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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "roofing metal concrete" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Plain Talk About Condensation and Radiation Below Metal Roof Assemblies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During recent decades an increasing number of users have chosen metal roofing for various commercial, industrial and institutional buildings. Because of several advantages, construction of new pre-engineered and "hybrid" buildings has outpaced low-rise, nonresidential conventional construction since 1984. Unfortunately, some of these advantages may give rise to certain disadvantages in comfort, durability and operating costs (7). This paper provides a brief historical overview of common metal roof insulation methods as well as recent innovations for low cost/no cost performance enhancements. Following is a discussion of current industry trends and design considerations for those seeking to control the combined effects of conduction, convection, radiation and moisture migration in individual roof assemblies.

Ward, L.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Thermal Performance Evaluation of Innovative Metal Building Roof Assemblies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to meet the coming energy codes, multiple layers of various insulation types will be required. The demand for greater efficiency has pushed insulation levels beyond the cavity depth. These experiments show the potential for improving metal building roof thermal performance. Additional work is currently being done by several stakeholders, so the data is expanding. These experiments are for research and development purposes, and may not be viable for immediate use.

Walker, Daniel James [ORNL; Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

A novel technique for the production of cool colored concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing products  

SciTech Connect

The widespread use of solar-reflective roofing materials can save energy, mitigate urban heat islands and slow global warming by cooling the roughly 20% of the urban surface that is roofed. In this study we created prototype solar-reflective nonwhite concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing materials using a two-layer spray coating process intended to maximize both solar reflectance and factory-line throughput. Each layer is a thin, quick-drying, pigmented latex paint based on either acrylic or a poly(vinylidene fluoride)/acrylic blend. The first layer is a titanium dioxide rutile white basecoat that increases the solar reflectance of a gray-cement concrete tile from 0.18 to 0.79, and that of a shingle surfaced with bare granules from 0.06 to 0.62. The second layer is a 'cool' color topcoat with weak near-infrared (NIR) absorption and/or strong NIR backscattering. Each layer dries within seconds, potentially allowing a factory line to pass first under the white spray, then under the color spray. We combined a white basecoat with monocolor topcoats in various shades of red, brown, green and blue to prepare 24 cool color prototype tiles and 24 cool color prototypes shingles. The solar reflectances of the tiles ranged from 0.26 (dark brown; CIELAB lightness value L* = 29) to 0.57 (light green; L* = 76); those of the shingles ranged from 0.18 (dark brown; L* = 26) to 0.34 (light green; L* = 68). Over half of the tiles had a solar reflectance of at least 0.40, and over half of the shingles had a solar reflectance of at least 0.25.

Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul; Wood, Kurt; Skilton, Wayne; Petersheim, Jerry

2009-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

4

Sustainable Retrofit of Residential Roofs Using Metal Roofing Panels, Thin-Film Photovoltaic Laminates, and PCM Heat Sink Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During September-October 2009, research teams representing Metal Construction Association (the largest North American trade association representing metal building manufacturers, builders, and material suppliers), CertainTeed (one of the largest U.S. manufacturers of thermal insulation and building envelope materials), Unisolar (largest U.S. producer of amorphous silicone photo-voltaic (PV) laminates), Phase Change Energy (manufacturer of bio-based PCM), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) installed three experimental attics utilizing different roof retrofit strategies in the ORNL campus. The main goal of this project was experimental evaluation of a newly-developed sustainable re-roofing technology utilizing amorphous silicone PV laminates integrated with metal roof and PCM heat sink. The experimental attic with PV laminate was expected to work during the winter time as a passive solar collector with PCM storing solar heat, absorbed during the day, and increasing overall attic air temperature during the night.

Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Comparative Summer Thermal Performance of Finished and Unfinished Metal Roofing Products with Composition Shingles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents an overview of results from experimental research conducted at FSEC's Flexible Roofing Facility in the summer of 2002. The Flexible Roof Facility (FRF) is a test facility in Cocoa, Florida designed to evaluate a combination of five roofing systems against a control roof using dark shingles. The intent of the testing is to evaluate how roofing systems impact residential cooling energy use. Recent testing emphasizes evaluation of how increasingly popular metal roofing systems, both finished and unfinished, might compare with other more traditional roofing types. All of the test cells had R-19 insulation installed on the attic floor except in the double roof configuration which had R-19 of open cell foam blown onto the underside of the roof decking. The test results were used to determine relative thermal performance of various roofing systems under typical Florida summer conditions. Measured impacts included changes to ceiling heat flux and attic air temperature which influences loads from unintended attic air leakage and duct heat gain. We also develop an analysis method to estimate total cooling energy benefits of different roofing systems considering the various impacts. The results show that all the options perform better than dark composition shingles. White metal performs best with an estimated cooling energy reduction of about 15%, but the spectrally selective metal shingles (12%) and unfinished Galvalume roofs (11%) do surprisingly well. Galvanized roofing did less well than Galvalume (7% reduction) and worse performance in the second year of exposure was observed due to corrosion of the zinc surface. The sealed attic with a double roof produced an estimated cooling energy reduction of only 2% -- largely due to increases in ceiling flux.

Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J.; Sonne, J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

The Effects of Infrared-Blocking Pigments and Deck Venting on Stone-Coated Metal Residential Roofs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Field data show that stone-coated metal shakes and S-mission tile, which exploit the use of infraredblocking color pigments (IrBCPs), along with underside venting reduce the heat flow penetrating the conditioned space of a residence by 70% compared with the amount of heat flow penetrating roofs with conventional asphalt shingles. Stone-coated metal roof products are typically placed on battens and counter-battens and nailed through the battens to the roof deck. The design provides venting on the underside of the metal roof that reduces the heat flow penetrating a home. The Metal Construction Association (MCA) and its affiliate members installed stone-coated metal roofs with shake and S-mission tile profiles and a painted metal shake roof on a fully instrumented attic test assembly at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Measurements of roof, deck, attic, and ceiling temperatures; heat flows; solar reflectance; thermal emittance; and ambient weather were recorded for each of the test roofs and also for an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventional pigmented and direct nailed asphalt shingle roof. All attic assemblies had ridge and soffit venting; the ridge was open to the underside of the stone-coated metal roofs. A control assembly with a conventional asphalt shingle roof was used for comparing deck and ceiling heat transfer rates.

Miller, William A [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

A Review of Methods for the Manufacture of Residential RoofingMaterials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Shingles, tiles, and metal products comprise over 80% (by roof area) of the California roofing market (54-58% fiberglass shingle, 8-10% concrete tile, 8-10% clay tile, 7% metal, 3% wood shake, and 3% slate). In climates with significant demand for cooling energy, increasing roof solar reflectance reduces energy consumption in mechanically cooled buildings, and improves occupant comfort in non-conditioned buildings. This report examines methods for manufacturing fiberglass shingles, concrete tiles, clay tiles, and metal roofing. The report also discusses innovative methods for increasing the solar reflectance of these roofing materials. We have focused on these four roofing products because they are typically colored with pigmented coatings or additives. A better understanding of the current practices for manufacturing colored roofing materials would allow us to develop cool colored materials creatively and more effectively.

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Berdahl, Paul

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Electropositive bivalent metallic ion unsaturated polyester complexed polymer concrete  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Quick setting polymer concrete compositions which are mixtures of unsaturated polyesters and crosslinking monomers together with appropriate initiators and promoters in association with aggregate which may be wet and a source of bivalent metallic ions which will set to polymer concrete with excellent structural properties.

Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.; Horn, W.H.

1981-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

9

Electropositive bivalent metallic ion unsaturated polyester complexed polymer concrete  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Quick setting polymer concrete compositions with excellent structural properties are disclosed; these polymer concrete compositions are mixtures of unsaturated polyesters and crosslinking monomers together with appropriate initiators and promoters in association with aggregate, which may be wet, and with a source of bivalent metallic ions.

Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY); Kukacka, Lawrence E. (Port Jefferson, NY); Horn, William H. (Brookhaven, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Electropositive bivalent metallic ion unsaturated polyester complexed polymer concrete  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Quick setting polymer concrete compositions are described which are mixtures of unsaturated polyesters and crosslinking monomers together with appropriate initiators and promoters in association with aggregate which may be wet and a source of bivalent metallic ions which will set to polymer concrete with excellent structural properties.

Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.; Horn, W.H.

1983-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

11

The Trade-off between Solar Reflectance and Above-Sheathing Ventilation for Metal Roofs on Residential and Commercial Buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An alternative to white and cool-color roofs that meets prescriptive requirements for steep-slope (residential and non-residential) and low-slope (non-residential) roofing has been documented. Roofs fitted with an inclined air space above the sheathing (herein termed above-sheathing ventilation, or ASV), performed as well as if not better than high-reflectance, high-emittance roofs fastened directly to the deck. Field measurements demonstrated the benefit of roofs designed with ASV. A computer tool was benchmarked against the field data. Testing and benchmarks were conducted at roofs inclined at 18.34 ; the roof span from soffit to ridge was 18.7 ft (5.7 m). The tool was then exercised to compute the solar reflectance needed by a roof equipped with ASV to exhibit the same annual cooling load as that for a direct-to-deck cool-color roof. A painted metal roof with an air space height of 0.75 in. (0.019 m) and spanning 18.7 ft (5.7 m) up the roof incline of 18.34 needed only a 0.10 solar reflectance to exhibit the same annual cooling load as a direct-to-deck cool-color metal roof (solar reflectance of 0.25). This held for all eight ASHRAE climate zones complying with ASHRAE 90.1 (2007a). A dark heat-absorbing roof fitted with 1.5 in. (0.038 m) air space spanning 18.7 ft (5.7 m) and inclined at 18.34 was shown to have a seasonal cooling load equivalent to that of a conventional direct-to-deck cool-color metal roof. Computations for retrofit application based on ASHRAE 90.1 (1980) showed that ASV air spaces of either 0.75 or 1.5 in. (0.019 and 0.038 m) would permit black roofs to have annual cooling loads equivalent to the direct-to-deck cool roof. Results are encouraging, and a parametric study of roof slope and ASV aspect ratio is needed for developing guidelines applicable to all steep- and low-slope roof applications.

Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL] [ORNL; Kriner, Scott [Metal Construction Association, Glenview, IL] [Metal Construction Association, Glenview, IL; Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

AEDG Implementation Recommendations: Cool Roofs | Building Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

section of the guide and focus on cool roofs, which are recommended for metal building roofs and roofs with insulation entirely above deck. Publication Date: Wednesday,...

13

Metal roofing Shingle roofing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of electricity for air-conditioning. One of the causes for the high usage of air-conditioning is a hot attic because the thermal energy is retained due to poor ventilation. Objective Reduce the high usage of air to the attic and lower the temperature of the attic space. 2. Lower attic temperatures will correlate to lower

Hutcheon, James M.

14

Innovative technologies for recycling contaminated concrete and scrap metal  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination and decommissioning of US DOE`s surplus facilities will generate enormous quantities of concrete and scrap metal. A solicitation was issued, seeking innovative technologies for recycling and reusing these materials. Eight proposals were selected for award. If successfully developed, these technologies will enable DOE to clean its facilities by 2019.

Bossart, S.J. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Moore, J. [USDOE Oak Ridge Operations Office, TN (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

CONCRETE REFLECTED ARRAYS OF U(93.2) METAL  

SciTech Connect

During the period from 1963 – 1973, experiments involving highly enriched uranium units were performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility to determine various critical configurations of three-dimensional arrays. The experiments formed a four-part series, and were reported by several different experimenters; the results of interest for this evaluation are those reported for the fourth experimentation, Critical Three-Dimensional Arrays of Neutron Interacting Units: Part IV, published and performed by D.W.Magnuson (Ref 1). Information is also available in the logbook . This set of experiments utilized subcritical metal units on a split table apparatus to determine critical configurations for 2×2×2 arrangements of highly enriched uranium reflected by concrete. Magnuson manipulated the configuration of several uranium cylinders and blocks within a concrete reflector. The different permutations utilized uranium cylinders of two different heights in various positions in the three dimensional array; certain cases also placed thin uranium blocks on top of the cylinders. The thickness of the surrounding concrete, as well as the inner dimensions of the concrete reflector was also varied in certain cases. The variations resulted in fourteen different experimental permutations or configurations. All fourteen configurations were judged to be unacceptable for use as criticality safety benchmarks. All experiments were initially evaluated; however only three configurations were evaluated in detail. Configurations 2, 4, 6 and 12 were not evaluated in detail because they are subcritical and configurations 5, 7, 8, 9, and 10 were also were not evaluated in detail because they were supercritical by more than beta effective (~0.007), or prompt critical. The experiments evaluated in detail for this benchmark were configurations 1, 3, and 11. The experimental report also contains the information for HEU-MET-FAST-056. Closely related work has been recorded in HEU-MET-FAST-053, which is a benchmark evaluation of a different series of three dimensional array experiments with four different moderator materials. HEU-MET-FAST-023 and HEU-MET-FAST-026 are also related because they utilize the same metal cylinders as these experiments.

Mackenzie Gorham; John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; Virginia Dean; Davis Reed

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Microsoft PowerPoint - Cool Roofs_090804  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for: for: Quarterly Facilities and Infrastructure Meeting Presented by: The Office of Engineering and Construction Management Content Excerpted From Presentation of: Bob Schmidt - NNSA Kansas City Plant Cool Roofs - An Overview August 4, 2009 2 *The terms "white roof" and "cool roof" are often mistakenly used interchangeably. A white roof is not necessarily a cool roof and a cool roof is not necessarily white. *"Cool Roofs" come in many style as defined by industry standard and can include: Metal Single ply Modified bitumen Acrylic coated White Roof vs. Cool Roof 3 Solar reflectance alone can significantly influence surface temperature, with the white stripe on the brick wall about 5 to 10° F (3-5° C) cooler than the surrounding, darker

17

Roof bolting improvements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Suppliers partner with mine operators to offer safer, more productive tools for roof bolting. 4 figs.

Fiscor, S.

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

18

Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System  

SciTech Connect

Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The options considered to date are not ideal. One approach is to insulate between the trusses at the roof plane. The construction process is time consuming and costs more than conventional attic construction. Moreover, the problems of air infiltration and thermal bridges across the insulation remain. Another approach is to use structurally insulated panels (SIPs), but conventional SIPs are unlikely to be the ultimate solution because an additional underlying support structure is required except for short spans. In addition, wood spline and metal locking joints can result in thermal bridges and gaps in the foam. This study undertook a more innovative approach to roof construction. The goal was to design and evaluate a modular energy efficient panelized roof system with the following attributes: (1) a conditioned and clear attic space for HVAC equipment and additional finished area in the attic; (2) manufactured panels that provide structure, insulation, and accommodate a variety of roofing materials; (3) panels that require support only at the ends; (4) optimal energy performance by minimizing thermal bridging and air infiltration; (5) minimal risk of moisture problems; (6) minimum 50-year life; (7) applicable to a range of house styles, climates and conditions; (8) easy erection in the field; (9) the option to incorporate factory-installed solar systems into the panel; and (10) lowest possible cost. A nationwide market study shows there is a defined market opportunity for such a panelized roof system with production and semi-custom builders in the United States. Senior personnel at top builders expressed interest in the performance attributes and indicate long-term opportunity exists if the system can deliver a clear value proposition. Specifically, builders are interested in (1) reducing construction cycle time (cost) and (2) offering increased energy efficiency to the homebuyer. Additional living space under the roof panels is another low-cost asset identified as part of the study. The market potential is enhanced through construction activity levels in target marke

Jane Davidson

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

19

Using Green Roofs to Minimize Roof Runoff Pollution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

comparison for new construction: ­­ Green roofGreen roof -- $10$10--$30 per square foot$30 per square foot ­­ Traditional roofTraditional roof -- $5$5--$15 per square foot$15 per square foot Roof load evaluation required Roof Design ConsiderationsGreen Roof Design Considerations Cost comparison for new construction:Cost

Clark, Shirley E.

20

Cool Roof Colored Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Roof Colored Materials Cool Roof Colored Materials Speaker(s): Hashem Akbari Date: May 29, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60% can reduce cooling-energy use in buildings in excess of 20%. Cool roofs also result in a lower ambient temperature that further decreases the need for air conditioning and retards smog formation. Reflective roofing products currently available in the market are typically used for low-sloped roofs. For the residential buildings with steep-sloped roofs, non-white (colored) cool roofing products are generally not available and most consumers prefer colors other than white. In this collaborative project LBNL and ORNL are working with the roofing industry to develop and produce reflective, colored roofing products and make yhrm a market reality within three to

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "roofing metal concrete" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Photovoltaic roof heat flux  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

many solar installations have basic weather stations. Withthe solar panels. Figure 6: Setup #1 on RIMAC roof. Weather

Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Solar energy collector and associated methods adapted for use with overlapped roof shingles on the roof of a building  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are disclosed for collecting solar energy adapted for use with overlapped roof shingles on the roof or side of a building comprising thin flexible metal plates interposed between the overlapped shingles in heat transfer relation therewith such that heat absorbed by the shingles is transferred to the metal plates. The plates extend through the roof via slots provided therein and are affixed in heat transfer relation with pipes containing a fluid.

Nevins, R.L.

1980-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

23

Tritium storage development. Progress report No. 10, October--December 1976. [In metal hydride; polymer-impregnated tritiated concrete  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Laboratory and engineering scale work has been initiated on the storage of tritium in a metal hydride. Laboratory hydriding apparatus has been assembled and a preliminary series of experiments was carried out on zirconium. Several engineering design concepts for the reaction and storage of tritium in a metal hydride are presented. The design of a three 3-in.-diam. bench scale reaction system is in progress. Developmental work is continuing on the injector technique for the fixation of tritium in polymer-impregnated concrete.

Colombo, P; Steinberg, M

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Composite synthetic roofing structure with integral solar collector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A form-molded synthetic foam roofing section or structure is described, having a solar-collecting insert or panel incorporated therein with a relatively broad undersurface and an exposed surface configured to resemble interlocked and overlapping roofing shingles which are united to support a surface such as wood, metal, etc. During the molding process. The roofing structure may be affixed by any conventional means, such as nails or adhesives, to roof boards, rafters or over old existing roof structures with adjacent roofing sections interconnected by appropriate inlets and outlets for the solar panel insert. Solar heat-collecting fluid may be circulated through the solar panel inserts in a conventional manner. Connecting tubes are provided for connecting the solar panel inserts in adjacent roofing sections and terminal connectors are compatible with all circulating systems.

Gould, W.M.

1981-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

25

Abrasive blasting, a technique for the industrial decontamination of metal components and concrete blocks from decommissioning to unconditional release levels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When decommissioning nuclear installations, large quantities of metal components are produced as well as significant amounts of other radioactive materials, which mostly show low surface contamination. Having been used or having been brought for a while in a controlled area marks them as 'suspected material'. In view of the very high costs for radioactive waste processing and disposal, alternatives have been considered, and much effort has gone to recycling through decontamination, melting and unconditional release of metals. In a broader context, recycling of materials can considered to be a first order ecological priority in order to limit the quantities of radioactive wastes for final disposal and to reduce the technical and economic problems involved with the management of radioactive wastes. It will help as well to make economic use of primary material and to conserve natural resources of basic material for future generations. In a demonstration programme, Belgoprocess has shown that it is economically interesting to decontaminate metal components to unconditional release levels using dry abrasive blasting techniques, the unit cost for decontamination being only 30 % of the global cost for radioactive waste treatment, conditioning, storage and disposal. As a result, an industrial dry abrasive blasting unit was installed in the Belgoprocess central decontamination infrastructure. At the end of December 2006, more than 1,128 Mg of contaminated metal has been treated as well as 313 Mg of concrete blocks. The paper gives an overview of the experience relating to the decontamination of metal material and concrete blocks at the decommissioning of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant in Dessel, Belgium as well from the decontamination of concrete containers by abrasive blasting. (authors)

Gills, R.; Lewandowski, P.; Ooms, B.; Reusen, N.; Van Laer, W.; Walthery, R. [Belgoprocess N.V., Gravenstraat 73, 2480 Dessel (Belgium)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Roofing Moisture Tolerance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Moisture Control in Low-Slope Roofing: Moisture Control in Low-Slope Roofing: A New Design Requirement A.O. Desjarlais and J.E. Christian, Oak Ridge National Laboratory N. A. Byars, University of North Carolina Charlotte This calculator performs the calculations described in Moisture Control in Low-Slope Roofing: A New Design Requirement. This calculator allows the roofing practitioner to determine if a roofing system design requires a vapor retarder or if the system can be modified to enhance its tolerance for small leaks. To use the calculator, simply supply the following information and click on the "Check Roof" button at the bottom of the form. Insulation Type and Thickness (in inches): Fiberboard Polyisocyanurate 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Layer 1 None Fiberboard Polyisocyanurate 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Layer 2

27

Roof Photovoltaic Test Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... In addition measurements of diffuse and beam solar irradiance are made by an adjacent meteorological station. The nine PV roofing products ...

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

28

Roof Renovations | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Roof Renovations Roof Renovations Roof Renovations October 16, 2013 - 4:58pm Addthis The roof of a Federal building is a common placement for a number of renewable energy technologies, so they should be addressed anytime a roof renovation is undertaken, including roof-mounted photovoltaics (PV) and solar hot water (SHW) systems that consider structural loads, accessible wiring/plumbing, and available roof space; daylighting, including skylights, clerestories, and solar tubes; and energy-efficient roofing technologies such as vegetative roofs. Renewable Energy Options for Building Envelope Renovations Daylighting Photovoltaics Solar Water Heating (SWH) In a Federal building renovation, a variety of equipment may vie for roof space. Decisions about using roof space should involve a range of

29

The Equivalent Thermal Resistance of Tile Roofs with and without Batten Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Clay and concrete tile roofs were installed on a fully instrumented attic test facility operating in East Tennessee s climate. Roof, attic and deck temperatures and heat flows were recorded for each of the tile roofs and also on an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventionally pigmented and direct-nailed asphalt shingle roof. The data were used to benchmark a computer tool for simulation of roofs and attics and the tool used to develop an approach for computing an equivalent seasonal R-value for sub-tile venting. The approach computed equal heat fluxes through the ceilings of roofs having different combinations of surface radiation properties and or building constructions. A direct nailed shingle roof served as a control for estimating the equivalent thermal resistance of the air space. Simulations were benchmarked to data in the ASHRAE Fundamentals for the thermal resistance of inclined and closed air spaces.

Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Steep-Slope Assembly Testing of Clay and Concrete Tile With and Without Cool Pigmented Colors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cool color pigments and sub-tile venting of clay and concrete tile roofs significantly impact the heat flow crossing the roof deck of a steep-slope roof. Field measures for the tile roofs revealed a 70% drop in the peak heat flow crossing the deck as compared to a direct-nailed asphalt shingle roof. The Tile Roofing Institute (TRI) and its affiliate members are keenly interested in documenting the magnitude of the drop for obtaining solar reflectance credits with state and federal "cool roof" building efficiency standards. Tile roofs are direct-nailed or are attached to a deck with batten or batten and counter-batten construction. S-Misson clay and concrete tile roofs, a medium-profile concrete tile roof, and a flat slate tile roof were installed on fully nstrumented attic test assemblies. Temperature measures of the roof, deck, attic, and ceiling, heat flows, solar reflectance, thermal emittance, and the ambient weather were recorded for each of the tile roofs and also on an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventional pigmented and directnailed asphalt shingle roof. ORNL measured the tile's underside temperature and the bulk air temperature and heat flows just underneath the tile for batten and counter-batten tile systems and compared the results to the conventional asphalt shingle.

Miller, William A [ORNL

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Roof bolting equipment & technology  

SciTech Connect

Technology provides an evaluator path to improvement for roof bolting machines. Bucyrus offers three different roof bolts models for various mining conditions. The LRB-15 AR is a single-arm boiler recommended for ranges of 32 inches and above; the dual-arm RB2-52A for ranges of 42 inches and above; and the dual-arm RB2-88A for ranges of 54 inches and above. Design features are discussed in the article. Developments in roof bolting technology by Joy Mining Machinery are reported. 4 photos.

Fiscor, S.

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

32

Photovoltaic roof heat flux  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of ~24°C, indicating that heat conduction was small. T h i sday, indicating large heat conduction a n d storage. Control2.1.3 showed that conduction heat flux through the roof was

Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Weathering of Roofing Materials-An Overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An overview of several aspects of the weathering of roofing materials is presented. Degradation of materials initiated by ultraviolet radiation is discussed for plastics used in roofing, as well as wood and asphalt. Elevated temperatures accelerate many deleterious chemical reactions and hasten diffusion of material components. Effects of moisture include decay of wood, acceleration of corrosion of metals, staining of clay, and freeze-thaw damage. Soiling of roofing materials causes objectionable stains and reduces the solar reflectance of reflective materials. (Soiling of non-reflective materials can also increase solar reflectance.) Soiling can be attributed to biological growth (e.g., cyanobacteria, fungi, algae), deposits of organic and mineral particles, and to the accumulation of flyash, hydrocarbons and soot from combustion.

Berdahl, Paul; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Miller, William A.

2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

34

Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Cool Roofs July 26, 2013 - 10:36am Addthis White painted roofs have been popular since ancient times in places like Greece. Similar technology can be easy to adapt to modern homes and other buildings. | Credit: ©iStockphoto/PhotoTalk White painted roofs have been popular since ancient times in places like Greece. Similar technology can be easy to adapt to modern homes and other buildings. | Credit: ©iStockphoto/PhotoTalk If you live in a hot climate, a cool roof can: Save you money on air conditioning Make your home more comfortable in hot weather How does it work? By making your roof more reflective, you reduce heat gain into your home. Check out these resources for more information. A cool roof is one that has been designed to reflect more sunlight and

35

Thermal Performance of Exposed Composed Roofs in Very Hot Dry Desert Region in Egypt (Toshky)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal performance for any building in hot dry region depend on the external climatic factor, the ability of the construction materials used in gained heat through day time and loss this heat through night time through the nocturnal radiation. Roof is considered the major part of the building envelop which exposed to high thermal load due to the high solar intensity and high outdoor air temperature through summer season which reach to 6 months. In Egypt the thermal effect of roof is increased as one go towards from north to south. This study evaluate the thermal performance of different test rooms with different roofs construction; uninsulated concrete, insulated concrete, double, plant, and active concrete roofs, constructed under the effect of external climatic condition of very hot and dry region in Egypt (Toshky region). The external climatic conditions and the temperature distribution inside the roof construction and the indoor air temperature were measured. The results of this study recognized that the thermal transmittance (UValue) has a major role in chosen the constructed materials. Also the thermal insulation considered the suitable manner for damping the thermal stresses through day time and makes the interior environment of the building near the comfort zone during most months of the year. Natural night and forced ventilation are more important in improving the internal conditions. The construction roof systems show that the indoor air temperature thermal damping reach to 96%, 90%, 89%, and 76% for insulated concrete, double, planted and uninsulated concrete roofs. The results also investigate the importance of using the earth as a cooling source through the active concrete system. Evaporative cooling and movable shading which are an integrated part of the guidelines for building design in hot dry region must be using.

Khalil, M. H.; Sheble, S.; Morsey, M. S.; Fakhry, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Solar heating shingle roof structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A solar heating roof shingle roof structure which combines the functions of a roof and a fluid conducting solar heating panel. Each shingle is a hollow body of the general size and configuration of a conventional shingle, and is provided with a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet. Shingles are assembled in a normal overlapping array to cover a roof structure, with interconnections between the inlets and outlets of successive shingles to provide a fluid path through the complete array. An inlet manifold is contained in a cap used at the peak of the roof and an outlet manifold is connected to the lowest row of shingles.

Straza, G.T.

1984-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

37

A whole building demonstration of re-cover over an existing wet roof  

SciTech Connect

Roof re-cover, the practice of installing a new roof over an existing failed roof, has become commonplace. The 1994 National Roofing Contractors Annual Roofing Survey reported that approximately 33% of current reroofing activity is re-cover. Market trends suggest that re-cover will become an increasingly more popular option. Moisture in the failed roof complicates the decision whether or not to re-cover and how to do the recover if that is the decision. If the root to be re-covered contains moisture that will not be removed during reroofing, this moisture must be able to escape from the roof system. Otherwise, moisture entrapped in the roofing system may eventually lead to the mechanical failure of fasteners and the roof deck, especially if it is metal. In 1991, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) surveyed its own roofing inventory and found that 164 buildings or 70% of the laboratory roof area needed reroofing. Because of the high cost of tear off and replacement, an alterative was sought. This paper describes the procedure employed to determine the suitability of a particular roof system on a laboratory building for re-covering. The procedure involves the use of field diagnostics, laboratory experiments and numerical simulations that demonstrate that the particular roof type can be re-covered. Furthermore, the building and roof system have been monitored for approximately 16 months after re-cover. The monitoring results are compared to the numerical simulations and demonstrate that the roof system is drying and that the reroofing strategy that they used is cost-effective.

Desjarlais, A.O.; Petrie, T.W.; Christian, J.E.; McLain, H.A.; Childs, P.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

38

Load test of the 3701U Building roof deck and support structure  

SciTech Connect

The 3701U Building roof area was load tested according to the approved load-test procedure. The 3701U Building is located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site and has the following characteristics: Roof deck--metal decking supported by steel purlins; Roof membrane--tar and gravel; Roof slope--flat (<10 deg); and Roof elevation--height of about 12.5 ft. The 3701U Building was visited in August 1992 for a visual inspection, but because of insulation an inspection could not be performed. The building was revisited in March 1994 for the purpose of writing this test report. Because the roof could not be inspected, a test was determined to be the best way to qualify the roof for personnel access. The test procedure called for the use of a remotely-controlled robot. The conclusions are that the roof has been qualified for 500-lb total roof load and that the ``No Roof Access`` signs can be changed to ``Roof Access Restricted`` signs.

McCoy, R.M.

1994-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

39

Load test of the 3701U Building roof deck and support structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 3701U Building roof area was load tested according to the approved load-test procedure. The 3701U Building is located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site and has the following characteristics: Roof deck--metal decking supported by steel purlins; Roof membrane--tar and gravel; Roof slope--flat (Roof elevation--height of about 12.5 ft. The 3701U Building was visited in August 1992 for a visual inspection, but because of insulation an inspection could not be performed. The building was revisited in March 1994 for the purpose of writing this test report. Because the roof could not be inspected, a test was determined to be the best way to qualify the roof for personnel access. The test procedure called for the use of a remotely-controlled robot. The conclusions are that the roof has been qualified for 500-lb total roof load and that the ``No Roof Access`` signs can be changed to ``Roof Access Restricted`` signs.

McCoy, R.M.

1994-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

40

Cool Roofs and Heat Islands  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(510) 486-7494 Links Heat Island Group The Cool Colors Project Batteries and Fuel Cells Buildings Energy Efficiency Applications Commercial Buildings Cool Roofs and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "roofing metal concrete" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Energy saving potential of various roof technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Unconventional roof technologies such as cool roofs and green roofs have been shown to reduce building heating and cooling load. Although previous studies suggest potential for energy savings through such technologies, ...

Ray, Stephen D. (Stephen Douglas)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Cool roofs could save money, save planet  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool roofs could save money, save planet Title Cool roofs could save money, save planet Publication Type Broadcast Year of Publication 2009 Authors Akbari, Hashem, and Arthur H....

43

Aging of reflective roofs: soot deposition  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aging of reflective roofs: soot deposition Title Aging of reflective roofs: soot deposition Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2002 Authors Berdahl, Paul, Hashem...

44

OCR Solar Roofing Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Facebook icon Twitter icon OCR Solar Roofing Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name OCR Solar & Roofing Inc Place Vacaville, California Product US installer of turnkey PV...

45

Green roofs: potential at LANL  

SciTech Connect

Green roofs, roof systems that support vegetation, are rapidly becoming one of the most popular sustainable methods to combat urban environmental problems in North America. An extensive list of literature has been published in the past three decades recording the ecological benefits of green roofs; and now those benefits have been measured in enumerated data as a means to analyze the costs and returns of green roof technology. Most recently several studies have made substantial progress quantifying the monetary savings associated with storm water mitigation, the lessoning of the Urban Heat Island, and reduction of building cooling demands due to the implementation of green roof systems. Like any natural vegetation, a green roof is capable of absorbing the precipitation that falls on it. This capability has shown to significantly decrease the amount of storm water runoff produced by buildings as well as slow the rate at which runoff is dispensed. As a result of this reduction in volume and velocity, storm drains and sewage systems are relieved of any excess stress they might experience in a storm. For many municipalities and private building owners, any increase in storm water mitigation can result in major tax incentives and revenue that does not have to be spent on extra water treatments. Along with absorption of water, vegetation on green roofs is also capable of transpiration, the process by which moisture is evaporated into the air to cool ambient temperatures. This natural process aims to minimize the Urban Heat Island Effect, a phenomenon brought on by the dark and paved surfaces that increases air temperatures in urban cores. As the sun distributes solar radiation over a city's area, dark surfaces such as bitumen rooftops absorb solar rays and their heat. That heat is later released during the evening hours and the ambient temperatures do not cool as they normally would, creating an island of constant heat. Such excessively high temperatures induce heat strokes, heat exhaustion, and pollution that can agitate the respiratory system. The most significant savings associated with green roofs is in the reduction of cooling demands due to the green roof's thermal mass and their insulating properties. Unlike a conventional roof system, a green roof does not absorb solar radiation and transfer that heat into the interior of a building. Instead the vegetation acts as a shade barrier and stabilizes the roof temperature so that interior temperatures remain comfortable for the occupants. Consequently there is less of a demand for air conditioning, and thus less money spent on energy. At LANL the potential of green roof systems has already been realized with the construction of the accessible green roof on the Otowi building. To further explore the possibilities and prospective benefits of green roofs though, the initial capital costs must be invested. Three buildings, TA-03-1698, TA-03-0502, and TA-53-0031 have all been identified as sound candidates for a green roof retrofit project. It is recommended that LANL proceed with further analysis of these projects and implementation of the green roofs. Furthermore, it is recommended that an urban forestry program be initiated to provide supplemental support to the environmental goals of green roofs. The obstacles barring green roof construction are most often budgetary and structural concerns. Given proper resources, however, the engineers and design professionals at LANL would surely succeed in the proper implementation of green roof systems so as to optimize their ecological and monetary benefits for the entire organization.

Pacheco, Elena M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Measuring mine roof bolt strains  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mine roof bolt and a method of measuring the strain in mine roof bolts of this type are disclosed. According to the method, a flat portion on the head of the mine roof bolt is first machined. Next, a hole is drilled radially through the bolt at a predetermined distance from the bolt head. After installation of the mine roof bolt and loading, the strain of the mine roof bolt is measured by generating an ultrasonic pulse at the flat portion. The time of travel of the ultrasonic pulse reflected from the hole is measured. This time of travel is a function of the distance from the flat portion to the hole and increases as the bolt is loaded. Consequently, the time measurement is correlated to the strain in the bolt. Compensation for various factors affecting the travel time are also provided.

Steblay, Bernard J. (Lakewood, CO)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Solar heating shingle roof structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A solar heating roof shingle roof structure which combines the functions of a roof and a fluid conducting solar heating panel. Each shingle is a hollow body of the general size and configuration of a conventional shingle, and is provided with a fluid inlet socket at the upper end and a fluid outlet plug at the lower end with a skirt at the lower end overlapping the plug. Shingles are assembled in an overlapping array to cover a roof structure, with interconnections between the inlets and outlets of successive longitudinally positioned shingles to provide fluid paths through the complete array. An inlet manifold is positioned at the upper end of the array or in the alternative contained in a cap used at the peak of the roof and an outlet manifold is connected to the outlet of the lowest row of shingles.

Straza, G.T.

1981-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

48

Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ELECTROSORB Electrokinetic Extraction Technology, developed by ISOTRON Corp., offers a cost-effective approach to treating contaminated concrete. Heavy metals/radionuclides trapped in concrete can be extracted using this process if they are chemically solubilized; solubilizers used are citric acid alone and a mixture of citric and nitric acids. A DC electric field is applied across the contaminated concrete to electrokinetically transport the solubilized contaminants from the concrete pores to a collector on the concrete surface. The collector is an extraction pad laid on the surface. The pad provides confinement for a planar electrode and solubilizer solution; it is operated under a vacuum to hold the pad against the concrete surface. Operation requires little attendance, reducing the workers` health hazards. The process incorporates a mechanism for recycling the solubilizer solution. A field demonstration of the process took place in Building 21 of DOE`s Mound facility in Miamisburg, OH, over 12 days in June 1996. The thorium species present in this building`s concrete floors included ThO{sub 2} and thorium oxalate. The nitric acid was found to facilitate Th extraction.

Lomasney, H.L.; SenGupta, A.K.; Yachmenev, V.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

49

Fabrication of Metal Foam and its Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mechanical and Physical Properties of Roof Tile Manufacturing from Red Mud ... Structural Engineering of Semiconductor Layered Metal Oxides for Solar ...

50

Cool Roofs: An Introduction | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Roofs: An Introduction Roofs: An Introduction Cool Roofs: An Introduction August 9, 2010 - 4:43pm Addthis Erin R. Pierce Erin R. Pierce Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Lately, I've been hearing a lot about cool roof technologies, so I welcomed the chance to learn more at a recent seminar. Cool roofs, also referred to as white roofs, have special coatings that reflect sunlight and emit heat more efficiently than traditional roofs, keeping them cooler in the sun. Cool roofing technologies can be implemented quickly and at a relatively low cost, making it the fastest growing sector of the building industry. U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu is among the many cool roof enthusiasts. The Secretary recently announced plans to install cool roofs

51

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs Addthis Below is the text version for the Energy 101: Cool Roofs video. The video opens with "Energy 101: Cool Roofs." This is followed by images of residential rooftops. Maybe you've never given much thought about what color your roof is, or what it's made of. But your roof could be costing you more money than you know to cool your home or office building, especially if you live in a warmer climate. The video shows pedestrians walking on a city street. Think about it this way... in the summertime we wear light-colored clothes because they keep us cooler. Lighter colors reflect - rather than absorb - the heat of the sun. The video shows images of a white roof. It's the same with your roof. A cool roof is often light in color and made

52

Cool Roofs: An Introduction | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs: An Introduction Cool Roofs: An Introduction Cool Roofs: An Introduction August 9, 2010 - 4:43pm Addthis Erin R. Pierce Erin R. Pierce Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Lately, I've been hearing a lot about cool roof technologies, so I welcomed the chance to learn more at a recent seminar. Cool roofs, also referred to as white roofs, have special coatings that reflect sunlight and emit heat more efficiently than traditional roofs, keeping them cooler in the sun. Cool roofing technologies can be implemented quickly and at a relatively low cost, making it the fastest growing sector of the building industry. U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu is among the many cool roof enthusiasts. The Secretary recently announced plans to install cool roofs

53

Green Roofs - Federal Technology Alert  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

roof of the 12- story Chicago City Hall building has been retrofitted with a 22,000-square-foot rooftop garden. The primary goal of this installation, which was completed in...

54

Success Stories: Cool Color Roofs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

instead of absorbing, solar heat. So the question for scientists interested in increasing energy efficiency is, can one make a roof that is both cool and dark? Hashem Akbari, Paul...

55

High temperature polymer concrete  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is concerned with a polymer concrete composition, which is a two-component composition useful with many bases including metal. Component A, the aggregate composition, is broadly composed of silica, silica flour, portland cement, and acrylamide, whereas Component B, which is primarily vinyl and acrylyl reactive monomers, is a liquid system.

Fontana, J.J.; Reams, W.

1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

56

Green Roof Media Selection forGreen Roof Media Selection for the Minimization of Pollutantthe Minimization of Pollutant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-- $10$10--$30 per square foot$30 per square foot ­­ Traditional roofTraditional roof -- $5$5--$15 per square foot$15 per square foot Roof load evaluation required for retrofitsRoof load evaluation requiredPersonalize property Increased valueIncreased value Increased roof lifeIncreased roof life Decreased roofing costs

Clark, Shirley E.

57

Roof Integrated Solar Absorbers: The Measured Performance of ''Invisible'' Solar Collectors: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), with the support of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, has investigated the thermal performance of solar absorbers that are an integral, yet indistinguishable, part of a building's roof. The first roof-integrated solar absorber (RISA) system was retrofitted into FSEC's Flexible Roof Facility in Cocoa, Florida, in September 1998. This ''proof-of-concept'' system uses the asphalt shingle roof surface and the plywood decking under the shingles as an unglazed solar absorber. Data was gathered for a one-year period on the system performance. In Phase 2, two more RISA prototypes were constructed and submitted for testing. The first used the asphalt shingles on the roof surface with the tubing mounted on the underside of the plywood decking. The second prototype used metal roofing panels over a plywood substrate and placed the polymer tubing between the plywood decking and the metal roofing. This paper takes a first look at the thermal performance results for the ''invisible'' solar absorbers that use the actual roof surface of a building for solar heat collection.

Colon, C. J. (Florida Solar Energy Center); Merrigan, T. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

2001-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

58

DOE Science Showcase - Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE | OSTI...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Accelerator returns cool roof documents from 6 DOE Databases Executive Order on Sustainability Secretary Chu Announces Steps to Implement One Cool Roof Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler...

59

Roof screening for underground coal mines: recent developments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of screens to control falls of the immediate roof or roof skin (that is between the installed primary and secondary roof supports) is described. 5 figs.

Compton, C.S.; Gallagher, S.; Molinda, G.M.; Mark, C.; Wilson, G.

2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

60

DOE Solar Decathlon: 2005 Feature Article - The Green Roof: Thinking...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a leader in green roof research, technology and usage, where an estimated 10% of all flat roofs are green. MSU's Green Roof Research Program was initiated in collaboration...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "roofing metal concrete" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Condition Assessment Survey (CAS) Program. Deficiency standards and inspections methods manual: Volume 5, 0.05 Roofing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

General information is presented for asset determinant factor/CAS repair codes/CAS cost factors; guide sheet tool & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; and system work breakdown structure. Deficiency standards and inspection methods are presented for built-up membrane; single- ply membrane; metal roofing systems; coated foam membrane; shingles; tiles; parapets; roof drainage system; roof specialties; and skylights.

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Inclusion of cool roofs in nonresidential Title 24 prescriptive requirements  

SciTech Connect

Roofs that have high solar reflectance (high ability to reflect sunlight) and high thermal emittance (high ability to radiate heat) tend to stay cool in the sun. The same is true of low-emittance roofs with exceptionally high solar reflectance. Substituting a cool roof for a noncool roof tends to decrease cooling electricity use, cooling power demand, and cooling-equipment capacity requirements, while slightly increasing heating energy consumption. Cool roofs can also lower the ambient air temperature in summer, slowing ozone formation and increasing human comfort. DOE-2.1E building energy simulations indicate that use of a cool roofing material on a prototypical California nonresidential building with a low-sloped roof yields average annual cooling energy savings of approximately 300 kWh/1000 ft2 [3.2 kWh/m2], average annual natural gas deficits of 4.9 therm/1000 ft2 [5.6 MJ/m2], average source energy savings of 2.6 MBTU/1000 ft2 [30 MJ/m2], and average peak power demand savings of 0. 19 kW/1000 ft2 [2.1 W/m2]. The 15-year net present value (NPV) of energy savings averages $450/1000 ft2 [$4.90/m2] with time dependent valuation (TDV), and $370/1000 ft2 [$4.00/m2] without TDV. When cost savings from downsizing cooling equipment are included, the average total savings (15-year NPV + equipment savings) rises to $550/1000 ft2 [$5.90/m2] with TDV, and to $470/1000 ft2 [$5.00/m2] without TDV. Total savings range from 0.18 to 0.77 $/ft2 [1.90 to 8.30 $/m2] with TDV, and from 0.16 to 0.66 $/ft2 [1.70 to 7.10 $/m2] without TDV, across California's 16 climate zones. The typical cost premium for a cool roof is 0.00 to 0.20 $/ft2 [0.00 to 2.20 $/m2]. Cool roofs with premiums up to $0.20/ft2 [$2.20/m2] are expected to be cost effective in climate zones 2 through 16; those with premiums not exceeding $0.18/ft2 [$1.90/m2] are expected to be also cost effective in climate zone 1. Hence, this study recommends that the year-2005 California building energy efficiency code (Title 24, Pa rt 6 of the California Code of Regulations) for nonresidential buildings with low-sloped roofs include a cool-roof prescriptive requirement in all California climate zones. Buildings with roofs that do not meet prescriptive requirements may comply with the code via an ''overall-envelope'' approach (non-metal roofs only), or via a performance approach (all roof types).

Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steve; Bretz, Sarah

2002-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

A novel technique for the production of cool colored concrete tile and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A novel technique for the production of cool colored concrete tile and A novel technique for the production of cool colored concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing products Title A novel technique for the production of cool colored concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing products Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2010 Authors Levinson, Ronnen M., Hashem Akbari, Paul Berdahl, Kurt Wood, Wayne Skilton, and Jerry Petersheim Journal Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells Volume 94 Start Page 946 Issue 6 Pagination 946-954 Date Published 06/2010 Keywords asphalt shingle, concrete tile, Cool colored roof, Cool Colored Roofs, cool roofs, Heat Island, Polyvinylidene fluoride, Solar reflectance, surface roughness Abstract The widespread use of solar-reflective roofing materials can save energy, mitigate urban heat islands and slow global warming by cooling the roughly 20% of the urban surface that is roofed. In this study we created prototype solar-reflective nonwhite concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing materials using a two-layer spray coating process intended to maximize both solar reflectance and factory-line throughput. Each layer is a thin, quick-drying, pigmented latex paint based on either acrylic or a poly(vinylidene fluoride)/acrylic blend. The first layer is a titanium dioxide rutile white basecoat that increases the solar reflectance of a gray-cement concrete tile from 0.18 to 0.79, and that of a shingle surfaced with bare granules from 0.06 to 0.62. The second layer is a "cool" color topcoat with weak near-infrared (NIR) absorption and/or strong NIR backscattering. Each layer dries within seconds, potentially allowing a factory line to pass first under the white spray, then under the color spray.

64

Accelerated Aging of Roofing Surfaces  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Accelerated aging of roofing surfaces Accelerated aging of roofing surfaces Hugo Destaillats, Ph.D. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory HDestaillats@LBL.gov (510) 486-5897 http://HeatIsland.LBL.gov April 4, 2013 Development of Advanced Building Envelope Surface Materials & Integration of Artificial Soiling and Weathering in a Commercial Weatherometer New York Times, 30 July 2009 2010 2012 Challenge: speed the development of high performance building envelope materials that resist soiling, maintain high solar reflectance, and save energy 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov

65

Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs July 2010 V. 1.2 Prepared by the Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. Additional technical support provided by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Federal Energy Management Program. Authors: Bryan Urban and Kurt Roth, Ph.D. ii Table of Contents Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 3 Why Use Cool Roofs .............................................................................................................. 3

66

One Cool Roof | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

One Cool Roof One Cool Roof One Cool Roof November 9, 2010 - 10:28am Addthis Deputy Director Salmon Deputy Director, Resource Management The Office of Science occupies many buildings around the country, but it owns only two of them. One of them is making some news. The 134,629 sq. ft. (about 3 acres) roof of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) building in Oak Ridge, Tennessee is now officially a "Cool Roof" -- making it energy efficient in ways that darker roofs are not. Cool roofs are light in color, and therefore, reflect rather than absorb sunlight. The previous roof was black, but worse, it was leaky and those leaks, controlled for years in some very innovative ways by the OSTI staff, were going to cause significant problems if not addressed. OSTI needed to invest

67

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs Addthis Description This edition of Energy 101 takes a look at how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment. Duration 2:17 Topic Tax Credits, Rebates, Savings Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Credit Energy Department Video MR. : Maybe you've never given much thought about what color your roof is or what it's made of, but your roof could be costing you more money than you know to cool your home or office building, especially if you live in a warmer climate. Think about it this way: In the summertime, we wear light-colored clothes because they keep us cooler. Lighter clothes reflect rather than absorb the heat of the sun. It's the same with your roof. A cool roof is

68

SolarRoofs com | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SolarRoofs com Jump to: navigation, search Name SolarRoofs.com Place Carmichael, California Zip 95608 Sector Solar Product California-based manufacturer of the patented Skyline...

69

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

roof when it came time to replace the roofing at our Washington, D.C. headquarters - an investment that's projected to cut thousands of dollars off our utility bills each year....

70

Aging and weathering of cool roofing membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and L.S. Rose. 2002. “Aging of reflective roofs: sootAging and Weathering of Cool Roofing Membranes HashemNRC), Canada ABSTRACT Aging and weathering can reduce the

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

SOLAR ROOF POWERS THE NJIT CAMPUS CENTER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SOLAR ROOF POWERS THE NJIT CAMPUS CENTER THE SKY'S THE LIMIT: BERNADETTE MOKE SITS ON THE ROOF, ARE 160 SOLAR PANELS, SOME OF WHICH AUTOMATICALLY FOLLOW THE PATH OF THE SUN. 10 NJITMAGAZINE COVER STORY'S THE LIMIT: SOLAR ROOF POWERS THE NJIT CAMPUS CENTER "The solar panels even move a little at night," says

Bieber, Michael

72

Roofing shingle assembly having solar capabilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A roofing shingle assembly having solar capabilities comprising a flat main portion having upper and lower surfaces, and curved segments integral with the upper and lower edges of said shingle. The roofing shingles are mounted in overlapping parallel array with the curved segments interconnected to define a fluid conduit enclosure. Mounting brackets for the shingles are secured on the roof rafters.

Murphy, J.A.

1982-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

73

Passive solar roof ice melter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An elongated passive solar roof ice melter is placed on top of accumulated ice and snow including an ice dam along the lower edge of a roof of a heated building and is held against longitudinal movement with respect to itself. The melter includes a bottom wall having an upper surface highly absorbent to radiant solar energy; a first window situated at right angles with respect to the bottom wall, and a reflecting wall connecting the opposite side edges of the bottom wall and the first window. The reflecting wall has a surface facing the bottom wall and the window which is highly reflective to radiant solar energy. Radiant solar energy passes through the first window and either strikes the highly absorbent upper surface of the bottom wall or first strikes the reflecting wall to be reflected down to the upper surface of the bottom wall. The heat generated thereby melts through the ice below the bottom wall causing the ice dam to be removed between the bottom wall and the top of the roof and immediately adjacent to the ice melter along the roof. Water dammed up by the ice dam can then flow down through this break in the dam and drain out harmlessly onto the ground. This prevents dammed water from seeping back under the shingles and into the house to damage the interior of the house.

Deutz, R.T.

1981-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

74

Tips: Energy-Efficient Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy-Efficient Roofs Energy-Efficient Roofs Tips: Energy-Efficient Roofs April 24, 2012 - 4:29pm Addthis Tips: Energy-Efficient Roofs If you've ever stood on a roof on a hot summer day, you know how hot it can get. The heat from your roof makes your air conditioner work even harder to keep your home cool. Cool Roofs If you are building a new home, decide during planning whether you want a cool roof, and if you want to convert an existing roof, you can: Retrofit the roof with specialized heat-reflective material. Re-cover the roof with a new waterproofing surface (such as tile coating). Replace the roof with a cool one. A cool roof uses material that is designed to reflect more sunlight and absorb less heat than a standard roof. Cool roofs can be made of a highly reflective type of paint, a sheet covering, or highly reflective tiles or

75

Evaluation of Roof Bolting Requirements Based on In-Mine Roof Bolter Drilling  

SciTech Connect

Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on this information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. For the prediction of roof geology and stability condition in real time, a micro processor was used and a program developed to monitor and record the drilling parameters of roof bolter. These parameters include feed pressure, feed flow (penetration rate), rotation pressure, rotation rate, vacuum pressure, oil temperature of hydraulic circuit, and signals for controlling machine. From the results of a series of laboratory and underground tests so far, feed pressure is found to be a good indicator for identifying the voids/fractures and estimating the roof rock strength. The method for determining quantitatively the location and the size of void/fracture and estimating the roof rock strength from the drilling parameters of roof bolter was developed. Also, a set of computational rules has been developed for in-mine roof using measured roof drilling parameters and implemented in MRGIS (Mine Roof Geology Information System), a software package developed to allow mine engineers to make use of the large amount of roof drilling parameters for predicting roof geology properties automatically. For the development of roof bolting criteria, finite element models were developed for tensioned and fully grouted bolting designs. Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the mechanisms of modern roof bolting systems including both the tension and fully grouted bolts. Parameters to be studied are: bolt length, bolt spacing, bolt size/strength, grout annulus, in-situ stress condition, overburden depth, and roof geology (massive strata, fractured, and laminated or thinly-bedded). Based on the analysis of the mechanisms of both bolting systems and failure modes of the bolted strata, roof bolting design criteria and programs for modern roof bolting systems were developed. These criterion and/or programs were combined with the MRGIS for use in conjunction with roof bolt installation.

Syd S. Peng

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Why Cool Roofs? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Why Cool Roofs? Why Cool Roofs? Why Cool Roofs? Addthis Description By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills. Speakers Secretary Steven Chu Duration 1:46 Topic Tax Credits, Rebates, Savings Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Fossil Oil Credit Energy Department Video SECRETARY OF ENERGY STEVEN CHU: The reason we wanted the Department of Energy to take the lead in cool roofs is to demonstrate that this really saves money. If you have a roof and it's black, it's absorbing energy from the sun

77

Cool Roofs | Y-12 National Security Complex  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Posted: July 18, 2012 - 1:59pm | Y-12 Report | Volume 9, Issue 1 | 2012 Hot, sunny days call for light-colored clothing to reflect the heat. As it turns out, the same principle works for roofs. Consider the results from a Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory study in Austin, Texas, which measured a dark roof to average a whopping 43 degrees hotter than a light roof. The hotter the roof, the hotter the building becomes, and the more air-conditioning is needed - 11 percent, in that particular study. That in turn puts more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Higher atmospheric temperatures also affect atmospheric chemistry, causing higher ozone levels and more smog. Turning down the heat can be both inexpensive and simple, however: replace

78

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy 101: Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs February 1, 2011 - 10:50am Addthis John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Editor's Note: This entry has been cross-posted from DOE's Energy Blog. In this edition of Energy 101 we take a look at one of Secretary Chu's favorite energy efficiency techniques, cool roofs. Traditional dark-colored roofing materials absorb a great deal of sunlight, which in turn transfers heat to a building. Cool roofs use light-colored, highly reflective materials to regulate building temperatures without increasing electricity demand, which can result in energy savings of up to 10 to 15 percent. Cool roofs can also reduce the "heat island" effect in cities and suburbs, a phenomenon that produces higher temperatures in densely populated areas

79

Rain on the Roof-Evaporative Spray Roof Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes evaporative spray roof cooling systems, their components, performance and applications in various climates and building types. The evolution of this indirect evaporative cooling technique is discussed. Psychrometric and sol-air principles are covered and a simplified method of evaluation presented. A life cycle energy savings example is discussed. Benefits of roof life and roof top equipment efficiency and maintenance are covered as well as water consumption and performance trade-offs with alternate methods of roof heat gain control. Testimonials and case studies are presented. The gradual migration of business, industry, and populace to the southern United States was largely brought on by the advent of the practical air-conditioner, cheap electricity, and the harshness of northern winters. But while "wintering at Palm Beach" has been replaced by "Sun Belt industries" ; the compression-refrigeration cooling cycle is about the only thing separating millions of southerners (native and adopted) from August heat stroke and the Detroit News employment ads. This migration has been spurred by economic recessions which hit harder at the competitively populated northern centers than at the still growing industries of the south. These trends are important illustrations of the concern for efficient cooling strategies. Not only are homes in hot climates vulnerable to the now not-so-low cost of electricity but large, compact. and heavily occupied buildings (offices, schools, hospitals, theaters, etc.) often must air-condition year-around. In 1968. air-conditioning was 3% of U.S. end energy consumption compared to 18% for space heating and 25% for transportation. By 1980, according to Electric Power Research Institute's Oliver Yu, air-conditioning use was 12.5% of all electricity generated and by the year 2000 is projected to reach 16.7% "as migration slows and the GNP reaches a stable 3% growth rate" (EPRI 1982 to 1986 Overview and Strategy). Of further significance is the effect of air-conditioning loads on the peak generating requirements of electrical utilities. Because utilities must build generating capacity to meet peak requirements, they normally charge a higher summer kWh rate (for residential) and levy a peak kW demand charge on a monthly or even annual "ratchet" rate (for larger service customers). The June '83 cover of Houston City Magazine, in reference to future electrical rates, promised: "Pay or Sweat". Typical of many cooling or heat gain prevention strategies being employed on "innovative" buildings in warm climates, evaporative spray roof cooling (ESRC) systems (not to be confused with roof ponds) are not new. Like ventilated structures, ice house roofs, enhanced ventilation, masonry walls, night sky radiation and ground contact cooling, evaporative cooling in many forms has been around for centuries. (See Solar Age, July '82 and February '81 for related articles). Even the development of roof spray systems is not as newly founded as one might suspect.

Bachman, L. R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Metal Roofing Alliance (MRA) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

WA Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes Partnership Type Test & Evaluation Partner Partnering Center within NREL Electricity Resources & Building...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "roofing metal concrete" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Diffusion of Radionuclides in Concrete and Soil  

SciTech Connect

One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The objective of our study was to measure the diffusivity of Re, Tc and I in concrete containment and the surrounding vadose zone soil. Effects of carbonation, presence of metallic iron, and fracturing of concrete and the varying moisture contents in soil on the diffusivities of Tc and I were evaluated.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

2012-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

82

Concrete Electrical Conductivity Test  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concrete Electrical Conductivity Test. Description/Summary: ... Details. Type of software: Virtual concrete electrical conductivity test. Authors: ...

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

83

Million Solar Roofs Flyer (Revision)  

SciTech Connect

The Million Solar Roofs Initiative, announced in June 1997, assists businesses and communities in installing solar energy systems on one million buildings across the United States by 2010. The US Department of Energy leads this trailblazing initiative by partnering with the building industry, local governments, state agencies, the solar industry, electric service providers, and non-governmental organizations to remove barriers and strengthen the demand for solar technologies.

Not Available

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Inclusion of cool roofs in nonresidential Title 24 prescriptiverequirements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Roofs that have high solar reflectance (high ability toreflect sunlight) and high thermal emittance (high ability to radiateheat) tend to stay cool in the sun. The same is true of low-emittanceroofs with exceptionally high solar reflectance. Substituting a cool rooffor a non-cool roof tends to decrease cooling electricity use, coolingpower demand, and cooling-equipment capacity requirements, while slightlyincreasing heating energy consumption. Cool roofs can also lower citywideambient air temperature in summer, slowing ozone formation and increasinghuman comfort.DOE-2.1E building energy simulations indicate that use of acool roofing material on a prototypical California nonresidential (NR)building with a low-sloped roof yields average annual cooling energysavings of approximately 3.2 kW h/m2 (300 kW h/1000 ft2), average annualnatural gas deficits of 5.6 MJ/m2 (4.9 therm/1000 ft2), average annualsource energy savings of 30 MJ/m2 (2.6 MBTU/1000 ft2), and average peakpower demand savings of 2.1 W/m2 (0.19 kW/1000 ft2). The 15-year netpresent value (NPV) of energy savings averages $4.90/m2 ($450/1000 ft2)with time-dependent valuation (TDV), and $4.00/m2 ($370/1000 ft2) withoutTDV. When cost savings from downsizing cooling equipment are included,the average total savings (15-year NPV+equipment savings) rises to$5.90/m2 ($550/1000 ft2) with TDV, and to $5.00/m2 ($470/1000 ft2)without TDV.Total savings range from 1.90 to 8.30 $/m2 (0.18 0.77 $/ft2)with TDV, and from 1.70 to 7.10 $/m2 (0.16 0.66 $/ft2) without TDV,across California's 16 climate zones. The typical cost premium for a coolroof is 0.00 2.20 $/m2 (0.00 0.20 $/ft2). Cool roofs with premiums up to$2.20/m2 ($0.20/ft2) are expected to be cost effective in climate zones 216; those with premiums not exceeding $1.90/m2 ($0.18/ft2) are expectedto be also cost effective in climate zone 1. Hence, this study recommendsthat the year-2005 California building energy efficiency code (Title 24,Part 6 of the California Code of Regulations) for NR buildings withlow-sloped roofs include a cool-roof prescriptive requirement in allCalifornia climate zones. Buildings with roofs that do not meetprescriptive requirements may comply with the code via an"overall-envelope" approach (non-metal roofs only), or via a performanceapproach (all roof types).

Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steve; Bretz, Sarah

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs January 31, 2011 - 12:38pm Addthis This edition of Energy 101 takes a look at how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment. John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs How does it work? Dark-colored roofing materials absorb a great deal of sunlight, which transfers heat into a building. This can also cause the "heat island" effect in cities and suburbs, a phenomenon that produces higher temperatures in densely populated areas due to extensive changes in the landscape. Cool roofs use light-colored, highly reflective materials to regulate building temperatures without increasing electricity demand, which can result in energy savings of up to 10 to 15 percent.

86

List of Roofs Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

List of Roofs Incentives List of Roofs Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 178 Roofs Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 178) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP (Central and North) - CitySmart Program (Texas) Utility Rebate Program Texas Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Schools Boilers Central Air conditioners Chillers Comprehensive Measures/Whole Building Custom/Others pending approval Energy Mgmt. Systems/Building Controls Furnaces Heat pumps Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Motor VFDs Motors Roofs Windows Yes AEP (Central, North and SWEPCO) - Commercial Solutions Program (Texas) Utility Rebate Program Texas Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Schools State Government

87

LIGHTNING PROTECTION OF ROOF-MOUNTED SOLAR ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. LIGHTNING PROTECTION OF ROOF-MOUNTED SOLAR CELLS ... Working paper developed for a NASA-sponsored study of solar cells ...

2013-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

88

AN EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF THE RADIATION PROTECTION AFFORDED BY A LARGE MODERN CONCRETE OFFICE BUILDING  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was made to determine the effective shielding provided by a modern reinforced-concrete office building (AEC Headquarters building) from nuclear fall-out. Pocket ionization chambers were used for measurement of the radiation-field strength. Fall-out was simulated with distributed and point-source configurations of Co/sup 60/ and Ir/sup 192/ sources. Four typical sections were selected for study, and experiments were performed on each. These included an external wing with exposed basement walls and an external wing with a buried basement. Roof studies were made on an internal wing with a full basement and on the east end of wing A, which has a thin-roof construction. The thick-roof construction of 8 in. of concrete and 2 in. of rigid insulation covers all the building except the east end of wing A, which has 4 in. of concrete and 2 in. of insulation. (auth)

Batter, J.F. Jr.; Kaplan, A.L.; Clarke, E.T.

1959-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Concrete Decks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), several crashworthy wood bridge railings and approach railing transitions have been adapted for use on concrete bridge decks. These railings meet testing and evaluation criteria outlined in National Cooperative Research Program (NCHRP) Report 350, Recommended Procedures for the Safety Performance Evaluation of Highway Features, and include a glued-laminated timber (glulam) rail, with and without a curb, at Test Level- 2 (TL-2), a glulam rail with curb at TL-4, and a glulam curb rail for low-volume roads at TL-1. In adapting the railings from a wood deck to a concrete deck, the critical consideration was railing attachment to the deck. A comparable connection was obtained by an analysis of maximum loads measured by field instrumentation during crash testing or by equating the ultimate capacity of connections used on the wood deck to those required for a concrete deck. For the convenience of the user, full drawing sets are provided in customary U.S. and S.I. units.

United States; Forest Service; Wood Bridge Railings For; Michael A. Ritter; Ronald K. Faller; Paula D. Hilbrich Lee; Barry T. Rosson; Sheila Rimal; Duwadi Abstract

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the preformed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

Dinwoodie, T.L.

1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

91

Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the preformed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Berkeley, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Cool Roof Calculator  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

classes of users: potential customersbuilding owners and roofing surface sellersinstallers. Input User selects location, enters the proposed roof's R-value, reflectance,...

93

Evolution of cool roof standards in the United States  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

& Standards, Heat Island Abstract Roofs that have high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance stay cool in the sun. A roof with lower thermal emittance but exceptionally...

94

Accelerated Aging of Roofing Surfaces | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Accelerated Aging of Roofing Surfaces Accelerated Aging of Roofing Surfaces Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review...

95

Potential benefits of cool roofs on commercial buildings: conserving...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of cool roofs on commercial buildings: conserving energy, saving money, and reducing emission of greenhouse gases and air pollutants Title Potential benefits of cool roofs on...

96

Terracotta and Cement Roofs Vulnerable in Wildfires, NIST ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... that the embers—or firebrands—infiltrated gaps between certain types of roofing tiles and ... Of the four roof styles studied, the flat tile terracotta ...

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

97

Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing (Fact Sheet) Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study:...

98

Aging of reflective roofs: soot deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar-reflective roofs remain cooler than absorptive roofs and thus conserve electricity otherwise needed for air conditioning. A currently controversial aspect of solar-reflective cool roofing is the extent to which an initially high solar reflectance decreases with time. We present experimental data on the spectral absorption of deposits that accumulate on roofs, and we attribute most of the absorption to carbon soot originally produced by combustion. The deposits absorb more at short wavelengths (e.g., in the blue) than in the red and infrared, imparting a slightly yellow tinge to formerly white surfaces. The initial rate of reflectance reduction by soot accumulation is consistent with known emission rates that are due to combustion. The long-term reflectance change appears to be determined by the ability of the soot to adhere to the roof, resisting washout by rain.

Berdahl, Paul; Akbari, Hashem; Rose, Leanna S.

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

HIGH DENSITY SLAG CONCRETE  

SciTech Connect

Test results are presented that show that a strong concrete weighing approximately 185 lb/ft/sup 3/ can be made using water, waste lead slag, and Ciment Fondu. Feasibility, materials, mortar tests, concrete tests, and Ciment Fondu concretes are discussed. A 24-in.-thick concrete shield wall would have to be increased in thickness by 5 in. if slag concrete is used in place of barytes or magnetite concrete. On a pound-for-pound basis, the waste lead slag concrete materials were 30% cheaper than barytes and magnetite concrete materials. (M.C.G.)

Northup, T.E.

1963-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

New and Underutilized Technology: Green Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Green Roofs Green Roofs New and Underutilized Technology: Green Roofs October 8, 2013 - 2:53pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for green roofs within the Federal sector. Benefits Green roofs place vegetation on the rooftop to reduce heat load and add insulation. It also reduces storm runoff from the roof. Application Green roofs are appropriate for deployment within most building categories with higher roof to conditioned floor area ratios and should be considered in building design, renovation, or during roof replacement projects. Climate and Regional Considerations Climate issues can affect the performance of green roofs. Key Factors for Deployment Green roofs have weight loading issues, which need to be considered prior to deployment.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "roofing metal concrete" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Cool Roof Calculator  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Roof Calculator Cool Roof Calculator Cool Roof Calculator logo. Many reflective roof coatings and membranes are now available for low-slope roofs. These coatings help to reduce summer air-conditioning loads, but can also increase the winter heating load. The Cool Roof Calculator will estimate both how much energy you'll save in the summer and how much extra energy you'll need in the winter. Cool Roof Calculator provides answers on a 'per square foot' basis, so you can then multiply by the area of your roof to find out your net savings each year. Keywords reflective roof, roofing membrane, low-slope roof Validation/Testing The Radiation Control Fact Sheet describes both the analytical and experimental results that went into the calculator's development. Expertise Required

102

Modeling the effects of reflective roofing  

SciTech Connect

Roofing materials which are highly reflective to sunlight are currently being developed. Reflective roofing is an effective summertime energy saver in warm and sunny climates. It has been demonstrated to save up to 40% of the energy needed to cool a building during the summer months. Buildings without air conditioning can reduce their indoor temperatures and improve occupant comfort during the summer if highly reflective roofing materials are used. But there are questions about the tradeoff between summer energy savings and extra wintertime energy use due to reduced heat collection by the roof. These questions are being answered by simulating buildings in various climates using the DOE-2 program (version 2.1E). Unfortunately, DOE-2 does not accurately model radiative, convective and conductive processes in the roof-attic. Radiative heat transfer from the underside of a reflective roof is much smaller than that of a roof which absorbs heat from sunlight, and must be accounted for in the building energy model. Convection correlations for the attic and the roof surface must be fine tuned. An equation to model the insulation`s conductivity dependence on temperature must also be added. A function was written to incorporate the attic heat transfer processes into the DOE-2 building energy simulation. This function adds radiative, convective and conductive equations to the energy balance of the roof. Results of the enhanced DOE-2 model were compared to measured data collected from a school bungalow in a Sacramento Municipal Utility District monitoring project, with particular attention paid to the year-round energy effects.

Gartland, L.M.; Konopacki, S.J.; Akbari, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

what is a cool roof? what is the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

samples the 2008 building energy efficiency standards for cool roofs: There are two approaches Building Energy Efficiency Standards California contact more about cool roof requirements for more to the building below The sun's heat hits the roof surface A non-residential cool roof Coating for a low

104

Million Solar Roofs: Partners Make Markets  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Million Solar Roofs (MSR) Partners Make Markets Executive Summary is a summary of the MSR Annual Partnership Update, a report from all the partners and partnerships who participate in the MSR Initiative.

Not Available

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy 101: Wind Turbines Energy 101: Solar PV Sec. Chu Online Town Hall Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps Why Cool Roofs? Chu at COP-16: Building a Sustainable Energy Future...

106

Why Cool Roofs? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy 101: Wind Turbines Energy 101: Solar PV Sec. Chu Online Town Hall Energy 101: Cool Roofs Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps Chu at COP-16: Building a Sustainable Energy...

107

Next Generation Roofs and Attics for Homes  

SciTech Connect

Prototype residential roof and attic assemblies were constructed and field tested in a mixed-humid U.S. climate. Summer field data showed that at peak day irradiance the heat transfer penetrating the roof deck dropped almost 90% compared with heat transfer for a conventional roof and attic assembly. The prototype assemblies use a combination of strategies: infrared reflective cool roofs, radiant barriers, above-sheathing ventilation, low-emittance surfaces, insulation, and thermal mass to reduce the attic air temperature and thus the heat transfer into the home. The prototype assemblies exhibited attic air temperatures that did not exceed the peak day outdoor air temperature. Field results were benchmarked against an attic computer tool and simulations made for the densely populated, hot and dry southeastern and central-basin regions of California. New construction in the central basin could realize a 12% drop in ceiling and air-conditioning annual load compared with a code-compliant roof and attic having solar reflectance of 0.25 and thermal emittance of 0.75. In the hot, dry southeastern region of California, the combined ceiling and duct annual load drops by 23% of that computed for a code-compliant roof and attic assembly. Eliminating air leakage from ducts placed in unconditioned attics yielded savings comparable to the best simulated roof and attic systems. Retrofitting an infrared reflective clay tile roof with 1 -in (0.032-m) of EPS foam above the sheathing and improving existing ductwork by reducing air leakage and wrapping ducts with insulation can yield annual savings of about $200 compared with energy costs for pre-1980 construction.

Miller, William A [ORNL; Kosny, Jan [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A SUSTAINABLE AND ENERGY EFFICIENT RE-ROOFING TECHNOLOGY USING FIELD-TEST DATA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three test attics were constructed to evaluate a new sustainable method of re-roofing utilizing photo-voltaic (PV) laminates, metal roofing panels, and PCM heat sink in the Envelope Systems Research Apparatus (ESRA) facility in the ORNL campus. Figure 1 is a picture of the three attic roofs located adjacent to each other. The leftmost roof is the conventional shingle roof, followed by the metal panel roof incorporating the cool-roof coating, and third from left is the roof with the PCM. On the PCM roof, the PV panels are seen as well; they're labelled from left-to-right as panels 5, 6 and 7. The metal panel roof consists of three metal panels with the cool-roof coating; in further discussion this is referred to as the infrared reflective (IRR) metal roof. The IRR metal panels reflect the incoming solar radiation and then quickly re-emit the remaining absorbed portion, thereby reducing the solar heat gain of the attic. Surface reflectance of the panels were measured using a Solar Spectrum Reflectometer. In the 0.35-2.0 {mu}m wavelength interval, which accounts for more than 94% of the solar energy, the IRR panels have an average reflectance of 0.303. In the infrared portion of the spectrum, the IRR panel reflectance is 0.633. The PCM roof consists of a layer of macro-encapsulated bio-based PCM at the bottom, followed by a 2-cm thick layer of dense fiberglass insulation with a reflective surface on top, and metal panels with pre-installed PV laminates on top. The PCM has a melting point of 29 C (84.2 F) and total enthalpy between 180 and 190 J/g. The PCM was macro-packaged in between two layers of heavy-duty plastic foil forming arrays of PCM cells. Two air cavities, between PCM cells and above the fiberglass insulation, helped the over-the-deck natural air ventilation. It is anticipated that during summer, this extra ventilation will help in reducing the attic-generated cooling loads. The extra ventilation, in conjunction with the PCM heat sink, are used to minimize thermal stresses due to the PV laminates on sunny days. In PV laminates sunlight is converted into electricity and heat simultaneous. In case of building integrated applications, a relatively high solar absorption of amorphous silicon laminates can be utilized during the winter for solar heating purposes with PCM providing necessary heat storage capacity. However, PV laminates may also generate increased building cooling loads during the summer months. Therefore, in this project, the PCM heat sink was to minimize summer heat gains as well. The PCM-fibreglass-PV assembly and the IRR metal panels are capable of being installed directly on top of existing shingle roofs during re-roofing, precluding the need for recycling or disposal of waste materials. The PV laminates installed on the PCM attic are PVL-144 models from Uni-Solar. Each laminate contains 22 triple junction amorphous silicon solar cells connected in series. The silicon cells are of dimensions 356 mm x 239 mm (14-in. x 9.4-in.). The PVL-144 laminate is encapsulated in durable ETFE (poly-ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) high light-transmissive polymer. Table 1 lists the power, voltage and current ratings of the PVL-144 panel.

Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Kriner, Scott [Metal Construction Association, Glenview, IL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Concrete decontamination by Electro-Hydraulic Scabbling (EHS)  

SciTech Connect

EHS is being developed for decontaminating concrete structures from radionuclides, organic substances, and hazardous metals. EHS involves the generation of powerful shock waves and intense cavitation by a strong pulsed electric discharge in a water layer at the concrete surface; high impulse pressure results in stresses which crack and peel off a concrete layer of controllable thickness. Scabbling produces contaminated debris of relatively small volume which can be easily removed, leaving clean bulk concrete. Objective of Phase I was to prove the technical feasibility of EH for controlled scabbling and decontamination of concrete. Phase I is complete.

NONE

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Energy Performance Aspects of a Florida Green Roof Part 2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Green roof installation in the United States is growing at a significant rate. There are a number of reasons for this growth including rainwater runoff reduction and aesthetic benefits. Energy performance evaluations of green roofs, the subject of this study, are also becoming available. This monitored study is an evaluation of summer and winter energy performance aspects of a green roof on a 2-story central Florida university building addition that was completed in 2005. An earlier report on this study was published through the 2006 Symposium on Improving Building Systems in Hot and Humid Climates. This report reviews these earlier results and provides second-summer results which show significant performance improvements for the green roof compared with the first summer results. One half of the two-story project building’s 3,300 square foot project roof is a light-colored, conventional flat membrane roof, the other half being the same membrane roof covered with 6” to 8” of plant media and a variety of primarily native Florida vegetation up to approximately 2 feet in height to create an extensive green roof. Analysis of 2005 summer data from the first year the green roof was installed indicates significantly lower peak roof surface temperatures for the green roof compared with the conventional roof and a significant shift in when the peak green roof temperature occurs compared to the conventional roof. Data analysis of the same 2005 period also shows lower heat fluxes for the green roof. Calculations show the green roof to have an average heat flux of 0.39 Btu/ft2•hr or 18.3% less than the conventional roof’s average heat fluxrate of 0.48 Btu/ft2•hr. Analysis of 2006 summer data when the green roof was more established and conventional roof somewhat darker, shows even greater temperature and heat flux differences between the two roofs. The weighted average heat flux rate over the 2006 summer period for the green roof is 0.34 Btu/ft2•hr or 44.1% less than the conventional roof’s average heat flux rate of 0.60 Btu/ft2•hr. An additional heat flux analysis was performed for an April 1st 2006 through October 31st 2006 monitoring period to provide an estimate of heat flux for an extended cooling season. The weighted average heat flux rate over the period for the green roof is 0.25 Btu/ft2•hr or 45.7% less than the conventional roof’s average heat flux rate of 0.46 Btu/ft2•hr. Winter data again show substantially lower peak roof surface temperatures, higher nighttime surface temperatures and significantly lower heat flux rates for the green roof compared with the conventional roof. For periods during which the ambient air temperature was less than 55oF, the weighted average winter heat flux rate for the green roof is -0.40 Btu/ft2•hr or 49.5% less than the conventional roof’s average heat flux rate of -0.79 Btu/ft2•hr. Because of air conditioning zoning limitations, an extensive energy savings analysis was not possible for this project. However, an energy savings analysis was performed using the roof heat flux results and equipment efficiency assumptions. Based on this analysis the total estimated cooling and heating season savings for the green roof compared with the conventional roof, if the entire 3,300 square foot project roof were green, would be approximately 489 kWhr/yr.

Sonne, J.; Parker, D.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Energy Department Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters Building to Save Money by Saving Energy Energy Department Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters Building to Save Money by Saving Energy December 14, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington - Secretary Steven Chu today announced the completion of a new cool roof installation on the Department of Energy's Headquarters West Building. There was no incremental cost to adding the cool roof as part of the roof replacement project and it will save taxpayers $2,000 every year in building energy costs. Cool roofs use lighter-colored roofing surfaces or special coatings to reflect more of the sun's heat, helping improve building efficiency, reduce cooling costs and offset carbon emissions. The cool roof and increased insulation at the facility were

112

Low-slope roofing research needs: An ORNL draft assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Low-Slope Roofing Research Needs Agenda is a resource document prepared by the Roofing Industry Research Advisory Panel. The document will aid the Panel in developing recommended research priorities and schedules for the Roof Research Center established by the US Department of Energy at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The Roof Research Center provides the roofing industry with a unique test facility capable of careful, on-line measurements on whole roof systems under controlled, simulated in-service conditions. This type of systems testing, however, is not well-developed in the roofing industry where, customarily, careful measurements are not only made to assess individual material properties under design conditions and systems testing generally is limited to ''performance testing''; that is, exposing roof systems to typical or accelerated environments and observing or measuring the time intergrated effects on various components. This document discusses the capabilities of the center and roofing research issues.

Busching, H.W.; Courville, G.E.; Dvorchak, M.; McCorkle, J.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Insulating polymer concrete  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A lightweight insulating polymer concrete formed from a lightweight closed cell aggregate and a water resistance polymeric binder.

Schorr, H. Peter (Douglaston, NY); Fontana, Jack J. (Shirley, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Next Generation Attics and Roof Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Next Generation Attics Next Generation Attics and Roof Systems William (Bill) Miller, Ph.D. ORNL WML@ORNL.GOV____ (865) 574-2013 April 4, 2013 Goals: Develop New Roof and Attic Designs  Reduce Space Conditioning Due to Attic  Convince Industry to Adopt Designs Building Envelope Program  Dr. William Miller  Dr. Som Shrestha  Kaushik Biswas, Ken Childs, Jerald Atchley, Phil Childs Andre Desjarlais (Group Leader) 32% Primary Energy 28% Primary Energy 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives

115

Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cool roofs, cool pavements, and urban vegetation reduce energy use in buildings, lower local air pollutant concentrations, and decrease greenhouse gas emissions from urban areas. This report summarizes the results of a detailed monitoring project in India and related simulations of meteorology and air quality in three developing countries. The field results quantified direct energy savings from installation of cool roofs on individual commercial buildings. The measured annual energy savings potential from roof-whitening of previously black roofs ranged from 20-22 kWh/m2 of roof area, corresponding to an air-conditioning energy use reduction of 14-26% in commercial buildings. The study estimated that typical annual savings of 13-14 kWh/m2 of roof area could be achieved by applying white coating to uncoated concrete roofs on commercial buildings in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, corresponding to cooling energy savings of 10-19%. With the assumption of an annual increase of 100,000 square meters of new roof construction for the next 10 years in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, the annual cooling energy savings due to whitening concrete roof would be 13-14 GWh of electricity in year ten alone, with cumulative 10-year cooling energy savings of 73-79 GWh for the region. The estimated savings for the entire country would be at least 10 times the savings in Hyderabad, i.e., more than 730-790 GWh. We estimated that annual direct CO2 reduction associated with reduced energy use would be 11-12 kg CO2/m2 of flat concrete roof area whitened, and the cumulative 10-year CO2 reduction would be approximately 0.60-0.65 million tons in India. With the price of electricity estimated at seven Rupees per kWh, the annual electricity savings on air-conditioning would be approximately 93-101 Rupees per m2 of roof. This would translate into annual national savings of approximately one billion Rupees in year ten, and cumulative 10-year savings of over five billion Rupees for cooling energy in India. Meteorological simulations in this study indicated that a reduction of 2C in air temperature in the Hyderabad area would be likely if a combination of increased surface albedo and vegetative cover are used as urban heat-island control strategies. In addition, air-temperature reductions on the order of 2.5-3.5C could be achieved if moderate and aggressive heat-island mitigation measures are adopted, respectively. A large-scale deployment of mitigation measures can bring additional indirect benefit to the urban area. For example, cooling outside air can improve the efficiency of cooling systems, reduce smog and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and indirectly reduce pollution from power plants - all improving environmental health quality. This study has demonstrated the effectiveness of cool-roof technology as one of the urban heat-island control strategies for the Indian industrial and scientific communities and has provided an estimate of the national energy savings potential of cool roofs in India. These outcomes can be used for developing cool-roof building standards and related policies in India. Additional field studies, built upon the successes and lessons learned from this project, may be helpful to further confirm the scale of potential energy savings from the application of cooler roofs in various regions of India. In the future, a more rigorous meteorological simulation using urbanized (meso-urban) meteorological models should be conducted, which may produce a more accurate estimate of the air-temperature reductions for the entire urban area.

Akbari, Hashem; Xu, Tengfang; Taha, Haider; Wray, Craig; Sathaye, Jayant; Garg, Vishal; Tetali, Surekha; Babu, M. Hari; Reddy, K. Niranjan

2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

116

Pollution Impact on Cool Roof Efficacy Research Project | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emerging Technologies » Pollution Impact on Cool Roof Efficacy Emerging Technologies » Pollution Impact on Cool Roof Efficacy Research Project Pollution Impact on Cool Roof Efficacy Research Project The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently determining how pollution impacts the efficacy of cool roofs. The project specifically is focusing on the efficacy of white roofs in Northern India. The first phase of the project will take physical measurements to characterize the cooling and climate effects of white roofs. Results from this project will provide important guidance to policymakers and planners as they decide where cool roofs would have the greatest benefits. Project Description The project involves the development of advanced surfaces and next-generation materials to improve solar reflectance of roofs; the ability to reflect the visible, infrared and ultraviolet wavelengths of the

117

Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities July 23, 2010 - 2:07pm Addthis John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs How does it work? Dark-colored roofs and roadways create what is called the "urban heat island effect," meaning a city is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas. Light colored roofs reduce the heat island effect and improve air quality by reducing emissions. Lighter-colored roofing surfaces reflect more of the sun's heat, which helps to improve building efficiency by reducing cooling costs and offsetting carbon emissions. Roofs and road pavement cover 50 to 65 percent of urban areas. Because they absorb so much heat, dark-colored roofs and roadways create what is called

118

Cool Roofs: An Easy Upgrade | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs: An Easy Upgrade Cool Roofs: An Easy Upgrade Cool Roofs: An Easy Upgrade December 14, 2010 - 9:25am Addthis Cathy Zoi Former Assistant Secretary, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy What does this mean for me? Dark roofs can be 50 degrees hotter than light roofs. Combined with dark roads and parking lots, dark roofs lead to the 'urban heat island' effect: cities tend to be 2-5 degrees hotter. A cooler roof means energy bills that are up to 10-15% lower because your air conditioner doesn't have to work as hard. Check out Google Earth - the 'view from above' of your favorite American city. And look at the roofs of the office buildings, warehouses, shopping centers, and even the homes. Most of them are probably pretty dark in color - and this means they heat up a lot when the weather is warm -

119

SunShot Initiative: Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar Photovoltaic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar Photovoltaic Racking System to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar Photovoltaic Racking System on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar Photovoltaic Racking System on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar Photovoltaic Racking System on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar Photovoltaic Racking System on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar Photovoltaic Racking System on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar Photovoltaic Racking System on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Photovoltaics

120

Cool Colored Roofs to Save Energy and Improve Air Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Konopacki. 1998b. "Measured Energy Savings of Light- coloredPeak Power and Cooling Energy Savings of High-Albedo Roofs,”Peak Power and Cooling Energy Savings of High-albedo Roofs,"

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Miller, William; Berdahl, Paul

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "roofing metal concrete" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Status of cool roof standards in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cool roofs save energy. ASHRAE Transactions 104(1B):783-788.2000. Updates on revision to ASHRAE Standard 90.2: includingSSP90.1 for Reflective Roofs. ASHRAE Transactions, 104(1B),

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Evolution of cool-roof standards in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SSP90.1 for Reflective Roofs. ASHRAE Transactions, 104(1B),Roofing Insulation and Siding. Mar/Apr, pp. 52-58. ASHRAE.1999. ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999: Energy Standard for

Akbari, Hashem

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Energy Saving 'Cool Roofs' Installed at Y-12 | National Nuclear...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > NNSA Blog > Energy Saving 'Cool Roofs' Installed at Y-12 Energy Saving 'Cool Roofs' Installed at Y-12...

124

Monitoring the Energy-Use Effects of Cool Roofs on California Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

model the complete heat transfer process through the roof,model the complete heat transfer process through the roof,

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Konopaki, Steve; Rainer, Leo

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

(DDBS) System Doubles Pot Suction, Reduces Roof Emission  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Suction (DDBS) System Doubles Pot Suction, Reduces Roof Emission .... Phase Change Materials in Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power ...

126

Cool Roof Resource Guide for Federal Agencies (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Resource guide containing information and links for the evaluation and installation of cool roofs within the Federal Government

Not Available

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Roof and Attic Design Guidelines for new and retrofit Construction of Homes in Hot and Coild Climates  

SciTech Connect

Some guidelines for improving the energy efficiency of roofs and attics are presented and are based on the research of the DOE Building Technology. The results of combined analytical and experimental studies were used to benchmark computer tools, which in turn, were used to simulate homes in hot and cold climates. Adding floor and roof insulation, above deck ventilation, radiant barriers, cool color shingle, metal or tile roofs, sealing the attic floor, sealing the duct system and sealing the attic were simulated to compute the cost of energy savings. Results are prioritized to help building owners make an informed economic decision when contemplating roof and attic retrofits. Sealing the attic floor is a top retrofit option. The sealed attic approach and a new prototype roof assembly an insulated and ventilated roof are good options for retrofit work but have paybacks ranging from 15 to 25 years. A new sealed attic concept was simulated and computations show its simple payback is about 10 to 12 years in hot and cold climates; its first cost is significantly reduced from that of a spray foam approach. For new construction the best option is to keep the ducts out of the attic, make sure the attic floor is sealed and add at least code level of insulation to the ceiling.

Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL] [ORNL; LaFrance, Marc [International Energy Agency] [International Energy Agency

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Cool Roof Calculator | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cool Roof Calculator Cool Roof Calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Cool Roof Calculator Agency/Company /Organization: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Buildings, Energy Efficiency Resource Type: Online calculator, Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Website: www.ornl.gov/sci/roofs+walls/facts/CoolCalcEnergy.htm Country: United States Cost: Free Northern America Coordinates: 37.09024°, -95.712891° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.09024,"lon":-95.712891,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

129

Boots on the Roof | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Boots on the Roof Boots on the Roof Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Boots on the Roof Name Boots on the Roof Address 4670 Automall Parkway Place Fremont, California Zip 94538 Region Bay Area Number of employees 51-200 Year founded 1992 Phone number 888.893.0367 Website http://www.bootsontheroof.com/ Coordinates 37.498922°, -121.963028° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.498922,"lon":-121.963028,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

130

Update on the Million Solar Roofs Initiative  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Million Solar Roofs Initiative, announced by the President in June of 1997, spans a period of twelve years and intends to increase domestic deployment of solar technologies. This paper presents an overview of the development of the initiative and significant activities to date.

Herig, C.

1999-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

131

Development of a Roof Savings Calculator  

SciTech Connect

A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs the latest web technologies and usability design to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim. Building defaults were assigned and can provide annual energy and cost savings after the user selects nothing more than building location. In addition to cool reflective roofs, the RSC tool can simulate multiple roof types at arbitrary inclinations. There are options for above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers and low-emittance surfaces. The tool also accommodates HVAC ducts either in the conditioned space or in the attic with custom air leakage rates. Multiple layers of thermal mass, ceiling insulation and other parameters can be compared side-by-side to generate energy/cost savings between two buildings. The RSC tool was benchmarked against field data for demonstration homes in Ft Irwin, CA.

New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL; Huang, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Erdem, Ender [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Development of a Roof Savings Calculator  

SciTech Connect

A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs the latest web technologies and usability design to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim. Building defaults were assigned and can provide estimated annual energy and cost savings after the user selects nothing more than building location. In addition to cool reflective roofs, the RSC tool can simulate multiple roof types at arbitrary inclinations. There are options for above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, and low-emittance surfaces. The tool also accommodates HVAC ducts either in the conditioned space or in the attic with custom air leakage rates. Multiple layers of building materials, ceiling and deck insulation, and other parameters can be compared side-by-side to generate an energy/cost savings estimate between two buildings. The RSC tool was benchmarked against field data for demonstration homes in Ft. Irwin, CA.

New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL; Erdem, Ender [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Huang, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Solar heater and roof attachment means  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A solar heater includes an elongated solar collector having two fixedly connected solar panels of highly heat conductive material supported by a roof clamp on a shingled roof. The bottom edges of each of the solar panels include upturned gutter portions. One form of roof clamp for shingled roofs includes a J-shape shingle clamp member having a clamp bolt extending therethrough, and a solar collector clamp member assembled on the bolt and clamped to the bottom gutter portions of the solar panels. A bottom plate of the J-shape clamp member is slid under a shingle of a first shingle course and under a shingle of a second upper shingle course to carry the bolt into the top of the gap between adjacent shingle portions of the first course and to position a top plate of the shingle clamp member over parts of the shank portions of the first course and over a part of the one shingle of the second course. A clamp nut clamps the collector clamp member and the shingle clamp member firmly to the contacted shingles.

Howe, G.L.; Koutavas, S.G.

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

134

Covered Product Category: Cool Roof Products  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including cool roof products, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

135

Evolution of cool-roof standards in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Roofs that have high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance stay cool in the sun. A roof with lower thermal emittance but exceptionally high solar reflectance can also stay cool in the sun. Substituting a cool roof for a noncool roof decreases cooling-electricity use, cooling-power demand, and cooling-equipment capacity requirements, while slightly increasing heating-energy consumption. Cool roofs can also lower citywide ambient air temperature in summer, slowing ozone formation and increasing human comfort. Provisions for cool roofs in energy-efficiency standards can promote the building- and climate-appropriate use of cool roofing technologies. Cool-roof requirements are designed to reduce building energy use, while energy-neutral cool-roof credits permit the use of less energy-efficient components (e.g., larger windows) in a building that has energy-saving cool roofs. Both types of measures can reduce the life-cycle cost of a building (initial cost plus lifetime energy cost). Since 1999, several widely used building energy-efficiency standards, including ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, the International Energy Conservation Code, and California's Title 24 have adopted cool-roof credits or requirements. This paper reviews the technical development of cool-roof provisions in the ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, and California Title 24 standards, and discusses the treatment of cool roofs in other standards and energy-efficiency programs. The techniques used to develop the ASHRAE and Title 24 cool-roof provisions can be used as models to address cool roofs in building energy-efficiency standards worldwide.

Akbari, Hashem; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen

2008-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

136

Bio-based Thermochromic Intelligent Roof Coating Research Project |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

based Thermochromic Intelligent Roof based Thermochromic Intelligent Roof Coating Research Project Bio-based Thermochromic Intelligent Roof Coating Research Project The Department of Energy is conducting research into bio-based thermochromic intelligent roof coatings. The coatings are developed from waste cooking oil. Project Description This project seeks to develop and demonstrate a waste cooking oil-based thermochromic smart roof coating technology that will adjust light transmission in response to temperature changes. This will reduce energy demands for temperature regulation. The project will also study the effects of different oil sources on coating properties. Project Partners This project is being undertaken between the Department of Energy and United Environment & Energy. Project Goals

137

Status of cool roof standards in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Since 1999, several widely used building energy efficiency standards, including ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, the International Energy Conservation Code, and California's Title 24 have adopted cool roof credits or requirements. We review the technical development of cool roof provisions in the ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, and California Title 24 standards, and discuss the treatment of cool roofs in other standards and energy-efficiency programs. The techniques used to develop the ASHRAE and Title 24 cool roof provisions can be used as models to address cool roofs in building energy standards worldwide.

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Would You Consider Installing a Cool Roof? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Would You Consider Installing a Cool Roof? Would You Consider Installing a Cool Roof? Would You Consider Installing a Cool Roof? August 12, 2010 - 7:30am Addthis On Monday, Erin discussed cool roof technologies and how they can improve the comfort of buildings while reducing energy costs. Would you consider installing a cool roof? Why or why not? Each Thursday, you have the chance to share your thoughts on a question about energy efficiency or renewable energy for consumers. Please comment with your answers, and also feel free to respond to other comments. E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov. Addthis Related Articles Would You Consider Driving a Vehicle that Can Run on Biodiesel? Would You Consider Installing a Cool Roof? Tips: Energy-Efficient Roofs How Do You Save Water When Caring for Your Lawn?

139

Building Technologies Office: Pollution Impact on Cool Roof Efficacy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pollution Impact on Pollution Impact on Cool Roof Efficacy Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Pollution Impact on Cool Roof Efficacy Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Pollution Impact on Cool Roof Efficacy Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Pollution Impact on Cool Roof Efficacy Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Pollution Impact on Cool Roof Efficacy Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Pollution Impact on Cool Roof Efficacy Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Pollution Impact on Cool Roof Efficacy Research Project on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy Partner with DOE

140

TASK 2.5.7 FIELD EXPERIMENTS TO EVALUATE COOL-COLORED ROOFING  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aesthetically pleasing dark roofs can be formulated to reflect like a highly reflective white roof in the near infrared portion of the solar spectrum. New paint pigments increase the near infrared reflectance of exterior finishes by minimizing the absorption of near-infrared radiation (NIR). The boost in the NIR reflectance drops the surface temperatures of roofs and walls, which in turn reduces cooling-energy use and provides savings for the homeowner and relief for the utilities. In moderate and hot climates, a roof surface with high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance was shown by Akbari et al. (2004) and by Parker and Sherwin (1998) to reduce the exterior temperature and produce savings in comfort cooling. The new cool color pigments can potentially reduce emissions of carbon dioxide, which in turn reduces metropolitan heat buildup and urban smog. The pigments can also help conserve water resources otherwise used to clean and process fuel consumed by fossil-fuel driven power plants. Cool roofs also result in a lower ambient temperature that further decreases the need for air conditioning, retards smog formation, and improves thermal comfort. Parker, Sonne and Sherwin (2002) demonstrated that white barrel and white flat tiles reduced cooling energy consumption by 22% of the base load used by an adjacent and identical home having direct nailed dark shingles. Part of the savings was due to the reflectance of the white tiles; however, another part was due to the mass of the tile and to the venting occurring within the double batten installation. With, Cherry and Haig (2009) have studied the influence of the thermal mass and batten space ventilation and have found that, referenced to an asphalt shingle system, it can be equivalent to an additional 28 points of solar reflectivity. The double batten arrangement has wooden counter battens laid vertically (soffit-to-ridge) against the roof deck, and then the conventional battens are laid horizontally across the counter battens, providing a nailing surface for the concrete tile. This double batten construction forms an inclined air channel running from the soffit to the ridge. The bottom surface of the channel is formed by the roof decking and is relatively flat and smooth. The top surface is created by the underside of the roofing tiles, and is designed to be an air permeable covering to alleviate the underside air pressure and minimize wind uplift on the tiles. The resulting air flows also have a cooling influence which further complicates prediction of the heat penetrating through the deck because an accurate measure of the airflow is required to predict the heat transfer. Measured temperatures and heat flows at the roof surface, within the attic and at the ceiling of the houses are discussed as well as the power usage to help gauge the benefit of cool-pigmented reflective roof products fitted with and without ventilation above the roof deck. Ventilation occurring above the deck is an inherent feature for tile roof assemblies, and is formed by an air space between the exterior face of the roof sheathing and the underside of the tile. The greater the tile s profile the greater is the effect of the ventilation which herein is termed above-sheathing ventilation (ASV). However, because of the complexity of the thermally induced flow, little credit is allowed by state and federal building codes. ASHRAE (2005) provides empirical data for the effective thermal resistance of plane air spaces. A -in. (0.0191-m) plane air space inclined at 45 with the horizontal has an RUS-0.85 (RSI-0.15) . Our intent is to help further deploy cool color pigments in roofs by conducting field experiments to evaluate the new cool-colored roofing materials in the hot climate of Southern California. The collected data will be used to showcase and market the performance of new cool-roof products and also to help formulate and validate computer codes capable of calculating the heat transfer occurring within the attic and the whole building. Field measures and computer predictions showed that the d

Miller, William A [ORNL; Cherry, Nigel J [ORNL; Allen, Richard Lowell [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Ronnen, Levinson [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Akbari, Hashem [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Berhahl, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "roofing metal concrete" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Hotter Cements, Cooler Concretes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 7: Measured concrete temperatures for Texas highway mass ... refer to the east and West sides of ... Through the use of an intermediate size lightweight ...

142

Aging and weathering of cool roofing membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aging and weathering can reduce the solar reflectance of cool roofing materials. This paper summarizes laboratory measurements of the solar spectral reflectance of unweathered, weathered, and cleaned samples collected from single-ply roofing membranes at various sites across the United States. Fifteen samples were examined in each of the following six conditions: unweathered; weathered; weathered and brushed; weathered, brushed and then rinsed with water; weathered, brushed, rinsed with water, and then washed with soap and water; and weathered, brushed, rinsed with water, washed with soap and water, and then washed with an algaecide. Another 25 samples from 25 roofs across the United States and Canada were measured in their unweathered state, weathered, and weathered and wiped. We document reduction in reflectivity resulted from various soiling mechanisms and provide data on the effectiveness of various cleaning approaches. Results indicate that although the majority of samples after being washed with detergent could be brought to within 90% of their unweathered reflectivity, in some instances an algaecide was required to restore this level of reflectivity.

Akbari, Hashem; Berhe, Asmeret A.; Levinson, Ronnen; Graveline,Stanley; Foley, Kevin; Delgado, Ana H.; Paroli, Ralph M.

2005-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

143

Segmentally Constructed Prestressed Concrete  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Segmentally Constructed Prestressed Concrete Hyperboloid Cooling Tower Saml H. Rizkalla Assistant large capacity power plant facilities, the natural draft cooling tower in the fonn of a thin shell concrete natural draft cooling towers is expensive and time-consuming. The cost of the structure

144

DOE Cool Roof Calculator for Low-Slope or Flat Roofs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Roof Calculator Cool Roof Calculator Estimates Cooling and Heating Savings for Flat Roofs with Non-Black Surfaces - Developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Version 1.2) - This version of the calculator is for small and medium-sized facilities that purchase electricity without a demand charge based on peak monthly load. If you have a large facility that purchases electricity with a demand charge, run the CoolCalcPeak version in order to include the savings in peak demand charges from using solar radiation control. - What you get out of this calculator is only as good as what you put in. If you CLICK HERE , you'll find help in figuring out the best input values. Some things, such as the weathering of the solar radiation control properties and the effects of a plenum, are especially important. You'll

145

Evaluation of concrete masonry unit walls for lateral natural phenomena hazards loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Older single-story facilities (Pre-1985 vintage) are commonly constructed of structural steel framing with concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls connected to columns and roof girders of the steel framing system. The CMU walls are designed for lateral wind and seismic loads (perpendicular to the wall) and transmit shear loads from the roof diaphragm to the foundation footings. The lateral loads normally govern their design. The structural framing system and the roof diaphragm system are straight forward when analyzing or upgrading the structure for NPH loads. Because of a buildings design vintage, probable use of empirical methodology, and poor design basis documentation (and record retention); it is difficult to qualify or upgrade CMU walls for lateral Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) loads in accordance with References 1, 2 and 3. This paper discusses three analytical approaches and/or techniques (empirical, working stress and yield line) to determine the collapse capacity of a laterally loaded CMU wall, and compares their results

Faires, W.E. Jr.

1996-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

146

Hawaii Marine Base Installs Solar Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Marine Base Installs Solar Roofs Marine Base Installs Solar Roofs Hawaii Marine Base Installs Solar Roofs April 2, 2010 - 2:42pm Addthis Lorelei Laird Writer, Energy Empowers What does this project do? Marine Corps Base Hawaii replaced roofs on two buildings with polyvinyl chloride membrane 'cool' roofs and solar panels. The new roofs saves $20,000 a year in energy costs. Built on the end of the Mokapu Peninsula on Oahu's northeast coast, the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay gets plenty of sunlight. But harnessing that sunlight to create renewable electricity was considered too expensive to be practical - until 2008. That's when MCBH took advantage of planned maintenance funding to help offset the high cost of installing photovoltaic panels on the base. As a military entity, MCBH can't directly take advantage of federal or state

147

Hawaii Marine Base Installs Solar Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hawaii Marine Base Installs Solar Roofs Hawaii Marine Base Installs Solar Roofs Hawaii Marine Base Installs Solar Roofs April 2, 2010 - 2:42pm Addthis Lorelei Laird Writer, Energy Empowers What does this project do? Marine Corps Base Hawaii replaced roofs on two buildings with polyvinyl chloride membrane 'cool' roofs and solar panels. The new roofs saves $20,000 a year in energy costs. Built on the end of the Mokapu Peninsula on Oahu's northeast coast, the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay gets plenty of sunlight. But harnessing that sunlight to create renewable electricity was considered too expensive to be practical - until 2008. That's when MCBH took advantage of planned maintenance funding to help offset the high cost of installing photovoltaic panels on the base. As a military entity, MCBH can't directly take advantage of federal or state

148

Cool Roofs: Your Questions Answered | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Roofs: Your Questions Answered Roofs: Your Questions Answered Cool Roofs: Your Questions Answered January 6, 2011 - 2:58pm Addthis John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Last month Secretary Chu announced that the Department of Energy had installed a "cool roof" atop the west building of our Washington, DC headquarters. The announcement elicited a fair number of questions from his Facebook fans, so we decided to reach out to the people behind the project for their insight on the specific benefits of switching to a cool roof, and the process that went into making that choice. Jim Bullis (Facebook): So what is the percentage saving of energy bills for this building? Answer: The West Building cool roof is estimated to save about $2,000 per

149

Cool Roofs and Heat Islands | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cool Roofs and Heat Islands Cool Roofs and Heat Islands Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Cool Roofs Agency/Company /Organization: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency Topics: Resource assessment Website: eetd.lbl.gov/r-bldgsee-crhi.html References: [1] Logo: Cool Roofs "On warm summer days, a city can be 6 to 8°F warmer than its surrounding areas. This effect is called the urban heat island. Cool roof materials, pavements, and vegetation can reduce the heat island effect, save energy and reduce smog formation. The goal of this research is to develop cool materials to save energy and money." [1] The Cool Roof Calculator developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a useful tool for exploring the benefits of cool materials.

150

Concrete sample point: 304 Concretion Facility  

SciTech Connect

This report contains information concerning the analysis of concretes for volatile organic compounds. Included are the raw data for these analysis and the quality control data, the standards data, and all of the accompanying chains-of-custody records and requests for special analysis.

Rollison, M.D.

1995-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

151

Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

roofs on commercial buildings in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, corresponding to cooling energy savings of 10 19%. With the assumption of an annual increase...

152

Cool roofs as an energy conservation measure for federal buildings  

SciTech Connect

We have developed initial estimates of the potential benefits of cool roofs on federal buildings and facilities (building scale) as well as extrapolated the results to all national facilities under the administration of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). In addition, a spreadsheet ''calculator'' is devised to help FEMP estimate potential energy and cost savings of cool roof projects. Based on calculations for an average insulation level of R-11 for roofs, it is estimated that nationwide annual savings in energy costs will amount to $16M and $32M for two scenarios of increased roof albedo (moderate and high increases), respectively. These savings, corresponding to about 3.8 percent and 7.5 percent of the base energy costs for FEMP facilities, include the increased heating energy use (penalties) in winter. To keep the cost of conserved energy (CCE) under $0.08 kWh-1 as a nationwide average, the calculations suggest that the incremental cost for cool roofs should not exceed $0.06 ft-2, assuming that cool roofs have the same life span as their non-cool counterparts. However, cool roofs usually have extended life spans, e.g., 15-30 years versus 10 years for conventional roofs, and if the costs of re-roofing are also factored in, the cutoff incremental cost to keep CCE under $0.08 kWh-1 can be much higher. In between these two ends, there is of course a range of various combinations and options.

Taha, Haider; Akbari, Hashem

2003-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

153

Energy Saving 'Cool Roofs' Installed at Y-12 | National Nuclear...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Saving 'Cool Roofs' Installed at Y-12 | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy...

154

Thermal Properties of Green Roofs in Cold Climates.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Green roofs have, in the past 15 years or so, gained increasing acceptance as a means of replacing or offsetting the lost of green space… (more)

Lanham, Johnnel Kiera

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Cool roof Q+A 011.doc 29 July 2009 Cool Roof Q & A (draft)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thermal radiation. Thus, a cool roof should have both high "solar reflectance" (ability to reflect, also measured on a scale of 0 to 1). The solar reflectance and thermal emittance of a surface are called its "radiative" properties because they describe its abilities to reflect solar radiation and emit

156

High Efficiency Solar Integrated Roof Membrane Product  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to address the Solar Energy Technology Program objective, to develop new methods to integrate photovoltaic (PV) cells or modules within a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) application that will result in lower installed cost as well as higher efficiencies of the encapsulated/embedded PV module. The technology assessment and development focused on the evaluation and identification of manufacturing technologies and equipment capable of producing such low-cost, high-efficiency, flexible BIPV solar cells on single-ply roofing membranes.

Partyka, Eric; Shenoy, Anil

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

Improving Our Environment One Roof at a Time | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Improving Our Environment One Roof at a Time Improving Our Environment One Roof at a Time Improving Our Environment One Roof at a Time June 27, 2013 - 12:10pm Addthis Improving Our Environment One Roof at a Time How does it work? Green roofs are ideal for urban buildings with flat or shallow-pit roofs, and can include anything from basic plant cover to a garden. The primary reasons for using this type of roof include managing storm water and enjoying a rooftop open space. Green roofs also provide insulation, lower the need for heating and cooling, and can reduce the urban heat island effect. This roof type can be much more expensive to implement than other efficient roof options, so you should carefully assess your property and consult a professional before deciding to install a green roof. Click here for more information on energy-efficient roofs

158

Improving Our Environment One Roof at a Time | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Improving Our Environment One Roof at a Time Improving Our Environment One Roof at a Time Improving Our Environment One Roof at a Time June 27, 2013 - 12:10pm Addthis Improving Our Environment One Roof at a Time How does it work? Green roofs are ideal for urban buildings with flat or shallow-pit roofs, and can include anything from basic plant cover to a garden. The primary reasons for using this type of roof include managing storm water and enjoying a rooftop open space. Green roofs also provide insulation, lower the need for heating and cooling, and can reduce the urban heat island effect. This roof type can be much more expensive to implement than other efficient roof options, so you should carefully assess your property and consult a professional before deciding to install a green roof. Click here for more information on energy-efficient roofs

159

Estimating Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Green Roof Systems: Current Modeling Capabilities and Limitations (Presentation)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This presentation discusses estimating heat and mass transfer processes in green roof systems: current modeling capabilities and limitations. Green roofs are 'specialized roofing systems that support vegetation growth on rooftops.'

Tabares Velasco, P. C.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Cool Roofs Are Ready to Save Energy, Cool Urban Heat Islands, and Help Slow Global Warming  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

roofing is the fastest growing sector roofing is the fastest growing sector of the building industry, as building owners and facility managers realize the immediate and long-term benefits of roofs that stay cool in the sun. Studies exploring the energy efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of cool roofs show that in warm or hot climates, substituting a cool roof for a conventional roof can: * Reduce by up to 15% the annual air-

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "roofing metal concrete" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Visual Analytics for Roof Savings Calculator Ensembles  

SciTech Connect

The Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for DOE as an industry-consensus, web-based tool for easily running complex building energy simulations. These simulations allow both homeowners and experts to determine building-specific cost and energy savings for modern roof and attic technologies. Using a database of over 3 million RSC simulations for different combinations of parameters, we have built a visual analytics tool to assist in the exploration and identification of features in the data. Since the database contains multiple variables, both categorical and continuous, we employ a coordinated multi-view approach that allows coordinated feature exploration through multiple visualizations at once. The main component of our system, a parallel coordinates view, has been adapted to handle large-scale, mixed data types as are found in RSC simulations. Other visualizations include map coordinated plots, high dynamic range (HDR) line plot rendering, and an intuitive user interface. We demonstrate these techniques with several use cases that have helped identify software and parametric simulation issues.

Jones, Chad [University of California, Davis; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Sanyal, Jibonananda [ORNL; Ma, Kwan-Liu [University of California, Davis

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Status of cool roof standards in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

roofs (Table 5.5 of ASHRAE 90.2- Climate Zone Roof U-FactorASHRAE 2004a) tabulates thermal transmittance multipliers by U.S. climate zones (ASHRAE 2007). ceilings with attics wood frame steel frame climate conventional cool conventional cool zone

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Million Solar Roofs: Become One In A Million  

SciTech Connect

Since its announcement in June 1997, the Million Solar Roofs Initiative has generated a major buzz in communities, states, and throughout the nation. With more than 300,000 installations, the buzz is getting louder. This brochure describes Million Solar Roofs activities and partnerships.

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Energy Performance Impacts from Competing Low-slope Roofing Choices and Photovoltaic Technologies.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??With such a vast quantity of space, commercial low-slope roofs offer significant potential for sustainable roofing technology deployment. Specifically, building energy performance can be improved… (more)

Nagengast, Amy L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Become One In A Million: Partnership Updates -- Million Solar Roofs and Interstate Renewable Energy Council  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Million Solar Roofs Partnership Update is an annual report from all the Partnership and Partners who participate in the Million Solar Roofs Initiative.

Not Available

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Regional climate consequences of large-scale cool roof and photovoltai...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

roofs, photovoltaics, radiative forcing, urban environment Abstract Modifications to the surface albedo through the deployment of cool roofs and pavements (reflective materials)...

167

Regional climate consequences of large-scale cool roof and photovoltai...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

roof, photovoltaics, radiative forcing, urban environment Abstract Modifications to the surface albedo through the deployment of cool roofs and pavements (reflective materials) and...

168

Monitoring the Energy-Use Effects of Cool Roofs on California Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

can also reduce peak electricity demand. Cool roofs transferthe cool roof on peak electricity demand, we inspected theEstimate of Peak Electricity Demand Use and Savings Using

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Konopaki, Steve; Rainer, Leo

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Oklahoma Tribe to Install Solar Roof | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oklahoma Tribe to Install Solar Roof Oklahoma Tribe to Install Solar Roof Oklahoma Tribe to Install Solar Roof March 22, 2010 - 6:10pm Addthis Stephen Graff Former Writer & editor for Energy Empowers, EERE What does this project do? The new fully functioning roof and solar energy production plant will save the tribe about $20,000 a year. The Delaware Nation, a federally-recognized tribe of about 1,400 people in Anadarko, Okla., will install solar panel roofs on two tribal government buildings as part of a larger effort to become more sustainable and bring new jobs to an area struggling with high unemployment. "It's the start of a green initiative," says Theda McPheron-Keel, president of Wind Hollow Foundation, a nonprofit organization aimed at helping American Indians improve their lives. "It provides economic

170

A Cool Roof for the Iconic Cyclotron | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A Cool Roof for the Iconic Cyclotron A Cool Roof for the Iconic Cyclotron A Cool Roof for the Iconic Cyclotron July 15, 2011 - 5:42pm Addthis Berkeley Lab's iconic building, the Advanced Light Source, is getting a new cool roof, righ, that will reflect sunlight back into the atmosphere, playing a small part in mitigating global warming. On left, Ernest Orlando Lawrence talks to colleagues at the construction site of the cyclotron, built in 1941. | Courtesy of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Roy Kaltschmidt, Berkeley Lab Public Affairs Berkeley Lab's iconic building, the Advanced Light Source, is getting a new cool roof, righ, that will reflect sunlight back into the atmosphere, playing a small part in mitigating global warming. On left, Ernest Orlando Lawrence talks to colleagues at the construction site of the cyclotron,

171

A Cool Roof for the Iconic Cyclotron | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A Cool Roof for the Iconic Cyclotron A Cool Roof for the Iconic Cyclotron A Cool Roof for the Iconic Cyclotron July 15, 2011 - 5:42pm Addthis Berkeley Lab's iconic building, the Advanced Light Source, is getting a new cool roof, righ, that will reflect sunlight back into the atmosphere, playing a small part in mitigating global warming. On left, Ernest Orlando Lawrence talks to colleagues at the construction site of the cyclotron, built in 1941. | Courtesy of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Roy Kaltschmidt, Berkeley Lab Public Affairs Berkeley Lab's iconic building, the Advanced Light Source, is getting a new cool roof, righ, that will reflect sunlight back into the atmosphere, playing a small part in mitigating global warming. On left, Ernest Orlando Lawrence talks to colleagues at the construction site of the cyclotron,

172

Oklahoma Tribe to Install Solar Roof | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oklahoma Tribe to Install Solar Roof Oklahoma Tribe to Install Solar Roof Oklahoma Tribe to Install Solar Roof March 22, 2010 - 6:10pm Addthis Stephen Graff Former Writer & editor for Energy Empowers, EERE What does this project do? The new fully functioning roof and solar energy production plant will save the tribe about $20,000 a year. The Delaware Nation, a federally-recognized tribe of about 1,400 people in Anadarko, Okla., will install solar panel roofs on two tribal government buildings as part of a larger effort to become more sustainable and bring new jobs to an area struggling with high unemployment. "It's the start of a green initiative," says Theda McPheron-Keel, president of Wind Hollow Foundation, a nonprofit organization aimed at helping American Indians improve their lives. "It provides economic

173

Evaporative Roof Cooling - A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the "Energy Crisis" Evaporative Roof Cooling Systems have gained increased acceptance as a cost effective method to reduce the high cost of air conditioning. Documented case histories in retrofit installations show direct energy savings and paybacks from twelve to thirty months. The main operating cost of an Evaporative Roof Cooling System is water. One thousand gallons of water, completely evaporated, will produce over 700 tons of cooling capability. Water usage seldom averages over 100 gallons per 1000 ft^2 of roof area per day or 10 oz. of water per 100 ft^2 every six minutes. Roof Cooling Systems, when planned in new construction, return 1-1/2 times the investment the first year in equipment savings and operating costs. Roof sprays are a low cost cooling solution for warehouses, distribution centers and light manufacturing or assembly areas with light internal loads. See text "Flywheel Cooling."

Abernethy, D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Concrete decontamination by electro-hydraulic scabbling (EHS). Final report  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of concrete structures by radionuclides, hazardous metals and organic substances (including PCB`s) occurs at many DOE sites. The contamination of concrete structures (walls, floors, ceilings, etc.) varies in type, concentration, and especially depth of penetration into the concrete. In many instances, only the surface layer of concrete is contaminated, up to a depth of one inch, according to estimates provided in the R and D ID document. Then, removal of the concrete surface layer (scabbling) is considered to be the most effective decontamination method. Textron Systems Corp. (TSC) has developed a scabbling concept based on electro-mechanical phenomena accompanying strong electric pulses generated by applying high voltage at the concrete/water interface. Depending on the conditions, the electric discharge may occur either through a waste layer or through the concrete body itself. This report describes the development, testing, and results of this electro-mechanical process. Phase 1 demonstrated the feasibility of the process for the controlled removal of a thin layer of contaminated concrete. Phase 2 designed, fabricated, and tested an integrated subscale unit. This was tested at Fernald. In Phase 3, the scabbling unit was reconfigured to increase its power and processing rate. Technology transfer to an engineering contracting company is continuing.

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Effectiveness of Cool Roof Coatings with Ceramic Particles  

SciTech Connect

Liquid applied coatings promoted as cool roof coatings, including several with ceramic particles, were tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tenn., for the purpose of quantifying their thermal performances. Solar reflectance measurements were made for new samples and aged samples using a portable reflectometer (ASTM C1549, Standard Test Method for Determination of Solar Reflectance Near Ambient Temperature Using a Portable Solar Reflectometer) and for new samples using the integrating spheres method (ASTM E903, Standard Test Method for Solar Absorptance, Reflectance, and Transmittance of Materials Using Integrating Spheres). Thermal emittance was measured for the new samples using a portable emissometer (ASTM C1371, Standard Test Method for Determination of Emittance of Materials Near Room 1 Proceedings of the 2011 International Roofing Symposium Temperature Using Portable Emissometers). Thermal conductivity of the coatings was measured using a FOX 304 heat flow meter (ASTM C518, Standard Test Method for Steady-State Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus). The surface properties of the cool roof coatings had higher solar reflectance than the reference black and white material, but there were no significant differences among coatings with and without ceramics. The coatings were applied to EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer) membranes and installed on the Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA), an instrumented facility at ORNL for testing roofs. Roof temperatures and heat flux through the roof were obtained for a year of exposure in east Tennessee. The field tests showed significant reduction in cooling required compared with the black reference roof (~80 percent) and a modest reduction in cooling compared with the white reference roof (~33 percent). The coating material with the highest solar reflectivity (no ceramic particles) demonstrated the best overall thermal performance (combination of reducing the cooling load cost and not incurring a large heating penalty cost) and suggests solar reflectivity is the significant characteristic for selecting cool roof coatings.

Brehob, Ellen G [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Flexible shaft and roof drilling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for drilling holes in the roof of a mine has a flexible shaft with a pair of oppositely wound, coaxial flat bands. One of the flat bands defines an inner spring that is wound right handed into a helical configuration, adjacent convolutions being in nesting relationship to one another. The other flat band defines an outer spring that is wound left handed into a helical configuration about the inner band, adjacent convolutions being nesting relationship with one another. A transition member that is configured to hold a rock bit is mounted to one end of the flexible shaft. When torque and thrust are applied to the flexible shaft by a driver, the inner spring expands outwardly and the outer spring contracts inwardly to form a relatively rigid shaft.

Blanz, John H. (Carlisle, MA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

A novel technique for the production of cool colored concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wavelength (nm) In press at Solar Energy Materials & Solarcool asphalt shingles. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cellsof common colorants, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells

Levinson, Ronnen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Three-dimensional analysis of AP600 standard plant shield building roof  

SciTech Connect

The AP600 passive containment vessel is surrounded by a concrete cylindrical shell covered with a truncated conical roof. This roof supports the passive containment cooling system (PCS) annular tank, shield plate and other nonstructural attachments. When the shield building is subjected to different loading combinations as defined in the Standard Review Plan (SRP), some of the sections in the shield building could experience forces in excess of their design values. This report summarized the three-dimensional finite element analysis that was conducted to review the adequacy of the proposed Westinghouse shield building design. The ANSYS finite element software was utilized to analyze the Shield Building Roof (SBR) under dead, snow, wind, thermal and seismic loadings. A three-dimensional model that included a portion of the shield building cylindrical shell, the conical roof and its attachments, the eccentricities at the cone-cylinder connection and at the compression ring and the PCS tank was developed. Mesh sensitivity studies were conducted to select appropriate element size in the cylinder, cone, near air intakes and in the vicinity of the eccentricities. Also, a study was carried out to correctly idealize the water-structure interaction in the PCS tank. Response spectrum analysis was used to calculate the internal forces at different sections in the SBR under Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). Forty-nine structural modes and twenty sloshing modes were used. Two horizontal components of the SSE together with a vertical component were used. Modal stress resultants were combined taking into account the effects of closely spaced modes. The three earthquake directions were combined by the Square Root of the Sum Squares method. Two load combinations were studied. The load combination that included dead, snow, fluid, thermal and seismic loads was selected to be the most critical. Interaction diagrams for critical sections were developed and used to check the design adequacy. The results demonstrated that provided area of steal on each face of several sections of the AP600 SBR was inadequate. This was also noticed when comparing the total provided area of steel per section, i.e., the area of steel on both faces. The discrepancy between Westinghouse results and these reported herein could have resulted from the different finite element mesh sizes and the assumption used in Westinghouse design.

Greimann, L.; Fanous, F.; Safar, S.; Khalil, A.; Bluhm, D.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Cool roofs as an energy conservation measure for federal buildings  

SciTech Connect

We have developed initial estimates of the potential benefits of cool roofs on federal buildings and facilities (building scale) as well as extrapolated the results to all national facilities under the administration of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). In addition, a spreadsheet ''calculator'' is devised to help FEMP estimate potential energy and cost savings of cool roof projects. Based on calculations for an average insulation level of R-11 for roofs, it is estimated that nationwide annual savings in energy costs will amount to $16M and $32M for two scenarios of increased roof albedo (moderate and high increases), respectively. These savings, corresponding to about 3.8 percent and 7.5 percent of the base energy costs for FEMP facilities, include the increased heating energy use (penalties) in winter. To keep the cost of conserved energy (CCE) under $0.08 kWh-1 as a nationwide average, the calculations suggest that the incremental cost for cool roofs should not exceed $0.06 ft-2, assuming that cool roofs have the same life span as their non-cool counterparts. However, cool roofs usually have extended life spans, e.g., 15-30 years versus 10 years for conventional roofs, and if the costs of re-roofing are also factored in, the cutoff incremental cost to keep CCE under $0.08 kWh-1 can be much higher. In between these two ends, there is of course a range of various combinations and options.

Taha, Haider; Akbari, Hashem

2003-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

180

Structural Materials: 95. Concrete  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear power plant concrete structures and their materials of construction are described, and their operating experience noted. Aging and environmental factors that can affect the durability of the concrete structures are identified. Basic components of a program to manage aging of these structures are identified and described. Application of structural reliability theory to devise uniform risk-based criteria by which existing facilities can be evaluated to achieve a desired performance level when subjected to uncertain demands and to quantify the effects of degradation is outlined. Finally, several areas are identified where additional research is desired.

Naus, Dan J [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "roofing metal concrete" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Nuclear waste package fabricated from concrete  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

After the United States enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1983, the Department of Energy must design, site, build and operate permanent geologic repositories for high-level nuclear waste. The Department of Energy has recently selected three sites, one being the Hanford Site in the state of Washington. At this particular site, the repository will be located in basalt at a depth of approximately 3000 feet deep. The main concern of this site, is contamination of the groundwater by release of radionuclides from the waste package. The waste package basically has three components: the containment barrier (metal or concrete container, in this study concrete will be considered), the waste form, and other materials (such as packing material, emplacement hole liners, etc.). The containment barriers are the primary waste container structural materials and are intended to provide containment of the nuclear waste up to a thousand years after emplacement. After the containment barriers are breached by groundwater, the packing material (expanding sodium bentonite clay) is expected to provide the primary control of release of radionuclide into the immediate repository environment. The loading conditions on the concrete container (from emplacement to approximately 1000 years), will be twofold; (1) internal heat of the high-level waste which could be up to 400/sup 0/C; (2) external hydrostatic pressure up to 1300 psi after the seepage of groundwater has occurred in the emplacement tunnel. A suggested container is a hollow plain concrete cylinder with both ends capped. 7 refs.

Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kennedy, J.M.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Cool Roof Coatings and New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt Shingles Meng-Dawn Cheng Oak Ridge National Laboratory chengmd@ornl.gov; 865-241-5918 April 4, 2013 PM: Andre Desjarlais PI: Meng-Dawn Cheng, Ph.D. David Graham, Ph.D. Sue Carroll Steve Allman Dawn Klingeman Susan Pfiffner, Ph.D. (FY12) Karen Cheng (FY12) Partner: Joe Rokowski (Dow) Roof Testing Facility at ORNL Building Technologies Research and Integration Center 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov * Building accounted for 41% of the US energy consumption in 2010 greater than either transportation (28%) or industry (31%).

183

New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Cool Roof Coatings and New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt Shingles Meng-Dawn Cheng Oak Ridge National Laboratory chengmd@ornl.gov; 865-241-5918 April 4, 2013 PM: Andre Desjarlais PI: Meng-Dawn Cheng, Ph.D. David Graham, Ph.D. Sue Carroll Steve Allman Dawn Klingeman Susan Pfiffner, Ph.D. (FY12) Karen Cheng (FY12) Partner: Joe Rokowski (Dow) Roof Testing Facility at ORNL Building Technologies Research and Integration Center 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov * Building accounted for 41% of the US energy consumption in 2010 greater than either transportation (28%) or industry (31%).

184

Ethernet-Based Computer Monitoring the Roof Abscission Layer With Experts Forecasting System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

China is a coal accident-prone country. In all coal accidents, the most serious incident is roof accident. Roof accidents are account for over 45% of the total mortality in coal enterprises. Roof accident is threatening the lives and safety of miners, ... Keywords: the roof abscission layer, on-line monitoring, displacement, Ethernet, expert system

Yong Zhan; Xianghong Yan; Hongmei Zhu; Yang Song

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Effect of Concrete Wasteform Properties on Radionuclide Migration  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this investigation was to initiate numerous sets of concrete-soil half-cell tests to quantify 1) diffusion of I and Tc from concrete into uncontaminated soil after 1 and 2 years, 2) I and Re (set 1) and Tc (set 2) diffusion from fractured concrete into uncontaminated soil, and 3) evaluate the moisture distribution profile within the sediment half-cell. These half-cells will be section in FY2009 and FY2010. Additionally, 1) concrete-soil half-cells initiated during FY2007 using fractured prepared with and without metallic iron, half of which were carbonated using carbonated, were sectioned to evaluate the diffusion of I and Re in the concrete part of the half-cell under unsaturated conditions (4%, 7%, and 15% by wt moisture content), 2) concrete-soil half cells containing Tc were sectioned to measure the diffusion profile in the soil half-cell unsaturated conditions (4%, 7%, and 15% by wt moisture content), and 3) solubility measurements of uranium solid phases were completed under concrete porewater conditions. The results of these tests are presented.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Parker, Kent E.; Ermi, Ruby M.; Wood, Marcus I.

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

186

Evolution of cool-roof standards in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solar absorptance, attic, and duct insulation on cooling and heating energy use in single-family new residential buildings.solar- reflective roof on the heating- and cooling-energy uses of a residential-building

Akbari, Hashem

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Status of cool roof standards in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Updates on revision to ASHRAE Standard 90.2: including roof104(1B), pp. 984-995. ASHRAE. 1999. ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999: Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Evolution of cool-roof standards in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

995. Evolution of cool roof standards in the United StatesMar/Apr, pp. 52-58. ASHRAE. 1999. ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999: Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low- Rise

Akbari, Hashem

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Developing Energy Efficient Roof Systems DEERS | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Roof Systems DEERS Roof Systems DEERS Jump to: navigation, search Name Developing Energy Efficient Roof Systems (DEERS) Place Ripon, California Zip 95366 Sector Solar Product Developer of roof top solar PV projects. Coordinates 43.84582°, -88.837054° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.84582,"lon":-88.837054,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

190

Countries Commit to White Roofs, Potentially Offsetting the Emissions of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Countries Commit to White Roofs, Potentially Offsetting the Countries Commit to White Roofs, Potentially Offsetting the Emissions of Over 300 Power Plants Countries Commit to White Roofs, Potentially Offsetting the Emissions of Over 300 Power Plants April 8, 2011 - 4:26pm Addthis Dr. Art Rosenfeld Distinguished Scientist Emeritus at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory What does this project do? Builds energy savings. Promotes heat island mitigation and public health benefits. Encourages global cooling. I am delighted to learn that India, Mexico, and the United States have signed up to join the Cool Roofs Working Group, announced yesterday at the second Clean Energy Ministerial in Abu Dhabi. This working group was offered as part of the Clean Energy Ministerial, which is a high-level global forum to promote policies and programs that advance clean energy

191

Maui County - Solar Roofs Initiative Loan Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Maui County - Solar Roofs Initiative Loan Program Maui County - Solar Roofs Initiative Loan Program Maui County - Solar Roofs Initiative Loan Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State Hawaii Program Type Local Loan Program Rebate Amount Zero-interest loans Provider Maui Electric Company, LTD In September 2002, Maui Electric Company (MECO) and the County of Maui teamed up to launch the Maui Solar Roofs Initiative to increase the use of renewable energy in Maui County. MECO administers the loan program and, through the Hawaii Energy Program, offers a $750 rebate for installations through its approved independent solar contractors. Residential homeowners with existing electric water heaters are eligible and must provide a down payment equal to 35% of the system cost after

192

SCE Roof Project Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SCE Roof Project Solar Power Plant SCE Roof Project Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name SCE Roof Project Solar Power Plant Facility SCE Roof Project Sector Solar Facility Type Photovoltaic Developer First Solar Location California Coordinates 36.778261°, -119.4179324° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":36.778261,"lon":-119.4179324,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

193

Evolution of cool-roof standards in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Locations of the eight ASHRAE-defined climate zones in the5.5.3.1 of ASHRAE 90.1-2004). climate zone roof U-factorASHRAE Figure 2. Locations of the 16 California climate zones (

Akbari, Hashem

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Evolution of cool-roof standards in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

roof provisions. Hawaii Building energy codes in Hawaii areadopted from the Hawaii Model Energy Code (Eley AssociatesHawaii; and Charles Eley, Architectural Energy Corporation for clarifying building codes.

Akbari, Hashem

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Status of cool roof standards in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

multipliers by U.S. climate zones (see Table 2). Table 1.5.5 of ASHRAE 90.2- Climate Zone Roof U-Factor Multiplierthermal resistances in climate zones 1 – 3 for ceilings

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Countries Commit to White Roofs, Potentially Offsetting the Emissions...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

when the building is air-conditioned.1 On buildings without air conditioning, a white roof can reduce inside temperatures by 2 to 3 degrees Celsius (4 to 5 degrees Fahrenheit),...

197

Cool roofs as an energy conservation measure for federal buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of ¼” asphalt shingle, ½” plywood, with an attic cavity andbuilt-up roofs with ½ inch plywood, attic space, and an R-11a combination of stucco, plywood, insulation and gypsum, or

Taha, Haider; Akbari, Hashem

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

A Climatological Measure of Extreme Snowdrift Loading on Building Roofs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A physical model of snow transport and deposition is used in combination with historical climatological data to derive a climatological measure of extreme snowdrift loads on building roofs. The snowdrift metric used relies on hourly wind speed, ...

Arthur T. DeGaetano; Michael J. O'Rourke

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

The effects of roof reflectance on air temperatures surrounding...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the heating of condenser inlet air by the roof, and to assess the effects of condenser fan operation on the potential recirculation of hot discharge air from the condenser. The...

200

Evolution of cool-roof standards in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

require a sub-roof radiant barrier for residential buildings4, and 8 - 15), radiant barriers are not usually installedIn climates zones where radiant barriers are prescriptively

Akbari, Hashem

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "roofing metal concrete" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Status of cool roof standards in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

requires a sub-roof radiant barrier in some climate zones (4, and 8 - 15), radiant barriers are not usually installedroofs. Without a radiant barrier, total savings—initial cost

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Weathering of roofing materials - an overview  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and hasten diffusion of material components. Effects of moisture include decay of wood, acceleration of corrosion of metals, staining of clay, and freeze-thaw damage....

203

Rooftop Membrane Temperature Reductions with Green Roof Technology in South-Central Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Early green roof cooling and energy reduction research in North America took place in Canada and the northern latitudes of the United States, where green roofs reduced rooftop temperatures by 70% to 90%. Less is known about green roof technology in the southern Untied States; where energy demand for cooling buildings is high, and the urban heat island effect is more pronounced. This paper reports early findings for rooftop membrane temperature reductions from 11.6-cm-deep modular green roof trays, typical of large-scaled, low-maintenance applications. Measurements observed during May, 2010 reveal that temperatures below the modular planted green roof units were 82% to 91.6% cooler compared to the surface temperatures of the control roof membrane. These findings on low-input modular green roof trays reinforce other research findings that indicate green roof technology can dramatically reduce and modify temperatures on roof deck surfaces during peak energy demand periods in hot sunny climates.

Dvorak, B.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Potential benefits of cool roofs on commercial buildings: conserving  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cool roofs on commercial buildings: conserving cool roofs on commercial buildings: conserving energy, saving money, and reducing emission of greenhouse gases and air pollutants Title Potential benefits of cool roofs on commercial buildings: conserving energy, saving money, and reducing emission of greenhouse gases and air pollutants Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2010 Authors Levinson, Ronnen M., and Hashem Akbari Journal Energy Efficiency Volume 3 Pagination 53-109 Publisher Springer Netherlands ISSN 1570-646X Keywords cool roof, Heat Island Abstract Cool roofs-roofs that stay cool in the sun by minimizing solar absorption and maximizing thermal emission-lessen the flow of heat from the roof into the building, reducing the need for space cooling energy in conditioned buildings. Cool roofs may also increase the need for heating energy in cold climates. For a commercial building, the decrease in annual cooling load is typically much greater than the increase in annual heating load. This study combines building energy simulations, local energy prices, local electricity emission factors, and local estimates of building density to characterize local, state average, and national average cooling energy savings, heating energy penalties, energy cost savings, and emission reductions per unit conditioned roof area. The annual heating and cooling energy uses of four commercial building prototypes-new office (1980+), old office (pre-1980), new retail (1980+), and old retail (pre-1980)-were simulated in 236 US cities. Substituting a weathered cool white roof (solar reflectance 0.55) for a weathered conventional gray roof (solar reflectance 0.20) yielded annually a cooling energy saving per unit conditioned roof area ranging from 3.30 kWh/m2 in Alaska to 7.69 kWh/m2 in Arizona (5.02 kWh/m2 nationwide); a heating energy penalty ranging from 0.003 therm/m2 in Hawaii to 0.14 therm/m2 in Wyoming (0.065 therm/m2 nationwide); and an energy cost saving ranging from $0.126/m2 in West Virginia to $1.14/m2 in Arizona ($0.356/m2 nationwide). It also offered annually a CO2 reduction ranging from 1.07 kg/m2 in Alaska to 4.97 kg/m2 in Hawaii (3.02 kg/m2 nationwide); an NOx reduction ranging from 1.70 g/m2 in New York to 11.7 g/m2 in Hawaii (4.81 g/m2 nationwide); an SO2 reduction ranging from 1.79 g/m2 in California to 26.1 g/m2 in Alabama (12.4 g/m2 nationwide); and an Hg reduction ranging from 1.08 μg/m2 in Alaska to 105 μg/m2 in Alabama (61.2 μg/m2 nationwide). Retrofitting 80% of the 2.58 billion square meters of commercial building conditioned roof area in the USA would yield an annual cooling energy saving of 10.4 TWh; an annual heating energy penalty of 133 million therms; and an annual energy cost saving of $735 million. It would also offer an annual CO2 reduction of 6.23 Mt, offsetting the annual CO2 emissions of 1.20 million typical cars or 25.4 typical peak power plants; an annual NOx reduction of 9.93 kt, offsetting the annual NOx emissions of 0.57 million cars or 65.7 peak power plants; an annual SO2 reduction of 25.6 kt, offsetting the annual SO2 emissions of 815 peak power plants; and an annual Hg reduction of 126 kg.

205

Top-of-atmosphere radiative cooling with white roofs: experimental  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Top-of-atmosphere radiative cooling with white roofs: experimental Top-of-atmosphere radiative cooling with white roofs: experimental verification and model-based evaluation Title Top-of-atmosphere radiative cooling with white roofs: experimental verification and model-based evaluation Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Salamanca, Francisco, Shaheen R. Tonse, Surabi Menon, Vishal Garg, Krishna P. Singh, Manish Naja, and Marc L. Fischer Journal Environmental Research Letters Volume 7 Issue 4 Abstract We evaluate differences in clear-sky upwelling shortwave radiation reaching the top of the atmosphere in response to increasing the albedo of roof surfaces in an area of India with moderately high aerosol loading. Treated (painted white) and untreated (unpainted) roofs on two buildings in northeast India were analyzed on five cloudless days using radiometric imagery from the IKONOS satellite. Comparison of a radiative transfer model (RRTMG) and radiometric satellite observations shows good agreement (R2 = 0.927). Results show a mean increase of ~50 W m-2 outgoing at the top of the atmosphere for each 0.1 increase of the albedo at the time of the observations and a strong dependence on atmospheric transmissivity.

206

Analytical study of residential building with reflecting roofs  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an analysis of the effect of roof solar reflectance on the annual heating (cooling) loads, peak heating (cooling) loads, and roof temperatures of the residential buildings. The annual heating (cooling) loads, peak heating (cooling) loads, and exterior roof temperatures for a small compact ranch house are computed using the Thermal Analysis Research Program (TARP). The residential models, with minor modifications in the thermal envelope for different locations, are subjected to hourly weather data for one year compiled in the Weather Year for Energy Calculation (WYEC) for in the following locations: Birmingham, Alabama; Bismarck, North Dakota; Miami, Florida; Phoenix, Arizona; Portland, Maine; and, Washington, D.C. Building loads have been determined for a full factorial experimental design that varies the following parameters of the residential model: solar reflectance of the roof, ceiling thermal resistance, attic ventilation, and attic mass framing area. The computed results for annual heating (cooling) loads and peak heating (cooling) loads are illustrated graphically, both globally for all cities and locally for each geographic location. The effect of peak parameter is ranked (highest to lowest) for effect on annual heating and cooling loads, and peak heating and cooling loads. A parametric study plots the building loads as a function of roof solar reflectance for different levels of ceiling thermal resistances and for each geographic location.

Zarr, R.R.

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Hydraulic properties of asphalt concrete.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research has applied standard unsaturated flow models and laboratory methods common to soil analysis, to characterize the hydraulic properties of asphalt concrete. Wetting and… (more)

Pease, Ronald Eric

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The ancient Romans, however, made concrete by mixing lime and volcanic rock. For underwater structures, lime and volcanic ash were mixed to form mortar, and this mortar and...

209

Computational Materials Science of Concrete  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... However, the problem of amorphous semiconductors, or of glass, was entirely ... in the concrete field: the US National Stone Sand and Gravel ...

2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

210

Daylighter Daily Solar Roof Light | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Daylighter Daily Solar Roof Light Daylighter Daily Solar Roof Light Jump to: navigation, search Name Daylighter Daily Solar Roof Light Address 1991 Crocker Road, Suite 600 Place Cleveland, Ohio Zip 44145 Sector Solar Product Installation; Manufacturing Phone number 440-892-3312 Website http://www.SolarLightisFree.co Coordinates 41.4648875°, -81.9506519° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.4648875,"lon":-81.9506519,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

211

Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) roofs for sustainability and energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) roofs for sustainability and energy integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) roofs for sustainability and energy efficiency Title Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) roofs for sustainability and energy efficiency Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2013 Authors Ly, Peter, George Ban-Weiss, Nathan Finch, Craig Wray, Mark de Ogburn, William W. Delp, Hashem Akbari, Scott Smaby, Ronnen Levinson, and Bret Gean Corporate Authors SEI Group Inc. Document Number ESTCP EW-200813 Pagination 156 pp. Date Published 09/2013 Publisher Naval Facilities Engineering Command - Engineering and Expeditionary Warfare Center Type Technical Report Report Number TR-NAVFAC-EXWC-PW-1303 Keywords Buildings Energy Efficiency, energy efficiency, Energy Usage, renewable energy, Renewable Energy: Policy & Programs Abstract

212

Solare Cell Roof Tile And Method Of Forming Same  

SciTech Connect

A solar cell roof tile includes a front support layer, a transparent encapsulant layer, a plurality of interconnected solar cells and a backskin layer. The front support layer is formed of light transmitting material and has first and second surfaces. The transparent encapsulant layer is disposed adjacent the second surface of the front support layer. The interconnected solar cells has a first surface disposed adjacent the transparent encapsulant layer. The backskin layer has a first surface disposed adjacent a second surface of the interconnected solar cells, wherein a portion of the backskin layer wraps around and contacts the first surface of the front support layer to form the border region. A portion of the border region has an extended width. The solar cell roof tile may have stand-offs disposed on the extended width border region for providing vertical spacing with respect to an adjacent solar cell roof tile.

Hanoka, Jack I. (Brookline, MA); Real, Markus (Oberberg, CH)

1999-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

213

Energy Balances of Curing Concrete Bridge Decks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric conditions for several days after concrete is poured influence the exothermic, temperature-dependent, hydration reactions of concrete's cementitious (binding) components. Because excessively high concrete temperatures or lack of water ...

Gary S. Wojcik; David R. Fitzjarrald

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Preliminary Analysis of Energy Consumption for Cool Roofing Measures  

SciTech Connect

The spread of cool roofing has been more than prolific over the last decade. Driven by public demand and by government initiatives cool roofing has been a recognized low cost method to reduce energy demand by reflecting sunlight away from structures and back in to the atmosphere. While much of the country can benefit from the use of cool coatings it remains to be seen whether the energy savings described are appropriate in cooler climates. By use of commonly available calculators one can analyze the potential energy savings based on environmental conditions and construction practices.

Mellot, Joe [The Garland Company; Sanyal, Jibonananda [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Energy Saving 'Cool Roofs' Installed at Y-12 | Y-12 National Security  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Saving 'Cool ... Saving 'Cool ... Energy Saving 'Cool Roofs' Installed at Y-12 Posted: October 17, 2012 - 4:08pm The Y-12 National Security Complex has taken additional steps to reduce its energy costs by installing almost 100,000 square feet of new heat reflective "cool" roofs at the Oak Ridge, Tennessee facility. The latest Y-12 cool roofs were added to Buildings 9204-2E and 9103. Fifteen percent of roofs at Y-12 are currently equipped with cool roof technology. This technology is expected to be applied to the majority of the roofs at Y-12. "Replacing older, heat-absorbing roofs with the heat-reflective cool roofs is part of NNSA's strategy to achieve energy and cost efficiencies," said Robert "Dino" Herrera, Facilities and Infrastructure Recapitalization Program Manager. "We strive to lead the

216

Blasting practices as they affect the roof of coal mines in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

Coal beds and roof in the various States are described, State blasting regulations are noted, and methods of protecting roof and advantages gained by improved blasting practices are considered.

Geyer, J.N.

1933-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

A meeting of the minds when NYC °CoolRoofs visits PPPL | Princeton...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

visits PPPL By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe January 28, 2013 Tweet Widget Facebook Like Google Plus One Two visitors representing NYC CoolRoofs got a tour of PPPL's cool roof above...

218

Section 7.1.4 Low-Slope Roofing: Greening Federal Facilities...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

rigid-foam roof insulation is loose-laid on top, and the insulation is protected by ballast. This configuration both in- creases the roof membrane life by protecting it from UV...

219

Economic assessment of polymer concrete usage in geothermal power plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results of a study established to review the Heber and Niland, California 50 MWe conceptual geothermal power plants designs and to identify areas where non-metallic materials, such as polymer concrete, can be technically and economically employed are reported. Emphasis was directed toward determining potential economic advantages and resulting improvements in plant availability. It is estimated that use of polymer concrete in the Heber plant will effect a savings of 6.18 mills per KWH in the cost of power delivered to the network, a savings of 9.7%. A similar savings should be effected in the Niland plant.

Not Available

1977-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Accelerated and Natural Carbonation of Concretes with ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... many parts of the world, corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete induced by carbonation of the concrete continues to be a major durability concern. ...

2013-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "roofing metal concrete" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The Virtual Cement and Concrete Testing Laboratory ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Mitigation of early age cracking in high volume fly ash concrete – Mitigation of early age-cracking in high volume fly ash concrete ...

2010-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

222

Demonstration experience with an abrasive blasting technique for decontaminating concrete pads  

SciTech Connect

A demonstration was performed for decontaminating a radioactivity contaminated concrete pad with a portable abrasive blasting system. The system utilizes a rotating blast wheel that scours the concrete surface with metal abrasive. The metal abrasive, pulverized concrete dust, and contaminants rebound into a separator chamber. The reusable metal abrasive is recycled, and the pulverized media are removed to an integral dust collection system. The exhaust is HEPA filtered to minimize release of airborne contaminants. However, the technique had limited success in reducing contamination around the cracks and seams in the concrete where the higher activity levels of contamination were detected during the radiological survey before the cleanup. The technique can be successful and cost-effective in decontaminating large areas of low contamination; however, careful characterization and planning are necessary. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tabs.

Devgun, J.S. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Land, R.R. (Bechtel National, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA)); Doane, R.W. (TMA/Eberline, Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A nuclear power plant (NPP) involves complex engineering structures that are significant items of the structures, systems and components (SSC) important to the safe and reliable operation of the NPP. Concrete is the commonly used civil engineering construction material in the nuclear industry because of a number of advantageous properties. The NPP concrete structures underwent a great degree of evolution, since the commissioning of first NPP in early 1960. The increasing concern with time related to safety of the public and environment, and degradation of concrete structures due to ageing related phenomena are the driving forces for such evolution. The concrete technology underwent rapid development with the advent of chemical admixtures of plasticizer/super plasticizer category as well as viscosity modifiers and mineral admixtures like fly ash and silica fume. Application of high performance concrete (HPC) developed with chemical and mineral admixtures has been witnessed in the construction of NPP structures. Along with the beneficial effect, the use of admixtures in concrete has posed a number of challenges as well in design and construction. This along with the prospect of continuing operation beyond design life, especially after 60 years, the impact of extreme natural events ( as in the case of Fukushima NPP accident) and human induced events (e.g. commercial aircraft crash like the event of September 11th 2001) has led to further development in the area of NPP concrete structures. The present paper aims at providing an account of evolution of NPP concrete structures in last two decades by summarizing the development in the areas of concrete technology, design methodology and construction techniques, maintenance and ageing management of concrete structures.

Basu, Prabir [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)] [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Labbe, Pierre [Electricity of France (EDF)] [Electricity of France (EDF); Naus, Dan [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

More durable roof coverings such as steel and fiber cement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- heating equipment saves money. Tankless water heaters provide hot water on demand at a preset temperature. Lighter colors absorb less heat, reducing cooling costs in warm climates. Now, solar roofing products- cement siding is termite- and water-resistant and warrantied to last 50 years. Increasing the amount

225

Preliminary Analysis of Energy Consumption For Cool Roofing Measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Preliminary Analysis of Energy Consumption For Cool Roofing Measures By Joe Mellott, Joshua New to reduce energy demand by reflecting sunlight away from structures and back into the atmosphere. By use of commonly available calculators, one can analyze the potential energy savings based on environmental

Tennessee, University of

226

ManualforEvaluatingtheThermalPerformanceofthe HamerschlagHallGreenRoof  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

maintenance costs. Reduced heating and cooling costs ­ Provides extra roof insulation. And reduction in the building's overall heating and cooling costs. Aesthetics ­ Makes the building attractive from aerial view, and provides building users a green space. Improved air quality ­ Plants can absorb carbon dioxide and other

Andrews, Peter B.

227

Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

Boxley, Chett (Park City, UT); Akash, Akash (Salt lake City, UT); Zhao, Qiang (Natick, MA)

2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

228

Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

229

Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

Boxley, Chett (Park City, UT)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

230

Explosive demolition of activated concrete  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the removal of a radiologically contaminated concrete pad. This pad was removed during 1979 by operating personnel under the direction of the Waste Management Program of EG and G Idaho, Inc. The concrete pad was the foundation for the Organic Moderated Reactor Experiment (OMRE) reactor vessel located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The pad consisted of a cylindrical concrete slab 15 ft in diameter, 2 ft thick, and reinforced with steel bar. It was poured directly onto basalt rocks approximately 20 ft below grade. The entire pad contained induced radioactivity and was therefore demolished, boxed, and buried rather than being decontaminated. The pad was demolished by explosive blasting.

Smith, D.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Evaluation of Contemporary Design of Reinforced Concrete ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. Evaluation of Contemporary Design of Reinforced Concrete Lateral Resisting Systems Using Current Performance ...

2011-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

232

Testing of concrete by laser ablation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for testing concrete in a structure in situ, by: directing a succession of pulses of laser radiation at a point on the structure so that each pulse effects removal of a quantity of concrete and transfers energy to the concrete; detecting a characteristic of energy which has been transferred to the concrete; determining, separately from the detecting step, the total quantity of concrete removed by the succession of pulses; and calculating a property of the concrete on the basis of the detected energy characteristic and the determined total quantity of concrete removed. 1 fig.

Flesher, D.J.; Becker, D.L.; Beem, W.L.; Berry, T.C.; Cannon, N.S.

1997-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

233

Testing of concrete by laser ablation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of testing concrete in a structure in situ, by: directing a succession of pulses of laser radiation at a point on the structure so that each pulse effects removal of a quantity of concrete and transfers energy to the concrete; detecting a characteristic of energy which has been transferred to the concrete; determining, separately from the detecting step, the total quantity of concrete removed by the succession of pulses; and calculating a property of the concrete on the basis of the detected energy characteristic and the determined total quantity of concrete removed.

Flesher, Dann J. (Benton City, WA); Becker, David L. (Kennewick, WA); Beem, William L. (Kennewick, WA); Berry, Tommy C. (Kennewick, WA); Cannon, N. Scott (Kennewick, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Load test of the 277W Building high bay roof deck and support structure  

SciTech Connect

The 277W Building high bay roof area was load tested according to the approved load-test procedure, WHC-SD-GN-TP-30015, Revision 1. The 277W Building is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site and has the following characteristics: roof deck -- wood decking supported by 4 x 14 timber purlins; roof membrane -- tar and gravel; roof slope -- flat (<10 deg); and roof elevation -- maximum height of about 63 ft. The 227W Building was visited in March 1994 for a visual inspection. During this inspection, cracked areas were visible in the decking, but it was not possible to determine whether these cracks extended completely through the decking, which is 2-in. thick. The building was revisited in March 1994 for the purpose of writing this test report. Because the roof requires personnel access, a test was determined to be the best way to qualify the roof. The conclusions are that the roof has been qualified for 500-lb total roof load and that the ``No Roof Access`` signs can be changed to ``Roof Access Restricted`` signs.

McCoy, R.M.

1994-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

235

Load test of the 277W Building high bay roof deck and support structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 277W Building high bay roof area was load tested according to the approved load-test procedure, WHC-SD-GN-TP-30015, Revision 1. The 277W Building is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site and has the following characteristics: roof deck -- wood decking supported by 4 x 14 timber purlins; roof membrane -- tar and gravel; roof slope -- flat (roof elevation -- maximum height of about 63 ft. The 227W Building was visited in March 1994 for a visual inspection. During this inspection, cracked areas were visible in the decking, but it was not possible to determine whether these cracks extended completely through the decking, which is 2-in. thick. The building was revisited in March 1994 for the purpose of writing this test report. Because the roof requires personnel access, a test was determined to be the best way to qualify the roof. The conclusions are that the roof has been qualified for 500-lb total roof load and that the ``No Roof Access`` signs can be changed to ``Roof Access Restricted`` signs.

McCoy, R.M.

1994-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

236

DOE Science Showcase - Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE | OSTI, US Dept of  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE Science Accelerator returns cool roof documents from 6 DOE Databases Executive Order on Sustainability Secretary Chu Announces Steps to Implement One Cool Roof Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs DOE Cool Roof Calculator Visit the Science Showcase homepage. OSTI Homepage Mobile Gallery Subscribe to RSS OSTI Blog Get Widgets Get Alert Services OSTI Facebook OSTI Twitter OSTI Google+ Bookmark and Share (Link will open in a new window) Go to Videos Loading... Stop news scroll Most Visited Adopt-A-Doc DOE Data Explorer DOE Green Energy DOepatents DOE R&D Accomplishments .EDUconnections Energy Science and Technology Software Center E-print Network National Library of Energy OSTIblog Science.gov Science Accelerator

237

Corrosion resistance of concrete reinforcement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this thesis is to investigate the mechanism of corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete and epoxy coated reinforcing bars as corrosion resistant alternatives. Several case studies explore the durability ...

Ward-Waller, Elizabeth, 1982-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Keys, nominals, and concrete domains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many description logics (DLs) combine knowledge representation on an abstract, logical level with an interface to "concrete" domains like numbers and strings with built-in predicates such as <, +, and prefix-of. These hybrid DLs have turned out to ...

Carsten Lutz; Carlos Areces; Ian Horrocks; Ulrike Sattler

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Measured energy savings of light colored roofs: Results from three California demonstration sites  

SciTech Connect

Measured data and computer simulations have demonstrated the impact of roof albedo in reducing cooling energy use in buildings. Savings are a function of both climate and the amount of roof insulation. The cooling energy savings for reflective roofs are highest in hot climates. A reflective roof may also lead to higher heating energy use. Reflective coatings are also used in commercial buildings to protect the roofing membrane, and hence, maintain and prolong the useful life of the roof. Reflectivity of coatings changes with weathering and aging which in turn could have an effect on building cooling-energy savings. For that reason, reflective roof coatings are not primarily marketed for their energy savings potential. To monitor the field performance of reflective coatings, the authors initiated a demonstration project where three commercial buildings in California were painted with light-colored roof coatings. The buildings are two medical care centers and one drug store. At all sites, the roof reflectance, both fresh and aged, and cooling energy use were monitored. In addition, they measured temperature throughout the roof systems and inside the conditioned space. In the monitored buildings, increasing the roof reflectance from an initial value of about 20% to 60%, dropped the roof temperature on hot summer afternoons by about 45 F. Summertime standard-weekday average daily air-conditioning savings were 18% (198 kWh) in the first medical office building, 13% (86 kWh) in the second medical office building, and 2% (13 kWh) in the drug store. The overall u-value of the roofs had dictated the impact of roof reflectance.

Akbari, H.; Gartland, L.; Konopacki, S.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

1990-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "roofing metal concrete" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

Fontana, Jack J. (Shirley, NY); Elling, David (Centereach, NY); Reams, Walter (Shirley, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical and overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt% calcined coke breeze, 40 wt% vinyl ester resin with 3.5 wt% modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag. 4 tabs.

Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

1988-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

243

Equilibrium thermal characteristics of a building integrated photovoltaic tiled roof  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaic (PV) modules attain high temperatures when exposed to a combination of high radiation levels and elevated ambient temperatures. The temperature rise can be particularly problematic for fully building integrated PV (BIPV) roof tile systems if back ventilation is restricted. PV laminates could suffer yield degradation and accelerated aging in these conditions. This paper presents a laboratory based experimental investigation undertaken to determine the potential for high temperature operation in such a BIPV installation. This is achieved by ascertaining the dependence of the PV roof tile temperature on incident radiation and ambient temperature. A theory based correction was developed to account for the unrealistic sky temperature of the solar simulator used in the experiments. The particular PV roof tiles used are warranted up to an operational temperature of 85 C, anything above this temperature will void the warranty because of potential damage to the integrity of the encapsulation. As a guide for installers, a map of southern Europe has been generated indicating locations where excessive module temperatures might be expected and thus where installation is inadvisable. (author)

Mei, L.; Gottschalg, R.; Loveday, D.L. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Infield, D.G. [Institute of Energy and Environment, Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, G1 1XW (United Kingdom); Davies, D.; Berry, M. [Solarcentury, 91-94 Lower Marsh Waterloo, London, SE1 7AB (United Kingdom)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

244

Secretary Chu Announces Steps to Implement Cool Roofs at DOE and Across the  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Steps to Implement Cool Roofs at DOE and Steps to Implement Cool Roofs at DOE and Across the Federal Government Secretary Chu Announces Steps to Implement Cool Roofs at DOE and Across the Federal Government July 19, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington - U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced a series of initiatives underway at the Department of Energy to more broadly implement cool roof technologies on DOE facilities and buildings across the federal government. Cool roofs use lighter-colored roofing surfaces or special coatings to reflect more of the sun's heat, helping improve building efficiency by reducing cooling costs and offsetting carbon emissions. President Obama and Secretary Chu have made clear that the federal government should play a leading role in moving the nation toward a more

245

Load test of the 272E Building high bay roof deck and support structure  

SciTech Connect

The 272E Building high bay roof area was load tested according to the approved load-test procedure. The 272E Building is located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site and has the following characteristics: Roof deck -- wood decking supported by 4 x 14 timber purlins; Roof membrane -- tar and gravel; Roof slope -- flat (<10 deg); and Roof elevation -- maximum height of about 63 ft. The 272 Building was visited in August 1992 for a visual inspection. During this inspection, cracked areas were visible in the decking, but it was not possible to determine whether these cracks extended completely through the decking, which is 2-in. thick. The building was revisited in March 1994 for the purpose of writing this test report. Because the roof requires personnel access, a test was determine to be the best way to qualify the roof. The pre-test briefing consisted of filling out the pre-test checklist, discussing proper lifting techniques, reviewing the fall-protection plan, reviewing the job hazards analysis, and reviewing the robot travel path. The load-test results consist of visual observations and the test engineer`s conclusions. Visual observations found no adverse conditions such as large deflections or permanent deformations. No deflection measurements were recorded because the tar and gravel on roof get displaced by the robot tracks; the result is large variations in deflection measurements. The conclusions are that the roof has been qualified for 500-lb total roof load and that the ``No Roof Access`` signs can be changed to ``Roof Access Restricted`` signs.

McCoy, R.M.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Monitoring the Energy-Use Effects of Cool Roofs on California Commercial Buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar-reflective roofs stay cooler in the sun than solar-absorptive roofs. Such ''cool'' roofs achieve lower surface temperatures that reduce heat conduction into the building and the building's cooling load. The California Energy Commission has funded research in which Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has measured the electricity use and peak demand in commercial buildings to document savings from implementing the Commission's Cool Roofs program. The study seeks to determine the savings achieved by cool roofs by monitoring the energy use of a carefully selected assortment of buildings participating in the Cool Roofs program. Measurements were needed because the peak savings resulting from the application of cool roofs on different types of buildings in the diverse California climate zones have not been well characterized to date. Only a few occupancy categories (e.g., office and retail buildings) have been monitored before this, and those were done under a limited number of climatic conditions. To help rectify this situation, LBNL was tasked to select the buildings to be monitored, measure roof performance before and after replacing a hot roof by a cool roof, and document both energy and peak demand savings resulting from installation of cool roofs. We monitored the effects of cool roofs on energy use and environmental parameters in six California buildings at three different sites: a retail store in Sacramento; an elementary school in San Marcos (near San Diego); and a 4-building cold storage facility in Reedley (near Fresno). The latter included a cold storage building, a conditioning and fruit-palletizing area, a conditioned packing area, and two unconditioned packing areas (counted as one building).

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Konopaki, Steve; Rainer, Leo

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Roller-Compacted Concrete for Dams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Placing mass concrete by the roller-compacted method improves the economics of hydroelectric dam construction. Many sites previously considered uneconomical for embankment or conventional concrete construction may now prove feasible.

1986-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

248

Advances in Measuring Solar Reflectance-or, Why That Roof isn...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

reflectance is often used to estimate the solar heat gain and rate the "coolness" of roofs and pavements. A solar reflectance property measured by two popular ASTM standard...

249

Geomechanical and weathering properties of weak roof shales in coal mines.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Many coal seams have weak shale immediate roofs that cause ground control problems. Therefore, it is important to know the properties of these shales so… (more)

Gurgenli, Hakan.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Performance Comparison of a BIPV Roofing Tile System in Two Mounting Configurations (Poster)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work examined the thermal and power characteristics of a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) roofing system using two installation techniques, counter-batten and direct-mount.

Muller, M.; Rodriquez, J.; Marion, B.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Green Roof Implementation in Washington, DC: A Stormwater Management Tool for an Impervious Urban Environment.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Green roofs have potential environmental and economic benefits of great consequence for our major cities if implemented at a broad scale. These benefits are beginning… (more)

Zipp, Harriet

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Sensitivity of Low Sloped Roofs Designs to Initial Water and Air Leakage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid water in low sloped roofs almost always causes problems. Roofs are designed only to control the migration of vapor, if at all. Small amounts of water leakage/penetration, may cause mold growth or catastrophic corrosion in current roofs systems. In a recent paper by the authors the effect of exterior surface emissive and absorptive properties was found to have a significant effect on the moisture performance of a roof that had a leak. Depending on the surface characteristics, roof systems can be designed to effectively manage water penetration, but at an energy cost. In the roofs system examined previously, air leakage was not included. In the present study, the authors reinvestigated the effect of water penetration and the influence of air leakage on the hygrothermal performance of a few selected roofs. The drying potential of a groove ventilated roof is examined. The performance concept is based on the fact that warming up of air in the groove increases it's ability to transport moisture to the outside. Solar radiation raises the temperature of air in the grooves and on average, during a sunny summer day 0.5 L of water can be ventilated out of the roof per 1m width of the roof. In this paper, one climatic condition was investigated; a hot and humid Climate representative of Houston, TX. The specific questions that the paper addresses are: What are the vapor and liquid control dynamic involved in the moisture migration of a roof in Houston TX? and how does airflow influence the performance of a roof that is initially wet ? A state-of-the-art numerical model was used to address these issues. Results showed that the drying potential depends on the ventilation rates. The roof system with ventilation grooves dried out faster from the initially wet stage than the roof without the ventilation grooves. The total increase in heat loss of the roof was found to be between 0 - 5 % depending on the thickness of the insulation. The ventilation can cool down the temperature of the roof in the middle of a hot and sunny day thus reducing the heat load to the inside.

Karagiozis, A.; Desjarlais, A.; Salonvaara, M.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Radiative cooling and solar heating potential by using various roofing materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results of testing over twenty typical and potential roofing materials such as: corrugated galvanized steel, corrugated clear fiberglass, 90number black roll roofing, 90number green roll roofing, 90number red roll roofing, 90number brown roll roofing, 90number white roll roofing, 240number brown asphalt shingles, anodized aluminum, etc. under exposure to solar and nocturnal sky radiation are presented. Some cadmium sulfite solar cells and silicon solar cells are being tested as potential future roofing panels. Graphs showing the temperature variation of each material versus testing time are given for a heating and a cooling cycle. The environmental conditions of testing such as: solar insolation, apparent sky temperature, ambient air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed are also given. On the basis of preliminary results obtained during the testing of roofing materials, several mini-modules of an integrated collector/radiator/ roof element with the dimensions 0.6 m x 0.6 m (2 ft x 2 ft) were constructed and tested. The thermal response of the mini-modules under solar and nocturnal sky radiation is shown and the testing results are discussed. The spectral transmittance curves for nine transparent cover materials are also presented. The preliminary results indicate that solar radiation and nocturnal sky radiation could be used effectively by employing an integrated collector/radiator structure.

Pytlinski, J.T.; Connell, H.L.; Conrad, G.R.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Performance Comparison of a BIPV Roofing Tile System in Two Mounting Configurations: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work examined the thermal and power characteristics of a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) roofing system using two installation techniques, counter-batten and direct-mount.

Muller, M. T.; Rodrigeuz, J.; Marion, B.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Monitoring the Energy-Use Effects of Cool Roofs on California Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Post: Pyranometer: Radiant barrier: Roof underside: RTD:w/mineral capsheet, multi-year radiant barrier White coatingMulti-layer radiant barrier (R-7 equivalent) San Marcos

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Konopaki, Steve; Rainer, Leo

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Monitoring the Energy-Use Effects of Cool Roofs on California Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiant barrier: Roof underside: RTD: RTU: SDREO: SEER: SkyType T thermocouple AD592 RTD in Gill radiation shieldwere measured with Minco RTD thermal ribbon sensors

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Konopaki, Steve; Rainer, Leo

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Advanced Nuclear Technology: Embedded Sensors in Concrete  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the greatest hindrances to concrete inspection in nuclear power plants is the lack of accessibility to many concrete structures. This report aims to address the use of embedded sensors in future power plants to allow for inspection of inaccessible structures and to facilitate continuous monitoring of the critical concrete structures of the power plants. Monitoring these structures using embedded sensors is especially important because many large concrete structures in nuclear power plants are not ...

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

258

Concrete Degradation Modeling in the Evaluation of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... as a Decommission Option by ... Page 2. Concrete Degradation Modeling in the Evaluation of Entombment as a Decommissioning Option ...

2004-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

259

Comparison of concrete rheometers: International tests at ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Parainen (Finland): Erik Nordenswan Advanced Concrete and Masonry Centre, Paisley ... this mixture was designed to minimize the wall effects and ...

2002-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

260

Cooling energy savings potential of light-colored roofs for residential and commercial buildings in 11 US metropolitan areas  

SciTech Connect

Light-colored roofs reflect more sunlight than dark roofs, thus they keep buildings cooler and reduce air-conditioning demand. Typical roofs in the United States are dark, which creates a potential for savings energy and money by changing to reflective roofs. In this report, the authors make quantitative estimates of the impact of roof color by simulating prototypical buildings with light- and dark-colored roofs and calculating savings by taking the differences in annual cooling and heating energy use, and peak electricity demand. Monetary savings are calculated using local utility rates. Savings are estimated for 11 U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in a variety of climates.

Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.; Pomerantz, M.; Gabersek, S.; Gartland, L.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "roofing metal concrete" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Asphalt Roofing Shingles Into Energy Project Summary Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Based on a widely cited September, 1999 report by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, nearly 11 million tons of asphalt roofing shingle wastes are produced in the United States each year. Recent data suggests that the total is made up of about 9.4 million tons from roofing tear-offs and about 1.6 million tons from manufacturing scrap. Developing beneficial uses for these materials would conserve natural resources, promote protection of the environment and strengthen the economy. This project explored the feasibility of using chipped asphalt shingle materials in cement manufacturing kilns and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. A method of enhancing the value of chipped shingle materials for use as fuel by removing certain fractions for use as substitute raw materials for the manufacture of new shingles was also explored. Procedures were developed to prevent asbestos containing materials from being processed at the chipping facilities, and the frequency of the occurrence of asbestos in residential roofing tear-off materials was evaluated. The economic feasibility of each potential use was evaluated based on experience gained during the project and on a review of the well established use of shingle materials in hot mix asphalt. This project demonstrated that chipped asphalt shingle materials can be suitable for use as fuel in circulating fluidized boilers and cement kilns. More experience would be necessary to determine the full benefits that could be derived and to discover long term effects, but no technical barriers to full scale commercial use of chipped asphalt shingle materials in these applications were discovered. While the technical feasibility of various options was demonstrated, only the use of asphalt shingle materials in hot mix asphalt applications is currently viable economically.

Jameson, Rex, PE

2008-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

262

Attic or Roof? An Evaluation of Two Advanced Weatherization Packages  

SciTech Connect

This project examines implementation of advanced retrofit measures in the context of a large-scale weatherization program and the archetypal Chicago brick bungalow. One strategy applies best practice air sealing methods and a standard insulation method to the attic floor. The other strategy creates an unvented roof assembly using materials and methods typically available to weatherization contractors. Through implementations of the retrofit strategies in a total of eight (8) test homes, the research found that the two different strategies achieve similar reductions in air leakage measurement (55%) and predicted energy performance (18%) relative to the pre-retrofit conditions.

Neuhauser, K.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Concrete Decontamination Technology Workshop Proceedings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI has initiated a series of highly focused workshops, each dealing with a specific nuclear power plant decommissioning technology. The objective is to equip utility personnel with the information needed to assess the use of these technologies in their individual projects. This report presents the results of the first workshop, which covered concrete decontamination.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

264

Preliminary investigation on the suitablity of using fiber reinforced concrete in the construction of a hazardous waste disposal vessel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are certain hazardous wastes that must be contained in an extremely secure vessel for transportation and disposal. The vessel, among other things, must be able to withstand relatively large impacts without rupturing. Such containment vessels therefore must be able to absorb substantial amounts of energy during an impact and still perform their function. One of the impacts that the vessel must withstand is a 30-foot fall onto an unyielding surface. For some disposal scenarios it is proposed to encase the waste in a steel enclosure which is to be surrounded by a thick layer of concrete which, in turn, is encased by a relatively thin steel shell. Tests on concrete in compression and flexure, including static, dynamic and impact tests, have shown that low modulus concretes tend to behave in a less brittle manner than higher modulus concretes. Tests also show that fiber reinforced concretes have significantly greater ductility, crack propagation resistance and toughness than conventional concretes. Since it is known that concrete is a reasonably brittle material, it is necessary to do impact tests on sample containment structures consisting of thin-walled metal containers having closed ends which are filled with concrete, grout, or fiber reinforced concrete. This report presents the results of simple tests aimed at observing the behavior of sample containment structures subjected to impacts due to a fall from 30 feet. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Ramey, M.R.; Daie-e, G.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

ASTM STANDARD GUIDE FOR EVALUATING DISPOSAL OPTIONS FOR REUSE OF CONCRETE FROM NUCLEAR FACILITY DECOMMISSIONING  

SciTech Connect

Within the nuclear industry, many contaminated facilities that require decommissioning contain huge volumes of concrete. This concrete is generally disposed of as low-level waste at a high cost. Much of the concrete is lightly contaminated and could be reused as roadbed, fill material, or aggregate for new concrete, thus saving millions of dollars. However, because of the possibility of volumetric contamination and the lack of a method to evaluate the risks and costs of reusing concrete, reuse is rarely considered. To address this problem, Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory teamed to write a ''concrete protocol'' to help evaluate the ramifications of reusing concrete within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document, titled the Protocol for Development of Authorized Release Limits for Concrete at U.S. Department of Energy Site (1) is based on ANL-E's previously developed scrap metal recycle protocols; on the 10-step method outlined in DOE's draft handbook, Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle of Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material (2); and on DOE Order 4500.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (3). The DOE concrete protocol was the basis for the ASTM Standard Guide for Evaluating Disposal Options for Concrete from Nuclear Facility Decommissioning, which was written to make the information available to a wider audience outside DOE. The resulting ASTM Standard Guide is a more concise version that can be used by the nuclear industry worldwide to evaluate the risks and costs of reusing concrete from nuclear facility decommissioning. The bulk of the ASTM Standard Guide focuses on evaluating the dose and cost for each disposal option. The user calculates these from the detailed formulas and tabulated data provided, then compares the dose and cost for each disposal option to select the best option that meets regulatory requirements. With this information, the reuse of concrete may be possible, thus reducing dose and decontamination and decommissioning costs. This paper outlines ten steps required to release concrete for reuse and discusses the disposal options covered in the ASTM Standard Guide.

Phillips, Ann Marie; Meservey, Richard H.

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

266

Effects of Urban Surfaces and White Roofs on Global and Regional Climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Land use, vegetation, albedo, and soil-type data are combined in a global model that accounts for roofs and roads at near their actual resolution to quantify the effects of urban surface and white roofs on climate. In 2005, ~0.128% of the ...

Mark Z. Jacobson; John E. Ten Hoeve

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

A guidebook for insulated low-slope roof systems. IEA Annex 19, Low-slope roof systems: International Energy Agency Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems Programme  

SciTech Connect

Low-slope roof systems are common on commercial and industrial buildings and, to a lesser extent, on residential buildings. Although insulating materials have nearly always been a component of low-slope roofs, the amount of insulation used has increased in the past two decades because of escalation of heating and cooling costs and increased awareness of the need for energy conservation. As the amount of insulation has increased, the demand has intensified for design, installation, and maintenance information specifically for well-insulated roofs. Existing practices for design, installation, and maintenance of insulated roofs have evolved from experience. Typically, these practices feature compromises due to the different properties of materials making up a given roof system. Therefore, they should be examined from time to time to ensure that they are appropriate as new materials continue to enter the market and as the data base on existing systems expands. A primary purpose of this International Energy Agency (IEA) study is to assess current roofing insulation practices in the context of an accumulating data base on performance.

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Seismic Evidence For A Hydrothermal Layer Above The Solid Roof Of The Axial  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evidence For A Hydrothermal Layer Above The Solid Roof Of The Axial Evidence For A Hydrothermal Layer Above The Solid Roof Of The Axial Magma Chamber At The Southern East Pacific Rise Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Seismic Evidence For A Hydrothermal Layer Above The Solid Roof Of The Axial Magma Chamber At The Southern East Pacific Rise Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: A full-waveform inversion of two-ship, wide-aperture, seismic reflection data from a ridge-crest seismic line at the southern East Pacific Rise indicates that the axial magma chamber here is about 50 m thick, is embedded within a solid roof, and has a solid floor. The 50-60-m-thick roof is overlain by a 150-200-m-thick low-velocity zone that may correspond to a fracture zone that hosts the hydrothermal circulation,

269

An office building used as a federal test bed for energy-efficient roofs  

SciTech Connect

The energy savings benefits of re-covering the roof of an existing federal office building with a sprayed polyurethane foam system are documented. The building is a 12,880 ft{sup 2} (1,197 m{sup 2}), 1 story, masonry structure located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN. Prior to re-covering, the roof had a thin fiberglass insulation layer, which had become partially soaked because of water leakage through the failed built-up roof membrane. The average R-value for this roof measured at 2 hr{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degrees}F/Btu (0.3 m{sup 2} {center_dot}K/W). After re-covering the roof, it measured at 13 hr{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{degrees}F/Btu (2.3 m{sup 2}{center_dot}K/W). The building itself is being used as a test bed to document the benefits of a number of energy efficiency improvements. As such, it was instrumented to measure the half-hourly energy consumption of the whole building and of the individual rooftop air conditioners, the roof heat fluxes and the interior air and roof temperatures. These data were used to evaluate the energy effectiveness of the roof re-covering action. The energy savings analysis was done using the DOE-2.lE building simulation program, which was calibrated to match the measured data. The roof re-covering led to around 10% cooling energy savings and around 50% heating energy savings. The resulting energy cost reductions alone are not sufficient to justify re-covered roofs for buildings having high internal loads, such as the building investigated here. However the energy savings do contribute significantly to the measure`s Savings-to-Investment Ratio (SIR).

McLain, H.A.; Christian, J.E.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

271

Artificial neural networks for predicting indoor temperature using roof passive cooling techniques in buildings in different climatic conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three passive cooling methods (e.g. roof pond, reflective roof cooling and using insulation over the roof) have been experimentally evaluated using an experimental test structure. The objective of this work is to train an artificial neural network (ANN) ... Keywords: Artificial neural network, Energy saving, India, Passive cooling, Thermal comfort

Shrikant Pandey; D. A. Hindoliya; Ritu Mod

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Response of dual-purpose reinforced-concrete mass shelter. Project 30. 2 of Operation Plumbbob  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A reinforced-concrete dual-purpose underground parking garage and personnel shelter designed for a long-duration incident pressure of 40 psi was tested. The shelter was exposed to shot Priscilla, an approx. 37-kt 700-ft balloon burst (June 24, 1957), at a ground range of 1600 ft (predicted 35-psi peak incident-pressure level). The recorded peak incident pressure at the shelter was approximately 39 psi. Postshot soil borings were made to obtain undisturbed samples for determining soil characteristics. Preshot and postshot field surveys were made to determine the total lateral and vertical displacement of the structure. The test structure provided adequate protection from the effects of the test device at the test GZ distance. Despite failure of the door sealing gasket, a rise in pressure in the interior did not exceed 1.0 psi. The flat-slab roof and supporting structure were more than adequate to resist the 39-psi peak incident test loading.

Cohen, E.; Laing, E.; Bottenhofer, A.

1961-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Quantum Fisher Information as the Convex Roof of Variance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantum Fisher information places the fundamental limit to the accuracy of estimating an unknown parameter. Here we shall provide the quantum Fisher information an operational meaning: a mixed state can be so prepared that a given observable has the minimal averaged variance, which equals exactly to the quantum Fisher information for estimating an unknown parameter generated by the unitary dynamics with the given observable as Hamiltonian. In particular we shall prove that the quantum Fisher information is the convex roof of the variance, as conjectured by Toth and Petz based on numerical and analytical evidences, by constructing explicitly a pure-state ensemble of the given mixed state in which the averaged variance of a given observable equals to the quantum Fisher information.

Sixia Yu

2013-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

274

Pilot aerial infrared roof top survey. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A summary is presented of a pilot aerial infrared roof top study conducted by the Minnesota Energy Agency. Infrared surveys of 27 Minnesota cities were conducted during the fall and winter of the 1976-1977 heating season. In addition, conventional daytime color photographs were taken of several cities. Film processing was done by the Environmental Protection Agency. The University of Minnesota conducted ground tests to verify the aerial infrared imagery. Thermograph dissemination centers were established in each city and training seminars and materials were prepared and delivered to dissemination center staff. A survey of homeowners who viewed their thermograph at a dissemination center were used to determine the energy savings resulting from the program. An Aerial Infrared Program Users Manual was prepared by the Energy Agency and the Remote Sensing Institute of Brookings, South Dakota.

1979-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

275

Research on the Effect of a Planting Roof on the Thermal Load of a Business Building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A pair of comparative testing rooms (one with an ordinary roof and the other with a planting roof) was established in our laboratory, and in- situ measurement (in summer) data have been collected and treated. The indoor thermal environment was analyzed and the thermal load within each room was calculated Comparative analysis of thermal loads of these two rooms was done. Reduction of thermal load by the planting roof is clearly shown from our research work. A theoretical analysis of the effect of the planting roof on the room's thermal load was done, and theoretical relations between outdoor air temperature and indoor thermal load within certain region were established. The feasibility analysis of the application of our research work to the business building was also completed. The summer cooling load reduction characteristics, the energy saving characteristics on air conditioning system, the yearly electricity consumption reduction, the yearly consumption amount reduction of “Primary Energy”, the discharge amount reduction of sensible heat to outdoor atmosphere in summer, and the yearly discharge amount reduction of greenhouse gases to the outdoor atmosphere from air conditioning system due to the planting roof are also predicted. A corresponding economic analysis is also presented in this paper. The results show the advantages of the planting roof, and also promote the widespread application of the planting roof to business buildings.

Zhang, W.; Wu, J.; Wei, Y.; Gao, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Ground resistance of concrete foundations in substation yards  

SciTech Connect

The reinforced concrete foundations in a substation yard have extensive reinforcing steel which is in metallic connection with the laid ground conductor. The foundations may contribute significantly to the dissipation of the fault and leakage currents. Simple to use equations and graphs are presented in this paper to determine the ground resistance of various types of foundations encountered in substation yards. The validity of the analytical approach has been verified with scale model tests. The ground resistance of the foundations estimated as suggested in the paper can be used to evaluate the role of the foundations as grounding element.

Thapar, B.; Ferrer, O. (Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (USA)); Blank, D.A. (Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and Oriented Strand Board Roof Sheathing  

SciTech Connect

Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990's to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated moisture related incidents reported anecdotally that raise potential concerns about the overall hygrothermal performance of these systems. The incidents related to rainwater leakage and condensation concerns. Condensation concerns have been extensively studied by others and are not further discussed in this report. This project involved hygrothermal modeling of a range of rainwater leakage and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs using spray foam insulation. All of the roof assemblies modeled exhibited drying capacity to handle minor rainwater leakage. All field evaluation locations of in-service residential roofs had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. Explorations of eleven in-service roof systems were completed. The exploration involved taking a sample of spray foam from the underside of the roof sheathing, exposing the sheathing, then taking a moisture content reading. All locations had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. One full-roof failure was reviewed, as an industry partner was involved with replacing structurally failed roof sheathing. In this case the manufacturer's investigation report concluded that the spray foam was installed on wet OSB based on the observation that the spray foam did not adhere well to the substrate and the pore structure of the closed cell spray foam at the ccSPF/OSB interface was indicative of a wet substrate.

Grin, A.; Smegal, J.; Lstiburek, J.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Design, effectiveness, and construction of passive-thermal-control roofing shingles. Technical final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The concept of a passive thermal control roofing shingle, which is a shingle that reflects the summer sun and absorbs the winter sun, is discussed. Such a shingle will reduce summer cooling and winter heating costs and conserve electricity and natural gas or heating oil. Design calculations indicate that it is possible to design shingles for particular latitudes and styles of roof which absorb nearly all of the winter solar energy and reflect nearly all of the summer solar energy. Calculations of the energy savings and cost effectiveness of the passive thermal control roofing shingle indicate that it is most cost effective on all south facing pitched roofs regardless of heating fuel type, and on flat or east or west facing roofs that are heated with costly fuels such as electricity or heating oil. The shingle is most effective on poorly insulated structures. If the cost of the shingle is about one dollar per square foot it will be cost effective in these applications. Additional calculations demonstrate the feasibility of using the passive thermal control roofing shingle in conjunction with a heat pump to pump heat absorbed by the shingle into a well insulated structure. Construction of a variety of models of the passive thermal control roofing shingle illustrate numerous alternate methods of manufacture. A profile extruded, plastic, glazed shingle appears to be the most promising approach. Additionally, extruded plastic reflector assemblies of various kinds could be added to existing shingled roofs. Use of a glazed shingle can increase the effectiveness of the passive thermal control roofing shingle by reducing convective heat losses.

Wolf, L. Jr.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Project: Early-Age Performance of Concrete  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... at the international workshop "Micro-structure, setting and aging of cement ... Solution Chemistry and Phase Evolution in Early-Age Concrete Materials ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

280

Project: Long Term Performance of Concrete  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of a Performance-Based Specification for Cast-in-Place Concrete,” RMC Research & Education Foundation, Phase 1 Final Report, 2006. ...

2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "roofing metal concrete" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

NISTIR 7026 Condition Assessment of Concrete Nuclear ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... An im- portant consideration for decommissioning is that the existing concrete nuclear structure is a primary barrier between its remaining contents ...

2003-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

282

Concrete & Asphalt Recycling into Reusable Products  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SNLNM Pollution Prevention Concrete & Asphalt Recycling into Reusable Products (SNLNM Pollution Prevention Program) March 18, 2010 Doug Vetter, PE, LEED-AP Sandia is a...

283

Proceedings of the concrete decontamination workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fourteen papers were presented. These papers describe concrete surface removal methods and equipment, as well as experiences in decontaminating and removing both power and experimental nuclear reactors.

Halter, J.M.; Sullivan, R.G.; Currier, A.J.

1980-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

284

Condensation Risk of Mechanically Attached Roof Systems in Cold Climate Zones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A white roof, cool roof, is constructed to decrease thermal loads from solar radiation, therefore saving energy by decreasing the cooling demands. Unfortunately, cool roofs with mechanically attached membrane, have shown to have a higher risk of intermediate condensation in the materials below the membrane in certain climates (Ennis & Kehrer, 2011) and in comparisons with similar construction with a darker exterior surface (Bludau, Zirkelbach, & Kuenzel, 2009). As a consequence, questions have been raised regarding the sustainability and reliability of using cool roof membranes in Northern U.S. climate zones. A white roof surface reflects more of the incident solar radiation in comparisons with a dark surface, which makes a distinguished difference on the surface temperature of the roof. However, flat roofs with either a light or dark surface and if facing a clear sky, are constantly losing energy to the sky due to the exchange of infrared radiation. This phenomenon exists both during the night and the day. During the day, if the sun shines on the roof surface, the exchange of infrared radiation typically becomes insignificant. During nights and in cold climates, the temperature difference between the roof surface and the sky can deviate up to 20 C (Hagentoft, 2001) which could result in a very cold surface temperature compared to the ambient temperature. Further, a colder surface temperature of the roof increases the energy loss and the risk of condensation in the building materials below the membrane. In conclusion, both light and dark coated roof membranes are cooled by the infrared radiation exchange during the night, though a darker membrane is more heated by the solar radiation during the day, thus decreasing the risk of condensation. The phenomenon of night time cooling from the sky and the lack of solar gains during the day is not likely the exclusive problem concerning the risk of condensation in cool roofs with mechanically attached membranes. Roof systems with thermoplastic membranes are prone to be more effected by interior air intrusion into the roof construction; both due to the wind induced pressure differences and due to the flexibility and elasticity of the membrane (Molleti, Baskaran, Kalinger, & Beaulieu, 2011). Depending on the air permeability of the material underneath the membrane, wind forces increase the risk of fluttering (also referred as billowing) of the thermoplastic membrane. Expectably, the wind induced pressure differences creates a convective air flow into the construction i.e. Page 2 air intrusion. If the conditions are right, moisture from the exchanging air may condensate on surfaces with a temperature below dew-point. The definite path of convective airflows through the building envelope is usually very difficult to determine and therefore simplified models (K nzel, Zirkelbach, & Scfafaczek, 2011) help to estimate an additional moisture loads as a result of the air intrusion. The wind uplifting pressure in combination with wind gusts are important factors for a fluttering roof. Unfortunately, the effect from a fluctuating wind is difficult to estimate as this is a highly dynamic phenomenon and existing standards (ASTM, 2011a) only take into account a steady state approach i.e. there is no guidance or regulations on how to estimate the air intrusion rate. Obviously, a more detailed knowledge on the hygrothermal performance of mechanically attached cool roof system is requested; in consideration to varying surface colors, roof air tightness, climate zones and indoor moisture supply.

Pallin, Simon B [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

The life cycle assessment of concrete manufacturing in Kuwait  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Concrete is the second most widely used material in the world after water. Annually 9,120 million tons of concrete are produced, which is an equivalent of 1.3 tons of concrete per individual. As the world's primary ...

El Mostafa, Mayce (Mayce A.)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Income Tax Deduction for Solar-Powered Roof Vents or Fans (Indiana...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

1232012 References DSIRE1 Summary Indiana allows taxpayers to take a deduction on solar-powered roof fans (or vent, also sometimes called an attic fan) installed in a home...

287

Advances in Measuring Solar Reflectance-or, Why That Roof isn't as Cool  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advances in Measuring Solar Reflectance-or, Why That Roof isn't as Cool Advances in Measuring Solar Reflectance-or, Why That Roof isn't as Cool as You Thought it Was Speaker(s): Ronnen Levinson Date: June 30, 2009 - 12:00pm Location: LBNL Bldg. 66 Auditorium Solar reflectance is often used to estimate the solar heat gain and rate the "coolness" of roofs and pavements. A solar reflectance property measured by two popular ASTM standard test methods (E903, C1549) can underestimate the peak solar heat gain of a spectrally selective "cool colored" surface by nearly 100 W m-2 because it assumes that sunlight contains an unrealistically high fraction of near-infrared (invisible) energy. Its use in building energy simulations can overestimate cool-roof annual energy savings by more than 20%. I define a new and simple solar

288

Income Tax Deduction for Solar-Powered Roof Vents or Fans  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Indiana allows taxpayers to take a deduction on solar-powered roof fans (or vent, also sometimes called an attic fan) installed in a home that the taxpayer owns or leases. The deduction is for 50%...

289

Green Roof Mitigation Potential for a Proxy Future Climate Scenario in Chicago, Illinois  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (ARW) coupled with an urban canopy model is used to investigate the potential of vegetative (green) roof technology to mitigate against ongoing climate warming and ...

Kathryn R. Smith; Paul J. Roebber

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Procedure for measuring the solar reflectance of flat or curved roofing assemblies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

effects of cool roofs on California commercial buildings.ASHRAE 2004, 2007). California’s current (year 2005) “TitleBuildings. CEC-400-2006-015. California Energy Commission,

Akbari, Hashem

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

2012-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

292

Concrete Foundations in Substations and Transmission Lines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of surveys conducted to obtain information on the degradation of concrete foundations that support transmission towers and high-voltage substation equipment. Although concrete foundations are simple and inexpensive, their degradation or failure may have costly consequences, including potential equipment damage and the need for outages to allow movement of critical equipment so the ...

2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

293

NISTIR 6295 Curing of High-Performance Concrete: Report of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... High-strength lightweight concrete—Concrete produced by using lightweight aggregates, such as expanded clay, shale, and slate aggregates, so ...

1999-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

294

Life-Cycle Evaluation of Concrete Building Construction as a Strategy for Sustainable Cities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

additives in concrete) and organic substances that are emitted during or shortly after the concrete manufacturing

Stadel, Alexander

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Quick-setting concrete and a method for making quick-setting concrete  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a method for producing concrete, and more specifically, this invention relates to a method for producing quick-setting concrete while simultaneously minimizing the release of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, said release of carbon dioxide inherent in cement production. A method for producing quick setting concrete comprises hydrating a concrete dry mixture with carbonate solution to create a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a quick setting concrete having a predetermined proportion of CaCO{sub 3} of between 5 and 23 weight percent of the entire concrete mixture, and whereby the concrete has a compression strength of approximately 4,000 pounds per square inch (psi) within 24 hours after pouring.

Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.; Pullockaran, J.D.; Knox, L.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

296

Laboratory measurements of the drying rates of low-slope roofing systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The service life of a roofing system typically ends when excessive amounts of water have entered the system. Roofing professionals determine whether the existing failed roofing system can be repaired or salvaged by recovering. A key element in this decision is whether the accumulated water will be able to leave the roofing system in a time frame that will prevent irreparable structural damage. There are several combined heat and mass transfer models that can be used to predict drying times for low-slope roofing systems. Very little experimental data exists that can be used to validate the performance of these models. To satisfy these needs, a series of laboratory experiments has been performed. Five test panels, comprised of a plywood deck, four types of roofing insulation, and a single ply membrane were installed in a climate simulator. The test panels were outfitted with temperature sensors and heat flux transducers, and were mounted on load cells. Water was added to the test panels and they were subjected to external diurnal cycles representative of summer and winter conditions for a southern US continental climate. The load cells supplied continuous records of the weights of the test panels; these data were used to compute the drying rates of the test panels. When these experiments were completed, the test panels were ``recovered`` with different thicknesses of insulation and the environmental conditions were reapplied to the test panels. This paper reports on the design and performance of these experiments. The data compiled during these tests supply insight into the effects of meteorological conditions, insulation R-value, insulation water vapor permeance, and roof recover on the rate that water will be removed from low-slope roofing systems.

Desjarlais, A.O.; Kyle, D.M.; Childs, P.W.; Christian, J.E.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE OF DEGRADED REINFORCED CONCRETE MEMBERS.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the results of a study to evaluate, in probabilistic terms, the effects of age-related degradation on the structural performance of reinforced concrete members at nuclear power plants. The paper focuses on degradation of reinforced concrete flexural members and shear walls due to the loss of steel reinforcing area and loss of concrete area (cracking/spalling). Loss of steel area is typically caused by corrosion while cracking and spalling can be caused by corrosion of reinforcing steel, freeze-thaw, or aggressive chemical attack. Structural performance in the presence of uncertainties is depicted by a fragility (or conditional probability of failure). The effects of degradation on the fragility of reinforced concrete members are calculated to assess the potential significance of various levels of degradation. The fragility modeling procedures applied to degraded concrete members can be used to assess the effects of degradation on plant risk and can lead to the development of probability-based degradation acceptance limits.

Braverman, J.I.; Miller, C.A.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Naus, D.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Bezler, P.; Chang, T.Y.

2001-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

298

Evaluation of Vegetative Roofs' Performance on Energy Consumption in Hot and Humid Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Green roofs have been widely used in Europe proved to be beneficial. However, in the US they are not widespread. Previous studies have concluded that the main obstacle that makes architects, developers, etc. reluctant to introduce vegetative roofs is their preference for the traditional roofing since it is a tried-and-true technology. A positive feedback on the performance of vegetative roofs will encourage developers and possibly government authorities to invest more in them. Therefore, a survey was conducted to determine the performance of green roofs in existing buildings in hot and humid climates. This paper presents the results of this survey of around 40 buildings. The methodology and pertinent questions are also presented. Due to the many parameters involved in determining the rate of energy consumption in a building, a definite conclusion regarding how much exactly they can effect on saving can not be drawn, however, the results showed that green roofs can result in saving in the annual energy consumption and using shrubs as well as increasing soil thickness were found to be most effective in reducing building energy consumption.

Anderson, J.; Azarbayjani, M.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Special concrete shield selection using the analytic hierarchy process  

SciTech Connect

Special types of concrete radiation shields that depend on locally available materials and have improved properties for both neutron and gamma-ray attenuation were developed by using plastic materials and heavy ores. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is implemented to evaluate these types for selecting the best biological radiation shield for nuclear reactors. Factors affecting the selection decision are degree of protection against neutrons, degree of protection against gamma rays, suitability of the concrete as building material, and economic considerations. The seven concrete alternatives are barite-polyethylene concrete, barite-polyvinyl chloride (PVC) concrete, barite-portland cement concrete, pyrite-polyethylene concrete, pyrite-PVC concrete, pyrite-portland cement concrete, and ordinary concrete. The AHP analysis shows the superiority of pyrite-polyethylene concrete over the others.

Abulfaraj, W.H. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Nuclear Engineering Dept.)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Aging Management of Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures - Overview and Suggested Research Topics  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear power plant concrete structures are described and their operating experience noted. Primary considerations related to management of their aging are noted and an indication of their status provided: degradation mechanisms, damage models, and material performance; assessment and remediation (i.e., component selection, in-service inspection, nondestructive examinations, and remedial actions); and estimation of performance at present or some future point in time (i.e., application of structural reliability theory to the design and optimization of in-service inspection/maintenance strategies, and determination of the effects of degradation on plant risk). Several activities are identified that provide background information and data on areas of concern with respect to nondestructive examination of nuclear power plant concrete structures: inspection of thick-walled, heavily-reinforced sections, basemats, and inaccessible areas of the containment metallic pressure boundary. Topics are noted where additional research would be of benefit to aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures.

Naus, Dan J [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "roofing metal concrete" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Immobilization of iodine in concrete  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3-20 wt. % iodine as Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention was made in the course of, or under a contract with the Energy Research and Development Administration. It relates in general to reactor waste solidification and more specifically to the immobilization of fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel for underground storage.

Clark, Walter E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Thompson, Clarence T. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1977-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

302

Cleareye In-Ground and In-Concrete DIV Inspections: FY11 Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a series of feasibility testing studies for in-ground and in-concrete imaging/detection technologies including radar imaging and acoustic time-of flight method. The objectives of this project are: (1) Design Information Verification (DIV) Tools for In-Concrete Inspections - To determine the feasibility of using holographic radar imaging (HRI), radar imaging, and acoustic time-of-flight (TOF) non-destructive evaluation technologies to detect, locate and identify pipes and voids embedded in standard-density and high-density concrete walls that typify those the IAEA will need to verify during field inspections; (2) DIV Tools for In-Ground Inspections - To determine the feasibility of using HRI and radar imaging non-destructive evaluation technologies to detect, locate, and identify objects buried at various depths made of various materials (metal, plastic, wood, and concrete) and representing geometries that typify those the IAEA will need to verify during field inspections; and (3) Based on the results of the studies, recommend the next steps needed to realize fieldable tools for in-concrete and in-ground inspections (including detection of deeply buried polyvinyl chloride [PVC] pipes) that employ the technologies shown to be feasible.

Braatz, Brett G.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Morra, Marino; Knopik, Clint D.; Severtsen, Ronald H.; Jones, Anthony M.; Lechelt, Wayne M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Good, Morris S.; Sorensen, Jerry B.; Hall, Thomas E.

2012-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

303

Insulating polymer concrete for LNG impounding dikes. [Polymer concretes  

SciTech Connect

An insulating polymer concrete (IPC) composite has been developed under contract to the Gas Research Institute for possible use as a dike insulation material at Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) storage facilities. In the advent of an LNG spill into the impounding dike area, the boiloff rate of the LNG can be substantially reduced if the surfaces of the dike are insulated. This increased safety at the LNG facility will tend to reduce the hazardous explosive mixture with atmospheric air in the surrounding region. The dike insulation material must have a low thermal conductivity and be unaffected by environmental conditions. The IPC composites developed consist of perlite or glass nodule aggregates bound together as a closed cell structure with a polyester resin. In addition to low thermal conductivity and porosity, these composites have correspondingly high strengths and, therefore, can carry transient loads of workmen and maintenance equipment. Prefabricated IPC panels have been installed experimentally and at least one utility is currently considering a complete installation at its LNG facility. 5 refs., 5 tabs.

Fontana, J.J.; Steinberg, M.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Air leakage of Insulated Concrete Form houses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air leakage has been shown to increase building energy use due to additional heating and cooling loads. Although many construction types have been examined for leakage, an exploration of a large number of Insulated Concrete ...

Durschlag, Hannah (Hanna Rebekah)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Variability in properties of Salado Mass Concrete  

SciTech Connect

Salado Mass Concrete (SMC) has been developed for use as a seal component in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This concrete is intended to be mixed from pre-bagged materials, have an initial slump of 10 in., and remain pumpable and placeable for two hours after mixing. It is a mass concrete because it will be placed in monoliths large enough that the heat generated during cement hydration has the potential to cause thermal expansion and subsequent cracking, a phenomenon to avoid in the seal system. This report describes effects on concrete properties of changes in ratio of water to cement, batch size, and variations in characteristics of different lots of individual components of the concrete. The research demonstrates that the concrete can be prepared from laboratory-batched or pre-bagged dry materials in batches from 1.5 ft{sup 3} to 5.0 yd{sup 3}, with no chemical admixtures other than the sodium chloride added to improve bonding with the host rock, at a water-to-cement ratio ranging from 0.36 to 0.42. All batches prepared according to established procedures had adequate workability for at least 1.5 hours, and achieved or exceeded the target compressive strength of 4500 psi at 180 days after casting. Portland cement and fly ash from different lots or sources did not have a measurable effect on concrete properties, but variations in a shrinkage-compensating cement used as a component of the concrete did appear to affect workability. A low initial temperature and the water-reducing and set-retarding functions of the salt are critical to meeting target properties.

Wakeley, L.D.; Harrington, P.T. [US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Effects of temperature and humidity variations on the stability of coal mine roof rocks. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A high degree of correlation between strain developed in samples of roof rock and humidity changes was obtained in the laboratory. The strain developed across bedding planes was greater than strain developed parallel to bedding. In tests conducted underground, strain values were much lower and the data more scattered for similar humidity variations. Roof rock specimens reacted to a 10 pct change in humidity throughout a 7 to 10 day period before stabilizing, which seems to rule out daily humidity cycles as a factor in roof deterioration and indicates seasonal variations as a major cause. Very low annual temperature variations were recorded in active sections of the mine. At a 6 F annual variation developed strain would be only 10.5 microinches per inch, far below the strain magnitude for humidity variations and probably too low to be a factor in problems of roof deterioration. Laboratory strain tests on drill core samples were shown to be indicators of moisture sensitivity of roof rock, but neither chemical nor physical properties of the samples correlated with the strain data. (Portions of this document are not fully legible.)

Haynes, C.D.

1975-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Spray polyurethane foams (SPFs) have advantages over alternative insulation methods because they provide air sealing in complex assemblies, particularly roofs. Spray foam can provide the thermal, air, and vapor control layers in both new and retrofit construction. Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell SPF insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990s to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated incidents of failures (either sheathing rot or SPF delamination) that raise some general concerns about the hygrothermal performance and durability of these systems. The primary risks for roof systems are rainwater leaks, condensation from diffusion and air leakage, and built-in construction moisture. This project directly investigated rain and indirectly investigated built-in construction moisture and vapor drives. Research involved both hygrothermal modeling of a range of rain water leakage scenarios and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs. Other variables considered were climate zone, orientation, interior relative humidity, and the vapor permeance of the coating applied to the interior face of open cell SPF.

Not Available

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Regional climate consequences of large-scale cool roof and photovoltaic array deployment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

climate consequences of large-scale cool roof and photovoltaic array deployment climate consequences of large-scale cool roof and photovoltaic array deployment This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article. 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 034001 (http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/6/3/034001) Download details: IP Address: 98.204.49.123 The article was downloaded on 01/07/2011 at 12:38 Please note that terms and conditions apply. View the table of contents for this issue, or go to the journal homepage for more Home Search Collections Journals About Contact us My IOPscience IOP PUBLISHING ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Environ. Res. Lett. 6 (2011) 034001 (9pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/6/3/034001 Regional climate consequences of large-scale cool roof and photovoltaic array deployment Dev Millstein and Surabi Menon Lawrence

309

Monitoring the energy-use effects of cool roofs on Californiacommercial buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar-reflective roofs stay cooler in the sun than solar-absorptive roofs. Such 'cool' roofs achieve lower surface temperatures that reduce heat conduction into the building and the building's cooling load. We monitored the effects of cool roofs on energy use and environmental parameters in six California buildings at three different sites: a retail store in Sacramento; an elementary school in San Marcos (near San Diego); and a four-building cold storage facility in Reedley (near Fresno). The latter included a cold storage building, a conditioning and fruit-palletizing area, a conditioned packing area, and two unconditioned packing areas. Results showed that installing a cool roof reduced the daily peak roof surface temperature of each building by 33-42 K. In the retail store building in Sacramento, for the monitored period of 8 August-30 September 2002, the estimated savings in average air conditioning energy use was about 72 Wh/m{sup 2}/day (52%). On hot days when the afternoon temperature exceeded 38 C, the measured savings in average peak demand for peak hours (noon-5 p.m.) was about 10 W/m{sup 2} of conditioned area. In the school building in San Marcos, for the monitored period of 8 July-20 August 2002, the estimated savings in average air conditioning energy use was about 42-48 Wh/m{sup 2}/day (17-18%). On hot days, when the afternoon temperature exceeded 32 C, the measured savings in average peak demand for hours 10 a.m.-4 p.m. was about 5 W/m{sup 2} of conditioned area. In the cold storage facility in Reedley, for the monitored period of 11 July-14 September 2002, and 11 July-18 August 2003, the estimated savings in average chiller energy use was about 57-81 Wh/m{sup 2}/day (3-4%). On hot days when the afternoon temperature exceeded 38 C, the measured savings in average peak-period demand (average cooling-power demand during peak demand hours, typically noon-6 p.m.) was about 5-6 W/m{sup 2} of conditioned area. Using the measured data and calibrated simulations, we estimated savings for similar buildings installing cool roofs in retrofit applications for all 16 California climate zones. For similar retail stores in climate zones 2 and 4-16, installing a cool roof can save about 6-15 kWh/m{sup 2}/year of conditioned area. In climate zones 2-16, estimates of average peak demand savings for hours noon-5 p.m. range from 2.9 to 5.8 W/m{sup 2}. For similar school buildings in climate zones 2-16, installing a cool roof can save from 3 to 6 kWh/m{sup 2}/year of conditioned roof area. For all 16 climate zones estimates of average peak demand savings for hours noon-5 p.m. range from 2.6 to 3.8 W/m{sup 2}. In similar cold storage buildings in all 16 climate zones, installing a cool roof can save about 4.5-7.4 kWh/m{sup 2}/year of conditioned roof area. In all 16 climate zones, estimates of average peak demand savings for hours noon-5 p.m. range from 3.9 to 6.6 W/m{sup 2}.

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Rainer, Leo

2004-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

310

Radical Thinkers Needed to Help Get a Solar Panel on Every Roof |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Radical Thinkers Needed to Help Get a Solar Panel on Every Roof Radical Thinkers Needed to Help Get a Solar Panel on Every Roof Radical Thinkers Needed to Help Get a Solar Panel on Every Roof January 9, 2012 - 5:00pm Addthis This solar powered residence was commissioned by Boston Edison as a demonstration of future trends in design and technology that would become commonplace in the early decades of the next millennium. Today, the Energy Department's SunShot Initiative is seeking to accelerate innovation and aggressively drive down cost through various funding opportunities. | Photo courtesy of Solar Design Associates. This solar powered residence was commissioned by Boston Edison as a demonstration of future trends in design and technology that would become commonplace in the early decades of the next millennium. Today, the Energy

311

Advanced Insulation for High Performance Cost-effective Wall, Roof, and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Advanced Insulation for High Performance Advanced Insulation for High Performance Cost-effective Wall, Roof, and Foundation Systems Research Project Advanced Insulation for High Performance Cost-effective Wall, Roof, and Foundation Systems Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently conducting research into advanced insulation for high performance wall, roof, and foundation systems. Heat flows from hotter to colder spaces, and insulation is designed to resist this flow by keeping hot air out in the summer and in during the winter. Project Description This project seeks to develop high performing, durable, hydrofluorocarbon and hydrochlorofluorocarbons -free insulation with an R-value greater than 7.5-per-inch and a Class A fire performance. Project Partners Research is being undertaken between DOE and Dow Chemical.

312

A Prototype Roof Deck Designed to Self-Regulate Deck Temperature and Reduce Heat Transfer  

SciTech Connect

A prototype roof and attic assembly exploits the use of radiation, convection and insulation controls to reduce the heat transfer penetrating its roof deck by almost 85% of the heat transfer crossing a conventional roof and attic assembly. The assembly exhibited attic air temperatures that did not exceed the peak day outdoor ambient temperature. The design includes a passive ventilation scheme that pulls air from the soffit and attic into an inclined air space above the deck. The design complies with fire protection codes because the air intake is internal and closed to the elements. Field data were benchmarked against an attic computer tool and simulations made for new and retrofit home constructions in hot, moderate and cold climates to access economics for the assembly.

Miller, William A [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

SOLAR RADIATION ESTIMATION ON BUILDING ROOFS AND WEB-BASED SOLAR CADASTRE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of this study is the estimation of solar irradiance on building roofs in complex Alpine landscapes. Very high resolution geometric models of the building roofs are generated by means of advanced automated image matching methods. Models are combined with raster and vector data sources to estimate the incoming solar radiation hitting the roofs. The methodology takes into account for atmospheric effects, site latitude and elevation, slope and aspect of the terrain as well as the effects of shadows cast by surrounding buildings, chimneys, dormers, vegetation and terrain topography. An open source software solution has been developed and applied to a study area located in a mountainous site and containing some 1250 residential, commercial and industrial buildings. The method has been validated by data collected with a pyranometer and results made available through a prototype WebGIS platform. 1.

G. Agugiaro A; Commission Ii Wg

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

A Prototype Roof Deck Designed to Self-Regulate Deck Temperature and Reduce Heat Transfer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A prototype roof and attic assembly exploits the use of radiation, convection and insulation controls to reduce its peak day heat transfer by almost 85 percent of the heat transfer crossing a conventional roof and attic assembly. The assembly exhibits attic air temperatures that do not exceed the maximum daily outdoor ambient temperature. The design includes a passive ventilation scheme that pulls air from the soffit and attic into an inclined air space above the roof deck. The design complies with fire protection codes because the air intake is internal and closed to the elements. Field data were benchmarked against an attic computer tool and simulations made for new and retrofit constructions in hot, moderate and cold climates to gauge the cost of energy savings and potential payback.

Miller, William A [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Oportunities for the Concrete Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

costs. Mechanical concrete reclaimer. Concrete returned tothrough a mechanical reclaimer, able to separate aggregatesobtaining a concrete reclaimer is significant and according

Kermeli, Katerina

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

WIPP supplementary roof support system Room 1, Panel 1: Geotechnical field data analysis report  

SciTech Connect

The design of the Room 1, Panel 1, supplementary roof support system was finalized in September 1991, and the system successfully installed in the test bin area between the bulkheads by December 1991. Simultaneously with the support system installation, existing monitoring system was upgraded to meet the needs of the installed roof support. This included extensometers, closure stations, rockbolt load cells as well as survey measurements of roof sag and floor lift. A Project Control Group (PCG) was established in order to monitor room and support system performance. Weekly meetings of the PCG were held to review all monitored data against criteria set in the initial design, and to modify these where necessary. Records of these meetings have been kept, with copies of all data summaries and action notes. These data records are maintained in the Engineering data files. After more than ten months of monitoring and reviewing experience, several modifications have been made both to the way data has been reported as well as to the load adjustment criteria. The support system has performed as expected in the design, with no signs of instability developing considering the rates of roof deformation, the rock bolt loads and the observed fracture behavior in the roof. This is particularly true of the horizon in which the rockbolt anchors are located, the most critical part of the design. The distribution of load build-up, throughout the 286 rockbolt load cells installed, in the Room 1 has been found satisfactory, and the load increases as evaluated by the PCG on a weekly basis have been within the acceptable range. The minimum life of the installed support system is estimated at 15 years based on the highest roof expansion rate experienced to date. This report provides analysis of geotechnical field data collected up to December 1992.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Impact of Reflective Roofing on Cooling Electrical Use and Peak Demand in a Florida Retail Mall  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Architects in hot climates have long recognized that reflective roof colors can reduce building cooling load. Experimentation spanning nearly three decades has shown that white roofing surfaces can significantly reduce surface temperatures and cooling loads (Givoni and Hoffmann, 1968; Reagan and Acklam, 1979; Griggs and Shipp, 1988; Anderson, 1989; Anderson et al., 1991 and Bansal et al., 1992). More importantly, measured cooling energy savings of white surfaces have been significant in California's climate (Akbari et al., 1991, 1992, 1997). In Florida, field research by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) since 1993 has quantified the impact of reflective roof coatings on sub-metered air conditioning (AC) consumption in tests in a dozen occupied homes (Parker et al., 1993; 1994; 1995; 1997). The coatings were applied to the roofs of each home in mid-summer after a month-long period of monitoring during which meteorological conditions, building temperatures and AC energy use were recorded. Using weather periods with similar temperatures and solar insolation, air conditioning energy use was reduced by 10% - 43% in the homes. The average drop in space cooling energy use was about 7.4 kWh/day or 19% of the pre-application air conditioning consumption. Unfortunately, until this project there has been little objective testing of the impact of roof whitening on the AC load of commercial buildings in Florida. Two demonstration sites have been monitored. The first was an elementary school in Cocoa Beach, Florida, which was monitored for a year before and after a white roof coating was applied. A final report on this project was published in the CADDET Newsletter (Parker et al., 1996a, b). The project demonstrated a 10% annual savings in chiller energy with a 30% reduction in peak cooling electrical demand. This paper summarizes the findings from the second demonstration at a commercial strip mall.

Parker, D. S.; Sonne, J. K.; Sherwin, J. R.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Instability leading to coal bumps and nonlinear evolutionary mechanisms for a coal-pillar-and-roof system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Instability leading to coal bumps and nonlinear evolutionary mechanisms for a coal mechanisms of the mechanical system that is composed of the stiff hosts (roof and floor) and the coal pillar using catastrophe theory. It is assumed that the roof is an elastic beam and the coal pillar is a strain

Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

319

Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

program in Mexico City, and contacts in energy efficiencyenergy savings due to cool roofs for the median climate in Brazil, India, and Mexico ..energy savings due to cool roofs for the median climate in Brazil, India, and Mexico

Akbari, Hashem

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE FOR WIND TURBINE FOUNDATIONS.  

SciTech Connect

The use of wind power to generate electricity continues to grow, especially given commitments by various countries throughout the world to ensure that a significant percentage of energy comes from renewable sources. In order to meet such objectives, increasingly larger turbines with higher capacity are being developed. The engineering aspects of larger turbine development tend to focus on design and materials for blades and towers. However, foundations are also a critical component of large wind turbines and represent a significant cost of wind energy projects. Ongoing wind research at BNL is examining two areas: (a) structural response analysis of wind turbine-tower-foundation systems and (b) materials engineering of foundations. This work is investigating the dynamic interactions in wind turbine systems, which in turn assists the wind industry in achieving improved reliability and more cost efficient foundation designs. The results reported herein cover initial studies of concrete mix designs for large wind turbine foundations and how these may be tailored to reduce cost and incorporate sustainability and life cycle concepts. The approach taken was to investigate material substitutions so that the environmental, energy and CO{sub 2}-impact of concrete could be reduced. The use of high volumes of ''waste'' materials in concrete was examined. These materials included fly ash, blast furnace slag and recycled concrete aggregate. In addition, the use of steel fiber reinforcement as a means to improve mechanical properties and potentially reduce the amount of bar reinforcement in concrete foundations was studied. Four basic mixes were considered. These were: (1) conventional mix with no material substitutions, (2) 50% replacement of cement with fly ash, (3) 50% replacement of cement with blast furnace slag and (4) 25% replacement of cement with fly ash and 25% replacement with blast furnace slag. Variations on these mixes included the addition of 1% by volume steel fibers. The use of recycled concrete aggregate in the conventional and 50% slag mixes was also studied. Properties investigated included compressive and tensile strengths, elastic modulus, coefficient of permeability, thermal conductivity and durability in seawater and sulfate solutions. It was determined that the mixes containing 50% slag gave the best overall performance. Slag was particularly beneficial for concrete that used recycled aggregate and could reduce strength losses. Initial durability results indicated that corrosion of fibers in the different concrete mixes when exposed to seawater was minimal. Future research needs to include more detailed studies of mix design and properties of concrete for wind turbine foundations. Emphasis on slag-modified mixes with natural and recycled concrete aggregate is recommended. The proportion of slag that can be incorporated in the concrete needs to be optimized, as does the grading of recycled aggregate. The potential for using silica fume in conjunction with slag is worth exploring as this may further enhance strength and durability. Longer-term durability studies are necessary and other pertinent properties of concrete that require investigation include damping characteristics, pullout strength, fatigue strength and risk of thermal cracking. The properties of sustainable concrete mixes need to be integrated with studies on the structural behavior of wind turbine foundations in order to determine the optimal mix design and to examine means of reducing conservatism and cost of foundations.

BERNDT,M.L.

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "roofing metal concrete" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Nuclear Concrete Materials Database Phase I Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The FY 2011 accomplishments in Phase I development of the Nuclear Concrete Materials Database to support the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program are summarized. The database has been developed using the ORNL materials database infrastructure established for the Gen IV Materials Handbook to achieve cost reduction and development efficiency. In this Phase I development, the database has been successfully designed and constructed to manage documents in the Portable Document Format generated from the Structural Materials Handbook that contains nuclear concrete materials data and related information. The completion of the Phase I database has established a solid foundation for Phase II development, in which a digital database will be designed and constructed to manage nuclear concrete materials data in various digitized formats to facilitate electronic and mathematical processing for analysis, modeling, and design applications.

Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Naus, Dan J [ORNL

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

A SIMULATION MODEL FOR THE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF ROOF POND SYSTEMS FOR HEATING AND COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tex. , 3rd Ann. Solar Heating & Cooling R&D Contractors'Proceedings, Passive Solar Heating & Cooling~'-~&-l~orkshop,Solar Jubilee, Phoenix, AZ, June 2-6, 1980 A SIMULATION MODEL FOR THE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF ROOF POND SYSTEMS FOR HEATING

Tavana, Medhi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Studies of Photovoltaic Roofing Systems at Wind Engineering and Fluids Laboratory at Colorado State University  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Studies of Photovoltaic Roofing Systems at Wind Engineering and Fluids Laboratory at Colorado State of photovoltaic technology to generate electricity. Various innovative systems incorporating photovoltaic panels and Fluids Laboratory (WEFL) at Colorado State University (CSU, www.windlab.colostate.edu) have been involved

324

Laying the Foundation for a Solar America: The Million Solar Roofs Initiative  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technology Program embarks on the next phase of its technology acceptance efforts under the Solar America Initiative, there is merit to examining the program's previous market transformation effort, the Million Solar Roofs Initiative. Its goal was to transform markets for distributed solar technologies by facilitating the installation of solar systems.

Strahs, G.; Tombari, C.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

GPU-based roofs' solar potential estimation using LiDAR data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar potential estimation using LiDAR data is an efficient approach for finding suitable roofs for photovoltaic systems' installations. As the amount of LiDAR data increases, the non-parallel methods take considerable time to accurately estimate the ... Keywords: CUDA, GPU, LiDAR, Solar potential

Niko Luka?, Borut Alik

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

TRANSPORT THROUGH CRACKED CONCRETE: LITERATURE REVIEW  

SciTech Connect

Concrete containment structures and cement-based fills and waste forms are used at the Savannah River Site to enhance the performance of shallow land disposal systems designed for containment of low-level radioactive waste. Understanding and measuring transport through cracked concrete is important for describing the initial condition of radioactive waste containment structures at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and for predicting performance of these structures over time. This report transmits the results of a literature review on transport through cracked concrete which was performed by Professor Jason Weiss, Purdue University per SRR0000678 (RFP-RQ00001029-WY). This review complements the NRC-sponsored literature review and assessment of factors relevant to performance of grouted systems for radioactive waste disposal. This review was performed by The Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX, and The University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen Scotland and was focused on tank closure. The objective of the literature review on transport through cracked concrete was to identify information in the open literature which can be applied to SRS transport models for cementitious containment structures, fills, and waste forms. In addition, the literature review was intended to: (1) Provide a framework for describing and classifying cracks in containment structures and cementitious materials used in radioactive waste disposal, (2) Document the state of knowledge and research related to transport through cracks in concrete for various exposure conditions, (3) Provide information or methodology for answering several specific questions related to cracking and transport in concrete, and (4) Provide information that can be used to design experiments on transport through cracked samples and actual structures.

Langton, C.

2012-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

327

Regional climate consequences of large-scale cool roof and photovoltaic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

climate consequences of large-scale cool roof and photovoltaic climate consequences of large-scale cool roof and photovoltaic array deployment Title Regional climate consequences of large-scale cool roof and photovoltaic array deployment Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2011 Authors Millstein, Dev, and Surabi Menon Journal Environmental Research Letters Volume 6 Start Page 1 Pagination 9 Date Published 07/2011 Keywords co2 offsets, cool roofs, photovoltaics, radiative forcing, urban environment Abstract Modifications to the surface albedo through the deployment of cool roofs and pavements (reflective materials) and photovoltaic arrays (low reflection) have the potential to change radiative forcing, surface temperatures, and regional weather patterns. In this work we investigate the regional climate and radiative effects of modifying surface albedo to mimic massive deployment of cool surfaces (roofs and pavements) and, separately, photovoltaic arrays across the United States. We use a fully coupled regional climate model, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, to investigate feedbacks between surface albedo changes, surface temperature, precipitation and average cloud cover. With the adoption of cool roofs and pavements, domain-wide annual average outgoing radiation increased by 0.16 ± 0.03 W m-2 (mean ± 95% C.I.) and afternoon summertime temperature in urban locations was reduced by 0.11-0.53 "C, although some urban areas showed no statistically significant temperature changes. In response to increased urban albedo, some rural locations showed summer afternoon temperature increases of up to +0.27 "C and these regions were correlated with less cloud cover and lower precipitation. The emissions offset obtained by this increase in outgoing radiation is calculated to be 3.3 ± 0.5 Gt CO2 (mean ± 95% C.I.). The hypothetical solar arrays were designed to be able to produce one terawatt of peak energy and were located in the Mojave Desert of California. To simulate the arrays, the desert surface albedo was darkened, causing local afternoon temperature increases of up to +0.4 "C. Due to the solar arrays, local and regional wind patterns within a 300 km radius were affected. Statistically significant but lower magnitude changes to temperature and radiation could be seen across the domain due to the introduction of the solar arrays. The addition of photovoltaic arrays caused no significant change to summertime outgoing radiation when averaged over the full domain, as interannual variation across the continent obscured more consistent local forcing.

328

Regional climate consequences of large-scale cool roof and photovoltaic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

climate consequences of large-scale cool roof and photovoltaic climate consequences of large-scale cool roof and photovoltaic array deployment Title Regional climate consequences of large-scale cool roof and photovoltaic array deployment Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2011 Authors Millstein, Dev, and Surabi Menon Journal Environmental Research Letters Volume 6 Start Page 1 Pagination 9 Date Published 07/2011 Keywords co2 offsets, cool roof, photovoltaics, radiative forcing, urban environment Abstract Modifications to the surface albedo through the deployment of cool roofs and pavements (reflective materials) and photovoltaic arrays (low reflection) have the potential to change radiative forcing, surface temperatures, and regional weather patterns. In this work we investigate the regional climate and radiative effects of modifying surface albedo to mimic massive deployment of cool surfaces (roofs and pavements) and, separately, photovoltaic arrays across the United States. We use a fully coupled regional climate model, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, to investigate feedbacks between surface albedo changes, surface temperature, precipitation and average cloud cover. With the adoption of cool roofs and pavements, domain-wide annual average outgoing radiation increased by 0.16 ± 0.03 W m-2 (mean ± 95% C.I.) and afternoon summertime temperature in urban locations was reduced by 0.11-0.53 "C, although some urban areas showed no statistically significant temperature changes. In response to increased urban albedo, some rural locations showed summer afternoon temperature increases of up to +0.27 "C and these regions were correlated with less cloud cover and lower precipitation. The emissions offset obtained by this increase in outgoing radiation is calculated to be 3.3 ± 0.5 Gt CO2 (mean ± 95% C.I.). The hypothetical solar arrays were designed to be able to produce one terawatt of peak energy and were located in the Mojave Desert of California. To simulate the arrays, the desert surface albedo was darkened, causing local afternoon temperature increases of up to +0.4 "C. Due to the solar arrays, local and regional wind patterns within a 300 km radius were affected. Statistically significant but lower magnitude changes to temperature and radiation could be seen across the domain due to the introduction of the solar arrays. The addition of photovoltaic arrays caused no significant change to summertime outgoing radiation when averaged over the full domain, as interannual variation across the continent obscured more consistent local forcing.

329

Maintenance-based design of concrete parking structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to determine what type of preventative maintenance for a concrete parking structure will produce the maximum economic benefit. Existing models for concrete deterioration are analyzed for their ...

Stoakes, Christopher D. (Christopher David)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Set in stone? A perspective on the concrete sustainability challenge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As the most abundant engineered material on Earth, concrete is essential to the physical infrastructure of all modern societies. There are no known materials that can replace concrete in terms of cost and availability. ...

Vliet, Krystyn Van J.

331

Material flow analysis of concrete in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Concrete is the second most consumed material in the world after water. Due to the sheer mass of concrete consumed annually and its associated resource and environmental impacts, improving the materials management of ...

Low, Man-Shi

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

The Complexity of Description Logics with Concrete Domains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Concrete Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2.4.1 Unary Concrete Domains and ALCf Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 3 Reasoning with ALCF(D) 41 3.1 Concept Satis#12;ability: ALCF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 4.3 The Upper Bound

Baader, Franz

333

The Complexity of Description Logics with Concrete Domains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Concrete Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2.4.1 Unary Concrete Domains and ALCf Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 3 Reasoning with ALCF(D) 41 3.1 Concept Satisfiability: ALCF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 4.3 The Upper Bound

Baader, Franz

334

NEXPTIME-Complete Description Logics with Concrete Domains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concrete domains are an extension of Description Logics (DLs) allowing to integrate reasoning about conceptual knowledge with reasoning about "concrete properties" of objects such as sizes, weights, and durations. It is known that reasoning with ALC(D), ...

Carsten Lutz

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Chloride-Exposed Steel-Reinforced Concrete Service Life ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chloride-Exposed Steel-Reinforced Concrete Service Life Prediction Program. Description/Summary: (Return to Cement ...

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

336

Predicting the Permeability of Pervious Concretes from Planar ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Permeability predictions for sand- clogged Portland cement pervious concrete pavement systems,” Journal of Environmental Management 81, 42 ...

2009-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

337

Best Practices Guide for High-Volume Fly Ash Concretes:  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Concrete Mixtures [7]. This online, interactive tool provides guidelines ... cement type (alkali level), opening time requirements, and paving weather. ...

2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

338

Experimental results of core-concrete interactions using molten steel with zirconium  

SciTech Connect

Four inductively sustained experiments, QT-D, QT-E, SURC-3, and SURC-3A, were performed in order to investigate the additional effects of zirconium metal oxidation on core debris-concrete interactions using molten stainless steel as the core debris simulant. The QT-D experiment ablated 18 cm of concrete axially during 50 minutes of interaction on limestone-common sand concrete using a 10 kg charge of 304 stainless steel to which 2 kg of zirconium metal was added subsequent to the onset of erosion. The QT-E experiment ablated 10 cm of limestone-common sand concrete axially and 10 cm radially during 35 minutes of sustained interaction using 50 kg of stainless steel and 10 kg of zirconium. The SURC-3 experiment had a 45 kg charge of stainless steel to which 1.1 kg of zirconium was subsequently added. SURC-3 axially eroded 33 cm of limestone concrete during two hours of interaction. The fourth experiment, SURC-3A, eroded 25 cm of limestone concrete axially and 9 cm radially during 90 minutes of sustained interaction. It utilized 40 kg of stainless steel and 2.2 kg of added zirconium as the charge material. All four experiments showed in a large increase in erosion rate, gas production, and aerosol release following the addition of Zr metal to the melt. In the SURC-3 and SURC-3A tests the measured erosion rates increased from 14 cm/hr to 27 cm/hr, gas release increased from 50 slpm to 100 slpm, and aerosol release increased from .02 q/sec to .04 q/sec. The effluent gas was composed of 80% CO, 10% CO{sub 2}, and 2% H{sub 2} before Zr addition and 92% CO, 4% CO{sub 2}, 4% H{sub 2} during the Zr interactions which lasted 10--20 minutes. Addition measurements indicated that the melt pool temperature ranged from 1600{degree}C--1800{degree} and that the aerosols produced were comprised primarily of Te and Fe oxides. 21 refs., 120 figs., 51 tabs.

Copus, E.R.; Blose, R.E.; Brockmann, J.E.; Gomez, R.D.; Lucero, D.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Investigation on Lightweight High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a study that developed an engineering data base on HVFA lightweight concrete. The investigation also identified potential problems that might be experienced in commercializing lightweight concrete production. The study was based on the use of high volume flyash (HVFA) in the concrete process.

1997-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

340

Center for By-Products Utilization Sustainable Concrete with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Products Utilization Geopolymer Concrete (GPC) · Proposed by Devidovits (1994) is an upcoming technology-friendly and sustainable. #12;Center for By-Products Utilization Geopolymer Concrete (cont'd) · Industrial byCenter for By-Products Utilization Sustainable Concrete with Industrial and Post-Consumer By

Saldin, Dilano

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "roofing metal concrete" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

A Hybrid Solution Approach for Ready-Mixed Concrete Delivery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Companies in the concrete industry are facing the following scheduling problem on a daily basis: Concrete produced at several plants has to be delivered at customers' construction sites using a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles in a timely, but cost-effective ... Keywords: hybrid approach, integer multicommodity flow, ready-mixed concrete delivery, variable neighborhood search

Verena Schmid; Karl F. Doerner; Richard F. Hartl; Martin W. P. Savelsbergh; Wolfgang Stoecher

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Reinforced concrete perforation and penetration simulation using AUTODYN-3D  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

3D hydrocode simulation on the perforation and penetration of reinforced concrete target has been performed. The simulation aims to examine the influence of the following constitutive models for concrete on a projectile's residual velocity: (1) constant-yield ... Keywords: Constitutive model, Hydrocode, Perforation, Projectile, Reinforced concrete

C. Y. Tham

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

NEXP TIME-complete description logics with concrete domains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concrete domains are an extension of Description Logics (DLs) that allow one to integrate reasoning about conceptual knowledge with reasoning about "concrete qualities" of real-world entities such as their sizes, weights, and durations. In this article, ... Keywords: Computational complexity, NExpTime-completeness, concrete domains, description logic, domino problem, post correspondence problem

Carsten Lutz

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Numerical simulations of oblique penetration into reinforced concrete targets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A dynamic constitutive model based on the tensile and the compressive damage models for concrete was developed and implemented into the three-dimensional finite element code, LS-DYNA. Numerical simulations of oblique penetration into reinforced concrete ... Keywords: Dynamic damage model, Numerical simulation, Oblique penetration, Reinforced concrete

Yan Liu; Fenglei Huang; Aie Ma

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Predict strength of rubberized concrete using atrificial neural network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, behaviour of rubberized concrete was modelled using artificial neural network ANN and obtained results were compared to experimental data. Experimental test include recycling 5, 10, 15 and 20% percentage of concrete aggregate with different ... Keywords: artificial neural network, multi linear regression, root mean square, rubberized concrete

A. Abdollahzadeh; R. Masoudnia; S. Aghababaei

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

A plastic damage approach for confined concrete  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are many situations in which it is necessary to increase the capacity of structures in use. This need maybe either for a change of use or because the structures have suffered some damage or have shown little resistance in case of extreme loads ... Keywords: Concrete, Confinement, Damage, Dilation, Fiber reinforced composites, Plasticity

B. M. Luccioni; V. C. Rougier

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Safety Concrete Principal Investigators: Hamlin Jennings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is to minimize casualties from large fragments of concrete propelled by a vehicle bomb detonated outside TO REDUCE BLAST-RELATED CASUALTIES Edward F. O'Neil, Hamlin Jennings, Jeffrey Thomas, Weiguo Shen, Toney materials. Jeffrey Thomas is a Professor of Civil Engineering whose primary research interest is the atomic

348

Types and Causes of Concrete Degradation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 2   Chemicals that deteriorate concrete...butter (a) Coconut oil (a) Cottonseed oil (a) Fish liquor (b) Mustard oil (a) Perchloric acid, 10% Potassium dichromate Potassium hydroxide (>20%) Rapeseed oil (a) Slaughterhouse waste (c) Sodium bisulfate Sodium bisulfite Sodium hydroxide (>20%) Sulfite liquor Sulfuric acid, 80% oleum (a) Tanning...

349

Implementation Plan and Initial Development of Nuclear Concrete Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Implementation Plan and Initial Development of Nuclear Concrete Implementation Plan and Initial Development of Nuclear Concrete Materials Database for Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Implementation Plan and Initial Development of Nuclear Concrete Materials Database for Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program The FY10 activities for development of a nuclear concrete materials database to support the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program are summarized. The database will be designed and constructed using the ORNL materials database infrastructure established for the Gen IV Materials Handbook to achieve cost reduction and development efficiency. In Phase I, a static database will be developed to manage searchable documents from the Structural Materials Handbook that contains information on nuclear concrete

350

Implementation Plan and Initial Development of Nuclear Concrete Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Implementation Plan and Initial Development of Nuclear Concrete Implementation Plan and Initial Development of Nuclear Concrete Materials Database for Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Implementation Plan and Initial Development of Nuclear Concrete Materials Database for Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program The FY10 activities for development of a nuclear concrete materials database to support the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program are summarized. The database will be designed and constructed using the ORNL materials database infrastructure established for the Gen IV Materials Handbook to achieve cost reduction and development efficiency. In Phase I, a static database will be developed to manage searchable documents from the Structural Materials Handbook that contains information on nuclear concrete

351

Diffusion and Leaching Behavior of Radionuclides in Category 3 Waste Encasement Concrete and Soil Fill Material – Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. The current plan for waste isolation consists of stacking low-level waste packages on a trench floor, surrounding the stacks with reinforced steel, and encasing these packages in concrete. These concrete-encased waste stacks are expected to vary in size with maximum dimensions of 6.4 m long, 2.7 m wide, and 4 m high. The waste stacks are expected to have a surrounding minimum thickness of 15 cm of concrete encasement. These concrete-encased waste packages are expected to withstand environmental exposure (solar radiation, temperature variations, and precipitation) until an interim soil cover or permanent closure cover is installed, and to remain largely intact thereafter. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The retardation factors for radionuclides contained in the waste packages can be determined from measurements of diffusion coefficients for these contaminants through concrete and fill material. Some of the mobilization scenarios include (1) potential leaching of waste form before permanent closure cover is installed; (2) after the cover installation, long-term diffusion of radionuclides from concrete waste form into surrounding fill material; (3) diffusion of radionuclides from contaminated soils into adjoining concrete encasement and clean fill material. Additionally, the rate of diffusion of radionuclides may be affected by the formation of structural cracks in concrete, the carbonation of the buried waste form, and any potential effect of metallic iron (in the form of rebars) on the mobility of radionuclides. The radionuclides iodine-129 ({sup 129}I), technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc), and uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) are identified as long-term dose contributors in Category 3 waste (Mann et al. 2001; Wood et al. 1995). Because of their anionic nature in aqueous solutions, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, and carbonate-complexed {sup 238}U may readily leach into the subsurface environment (Serne et al. 1989, 1992a, b, 1993, and 1995). The leachability and/or diffusion of radionuclide species must be measured to assess the long-term performance of waste grouts when contacted with vadose-zone pore water or groundwater. Although significant research has been conducted on the design and performance of cementitious waste forms, the current protocol conducted to assess radionuclide stability within these waste forms has been limited to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, Method 1311 Federal Registry (EPA 1992) and ANSI/ANS-16.1 leach test (ANSI 1986). These tests evaluate the performance under water-saturated conditions and do not evaluate the performance of cementitious waste forms within the context of waste repositories which are located within water-deficient vadose zones. Moreover, these tests assess only the diffusion of radionuclides from concrete waste forms and neglect evaluating the mechanisms of retention, stability of the waste form, and formation of secondary phases during weathering, which may serve as long-term secondary hosts for immobilization of radionuclides. The results of recent investigations conducted under arid and semi-arid conditions (Al-Khayat et al. 2002; Garrabrants et al. 2002; Garrabrants and Kosson 2003; Garrabrants et al. 2004; Gervais et al. 2004; Sanchez et al. 2002; Sanchez et al. 2003) provide valuable information suggesting structural and chemical changes to concrete waste forms which may affect contaminant containm

Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Powers, Laura; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Wood, Marcus I.

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

352

Global Cooling: Policies to Cool the World and Offset Global Warming from CO2 Using Reflective Roofs and Pavements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing the solar reflectance of the urban surface reduce its solar heat gain, lowers its temperatures, and decreases its outflow of thermal infrared radiation into the atmosphere. This process of 'negative radiative forcing' can help counter the effects of global warming. In addition, cool roofs reduce cooling-energy use in air conditioned buildings and increase comfort in unconditioned buildings; and cool roofs and cool pavements mitigate summer urban heat islands, improving outdoor air quality and comfort. Installing cool roofs and cool pavements in cities worldwide is a compelling win-win-win activity that can be undertaken immediately, outside of international negotiations to cap CO{sub 2} emissions. We propose an international campaign to use solar reflective materials when roofs and pavements are built or resurfaced in temperate and tropical regions.

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Rosenfeld, Arthur; Elliot, Matthew

2009-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

353

Neural Network Based on Ant Colony Clustering Algorithm Applied to Predict the Stability of the Roof in Coal Mining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The colliery roof collapse accident is one of the mine disasters .The influence factors have the characteristic of variety, non-linear, incertitude, etc., which make traditional neural prediction have to process a large amount of convoluted data. This ...

Xiaoyue Liu; Jiping Sun; Sumin Feng

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Performance of 3-Sun Mirror Modules on Sun Tracking Carousels on Flat Roof Buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Commercial buildings represent a near term market for cost competitive solar electric power provided installation costs and solar photovoltaic module costs can be reduced. JX Crystals has developed a carousel sun tracker that is prefabricated and can easily be deployed on building flat roof tops without roof penetration. JX Crystals is also developing 3-sun PV mirror modules where less expensive mirrors are substituted for two-thirds of the expensive single crystal silicon solar cell surface area. Carousels each with four 3-sun modules have been set up at two sites, specifically at Oak Ridge National Lab and at the University of Nevada in Las Vegas. The test results for these systems are presented.

Fraas, Dr. Lewis [JX Crystals, Inc.; Avery, James E. [JX Crystals, Inc.; Minkin, Leonid M [ORNL; Maxey, L Curt [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Hurt, Rick A [ORNL; Boehm, Robert F [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Barrel-shaped solar roofing element and method for its assembly  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a solar roofing system. It comprises a set of shingle comprising lower and upper flat plastic sheet members of extruded plastic spaced apart and sealed together to form fluid flow paths forming solar energy conversion means, the upper sheet of which is transparent to solar energy, interconnecting and overlapping structure for joining shingles together including structure for nailing through overlapped shingles into a roof surface, and means for interconnecting the solar energy conversion means comprising a flow path between the lower and upper plastic sheets for circulation of a liquid that may store heat when subjected to solar energy from a plurality of the shingles into a network for collecting accumulated solar energy.

Allegro, J.

1991-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

356

Laying the Foundation for a Solar America: The Million Solar Roofs Initiative  

SciTech Connect

As the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technology Program embarks on the next phase of its technology acceptance efforts under the Solar America Initiative, there is merit to examining the program's previous market transformation effort, the Million Solar Roofs Initiative. Its goal was to transform markets for distributed solar technologies by facilitating the installation of solar systems.

Strahs, G.; Tombari, C.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Predicting Current Serviceability And Residual Service Life Of Plywood Roof Sheathing Using  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report presents the findings and implications of a 10-year research program, carried out at the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, to develop kinetics-based service-life models for untreated and fire-retardant- (FR) treated plywood roof sheathing exposed to elevated in-service temperatures. This program was initiated because some FR-treated sheathing products were experiencing significant thermal degrade and needed to be replaced. This 10-year research program systematically identified the cause of the degradation and has resulted in new acceptance and performance standards and revisions to U.S. building codes. The strength loss was cumulatively related to FR chemistry, thermal exposure during pretreatment, treatment, and post-treatment processing, and in-service exposure. Quantitatively, a kinetics-based approach could be used to predict strength loss of plywood based on its time-- temperature exposure history. The research program then developed models to assess current condition, predict future hazard based on past service life, and predict residual serviceability of untreated and FR-treated plywood used as structural roof sheathing. Findings for each of these subjects are briefly described in this report. Results of research programs like this one can be used to extend the service life of wood by providing engineers with an estimate of residual serviceability and thereby avoiding premature removal. Many of the approaches in these kinetics-based servicelife models for plywood roof sheathing are directly applicable to the development of predictive durability models for wood and wood composite roof and wall sheathing that has been exposed to moisture and has eventually decayed. When those models are developed, they will help building code officials, ...

Kinetics-Based Models Je; Je Win; Y Pk Lebow; Jf Murphy; Usda Forest; Service Madison; Wisconsin Usa

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Reasoning with Concrete Domains Carsten Lutz  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and fea­ ture disagreement. This leads to the new logic ALCF(D), which combines ALC(D) with the logic ALCF problems for the logic ALCF(D) are given. Furthermore, the complexity of rea­ soning with ALCF(D) is formally analyzed. Since reason­ ing with ALCF(D) involves a satisfiability check for the concrete domain

Baader, Franz

359

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

360

Metal Aminoboranes  

Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "roofing metal concrete" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Accommodation of liquid metal by cavity liners  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Present liquid metal breeder reactor cell liner designs appear adequate to contain postulated leakages of lithium-lead alloy in an air or steam atmosphere and to contain lithium when inert atmospheres are present. If an air or steam atmosphere may be present in a cavity where lithium amy accumulate under postulated accident conditions, then consideration of stainless steel liners and further testing is recommended. Lithium testing of faulted liners should also be considered. SOFIRE II and WATRe computer codes may be useful in establishing liner design requirements and in determining water release from concrete behind the liners (potential hydrogen production) for postulated leakages to steel-lined concrete cavities.

Jeppson, D.W.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Goal 4 Long Life Pavement Rehabilitation Strategies-Rigid: Flexural Fatigue Life of Hydraulic Cement Concrete Beams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flexural Fatigue Life of Hydraulic Cement Concrete Beamsperformance of Fast-Setting Hydraulic Cement Concrete (and Thermal Expansion of Hydraulic Cement Concrete Mixes”,

Kohler, Erwin R.; Ali, Abdikarim; Harvey, John T

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Environmental and Corrosion Effects on Reinforced Concrete Foundations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The large number of transmission structures with concrete foundations that the electric industry maintains makes it important to develop efficient ways to monitor their condition and remediate damage, especially since the largest population of concrete foundations is 20-40 years old; and almost 40 of foundations are more than 40 years old. This report discusses the environmental and corrosion effects that affect steel-reinforced concrete foundations, including problems caused by poor construction, freezi...

2011-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

364

Cooling energy savings potential of light-colored roofs for residential and commercial buildings in 11 US metropolitan areas  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored this project to estimate potential energy and monetary savings resulting from the implementation of light-colored roofs on residential and commercial buildings in major U.S. metropolitan areas. Light-colored roofs reflect more sunlight than dark roofs, so they keep buildings cooler and reduce air-conditioning demand. Typically, rooftops in the United States are dark, and thus there is a potential for saving energy and money by changing to reflective roofs. Naturally, the expected savings are higher in southern, sunny, and cloudless climates. In this study, we make quantitative estimates of reduction in peak power demand and annual cooling electricity use that would result from increasing the reflectivity of the roofs. Since light-colored roofs also reflect heat in the winter, the estimates of annual electricity savings are a net value corrected for the increased wintertime energy use. Savings estimates only include direct reduction in building energy use and do not account for the indirect benefit that would also occur from the reduction in ambient temperature, i.e. a reduction in the heat island effect. This analysis is based on simulations of building energy use, using the DOE-2 building energy simulation program. Our methodology starts with specifying 11 prototypical buildings: single-family residential (old and new), office (old and new), retail store (old and new), school (primary and secondary), health (hospital and nursing home), and grocery store. Most prototypes are simulated with two heating systems: gas furnace and heat pumps. We then perform DOE-2 simulations of the prototypical buildings, with light and dark roofs, in a variety of climates and obtain estimates of the energy use for air conditioning and heating.

Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.; Gartland, L. [and others

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Evaluation of sustainable high-volume fly ash concretes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... All rights reserved. ... and by the concrete mixture proportions; in this scenario, one key con- crete material property is the energy generated within the ...

2013-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

366

Guidelines for identification of concrete in a materials property database  

SciTech Connect

Guidelines for the identification of concrete in a materials property database are presented to address the complex problem of distinguishing one concrete from another. These guidelines are based on a logical scheme for systematically organizing and subdividing data and information about concrete and its constituents; they reflect consensus recommendations for a multilevel material description and designation system. Aspects of the guidelines include a classification system used to establish a series of primary identifiers, methods for reporting constituent information and mixture proportions, fields describing the source of the concrete and its processing history, and recommendations for reporting baseline or reference properties.

Oland, C.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Engineering Technology Div.; Frohnsdorff, G. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

367

The use of gasification ash in cement and concrete.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Cement is an essential material in todays society because, as a major constituent of concrete, it forms a fundamental element of any housing or… (more)

Du Plessis, Hanli

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Risk-Based Radionuclide DCGLs for Concrete Slab End States  

– Argonne National Laboratory (DOE, NRC, EPA) Adjustment of Relevant Parameters and Exposure Factors – Concrete End-State vs. Soil (Preliminary Remediation Goals)

369

Saving Energy in Ready Mixed Concrete Production: An ENERGY STAR...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Saving Energy in Ready Mixed Concrete Production: An ENERGY STAR Quick Guide for Managing Energy Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility...

370

Studies of Tritium Characterization in Concrete at the ...  

Studies of Tritium Characterization in Concrete at the Savannah River Site Robert C. Hochel#, Elliot A. Clark* #Analytical Development, *Materials Science and Technology

371

Characterizing Blast and Impact of Long Carbon Fiber Reinforced Concrete.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The primary objective of the study was to investigate the blast and impact resistance of carbon fiber reinforced concrete. The impact resistance was assessed through… (more)

Musselman, Eric

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Concrete Industry Benefits from Ancient Romans and the ALS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the structure before it's immobilized. This process is important for the modern concrete industry because chloride corrosion of steel reinforcement is a major source of decay....

373

Concrete Industry Benefits from Ancient Romans and the ALS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

into the structure before it's immobilized. This process is important for the modern concrete industry because chloride corrosion of steel reinforcement is a major source of decay....

374

Thermal and environmental effects on fiber-reinforced polymer reinforcing bars and reinforced concrete elements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Corrosion of steel reinforcement in bridge decks results in high repair costs, unwanted traffic disruption, and unsafe structures. To help alleviate this problem, non-metallic fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) bars are being studied as an alternate type of reinforcement in bridge decks. In order to determine the suitability of the use of FRP bars, a number of tests have been performed on FRP bars to evaluate their long-term performance. These tests include uniaxial tension tests under a variety of environmental conditions and thermal expansion of the bars embedded in concrete. In an effort to characterize the FRP bars and to gain insight into their long-term performance, batteries of tests have been carried out. Samples from three different manufacturers were exposed under different environmental conditions and tested in uniaxial tension. For one of the bar types, the strength increased, while the other two bar types lost strength. In all cases, the modulus of the bars increased with exposure time. In addition, FRP reinforced concrete specimens were evaluated for thermal expansion. The results indicate that thermal cracking of the concrete by FRP bar expansion is not a significant problem.

Schaefer, Benjamin Carl

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Investigation of Uplift Pressures and Shear and Tensile Strengths for Concrete Gravity Dams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concrete gravity dam stability depends on the characteristics of the rock foundation, strength of the concrete-to-rock bond, concrete strength, and uplift pressure forces. This interim report describes, with examples, how to assess these factors.

1990-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

376

Development of a Reaction Signature for Combined Concrete Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although concrete is widely considered a very durable material, if conditions are such, it can be vulnerable to deterioration and early distress development. Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) is a major durability problem in concrete structures. It is a chemical reaction between the reactive silica existent in some types of rocks and alkali hydroxides in the concrete pore water. The product of this reaction is a gel that is hygroscopic in nature. When the gel absorbs moisture, it swells leading to tensile stresses in concrete. When those stresses exceed the tensile strength of concrete, cracks occur. The main objective of this study was to address a method of testing concrete materials as a combination to assist engineers to effectively mitigate ASR in concrete. The research approach involved capturing the combined effects of concrete materials (water cement ratio, porosity, supplementary cementitious materials, etc.) through a method of testing to allow the formulation of mixture combinations resistant to ASR leading to an increase in the life span of concrete structures. To achieve this objective, a comprehensive study on different types of aggregates of different reactivity was conducted to formulate a robust approach that takes into account the factors affecting ASR; such as, temperature, moisture, calcium concentration and alkalinity. A kinetic model was proposed to determine aggregate ASR characteristics which were calculated using the System Identification Method. Analysis of the results validates that ASR is a thermally activated process and therefore, the reactivity of an aggregate can be characterized in terms of its activation energy (Ea) using the Arrhenius equation. Statistical analysis was conducted to determine that the test protocol is highly repeatable and reliable. To relate the effect of material combinations to field performance, concrete samples with different w/cm?s and fly ash contents using selective aggregates were tested at different alkalinities. To combine aggregate and concrete characteristics, two models were proposed and combined. The first model predicts the Ea of the aggregate at levels of alkalinity similar to field conditions. The second model, generated using the Juarez- Badillo transform, connects the ultimate expansion of the concrete and aggregate, the water cement ratio, and the fly ash content to the Ea of the rock. The proposed models were validated through laboratory tests. To develop concrete mixtures highly resistant to ASR, a sequence of steps to determine threshold total alkali in concrete were presented with examples. It is expected that the knowledge gained through this work will assist government agencies, contractors, and material engineers, to select the optimum mixture combinations that fits best their needs or type of applications, and predict their effects on the concrete performance in the field.

Ghanem, Hassan A.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

378

An approach for modelling concrete spalling in finite strains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new approach for modelling concrete spalling process is here proposed, taking into account a fully nonlinear-displacement/strain theory able to catch complex interactions between pressure, thermal and mechanical fields. The micro-structural modelling ... Keywords: Concrete spalling, Finite strains, Micro-structural modelling

C. E. Majorana; V. A. Salomoni; G. Mazzucco; G. A. Khoury

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete is described wherein the phosphoric acid is reacted with Ca(OH)/sub 2/ to form a precipitate of hydroxyapatite and the hydroxyapatite is mixed with Portland cement to form concrete.

Wolf, G.A.; Smith, J.W.; Ihle, N.C.

1982-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

380

Concrete Characterization and Dose Modeling During Plant Decommissioning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several U.S. nuclear power plants entered decommissioning in the 1990's. The cost effective characterization of contaminated concrete remains a challenge for plants currently undergoing decommissioning. This report provides detailed information on projects involving the characterization, dose modeling, remediation and disposal of contaminated concrete at a number of plants undergoing decommissioning.

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "roofing metal concrete" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete is described wherein the phosphoric acid is reacted with Ca(OH).sub.2 to form a precipitate of hydroxyapatite and the hydroxyapatite is mixed with portland cement to form concrete.

Wolf, Gary A. (Kennewick, WA); Smith, Jeffrey W. (Lancaster, OH); Ihle, Nathan C. (Walla Walla, WA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

The feasibility of modern technologies for reinforced concrete containment structures of nuclear power plants.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This report explores the requirements for the design and analysis of concrete containment and shows how newer material technologies such as self-consolidating concrete (SCC) and… (more)

Czerniewski, Sarah

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

EVALUATION OF THE DURABILITY OF THE STRUCTURAL CONCRETE OF REACTOR BUILDINGS AT SRS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) intends to close 100-150 facilities in the DOE complex using an in situ decommissioning (ISD) strategy that calls for grouting the below-grade interior volume of the structure and leaving the above-grade interior open or demolishing it and disposing of it in the slit trenches in E Area. These closures are expected to persist and remain stable for centuries, but there are neither facility-specific monitoring approaches nor studies on the rate of deterioration of the materials used in the original construction or on the ISD components added during closure (caps, sloped roofs, etc). This report will focus on the evaluation of the actual aging/degradation of the materials of construction used in the ISD structures at Savannah River Site (SRS) above grade, specifically P & R reactor buildings. Concrete blocks (six 2 to 5 ton blocks) removed from the outer wall of the P Reactor Building were turned over to SRNL as the first source for concrete cores. Larger cores were received as a result of grouting activities in P and R reactor facilities. The cores were sectioned and evaluated using microscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), ion chromatography (IC) and thermal analysis. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the aggregate and cement phases present in the concrete are consistent with the mix design and no degradation mechanisms are evident at the aggregate-cement interfaces. Samples of the cores were digested and analyzed for chloride ingress as well as sulfate attack. The concentrations of chloride and sulfate ions did not exceed the limits of the mix design and there is no indication of any degradation due to these mechanisms. Thermal analysis on samples taken along the longitudinal axis of the cores show that there is a 1 inch carbonation layer (i.e., no portlandite) present in the interior wall of the reactor building and a negligible carbonation layer in the exterior wall. A mixed layer of carbonate and portlandite extends deeper into the interior (2-3 inches) and exterior (1-2 inches) walls. This is more extensive than measured in previous SRS structures. Once the completely carbonated layer reaches the rebar that is approximately 2-3 inches into the concrete wall, the steel is susceptible to corrosion. The growth rate of the carbonated layer was estimated from current observations and previous studies. Based on the estimated carbonation rate, the steel rebar should be protected from carbonation induced corrosion for at least another 100 years. If degradation of these structures is dominated by the carbonation mechanism, the length of time before water intrusion is expected into the process room of P-reactor is estimated to be between 425-675 years.

Duncan, A.; Reigel, M.

2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

384

Review of Concrete Biodeterioration in Relation to Buried Nuclear Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Long-term storage of low level radioactive material in below ground concrete disposal units (DUs) (Saltstone Disposal Facility) is a means of depositing wastes generated from nuclear operations of the U.S. Department of Energy. Based on the currently modeled degradation mechanisms, possible microbial induced effects on the structural integrity of buried low level wastes must be addressed. Previous international efforts related to microbial impacts on concrete structures that house low level radioactive waste showed that microbial activity can play a significant role in the process of concrete degradation and ultimately structural deterioration. This literature review examines the recent research in this field and is focused on specific parameters that are applicable to modeling and prediction of the fate of concrete vaults housing stored wastes and the wastes themselves. Rates of concrete biodegradation vary with the environmental conditions, illustrating a need to understand the bioavailability of key compounds involved in microbial activity. Specific parameters require pH and osmotic pressure to be within a certain range to allow for microbial growth as well as the availability and abundance of energy sources like components involved in sulfur, iron and nitrogen oxidation. Carbon flow and availability are also factors to consider in predicting concrete biodegradation. The results of this review suggest that microbial activity in Saltstone, (grouted low level radioactive waste) is unlikely due to very high pH and osmotic pressure. Biodegradation of the concrete vaults housing the radioactive waste however, is a possibility. The rate and degree of concrete biodegradation is dependent on numerous physical, chemical and biological parameters. Results from this review point to parameters to focus on for modeling activities and also, possible options for mitigation that would minimize concrete biodegradation. In addition, key chemical components that drive microbial activity on concrete surfaces are discussed.

Turick, C; Berry, C.

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

385

Diamond Shaving of Contaminated Concrete Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Decommissioning and decontamination of existing facilities presents technological challenges. One major challenge is the removal of surface contamination from concrete floors and walls while eliminating the spread of contamination and volumetric reduction of the waste stream. Numerous methods have been tried with a varying degree of success. Recent technology has made this goal achievable and has been used successfully. This new technology is the Diamond Floor Shaver and Diamond Wall shaver. The Diamond Floor Shaver is a self-propelled, walk behind machine that literally shaves the contaminated concrete surface to specified depths. This is accomplished by using a patented system of 100 dry cutting diamond blades with offset diamond segments that interlock to provide complete shaving of the concrete surface. Grooves are eliminated which allows for a direct frisk reading to analyze results. When attached to an appropriate size vacuum, the dust produced is 100% contained. Dust is collected in drums ready for disposition and disposal. The waste produced in shaving 7,500 square feet at 1/8 inch thickness would fill a single 55 gallon drum. Production is dependent on depth of shaving but averages 100 square feet per hour. The wall shaver uses the same patented diamond drum and blades but is hydraulically driven and is deployed using a robotic arm allowing its operation to be to totally remote. It can reach ceilings as high as 20 feet. Numerous small projects were successfully completed using this technology. Large scale deployment came in 2003. Bluegrass, in conjunction with Bartlett Services, deployed this technology to support decontamination activities for closing of the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons site. Up to six floor shavers and one wall shaver were deployed in buildings B371 and B374. These buildings had up to one half-inch, fixed plutonium and beryllium contamination. Hundred-thousands of square feet of floors and walls were shaved successfully to depths of up to one half inch. Decontamination efforts were so successful the balance of the buildings could be demolished using conventional methods. The shavers helped keep the project on schedule while the vacuum system eliminated the potential for contaminants becoming airborne.

Mullen, Lisa K. [Bluegrass Concrete Cutting Inc., 107 Mildred Street PO Box 427, Greenville, Alabama 36037 (United States)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

386

Moisture studies of a self-drying roof: Tests in the large scale climate simulator and results from thermal and hygric models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simultaneous experiments on the moisture behavior of six low-slope roof systems were performed in a climate simulator. The systems comprised a self-drying design over a conventional metal deck, a self-drying design over a significantly more permeable slotted metal deck and four others over conventional metal decks: a system typical of US construction with a liquid water permeable vapor retarder, a system typical of European construction with a liquid water permeable vapor retarder, a top-ventilated system with a polyethylene vapor retarder, and an impermeable control system with a polyethylene vapor retarder. Total weight of each test panel was measured and recorded continuously, along with temperatures and heat fluxes, to compare the behavior of the various systems. The authors imposed steady-state temperatures from hot summer to cold winter conditions to obtain the R-values of the construction dry insulations in each panel. Temperature cycles typical of hot summer days and mild winter days were then imposed above the construction dry assemblies to obtain baseline diurnal performance. The authors applied a one-dimensional thermal and hygric model. The solid and slotted deck were assumed to differ only in water vapor permeance. A model was not attempted for the top-ventilated system. The 1-D model predicted very well the slow rates of wetting in the winter cycles and both the slow then fast rates of drying in the summer cycles before and after water addition, except it overpredicted the drying rate for the US construction with a liquid water permeable vapor retarder.

Desjarlais, A.O.; Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.; Atchley, J.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance. 6 figs.

Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

1998-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

388

Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance.

Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Ductility of lightly reinforced concrete hydraulic structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the past, intake towers built by the Corp of Engineers were designed without consideration of seismic effects. This study investigates an economic approach to determining the ductility of an existing lightly reinforced concrete hydraulic structure. An intake tower, typical of older structure, with reinforcing steel ratios below code specified minimums was selected and modeled using DRAIN-2DX, a dynamic analysis program for personal computers which incorporates the effects of inelastic deformation. The analyses, performed with three separate earthquake acceleration time histories for various model conditions, produced a range of ductility values. The results indicate that ductility is facilitated by the presence of in-plane walls. However, the calculated ductility values may be exaggerated due to the elastic panel elements in the model which redistribute loads away from yielded sections. Also, larger ductility values were calculated for reservoirs with water than for empty reservoirs.

Raines, Amy Lynette

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Concrete Industry Benefits from Ancient Romans and the ALS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Concrete Industry Benefits from Concrete Industry Benefits from Ancient Romans and the ALS Concrete Industry Benefits from Ancient Romans and the ALS Print Thursday, 17 October 2013 14:24 Cement production - the mainstay of the modern concrete industry - is one of the primary sources of carbon dioxide emissions worldwide. Making cement essentially requires burning rock, an extremely energy-intensive process that releases a large amount of carbon into the atmosphere. In an effort to reduce its carbon footprint, the industry has begun to move toward new concrete "recipes" that incorporate environmentally friendly supplemental cementitious materials (SCMs), which partially replace Portland cement and reduce its use. The challenge is to maintain, or even increase, the end product's strength and durability while becoming more environmentally sustainable. Ancient Rome, without the impetus of modern environmental concerns, had a lot of this figured out. New insights into the Romans' ingenious concrete harbor structures now emerging from ALS beamline research could move the modern concrete industry toward its goal.

391

Concrete Industry Benefits from Ancient Romans and the ALS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Concrete Industry Benefits from Concrete Industry Benefits from Ancient Romans and the ALS Concrete Industry Benefits from Ancient Romans and the ALS Print Thursday, 17 October 2013 14:24 Cement production - the mainstay of the modern concrete industry - is one of the primary sources of carbon dioxide emissions worldwide. Making cement essentially requires burning rock, an extremely energy-intensive process that releases a large amount of carbon into the atmosphere. In an effort to reduce its carbon footprint, the industry has begun to move toward new concrete "recipes" that incorporate environmentally friendly supplemental cementitious materials (SCMs), which partially replace Portland cement and reduce its use. The challenge is to maintain, or even increase, the end product's strength and durability while becoming more environmentally sustainable. Ancient Rome, without the impetus of modern environmental concerns, had a lot of this figured out. New insights into the Romans' ingenious concrete harbor structures now emerging from ALS beamline research could move the modern concrete industry toward its goal.

392

Metal Aminoboranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Metal Aminoboranes Metal Aminoboranes Metal Aminoboranes Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. June 25, 2013 Metal Aminoboranes Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Metal Aminoboranes Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction product can react with hydrogen to form a hydrogen storage material. Metal aminoboranes can be included in a kit. U.S. Patent No.: 7,713,506 (DOE S-112,798)

393

Interaction of hot solid core debris with concrete  

SciTech Connect

The Hot Solid program is intended to measure, model, and assess the thermal, gas evolution, and fission product source terms produced as a consequence of hot, solid, core debris-concrete interactions. Two preliminary experiments, HSS-1 and HSS-3, were performed in order to compare hot solid UO/sub 2/-concrete and hot solid steel-concrete interactions. The HSS-1 experiment ablated 6 cm of limestone-common sand concrete in a little more than three hours using a 9 kg slug of 304 stainless steel at an average debris temperature of 1350/sup 0/C. The HSS-3 experiment ablated 6.5 cm of limestone-common sand concrete in four hours using a 10 kg slug of 80% UO/sub 2/-20% ZrO/sub 2/ at an average debris temperature of 1650/sup 0/C. Both experiments were inductively heated and contained in a 22 cm alumina sleeve to simulate one-dimensional axial erosion. The HOTROX computer code model was evaluated using the results from the HSS tests. HOTROX is a 1-D concrete ablation model that calculates transient conduction and gas release in the concrete as well as heatup of the hot solid slug. Using the HSS-1 power input history and geometry, HOTROX calculates 6.2 cm of concrete erosion in 200 minutes. Using the HSS-3 input conditions, HOTROX predicts 6.8 cm of erosion in 190 minutes. These results compare favorably with the experimental erosion rates. The calculated thermal response of the concrete is also close to experimentally measured values. The information from the Hot Solid Program will be used both to expand the post-accident phenomena data base and to extend the range of applicability of current accident analysis computer models such as CORCON and CONTAIN.

Copus, E.R.; Bradley, D.R.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Effect of Aggregate Specification in Heavy Concrete for Fusion Reactor Shield on Neutron Dose Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effect of Aggregate Specification in Heavy Concrete for Fusion Reactor Shield on Neutron Dose Evaluation

Murata, I; Takahashi, A

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Project Overcoat - An Exploration of Exterior Insulation Strategies for 1-1/2-Story Roof Applications in Cold Climates  

SciTech Connect

The development of an alternative method to interior-applied insulation strategies or exterior applied 'band-aids' such as heat tapes and ice belts may help reduce energy needs of millions of 1-1/2 story homes while reducing the risk of ice dam formation. A potential strategy for energy improvement of the roof is borrowed from new construction best practices: Here an 'overcoat' of a continuous air, moisture, and thermal barrier is applied on the outside of the roof structure for improved overall performance. The continuous insulation of this approach facilitates a reduction in thermal bridging which could further reduce energy consumption and bring existing homes closer to meeting the Building America goals for energy reduction. Research favors an exterior approach to deep energy retrofits and ice dam prevention in existing homes. The greatest amount of research focuses on whole house deep energy retrofits leaving a void in roof-only applications. The research is also void of data supporting the hygrothermal performance, durability, constructability, and cost of roof-only exterior overcoat strategies. Yet, contractors interviewed for this report indicate an understanding that exterior approaches are most promising for mitigating ice dams and energy loss and are able to sell these strategies to homeowners.

Ojczyk, C.; Mosiman, G.; Huelman, P.; Schirber, T.; Yost, P.; Murry, T.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Roof-top solar energy potential under performance-based building energy codes: The case of Spain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The quantification at regional level of the amount of energy (for thermal uses and for electricity) that can be generated by using solar systems in buildings is hindered by the availability of data for roof area estimation. In this note, we build on an existing geo-referenced method for determining available roof area for solar facilities in Spain to produce a quantitative picture of the likely limits of roof-top solar energy. The installation of solar hot water systems (SHWS) and photovoltaic systems (PV) is considered. After satisfying up to 70% (if possible) of the service hot water demand in every municipality, PV systems are installed in the remaining roof area. Results show that, applying this performance-based criterion, SHWS would contribute up to 1662 ktoe/y of primary energy (or 68.5% of the total thermal-energy demand for service hot water), while PV systems would provide 10 T W h/y of electricity (or 4.0% of the total electricity demand). (author)

Izquierdo, Salvador; Montanes, Carlos; Dopazo, Cesar; Fueyo, Norberto [Fluid Mechanics Group, University of Zaragoza and LITEC (CSIC), Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

397

Measured energy savings and demand reduction from a reflective roof membrane on a large retail store in Austin  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we measured and documented summertime air-conditioning (a/c) daily energy savings and demand reduction from a reflective roof membrane retrofit on a large retail store in Austin, Texas. The original black rubber membrane was replaced with white thermoplastic resulting in a decrease in the average maximum roof surface temperature from 168 degrees F (76 degrees C) to 126 degrees F (52 degrees C). This building, with 100,000ft2 (9300m2) of roof area, yielded 3.6Wh/ft2 (39Wh/m2) in a/c average daily energy savings and 0.35W/ft2 (3.8W/m2) in average reduced demand. Total a/c annual abated energy and demand expenditures were estimated to be $7200 or $0.072/ft2 ($0.77/m2). Based on cost data provided by the building manager, the payback is instantaneous with negligible incremental combined labor and material costs. The estimated present value of future abated expenditures ranged from $62,000 to $71,000 over the baseline 13-year service life of the roof membrane.

Konopacki, Steven J.; Akbari, Hashem

2001-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

398

Numerical evaluation of convex-roof entanglement measures with applications to spin rings  

SciTech Connect

We present two ready-to-use numerical algorithms to evaluate convex-roof extensions of arbitrary pure-state entanglement monotones. Their implementation leaves the user merely with the task of calculating derivatives of the respective pure-state measure. We provide numerical tests of the algorithms and demonstrate their good convergence properties. We further employ them in order to investigate the entanglement in particular few-spins systems at finite temperature. Namely, we consider ferromagnetic Heisenberg exchange-coupled spin-(1/2) rings subject to an inhomogeneous in-plane field geometry obeying full rotational symmetry around the axis perpendicular to the ring through its center. We demonstrate that highly entangled states can be obtained in these systems at sufficiently low temperatures and by tuning the strength of a magnetic field configuration to an optimal value which is identified numerically.

Roethlisberger, Beat; Lehmann, Joerg; Loss, Daniel [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

Effects of Soiling and Cleaning on the Reflectance and Solar HeatGain of a Light-Colored Roofing Membrane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A roof with high solar reflectance and high thermalemittance (e.g., a white roof) stays coolin the sun, reducing coolingpower demand in a conditioned building and increasing comfort in anunconditioned building. The high initial solar reflectance of a whitemembrane roof (circa 0.8) can be degraded by deposition of soot, dust,and/or algae to about 0.6 (range 0.3 to 0.8, depending on exposure) Weinvestigate the effects of soiling and cleaning on the solar spectralreflectance and solar absorptance of 15 initially white or light-graymembrane samples taken from roofs across the United States. Soot andorganic carbon were the two identifiable strongly absorbing contaminantson the membranes. Wiping was effective at removing soot, and less so atremoving organic carbon. Rinsing and/or washing removed nearly all of theremaining soil layer, with the exceptions of (a) thin layers of organiccarbon and (b) isolated dark spots of algae. Bleach was required toremove the last two features. The ratio of solar reflectance to unsoiledsolar reflectance (a measure of cleanliness) ranged from 0.41 to 0.89 forthe soiled samples; 0.53to 0.95 for the wiped samples; 0.74 to 0.98 forthe rinsed samples; 0.79 to 1.00 for the washed samples; and 0.94 to 1.02for the bleached samples. However, the influence of membrane soiling andcleaning on roof heat gain is better gauged by variations in solarabsorptance. Relative solar absorptances (indicating solar heat gainrelative to that of the unsoiled membrane) ranged from 1.4 to 3.5 for thesoiled samples; 1.1 to 3.1 for the wiped samples; 1.0 to 2.0 for therinsed samples; 1.0 to 1.9 for the washed samples; and 0.9 to 1.3 for thebleached samples.

Levinson, Ronnen; Berdahl, Paul; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw; Akbari,Hashem

2005-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

400

Roof shading and wall glazing techniques for reducing peak building heating and cooling loads. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The roof shading device proved to be effective in reducing peak building cooling loads under both actual testing conditions and in selected computer simulations. The magnitude of cooling load reductions varied from case to case depending on individual circumstances. Key variables that had significant impacts on its thermal performance were the number of months of use annually, the thermal characteristics of the roof construction, hours of building use, and internal gains. Key variables that had significant impacts upon economic performance were the costs of fuel energy for heating and cooling, and heating and cooling equipment efficiency. In general, the more sensitive the building is to climate, the more effective the shading device will be. In the example case, the annual fuel savings ($.05 psf) were 6 to 10% of the estimated installation costs ($.50 to .75 psf). The Trombe wall installation at Roxborough High School proved to be effective in collecting and delivering significant amounts of solar heat energy. It was also effective in conserving heat energy by replacing obsolete windows which leaked large amounts of heat from the building. Cost values were computed for both solar energy contributions and for heat loss reductions by window replacement. Together they amount to an estimated three hundred and ninety dollars ($390.00) per year in equivalent electric fuel costs. When these savings are compared with installation cost figures it is apparent that the Trombe wall installation as designed and installed presents a potentially cost-effective method of saving fuel costs. The study results indicate that improved Trombe wall efficiency can be achieved by making design and construction changes to reduce or eliminate outside air leakage into the system and provide automatic fan control.

Ueland, M.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "roofing metal concrete" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specifications required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs.

Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specification required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs. 33 figs.

Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

1998-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

403

Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specification required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs.

Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specifications required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs. 33 figs.

Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

405

Viscosity Modifiers to Enhance Concrete Performance Dale P. ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... For the concrete, the LWA sand (an expanded shale) had a pre-wetted specific gravity of 1.7, an absorption of 25 % by dry mass, and a ...

2011-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

406

The Complexity of Reasoning with Concrete Domains Revised Version  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Description logics are knowledge representation and reasoning formalisms which represent conceptual knowledge on an abstract logical level. Concrete domains are a theoretically well-founded approach to the integration of description logic reasoning with ...

C. Lutz

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Life cycle assessment of concrete pavements : impacts and opportunities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The concrete pavement network in the United States plays a crucial role in the economy by enabling the transport of people and goods, but it also leads to resource consumption and environmental impacts. This thesis is ...

Loijos, Alex (Alexander Nikos)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Design of wind turbines with Ultra-High Performance Concrete  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) has proven an asset for bridge design as it significantly reduces costs. However, UHPC has not been applied yet to wind turbine technology. Design codes do not propose any recommendations ...

Jammes, François-Xavier

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Technological rules and constraints affecting design of precast concrete housing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Precast concrete technology is of great importance in multifamily housing. This technology provides the possibility to the industrialize housing construction and thus enhance the availability and quality of houses. With ...

Nakamura, Takashi

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Dynamic analysis of concrete coupled wall structures : a parametric study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Concrete coupled wall structure is a system that can efficiently dissipate energy under the effect of lateral loads. It has been widely used in medium height buildings for several decades. While researchers have conducted ...

Huang, Elaine Annabelle, 1981-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

OECD/MCCI 2-D Core Concrete Interaction (CCI) tests : final report February 28, 2006.  

SciTech Connect

Although extensive research has been conducted over the last several years in the areas of Core-Concrete Interaction (CCI) and debris coolability, two important issues warrant further investigation. The first issue concerns the effectiveness of water in terminating a CCI by flooding the interacting masses from above, thereby quenching the molten core debris and rendering it permanently coolable. This safety issue was investigated in the EPRI-sponsored Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program. The approach was to conduct large scale, integral-type reactor materials experiments with core melt masses ranging up to two metric tons. These experiments provided unique, and for the most part repeatable, indications of heat transfer mechanism(s) that could provide long term debris cooling. However, the results did not demonstrate definitively that a melt would always be completely quenched. This was due to the fact that the crust anchored to the test section sidewalls in every test, which led to melt/crust separation, even at the largest test section lateral span of 1.20 m. This decoupling is not expected for a typical reactor cavity, which has a span of 5-6 m. Even though the crust may mechanically bond to the reactor cavity walls, the weight of the coolant and the crust itself is expected to periodically fracture the crust and restore contact with the melt. Although crust fracturing does not ensure that coolability will be achieved, it nonetheless provides a pathway for water to recontact the underlying melt, thereby allowing other debris cooling mechanisms to proceed. A related task of the current program, which is not addressed in this particular report, is to measure crust strength to check the hypothesis that a corium crust would not be strong enough to sustain melt/crust separation in a plant accident. The second important issue concerns long-term, two-dimensional concrete ablation by a prototypic core oxide melt. As discussed by Foit the existing reactor material database for dry cavity conditions is solely one-dimensional. Although the MACE Scoping Test was carried out with a two-dimensional concrete cavity, the interaction was flooded soon after ablation was initiated to investigate debris coolability. Moreover, due to the scoping nature of this test, the apparatus was minimally instrumented and therefore the results are of limited value from the code validation viewpoint. Aside from the MACE program, the COTELS test series also investigated 2-D CCI under flooded cavity conditions. However, the input power density for these tests was quite high relative to the prototypic case. Finally, the BETA test series provided valuable data on 2-D core concrete interaction under dry cavity conditions, but these tests focused on investigating the interaction of the metallic (steel) phase with concrete. Due to these limitations, there is significant uncertainty in the partition of energy dissipated for the ablation of concrete in the lateral and axial directions under dry cavity conditions for the case of a core oxide melt. Accurate knowledge of this 'power split' is important in the evaluation of the consequences of an ex-vessel severe accident; e.g., lateral erosion can undermine containment structures, while axial erosion can penetrate the basemat, leading to ground contamination and/or possible containment bypass. As a result of this uncertainty, there are still substantial differences among computer codes in the prediction of 2-D cavity erosion behavior under both wet and dry cavity conditions. In light of the above issues, the OECD-sponsored Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction (MCCI) program was initiated at Argonne National Laboratory. The project conducted reactor materials experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following technical objectives: (1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue through a program that focused on providing both confirmatory evidence and test data for the coolability mechanisms identified in MACE integral effects tests, and (2) address remaining uncertainties relat

Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (NRC)

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

412

Centrifuge Modeling and Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains general background information on centrifuge experimentation and linear elastic fracture mechanics pertaining to concrete gravity dam models, and explains in detail the experimental methodology and procedures developed for testing concrete gravity dam models in centrifuges. An important detail in the experimental procedure is that the models are loaded upstream with water and, at fracture, have water uplift pressure within any cracks. Finally, test results and comparisons to analytic...

1995-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

413

Identification of Concrete Incompatibilities Using Cement Paste Rheology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The complex interaction between cement and chemical/mineral admixtures in concrete mixtures sometimes leads to unpredictable concrete performance in the field which is generally defined as concrete incompatibilities. Cement paste rheology measurements instead of traditional workability tests (i.e., slump cone test) can have great potential in detecting those incompatibilities in concrete before the concrete is placed, which can, in turn, avoid related workability problems and setting time as well as heat evolution abnormalities. The objectives of the present study were to examine the applicability of the dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) to measure cement paste rheology, and to identify cement and mineral/chemical admixture incompatibilities, based on the determined rheological parameters. The DSR was modified and optimized for cement paste rheology measurements. Two different modes of operations (i.e., static and dynamic methods) with the modified DSR were investigated to measure representative rheological parameters as well as to identify cement and chemical/mineral admixture incompatibility. The conventional plastic viscosity and yield stress are measured in static mode and storage modulus curve, as a function of time, is measured in dynamic mode. The rate of change of plastic viscosity (RPV) as another static rheological parameter and the modeled magnitude parameter ?, from the dynamic rheological method, showed great potentialities as acceptance criteria to identify incompatible mixtures. The heat of hydration data from isothermal conduction calorimeter tests and setting time results for the studied mixtures have strongly supported the rheology based observations as supporting tools. Based on the main tests results, the acceptance criteria were set up using the rheological parameters in accordance with heat of hydration data. This will ultimately help material suppliers, concrete producers, and other users to detect problematic combinations of concrete ingredients before a given concrete mixture is placed.

Jang, Se Hoon

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Program on Technology Innovation: Nuclear Concrete Structures Aging Reference Manual  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI has been proactive in researching concrete degradation in nuclear plants in recent years, with a focus on anticipated future regulatory mandates regarding relicensing beyond 60 years operation (long-term operation). The comprehensive treatment of concrete degradation provided in this report will be used to guide research and development activities. EPRI is currently working to address such issues to benefit the industry and will continue to do so.

2011-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

415

Modeling of Molten Core Concrete Interactions and Fission Product Release  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study of molten core concrete interactions is important in estimating the possible consequences of a severe nuclear reactor accident. CORCON-Mod2 is a computer program that models the thermal, chemical, and physical phenomena associated with molten core concrete interactions. Models have been added to extend the modeling of these phenomena. An ideal solution chemical equilibrium methodology predicts the fission product vaporization release. Additional chemical species have been added, and the calcula...

1994-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

416

Effect of Concrete Waste Form Properties on Radionuclide Migration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation) the mechanism of contaminant release, the significance of contaminant release pathways, how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility, the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility, the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. Numerous sets of tests were initiated in fiscal years (FY) 2006-2009 to evaluate (1) diffusion of iodine (I) and technetium (Tc) from concrete into uncontaminated soil after 1 and 2 years, (2) I and rhenium (Re) diffusion from contaminated soil into fractured concrete, (3) I and Re (set 1) and Tc (set 2) diffusion from fractured concrete into uncontaminated soil, (4) evaluate the moisture distribution profile within the sediment half-cell, (5) the reactivity and speciation of uranium (VI) (U(VI)) compounds in concrete porewaters, (6) the rate of dissolution of concrete monoliths, and (7) the diffusion of simulated tank waste into concrete.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Skinner, De'Chauna J.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Wood, Marcus I.

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

417

Use of Brazilian sugarcane bagasse ash in concrete as sand replacement  

SciTech Connect

Sugarcane today plays a major role in the worldwide economy, and Brazil is the leading producer of sugar and alcohol, which are important international commodities. The production process generates bagasse as a waste, which is used as fuel to stoke boilers that produce steam for electricity cogeneration. The final product of this burning is residual sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA), which is normally used as fertilizer in sugarcane plantations. Ash stands out among agroindustrial wastes because it results from energy generating processes. Many types of ash do not have hydraulic or pozzolanic reactivity, but can be used in civil construction as inert materials. The present study used ash collected from four sugar mills in the region of Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil, which is one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The ash samples were subjected to chemical characterization, sieve analysis, determination of specific gravity, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solubilization and leaching tests. Mortars and concretes with SBA as sand replacement were produced and tests were carried out: compressive strength, tensile strength and elastic modulus. The results indicated that the SBA samples presented physical properties similar to those of natural sand. Several heavy metals were found in the SBA samples, indicating the need to restrict its use as a fertilizer. The mortars produced with SBA in place of sand showed better mechanical results than the reference samples. SBA can be used as a partial substitute of sand in concretes made with cement slag-modified Portland cement.

Sales, Almir, E-mail: almir@ufscar.b [Department of Civil Engineering, UFSCar, Via Washington Luis, km 235, Monjolinho, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Lima, Sofia Araujo, E-mail: sofiaalima@yahoo.com.b [Department of Civil Engineering, UFSCar, Via Washington Luis, km 235, Monjolinho, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Application of Spray Foam Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing PROJECT aPPliCaTiON Construction: Existing homes with unvented cathedralized roofs. Type: Residential Climate Zones: All TEam mEmbERs Building Science Corporation www.buildingscience.com BASF www.basf.com Dow Chemical Company www.dow.com Honeywell http://honeywell.com Icynene www.icynene.com COdE COmPliaNCE 2012 International Code Council, International Residential Code Spray polyurethane foams (SPFs) have advantages over alternative insulation methods because they provide air sealing in complex assemblies, particularly roofs. Spray foam can provide the thermal, air, and vapor control layers in both new and retrofit construction. Unvented roof strategies with open cell and

419

DYNAMIC THERMALLY-DISCONNECTED BUILDING ENVELOPES A NEW PARADIGM FOR WALLS AND ROOFS IN LOW ENERGY BUILDINGS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes numerical and experimental analysis of a novel design concept. Traditionally the thermal design of building envelope assemblies is based on a static energy flow. However, building envelopes are subject to varying environmental conditions. This mismatch between the steady-state principles used in the design of roofs and walls and their dynamic operation results in relatively low thermal efficiency. Design work in support of the development of zero energy houses showed that conventional insulations may not be the most cost effective energy solution. Testing conducted on several strategies to thermally-disconnect wall and roof components showed 70% to 90% reductions in peak hour loads as compared to conventional building practice.

Miller, William A [ORNL; Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Bayesian prediction of modulus of elasticity of self consolidated concrete  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Current models of the modulus of elasticity, E , of concrete recommended by the American Concrete Institute (ACI) and the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) are derived only for normally vibrated concrete (NVC). Because self consolidated concrete (SCC) mixtures used today differ from NVC in the quantities and types of constituent materials, mineral additives, and chemical admixtures, the current models may not take into consideration the complexity of SCC, and thus they may predict the E of SCC inaccurately. Although some authors recommend specific models to predict the E of SCC, they include only a single variable of assumed importance, namely the compressive strength of concrete, c f ? . However there are other parameters that may need to be accounted for while developing a prediction model for the E of SCC. In this research, a Bayesian variable selection method is implemented to identify the significant parameters in predicting the E of SCC and more accurate models for the E are generated using these variables. The models have a parsimonious parameterization for ease of use in practice and properly account for the prevailing uncertainties.

Bhattacharjee, Chandan

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "roofing metal concrete" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Report on aging of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Structural Aging Program provides the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments of nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures. The program was organized under four task areas: Program Management, Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technology, and Quantitative Methodology for Continued Service Determinations. Under these tasks, over 90 papers and reports were prepared addressing pertinent aspects associated with aging management of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures. Contained in this report is a summary of program results in the form of information related to longevity of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, a Structural Materials Information Center presenting data and information on the time variation of concrete materials under the influence of environmental stressors and aging factors, in-service inspection and condition assessments techniques, repair materials and methods, evaluation of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current and future condition assessments. Recommendations for future activities are also provided. 308 refs., 61 figs., 50 tabs.

Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ellingwood, B.R. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Accommodation of liquid metal by cavity liners  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Present liquid metal breeder reactor cell liner designs appear adequate to contain postulated leakages of lithium-lead alloy in an air or steam atmosphere and to contain lithium when inert atmospheres are present. If an air or steam atmosphere may be present in a cavity where lithium may accumulate under postulated accident conditions, then consideration of stainless steel liners and further testing is recommended. Lithium testing of faulted liners should also be considered. SOFIRE II and WATRE computer codes may be useful in establishing liner design requirements and in determining water release from concrete behind the liners (potential hydrogen production) for postulated leakages to steel-lined concrete cavities. 1 ref., 10 figs.

Jeppson, D.W.

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Nondestructive Evaluation of Concrete Structures at BAM | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nondestructive Evaluation of Concrete Structures at BAM Nondestructive Evaluation of Concrete Structures at BAM Jan 17 2014 10:00 AM - 11:00 AM Dr. Herbert Wiggenhauser, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Berlin, Germany EESRD Seminar Weinberg Auditorium CONTACT : Email: Dwight Clayton Phone:865.576.8134 Add to Calendar SHARE NDT of concrete structures at BAM (Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing) in Berlin/Germany is focussed on the evaluation of structural properties in RC structures: Location of reinforcement, position of tendon ducts, condition of grouting in tendons, presence and location of honeycombs, sizing of cracks and others. These testing tasks are mainly solved using GPR (ground penetrating radar) and low frequency ultrasound pulse echo. Scanning and automation supports the evaluations and

424

Transient analysis of LMFBR reinforced/prestressed concrete containment  

SciTech Connect

The use of prestressed concrete reactor vessels (PCRVs) for LMFBR containment creates a need for analytical methods for treating the transient response of such structures, for LMFBR containment must be capable of sustaining the dynamic effects which arise in a hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA). These analyses require several unique features: a model of concrete which includes tensile cracking, a methodology for representing the prestressing tendons and for simulating the prestressing operation, and an efficient computational tool for treating the transient response. For the purpose of treating the transient response, a finite element program with explicit time integration was chosen. For the purpose of illustrating the applicability of these techniques and the validity of the models for concrete and the prestressing tendons, several example solutions are presented and compared with experimental results.

Marchertas, A.H.; Belytschko, T.B.; Bazant, Z.P.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

TEST METHOD FOR COEFFICIENT OF LINEAR THERMAL EXPANSION OF CONCRETE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This method covers the determination of the coefficient of linear thermal expansion of concrete test specimens by determinations of length change due to temperature changes. Because the thermal coefficient of concrete varies with moisture condition, being a minimum when saturated or oven dry and a maximum at about 70 percent saturated, it is important to select the relevant moisture condition for the tests to be made. 2. Apparatus 2.1. The apparatus shall consist of: 2.1.1 Heating Bath- A water bath in which concrete specimens can be maintained at a temperature of 140 ± 2 F (60 ± 1.1 C) (Note 1) 2.1.2 Cooling Bath- A water bath in which

unknown authors

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Light Metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alternative processes; Anode design and operation; Cell fundamentals and ... Hot-rolling technologies; Deformation of materials; Primary metal production.

427

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Nondestructive Evaluation for Concrete  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nondestructive Evaluation for Nondestructive Evaluation for Concrete Research and Development Roadmap Light Water Reactor Sustainability Nondestructive Evaluation for Concrete Research and Development Roadmap Materials issues are a key concern for the existing nuclear reactor fleet as material degradation can lead to increased maintenance, increased downtown, and increased risk. Extending reactor life to 60 years and beyond will likely increase susceptibility and severity of known forms of degradation. Additionally, new mechanisms of materials degradation are also possible. The purpose of the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend

428

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet on AddThis.com... Sept. 28, 2013 Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet

429

Lightweight concrete : investigations into the production of variable density cellular materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This research focuses on the intersection between material composition and form in the development of a new type of concrete. As concrete is the most widely used building material in the world, innovation in this material ...

Cooke, Timothy Graham

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

The Effect of Elevated Temperature on Concrete Materials and Structures - a Literature Review.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this limited study was to provide an overview of the effects of elevated temperature on the behavior of concrete materials and structures. In meeting this objective the effects of elevated temperatures on the properties of ordinary Portland cement concrete constituent materials and concretes are summarized. The effects of elevated temperature on high-strength concrete materials are noted and their performance compared to normal strength concretes. A review of concrete materials for elevated-temperature service is presented. Nuclear power plant and general civil engineering design codes are described. Design considerations and analytical techniques for evaluating the response of reinforced concrete structures to elevated-temperature conditions are presented. Pertinent studies in which reinforced concrete structural elements were subjected to elevated temperatures are described.

Naus, Dan J [ORNL

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Seismic Performance, Modeling, and Failure Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Structural Engineering, ASCE, V. 117, No. 5, pp. 1514-J. P. , (2007). Update to ASCE/SEI 41 Concrete Provisions.Model for Confined Concrete", ASCE Journal of Structural

Tuna, Zeynep

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Mercury Emissions from Curing Concretes that Contain Fly Ash and Activated Carbon Sorbents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents new laboratory data on the release of mercury from concrete containing fly ash and powdered activated carbon sorbents used to capture mercury. The concretes studied in this project were made with fly ashes from lignite and subbituminous coal, including fly ashes containing powdered activated carbon (PAC). Minute quantities of mercury were emitted from five concretes during the standard 28-day curing process and throughout an additional 28 days of curing for two of these concretes. Ge...

2006-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

433

Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Second technical progress report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

OAK-B135 Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Second technical progress report

Ulm, Franz-Josef

1999-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

434

Advanced Nuclear Technology: Quality Control of Concrete During Construction - Voids Detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main type of degradation of concrete structures during the construction of nuclear power plants has been the existence of honeycombs and voids due to inadequate concrete design and placement. The detection of these honeycombs and voids in concrete structures has been attempted with nondestructive evaluation technologies with limited success. The addition of steel-concrete construction techniques further complicates the ability of these technologies to ...

2012-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

435

Measurements of Accelerator-Produced Leakage Neutron and Photon Transmission through Concrete  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Optimum shielding of the radiation from particle accelerators requires knowledge of the attenuation characteristics of the shielding material. The most common material for shielding this radiation is concrete, which can be made using various materials of different densities as aggregates. These different concrete mixes can have very different attenuation characteristics. Information about the attenuation of leakage photons and neutrons in ordinary and heavy concrete is, however, very limited. To increase our knowledge and understanding of the radiation attenuation in concrete of various compositions, we have performed measurements of the transmission of leakage radiation, photons and neutrons, from a Varian Clinac 2100C medical linear accelerator operating at maximum electron energies of 6 and 18 MeV. We also calculated, using Monte Carlo techniques, the leakage neutron spectra and its transmission through concrete. The results of these measurements and calculations extend the information currently available for designing shielding for medical electron accelerators. Photon transmission characteristics depend more on the manufacturer of the concrete than on the atomic composition. A possible cause for this effect is a non-uniform distribution of the high density aggregate, typically iron, in the concrete matrix. Errors in estimated transmission of photons can exceed a factor of three, depending on barrier thickness, if attenuation in high-density concrete is simply scaled from that of normal density concrete. We found that neutron transmission through the high-density concretes can be estimated most reasonably and conservatively by using the linear tenth-value layer of normal concrete if specific values of the tenth-value layer of the high-density concrete are not known. The reason for this is that the neutron transmission depends primarily on the hydrogen content of the concrete, which does not significantly depend on concrete density. Errors of factors of two to more than ten, depending on barrier thickness, in the estimated transmission of neutrons through high-density concrete can be made if the attenuation is scaled by density from normal concrete.

Nelson, Walter R

2002-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

436

Sustainable Concrete with Industrial and Post-Consumer By-Products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with recycled-aggregates and fly ash shows no deleterious effect on the durability of reinforced concrete that the addition of residual solids in concrete enhances its durability properties in freezing and thawing(1), 91-100. Sonebi, M. (2004), "Medium strength self-compacting concrete containing fly ash: modeling

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

437

Mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete reinforced with polypropylene fibres  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and M. M. Hossain: `Abrasion resistance of high-strength concrete made with class C fly ash', ACI Mater, natural pozzolans and fly ash (FA), can be used to increase the viscosity and fresh concrete workability term durability and strength. Mix proportions Ten mixture compositions for each cubic metre of concrete

North Texas, University of

438

Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) Bendable Concrete Fracture MechanicsExperiments and Observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and normal concrete Figure 3. Tensile stress-strain behavior of fiber reinforced geopolymer [1] V.C. Li , "On reinforced geopolymer Property Fiber reinforced geopolymer Normal concrete Compressive strength (MPa) 17.4 40Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) ­ Bendable Concrete Fracture Mechanics

Li, Victor C.

439

Linseed Oil-Based Concrete Surface Treatment -for Building and Highway Structures in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Linseed Oil-Based Concrete Surface Treatment -for Building and Highway Structures in Hong Kong Y using jour Canadian linseed oil- based sealants on concrete specimens madejrom G30120 and G45120 Keywords: Unseed Oil, Concrete Surface Treatment, Salt Spray Resistance, Carbonation, Bond Strength, Ultra

440

Behaviour of the sustainable fiber reinforced concrete with recycled aggregate after loading  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an experimental investigation of fiber reinforced concrete made from construction and demolition waste - recycled concrete and masonry aggregate with and without polypropylene fibres. This work was aimed at evaluating physical - mechanical ... Keywords: composite material, ductility, fiber reinforced concrete, fibres, flexural strength, properties, pseudo-working diagram, splitting strength

Vladimira Vytlacilova

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "roofing metal concrete" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Seismic fracture analysis of concrete gravity dams including dam-reservoir interaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the seismic fracture response of concrete gravity dams is investigated with considering the effects of dam-reservoir interaction. A co-axial rotating crack model (CRCM), which includes the strain softening behavior, is selected for concrete ... Keywords: Concrete gravity dam, Dam-reservoir interaction, Non-linear analysis, Seismic fracture

Yusuf Calayir; Muhammet Karaton

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

ASSESSMENT OF RELEASE RATES FOR RADIONUCLIDES IN ACTIVATED CONCRETE.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Maine Yankee (MY) nuclear power plant is undergoing the process of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). Part of the process requires analyses that demonstrate that any radioactivity that remains after D&D will not cause exposure to radioactive contaminants to exceed acceptable limits. This requires knowledge of the distribution of radionuclides in the remaining material and their potential release mechanisms from the material to the contacting groundwater. In this study the concern involves radionuclide contamination in activated concrete in the ICI Sump below the containment building. Figures 1-3 are schematic representations of the ICI Sump. Figure 2 and 3 contain the relevant dimensions needed for the analysis. The key features of Figures 2 and 3 are the 3/8-inch carbon steel liner that isolates the activated concrete from the pit and the concrete wall, which is between 7 feet and 7 feet 2 inches thick. During operations, a small neutron flux from the reactor activated the carbon steel liner and the concrete outside the liner. Current MY plans call for filling the ICI sump with compacted sand.

SULLIVAN,T.M.

2003-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

443

Concrete Structure Design Using Mixed-Integer Nonlinear ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nov 24, 2009 ... The demand on the RC elements in terms of displacements and forces ... necessary to model the resistive forces provided by the concrete, elastic-perfectly plastic material response ...... Material and installation unit price of reinforcement ..... Department of Energy, under Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357 and ...

444

Modeling of Sulfate Resistance of Flyash Blended Cement Concrete Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling of Sulfate Resistance of Flyash Blended Cement Concrete Materials Barzin Mobasher1 or water with high SO3 content. External sulfate 2007 World of Coal Ash (WOCA), May 7-10, 2007, Covington, the effect of curing (especially in the case of blended cements) and the effect of the pH change during

Mobasher, Barzin

445

Corresponding author Measuring Concrete Crosstie Rail Seat Pressure Distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mediavilla 4 Rail Transportation and Engineering Center ­ RailTEC 2 Department of Civil and Environmental loads and cumulative freight tonnages, as well as increased interest in high speed passenger rail1 Corresponding author Measuring Concrete Crosstie Rail Seat Pressure Distribution with Matrix

Barkan, Christopher P.L.

446

Final Technical Report HFC Concrete: A Low-Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?­Ã?Â?Ã?¢Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Energy, Carbon-Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?­Dioxide-Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?­Negative Solution for reducing Industrial Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Solidia/CCSM received funding for further research and development of its Low Temperature Solidification Process (LTS), which is used to create hydrate-free concrete (HFC). LTS/HFC is a technology/materials platform that offers wide applicability in the built infrastructure. Most importantly, it provides a means of making concrete without Portland cement. Cement and concrete production is a major consumer of energy and source of industrial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The primary goal of this project was to develop and commercialize a novel material, HFC, which by replacing traditional concrete and cement, reduces both energy use and GHG emissions in the built infrastructure. Traditional concrete uses Portland Cement (PC) as a binder. PC production involves calcination of limestone at {approx}1450 C, which releases significant amounts of CO{sub 2} gas to the atmosphere and consumes a large amount of energy due to the high temperature required. In contrast, HFC is a carbonate-based hydrate-free concrete (HFC) that consumes CO{sub 2} gas in its production. HFC is made by reaction of silicate minerals with CO{sub 2} at temperatures below 100 C, more than an order-of-magnitude below the temperature required to make PC. Because of this significant difference in temperature, it is estimated that we will be able to reduce energy use in the cement and concrete industry by up to 30 trillion Btu by 2020. Because of the insulating properties of HFC, we believe we will also be able to significantly reduce energy use in the Building sector, though the extent of this saving is not yet quantified. It is estimated that production of a tonne of PC-based concrete requires about 6.2 million Btu of energy and produces over 1 tonne of CO{sub 2} emissions (Choate, 2003). These can be reduced to 1.9 million Btu and 0.025 tonnes of CO{sub 2} emissions per tonne of HFC (with overall CO{sub 2}-negativity possible by increasing carbonation yield). In this way, by replacing PC-based concrete with HFC in infrastructure we can reduce energy use in concrete production by 70%, and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 98%; thus the potential to reduce the impact of building materials on global warming and climate change is highly significant. Low Temperature Solidification (LTS) is a breakthrough technology that enables the densification of inorganic materials via a hydrothermal process. The resulting product exhibits excellent control of chemistry and microstructure, to provide durability and mechanical performance that exceeds that of concrete or natural stone. The technology can be used in a wide range of applications including facade panels, interior tiles, roof tiles, countertops, and pre-cast concrete. Replacing traditional building materials and concrete in these applications will result in significant reduction in both energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions.

Dr. Larry McCandlish, Principal Investigator; Dr. Richard Riman, Co-Principal Investigator

2012-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

447

Radiolytic gas production from concrete containing Savannah River Plant waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To determine the extent of gas production from radiolysis of concrete containing radioactive Savannah River Plant waste, samples of concrete and simulated waste were irradiated by /sup 60/Co gamma rays and /sup 244/Cm alpha particles. Gamma radiolysis simulated radiolysis by beta particles from fission products in the waste. Alpha radiolysis indicated the effect of alpha particles from transuranic isotopes in the waste. With gamma radiolysis, hydrogen was the only significant product; hydrogen reached a steady-state pressure that increased with increasing radiation intensity. Hydrogen was produced faster, and a higher steady-state pressure resulted when an organic set retarder was present. Oxygen that was sealed with the wastes was depleted. Gamma radiolysis also produced nitrous oxide gas when nitrate or nitrite was present in the concrete. With alpha radiolysis, hydrogen and oxygen were produced. Hydrogen did not reach a steady-state pressure at <140 psi. From these results, estimates of pressure in conceptual containers (cylinders 2 feet ID by 10 feet tall, 90% full) of SRP waste concrete were made. During the first 300 years of storage when radiolysis will mainly be from beta-gamma radiation (from /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr), hydrogen will reach a steady-state pressure of 8 to 28 psi, and oxygen will be partially consumed. These predictions were confirmed by measurement of gas produced over a short time in a container of concrete and actual SRP waste. The tests with simulated waste also indicated that nitrous oxide may form, but because of the low nitrate or nitrite content of the waste, the maximum pressure of nitrous oxide after 300 years will be <60 psi. After decay of these fission products, alpha radiolysis from /sup 238/Pu and /sup 239/Pu will predominate; the hydrogen and oxygen pressures will increase to >200 psi.

Bibler, N.E.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Precious Metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

"Advances in the Extractive Metallurgy of Selected Rare and Precious Metals" ( 1991 Review of Extractive Metallurgy), J.E. Hoffmann, April 1991, pp. 18-23.

449

Activities in support of continuing the service of nuclear power plant concrete structures  

SciTech Connect

In general, nuclear power plant concrete structure s performance has been very good; however, aging of concrete structures occurs with the passage of time that can potentially result in degradation if is effects are not controlled. Safety-related nuclear power plant concrete structures are described. In-service inspection and testing requirements in the U.S. are summarized. The interaction of the license renewal process and concrete structures is noted. A summary of operating experience related to aging of nuclear power plant concrete structures is provided. Several candidate areas are identified where additional research would be beneficial for aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures. Finally, an update on recent activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory related to aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures is provided.

Naus, Dan J [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Literature Review of Uncertainty of Analysis Methods (Cool Roofs), Report to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this literature review, seventy two (72) articles were reviewed from various sources, including: the literature compiled by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE); literature listed on the web sites of the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the National Renewal Energy Laboratory (NREL), the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE), and the publications of Elsevier. Keywords searched were: cool roofs, radiant barrier, highalbedo, attic ventilation, duct, as well as the names of the most prolific authors in this area, Dr. Hashem Akbari (LBNL), and Mr. Danny Parker (FSEC).

Haberl, J. S.; Cho, S.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Evaluation of the thermal resistance of a roof-mounted multi-reflective radiant barrier for tropical and humid conditions: Experimental study from field measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper deals with the experimental evaluation of a roof-mounted multi-reflective radiant barrier (MRRB), installed according to the state of the art, on a dedicated test cell. An existing experimental device was completed with a specific system for the regulation of the airflow rate in the upper air layer included in a typical roof from Reunion Island. Several experimental sequences were conducted to determine the thermal resistance of the roof according to several parameters and following a specific method. The mean method, well known in international standards (ISO 9869 - 1994) for the determination of the thermal resistance using dynamic data, was used. The method was implemented in a building simulation code in order to allow the determination of the thermal indicator automatically. Experimental results are proposed according to different seasonal periods and for different values of the airflow rate in the upper air layer.

Frédéric Miranville; Ali Hamada Fakra; Stéphane Guichard; Harry Boyer; Jean Philippe Praene; Dimitri Bigot

2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

452

Evaluation of the thermal resistance of a roof-mounted multi-reflective radiant barrier for tropical and humid conditions: Experimental study from field measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper deals with the experimental evaluation of a roof-mounted multi-reflective radiant barrier (MRRB), installed according to the state of the art, on a dedicated test cell. An existing experimental device was completed with a specific system for the regulation of the airflow rate in the upper air layer included in a typical roof from Reunion Island. Several experimental sequences were conducted to determine the thermal resistance of the roof according to several parameters and following a specific method. The mean method, well known in international standards (ISO 9869 - 1994) for the determination of the thermal resistance using dynamic data, was used. The method was implemented in a building simulation code in order to allow the determination of the thermal indicator automatically. Experimental results are proposed according to different seasonal periods and for different values of the airflow rate in the upper air layer

Miranville, Frédéric; Guichard, Stéphane; Boyer, Harry; Praene, Jean Philippe; Bigot, Dimitri

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF CANADA DIVISION OF BUILDING RESEARCH PERFORMANCE OF INSULATIONS LOCATED ABOVE AN IMPERMEABLE MEMBRANE IN A FLAT ROOF SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The impermeable membrane of a flat roof can be protected from solar radiation, the effects of extreme temperature variation, and from traffic damage by placing it beneath the roof insulation. This provides the membrane with a better chance of performing its function of protecting the building from the entry of moisture. Now, however, the insulation is expos