater. The sheath comprises two concentric tubes, one or both of which have a longitudinal, concave crease facing the other tube. The thermocouple is fixedly positioned within the crease and the outer tube is mechanically reduced to form an interference fit onto the inner tube. (auth)

  6. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ying, David H. S.; McDermott, Wayne T.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1985-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is operated under conditions to maximize the slurry slug frequency and thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency. The operating conditions controlled are (1) the pipe diameter and pipe arrangement, (2) the minimum coal/solvent slurry velocity, (3) the maximum gas superficial velocity, and (4) the range of the volumetric flow velocity ratio of gas to coal/solvent slurry.

  7. Analysisi Benchmark of the Single Heater Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.M. Wade; H. Marr; M.J. Anderson

    2006-07-27

    The Single Heater Test (SHT) is the first of three in-situ thermal tests included in the site characterization program for the potential nuclear waste monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The heating phase of the SHT started in August 1996 and was concluded in May 1997 after 9 months of heating. Cooling continued until January 1998, at which time post-test characterization of the test block commenced. Numerous thermal, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical sensors monitored the coupled processes in the unsaturated fractured rock mass around the heater (CRWMS M&O 1999). The objective of this calculation is to benchmark a numerical simulation of the rock mass thermal behavior against the extensive data set that is available from the thermal test. The scope is limited to three-dimensional (3-D) numerical simulations of the computational domain of the Single Heater Test and surrounding rock mass. This calculation supports the waste package thermal design methodology, and is developed by Waste Package Department (WPD) under Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 3, BSCN 1, Calculations.

  8. DOE Science Showcase - Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE | OSTI, US Dept of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE Science Accelerator returns cool roof documents from 6 DOE Databases Executive Order on Sustainability Secretary Chu Announces Steps to Implement One Cool Roof Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs DOE Cool Roof Calculator Visit the Science Showcase homepage.

  9. Columbia Water & Light- Solar Energy Loans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Water & Light (CWL) offers electric residential and commercial customers low-interest loans for photovoltaic (PV) systems and solar water heaters.

  10. Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Rooftop solar water heaters need regular maintenance to operate at peak efficiency. |...

  11. Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Rooftop solar water heaters need regular maintenance to operate at peak efficiency. | ...

  12. Recovery and reuse of asphalt roofing waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desai, S.; Graziano, G.; Shepherd, P.

    1984-02-02

    Burning of asphalt roofing waste as a fuel and incorporating asphalt roofing waste in bituminous paving were identified as the two outstanding resource recovery concepts out of ten studied. Four additional concepts might be worth considering under different market or technical circumstances. Another four concepts were rated as worth no further consideration at this time. This study of the recovery of the resource represented in asphalt roofing waste has identified the sources and quantities of roofing waste. About six million cubic yards of scrap roofing are generated annually in the United States, about 94% from removal of old roofing at the job site and the remainder from roofing material production at factories. Waste disposal is a growing problem for manufacturers and contractors. Nearly all roofing waste is hauled to landfills at a considerable expense to roofing contractors and manufacturers. Recovery of the roofing waste resource should require only a modest economic incentive. The asphalt contained in roofing waste represents an energy resource of more than 7 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/year. Another 1 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/year may be contained in field-applied asphalt on commercial building roofs. The two concepts recommended by this study appear to offer the broadest applicability, the most favorable economics, and the highest potential for near-term implementation to reuse this resource.

  13. Enhanced heat transfer tubes for film absorbers of absorption chiller/heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasaki, Naoe; Nosetani, Tadashi; Furukawa, Masahiro; Kaneko, Toshiyuki

    1995-12-31

    Absorption chiller/heaters using non-CFC refrigerants are attracting attention as environmentally friendly energy systems. As the refrigerant/absorbent pair, the water/lithium bromide aqueous solution pair is preferably used for most absorption chiller/heaters in Japan. Absorption chiller/heaters, mainly used as water chillers and air-conditioners, are commercially available at least for unit cooling capacities above 60 kW. In absorption chiller/heaters, the absorber must be made compact, because the absorber has the largest heat transfer area of the four primary heat exchangers in the system: the evaporator, absorber, regenerator and condenser. Although a great amount of information is available on the evaporator and condenser, the same type of information concerning the absorber is lacking. This paper introduces two kinds of double fluted tubes called Arm tubs and Floral tubes for film absorbers. Arm tubes are manufactured using a two-pass drawbench process, while Floral tubes are made using a single pass drawbench process. The experiments using a lithium bromide aqueous solution with the addition of 250 ppm n-octyl alcohol as the surfactant showed that Arm tubes and Floral tubes had about 40% higher heat transfer performance than plain tubes. Therefore, Floral tubes are expected to realize a high performance at low cost. Furthermore, the optimization of the number of grooves on the outside of the tubes is also described here.

  14. A Cool Roof for the Iconic Cyclotron

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Berkeley Lab's iconic building, the Advanced Light Source — yes, the same one that had a cameo in Ang Lee’s “The Incredible Hulk” -- is getting a cool new roof. Check out the photos of the cyclotron in 1941, and now.

  15. Thrust bolting: roof bolt support apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tadolini, Stephen C.; Dolinar, Dennis R.

    1992-01-01

    A method of installing a tensioned roof bolt in a borehole of a rock formation without the aid of a mechanical anchoring device or threaded tensioning threads by applying thrust to the bolt (19) as the bonding material (7') is curing to compress the strata (3) surrounding the borehole (1), and then relieving the thrust when the bonding material (7') has cured.

  16. Covered Product Category: Cool Roof Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including cool roof products, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  17. Evolution of cool-roof standards in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen

    2008-07-11

    Roofs that have high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance stay cool in the sun. A roof with lower thermal emittance but exceptionally high solar reflectance can also stay cool in the sun. Substituting a cool roof for a noncool roof decreases cooling-electricity use, cooling-power demand, and cooling-equipment capacity requirements, while slightly increasing heating-energy consumption. Cool roofs can also lower citywide ambient air temperature in summer, slowing ozone formation and increasing human comfort. Provisions for cool roofs in energy-efficiency standards can promote the building- and climate-appropriate use of cool roofing technologies. Cool-roof requirements are designed to reduce building energy use, while energy-neutral cool-roof credits permit the use of less energy-efficient components (e.g., larger windows) in a building that has energy-saving cool roofs. Both types of measures can reduce the life-cycle cost of a building (initial cost plus lifetime energy cost). Since 1999, several widely used building energy-efficiency standards, including ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, the International Energy Conservation Code, and California's Title 24 have adopted cool-roof credits or requirements. This paper reviews the technical development of cool-roof provisions in the ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, and California Title 24 standards, and discusses the treatment of cool roofs in other standards and energy-efficiency programs. The techniques used to develop the ASHRAE and Title 24 cool-roof provisions can be used as models to address cool roofs in building energy-efficiency standards worldwide.

  18. Status of cool roof standards in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen

    2007-06-01

    Since 1999, several widely used building energy efficiency standards, including ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, the International Energy Conservation Code, and California's Title 24 have adopted cool roof credits or requirements. We review the technical development of cool roof provisions in the ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, and California Title 24 standards, and discuss the treatment of cool roofs in other standards and energy-efficiency programs. The techniques used to develop the ASHRAE and Title 24 cool roof provisions can be used as models to address cool roofs in building energy standards worldwide.

  19. Hawaii Marine Base Installs Solar Roofs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Marine Base Installs Solar Roofs Hawaii Marine Base Installs Solar Roofs April 2, 2010 - 2:42pm Addthis Lorelei Laird Writer, Energy Empowers What does this project do? Marine Corps Base Hawaii replaced roofs on two buildings with polyvinyl chloride membrane 'cool' roofs and solar panels. The new roofs saves $20,000 a year in energy costs. Built on the end of the Mokapu Peninsula on Oahu's northeast coast, the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay gets plenty of sunlight. But harnessing

  20. Automated robotic equipment for ultrasonic inspection of pressurizer heater wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nachbar, Henry D.; DeRossi, Raymond S.; Mullins, Lawrence E.

    1993-01-01

    A robotic device for remotely inspecting pressurizer heater wells is provided which has the advantages of quickly, precisely, and reliably acquiring data at reasonable cost while also reducing radiation exposure of an operator. The device comprises a prober assembly including a probe which enters a heater well, gathers data regarding the condition of the heater well and transmits a signal carrying that data; a mounting device for mounting the probe assembly at the opening of the heater well so that the probe can enter the heater well; a first motor mounted on the mounting device for providing movement of the probe assembly in an axial direction; and a second motor mounted on the mounting device for providing rotation of the probe assembly. This arrangement enables full inspection of the heater well to be carried out.

  1. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Webinar on Residential Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heaters | Department of Energy Water Heaters Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Webinar on Residential Water Heaters 20110222_webinar_transcript.pdf (117.27 KB) More Documents & Publications Overcoming Persistent Barriers to Energy Efficiency in Multifamily Housing through Partnerships overcoming_persistent_barriers_energy_efficiency_multifamily_housing.doc Recording of SERC Monitoring Technologies - Solar Photovoltaics

  2. Multi-step heater deployment in a subsurface formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mason, Stanley Leroy

    2012-04-03

    A method for installing a horizontal or inclined subsurface heater includes placing a heating section of a heater in a horizontal or inclined section of a wellbore with an installation tool. The tool is uncoupled from the heating section. A lead in section is mechanically and electrically coupled to the heating section of the heater. The lead-in section is located in an angled or vertical section of the wellbore.

  3. Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase WYE configuration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Sandberg, Chester Ledlie

    2010-11-09

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes a first heater, a second heater, and a third heater placed in an opening in the subsurface formation. Each heater includes: an electrical conductor; an insulation layer at least partially surrounding the electrical conductor; and an electrically conductive sheath at least partially surrounding the insulation layer. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the sheath at a lower end portion of the heater. The lower end portion is the portion of the heater distal from a surface of the opening. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are electrically coupled at the lower end portions of the heaters. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are configured to be electrically coupled in a three-phase wye configuration.

  4. NREL: Sustainable NREL - Water Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Efficiency A photo of water spilling out of a downspout from the roof of a multi-story office building. NREL conserves water in a number of innovative ways. A photo of water ...

  5. 01-05-1998 - Heater Malfunction | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heater Malfunction Document Number: NA Effective Date: 01/1998 File (public): PDF icon 01-05-1998_yellow_alert

  6. Stainless Steel Hotplate Heater for Long Objects --- Inventor...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stainless Steel Hotplate Heater for Long Objects --- Inventor(s): Stephan Jurczynski and ... High electrical current is passed through a stainless steel plate longer and slightly ...

  7. Slurry fired heater cold-flow modelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moujaes, S.F.

    1983-07-01

    This report summarizes the experimental and theoretical work leading to the scale-up of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant slurry fired heater. The scale-up involved a theoretical model using empirical relations in the derivation, and employed variables such as flow conditions, liquid viscosity, and slug frequency. Such variables have been shown to affect the heat transfer characteristics ofthe system. The model assumes that, if all other variables remain constant, the heat transfer coefficient can be scaled up proportional to D/sup -2/3/ (D = inside diameter of the fired heater tube). All flow conditions, liquid viscosities, and pipe inclinations relevant to the demonstration plant have indicated a slug flow regime in the slurry fired heater. The annular and stratified flow regimes should be avoided to minimize the potential for excessive pipe erosion and to decrease temperature gradients along the pipe cross section leading to coking and thermal stresses, respectively. Cold-flow studies in 3- and 6.75-in.-inside-diameter (ID) pipes were conducted to determine the effect of scale-up on flow regime, slug frequency, and slug dimensions. The developed model assumes that conduction heat transfer occurs through the liquid film surrounding the gas slug and laminar convective heat transfer to the liquid slug. A weighted average of these two heat transfer mechanisms gives a value for the average pipe heat transfer coefficient. The cold-flow work showed a decrease in the observed slug frequency between the 3- and 6.75-ID pipes. Data on the ratio of gas to liquid slug length in the 6.75-in. pipe are not yet complete, but are expected to yield generally lower values than those obtained in the 3-in. pipe; this will probably affect the scale-up to demonstration plant conditions. 5 references, 15 figures, 7 tables.

  8. Shipping device for heater unit assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaushild, Ronald M.; Abbott, Stephan L.; Miller, Phillip E.; Shaffer, Robert

    1991-01-01

    A shipping device for a heater unit assembly (23), the heater unit assembly (23) including a cylindrical wall (25) and a top plate (31) secured to the cylindrical wall (25) and having a flange portion which projects radially beyond the outer surface of the cylindrical wall (25), and the shipping device including: a cylindrical container (3) having a closed bottom (13); a support member (47) secured to the container (3) and having an inwardly directed flange for supporting the flange portion of the top plate (31); a supplemental supporting system (1) for positioning the heater unit assembly (23) in the container (3) at a spaced relation from the inner surface and bottom wall (13) of the container (3); a cover (15) for closing the top of the container (3); and a container supporting structure (5,7,8) supporting the container (3) in a manner to permit the container (3) to be moved, relative to the supporting structure (5,7,8 ), between a vertical position for loading and unloading the assembly (23) and a horizontal position for transport of the assembly (23). A seal (57) is interposed between the container (3) and the cover (15) for sealing the interior of the container (3) from the environment. An abutment member (41) is mounted on the container supporting structure (5,7,8) for supporting the container bottom (13), when the container (3) is in the vertical position, to prevent the container (3) from moving past the vertical position in the direction away from the horizontal position, and a retainer member (55) is secured within the cover (15) for retaining the assembly top plate (31) in contact with the support member (47) when the cover (15) closes the top of the container (3).

  9. Development of a new roof bolt technology to improve gate-road performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caggiano, V.; Rauch, G.; Beck, K.-D.; Chen, J.

    2005-10-01

    Hilti has developed, in conjunction with Foundation Coal, a self-drilling bolt that cuts roof bolting times. The system uses a wet, self-drilling, hollow bolt technology with a self-contained resin cartridge. The resin is dispensed using an injection adapter that provides the high pressure water needed to dispense the resin. The OneStep roof bolt contains an axially shifting mixer that ensures the resin is properly mixed as it exits the water ports near the end of the bolt near the drill head. This eliminates the opportunity for plastic materials to interface between the strata and the bolt. In 2004 the OneStep Bolt was successfully installed in DSK's Prosper Haniel Colliery in Germany, achieving a 42% reduction in single-boom roof bolt cycle time and a 36% reduction in twin-boom roof bolt cycle time. Foundation Coal will be installing 2000 6 ft active bolts in one of the North Appalachian longwall locations. 1 fig.

  10. Probe with integrated heater and thermocouple pack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCulloch, Reg W.; Dial, Ralph E.; Finnell, Wilber K. R.

    1990-01-01

    A probe for measuring heat includes an elongate rod fitted within a sheath, and a plurality of annular recesses are formed on the surface of the rod in a spaced-apart relationship to form annular chambers that are resistant to heat flow. A longitudinal bore extends axially into the rod and within the cylinders defined by the annular chambers, and an integrated heater and thermocouple pack is dimensioned to fit within the bore. In construction, the integrated pack includes a plurality of wires disposed in electrical insulation within a sheath and a heater cable. These wires include one common wire and a plurality of thermocuple wires. The common wire is constructed of one type of conductive material while the thermocouple wires are each constructed of two types of materials so that at least one thermocouple junction is formed therein. All of the wires extend the length of the integrated pack and are connected together at their ends. The thermocouple wires are constructed to form thermocouple junctions proximate to each annular chamber for producing electromotive forces corresponding to the temperature of the rod within the annular chambers relative to outside the chambers. In the preferred embodiment, each thermocouple wire forms two thermocouple junctions, one junction being disposed within an annular chamber and the second junction being disposed outside of, but proximate to, the same annular chamber. In one embodiment two thermocouple wires are configured to double the sensitivity of the probe in one region.

  11. Probe with integrated heater and thermocouple pack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCulloch, Reginald W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dial, Ralph E. (Concord, TN); Finnell, Wilber K. R. (Kingston, TN)

    1988-01-01

    A probe for measuring heat includes an elongate rod fitted within a sheath, and a plurality of annular recesses are formed on the surface of the rod in a spaced-apart relationship to form annular chambers that are resistant to heat flow. A longitudinal bore extends axially into the rod and within the cylinders defined by the annular chambers, and an integrated heater and thermocouple pack is dimensioned to fit within the bore. In construction, the integrated pack includes a plurality of wires disposed in electrical insulation within a sheath and a heater cable. These wires include one common wire and a plurality of thermocouple wires. The common wire is constructed of one type of conductive material while the thermocouple wires are each constructed of two types of materials so that at least one thermocouple junction is formed therein. All of the wires extend the length of the integrated pack and are connected together at their ends. The thermocouple wires are constructed to form thermocouple junctions proximate to each annular chamber for producing electromotive forces corresponding to the temperature of the rod within the annular chambers relative to outside the chambers. In the preferred embodiment, each thermocouple wire forms two thermocouple junctions, one junction being disposed within an annular chamber and the second junction being disposed outside of, but proximate to, the same annular chamber. In one embodiment two thermocouple wires are configured to double the sensitivity of the probe in one region.

  12. Water Infrastructure Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Heating Products and Services Water Heating Products and Services Choosing an efficient water heater will help you save money and Energy. | Photo Credit Energy Department Choosing an efficient water heater will help you save money and Energy. | Photo Credit Energy Department Use the following links to get product information and locate professional services for water heating. Product Information Solar Pool Heating Systems Florida Solar Energy Center Listing of solar pool heating systems

  13. Thrust bolting: Roof-bolt-support apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tadolini, S.C.; Dolinar, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for installing a roof bolt in a borehole of a rock formation and more specifically to tensioning the unit without the aid of a mechanical anchoring device or threaded tensioning threads. The bolt is capable of being placed into tension along the length and the levels of active support can be controlled by varying the length of the grouted portion and the level of thrust applied to the bolt during installation.

  14. Tips: Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Tips: Water Heating Keep your energy bills out of hot water. Insulate your water heater to save ... Drain-water, or greywater, heat recovery systems capture the energy ...

  15. Pollutant emissions from portable kerosene-fired space heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Traynor, G.W.; Allen, J.R.; Apte, M.G.; Girman, J.R.; Hollowell, C.D.

    1983-06-01

    Indoor use of unvented combustion appliances is known to cause an increase in indoor air pollutants. We conducted laboratory tests on two radiant and two convective portable kerosene-fired space heaters to identify the pollutants they emit and to determine their emission rates. Results show that carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and formaldehyde were emitted by both types of heaters and that the radiant heaters and one of the convective heaters also emitted trace amounts of fine particles. When such heaters are operated for 1 h in a 27-m/sup 3/ chamber with 0.4 air changes per hour, the resultant CO/sub 2/ concentrations are well above the U.S. occupational standard, and NO/sub 2/ concentrations are well above California's short-term outdoor standard.

  16. ISSUANCE 2015-10-15: Energy Conservation Standards for Pool Heaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Standards for Pool Heaters, Notice of Data Availability ISSUANCE 2015-10-15: Energy Conservation Standards for Pool Heaters, Notice of Data Availability This document is the Energy ...

  17. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Whole-Home Gas Tankless Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heaters | Department of Energy Whole-Home Gas Tankless Water Heaters Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Whole-Home Gas Tankless Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for residential whole-home gas tankless water heaters, a product category covered by ENERGY STAR efficiency requirements. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products or FEMP-designated products in all product categories

  18. Vera Water & Power- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Vera Water and Power offers several rebates to electric customers who purchase and install energy efficient equipment. Rebates are available for water heaters, windows, heat pumps, clothes washer,...

  19. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  20. Grid-Interactive Renewable Water Heating Economic and Environmental...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 Grid-Interactive Renewable Water Heating Economic and Environmental Value Grid-interactive renewable water heaters have smart controls that quickly change their charge rate and ...

  1. Accelerated Aging of Roofing Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Accelerated Aging of Roofing Materials Accelerated Aging of Roofing Materials 1 of 2 Berkeley Lab Heat Island Group chemist Mohamad Sleiman prepares to insert clean and soiled roofing specimens into a weatherometer. The weatherometer simulates exposure to heat, moisture, and UV radiation. Image: Heat Island Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 2 of 2 Berkeley Lab Heat Island Group chemist Mohamad Sleiman configures a weatherometer to simulate the effects of heat, moisture, and UV

  2. Improving Our Environment One Roof at a Time

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Known by a variety of names, green roofs – which are built on top of a conventional roof and are partially or completely covered by vegetation – have been around for thousands of years and are popular in many European countries. Scientists at the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory are using green roofs as laboratories to investigate alternative growth media for plants that make use of waste materials generated by the fossil fuel industry.

  3. Flourescent Pigments for High-Performance Cool Roofing and Facades |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Flourescent Pigments for High-Performance Cool Roofing and Facades Flourescent Pigments for High-Performance Cool Roofing and Facades Addthis 1 of 3 PPG Industries and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory are partnering to develop a new class of dark-colored pigments for cool metal roof and façade coatings that incorporate near-infrared fluorescence and reflectance to improve energy performance. Image: PPG Industries 2 of 3 Berkeley Lab Heat Island Group physicist Paul

  4. Energy Department Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building to Save Money by Saving Energy | Department of Energy Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters Building to Save Money by Saving Energy Energy Department Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters Building to Save Money by Saving Energy December 14, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington - Secretary Steven Chu today announced the completion of a new cool roof installation on the Department of Energy's Headquarters West Building. There was no incremental cost to adding

  5. Comparison of software models for energy savings from cool roofs...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Comparison of software models for energy savings from cool roofs Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on September 4, 2017 Title: ...

  6. A Review of Methods for the Manufacture of Residential Roofing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In climates with significant demand for cooling energy, increasing roof solar reflectance ... The report also discusses innovative methods for increasing the solar reflectance of these ...

  7. Secretary Chu Announces Steps to Implement Cool Roofs at DOE...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    coatings to reflect more of the sun's heat, helping improve building efficiency by ... urban areas. Because they absorb so much heat, dark-colored roofs and roadways create ...

  8. Developing Energy Efficient Roof Systems DEERS | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (DEERS) Place: Ripon, California Zip: 95366 Sector: Solar Product: Developer of roof top solar PV projects. Coordinates: 43.84582, -88.837054 Show Map Loading map......

  9. Status of cool roof standards in the United States (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Since 1999, several widely used building energy efficiency standards, including ASHRAE ... and discuss the treatment of cool roofs in other standards and energy-efficiency programs. ...

  10. Cool Roofs and Heat Islands | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Cool Roofs AgencyCompany Organization: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency Topics: Resource...

  11. Next Generation Attics and Roof Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review PDF icon emrgtech26miller040413.pdf More Documents & Publications New Cool Roof ...

  12. Cool roofs as an energy conservation measure for federal buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taha, Haider; Akbari, Hashem

    2003-04-07

    We have developed initial estimates of the potential benefits of cool roofs on federal buildings and facilities (building scale) as well as extrapolated the results to all national facilities under the administration of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). In addition, a spreadsheet ''calculator'' is devised to help FEMP estimate potential energy and cost savings of cool roof projects. Based on calculations for an average insulation level of R-11 for roofs, it is estimated that nationwide annual savings in energy costs will amount to $16M and $32M for two scenarios of increased roof albedo (moderate and high increases), respectively. These savings, corresponding to about 3.8 percent and 7.5 percent of the base energy costs for FEMP facilities, include the increased heating energy use (penalties) in winter. To keep the cost of conserved energy (CCE) under $0.08 kWh-1 as a nationwide average, the calculations suggest that the incremental cost for cool roofs should not exceed $0.06 ft-2, assuming that cool roofs have the same life span as their non-cool counterparts. However, cool roofs usually have extended life spans, e.g., 15-30 years versus 10 years for conventional roofs, and if the costs of re-roofing are also factored in, the cutoff incremental cost to keep CCE under $0.08 kWh-1 can be much higher. In between these two ends, there is of course a range of various combinations and options.

  13. TASK 2.5.7 FIELD EXPERIMENTS TO EVALUATE COOL-COLORED ROOFING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, William A; Cherry, Nigel J; Allen, Richard Lowell; Childs, Phillip W; Atchley, Jerald Allen; Ronnen, Levinson; Akbari, Hashem; Berhahl, Paul

    2010-03-01

    Aesthetically pleasing dark roofs can be formulated to reflect like a highly reflective white roof in the near infrared portion of the solar spectrum. New paint pigments increase the near infrared reflectance of exterior finishes by minimizing the absorption of near-infrared radiation (NIR). The boost in the NIR reflectance drops the surface temperatures of roofs and walls, which in turn reduces cooling-energy use and provides savings for the homeowner and relief for the utilities. In moderate and hot climates, a roof surface with high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance was shown by Akbari et al. (2004) and by Parker and Sherwin (1998) to reduce the exterior temperature and produce savings in comfort cooling. The new cool color pigments can potentially reduce emissions of carbon dioxide, which in turn reduces metropolitan heat buildup and urban smog. The pigments can also help conserve water resources otherwise used to clean and process fuel consumed by fossil-fuel driven power plants. Cool roofs also result in a lower ambient temperature that further decreases the need for air conditioning, retards smog formation, and improves thermal comfort. Parker, Sonne and Sherwin (2002) demonstrated that white barrel and white flat tiles reduced cooling energy consumption by 22% of the base load used by an adjacent and identical home having direct nailed dark shingles. Part of the savings was due to the reflectance of the white tiles; however, another part was due to the mass of the tile and to the venting occurring within the double batten installation. With, Cherry and Haig (2009) have studied the influence of the thermal mass and batten space ventilation and have found that, referenced to an asphalt shingle system, it can be equivalent to an additional 28 points of solar reflectivity. The double batten arrangement has wooden counter battens laid vertically (soffit-to-ridge) against the roof deck, and then the conventional battens are laid horizontally across the

  14. New “Cool Roof Time Machine” Will Accelerate Cool Roof Deployment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A collaboration led by scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has established a method to simulate soiling and weathering processes in the lab, reproducing in only a few days the solar reflectance of roofing products naturally aged for three years.

  15. Summary of AEP`s experience with retubing feedwater heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cashner, B.

    1995-12-01

    American Electric Power (AEP) oversees the design, operation and maintenance of 500+ low pressure (LP) and high pressure (HP) feedwater heaters on subcritical and supercritical pressure fossil generating units. Approximately 150 of these U-tubed heaters have been successfully retubed since the 1970`s, with a majority of the retubings performed in the field by qualified heat exchanger companies. Due to the large number of retubed heaters, AEP has gone through the {open_quotes}learning curve{close_quotes} and refined its technical specifications for retubing heaters. In comparison to the 150 retubed heaters, over 70 LP and HP heaters have been replaced. Examples will be presented comparing the engineering and cost benefits for retubing versus replacement. A total of 24 bar charts are attached which summarize operating experience with the original heater tube materials and replacement tube materials. The tube materials consist of arsenical copper, copper-nickels, admiralty, monel, carbon steel and stainless steels. A brief discussion of AEP`s recommended tube materials for various applications will be presented, taking into account long term operation and heat rate impacts.

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Insulation, Windows, Siding, Roofs, Other EE, Yes; specific technologies not identified, Food Service Equipment, LED Lighting, Tankless Water Heater, Commercial Refrigeration...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Air sealing, Building Insulation, Windows, Siding, Roofs, Comprehensive MeasuresWhole Building, Other EE, Tankless Water Heater Community Energy Education Management Program...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Roofs, LED Lighting, Tankless Water Heater, Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Barron Electric Cooperative- Residential Energy Resource Conservation Loan Program A 5-year...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Insulation, Windows, Roofs, CustomOthers pending approval, Other EE, Wind (Small), Personal Computing Equipment, Tankless Water Heater Energy Trust of Oregon Of the funds...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Pool Heating, Building Insulation, Windows, Roofs, Other EE, Tankless Water Heater City of Plano- Smart Energy Loan Program Eligible properties must be owner-occupied...