Sample records for roof ice melt

  1. Metal roofing Shingle roofing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutcheon, James M.

    Metal roofing panel Shingle roofing Water & ice barrier Thermal Barrier Plywood Student: Arpit between the roof and the attic. · Apply modifications to traditional roofing assembly and roofing roof with only a water barrier between the plywood and the roofing panels. Metal roofing panel Shingle

  2. Complex systems influence melting of Greenland ice sheet

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Complex systems influence melting of Greenland ice sheet Complex systems influence melting of Greenland ice sheet International research team's field work shows that, well, things...

  3. Regelation: why does ice melt under pressure?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang Q Sun

    2015-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Unlike other unusual materials whose bonds contract under compression, the O:H nonbond undergoes contraction and the H-O bond elongation towards O:H and H-O length symmetry in water and ice. The energy drop of the H-O bond dictates the melting point Tm depression of ice. Once the pressure is relieved, the O:H-O bond fully recovers its initial state, resulting in Regelation.

  4. Regelation: why does ice melt under pressure?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Chang Q

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Unlike other unusual materials whose bonds contract under compression, the O:H nonbond undergoes contraction and the H-O bond elongation towards O:H and H-O length symmetry in water and ice. The energy drop of the H-O bond dictates the melting point Tm depression of ice. Once the pressure is relieved, the O:H-O bond fully recovers its initial state, resulting in Regelation.

  5. NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE Surface Melting over Ice Shelves and Ice Sheets as Assessed from Modeled

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meissner, Katrin Juliane

    NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE Surface Melting over Ice Shelves and Ice Sheets as Assessed from Modeled of ice shelves and their progenitor ice sheets. To explore the magnitude of surface melt occurring over modern ice shelves and ice sheets in a climate scenario forced by anthropogenic emissions of carbon

  6. ARM - Lesson Plans: When Land Ice Melts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow, AlaskaWhen Floating Ice Melts in the SeaWhen

  7. THE CONTRIBUTION OF GREENLAND ICE SHEET MELTING TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE CONTRIBUTION OF GREENLAND ICE SHEET MELTING TO GLOBAL SEA-LEVEL CHANGE Conor Mc three major sources, the Greenland ice sheet, Antarctica, and other eustatic components. Each has its own predictable spatial signal, and particular attention was paid to the Greenland ice sheet, given

  8. Melting of small Arctic ice caps observed from ERS scatterometer time series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Laurence C.

    Melting of small Arctic ice caps observed from ERS scatterometer time series Laurence C. Smith,1 of melt onset can be observed over small ice caps, as well as the major ice sheets and multi-year sea ice for 14 small Arctic ice caps from 1992­2000. Interannual and regional variability in the timing of melt

  9. 07/06/2009 Melting Ice Could Lead to Massive Waves of Climate Refugees Treehugger 06/30/2009 MELTING GREENLAND ICE SHEETS MAY THREATEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Aixue

    /30/2009 MELTING GREENLAND ICE SHEETS MAY THREATEN NORTHEAST U.S., CANADA Federal News Service 06/30/2009 Sea raises spectre of displaced humanity peopleandplanet.net 06/16/2009 Melting Greenland Ice Sheets May Report - Online 06/02/2009 Melting Greenland Ice Sheets May Threaten Northeast, Canada usagnet 06

  10. A NEW METHOD FOR MELT DETECTION ON ANTARCTIC ICE-SHELVES AND SCATTEROMETER CALIBRATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    A NEW METHOD FOR MELT DETECTION ON ANTARCTIC ICE-SHELVES AND SCATTEROMETER CALIBRATION VERIFICATION of Engineering and Technology #12;ABSTRACT A NEW METHOD FOR MELT DETECTION ON ANTARCTIC ICE-SHELVES to determine periods of surface melt and freeze in the Antarctic ice-shelves. The normalized radar backscatter

  11. Ion fractionation and percolation in ice cores with seasonal melting John C. Moore*, Aslak Grinsted **

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, John

    and with the type of data that was expected to come from ice caps with seasonal melt. The objective of this paperIon fractionation and percolation in ice cores with seasonal melting John C. Moore*, Aslak Grinsted that suffer limited seasonal melting. We show that the impact in the case of at least one Svalbard ice core

  12. Mechanisms of summertime upper Arctic Ocean warming and the effect on sea ice melt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jinlun

    but occurs over a much broader area of the ice pack. Citation: Steele, M., J. Zhang, and W. Ermold (2010Mechanisms of summertime upper Arctic Ocean warming and the effect on sea ice melt Michael Steele,1 summertime upper ocean warming and sea ice melt during the 21st century in the Arctic Ocean. Our first

  13. ARM - Lesson Plans: When Floating Ice Melts in the Sea

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow, AlaskaWhen Floating Ice Melts in the Sea

  14. Eddy-resolving simulations of the Fimbul Ice Shelf cavity circulation: Basal melting and exchange with open ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lilly, Jonathan

    that govern the heat supply to ice shelves in the Eastern Weddell Sea. The simulations confirm the low melt

  15. Large-Scale Oceanographic Constraints on the Distribution of Melting and Freezing under Ice Shelves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gnanadesikan, Anand

    Large-Scale Oceanographic Constraints on the Distribution of Melting and Freezing under Ice Shelves received 10 October 2007, in final form 11 March 2008) ABSTRACT Previous studies suggest that ice shelves. Introduction Fifty percent of the Antarctic coastline is fringed by ice shelves (floating extensions

  16. Increased Runoff from Melt from the Greenland Ice Sheet: A Response to Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huybrechts, Philippe

    conditions over the ablation zone of the ice sheet, which caused a record melt extent. The year 2006 mass balance changes of the GrIS. Airborne and satellite laser-altimetry data analyses were used

  17. Basal melt rates beneath Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beem, Lucas H.; Jezek, Ken C.; Van Der Veen, C. J.

    2010-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Basal water lubricates and enables the fast flow of the West Antarctic ice streams which exist under low gravitational driving stress. Identification of sources and rates of basal meltwater production can provide insight into the dynamics of ice...

  18. Neglecting ice-atmosphere interactions underestimates ice sheet melt in millennial-scale deglaciation simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pritchard, M. S.; Bush, A. B.; Marshall, S. J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laurentide and Innutian ice sheets during the Last Glacialclimate of the laurentide ice sheet at the LGM, J. Clim. ,1958), The flow law of ice: A discussion of the assumptions

  19. A meteorological experiment in the melting zone of the Greenland ice sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oerlemans, J. (Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands)); Vugts, H.F. (Free Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary results are described from a glaciometeorological experiment carried out in the margin (melting zone) of the Greenland ice sheet in the summers of 1990 and 1991. This work was initiated within the framework of a Dutch research program on land ice and sea level change. Seven meteostations were operated along a transect running from the tundra well onto the ice sheet. At the ice edge, humidity, temperature, and wind profiles were obtained with a tethered balloon. On the ice sheet, 90 km from the edge, a boundary-layer research unit, including a sound detecting and ranging system (SODAR) and a radio acoustic sounding system (RASS), was established. Although focusing on the relation between surface energy balance, glacier mass balance, and ice flow, the experiment has also delivered a unique dataset on the dynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer around the warm tundra-cold ice sheet transition. Unexpected behavior was found for the surface albedo during the melt season. Lowest values are not found close to the ice edge, which is usual for glaciers, but higher on the ice sheet. Meltwater accumulation due to inefficient surface drainage was found to be the cause for this. The wind regime is dominated by katabatic flow from the ice sheet. The katabatic layer is typically 100-200 m thick. Close to the ice edge, the flow exhibits a very regular daily rhythm, with maximum wind speed in the afternoon. Farther on the ice sheet, the regime changes, and wind speed reaches maximum values in late night/early morning.

  20. GREENLAND INLAND ICE MELT-OFF: ANALYSIS OF GLOBAL GRAVITY DATA FROM THE GRACE SATELLITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GREENLAND INLAND ICE MELT-OFF: ANALYSIS OF GLOBAL GRAVITY DATA FROM THE GRACE SATELLITES Allan A) in meters starting at 29 July 2002 and ending at 25 August 2010. Results focussing on Greenland show indications of a transition taking place in the mass loss in Greenland from mid-2004 to early 2006. Index

  1. Modeling the summertime evolution of sea-ice melt ponds rsted-DTU, Electromagnetic Systems, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feltham, Daniel

    ablation. The model predictions are tested for sensitivity to the melt rate of unponded ice, enhanced melt with surface topographies derived from laser altimetry corresponding to first-year sea ice and multiyear sea ice are important in determining the total surface ablation and area covered by melt ponds. Citation

  2. Roof Renovations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The roof of a Federal building is a common placement for a number of renewable energy technologies, so they should be addressed anytime a roof renovation is undertaken, including roof-mounted...

  3. White Roofs

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chu, Steven

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Secretary Steven Chu discusses the benefits of switching to white roofs and light colored pavements.

  4. Effect of the potential melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet on the Meridional Overturning Circulation and global climate in the future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Weiqing

    Effect of the potential melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet on the Meridional Overturning February 2011 Keywords: Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Sea level Greenland Ice Sheet Global of the Greenland Ice Sheet since the mid-1990s. This increased ice sheet mass loss might be an evidence of global

  5. High pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating in ice condenser containments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilch, M.; Tarbell, W.W.; Carroll, D.E.; Tills, J.L.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A response of a typical ice condenser containment to a high pressure melt dispersal accident has been studied. While ice beds may be effective in reducing the potential loading caused by direct heating of the containment atmosphere, analyses suggest two other modes of containment failure that have not been previously identified. Calculations with the CONTAIN code indicate that ejected core debris may interact with steam from the primary system, generating sufficient hydrogen to threaten containment integrity. Further, if the debris ejected into the cavity promptly fails the seal table, the dispersed material could enter the in-core instrument room and attack the containment liner. The timing of the failure of the seal table is highly dependent on the characteristics of the debris-to-steel energy transfer.

  6. Real-time Non-contact Millimeter Wave Characterization of Water-Freezing and Ice-Melting Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundaram, S. K.; Woskov, Paul P.

    2008-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We applied millimeter wave radiometry for the first time to monitor water-freezing and ice-melting dynamics in real-time non-contact. The measurements were completed at a frequency of 137 GHz. Small amounts (about 2 mL) of freshwater or saltwater were frozen over a Peltier cooler and the freezing and melting sequence was recorded. Saltwater was prepared in the laboratory that contained 3.5% of table salt to simulate the ocean water. The dynamics of freezing-melting was observed by measuring the millimeter wave temperature as well as the changes in the ice or water surface reflectivity and position. This was repeated using large amounts of freshwater and saltwater (800 mL) mimicking glaciers. Millimeter wave surface level fluctuations indicated as the top surface melted, the light ice below floated up indicating lower surface temperature until the ice completely melted. Our results are useful for remote sensing and tracking temperature for potentially large-scale environmental applications, e.g., global warming.

  7. A three-phase free boundary problem with melting ice and dissolving gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maurizio Ceseri; John M. Stockie

    2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a mathematical model for a three-phase free boundary problem in one dimension that involves the interactions between gas, water and ice. The dynamics are driven by melting of the ice layer, while the pressurized gas also dissolves within the meltwater. The model incorporates a Stefan condition at the water-ice interface along with Henry's law for dissolution of gas at the gas-water interface. We employ a quasi-steady approximation for the phase temperatures and then derive a series solution for the interface positions. A non-standard feature of the model is an integral free boundary condition that arises from mass conservation owing to changes in gas density at the gas-water interface, which makes the problem non-self-adjoint. We derive a two-scale asymptotic series solution for the dissolved gas concentration, which because of the non-self-adjointness gives rise to a Fourier series expansion in eigenfunctions that do not satisfy the usual orthogonality conditions. Numerical simulations of the original governing equations are used to validate the series approximations.

  8. arXiv:1408.2487v2[physics.ao-ph]22Aug2014 Ising model for melt ponds on Arctic sea ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden, Kenneth M.

    arXiv:1408.2487v2[physics.ao-ph]22Aug2014 Ising model for melt ponds on Arctic sea ice Yi-Ping Ma,1, USA The albedo of melting Arctic sea ice, a key parameter in climate modeling, is determined by pools of water on the ice surface. Recent observations show an onset of pond complexity at a critical area

  9. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    e l Atmosphere ceiling, back panel roof, exposed roof insideSAN DIEGO Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux A Thesis submitted i no n Convection Exposed Roof Temperature Seasonal Temperature

  10. How ice shelf morphology controls basal melting Christopher M. Little,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oppenheimer, Michael

    temperature, circulation, and mixing in the open ocean and the coupling of this external forcing to the sub shelf base, ice shelf morphology plays a critical role in linking external, subsurface heat sources idealized ice shelves, forced with subsurface ocean temperatures ranging from À2.0°C to 1.5°C. In the sub

  11. Using Green Roofs to Minimize Roof Runoff Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    10/31/2008 1 Using Green Roofs to Minimize Roof Runoff Pollution Brett LongBrett Long Shirley Clark Courtesy Penn State Center for Green Roof Research Green Roofs:Green Roofs: The New BMP (at least in the US)The New BMP (at least in the US) Green roofs = vegetated roof coversGreen roofs = vegetated roof covers Pl

  12. The Melting of Greenland William H. Lipscomb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Born, Andreas

    ). AnAn ice capice cap is a mass of glacier ice smaller than 50,000 kmis a mass of glacier ice smaller is negligibleSurface melting is negligible Antarctic ice thicknessAntarctic ice thickness (British Antarctic of the Greenland iceMuch of the Greenland ice sheet may have meltedsheet may have melted Greenland minimum extent

  13. CO2 isotopes as tracers of firn air diffusion and age in an Arctic ice cap with summer melting, Devon Island, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappellaz, Jérôme

    and the effects of summer melting. The 14 CO2 profile from the permeable firn includes the 1963 thermonuclear peak, and accumulation rates were calibrated with the depth of the 1963 thermonuclear 3 H peak. The average ages for CO2 and the ice matrix. Calibrated with the 1963 peak for thermonuclear 14 CO2, a 21.2-year reaction halftime

  14. Cool Roofs Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A webinar presented by Blaise Stoltenberg and Kosol Kiatreungwattana of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory about roofs designed to maintain a lower roof temperature than traditional roofs in order to reduce energy bills.

  15. A model of melt pond evolution on sea ice P. D. Taylor and D. L. Feltham

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feltham, Daniel

    short-wave radiation. The difference in solar energy ab- sorption between pond-covered and bare sea ice Observation and Modelling, Department of Space and Climate Physics, University College London, London, UK ponds influence the summertime energy and mass balance through the albedo-feedback mechanism [Ebert

  16. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature between the solar panel and the roof would havedirectly underneath the solar panel, and the temperatures ofsensor between the solar panel and the roof for the flush

  17. Roof bolting improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Suppliers partner with mine operators to offer safer, more productive tools for roof bolting. 4 figs.

  18. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    designs (relatively) Photovoltaic Solar P a n e l AtmosphereCALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux A ThesisABSTRACT OF T H E THESIS Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux by

  19. B.4 ROOF SYSTEMS B.4 Roof System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelfond, Michael

    B.4 ROOF SYSTEMS B.4 Roof System Page 1 of 4 Attachment C 05/07/09 SYSTEM AUDIT INSPECTION REPORT SUMMARY B4-Roof System Facility Name: Facility #: Audit By: Audit Date: SYSTEM CONDITION RATING WORK ORDER/CIP # #12;B.4 ROOF SYSTEMS B.4 Roof System Page 2 of 4 Attachment C 05/07/09 Sub

  20. IMPROVED ROOF STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) remediation sites have performed roof repair and roof replacement to stabilize facilities prior to performing deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) activities. This project will review the decision criteria used by these DOE sites, along with the type of repair system used for each different roof type. Based on this information, along with that compiled from roofing experts, a decision-making tool will be generated to aid in selecting the proper roof repair systems. Where appropriate, innovative technologies will be reviewed and applied to the decision-making tool to determine their applicability. Based on the results, applied research and development will be conducted to develop a method to repair these existing roofing systems, while providing protection for the D and D worker in a cost-efficient manner.

  1. Energy 101: Cool Roofs

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This edition of Energy 101 takes a look at how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment.

  2. Energy 101: Cool Roofs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This edition of Energy 101 takes a look at how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment.

  3. Why Cool Roofs?

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chu, Steven

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

  4. Why Cool Roofs?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, Steven

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

  5. Roof bolting equipment & technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Technology provides an evaluator path to improvement for roof bolting machines. Bucyrus offers three different roof bolts models for various mining conditions. The LRB-15 AR is a single-arm boiler recommended for ranges of 32 inches and above; the dual-arm RB2-52A for ranges of 42 inches and above; and the dual-arm RB2-88A for ranges of 54 inches and above. Design features are discussed in the article. Developments in roof bolting technology by Joy Mining Machinery are reported. 4 photos.

  6. Why Cool Roofs?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple,...

  7. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    under the offset unit's solar panel, the hf formula (16) wasdrop below the angle unit's solar panel at night time. D u rfor both the units, the solar panel covered roof was a heat

  8. Rain on the Roof-Evaporative Spray Roof Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bachman, L. R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -air principles are covered and a simplified method of evaluation presented. A life cycle energy savings example is discussed. Benefits of roof life and roof top equipment efficiency and maintenance are covered as well as water consumption and performance trade...

  9. Ice shelf-ocean interactions in a general circulation model : melt-rate modulation due to mean flow and tidal currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dansereau, Véronique

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interactions between the ocean circulation in sub-ice shelf cavities and the overlying ice shelf have received considerable attention in the context of observed changes in flow speeds of marine ice sheets around Antarctica. ...

  10. Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, G. V.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaporation is nature's way of cooling. By the application of a thin film of water, in the form of a mist, on the roof of the building, roof temperatures can be reduced from as high as 165o to a cool 86oF. Thus, under-roof temperatures are reduced...

  11. Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, G. V.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Roof air conditioning load is reduced by 85% to 90%. The cooler roof also protects and extends roof life. My presentation today will cover an old, square foot, and generally speaking, it will old technique -- one that has been gaining in show a...

  12. Roofs and Convexity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armin Uhlmann

    2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Convex roof extensions are widely used to create entanglement measures in quantum information theory. The aim of the article is to present some tools which could be helpful for their treatment. Sections 2 and 3 introduce into the subject. It follows descriptions of Wootter's method, of the "subtraction procedure", and examples on how to use symmetries.

  13. Roofs and Convexity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uhlmann, Armin

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Convex roof extensions are widely used to create entanglement measures in quantum information theory. The aim of the article is to present some tools which could be helpful for their treatment. Sections 2 and 3 introduce into the subject. It follows descriptions of Wootter's method, of the "subtraction procedure", and examples on how to use symmetries.

  14. \\\\mi\\home\\gillow\\LaTeX\\Comp\\Safety\\Risk-Assessments\\Roof\\Sedum Roof Area Roof Access Risk Assessments 3th March 2014.docx `Sedum' Roof Area(s)/Roof Access Risk Assessments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    \\\\mi\\home\\gillow\\LaTeX\\Comp\\Safety\\Risk-Assessments\\Roof\\Sedum Roof Area Roof Access Risk Assessments 3th March 2014.docx `Sedum' Roof Area(s)/Roof Access Risk Assessments DEPARTMENT: Andrew Wiles March 2015 Brief description of area and location Roof tops, walkways, and Fire Route. Sedum' Roof Area

  15. Runoff Quality From Roofing Materials During Early Life

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    State Harrisburg #12;3 Green Roof vs. Traditional Roof Design Conventional gravel-ballasted roof Green

  16. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, David F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Suciu, Dan F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Harris, Taryl L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ingram, Jani C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  17. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.

    1993-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  18. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 44, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2006 2461 Melt Detection in Antarctic Ice Shelves Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    Detection in Antarctic Ice Shelves Using Scatterometers and Microwave Radiometers Lukas B. Kunz and David G in the Antarc- tic ice shelves. The normalized horizontal-polarization radar backscatter (o ) and backscatter, Shackleton, and other ice shelves. The temporal and spatial variations of the radar response are observed

  19. Mine roof geology information system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, S.S.; Sasaoka, T.; Tang, D.X.; Wilson, Y.; Wilson, G.

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A project sponsored by the US Department of Energy under the Industry of Future (Mining) program was initiated five years ago. In this project a patented drill control unit (DCU) installed DIN. the J.H. Flecher & Co.'s roof bolter was used to record the drilling parameter for experiments conducted in the mines and laboratory. Today, the drilling parameters have been recorded for more than 1,000 roof bolt holes. This article summarizes the results to date including the methods for determining quantitatively the location of voids/fractures and estimation of roof rock strength from the recorded roof bolter drilling parameters. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Demonstration of Energy Savings of Cool Roofs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konopacki, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Savings of High-Albedo Roofs. Energy and Buildings, vol. 25,Cooling Savings of Light Colored Roof Surfacing in FloridaInfra-red photograph of roof-coating edge at Gilroy. This

  1. Energy saving potential of various roof technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Stephen D. (Stephen Douglas)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Unconventional roof technologies such as cool roofs and green roofs have been shown to reduce building heating and cooling load. Although previous studies suggest potential for energy savings through such technologies, ...

  2. Roofs | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt Ltd Jump to: navigation,MazeOhio:Ohio:RockwallRolling Hills|Romoland,Roofs Jump

  3. One Panel One Roof, DOE Powering Solar Workforce | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    One Panel One Roof, DOE Powering Solar Workforce One Panel One Roof, DOE Powering Solar Workforce...

  4. Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, G. V.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is generally recognized that as much as 60% of the air conditioning load in a building is generated by solar heat from the roof. This paper on SOLAR ROOF COOLING BY EVAPORATION is presented in slide form, tracing the history of 'nature's way...

  5. Measuring mine roof bolt strains

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steblay, Bernard J. (Lakewood, CO)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mine roof bolt and a method of measuring the strain in mine roof bolts of this type are disclosed. According to the method, a flat portion on the head of the mine roof bolt is first machined. Next, a hole is drilled radially through the bolt at a predetermined distance from the bolt head. After installation of the mine roof bolt and loading, the strain of the mine roof bolt is measured by generating an ultrasonic pulse at the flat portion. The time of travel of the ultrasonic pulse reflected from the hole is measured. This time of travel is a function of the distance from the flat portion to the hole and increases as the bolt is loaded. Consequently, the time measurement is correlated to the strain in the bolt. Compensation for various factors affecting the travel time are also provided.

  6. Green roofs: potential at LANL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pacheco, Elena M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Green roofs, roof systems that support vegetation, are rapidly becoming one of the most popular sustainable methods to combat urban environmental problems in North America. An extensive list of literature has been published in the past three decades recording the ecological benefits of green roofs; and now those benefits have been measured in enumerated data as a means to analyze the costs and returns of green roof technology. Most recently several studies have made substantial progress quantifying the monetary savings associated with storm water mitigation, the lessoning of the Urban Heat Island, and reduction of building cooling demands due to the implementation of green roof systems. Like any natural vegetation, a green roof is capable of absorbing the precipitation that falls on it. This capability has shown to significantly decrease the amount of storm water runoff produced by buildings as well as slow the rate at which runoff is dispensed. As a result of this reduction in volume and velocity, storm drains and sewage systems are relieved of any excess stress they might experience in a storm. For many municipalities and private building owners, any increase in storm water mitigation can result in major tax incentives and revenue that does not have to be spent on extra water treatments. Along with absorption of water, vegetation on green roofs is also capable of transpiration, the process by which moisture is evaporated into the air to cool ambient temperatures. This natural process aims to minimize the Urban Heat Island Effect, a phenomenon brought on by the dark and paved surfaces that increases air temperatures in urban cores. As the sun distributes solar radiation over a city's area, dark surfaces such as bitumen rooftops absorb solar rays and their heat. That heat is later released during the evening hours and the ambient temperatures do not cool as they normally would, creating an island of constant heat. Such excessively high temperatures induce heat strokes, heat exhaustion, and pollution that can agitate the respiratory system. The most significant savings associated with green roofs is in the reduction of cooling demands due to the green roof's thermal mass and their insulating properties. Unlike a conventional roof system, a green roof does not absorb solar radiation and transfer that heat into the interior of a building. Instead the vegetation acts as a shade barrier and stabilizes the roof temperature so that interior temperatures remain comfortable for the occupants. Consequently there is less of a demand for air conditioning, and thus less money spent on energy. At LANL the potential of green roof systems has already been realized with the construction of the accessible green roof on the Otowi building. To further explore the possibilities and prospective benefits of green roofs though, the initial capital costs must be invested. Three buildings, TA-03-1698, TA-03-0502, and TA-53-0031 have all been identified as sound candidates for a green roof retrofit project. It is recommended that LANL proceed with further analysis of these projects and implementation of the green roofs. Furthermore, it is recommended that an urban forestry program be initiated to provide supplemental support to the environmental goals of green roofs. The obstacles barring green roof construction are most often budgetary and structural concerns. Given proper resources, however, the engineers and design professionals at LANL would surely succeed in the proper implementation of green roof systems so as to optimize their ecological and monetary benefits for the entire organization.

  7. Roof control strategies for underground coal mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, W.C. (Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Roof support, an important aspect of ground control, involves maintaining roof competency to ensure a safe and efficient mining environment. Wide variability in rock quality and stress distributions requires a systematic approach to roof support design that satisfies specific goals. The success of past roof support in reducing the incidence of roof falls has been primarily attributed to safer roof bolting practices. However, roof falls continue to be the number one occupational hazard in underground coal mines. This US Bureau of Mines report presents a general overview of roof bolting and other roof support methods used in the United States. Characteristics of bad roof and associated roof failure theories are briefly presented as background to roof support. Methods of detecting and monitoring roof behavior and/or bolt performance provide essential feedback on roof support requirements. A discussion follows on roof bolt design that assimilates roof and support parameters into useful equations or nomographs to help decide what bolt types to use and how they should be installed under different roof conditions. 35 refs., 8 figs.

  8. View of NY harbor from the JOIDES Resolution! in an ice-free world (73 m rise)!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caps:! Melting land ice adds to ocean volume, but not sea ice! IPCC2001! Alpine! #12;Why Is global sea level Is rising today?! .! Melting mountain glaciers/ice caps ("alpine" and! continental ice sheets error: 20-60 cm (does not include ice sheet melting)! http://www.realclimate.org/images/sealevel_1.jpg

  9. Impact of underwater-ice evolution on Arctic summer sea ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worster, M. Grae

    Impact of underwater-ice evolution on Arctic summer sea ice Dirk Notz,1,4 Miles G. McPhee,2 M. Grae the simultaneous growth and ablation of a layer of ice between an under-ice melt pond and the underlying ocean. Such ``false bottoms'' are the only significant source of ice formation in the Arctic during summer. Analytical

  10. Sustainable roofs with real energy savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, J.E.; Petrie, T.W.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper addresses the general concept of sustainability and relates it to the building owner`s selection of a low-slope roof. It offers a list of performance features of sustainable roofs. Experiences and data relevant to these features for four unique roofs are then presented which include: self-drying systems, low total equivalent warming foam insulation, roof coatings and green roofs. The paper concludes with a list of sustainable roofing features worth considering for a low-slope roof investment. Building owners and community developers are showing more interest in investing in sustainability. The potential exists to design, construct, and maintain roofs that last twice as long and reduce the building space heating and cooling energy loads resulting from the roof by 50% (based on the current predominant design of a 10-year life and a single layer of 1 to 2 in. (2.5 to 5.1 cm) of insulation). The opportunity to provide better low-slope roofs and sell more roof maintenance service is escalating. The general trend of outsourcing services could lead to roofing companies` owning the roofs they install while the traditional building owner owns the rest of the building. Such a situation would have a very desirable potential to internalize the costs of poor roof maintenance practices and high roof waste disposal costs, and to offer a profit for installing roofs that are more sustainable. 14 refs., 12 figs.

  11. A New Model to Construct Ice Stream Surface Elevation Profiles and Calculate Contributions to Sea-Level Rise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adachi, Yosuke

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    melting is responsible for, 60% comes from glaciers and ice caps.and ice caps will continue to be the dominant contributor to sea-level rise from the land ice-melting

  12. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The options considered to date are not ideal. One approach is to insulate between the trusses at the roof plane. The construction process is time consuming and costs more than conventional attic construction. Moreover, the problems of air infiltration and thermal bridges across the insulation remain. Another approach is to use structurally insulated panels (SIPs), but conventional SIPs are unlikely to be the ultimate solution because an additional underlying support structure is required except for short spans. In addition, wood spline and metal locking joints can result in thermal bridges and gaps in the foam. This study undertook a more innovative approach to roof construction. The goal was to design and evaluate a modular energy efficient panelized roof system with the following attributes: (1) a conditioned and clear attic space for HVAC equipment and additional finished area in the attic; (2) manufactured panels that provide structure, insulation, and accommodate a variety of roofing materials; (3) panels that require support only at the ends; (4) optimal energy performance by minimizing thermal bridging and air infiltration; (5) minimal risk of moisture problems; (6) minimum 50-year life; (7) applicable to a range of house styles, climates and conditions; (8) easy erection in the field; (9) the option to incorporate factory-installed solar systems into the panel; and (10) lowest possible cost. A nationwide market study shows there is a defined market opportunity for such a panelized roof system with production and semi-custom builders in the United States. Senior personnel at top builders expressed interest in the performance attributes and indicate long-term opportunity exists if the system can deliver a clear value proposition. Specifically, builders are interested in (1) reducing construction cycle time (cost) and (2) offering increased energy efficiency to the homebuyer. Additional living space under the roof panels is another low-cost asset identified as part of the study. The market potential is enhanced through construction activity levels in target marke

  13. Cool Roofs: Your Questions Answered

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When Secretary Chu announced that the Department of Energy had installed a “cool roof” atop the west building of our Washington, DC headquarters, it elicited a fair number of questions from his Facebook fans. We decided to reach out to the people behind the project for their insight on the specific benefits of switching to a cool roof, and the process that went into making that choice.

  14. Green Roof Media Selection forGreen Roof Media Selection for the Minimization of Pollutantthe Minimization of Pollutant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    1 Green Roof Media Selection forGreen Roof Media Selection for the Minimization of Pollutantthe Minimization of Pollutant Loadings in Roof RunoffLoadings in Roof Runoff Brett LongBrett Long Shirley Clark for Green Roof Research Green Roofs:Green Roofs: The New BMP (at least in the US)The New BMP (at least

  15. Roof screening for underground coal mines: recent developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compton, C.S.; Gallagher, S.; Molinda, G.M.; Mark, C.; Wilson, G.

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of screens to control falls of the immediate roof or roof skin (that is between the installed primary and secondary roof supports) is described. 5 figs.

  16. Network Modeling of Arctic Melt Ponds Meenakshi Barjatiaa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden, Kenneth M.

    . In late spring and summer, the albedo of the ice pack is determined primarily by melt ponds that form­albedo feedback [7], and has played a significant role in the decline of the summer Arctic ice pack [8]. Sea ice precipitous losses of summer Arctic sea ice have outpaced the pro- jections of most climate models. Efforts

  17. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syd S. Peng

    2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. More field tests have been performed. A trendline analysis method has been developed. This method would improve the accuracy in detecting the locations of fractures and in determining the rock strength.

  18. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syd S. Peng

    2002-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. Additional field tests have been performed in this quarter. The development of the data interpretation methodology and other related tasks are still continuing.

  19. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syd S. Peng

    2003-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. Additional field tests have been performed. It is found that the drilling power can be used as a supplementary method for detecting voids/fractures and rock interfaces.

  20. Effects of solar photovoltaic panels on roof heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez, Anthony; Kleissl, Jan; Luvall, Jeffrey C

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    performance of  photovoltaic roofs, ASHRAE Trans 107 (absorption of solar radiation.   roof cooling load [Wm ] a) exposed roof PV covered roof b) GHI [W m ] Time [PST

  1. Permeable Pavements, Green Roofs, and Cisterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, William F.

    Permeable Pavements, Green Roofs, and Cisterns Stormwater Treatment Practices for Low site planning and engineer- pavements, green roofs, and cisterns, are ing to reduce or prevent cooperating. #12;Permeable Pavements What are they? Permeable pavements provide alternatives to standard

  2. STATE OF CALIFORNIA ENVELOPE INSULATION; ROOFING; FENESTRATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STATE OF CALIFORNIA ENVELOPE ­ INSULATION; ROOFING; FENESTRATION CEC-CF-6R-ENV-01 (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-ENV-01 Envelope ­ Insulation; Roofing:__________________________________ Brand Name:_______________________________ Thickness (inches):_________________________ Thermal

  3. IDENTIFYING ROOF FALL PREDICTORS USING FUZZY CLASSIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K. [NDE Lab, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA, 23187-8795 (United States)

    2010-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Microseismic monitoring involves placing geophones on the rock surfaces of a mine to record seismic activity. Classification of microseismic mine data can be used to predict seismic events in a mine to mitigate mining hazards, such as roof falls, where properly bolting and bracing the roof is often an insufficient method of preventing weak roofs from destabilizing. In this study, six months of recorded acoustic waveforms from microseismic monitoring in a Pennsylvania limestone mine were analyzed using classification techniques to predict roof falls. Fuzzy classification using features selected for computational ease was applied on the mine data. Both large roof fall events could be predicted using a Roof Fall Index (RFI) metric calculated from the results of the fuzzy classification. RFI was successfully used to resolve the two significant roof fall events and predicted both events by at least 15 hours before visual signs of the roof falls were evident.

  4. Weathering of Roofing Materials-An Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Miller, William A.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by oxidation. b) Wind Wind exerts forces on roofing. Tallermore force. Since the kinetic energy of wind and the

  5. SOLAR ROOF POWERS THE NJIT CAMPUS CENTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bieber, Michael

    SOLAR ROOF POWERS THE NJIT CAMPUS CENTER THE SKY'S THE LIMIT: BERNADETTE MOKE SITS ON THE ROOF, ARE 160 SOLAR PANELS, SOME OF WHICH AUTOMATICALLY FOLLOW THE PATH OF THE SUN. 10 NJITMAGAZINE COVER STORY'S THE LIMIT: SOLAR ROOF POWERS THE NJIT CAMPUS CENTER "The solar panels even move a little at night," says

  6. A ROOFING TILE FOR NATURAL COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SUNGUARD: A ROOFING TILE FOR NATURAL COOLING Prepared For: California Energy Commission Energy (FAR) SUNGUARD: A ROOFING TILE FOR NATURAL COOLING EISG AWARDEE PowerLight Corporation 2954 San Pablo://www.energy.ca.gov/research/index.html. #12;Page 1 Sunguard: A Roofing Tile For Natural Cooling EISG Grant # 99-07 Awardee: Power

  7. ROOFING PROJECT ODORS How Can EHS Help?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    ROOFING PROJECT ODORS How Can EHS Help? We can work with occupants to act as a liaison with Facili- ties Management and the contractor to identify ways to reduce odors. Contact us at 491­ 6745. Roof work is a necessary part of building preservation. Roofing odors are generated during these projects when hot asphalt

  8. Generalized Roof Duality Fredrik Kahl, Petter Strandmark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lunds Universitet

    Generalized Roof Duality Fredrik Kahl, Petter Strandmark Centre for Mathematical Sciences Lund University, Sweden Abstract The roof dual bound for quadratic unconstrained binary optimization is the basis by introducing auxiliary variables and then apply the quadratic roof dual bound, but this may lead to loose

  9. View of NY harbor from the JOIDES Resolution in an ice-free world (73 m rise)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    less dense global 20th century warming ~0.6°C 1.6 mm/yr sea-level rise Melting Glaciers & Ice Caps? Melting Mountain Glaciers and Ice Caps: Alpine glaciers 0.6 mm/yr Greenland Ice Cap IPCC2001: near 0-80 cm IPPC 2007 error: 20-60 cm (does not include ice sheet melting) http

  10. 115GLACIERS AND ICE CAPSCHAPTER 6B Glaciers and Ice Caps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fountain, Andrew G.

    115GLACIERS AND ICE CAPSCHAPTER 6B 6B Glaciers and Ice Caps Michael Zemp (lead author, Department of Sciences, China) #12;116 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR ICE AND SNOW Summary Glaciers and ice caps are among the most hazards. Because they are close to the melting point and react strongly to climate change, glaciers

  11. Fall Protection for Roof Workers Before working on roofs above 7 feet,1 Physical Plant staff should implement an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    Fall Protection for Roof Workers Before working on roofs above 7 ½ feet,1 Physical Plant staff practical fall protection method. Most roofs at CSUF qualify as monolithic roofing systems. It may involve a single layer of sealed rubber. Multiple unit roofing systems utilize shingles or tiles. The two roofing

  12. Evaluation of Roof Bolting Requirements Based on In-Mine Roof Bolter Drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syd S. Peng

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on this information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. For the prediction of roof geology and stability condition in real time, a micro processor was used and a program developed to monitor and record the drilling parameters of roof bolter. These parameters include feed pressure, feed flow (penetration rate), rotation pressure, rotation rate, vacuum pressure, oil temperature of hydraulic circuit, and signals for controlling machine. From the results of a series of laboratory and underground tests so far, feed pressure is found to be a good indicator for identifying the voids/fractures and estimating the roof rock strength. The method for determining quantitatively the location and the size of void/fracture and estimating the roof rock strength from the drilling parameters of roof bolter was developed. Also, a set of computational rules has been developed for in-mine roof using measured roof drilling parameters and implemented in MRGIS (Mine Roof Geology Information System), a software package developed to allow mine engineers to make use of the large amount of roof drilling parameters for predicting roof geology properties automatically. For the development of roof bolting criteria, finite element models were developed for tensioned and fully grouted bolting designs. Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the mechanisms of modern roof bolting systems including both the tension and fully grouted bolts. Parameters to be studied are: bolt length, bolt spacing, bolt size/strength, grout annulus, in-situ stress condition, overburden depth, and roof geology (massive strata, fractured, and laminated or thinly-bedded). Based on the analysis of the mechanisms of both bolting systems and failure modes of the bolted strata, roof bolting design criteria and programs for modern roof bolting systems were developed. These criterion and/or programs were combined with the MRGIS for use in conjunction with roof bolt installation.

  13. ARTICLE IN PRESS Kinetics of convective crystal dissolution and melting,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Youxue

    Department of Geological Sciences, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1063, USA5 Received 25 instability (similar to melting of ice) with or 14 without water (although presence of warm water may increase the dissociation rate). Dissociation of methane hydrate 15 into gas and water is similar to ice melting

  14. The ice sheet model The polythermal ice sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calov, Reinhard

    with a temperature at the pressure melting point, the latter being considered as a bi- nary mixture of ice and small a year. Sediment Sliding The sliding velocity over sediment reads which applies if the basal ice Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait has become temperate (see Figure 4d,e), fast basal sliding appears leading

  15. Postdoctoral position Antarctic ice sheet modelling Free University of Brussels (VUB)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huybrechts, Philippe

    systems and ice caps, and in ice sheets in both polar regions (Greenland and Antarctica). The project as improved treatments for basal processes (basal sliding below ice sheet, basal melting below ice shelvesPostdoctoral position ­ Antarctic ice sheet modelling Free University of Brussels (VUB) The Ice

  16. Self drying roofs: What! No dripping!

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desjarlais, A.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Many roofs are replaced because water accumulates in portions of the roofing system.These accumulations can cause dripping, accelerated membrane failure, poor thermal performance, the threat of structural decay, and the depreciation of building assets. Traditionally, the roofing industry has been concerned with controlling the inflow of water into the roof. An example of this strategy would be the development of a more reliable membrane. However, roof membranes inevitably leak. For this reason, the roof design strategy of the future must be concerned with controlling water outflow. The requirements of this type of roof system are described. Under normal operating conditions (no leaks), the total moisture content of a self-drying roof system shall not increase with time and condensation shall not occur under the membrane during winter uptake. Moisture vapor movement by convection must be eliminated and the flow of water by gravity through imperfections in the roof system must be controlled. After a leak has occurred, no condensation on the upper surface of the deck shall be tolerated and the water introduced by the leak must be dissipated to the building interior in a minimum amount of time. Finite difference computer modeling is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the design. The impact of deck and insulation permeance, climate, leaks, and wintertime water uptake are simulated. A database of simulations is qualitatively described; this database will be used in future work to produce a simplified means of assessing the design parameters of a self-drying roof system.

  17. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syd S. Peng

    2001-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. The retrofitting works for a dedicated roof bolter for this research has been completed. The laboratory tests performed using this machine on simulated roof blocks have been conducted. The analysis performed on the testing data showed promising signs to detect the rock interface, fractures, as well as the rock types. The other tasks were progressing as planned.

  18. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syd S. Peng

    2001-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. In this quarter, retrofitting work to build a dedicated roof bolter for this research has been started. A number of numerical methods have been developed to improve the quality of and to analyze the collected drilling parameters. Finite element modeling of roof bolting mechanism is continuing.

  19. THE SHRINKING ARCTIC ICE CAP From the IPCC* Summary For Policymakers...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE SHRINKING ARCTIC ICE CAP From the IPCC* Summary For Policymakers... "Sea ice is projected] - a phenomenon sometimes referred to as "Arctic amplification". As Arctic temperatures rise, sea ice melts for the 20th century. The rate at which the modeled 21st century Arctic warming and sea ice melting occurs

  20. Green Roof Effect on Arthropod Biodiversity By Caitlin Race

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Green Roof Effect on Arthropod Biodiversity By Caitlin Race A green roof is a roof. Green roof technology has become increasingly popular due to several benefits including, insulation, runoff protection, and aesthetic value. This project was designed to see if a green roof would benefit

  1. Thermal performance measurements of insulated roof systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Courville, G.E.; Childs, K.W.; Walukas, D.J.; Childs, P.W.; Griggs, E.I.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has established a Roof Thermal Researcch Apparatus for carrying out thermal and hygric experiments on sections of low-sloped roofs. Test panels are exposed to a controlled temperature interior space and to the prevailing East Tennessee exterior environment. They are well instrumented and all data are stored and aided in the analysis by computer systems. Current experiments include studies of the effect of wet insulation on membrane temperature, thermal storage phenomena in built-up roof insulation, and the effects of varying surface reflectance on roof thermal performance.

  2. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syd S. Peng

    2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. In this quarter, the field, theoretical and programming works have been performed toward achieving the research goals set in the proposal. The selected site and the field testing plan enabled us to test all three aspects of roof geological features. The development of the data interpretation methodologies and the geology mapping computer program have also been preceding well.

  3. The Effects of Roof Membrane Color on Moisture Accumulation in Low-slope Commercial Roof Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of highly reflective roof membrane systems is being promoted and in some cases required in energy codes and green building codes and standards. Highly reflective membranes, which typically are light in color, have demonstrated reduced overall energy consumption in cooling dominated climate. These membranes also are theorized to reduce the heat island effect. Concern has been expressed about using highly reflective roof membrane systems in cool to cold climate zones because they potentially increase moisture accumulation in roof systems. Roof membranes are vapor retarders. The theory is that highly reflective membranes reflect the heat that could enter the roof assembly, potentially providing a condensing surface on the cold side of the roof assembly during winter months. The other concern is that roof systems using highly reflective membranes will not get hot enough during the summer months to dry out moisture that may have condensed or otherwise entered the roof assembly. This study focuses on mechanically attached, highly reflective, single-ply roof systems installed on low-slope (less than 2:12) structures in cool to cold climate zones. Three sources of data are considered when determining the moisture accumulation potential of these systems. 1.Test roof cuts taken during the winter months 2.Modeling data from a building envelope model specifically designed to evaluate moisture accumulation 3.Data from previous studies to determine the effects of roof membrane color on the drying rate of low-slope roof assemblies

  4. Evolution of cool-roof standards in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for steep-sloped nonresidential roofs in Title 24. Online atof SSP90.1 for Reflective Roofs. ASHRAE Transactions, 104(pp. 984-995. Evolution of cool roof standards in the United

  5. Status of cool roof standards in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    requirements for residential roofs in Title 24. Online atAkbari, H. 1998. Cool roofs save energy. ASHRAE Transactionsfor steep-sloped nonresidential roofs in Title 24. Online at

  6. Project Overcoat - An Exploration of Exterior Insulation Strategies for 1-1/2-Story Roof Applications in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojczyk, C.; Mosiman, G.; Huelman, P.; Schirber, T.; Yost, P.; Murry, T.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of an alternative method to interior-applied insulation strategies or exterior applied 'band-aids' such as heat tapes and ice belts may help reduce energy needs of millions of 1-1/2 story homes while reducing the risk of ice dam formation. A potential strategy for energy improvement of the roof is borrowed from new construction best practices: Here an 'overcoat' of a continuous air, moisture, and thermal barrier is applied on the outside of the roof structure for improved overall performance. The continuous insulation of this approach facilitates a reduction in thermal bridging which could further reduce energy consumption and bring existing homes closer to meeting the Building America goals for energy reduction. Research favors an exterior approach to deep energy retrofits and ice dam prevention in existing homes. The greatest amount of research focuses on whole house deep energy retrofits leaving a void in roof-only applications. The research is also void of data supporting the hygrothermal performance, durability, constructability, and cost of roof-only exterior overcoat strategies. Yet, contractors interviewed for this report indicate an understanding that exterior approaches are most promising for mitigating ice dams and energy loss and are able to sell these strategies to homeowners.

  7. Introduction Microorganisms in sea ice function ecologically in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Frank

    of the pack via brine drainage, ice melting, or ice break-up (Garrison & Buck 1989 and references thereinIntroduction Microorganisms in sea ice function ecologically in the Antarctic marine ecosystem where pelagic and sea ice habitats are intrinsically coupled (Laws 1985, Garrison 1991, Eicken 1992

  8. Ice sheets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentley, Charles G.; Thomas, Robert H.; Velicogna, Isabella

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is eroding West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Geophysical Researchand Yungel, J. (2000). Greenland Ice Sheet: High-Elevation2004). The west Antarctic ice sheet and long term climate

  9. Accelerated Aging of Roofing Surfaces

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAccelerated aging of roofing surfaces Hugo Destaillats, Ph.D.

  10. Thermal Performance of Vegetative Roofing Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL; Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Ennis, Mike J [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vegetative roofing, otherwise known as green or garden roofing, has seen tremendous growth in the last decade in the United States. The numerous benefits that green roofs provide have helped to fuel their resurgence in industrial and urban settings. There are many environmental and economical benefits that can be realized by incorporating a vegetative roof into the design of a building. These include storm-water retention, energy conservation, reduction in the urban heat island effect, increased longevity of the roofing membrane, the ability of plants to create biodiversity and filter air contaminants, and beautification of the surroundings by incorporating green space. The vegetative roof research project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was initiated to quantify the thermal performance of various vegetative roofing systems relative to black and white roofs. Single Ply Roofing Institute (SPRI) continued its long-term commitment to cooperative research with ORNL in this project. Low-slope roof systems for this study were constructed and instrumented for continuous monitoring in the mixed climate of East Tennessee. This report summarizes the results of the annual cooling and heating loads per unit area of three vegetative roofing systems with side-by-side comparison to black and white roofing systems as well as a test section with just the growing media without plants. Results showed vegetative roofs reduced heat gain (reduced cooling loads) compared to the white control system due to the thermal mass, extra insulation, and evapo-transpiration associated with the vegetative roofing systems. The 4-inch and tray systems reduced the heat gain by approximately 61%, while the reduction with the 8-inch vegetative roof was found to be approximately 67%. The vegetative roofing systems were more effective in reducing heat gain than in reducing heat losses (heating loads). The reduction in heat losses for the 4-inch and tray systems were found to be approximately 40% in the mixed climate of East Tennessee. It should be noted that these values are climate dependent. Vegetative roofs also reduced the temperature (heat exposure) and temperature fluctuations (thermal stress) experienced by the membrane. In the cooling season of East Tennessee, the average peak temperature of the 4-inch and tray systems was found to be approximately 94 F cooler than the control black roofing system. The average temperature fluctuations at the membrane for the 4-inch and tray systems were found to be approximately 10 F compared to 125 F for black and 64 F for white systems. As expected, the 8-inch vegetative roof had the lowest fluctuations at approximately 2 F. Future work will include modeling of the energy performance of vegetative roof panels in the test climate of East Tennessee. The validated model then will be used to predict energy use in roofs with different insulation levels and in climates different from the test climate.

  11. Historical and future black carbon deposition on the three ice caps: Ice core measurements and model simulations from 1850 to 2100

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Historical and future black carbon deposition on the three ice caps: Ice core measurements black carbon deposition on the three ice caps: Ice core measurements and model simulations from 1850 tends to enhance snow and ice melting due to the absorption caused by the increased BC deposition

  12. affect green roof: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Early green roof cooling and energy reduction research in North America took place in Canada and the northern latitudes of the United States, where green roofs reduced rooftop...

  13. Effects of solar photovoltaic panels on roof heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez, Anthony; Kleissl, Jan; Luvall, Jeffrey C

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the energy performance of  photovoltaic roofs, ASHRAE Trans A thermal model for photovoltaic systems, Solar Energy, Effects of Solar Photovoltaic Panels on Roof Heat Transfer 

  14. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syd S. Peng

    2002-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. A new mechanical approach to estimate rock strengths using the acquired drilling parameters has been proposed. This approach takes a number of important factors, that have never been studied in the previous researches, into the considerations. Good results have been shown using the new approach on the testing data.

  15. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syd S. Peng

    2002-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. More laboratory tests have been performed in this quarter. The analysis performed on the testing data showed: (1) abnormal rotational accelerations can be used as the indicator of the rock interfaces, and (2) the sharp drops of drilling thrust and torque agree well with the locations of fractures.

  16. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2006-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the pre-formed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  17. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Berkeley, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the preformed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  18. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinwoodie, T.L.

    1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the preformed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  19. XXII ICTAM, 2529 August 2008, Adelaide, Australia EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL MODELLING OF ICE SHEETSHELF GROUNDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worster, M. Grae

    melting of the polar ice caps due to global warming, a dynamical collapse of the ice sheets has the dynamical stability of shelving ice sheets. INTRODUCTION The Antarctic ice cap contains several tensXXII ICTAM, 25­29 August 2008, Adelaide, Australia EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL MODELLING OF ICE

  20. Decision guide for roof slope selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, T.R.; Wendt, R.L.; McCorkle, J.E.

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This decision guide has been written for personnel who are responsible for the design, construction, and replacement of Air Force roofs. It provides the necessary information and analytical tools for making prudent and cost-effective decisions regarding the amount of slope to provide in various roofing situations. Because the expertise and experience of the decision makers will vary, the guide contains both basic slope-related concepts as well as more sophisticated technical data. This breadth of information enables the less experienced user to develop an understanding of roof slope issues before applying the more sophisticated analytical tools, while the experienced user can proceed directly to the technical sections. Although much of this guide is devoted to the analysis of costs, it is not a cost-estimating document. It does, however, provide the reader with the relative costs of a variety of roof slope options; and it shows how to determine the relative cost-effectiveness of different options. The selection of the proper roof slope coupled with good roof design, a quality installation, periodic inspection, and appropriate maintenance and repair will achieve the Air Force's objective of obtaining the best possible roofing value for its buildings. 21 refs., 17 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. ROOF CHARACTERISATION RELATED TO FIRE PROPAGATION RISK BY A NUMERICAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ROOF CHARACTERISATION RELATED TO FIRE PROPAGATION RISK BY A NUMERICAL APPROACH L. Fournier1 , A by thé roof: - one is thé use of intumescent strips on thé roof, - thé other consists of extending thé fire walls (typically 70 cm or 1 m) above thé roof levé1 in order to prevent thé flame from being blown

  2. RIS-M-2471 RUN-OFF FROM ROOFS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RISØ-M-2471 RUN-OFF FROM ROOFS Jørn Roed Abstract. In order to find the run-off from roof material a roof has been constructed with two different slopes (30° and 45°). Beryllium-7 and caesium-137 has been used as tracers. Considering new roof material the pollution removed by runoff processes has been shown

  3. Design considerations for retractable-roof stadia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frazer, Andrew H., 1981-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As existing open-air or fully enclosed stadia are reaching their life expectancies, cities are choosing to replace them with structures with moving roofs. This kind of facility provides protection from weather for spectators, ...

  4. Roof Coating Procedures and Their Productivity Gains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonaby, J.; Schaub, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Roof Coating Procedures and their Productivity Gains John Bonaby and Dr. Diane Schaub, University of Florida As building envelope improvements are realized in organizations as ways to insulate businesses from high energy costs, the relative... benefit of the installation of different roof coating technologies and comparable application procedures of these technologies are ambiguous. The focal point of this research is to determine the effective correlation between various commercially...

  5. Re-roofing slashes chain's cooling costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, J.

    1984-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A re-roofing program to install single-ply synthetic rubber coated with hypalon, a white synthetic rubber, will save each Hardee restaurant an average of $25,000 over a 10-year period. The savings will come from reduced air conditioning costs, which will vary by location. The new roof system tolerates temperatures from -40 to over 150/sup 0/F. Reflection from the white surface makes the material more energy efficient than conventional hot asphalt.

  6. Next Generation Roofs and Attics for Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL; Kosny, Jan [ORNL] [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prototype residential roof and attic assemblies were constructed and field tested in a mixed-humid U.S. climate. Summer field data showed that at peak day irradiance the heat transfer penetrating the roof deck dropped almost 90% compared with heat transfer for a conventional roof and attic assembly. The prototype assemblies use a combination of strategies: infrared reflective cool roofs, radiant barriers, above-sheathing ventilation, low-emittance surfaces, insulation, and thermal mass to reduce the attic air temperature and thus the heat transfer into the home. The prototype assemblies exhibited attic air temperatures that did not exceed the peak day outdoor air temperature. Field results were benchmarked against an attic computer tool and simulations made for the densely populated, hot and dry southeastern and central-basin regions of California. New construction in the central basin could realize a 12% drop in ceiling and air-conditioning annual load compared with a code-compliant roof and attic having solar reflectance of 0.25 and thermal emittance of 0.75. In the hot, dry southeastern region of California, the combined ceiling and duct annual load drops by 23% of that computed for a code-compliant roof and attic assembly. Eliminating air leakage from ducts placed in unconditioned attics yielded savings comparable to the best simulated roof and attic systems. Retrofitting an infrared reflective clay tile roof with 1 -in (0.032-m) of EPS foam above the sheathing and improving existing ductwork by reducing air leakage and wrapping ducts with insulation can yield annual savings of about $200 compared with energy costs for pre-1980 construction.

  7. Roof Coating Procedures and Their Productivity Gains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonaby, J.; Schaub, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    benefit of the installation of different roof coating technologies and comparable application procedures of these technologies are ambiguous. The focal point of this research is to determine the effective correlation between various commercially... available roof coatings, and productivity gains associated with these energy saving strategies. This type of situation is evidenced in the justification of energy rebates distributed by Florida Power & Light in exchange for the application of Energy Star...

  8. SHAPE-CONSTRAINED SEGMENTATION APPROACH FOR ARCTIC MULTIYEAR SEA ICE FLOE ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    SHAPE-CONSTRAINED SEGMENTATION APPROACH FOR ARCTIC MULTIYEAR SEA ICE FLOE ANALYSIS Yuliya Tarabalka Research Association, MD, USA. e-mail: yuliya.tarabalka@inria.fr ABSTRACT The melting of sea ice, it is important to investigate how rapidly sea ice floes melt. For this purpose, a new TempoSeg method

  9. Raising the Roof: California Housing Development Projections and Constraints, 1997-2020

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landis, John D.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2000-01 Raising the Roof: California Housing Developmentreport, “Raising the Roof: California Housing Developmentat Berkeley Raising the Roof: California Housing Development

  10. Hamerschlag Hall Green Roof Storm Water Retention and Runoff Reduction Performance Lucheng Chen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrews, Peter B.

    Hamerschlag Hall Green Roof Storm Water Retention and Runoff Reduction Performance ......................................................................................................................... 2 2. Hamerschlag Hall Green Roof .............................................................................. 13 4. Methods of Storm Analysis and Green Roof Performance Analysis

  11. Passive ice freezing-releasing heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorski, Anthony J. (Lemont, IL); Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pipe device has been developed which permits completely passive ice formation and periodic release of ice without requiring the ambient temperature to rise above the melting point of water. This passive design enables the maximum amount of cooling capacity to be stored in the tank.

  12. Where might we find evidence of a Last Interglacial West Antarctic Ice Sheet collapse in Antarctic ice core records?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddall, Mark

    increased melting from valley glaciers and small ice caps (estimated ~0.6±0.1 m, Radi and Hock, 2010), oceanWhere might we find evidence of a Last Interglacial West Antarctic Ice Sheet collapse in Antarctic ice core records? S.L. Bradley a, , M. Siddall a , G.A. Milne b , V. Masson-Delmotte c , E. Wolff d

  13. Building Energy Efficiency Standards Approved Default Cool Roof Performance Values for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Building Energy Efficiency Standards Approved Default Cool Roof Performance Values for Low-Sloped Roofs That Use Aggregate As the Surface Layer Aggregate used as the surface layer of low-sloped roofs shall have the default cool roof properties

  14. Cost Analysis of Roof-Only Air Sealing and Insulation Strategies on 1 1/2-Story Homes in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojczyk, C.

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The External Thermal and Moisture Management System (ETMMS), typically seen in deep energy retrofits, is a valuable approach for the roof-only portions of existing homes, particularly the 1 1/2-story home. It is effective in reducing energy loss through the building envelope, improving building durability, reducing ice dams, and providing opportunities to improve occupant comfort and health.

  15. In-situ aging of roof systems containing polyisocyanurate roof insulation foamed with alternative blowing agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desjarlais, A.O.; Christian, J.E.; Graves, R.S.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental polyisocyanurate (PIR) foam roof insulations with permeable facers were installed in roofing systems and continuously monitored for thermal performance for four years. The foams were produced using a specific formulation that represented current technology in 1989 and were blown with CFC-11, HCFC-123, and HCFC-141b. These foams were installed in roof systems comprised of loosely-laid insulation boards covered by either a loosely-laid single ply white or black membrane. The in-situ testing was carried out on an outdoor test facility, the Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA). Additional specimens of these foams were aged in the laboratory and periodically evaluated using laboratory measurement equipment. This paper summarizes the in-situ data compiled to date, compares these data with the laboratory results, and examines whether the proposed laboratory procedure for accelerating the aging of foams by the slicing and scaling method accurately predicts the aging characteristics of these materials installed in roof systems. These experiments are part of a joint industry/government project established to evaluate the technical viability of alternative HCFC blowing agents for rigid closed-cell polyisocyanurate foam roof insulations. Members of the project are the US Department of Energy (DOE)/Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Society of the Plastics Industry-Polyurethane Division (SPI), the Polyisocyanurate Insulation Manufacturers Association (PIMA), and the National Roofing Contractors Association (NRCA).

  16. Weathering of Roofing Materials-An Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berdahl, Paul; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Miller, William A.

    2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview of several aspects of the weathering of roofing materials is presented. Degradation of materials initiated by ultraviolet radiation is discussed for plastics used in roofing, as well as wood and asphalt. Elevated temperatures accelerate many deleterious chemical reactions and hasten diffusion of material components. Effects of moisture include decay of wood, acceleration of corrosion of metals, staining of clay, and freeze-thaw damage. Soiling of roofing materials causes objectionable stains and reduces the solar reflectance of reflective materials. (Soiling of non-reflective materials can also increase solar reflectance.) Soiling can be attributed to biological growth (e.g., cyanobacteria, fungi, algae), deposits of organic and mineral particles, and to the accumulation of flyash, hydrocarbons and soot from combustion.

  17. Simulation of the Fennoscandian ice sheet during the last glaciation using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sliding is triggered when basal temperatures reach melting point of ice sliding is proportional to power- mechanical ice sheet model coupled to an isostatic adjustment model. The model predicts thermal conditions

  18. Energy Performance Aspects of a Florida Green Roof Part 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sonne, J.; Parker, D.

    Green roof installation in the United States is growing at a significant rate. There are a number of reasons for this growth including rainwater runoff reduction and aesthetic benefits. Energy performance evaluations of green roofs, the subject...

  19. Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from a Solar PV System at the San Jos Convention Center Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from a...

  20. Energy Saving 'Cool Roofs' Installed at Y-12 | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home NNSA Blog Energy Saving 'Cool Roofs' Installed at Y-12 Energy Saving 'Cool Roofs' Installed at Y-12...

  1. Energy Saving "Cool Roofs" Installed at Y-12 | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Home Field Offices Welcome to the NNSA Production Office NPO News Releases Energy Saving "Cool Roofs" Installed at Y-12 Energy Saving "Cool Roofs" Installed at Y-12 The...

  2. PRESSURIZATION OF FIXED ROOF STORAGE TANKS DUE TO EXTERNAL FIRES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PRESSURIZATION OF FIXED ROOF STORAGE TANKS DUE TO EXTERNAL FIRES Fabien FouiHen, INERIS, Parc initiating event of the fire ball observed. In concrete terms, when a fixed roof storage tank is surrounded

  3. Effects of solar photovoltaic panels on roof heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez, Anthony; Kleissl, Jan; Luvall, Jeffrey C

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the underside of the tilted solar panels and the surface of the roof under the solar panel (Fig.  2).  An air temperature of the  solar panel is similar to the roof 

  4. Evolution of cool-roof standards in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    than solar reflectance, thermal emittance, or Energy- Star™solar absorptance and roof-assembly thermal transmittance that yield equal annual energysolar absorptance ? and roof-assembly thermal transmittance U that yield equal annual energy

  5. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A SUSTAINABLE AND ENERGY EFFICIENT RE-ROOFING TECHNOLOGY USING FIELD-TEST DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Kriner, Scott [Metal Construction Association, Glenview, IL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three test attics were constructed to evaluate a new sustainable method of re-roofing utilizing photo-voltaic (PV) laminates, metal roofing panels, and PCM heat sink in the Envelope Systems Research Apparatus (ESRA) facility in the ORNL campus. Figure 1 is a picture of the three attic roofs located adjacent to each other. The leftmost roof is the conventional shingle roof, followed by the metal panel roof incorporating the cool-roof coating, and third from left is the roof with the PCM. On the PCM roof, the PV panels are seen as well; they're labelled from left-to-right as panels 5, 6 and 7. The metal panel roof consists of three metal panels with the cool-roof coating; in further discussion this is referred to as the infrared reflective (IRR) metal roof. The IRR metal panels reflect the incoming solar radiation and then quickly re-emit the remaining absorbed portion, thereby reducing the solar heat gain of the attic. Surface reflectance of the panels were measured using a Solar Spectrum Reflectometer. In the 0.35-2.0 {mu}m wavelength interval, which accounts for more than 94% of the solar energy, the IRR panels have an average reflectance of 0.303. In the infrared portion of the spectrum, the IRR panel reflectance is 0.633. The PCM roof consists of a layer of macro-encapsulated bio-based PCM at the bottom, followed by a 2-cm thick layer of dense fiberglass insulation with a reflective surface on top, and metal panels with pre-installed PV laminates on top. The PCM has a melting point of 29 C (84.2 F) and total enthalpy between 180 and 190 J/g. The PCM was macro-packaged in between two layers of heavy-duty plastic foil forming arrays of PCM cells. Two air cavities, between PCM cells and above the fiberglass insulation, helped the over-the-deck natural air ventilation. It is anticipated that during summer, this extra ventilation will help in reducing the attic-generated cooling loads. The extra ventilation, in conjunction with the PCM heat sink, are used to minimize thermal stresses due to the PV laminates on sunny days. In PV laminates sunlight is converted into electricity and heat simultaneous. In case of building integrated applications, a relatively high solar absorption of amorphous silicon laminates can be utilized during the winter for solar heating purposes with PCM providing necessary heat storage capacity. However, PV laminates may also generate increased building cooling loads during the summer months. Therefore, in this project, the PCM heat sink was to minimize summer heat gains as well. The PCM-fibreglass-PV assembly and the IRR metal panels are capable of being installed directly on top of existing shingle roofs during re-roofing, precluding the need for recycling or disposal of waste materials. The PV laminates installed on the PCM attic are PVL-144 models from Uni-Solar. Each laminate contains 22 triple junction amorphous silicon solar cells connected in series. The silicon cells are of dimensions 356 mm x 239 mm (14-in. x 9.4-in.). The PVL-144 laminate is encapsulated in durable ETFE (poly-ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) high light-transmissive polymer. Table 1 lists the power, voltage and current ratings of the PVL-144 panel.

  6. Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWaterCool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs Addthis An error

  7. Effect of Surface Mass on Roof Thermal Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkes, K. E.; Shipp, P. H.; Sanders, J. P.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECT OF SURFACE MASS ON ROOF THERMAL PERFORMANCE KENNETH E. WILKES, PAUL H. SHIPP, AND JOHN P. SANDERS Staff Members Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee ABSTRACT The roof of a building is exposed to the most severe... of guidelines for the use of surface mass are presented. The experiment on surface mass was carried out at the U.S. Department of Energy Roof Research Center using the Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) .4...

  8. Cool Roof Resource Guide for Federal Agencies (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Resource guide containing information and links for the evaluation and installation of cool roofs within the Federal Government

  9. Energy Performance Aspects of a Florida Green Roof

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sonne, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by the University of Central Florida’s Stormwater Management Academy under a grant from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP). While the primary purpose of the project is to evaluate rainwater runoff benefits of the green roof, FDEP.... The roof geometry and drainage were designed to allow both the conventional and green roofs to have similar “mirror image” insulation levels and corresponding temperature sensor locations as shown in the roof surface and building section diagrams...

  10. GRAPH-BASED METHOD FOR MULTITEMPORAL SEGMENTATION OF SEA ICE FLOES FROM SATELLITE DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the Arc- tic sea ice pack in December 2007, continuously moved with the Arctic ocean currents and meltedGRAPH-BASED METHOD FOR MULTITEMPORAL SEGMENTATION OF SEA ICE FLOES FROM SATELLITE DATA Claudio, MODIS, Sea Ice Floes. ABSTRACT: Automated segmentation of the sea ice evolution would allow scientists

  11. Multiple effects of ice load changes and associated stress change on magmatic systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Pressure release melting due to ice cap retreat in Iceland may at present times generate a similar amount that part of this magma may be captured in the crust, rather than being erupted. Gradual retreat of ice caps retreat of ice caps and glaciers worldwide; many of which are located in volcanic regions. The reduced ice

  12. Basal melting of snow on early Mars: A possible origin of some valley Michael H. Carr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Head III, James William

    that valley networks could have formed as a result of basal melting of thick snow and ice deposits. Depending in part by basal melting of the south polar cap [Clifford, 1987], this cannot be the only mechanismBasal melting of snow on early Mars: A possible origin of some valley networks Michael H. Carr U. S

  13. Poster No.: 169 Sulci and Curvature: Detection of the Roof

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Poster No.: 169 Sulci and Curvature: Detection of the Roof Christophe Renault, Michel Desvignes] used the superficial trace of sulci, we detect the roof of the sulci, which presents less intersection the curvature K1 et K2 are equal. Results We have presented a method to extract roof of sulci with a sub

  14. Hamerschlag Hall Green Roof Project Water Monitoring System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrews, Peter B.

    1 Hamerschlag Hall Green Roof Project Water Monitoring System Plans and Specifications Created By: David Carothers Date: 2/17/05 #12;2 Hamerschlag Hall Green Roof Project Date: 2/14/05 Created By: David and the flumes shall be water tight. (Figures 1&2) · The connection between the flume and the green roof membrane

  15. Practical Approach to Designing Wood Roof Truss Assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    Practical Approach to Designing Wood Roof Truss Assemblies Rakesh Gupta, M.ASCE1 ; and Pranueng to evaluate "system effects" in light-frame roof truss assemblies. The goal of this study was to develop an improved and practical design method for 3D roof truss assemblies used in residential construction. A truss

  16. Roofing in the Urban Environment: Pollution Source of Opportunity for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    ://www.eng.ua.edu/~rpitt Shifting to a more local focus... #12;2 Map courtesy of U.S. Geological Website on Acid Rain Roof Runoff-up roof (plywood + roofing paper/tar) Total: 166 Dissolved: 128 Methodology · Summer 2002: Laboratory exposure to simulated acid rain. · Spring 2003 ­ Fall 2004: Long

  17. Evolution of cool-roof standards in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen

    2008-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Roofs that have high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance stay cool in the sun. A roof with lower thermal emittance but exceptionally high solar reflectance can also stay cool in the sun. Substituting a cool roof for a noncool roof decreases cooling-electricity use, cooling-power demand, and cooling-equipment capacity requirements, while slightly increasing heating-energy consumption. Cool roofs can also lower citywide ambient air temperature in summer, slowing ozone formation and increasing human comfort. Provisions for cool roofs in energy-efficiency standards can promote the building- and climate-appropriate use of cool roofing technologies. Cool-roof requirements are designed to reduce building energy use, while energy-neutral cool-roof credits permit the use of less energy-efficient components (e.g., larger windows) in a building that has energy-saving cool roofs. Both types of measures can reduce the life-cycle cost of a building (initial cost plus lifetime energy cost). Since 1999, several widely used building energy-efficiency standards, including ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, the International Energy Conservation Code, and California's Title 24 have adopted cool-roof credits or requirements. This paper reviews the technical development of cool-roof provisions in the ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, and California Title 24 standards, and discusses the treatment of cool roofs in other standards and energy-efficiency programs. The techniques used to develop the ASHRAE and Title 24 cool-roof provisions can be used as models to address cool roofs in building energy-efficiency standards worldwide.

  18. Covered Product Category: Cool Roof Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including cool roof products, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  19. Development of a Roof Savings Calculator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL] [ORNL; Erdem, Ender [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Huang, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs the latest web technologies and usability design to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim. Building defaults were assigned and can provide estimated annual energy and cost savings after the user selects nothing more than building location. In addition to cool reflective roofs, the RSC tool can simulate multiple roof types at arbitrary inclinations. There are options for above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, and low-emittance surfaces. The tool also accommodates HVAC ducts either in the conditioned space or in the attic with custom air leakage rates. Multiple layers of building materials, ceiling and deck insulation, and other parameters can be compared side-by-side to generate an energy/cost savings estimate between two buildings. The RSC tool was benchmarked against field data for demonstration homes in Ft. Irwin, CA.

  20. Development of a Roof Savings Calculator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL; Huang, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Erdem, Ender [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs the latest web technologies and usability design to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim. Building defaults were assigned and can provide annual energy and cost savings after the user selects nothing more than building location. In addition to cool reflective roofs, the RSC tool can simulate multiple roof types at arbitrary inclinations. There are options for above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers and low-emittance surfaces. The tool also accommodates HVAC ducts either in the conditioned space or in the attic with custom air leakage rates. Multiple layers of thermal mass, ceiling insulation and other parameters can be compared side-by-side to generate energy/cost savings between two buildings. The RSC tool was benchmarked against field data for demonstration homes in Ft Irwin, CA.

  1. Thrust bolting: roof bolt support apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tadolini, Stephen C. (Lakewood, CO); Dolinar, Dennis R. (Golden, CO)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of installing a tensioned roof bolt in a borehole of a rock formation without the aid of a mechanical anchoring device or threaded tensioning threads by applying thrust to the bolt (19) as the bonding material (7') is curing to compress the strata (3) surrounding the borehole (1), and then relieving the thrust when the bonding material (7') has cured.

  2. Update on the Million Solar Roofs Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herig, C.

    1999-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The Million Solar Roofs Initiative, announced by the President in June of 1997, spans a period of twelve years and intends to increase domestic deployment of solar technologies. This paper presents an overview of the development of the initiative and significant activities to date.

  3. Status of cool roof standards in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1999, several widely used building energy efficiency standards, including ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, the International Energy Conservation Code, and California's Title 24 have adopted cool roof credits or requirements. We review the technical development of cool roof provisions in the ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, and California Title 24 standards, and discuss the treatment of cool roofs in other standards and energy-efficiency programs. The techniques used to develop the ASHRAE and Title 24 cool roof provisions can be used as models to address cool roofs in building energy standards worldwide.

  4. Vapor deposition of water on graphitic surfaces: Formation of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupi, Laura; Kastelowitz, Noah; Molinero, Valeria, E-mail: Valeria.Molinero@utah.edu [Department of Chemistry, The University of Utah, 315 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0850 (United States)

    2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbonaceous surfaces are a major source of atmospheric particles and could play an important role in the formation of ice. Here we investigate through molecular simulations the stability, metastability, and molecular pathways of deposition of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, and ice I from water vapor on graphitic and atomless Lennard-Jones surfaces as a function of temperature. We find that bilayer ice is the most stable ice polymorph for small cluster sizes, nevertheless it can grow metastable well above its region of thermodynamic stability. In agreement with experiments, the simulations predict that on increasing temperature the outcome of water deposition is amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water. The deposition nucleation of bilayer ice and ice I is preceded by the formation of small liquid clusters, which have two wetting states: bilayer pancake-like (wetting) at small cluster size and droplet-like (non-wetting) at larger cluster size. The wetting state of liquid clusters determines which ice polymorph is nucleated: bilayer ice nucleates from wetting bilayer liquid clusters and ice I from non-wetting liquid clusters. The maximum temperature for nucleation of bilayer ice on flat surfaces, T{sub B}{sup max} is given by the maximum temperature for which liquid water clusters reach the equilibrium melting line of bilayer ice as wetting bilayer clusters. Increasing water-surface attraction stabilizes the pancake-like wetting state of liquid clusters leading to larger T{sub B}{sup max} for the flat non-hydrogen bonding surfaces of this study. The findings of this study should be of relevance for the understanding of ice formation by deposition mode on carbonaceous atmospheric particles, including soot.

  5. Evaluation of convex roof entanglement measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geza Toth; Tobias Moroder; Otfried Gühne

    2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We show a powerful method to compute entanglement measures based on convex roof constructions. In particular, our method is applicable to measures that, for pure states, can be written as low order polynomials of operator expectation values. We show how to compute the linear entropy of entanglement, the linear entanglement of assistance, and a bound on the dimension of the entanglement for bipartite systems. We discuss how to obtain the convex roof of the three-tangle for three-qubit states. We also show how to calculate the linear entropy of entanglement and the quantum Fisher information based on partial information or device independent information. We demonstrate the usefulness of our method by concrete examples

  6. Aging and weathering of cool roofing membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Berhe, Asmeret A.; Levinson, Ronnen; Graveline,Stanley; Foley, Kevin; Delgado, Ana H.; Paroli, Ralph M.

    2005-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Aging and weathering can reduce the solar reflectance of cool roofing materials. This paper summarizes laboratory measurements of the solar spectral reflectance of unweathered, weathered, and cleaned samples collected from single-ply roofing membranes at various sites across the United States. Fifteen samples were examined in each of the following six conditions: unweathered; weathered; weathered and brushed; weathered, brushed and then rinsed with water; weathered, brushed, rinsed with water, and then washed with soap and water; and weathered, brushed, rinsed with water, washed with soap and water, and then washed with an algaecide. Another 25 samples from 25 roofs across the United States and Canada were measured in their unweathered state, weathered, and weathered and wiped. We document reduction in reflectivity resulted from various soiling mechanisms and provide data on the effectiveness of various cleaning approaches. Results indicate that although the majority of samples after being washed with detergent could be brought to within 90% of their unweathered reflectivity, in some instances an algaecide was required to restore this level of reflectivity.

  7. Generalized roof duality and bisubmodular functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolmogorov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Consider a convex relaxation $\\hat f$ of a pseudo-boolean function $f$. We say that the relaxation is {\\em totally half-integral} if $\\hat f(\\bx)$ is a polyhedral function with half-integral extreme points $\\bx$, and this property is preserved after adding an arbitrary combination of constraints of the form $x_i=x_j$, $x_i=1-x_j$, and $x_i=\\gamma$ where $\\gamma\\in\\{0, 1, 1/2}$ is a constant. A well-known example is the {\\em roof duality} relaxation for quadratic pseudo-boolean functions $f$. We argue that total half-integrality is a natural requirement for generalizations of roof duality to arbitrary pseudo-boolean functions. Our contributions are as follows. First, we provide a complete characterization of totally half-integral relaxations $\\hat f$ by establishing a one-to-one correspondence with {\\em bisubmodular functions}. Second, we give a new characterization of bisubmodular functions. Finally, we show some relationships between general totally half-integral relaxations and relaxations based on the roof...

  8. Hydrological and biogeochemical cycling along the Greenland ice sheet margin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhatia, Maya Pilar, 1979-

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global warming has led to a significant increase in Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) melt and runoff since 1990, resulting in escalated export of fresh water and associated sediment to the surrounding North Atlantic and Arctic ...

  9. Airtightness Results of Roof-Only Air Sealing Strategies on 1-1/2 Story Homes in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojczyk, C.; Murry, T.; Mosiman, G.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this second study on solutions to ice dams in 1-1/2 story homes, five test homes located in both cold and very cold climates were analyzed for air leakage reduction rates following modifications by independent contractors on owner-occupied homes. The reason for choosing this house type was they are very common in our area and very difficult to air seal and insulate effectively. Two projects followed a roof-only Exterior Thermal Moisture Management System (ETMMS) process. One project used an interior-only approach to roof air sealing and insulation. The remaining two projects used a deep energy retrofit approach for whole house (foundation wall, above grade wall, roof) air leakage and heat loss reduction. All were asked to provide information regarding project goals, process, and pre and post-blower door test results. Additional air leakage reduction data was provided by several NorthernSTAR Building America industry partners for interior-applied, roof-only modifications on 1-1/2 story homes. The data represents homes in the general market as well as homes that were part of the state of Minnesota weatherization program. A goal was to compare exterior air sealing methods with interior approaches. This pool of data enabled us to compare air tightness data from over 220 homes using similar air seal methods.

  10. Age characteristics in a multidecadal Arctic sea ice simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunke, Elizabeth C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bitz, Cecllia M [UNIV. OF WASHINGTON

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results from adding a tracer for age of sea ice to a sophisticated sea ice model that is widely used for climate studies are presented. The consistent simulation of ice age, dynamics, and thermodynamics in the model shows explicitly that the loss of Arctic perennial ice has accelerated in the past three decades, as has been seen in satellite-derived observations. Our model shows that the September ice age average across the Northern Hemisphere varies from about 5 to 8 years, and the ice is much younger (about 2--3 years) in late winter because of the expansion of first-year ice. We find seasonal ice on average comprises about 5% of the total ice area in September, but as much as 1.34 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} survives in some years. Our simulated ice age in the late 1980s and early 1990s declined markedly in agreement with other studies. After this period of decline, the ice age began to recover, but in the final years of the simulation very little young ice remains after the melt season, a strong indication that the age of the pack will again decline in the future as older ice classes fail to be replenished. The Arctic ice pack has fluctuated between older and younger ice types over the past 30 years, while ice area, thickness, and volume all declined over the same period, with an apparent acceleration in the last decade.

  11. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Contribution of Icelandic ice caps to sea level rise:1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berthier, Etienne

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Contribution of Icelandic ice caps - 2 BJ¨ORNSSON ET AL.: MASS LOSS FROM ICELANDIC ICE CAPS In total, Icelandic ice caps contain 3,600 km3 of ice, which if melted would3 raise sea level by 1 cm. Here, we present an overview of mass

  12. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syd S. Peng

    2005-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this quarter, the field, theoretical and programming works have been performed toward achieving the research goals set in the proposal. The main accomplishments in this quarter included: (1) one more field test has been conducted in an underground coal mine, (2) optimization studies of the control parameters have been conducted, (3) method to use torque to thrust ratio as indicator of rock relative hardness has also been explored, and (4) about 98% of the development work for the roof geology mapping program, MRGIS, has completed, (5) A real time roof geology mapping system for roof bolters in limestone mine, including a special version of the geology mapping program and hardware, has already been verified to perform very well in underground production condition.

  13. Green Roofs: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Federal Technology Alert

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scholz-Barth, K.; Tanner, S.

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a ''green roof,'' a layer of vegetation (e.g., a roof garden) covers the surface of a roof to provide shade, cooler indoor and outdoor temperatures, and effective storm-water management to reduce runoff. The main components are waterproofing, soil, and plants. There are two basic kinds: intensive and extensive. An intensive green roof often features large shrubs and trees, and it can be expensive to install and maintain. An extensive green roof features shallow soil and low-growing, horizontally spreading plants that can thrive in the alpine conditions of many rooftops. These plants do not require a lot of water or soil, and they can tolerate a significant amount of exposure to the sun and wind. This Federal Technology Alert focuses on the benefits, design, and implementation of extensive green roofs and includes criteria for their use on federal facilities.

  14. Arctic sea ice extent small as never before Alerting message from the Arctic: The extent the the Arctic sea ice has reached on Sep. 8

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bremen, Universität

    Arctic sea ice extent small as never before Alerting message from the Arctic: The extent the the Arctic sea ice has reached on Sep. 8 with 4.240 million km2 a new historic minimum (Figure 1). Physicists of the University of Bremen now confirm the apprehension existing since July 2011 that the ice melt in the Arctic

  15. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Deformation-induced melting in the margins of the1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the margins of the1 West-Antarctic ice streams2 Jenny Suckale 1 , John D. Platt 2 , Thibaut Perol 2 and James for publication. #12;X - 2 SUCKALE, PLATT, PEROL AND RICE: MELTING IN ICE-STREAM MARGINS Abstract. Flow of glacial 16, 2014, 10:19am D R A F T #12;SUCKALE, PLATT, PEROL AND RICE: MELTING IN ICE-STREAM MARGINS X - 3 1

  16. Fluorescent Pigments for High-Performance Cool Roofing and Facades...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    dark-colored pigments for cool metal roof and faade coatings that incorporate near-infrared fluorescence and reflectance to improve energy performance. Image: PPG Industries 2...

  17. Flourescent Pigments for High-Performance Cool Roofing and Facades...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    dark-colored pigments for cool metal roof and faade coatings that incorporate near-infrared fluorescence and reflectance to improve energy performance. Image: PPG Industries 2...

  18. Evolution of cool-roof standards in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CEC. 2006. 2005 Building Energy Efficiency Standards foraddress cool roofs in building energy-efficiency standardsin its “Title 24” Building Energy Efficiency Standards for

  19. Evolution of cool-roof standards in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2006. Inclusion of solar reflectance and thermal emittanceuse photovoltaic, solar- thermal, or roof-garden systems2006. Inclusion of solar reflectance and thermal emittance

  20. asphalt roofing shingles: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and could increase the life of the roof product. However, determining the effects of climate and solar exposure on reflectance and color variability over time is of...

  1. Cool Roof Systems; What is the Condensation Risk?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Pallin, Simon B [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A white roof, or cool roof, is constructed to decrease thermal loads from solar radiation, therefore saving energy by decreasing the cooling demands. Unfortunately, cool roofs with a mechanically attached membrane have shown a higher risk of intermediate condensation in the materials below the membrane in certain climates (Ennis & Kehrer, 2011) and in comparison with similar constructions with a darker exterior surface (Bludau, Zirkelbach, & Kuenzel, 2009). As a consequence, questions have been raised regarding the sustainability and reliability of using cool roof membranes in northern U.S. climate zones.

  2. Energy Department Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    50 degrees cooler. A study by researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) found that using cool roofs and cool pavements in cities around the world can help...

  3. Secretary Chu Announces Steps to Implement Cool Roofs at DOE...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    emissions. A recent study by researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) found that using cool roofs and cool pavements in cities around the world can help...

  4. Cool roofs as an energy conservation measure for federal buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taha, Haider; Akbari, Hashem

    2003-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed initial estimates of the potential benefits of cool roofs on federal buildings and facilities (building scale) as well as extrapolated the results to all national facilities under the administration of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). In addition, a spreadsheet ''calculator'' is devised to help FEMP estimate potential energy and cost savings of cool roof projects. Based on calculations for an average insulation level of R-11 for roofs, it is estimated that nationwide annual savings in energy costs will amount to $16M and $32M for two scenarios of increased roof albedo (moderate and high increases), respectively. These savings, corresponding to about 3.8 percent and 7.5 percent of the base energy costs for FEMP facilities, include the increased heating energy use (penalties) in winter. To keep the cost of conserved energy (CCE) under $0.08 kWh-1 as a nationwide average, the calculations suggest that the incremental cost for cool roofs should not exceed $0.06 ft-2, assuming that cool roofs have the same life span as their non-cool counterparts. However, cool roofs usually have extended life spans, e.g., 15-30 years versus 10 years for conventional roofs, and if the costs of re-roofing are also factored in, the cutoff incremental cost to keep CCE under $0.08 kWh-1 can be much higher. In between these two ends, there is of course a range of various combinations and options.

  5. aboveground roofed design: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Karagiozis, A.; Desjarlais, A.; Salonvaara, M. 2002-01-01 4 Promoting sustainable green roofs through Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED). Open Access...

  6. Cool Roofs Will Revolutionize the Building Industry Adoption of infrared-reflective paints is one of the major advances in roofing in our

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    . Cool Roofs Will Revolutionize the Building Industry Adoption of infrared-reflective paints is one of the major advances in roofing in our century. ORNL's Building Envelopes Program has conducted research for many roofing consortiums and their affiliates to help them develop cool roof products. Based

  7. A few words about intermodulation dynamic range and roofing filters: "Roofing filter" is the current buzzword in high-end radios. Just what does it

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Gale

    A few words about intermodulation dynamic range and roofing filters: "Roofing filter" is the current buzzword in high-end radios. Just what does it mean? Basically, a roofing filter is simply to be effective. The term "roofing" stems from the fact that it protects the rest of the radio following it from

  8. Estimating Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Green Roof Systems: Current Modeling Capabilities and Limitations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tabares Velasco, P. C.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses estimating heat and mass transfer processes in green roof systems: current modeling capabilities and limitations. Green roofs are 'specialized roofing systems that support vegetation growth on rooftops.'

  9. Rooftop Membrane Temperature Reductions with Green Roof Technology in South-Central Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dvorak, B.

    Early green roof cooling and energy reduction research in North America took place in Canada and the northern latitudes of the United States, where green roofs reduced rooftop temperatures by 70% to 90%. Less is known about green roof technology...

  10. A SIMULATION MODEL FOR THE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF ROOF POND SYSTEMS FOR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tavana, Medhi

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Heating Performance of Roof Pond XSL803-6664 Fig. 4.on Heating Performance of Roof Pond Phoenix, Arizona Auguston Cooling Performance of Roof Pond HOur of the doy (solar

  11. Ethnography of Cool Roof Retrofits: The Role of Rebates in the Materials Selection Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazur-Stommen, Susan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mind  when  I  say  ‘cool  roof’?   “Light  color.  Long  the  idea  for  a  cool  roof?   What  kind  of  research  the  idea  for  a  cool  roof?   Where  did  you  first  

  12. Procedure for measuring the solar reflectance of flat or curved roofing assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy-use effects of cool roofs on California commercialfrom the application of reflective roofs in two small non-saving potentials of light-colored roofs for residential and

  13. Building America Case Study: Cost Analysis of Roof-Only Air Sealing and Insulation Strategies on 1-1/2 Story Homes in Cold Climates, Minneapolis, MN (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The External Thermal and Moisture Management System (ETMMS), typically seen in deep energy retrofits, is a valuable approach for the roof-only portions of existing homes, particularly the 1 1/2-story home. It is effective in reducing energy loss through the building envelope, improving building durability, reducing ice dams, and providing opportunities to improve occupant comfort and health.

  14. Cool roof Q+A 011.doc 29 July 2009 Cool Roof Q & A (draft)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    thermal radiation. Thus, a cool roof should have both high "solar reflectance" (ability to reflect, also measured on a scale of 0 to 1). The solar reflectance and thermal emittance of a surface sunlight, measured on a scale of 0 to 1) and high "thermal emittance" (ability to emit thermal radiation

  15. Passive ice freezing-releasing heat pipe. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorski, A.J.; Schertz, W.W.

    1980-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pipe device has been developed which permits completely passive ice formation and periodic release of ice without requiring the ambient temperature to rise above the melting point of water. This passive design enables the maximum amount of cooling capacity to be stored in the tank.

  16. Arctic catastrophes in an idealized sea ice model Ian Eisenman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisenman, Ian

    thermodynamics, varying open water fraction, an energy balance atmosphere, and scalable CO2. We find that summer.e., reflectiveness) between sea ice and the open water that is exposed when it melts. Bare or snow-covered sea ice reflects most sunlight back to space, while the dark ocean surface absorbs most incident light. Global

  17. High Efficiency Solar Integrated Roof Membrane Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partyka, Eric; Shenoy, Anil

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was designed to address the Solar Energy Technology Program objective, to develop new methods to integrate photovoltaic (PV) cells or modules within a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) application that will result in lower installed cost as well as higher efficiencies of the encapsulated/embedded PV module. The technology assessment and development focused on the evaluation and identification of manufacturing technologies and equipment capable of producing such low-cost, high-efficiency, flexible BIPV solar cells on single-ply roofing membranes.

  18. Cool Roofs | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would likeConstitution AndControllingCool Magnetic Molecules CoolCool Roofs

  19. Cool Roof Calculator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformationNew| Exploration Technique:Illinois: EnergyRoof Calculator

  20. Lafarge Roofing Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |Jilin Zhongdiantou NewKorea PartsLLNL EnergyLafarge Roofing Ltd Jump

  1. Above the Roof, Beneath the Law: Perceived Justice behind Disruptive Tactics of Migrant Wage Claimants in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, X; Wang, L; Su, Y

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    bs_bs_banner Above the Roof, Beneath the Law: Perceivedmigrant workers perch on roof tops or towering construction

  2. TERAGRID 2007 CONFERENCE, MADISON, WI 1 Cyberinfrastructure for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TERAGRID 2007 CONFERENCE, MADISON, WI 1 Cyberinfrastructure for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets Dr rise and melting ice sheets is the application domain of this project. It is an issue of global impor of computationally intensive tools and models that will help them measure and predict the response of ice sheets

  3. Modelling West Antarctic ice sheet growth and collapse through the past five million years

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , isolated ice caps on West Antarctic islands. Transitions between glacial, intermediate and collapsed states temperature and specified sea level. A new parameterization of sub- ice-shelf ocean melt based on modernLETTERS Modelling West Antarctic ice sheet growth and collapse through the past five million years

  4. Sensitivity of Vatnajokull ice cap hydrology and dynamics to climate warming over the next 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flowers, Gwenn

    and is the largest nonpolar ice cap in Europe. Because it is temperate (isothermal at the melting point) and storesSensitivity of Vatnajo¨kull ice cap hydrology and dynamics to climate warming over the next 2] The sensitivity of Vatnajo¨kull ice cap to future climate change is examined using spatially distributed coupled

  5. Ice cores from Svalbarduseful archives of past climate and pollution history

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, John

    Ice cores from the relatively low-lying ice caps in Svalbard have not been widely exploitedIce cores from Svalbard­­useful archives of past climate and pollution history Elisabeth Isaksson a in climatic and environmental studies due to uncertainties about the effect of melt water percolation. However

  6. Mid-Pliocene sea level and continental ice volume based on coupled benthic Mg/Ca

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by rising sea level caused by the melting of alpine glaciers and small ice caps and portionsMid-Pliocene sea level and continental ice volume based on coupled benthic Mg/Ca palaeotemperatures composition of seawater, and estimate continental ice volume and sea-level variability during the Mid

  7. Viscous flow lobes in central Taylor Valley, Antarctica: Origin as remnant buried glacial ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marchant, David R.

    its terminus, the ESL flows at a rate of 2.4 to 6.7 mm a-1 . The loose drift that caps the buried ice temperatures show that intermittent melting is most likely possible during summer months where buried ice is 35Viscous flow lobes in central Taylor Valley, Antarctica: Origin as remnant buried glacial ice Kate

  8. Interstellar Ices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boogert, A C A

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently ~36 different absorption bands have been detected in the infrared spectra of cold, dense interstellar and circumstellar environments. These are attributed to the vibrational transitions of ~17 different molecules frozen on dust grains. We review identification issues and summarize the techniques required to extract information on the physical and chemical evolution of these ices. Both laboratory simulations and line of sight studies are essential. Examples are given for ice bands observed toward high mass protostars, fields stars and recent work on ices in disks surrounding low mass protostars. A number of clear trends have emerged in recent years. One prominent ice component consists of an intimate mixture between H2O, CH3OH and CO2 molecules. Apparently a stable balance exists between low temperature hydrogenation and oxidation reactions on grain surfaces. In contrast, an equally prominent ice component, consisting almost entirely of CO, must have accreted directly from the gas phase. Thermal proc...

  9. Fourier analysis of conductive heat transfer for glazed roofing materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roslan, Nurhana Lyana; Bahaman, Nurfaradila; Almanan, Raja Noorliyana Raja; Ismail, Razidah [Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Zakaria, Nor Zaini [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    For low-rise buildings, roof is the most exposed surface to solar radiation. The main mode of heat transfer from outdoor via the roof is conduction. The rate of heat transfer and the thermal impact is dependent on the thermophysical properties of roofing materials. Thus, it is important to analyze the heat distribution for the various types of roofing materials. The objectives of this paper are to obtain the Fourier series for the conductive heat transfer for two types of glazed roofing materials, namely polycarbonate and polyfilled, and also to determine the relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for these materials. Ambient and surface temperature data were collected from an empirical field investigation in the campus of Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam. The roofing materials were installed on free-standing structures in natural ventilation. Since the temperature data are generally periodic, Fourier series and numerical harmonic analysis are applied. Based on the 24-point harmonic analysis, the eleventh order harmonics is found to generate an adequate Fourier series expansion for both glazed roofing materials. In addition, there exists a linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for both glazed roofing materials. Based on the gradient of the graphs, lower heat transfer is indicated through polyfilled. Thus polyfilled would have a lower thermal impact compared to polycarbonate.

  10. Hygrothermal Performance of West Coast Wood Deck Roofing System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pallin, Simon B [ORNL; Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulations of roofing assemblies are necessary in order to understand and adequately predict actual the hygrothermal performance. At the request of GAF, simulations have been setup to verify the difference in performance between white and black roofing membrane colors in relation to critical moisture accumulation for traditional low slope wood deck roofing systems typically deployed in various western U.S. Climate Zones. The performance of these roof assemblies has been simulated in the hygrothermal calculation tool of WUFI, from which the result was evaluated based on a defined criterion for moisture safety. The criterion was defined as the maximum accepted water content for wood materials and the highest acceptable moisture accumulation rate in relation to the risk of rot. Based on the criterion, the roof assemblies were certified as being either safe, risky or assumed to fail. The roof assemblies were simulated in different western climates, with varying insulation thicknesses, two different types of wooden decking, applied with varying interior moisture load and with either a high or low solar absorptivity at the roof surface (black or white surface color). The results show that the performance of the studied roof assemblies differs with regard to all of the varying parameters, especially the climate and the indoor moisture load.

  11. Roofing in the Urban Environment: Pollution Source of Opportunity for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    ://www.eng.ua.edu/~rpitt #12;2 Map courtesy of U.S. Geological Website on Acid Rain Roof Runoff Concentrations: Western + roofing paper/tar) Total: 166 Dissolved: 128 : Laboratory exposure to simulated acid rain. · Spring 2003 ­ Fall 2004: Long-term, outdoor investigation from

  12. Visual Analytics for Roof Savings Calculator Ensembles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Chad [University of California, Davis] [University of California, Davis; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL] [ORNL; Sanyal, Jibonananda [ORNL] [ORNL; Ma, Kwan-Liu [University of California, Davis] [University of California, Davis

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for DOE as an industry-consensus, web-based tool for easily running complex building energy simulations. These simulations allow both homeowners and experts to determine building-specific cost and energy savings for modern roof and attic technologies. Using a database of over 3 million RSC simulations for different combinations of parameters, we have built a visual analytics tool to assist in the exploration and identification of features in the data. Since the database contains multiple variables, both categorical and continuous, we employ a coordinated multi-view approach that allows coordinated feature exploration through multiple visualizations at once. The main component of our system, a parallel coordinates view, has been adapted to handle large-scale, mixed data types as are found in RSC simulations. Other visualizations include map coordinated plots, high dynamic range (HDR) line plot rendering, and an intuitive user interface. We demonstrate these techniques with several use cases that have helped identify software and parametric simulation issues.

  13. Effectiveness of Cool Roof Coatings with Ceramic Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brehob, Ellen G [ORNL] [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL] [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid applied coatings promoted as cool roof coatings, including several with ceramic particles, were tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tenn., for the purpose of quantifying their thermal performances. Solar reflectance measurements were made for new samples and aged samples using a portable reflectometer (ASTM C1549, Standard Test Method for Determination of Solar Reflectance Near Ambient Temperature Using a Portable Solar Reflectometer) and for new samples using the integrating spheres method (ASTM E903, Standard Test Method for Solar Absorptance, Reflectance, and Transmittance of Materials Using Integrating Spheres). Thermal emittance was measured for the new samples using a portable emissometer (ASTM C1371, Standard Test Method for Determination of Emittance of Materials Near Room 1 Proceedings of the 2011 International Roofing Symposium Temperature Using Portable Emissometers). Thermal conductivity of the coatings was measured using a FOX 304 heat flow meter (ASTM C518, Standard Test Method for Steady-State Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus). The surface properties of the cool roof coatings had higher solar reflectance than the reference black and white material, but there were no significant differences among coatings with and without ceramics. The coatings were applied to EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer) membranes and installed on the Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA), an instrumented facility at ORNL for testing roofs. Roof temperatures and heat flux through the roof were obtained for a year of exposure in east Tennessee. The field tests showed significant reduction in cooling required compared with the black reference roof (~80 percent) and a modest reduction in cooling compared with the white reference roof (~33 percent). The coating material with the highest solar reflectivity (no ceramic particles) demonstrated the best overall thermal performance (combination of reducing the cooling load cost and not incurring a large heating penalty cost) and suggests solar reflectivity is the significant characteristic for selecting cool roof coatings.

  14. Calving on tidewater glaciers amplified by submarine frontal melting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Leary, Martin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While it has been shown repeatedly that ocean conditions exhibit an important control on the behaviour of grounded tidewater glaciers, modelling studies have focused largely on the effects of basal and surface melting. Here, a finite-element model of stresses near the front of a tidewater glacier is used to investigate the effects of frontal melting on calving, independently of the calving criterion used. Applications of the stress model to idealized scenarios reveal that undercutting of the ice front due to frontal melting can drive calving at up to ten times the mean melt rate. Factors which cause increased frontal melt-driven calving include a strong thermal gradient in the ice, and a concentration of frontal melt at the base of the glacier. These properties are typical of both Arctic and Antarctic tidewater glaciers. The finding that frontal melt near the base is a strong driver of calving leads to the conclusion that water temperatures near the bed of the glacier are critically important to the glacier f...

  15. Archimedean Ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kari Eloranta

    2009-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The striking boundary dependency (the Arctic Circle phenomenon) exhibited in the ice model on the square lattice extends to other planar set-ups. We present these findings for the triangular and the Kagome lattices. Critical connectivity results guarantee that ice configurations can be generated using the simplest and most efficient local actions. Height functions are utilized throughout the analysis. At the end there is a surprise in store: on the remaining Archimedean lattice for which the ice model can be defined, the 3.4.6.4. lattice, the long range behavior is completely different from the other cases.

  16. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syd S. Peng

    2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this quarter, the field, theoretical and programming works have been performed toward achieving the research goals set in the proposal. The main accomplishments in this quarter included: (1) one more field test has been conducted in an underground coal mine, (2) optimization studies of the control parameters have been conducted, (3) the relationship among feed pressure, penetration rate and rotation rate seems to be a good indicator for estimating rock strength when both penetration rate and rotation rate are controlled or kept constant, (4) the empirical equations for eliminating the machine effect on drilling parameters were developed and verified, and (5) a real time roof geology mapping system for roof bolters in limestone mine, including a special version of the geology mapping program and hardware, performs very well in underground production condition.

  17. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syd S. Peng

    2001-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this quarter, the research effort is to develop the drill control unit (DCU) that acquire, store drilling parameters and control the drilling operation. The relevant publications have been reviewed and the methodology developed by previous researchers has been evaluated using the collected data in our laboratory and field tests conducted prior to the start of this project. Numerical modeling for exploring roof bolting mechanism has been started.

  18. Flexible shaft and roof drilling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blanz, John H. (Carlisle, MA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for drilling holes in the roof of a mine has a flexible shaft with a pair of oppositely wound, coaxial flat bands. One of the flat bands defines an inner spring that is wound right handed into a helical configuration, adjacent convolutions being in nesting relationship to one another. The other flat band defines an outer spring that is wound left handed into a helical configuration about the inner band, adjacent convolutions being nesting relationship with one another. A transition member that is configured to hold a rock bit is mounted to one end of the flexible shaft. When torque and thrust are applied to the flexible shaft by a driver, the inner spring expands outwardly and the outer spring contracts inwardly to form a relatively rigid shaft.

  19. Melt containment member

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rieken, Joel R.; Heidloff, Andrew J.

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A tubular melt containment member for transient containment of molten metals and alloys, especially reactive metals and alloys, includes a melt-contacting layer or region that comprises an oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide material that is less reactive as compared to the counterpart stoichiometric rare earth oxide. The oxygen-deficient (sub-stoichiometric) rare earth oxide can comprise oxygen-deficient yttria represented by Y.sub.2O.sub.3-x wherein x is from 0.01 to 0.1. Use of the oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide as the melt-contacting layer or region material reduces reaction with the melt for a given melt temperature and melt contact time.

  20. Roof Replacement and Related Work February 17, 2000 DSR # 0000-00 XXX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roof Replacement and Related Work February 17, 2000 DSR # 0000-00 XXX SECTION 02072 - REMOVAL OF INTACT INCIDENTAL ASBESTOS CONTAINING ROOFING MATERIAL (Rev.9/00) PART 1 - GENERAL 1.1 RELATED DOCUMENTS Roof System Components Chart" for location of asbestos containing roofing materials. 1.2 SUMMARY A

  1. RESEARCH ARTICLE An experimental study of flow fields and wind loads on gable-roof

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Hui

    RESEARCH ARTICLE An experimental study of flow fields and wind loads on gable-roof building models the resultant wind loads acting on low-rise, gable-roof buildings induced by violent microburst-like winds State University. Two gable-roof building models with the same base plan and mean roof height

  2. Generalized Roof Duality for Pseudo-Boolean Optimization Fredrik Kahl Petter Strandmark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lunds Universitet

    Generalized Roof Duality for Pseudo-Boolean Optimization Fredrik Kahl Petter Strandmark Centre to a quadratic pseudo-boolean function, and then use roof duality for ob- taining a lower bound. Roof duality to polynomials of higher degree, where quadratic roof duality appears as a special case. Op- timal relaxations

  3. Thermal Performance of Vegetative Roofing Systems Andre O. Desjarlais, Abdi Zaltash, and Jerald A. Atchley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Thermal Performance of Vegetative Roofing Systems Andre O. Desjarlais, Abdi Zaltash, and Jerald A purposes. #12;ABSTRACT Vegetative roofing, otherwise known as green or garden roofing, has seen tremendous growth in the last decade in the United States. The numerous benefits that green roofs provide have

  4. Impact of Reflective Roofing on Cooling Electrical Use and Peak Demand in a Florida Retail Mall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, D. S.; Sonne, J. K.; Sherwin, J. R.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Experimental Plan To isolate the impact of adding a reflective roof surface, a before-and-after experimental protocol was used. With this experimental approach, a period of base line data is collected on the space cooling performance at the facility... roof resurfacing. Firstly, a potential utility program would want to target facilities for a light colored roof that were involved in re-roofing. Whereas discretionary change to a white roof costs approximately $0.50/ft2, the incremental cost...

  5. Evaporative Roof Cooling- A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abernethy, D.

    Since the “Energy Crisis” Evaporative Roof Cooling Systems have gained increased acceptance as a cost effective method to reduce the high cost of air conditioning. Documented case histories in retro-fit installations show direct energy savings...

  6. Effects of solar photovoltaic panels on roof heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez, Anthony; Kleissl, Jan; Luvall, Jeffrey C

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    comes from both the solar panel and the sky weighted by the underside of the tilted solar panels and the surface of of a roof  underneath a solar panel compared to that of an 

  7. Plain Talk About Condensation and Radiation Below Metal Roof Assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, L.

    . Unfortunately, some of these advantages may give rise to certain disadvantages in comfort, durability and operating costs (7) This paper provides a brief historical overview of common metal roof insulation methods as well as recent innovations for low cost... assemblies. INTRODUCTION A primary objective of this paper is to try and simplify the complex subject of condensation in metal roof assemblies. A secondary objective is to focus on condensation considerations with reflective insulation systems (as...

  8. INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-08 Ice Storage Air Conditioning (ISAC) Units (Page 1 of 2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cooling with the compressor). Yes No #12;INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-08 Ice Storage Air being full of ice. Verify that the system is operates properly in the Idle mode (i.e., the compressor in the Ice Melt mode (i.e., it starts discharging and that the compressor is off). Yes No 8 Force

  9. The area and volume of sea ice in the Arc-tic Ocean is decreasing, with some predict-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    , while loss of sea ice could cause stress for polar bears. Moreover, global climate may be affected ice forms in winter,which melts and/or gets exported out of the Arctic. The recent decrease in summer of this community is evi- dence that the sea ice cap has not disap- peared during the Quaternary. The remains

  10. Modelling the impact of superimposed ice on the mass balance of an Arctic glacier under scenarios of future climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ). A consequence of climatic warming in the high Arctic will be an increase in surface melting of glaciers and ice component of the mass accumulation of many glaciers and ice caps in thModelling the impact of superimposed ice on the mass balance of an Arctic glacier under scenarios

  11. Temperature profile for glacial ice at the South Pole: Implications for life in a nearby subglacial lake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, P. Buford

    by P. Buford Price, April 22, 2002 Airborne radar has detected 100 lakes under the Antarctic ice cap-induced melting temperature of freshwater ice. To produce the strong radar signal, the frozen lake must consistTemperature profile for glacial ice at the South Pole: Implications for life in a nearby subglacial

  12. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syd S. Peng

    2003-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this quarter, the field, theoretical and programming works have been performed toward achieving the research goals set in the proposal. The main accomplishments in this quarter included: (1) laboratory tests have been conducted, (2) with the added trendline analysis method, the accuracy of the data interpretation methodology will be improved, (3) method to use torque to thrust ratio as indicator of rock relative hardness has also been explored, and (3) about one half of the development work for the roof geology mapping program, MRGIS, has completed.

  13. Inclusion of cool roofs in nonresidential Title 24 prescriptive requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steve; Bretz, Sarah

    2002-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Roofs that have high solar reflectance (high ability to reflect sunlight) and high thermal emittance (high ability to radiate heat) tend to stay cool in the sun. The same is true of low-emittance roofs with exceptionally high solar reflectance. Substituting a cool roof for a noncool roof tends to decrease cooling electricity use, cooling power demand, and cooling-equipment capacity requirements, while slightly increasing heating energy consumption. Cool roofs can also lower the ambient air temperature in summer, slowing ozone formation and increasing human comfort. DOE-2.1E building energy simulations indicate that use of a cool roofing material on a prototypical California nonresidential building with a low-sloped roof yields average annual cooling energy savings of approximately 300 kWh/1000 ft2 [3.2 kWh/m2], average annual natural gas deficits of 4.9 therm/1000 ft2 [5.6 MJ/m2], average source energy savings of 2.6 MBTU/1000 ft2 [30 MJ/m2], and average peak power demand savings of 0. 19 kW/1000 ft2 [2.1 W/m2]. The 15-year net present value (NPV) of energy savings averages $450/1000 ft2 [$4.90/m2] with time dependent valuation (TDV), and $370/1000 ft2 [$4.00/m2] without TDV. When cost savings from downsizing cooling equipment are included, the average total savings (15-year NPV + equipment savings) rises to $550/1000 ft2 [$5.90/m2] with TDV, and to $470/1000 ft2 [$5.00/m2] without TDV. Total savings range from 0.18 to 0.77 $/ft2 [1.90 to 8.30 $/m2] with TDV, and from 0.16 to 0.66 $/ft2 [1.70 to 7.10 $/m2] without TDV, across California's 16 climate zones. The typical cost premium for a cool roof is 0.00 to 0.20 $/ft2 [0.00 to 2.20 $/m2]. Cool roofs with premiums up to $0.20/ft2 [$2.20/m2] are expected to be cost effective in climate zones 2 through 16; those with premiums not exceeding $0.18/ft2 [$1.90/m2] are expected to be also cost effective in climate zone 1. Hence, this study recommends that the year-2005 California building energy efficiency code (Title 24, Pa rt 6 of the California Code of Regulations) for nonresidential buildings with low-sloped roofs include a cool-roof prescriptive requirement in all California climate zones. Buildings with roofs that do not meet prescriptive requirements may comply with the code via an ''overall-envelope'' approach (non-metal roofs only), or via a performance approach (all roof types).

  14. Iced Coffee Iced Yerba Mate "Tea"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iced Coffee Iced Yerba Mate "Tea" Iced Yerba Mate Latte Iced Chai Tea Latte Original, Green Tea Canned Soda Xing Tea Bottled Water Arizona Teas Energy Drinks Red Bull, SF Red Bull & Bing Jones Sodas $0 Cafe au Lait Hot Tea Yerba Mate "Tea" Yerba Mate Latte Chai Tea Latte - Original, Green Tea, or Sugar

  15. Comparison of Software Models for Energy Savings from Cool Roofs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL; Huang, Yu (Joe) [White Box Technologies; Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs modern web technologies, usability design, and national average defaults as an interface to annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim in order to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings. In addition to cool reflective roofs, RSC simulates multiple roof and attic configurations including different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. A base case and energy-efficient alternative can be compared side-by-side to estimate monthly energy. RSC was benchmarked against field data from demonstration homes in Ft. Irwin, California; while cooling savings were similar, heating penalty varied significantly across different simulation engines. RSC results reduce cool roofing cost-effectiveness thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC s projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus, and presents preliminary analyses. RSC s algorithms for capturing radiant heat transfer and duct interaction in the attic assembly are considered major contributing factors to increased cooling savings and heating penalties. Comparison to previous simulation-based studies, analysis on the force multiplier of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model are included.

  16. Cryoconite Hole Ecosystems in Antarctic Glacier Ice Brent C. Christner, Montana State University, Department of Land

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christner, Brent C.

    by solar irradiation, melting a portion of the overlying ice. The austral summer is also a time when new) represent the top of the food chain. Although it is still uncertain if #12;these metazoans are active

  17. Global Cooling: Policies to Cool the World and Offset Global Warming from CO2 Using Reflective Roofs and Pavements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cooling load from cool roofs. While important, the annual CO2008. Evolution of cool roof standards in the United States.2005. “Cool Colored Roofs to Save Energy and Improve Air

  18. Empirically Derived Strength of Residential Roof Structures for Solar Installations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.; Sanchez, Alfred; Campos, Ivan A.; Gerstle, Walter H.

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Engineering certification for the installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules on wood roofs is often denied because existing wood roofs do not meet structural design codes. This work is intended to show that many roofs are actually sufficiently strong given the conservatism in codes, documented allowable strengths, roof structure system effects, and beam composite action produced by joist-sheathing interaction. This report provides results from a testing program to provide actual load carrying capacity of residential rooftops. The results reveal that the actual load carrying capacity of structural members and systems tested are significantly stronger than allowable loads provided by the International Residential Code (IRC 2009) and the national structural code found in Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7-10). Engineering analysis of residential rooftops typically ignores the system affects and beam composite action in determining rooftop stresses given a potential PV installation. This extreme conservatism combined with conservatism in codes and published allowable stress values for roof building materials (NDS 2012) lead to the perception that well built homes may not have adequate load bearing capacity to enable a rooftop PV installation. However, based on the test results presented in this report of residential rooftop structural systems, the actual load bearing capacity is several times higher than published values (NDS 2012).

  19. Apparatus for thermal performance measurements of insulated roof systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Courville, G.E.; Childs, K.W.; Walukas, D.J.; Childs, P.W.; Griggs, E.I.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy conducted thermal performance measurements on low-slope roofs with a recently developed field test apparatus at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The apparatus accommodates four 4 ft x 8 ft test specimens and includes the measurement capabilities for specimen temperatures, temperature gradients, heat flows and moisture content. A weather station characterizes outdoor weather conditions. Tests underway include (1) validation of a roof surface temperature model developed to study the effects of wet insulation; (2) measurement of temperature distributions and heat transfer in high R-value roofs; and (3) validation of an analysis of the effectiveness of high reflectance surfaces. Preliminary experimental results are presented and correlations between experiment and modeling are discussed.

  20. Reducing roof fall accidents on retreat mining sections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark, C.; Zelanko, J.C. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) (United States). Rock Mechanics Section

    2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Pillar recovery continues to be one of the most hazardous activities in underground mining. Global stability, achieved through proper pillar design, is a necessary prerequisite for safe pillar recovery. Local stability means preventing roof falls in the working area. It is achieved by minimizing the 'risk factors' described in this paper. Roof Control Plans developed at each underground coal mine often address both engineering parameters and human behavior issues. These plans are essential to all mining activities, but nowhere are they more important than in pillar recovery. Pillaring leaves little tolerance for error, and mistakes can be deadly. Roof Control Plans must be carefully drawn up to address site-specific conditions, and then carefully implemented and followed. Miners and foremen involved in pillar extraction should be trained to know and understand the plan prior to beginning retreat mining. More details can be found at www.cdc.gov/niosh/mining/pubs/pdfs/rtrog.pdf. 3 figs.

  1. Tangles of superpositions and the convex-roof extension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas Osterloh; Jens Siewert; Armin Uhlmann

    2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss aspects of the convex-roof extension of multipartite entanglement measures, that is, $SL(2,\\CC)$ invariant tangles. We highlight two key concepts that contain valuable information about the tangle of a density matrix: the {\\em zero-polytope} is a convex set of density matrices with vanishing tangle whereas the {\\em convex characteristic curve} readily provides a non-trivial lower bound for the convex roof and serves as a tool for constructing the convex roof outside the zero-polytope. Both concepts are derived from the tangle for superpositions of the eigenstates of the density matrix. We illustrate their application by considering examples of density matrices for two-qubit and three-qubit states of rank 2, thereby pointing out both the power and the limitations of the concepts.

  2. Solare Cell Roof Tile And Method Of Forming Same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanoka, Jack I. (Brookline, MA); Real, Markus (Oberberg, CH)

    1999-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar cell roof tile includes a front support layer, a transparent encapsulant layer, a plurality of interconnected solar cells and a backskin layer. The front support layer is formed of light transmitting material and has first and second surfaces. The transparent encapsulant layer is disposed adjacent the second surface of the front support layer. The interconnected solar cells has a first surface disposed adjacent the transparent encapsulant layer. The backskin layer has a first surface disposed adjacent a second surface of the interconnected solar cells, wherein a portion of the backskin layer wraps around and contacts the first surface of the front support layer to form the border region. A portion of the border region has an extended width. The solar cell roof tile may have stand-offs disposed on the extended width border region for providing vertical spacing with respect to an adjacent solar cell roof tile.

  3. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE ROOF BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syd S. Peng

    2004-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A one-year non-cost extension has been granted for this project. In this quarter, the field, theoretical and programming works have been performed toward achieving the research goals set in the proposal. The main accomplishments in this quarter included: (1) laboratory tests have been conducted, (2) with the added trendline analysis method, the accuracy of the data interpretation methodology will be improved and the interfaces and voids can be more reliably detected, (3) method to use torque to thrust ratio as indicator of rock relative hardness has also been explored, and (3) about 80% of the development work for the roof geology mapping program, MRGIS, has completed and a special version of the program is in the field testing stage.

  4. You Don't Need to Raise the Roof: Cutting Solar Permitting Costs...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    You Don't Need to Raise the Roof: Cutting Solar Permitting Costs for Wooden Rooftops You Don't Need to Raise the Roof: Cutting Solar Permitting Costs for Wooden Rooftops June 17,...

  5. Research on the Effect of a Planting Roof on the Thermal Load of a Business Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, W.; Wu, J.; Wei, Y.; Gao, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pair of comparative testing rooms (one with an ordinary roof and the other with a planting roof) was established in our laboratory, and in- situ measurement (in summer) data have been collected and treated. The indoor ...

  6. Conservation of stone-roofs: Challenges and the effect of new Techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teba, Tarek

    Stone-roofing has a great history which spans many millennia BC which witnessed a lot of development to roofing systems and geometry regarding the area and type of building demands. Therefore, this paper discusses this ...

  7. Asphalt roofing industry Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy modified bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Request for Emissions Testing at Four Asphalt Roofing and Processing Facilities was submitted by the US EPA Emission Standards Division (ESD), Minerals and Inorganic Chemicals Group (MICG) to the Emission Measurement Center (EMC). The Emission Measurement Center directed Midwest Research Institute (MRI) to conduct emissions testing at asphalt roofing plants. This report presents results of MRI`s FTIR and Method 25A testing conducted at US Intec in Port Arthur, Texas. The field measurements were performed in September 1997 under several test conditions for both controlled and uncontrolled emissions.

  8. Preliminary Analysis of Energy Consumption for Cool Roofing Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mellot, Joe [The Garland Company] [The Garland Company; Sanyal, Jibonananda [ORNL] [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The spread of cool roofing has been more than prolific over the last decade. Driven by public demand and by government initiatives cool roofing has been a recognized low cost method to reduce energy demand by reflecting sunlight away from structures and back in to the atmosphere. While much of the country can benefit from the use of cool coatings it remains to be seen whether the energy savings described are appropriate in cooler climates. By use of commonly available calculators one can analyze the potential energy savings based on environmental conditions and construction practices.

  9. Sustainable Retrofit of Residential Roofs Using Metal Roofing Panels, Thin-Film Photovoltaic Laminates, and PCM Heat Sink Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, Jan [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL] [ORNL; Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During September-October 2009, research teams representing Metal Construction Association (the largest North American trade association representing metal building manufacturers, builders, and material suppliers), CertainTeed (one of the largest U.S. manufacturers of thermal insulation and building envelope materials), Unisolar (largest U.S. producer of amorphous silicone photo-voltaic (PV) laminates), Phase Change Energy (manufacturer of bio-based PCM), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) installed three experimental attics utilizing different roof retrofit strategies in the ORNL campus. The main goal of this project was experimental evaluation of a newly-developed sustainable re-roofing technology utilizing amorphous silicone PV laminates integrated with metal roof and PCM heat sink. The experimental attic with PV laminate was expected to work during the winter time as a passive solar collector with PCM storing solar heat, absorbed during the day, and increasing overall attic air temperature during the night.

  10. The influence of ocean flow on newly forming sea ice Daniel L. Feltham

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feltham, Daniel

    conditions. The mechanism relies on brine flows developing in the sea ice due to Bernoulli suction by flow models that parameter- ize the brine content [Maykut and Untersteiner, 1971], or treat, for example, melt. In this paper, we are interested in investigating the effect of brine flow within the sea ice, which

  11. Information fusion for estimation of summer MIZ ice concentration from SAR imagery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haverkamp, Donna S.; Tsatsoulis, Costas

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we define the concept of information fusion and show how we used it to estimate summer sea ice concentration in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) from single-channel SAR satellite imagery, We used data about melt stage, wind speed...

  12. Interannual variability of Arctic sea ice export into the East Greenland Current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohling, Eelco

    Interannual variability of Arctic sea ice export into the East Greenland Current K. A. Cox,1 J. D cycle, Arctic sea ice decline, and increasing Greenland glacial melt. Here we use new d18 O data from the East Greenland Current system at Cape Farewell and Denmark Strait to determine the relative proportions

  13. Home Atmosphere Sea Ice Ocean Land Greenland Biology , L.-S. Bai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Box, Jason E.

    Home Atmosphere Sea Ice Ocean Land Greenland Biology Greenland J. E. Box 1 , L.-S. Bai 1 , R across the southern half of Greenland led to substantially higher west coast sea ice thickness and concentration. Even so, record-setting summer temperatures around Greenland, combined with an intense melt

  14. Remote sensing of Greenland ice sheet using multispectral near-infrared and visible radiances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Jeff

    Remote sensing of Greenland ice sheet using multispectral near-infrared and visible radiances Petr microwave methods. The method should be useful for long-term monitoring of the melt area of the Greenland of MODIS retrievals of the western portion of the Greenland ice sheet over the period 2000 to 2006

  15. Decay of correlations for flows with unbounded roof function, including the infinite horizon planar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Decay of correlations for flows with unbounded roof function, including the infinite horizon planar for studying nonuniformly hyperbolic flows with unbounded roof functions. In particular, we establish the decay of other classes of flows with unbounded roof functions. For geometric Lorenz attractors (in- cluding

  16. Uncertainty analysis and validation of the estimation of effective hydraulic properties: application to green roof

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    : application to green roof substrate A. Mesgoueza,b, , S. Buisb,a , S. Ruyb,a , G. Lefeuve on determining the effective properties at the Darcy scale of green roof substrates (GRS), highly heterogeneous of composite porous materials in order to improve the hydraulic functioning of green roof sub- strates

  17. Development/Plasticity/Repair The Bone Morphogenetic Protein Roof Plate Chemorepellent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, Samantha

    Development/Plasticity/Repair The Bone Morphogenetic Protein Roof Plate Chemorepellent Regulates, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X8 Commissural spinal axons extend away from the roof plate (RP) in response to the dorsal midline and are generated by the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in the roof plate (RP) (Liem

  18. BUILDING ROOF SEGMENTATION AND RECONSTRUCTION FROM LIDAR POINT CLOUDS USING CLUSTERING TECHNIQUES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shan, Jie

    BUILDING ROOF SEGMENTATION AND RECONSTRUCTION FROM LIDAR POINT CLOUDS USING CLUSTERING TECHNIQUES presents an approach to creating a polyhedral model of building roof from LiDAR point clouds using. The normal vectors are then clustered together to determine the principal directions of the roof planes

  19. VEGETATED ROOFS FOR URBAN ECOSYSTEM REMEDIATION: PERFORMANCE AND POLICY IN THE TANYARD BRANCH WATERSHED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosemond, Amy Daum

    VEGETATED ROOFS FOR URBAN ECOSYSTEM REMEDIATION: PERFORMANCE AND POLICY IN THE TANYARD BRANCH the urbanization process. This study evaluated the performance and feasibility of using vegetated or green roof systems for urban ecosystem remediation. The stormwater retention performance of a thin-layer green roof

  20. Simulation of Heat Exchange Phenomena and Water Regime in Green Roof Substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    187 Simulation of Heat Exchange Phenomena and Water Regime in Green Roof Substrates S. Charpentier UR EPHor Agrocampus-Ouest Centre d'Angers 2, rue Le Nôtre, F49045 Angers France Keywords: green roof roofs increases in Western European and North American cities. It is estimated that 12% of all flat

  1. Cool Roofs and Global Cooling Surabi Menon, Ronnen Levinson, Marc Fischer, Dev Millstein,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cool Roofs and Global Cooling Surabi Menon, Ronnen Levinson, Marc Fischer, Dev Millstein, Nancy potential of reflective (or white or cool) surfaces such as roofs and pavements. However, the article's results regarding white roofs are preliminary and uncertain. Moreover there are other published papers

  2. Decay of correlations for flows with unbounded roof function, including the infinite horizon planar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Decay of correlations for flows with unbounded roof function, including the infinite horizon planar for studying nonuniformly hyperbolic flows with unbounded roof functions. In particular, we establish the decay of other classes of flows with unbounded roof functions. For geometric Lorenz attractors (in­ cluding

  3. ORNL Roof and Attic System Shows Efficient Retrofit By Zaher Karp Reuters, July 27, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    ORNL Roof and Attic System Shows Efficient Retrofit Option By Zaher Karp ­ Reuters, July 27, 2009 A new roof and attic system developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Building Technology Center. Texas-based Billy Ellis Roofing funds the research through the Building Technology Center

  4. Behavior of Reinforced Concrete ColumnSteel Beam Roof Level T-Connections under Displacement Reversals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parra-Montesinos, Gustavo J.

    Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Column­Steel Beam Roof Level T-Connections under Displacement study on the seismic response of two hybrid RC column-to-steel S beam RCS roof level T longitudinal bars; and 2 confinement requirements in RCS roof level T-connections. In the first subassembly

  5. Tighter Relaxations for Higher-Order Models based on Generalized Roof Duality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lunds Universitet

    Tighter Relaxations for Higher-Order Models based on Generalized Roof Duality Johan Fredriksson one of the most successful approaches, namely roof duality, for approximately solving such problems cone. In the sec- ond method, it is shown that the roof dual bound can be applied in an iterated way

  6. Modelling the Zn emissions from roofing materials at Crteil city scale -Defining a methodology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modelling the Zn emissions from roofing materials at Créteil city scale - Defining a methodology@cereve.enpc.fr) Abstract Today, urban runoff is considered as an important source of environment pollution. Roofing. An accurate evaluation of contaminant flows from roofs is thus required at the city scale. This paper aims

  7. Effect of the open roof on low frequency acoustic propagation in street canyons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of the open roof on low frequency acoustic propagation in street canyons O. Richoux, C of the effect of open roof on acoustic propagation along a 3D urban canyon. The experimental study is led Domain approach adapted to take into account the acoustic radiation losses due to the street open roof

  8. A COST BASED APPROACH TO DESIGN OF RESIDENTIAL STEEL ROOF SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mobasher, Barzin

    A COST BASED APPROACH TO DESIGN OF RESIDENTIAL STEEL ROOF SYSTEMS B. Mobasher1 , S-Y.Chen2 , C-5306 Abstract A comprehensive system for the design of residential steel roof truss systems is presented automatically design a roof truss given minimal input and using the design curves as the performance constraints

  9. Inclusion of cool roofs in nonresidential Title 24 prescriptiverequirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steve; Bretz, Sarah

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Roofs that have high solar reflectance (high ability toreflect sunlight) and high thermal emittance (high ability to radiateheat) tend to stay cool in the sun. The same is true of low-emittanceroofs with exceptionally high solar reflectance. Substituting a cool rooffor a non-cool roof tends to decrease cooling electricity use, coolingpower demand, and cooling-equipment capacity requirements, while slightlyincreasing heating energy consumption. Cool roofs can also lower citywideambient air temperature in summer, slowing ozone formation and increasinghuman comfort.DOE-2.1E building energy simulations indicate that use of acool roofing material on a prototypical California nonresidential (NR)building with a low-sloped roof yields average annual cooling energysavings of approximately 3.2 kW h/m2 (300 kW h/1000 ft2), average annualnatural gas deficits of 5.6 MJ/m2 (4.9 therm/1000 ft2), average annualsource energy savings of 30 MJ/m2 (2.6 MBTU/1000 ft2), and average peakpower demand savings of 2.1 W/m2 (0.19 kW/1000 ft2). The 15-year netpresent value (NPV) of energy savings averages $4.90/m2 ($450/1000 ft2)with time-dependent valuation (TDV), and $4.00/m2 ($370/1000 ft2) withoutTDV. When cost savings from downsizing cooling equipment are included,the average total savings (15-year NPV+equipment savings) rises to$5.90/m2 ($550/1000 ft2) with TDV, and to $5.00/m2 ($470/1000 ft2)without TDV.Total savings range from 1.90 to 8.30 $/m2 (0.18 0.77 $/ft2)with TDV, and from 1.70 to 7.10 $/m2 (0.16 0.66 $/ft2) without TDV,across California's 16 climate zones. The typical cost premium for a coolroof is 0.00 2.20 $/m2 (0.00 0.20 $/ft2). Cool roofs with premiums up to$2.20/m2 ($0.20/ft2) are expected to be cost effective in climate zones 216; those with premiums not exceeding $1.90/m2 ($0.18/ft2) are expectedto be also cost effective in climate zone 1. Hence, this study recommendsthat the year-2005 California building energy efficiency code (Title 24,Part 6 of the California Code of Regulations) for NR buildings withlow-sloped roofs include a cool-roof prescriptive requirement in allCalifornia climate zones. Buildings with roofs that do not meetprescriptive requirements may comply with the code via an"overall-envelope" approach (non-metal roofs only), or via a performanceapproach (all roof types).

  10. Annual Progress Report Year 1 (3 June 2008-2 June 2009) Project Title: Antarctic sea ice thickness from space: validating estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at San Antonio, University of

    from space: validating estimates from the laser and radar satellite altimeters with ship remote sensing in polar or mountainous regions. (The GRL paper: Internal Melting in Antarctic sea ice, and Selected Publications in EOS) -Workshop sessions on satellite remote sensing of Antarctic Sea Ice and Ice

  11. what is a cool roof? what is the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on materials, climate zone, & electricity rates.1 · Improved occupant comfort · Compliance with building energy Licensing Board for any construction project valued at over $500 in labor and materials. #12;COOL ROOFS 2008 on hot, sunny days. Solar reflectance refers to a material's ability to reflect the sun's solar energy

  12. Preliminary Analysis of Energy Consumption For Cool Roofing Measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

    decisions by offering design requirements and establishing building codes. Over the last decade, muchPreliminary Analysis of Energy Consumption For Cool Roofing Measures By Joe Mellott, Joshua New to reduce energy demand by reflecting sunlight away from structures and back into the atmosphere. By use

  13. Vegetated Roof Water-Balance Model: Experimental and Model Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    urbanization effects on the water cycle. Although there are many stormwater best management practices (BMPs (ET) and soil media water storage between storm events. Lazzarin et al. (2005) estimated that ET ratesVegetated Roof Water-Balance Model: Experimental and Model Results James A. Sherrard Jr.1

  14. ARM - What About Melting Polar Ice Caps and Sea Levels?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP Related Links Facilities and Instruments ManusAdministrationWhat

  15. Complex systems influence melting of Greenland ice sheet

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would like submit the followingthMeasurementsMay-20,-2015 SignComplex systems

  16. Load test of the 277W Building high bay roof deck and support structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, R.M.

    1994-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The 277W Building high bay roof area was load tested according to the approved load-test procedure, WHC-SD-GN-TP-30015, Revision 1. The 277W Building is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site and has the following characteristics: roof deck -- wood decking supported by 4 x 14 timber purlins; roof membrane -- tar and gravel; roof slope -- flat (<10 deg); and roof elevation -- maximum height of about 63 ft. The 227W Building was visited in March 1994 for a visual inspection. During this inspection, cracked areas were visible in the decking, but it was not possible to determine whether these cracks extended completely through the decking, which is 2-in. thick. The building was revisited in March 1994 for the purpose of writing this test report. Because the roof requires personnel access, a test was determined to be the best way to qualify the roof. The conclusions are that the roof has been qualified for 500-lb total roof load and that the ``No Roof Access`` signs can be changed to ``Roof Access Restricted`` signs.

  17. EVALUATION OF ROOF BOLTING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON IN-MINE BOLTER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syd S. Peng

    2002-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Roof bolting is the most popular method for underground openings in the mining industry, especially in the bedded deposits such as coal, potash, salt etc. In fact, all U.S. underground coal mine entries are roof-bolted as required by law. However, roof falls still occur frequently in the roof bolted entries. The two possible reasons are: the lack of knowledge of and technology to detect the roof geological conditions in advance of mining, and lack of roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems. This research is to develop a method for predicting the roof geology and stability condition in real time during roof bolting operation. Based on such information, roof bolting design criteria for modern roof bolting systems will be developed for implementation in real time. Field tests have been performed in two underground coal mines in this quarter. It also found from the tests that the non-drilling thrust and torque should be deducted from the acquired drilling data. The non-drilling torque is actually higher than that is used to overcome the shear strength is proportional to the rotation rate.

  18. The Equivalent Thermal Resistance of Tile Roofs with and without Batten Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clay and concrete tile roofs were installed on a fully instrumented attic test facility operating in East Tennessee s climate. Roof, attic and deck temperatures and heat flows were recorded for each of the tile roofs and also on an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventionally pigmented and direct-nailed asphalt shingle roof. The data were used to benchmark a computer tool for simulation of roofs and attics and the tool used to develop an approach for computing an equivalent seasonal R-value for sub-tile venting. The approach computed equal heat fluxes through the ceilings of roofs having different combinations of surface radiation properties and or building constructions. A direct nailed shingle roof served as a control for estimating the equivalent thermal resistance of the air space. Simulations were benchmarked to data in the ASHRAE Fundamentals for the thermal resistance of inclined and closed air spaces.

  19. Load test of the 283W Clearwell Roof Deck and Support Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, R.M.

    1994-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The 283W Clearwell roof area was load tested according to the approved load-test procedure, WHC-SD-GN-TP-30015, Revision 0, as modified below. The 283W Clearwell is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site and has the following characteristics: Roof deck - concrete slab supported by columns and walls; Roof membrane - tar and gravel; Roof slope - flat (< 10 deg); and Roof elevation - approximately 6 in. above ground level. The 283W Clearwell was visited in April 1993 for a visual inspection, but could not be inspected because of the confined space requirements. It was revisited in February 1994 for the purpose of writing this test report. Because the roof could not be inspected, a test was determined to be the best way to qualify the roof for personnel access.

  20. Bridgeton Research Center Roof Replacement and Related Work December 4, 2000 DSR # 0029-99 C/D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bridgeton Research Center Roof Replacement and Related Work December 4, 2000 DSR # 0029-99 C/D SECTION 07220 ­ ROOF INSULATION PART 1 - GENERAL 1.1 RELATED DOCUMENTS A. Drawings and general provisions: contains requirements for wood blocking to be installed prior to roof insulation. 1. Roof insulation

  1. Perspective-Dependent Color-Changing Roofing Sheets Anthony Cartwright, Joseph Karas, Steven McCarthy, Brian Paige

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    on their energy bills. Two primary factors affecting the temperature of roofs have been identified: solar weight to the top of the roof. Many companies also produce highly reflective roof coatings that block solar radiation and can reduce average surface temperatures of the roof up to __ degrees. However

  2. CATALOG OF PROCESSED DATA FOR 7 BUILDINGS A.0466 Los Angeles, 15250 Ventura Blvd., Roof (13th floor) (pp. 7)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    APPENDIX A CATALOG OF PROCESSED DATA FOR 7 BUILDINGS A.0466 Los Angeles, 15250 Ventura Blvd., Roof Angeles, 16000 Ventura Blvd., Roof (13th floor) (pp. 13) A.5457 Los Angeles, 8436 West 3rd St., Roof (10th floor) (pp. 19) #12;#12;A.0466--1 Appendix A.0466 LOS ANGELES, 15250 VENTURA BLVD., ROOF (13th Floor

  3. Fluid Migration During Ice/Rock Planetesimal Differentiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raney, Robert 1987-

    2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    /water reaction, which will depend on the rate at which water can be segregated from a melting ice/rock core. For the liquid water phase to migrate toward the surface, the denser rock phase must compact. The primary question that this thesis will answer is how...

  4. Dr. Ed Brook, Oregon State University US Ice Drilling Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmittner, Andreas

    Dr. Ed Brook, Oregon State University US Ice Drilling Program T I N Y B U B B L E S Greenhouse and Analysis Dry Extraction Crushing under vacuum Analysis by gas chromatography, laser spectroscopy, mass spectrometry Wet Extraction Melting under vacuum Analysis by gas chromatography, laser spectroscopy, mass

  5. Ice Sheets: Byrd Polar Outreach & Education February & March 2014 I would like to begin this month's newsletter with a word of thanks. About three weeks ago, I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    was the recipient of a generous donation from Betsy Salt and her brother Jeffrey Salt in honor of their father on tours. The donation from the Salt family will allow us to install a first-rate station on the roof. Lastly, BPRC created a mobile exhibit on the ice core drilling program that we will take to Westerville

  6. How atmospheric ice forms | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric ice forms How atmospheric ice forms Released: September 08, 2014 New insights into atmospheric ice formation could improve climate models This study advances our...

  7. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  8. A Study of the Energy-Saving Potential of Metal Roofs Incorporating Dynamic Insulation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL; Kriner, Scott [Metal Construction Association, Glenview, IL; Manlove, Gary [Metanna, Monument, CO

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article presents various metal roof configurations that were tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, U.S. between 2009 and 2013, and describes their potential for reducing the attic-generated space-conditioning loads. These roofs contained different combinations of phase-change material, rigid insulation, low emittance surface, and above-sheathing ventilation with standing-seam metal panels on top. These roofs were designed to be installed on existing roofs decks, or on top of asphalt shingles for retrofit construction. All the tested roofs showed the potential for substantial energy savings compared to an asphalt shingle roof, which was used as a control for comparison. The roofs were constructed on a series of adjacent attics separated at the gables using thick foam insulation. The attics were built on top of a conditioned room. All attics were vented at the soffit and ridge. The test roofs and attics were instrumented with an array of thermocouples. Heat flux transducers were installed in the roof deck and attic floor (ceiling) to measure the heat flows through the roof and between the attic and conditioned space below. Temperature and heat flux data were collected during the heating, cooling and swing seasons over a three-year period. Data from previous years of testing have been published. Here, data from the latest roof configurations being tested in year three of the project are presented. All test roofs were highly effective in reducing the heat flows through the roof and ceiling, and in reducing the diurnal attic-temperature fluctuations.

  9. Thermal Performance Evaluation of Innovative Metal Building Roof Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Daniel James [ORNL; Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to meet the coming energy codes, multiple layers of various insulation types will be required. The demand for greater efficiency has pushed insulation levels beyond the cavity depth. These experiments show the potential for improving metal building roof thermal performance. Additional work is currently being done by several stakeholders, so the data is expanding. These experiments are for research and development purposes, and may not be viable for immediate use.

  10. Roofing as a Contributor to Urban Runoff Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    at: http://www.eng.ua.edu/~rpitt Map courtesy of U.S. Geological Website on Acid Rain #12;2 Roof · Summer 2002: Laboratory TCLP (acid rain simulation) · Fall/Winter 2002 and Spring 2003: Laboratory Testing Set-Up at Penn State Harrisburg During Rain Event, August 2005 pH Rainfall pH Range: 3.9 ­ 6

  11. Theory vs. Practice in Direct Evaporative Roof Spray Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, J. L.; Smith, J. C.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by sprayheads through varying their orifice sizes and spray angles, by various forms of tempera- ture and climate sensors, and by the controller's sequence control panel. During the installation of the piping system, the roof membrane should.../thermostat mechanism, which typica1.l~ sprayed either too much or too little water. These findings led to the development of a "punched pipe" system. With punched pipe systems, holes are punched or milled into "sticks" of copper or pvc pipe. These holes generally...

  12. Thermal resistance of prototypical cellular plastic roof insulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McElroy, D.L.; Graves, R.S.; Weaver, F.J.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooperative industry/government project was initiated in 1989 to evaluate the viability of alternative hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) as blowing agents in polyisocyanurate (PIR) boardstock for roofing applications. Five sets of PIR boardstock were produced to industry specifications for current roof insulation technology. The boardstock allowed the performance of four alternative blowing agents (HCFC-123, HCFC-14lb, and two blends of HCFC-123 and HCFC-14lb) to compared to CFC-11. Laboratory and field tests show the relative thermal performance of the individual PIR boards. One set of laboratory tests show the thermal conductivity (k) from 0 to 50{degree}C (30 to 120{degree}F) of boards prior to installation and as a function of time after exposure to field conditions in the Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (0, 9, and 15 months). Another set of laboratory tests show k as a function of aging time 24{degree}C (75{degree}F) and 65{degree}C (150{degree}F) for full-thickness, half-thickness, and quarter-thickness specimens. These test results and modeling calculations show the value of thin specimen testing as an accelerated aging procedure. 24 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Geologic structures that affect coal-mine roof stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, F.E. (Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Bureau of Mines has investigated several geologic structures that plague underground coal mining. These structures have caused numerous roof falls and, consequently, many miners have been hurt or fatally injured. Hazardous geologic anomalies that can be encountered in the eastern and western US coal fields include slips, hill seams, slickensides, sedimentary dikes, kettlebottoms, and paleochannels. Slips occur throughout the United States and are high-angled fractures in the roof rock. Typically, the rock adjacent to slips is highly slickensided and striated. Hill seams are weathered fracture zones and usually are found in areas where the overburden is shallow. Due to their nature and regional mining conditions, hill seams usually are found only in the southern Appalachian coal basin. Slickensides are lower angled planes of weakness found in coal-mine roof rock throughout the country. Slickensides usually are found in clusters and the adjacent rock is highly polished and striated. Sedimentary dikes (also clastic dikes and clay veins) are the remnants of ancient fissures that have been filled through sedimentary processes, Sedimentary dikes normally are found in coal basins that were slowly subsided. Kettlebottoms are the fossilized remains of trees that once grew in and above the swamp forest and generally are found in coal basins that were rapidly subsided. Paleochannels are the lithified remains of rivers and frequently are found in all coal basins except the Black Warrior.

  14. Equilibrium thermal characteristics of a building integrated photovoltaic tiled roof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, L.; Gottschalg, R.; Loveday, D.L. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Infield, D.G. [Institute of Energy and Environment, Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, G1 1XW (United Kingdom); Davies, D.; Berry, M. [Solarcentury, 91-94 Lower Marsh Waterloo, London, SE1 7AB (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules attain high temperatures when exposed to a combination of high radiation levels and elevated ambient temperatures. The temperature rise can be particularly problematic for fully building integrated PV (BIPV) roof tile systems if back ventilation is restricted. PV laminates could suffer yield degradation and accelerated aging in these conditions. This paper presents a laboratory based experimental investigation undertaken to determine the potential for high temperature operation in such a BIPV installation. This is achieved by ascertaining the dependence of the PV roof tile temperature on incident radiation and ambient temperature. A theory based correction was developed to account for the unrealistic sky temperature of the solar simulator used in the experiments. The particular PV roof tiles used are warranted up to an operational temperature of 85 C, anything above this temperature will void the warranty because of potential damage to the integrity of the encapsulation. As a guide for installers, a map of southern Europe has been generated indicating locations where excessive module temperatures might be expected and thus where installation is inadvisable. (author)

  15. Formation of lobate debris aprons on Mars: Assessment of regional ice sheet collapse and debris-cover armoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marchant, David R.

    not have attained temperatures near or above the ice melting point and retained their current shape, a findFormation of lobate debris aprons on Mars: Assessment of regional ice sheet collapse and debris Keywords: Mars, climate Mars, surface Mars, polar geology Mars, polar caps a b s t r a c t Lobate debris

  16. nature photonics | VOL 1 | OCTOBER 2007 | www.nature.com/naturephotonics 551 elting polar ice caps or the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    polar ice caps or the fantasy of freezing oceans in cataclysmic Hollywood films are graphic arranged, undergoes a phase change to the regular crystalline atomic construction of ice on freezing, and back on melting. This is a phase change between disordered and ordered states. So what use

  17. Journal of Climate, 2005, Vol 18, p 2903-2921 Maintenance of the Sea-Ice Edge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bitz, Cecilia

    radiation is the largest component of the ocean energy budget, and the large seasonal range of insolation is known to expand in early winter roughly to the mean position of the ocean thermal front in the Greenland pole depends primarily on coastlines, ice motion, and the melt rate at the ice-ocean interface. At any

  18. Comparison of the Perception of Facility Managers on Green Roofs Attributes and Barriers to their Implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrer Garcia, Eduardo R

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    on Green Roofs Wong et, al (2005) conducted a study on perception of building professionals on the issues of green roofs. The objective of the study was to determine the current perception of building professionals on the issues of green roof... development and any conflicting opinions among them. Wong et, al (2005) used two components for the field study, a self-administered postal survey questionnaire and interviews. The survey was conducted among three target populations, architectural firms...

  19. Theory of ice-skating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berre, Martine Le

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Almost frictionless skating on ice relies on a thin layer of melted water insulating mechanically the blade of the skate from ice. Using the basic equations of fluid mechanics and Stefan law, we derive a set of two coupled equations for the thickness of the film and the length of contact, a length scale which cannot be taken as its value at rest. The analytical study of these equations allows to define a small a-dimensional parameter depending on the longitudinal coordinate which can be neglected everywhere except close to the contact points at the front and the end of the blade, where a boundary layer solution is given. This solution provides without any calculation the order of magnitude of the film thickness, and its dependence with respect to external parameters like the velocity and mass of the skater and the radius of profile and bite angle of the blade, in good agreement with the numerical study. Moreover this solution also shows that a lubricating water layer of macroscopic thickness always exists for...

  20. The effect of atmospheric forcing resolution on delivery of ocean heat to the2 Antarctic floating ice shelves3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    floating ice shelves3 4 5 by6 7 Michael S. Dinniman1 8 John M. Klinck1 9 Le-Sheng Bai2 10 David H. Bromwich melting of the base of the floating Antarctic ice shelves is now thought to38 be a more significant cause heat to the base of the ice41 shelves. The atmospheric forcing comes from the ERA-Interim reanalysis

  1. Analysis of Feed Melting Procesess

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matyas, Josef; Hrma, Pavel R.; Kim, Dong-Sang

    2003-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An efficient waste-glass melter with a sustained, high-volume glass throughput will allow a smaller vitrification facility, a shorter lifecycle, and glass with a higher concentration of waste. The vitrification process of two feeds that exhibited different rates of conversion was studied using thermal analyses, including evolved gas analysis with volume-expansion monitoring. Quantitative X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were performed on quenched samples. The difference in the melting rates was attributed to different melt viscosities at the temperature at which the melt interfaces the cold cap. It was suggested that low viscosity destabilizes foam under the cold cap, thus enhancing the rate of melting.

  2. Reflections on Cambridge: Inside the roof of King's College Chapel - 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macfarlane, Alan

    Alan Macfarlane, a Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, visits the roof above the famous Chapel and explains some of its features. Filmed in summer 2009 by Xu Bei....

  3. Using ice cores from the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, scientists have been able to study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Using ice cores from the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, scientists have been able to study ice's ice sheets. Ice sheets are huge areas of permanent ice. There are only three ice sheets on Earth: the Greenland Ice Sheet, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, and the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. The Greenland Ice Sheet

  4. Cooling energy savings potential of light-colored roofs for residential and commercial buildings in 11 US metropolitan areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.; Pomerantz, M.; Gabersek, S.; Gartland, L.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Light-colored roofs reflect more sunlight than dark roofs, thus they keep buildings cooler and reduce air-conditioning demand. Typical roofs in the United States are dark, which creates a potential for savings energy and money by changing to reflective roofs. In this report, the authors make quantitative estimates of the impact of roof color by simulating prototypical buildings with light- and dark-colored roofs and calculating savings by taking the differences in annual cooling and heating energy use, and peak electricity demand. Monetary savings are calculated using local utility rates. Savings are estimated for 11 U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in a variety of climates.

  5. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Upgrade Piping Loads on Cleanroom Roof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakla, Steve; /Fermilab

    1995-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed piping layout for the DO upgrade will run along the south wall of DAB. The cryogenic service pipe runs above the upper and lower cleanroom roofs and will need to be supported by the roofs beams. Calculations were done to determine the stresses in the I-beams created by the existing and additional loads due to the upgrade. Refer to drawing no. 3823.115-ME-317283 for drawings of the piping layout. Figure 1 shows the 'plan view' portion of this drawing. The weight of the individual lines were calculated in figure 2 assuming a pipe density of O.28 lbm/in{sup 3} for stainless steel (0.12% C) and a fluid density (assuming LN2 at 1 atm) of 0.03 lbm/in{sup 3}. The weights of the corrugated steel flooring, assembly hall feed cans, support beams, and roof hatch were also included in the analysis. These loads are calculated on pgs. 5-6. A floor load of 50 lbf/ft{sup 2} was also added in order to maintain the existing floor load limit in addition to the added piping loads. Measurements of the dimensions of the I-beams determined that the nominal sizes of the beams were W8 x 21 for the lower roof and W14 x 26 for the upper roof. Pipe lengths were determined from the drawing for each of the lines on pgs. 1-2 of the calculations (refer to all piping by line numbers according to figure 2). A total weight was calculated for lines 3-9 along the south wall and lines 1-2 running along the north wall of the lower cleanroom roof. To simplify the calculations these weights were assumed to be evenly distributed on the 5 I-beam supports of the lower cleanroom roof 2.5 feet in from the south wall. The stress analysis was done using FrameMac, a 2-D finite element program for the Macintosh. Beam 3 was not included in the analysis because it is structurally equivalent to beam 1. The program outputted maximum values for shear stress, bending stress, shear force, and moments in each of the beams analyzed. These values were then compared to the allowable stresses as per the specifications and codes stated in the AISC: Manual of Steel Construction. The stresses on the roof beams needed to be determined in a number of different places. The first was in the beam itself which included the flange and web sections. The second place was at the ends of the beams where the flanges were removed to make the perpendicular connections to the other beams on the lower roof. The final point was the framed beam connection which included the bolt analysis. FrameMac calculated stresses only for the beams which included the sections where the flanges were removed to make the end connections. To analyze the connections, the allowable bending and shear stresses were solved for allowable shear and moments. This was done because FrameMac does not have the capability to analyze the dimensions for the bolts and angles used in the connections were known and the program outputted values for reaction forces and moments at the ends of the beams. Multiplying the allowable shear stress for the bolts and angle connections by their respective areas gave the allowable shear force. The allowable moment for the angle connection was calculated by multiplying the section modulus of the angle by the allowable bending stress. These allowable loads are calculated on pgs. 7-8. The allowable and maximum calculated stresses by FrameMac are summarized in a table. In conclusion, the cleanroom roofs will be able to safely support the weight of the upgrade cryogenic piping, feed cans, corrugated flooring and a 50 lbf/ft{sup 2} floor load with the addition of diagonal braces at the ends of beams 1,2,3,4, and 8. The location and size of these diagonal braces are shown in fig. 4. Also, the piping supports and feed cans will all need to be placed directly above the I-beam supports. These supports will consist of unistrut structures that will be detailed and specified separate to this analysis. The output and input data from FrameMac and the drawings used in the analysis follow the calculation pages.

  6. Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    49 Figure 26. Comparison of roof heat flux for East and West49 Figure 27. Roof heat flux vs. outside air temperature for8-19. 50 Figure 28. Roof heat flux vs. outside air

  7. High pressure melt ejection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarbell, W.W.; Brockmann, J.E.; Pilch, M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent probabilistic risk assessments have identified the potential for reactor pressure vessel failure while the reactor coolant system is at elevated pressure. The analyses postulate that the blowdown of steam and hydrogen into the reactor cavity will cause the core material to be swept from the cavity region into the containment building. The High Pressure Melt Streaming (HIPS) program is an experimental study of the high pressure ejection of molten material and subsequent interactions within a concrete cavity. The program focuses on using prototypic system conditions and scaled models of reactor geometries to accurately simulate the ex-vessel processes during high-pressure accident sequences. Scaling analyses of the experiment show that the criteria established for core debris removal from the cavity are met or exceeded. Tests are performed at two scales, representing 1/10th and 1/20th linear reproductions of the Zion reactor plant. Results of the 1/20th scale tests are presented.

  8. Asphalt Roofing Shingles Into Energy Project Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jameson, Rex, PE

    2008-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on a widely cited September, 1999 report by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, nearly 11 million tons of asphalt roofing shingle wastes are produced in the United States each year. Recent data suggests that the total is made up of about 9.4 million tons from roofing tear-offs and about 1.6 million tons from manufacturing scrap. Developing beneficial uses for these materials would conserve natural resources, promote protection of the environment and strengthen the economy. This project explored the feasibility of using chipped asphalt shingle materials in cement manufacturing kilns and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. A method of enhancing the value of chipped shingle materials for use as fuel by removing certain fractions for use as substitute raw materials for the manufacture of new shingles was also explored. Procedures were developed to prevent asbestos containing materials from being processed at the chipping facilities, and the frequency of the occurrence of asbestos in residential roofing tear-off materials was evaluated. The economic feasibility of each potential use was evaluated based on experience gained during the project and on a review of the well established use of shingle materials in hot mix asphalt. This project demonstrated that chipped asphalt shingle materials can be suitable for use as fuel in circulating fluidized boilers and cement kilns. More experience would be necessary to determine the full benefits that could be derived and to discover long term effects, but no technical barriers to full scale commercial use of chipped asphalt shingle materials in these applications were discovered. While the technical feasibility of various options was demonstrated, only the use of asphalt shingle materials in hot mix asphalt applications is currently viable economically.

  9. Neglecting ice-atmosphere interactions underestimates ice sheet melt in millennial-scale deglaciation simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pritchard, M. S.; Bush, A. B.; Marshall, S. J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pergamon Press, New York. Peltier, W. R. (1985), The LAGEOSWu, P. , and W. R. Peltier (1982), Viscous gravitationalmodel based on Wu and Peltier [1982] and Peltier [1985]. A

  10. Attic or Roof? An Evaluation of Two Advanced Weatherization Packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, K.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project examines implementation of advanced retrofit measures in the context of a large-scale weatherization program and the archetypal Chicago brick bungalow. One strategy applies best practice air sealing methods and a standard insulation method to the attic floor. The other strategy creates an unvented roof assembly using materials and methods typically available to weatherization contractors. Through implementations of the retrofit strategies in a total of eight (8) test homes, the research found that the two different strategies achieve similar reductions in air leakage measurement (55%) and predicted energy performance (18%) relative to the pre-retrofit conditions.

  11. Cool Roofs: An Easy Upgrade | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1.SpaceFluorControls andCONVENTIONAL ENERGY|Cool Roofs: An

  12. Covered Product Category: Cool Roof Products | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave theJuly 30, 2013Department ofU.S.forCategoriesDepartmentCool Roof

  13. Urban Heat Islands: Cool Roof Infrastructure | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 Russian Nuclear Warheads intoMansoor Ghassem )DepartmentUppingDepartmentCool Roof

  14. Developing Energy Efficient Roof Systems DEERS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergy OffshoreDeveloper - Q & A Home >Roof Systems

  15. Cool Roofs and Heat Islands | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.pngRoofs and Heat Islands Jump to: navigation, search Tool

  16. New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many DevilsForum |EnergyNew Catalytic ConversionNew Cool Roof

  17. Next Generation Attics and Roof Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEW HAMPSHIREofNewsletter Newsletter Better BuildingsAttics and Roof

  18. North and northeast Greenland ice discharge from satellite radar interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rignot, E.J. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)] [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Gogineni, S.P. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States)] [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Krabill, W.B. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Wallops Island, VA (United States)] [and others] [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Wallops Island, VA (United States); and others

    1997-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Ice discharge from north and northeast Greenland calculated from satellite radar interferometry data of 14 outlet glaciers is 3.5 times that estimated from iceberg production. The satellite estimates, obtained at the grounding line of the outlet glaciers, differ from those obtained at the glacier front, because basal melting is extensive at the underside of the floating glacier sections. The results suggest that the north and northeast parts of the Greenland ice sheet may be thinning and contributing positively to sea-level rise. 24 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Neuron, Vol. 24, 127141, September, 1999, Copyright 1999 by Cell Press BMPs as Mediators of Roof Plate Repulsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, Samantha

    Neuron, Vol. 24, 127­141, September, 1999, Copyright ©1999 by Cell Press BMPs as Mediators of Roof., 1997). that the roof plate (RP) expresses a diffusible activity One source of FP-independent guidance

  20. Library of Science & Medicine Roof Replacement and Related Work Dec. 11, 2000 DSR # 0059-00 BSH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Library of Science & Medicine Roof Replacement and Related Work Dec. 11, 2000 DSR # 0059-00 BSH AFFIDAVIT OF NON-USE OF ASBESTOS Project: Roof Replacement and Related Work at LIBRARY OF SCIENCE & MEDICINE

  1. Digging the New York City Skyline: Soil Fungal Communities in Green Roofs and City Parks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fierer, Noah

    microbes across the greater New York City area is locally variable. Green roof fungal communities wereDigging the New York City Skyline: Soil Fungal Communities in Green Roofs and City Parks Krista L a number of benefits, including decreased urban heat island effects and reduced energy costs for buildings

  2. Roof Replacement and Related Work February 17, 2000 DSR # 0000-00 XXX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roof Replacement and Related Work February 17, 2000 DSR # 0000-00 XXX SECTION 02071 - REMOVAL # 0000-00 XXX A. Removal and disposal shall be performed in accordance with ap- plicable State 02071 - 2 (Rev. 9/00) #12;Roof Replacement and Related Work February 17, 2000 DSR # 0000-00 XXX 1

  3. Reduced Energy and Maintenance Costs Using Polyurethane as a Replacement Roof System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, G. D.

    failures had occurred and resealing and reflashing penetrations. In many instances roof crews were unable to accomplish a permanent fix without a major tear-off and replacement of the existing roof. 40 ESL-HH-92-05-08 Proceedings of the Eighth...

  4. Sensitivity of Low Sloped Roofs Designs to Initial Water and Air Leakage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karagiozis, A.; Desjarlais, A.; Salonvaara, M.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    moisture to the outside. Solar radiation raises the temperature of air in the grooves and on average, during a sunny summer day 0.5 L of water can be ventilated out of the roof per 1m width of the roof. In this paper, one climatic condition was investigated...

  5. Roof Integrated Solar Absorbers: The Measured Performance of ''Invisible'' Solar Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colon, C. J. (Florida Solar Energy Center); Merrigan, T. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    2001-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), with the support of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, has investigated the thermal performance of solar absorbers that are an integral, yet indistinguishable, part of a building's roof. The first roof-integrated solar absorber (RISA) system was retrofitted into FSEC's Flexible Roof Facility in Cocoa, Florida, in September 1998. This ''proof-of-concept'' system uses the asphalt shingle roof surface and the plywood decking under the shingles as an unglazed solar absorber. Data was gathered for a one-year period on the system performance. In Phase 2, two more RISA prototypes were constructed and submitted for testing. The first used the asphalt shingles on the roof surface with the tubing mounted on the underside of the plywood decking. The second prototype used metal roofing panels over a plywood substrate and placed the polymer tubing between the plywood decking and the metal roofing. This paper takes a first look at the thermal performance results for the ''invisible'' solar absorbers that use the actual roof surface of a building for solar heat collection.

  6. Comparative Summer Thermal Performance of Finished and Unfinished Metal Roofing Products with Composition Shingles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J.; Sonne, J.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , both finished and unfinished, might compare with other more traditional roofing types. All of the test cells had R-19 insulation installed on the attic floor except in the double roof configuration which had R-19 of open cell foam blown onto...

  7. Sediment-rich meltwater plumes and ice-proximal fans at the margins of modern and ancient tidewater glaciers: Observations and modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Hogan, Kelly A.; Arnold, Neil S.; Mugford, Ruth I.; Wells, Martin; Hirst, J. Philip P.; Decalf, Carole

    2015-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    products), together with calculated solar radiation receipts, to calculate melt. The ‘degree-day’ parameters relating temperature and solar radiation receipts to melting differ between ice and snow surfaces, to account for the lower albedo of ice... Basin, the sand prone component of the larger of these subaqueous outwash events can be tracked for 10 to 15 km in radius; in the proximal areas, a single event may have deposited 2 to 3 m of sandstone (Hirst, 2012) although, typically, the fans were...

  8. Proposal for the award of a contract for the civil engineering work relating to the roof renovation of Building 867

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the civil engineering work relating to the roof renovation of Building 867

  9. CAVERN ROOF STABILITY FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE IN BEDDED SALT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVries, Kerry L; Mellegard, Kirby D; Callahan, Gary D; Goodman, William M

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents research performed to develop a new stress-based criterion for predicting the onset of damage in salt formations surrounding natural gas storage caverns. Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of shear stress, mean stress, pore pressure, temperature, and Lode angle on the strength and creep characteristics of salt. The laboratory test data were used in the development of the new criterion. The laboratory results indicate that the strength of salt strongly depends on the mean stress and Lode angle. The strength of the salt does not appear to be sensitive to temperature. Pore pressure effects were not readily apparent until a significant level of damage was induced and the permeability was increased to allow penetration of the liquid permeant. Utilizing the new criterion, numerical simulations were used to estimate the minimum allowable gas pressure for hypothetical storage caverns located in a bedded salt formation. The simulations performed illustrate the influence that cavern roof span, depth, roof salt thickness, shale thickness, and shale stiffness have on the allowable operating pressure range. Interestingly, comparison of predictions using the new criterion with that of a commonly used criterion indicate that lower minimum gas pressures may be allowed for caverns at shallow depths. However, as cavern depth is increased, less conservative estimates for minimum gas pressure were determined by the new criterion.

  10. Numerical evaluation of the thermal performances of roof-mounted radiant barriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miranville, Frédéric; Lucas, Franck; Johan, Seriacaroupin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with the thermal performances of roof-mounted radiant barriers. Using dynamic simulations of a mathematical model of a whole test cell including a radiant barrier installed between the roof top and the ceiling, the thermal performance of the roof is calculated. The mean method is more particularly used to assess the thermal resistance of the building component and lead to a value which is compared to the one obtained for a mass insulation product such as polyurethane foam. On a further stage, the thermal mathematical model is replaced by a thermo-aeraulic model which is used to evaluate the thermal resistance of the roof as a function of the airflow rate. The results shows a better performance of the roof in this new configuration, which is widely used in practice. Finally, the mathematical relation between the thermal resistance and the airflow rate is proposed.

  11. A guidebook for insulated low-slope roof systems. IEA Annex 19, Low-slope roof systems: International Energy Agency Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems Programme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-slope roof systems are common on commercial and industrial buildings and, to a lesser extent, on residential buildings. Although insulating materials have nearly always been a component of low-slope roofs, the amount of insulation used has increased in the past two decades because of escalation of heating and cooling costs and increased awareness of the need for energy conservation. As the amount of insulation has increased, the demand has intensified for design, installation, and maintenance information specifically for well-insulated roofs. Existing practices for design, installation, and maintenance of insulated roofs have evolved from experience. Typically, these practices feature compromises due to the different properties of materials making up a given roof system. Therefore, they should be examined from time to time to ensure that they are appropriate as new materials continue to enter the market and as the data base on existing systems expands. A primary purpose of this International Energy Agency (IEA) study is to assess current roofing insulation practices in the context of an accumulating data base on performance.

  12. Plasma arc melting of zirconium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tubesing, P.K.; Korzekwa, D.R.; Dunn, P.S.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Zirconium, like some other refractory metals, has an undesirable sensitivity to interstitials such as oxygen. Traditionally, zirconium is processed by electron beam melting to maintain minimum interstitial contamination. Electron beam melted zirconium, however, does not respond positively to mechanical processing due to its large grain size. The authors undertook a study to determine if plasma arc melting (PAM) technology could be utilized to maintain low interstitial concentrations and improve the response of zirconium to subsequent mechanical processing. The PAM process enabled them to control and maintain low interstitial levels of oxygen and carbon, produce a more favorable grain structure, and with supplementary off-gassing, improve the response to mechanical forming.

  13. Quantifying air pollution removal by green roofs in Chicago Jun Yang a,c,*, Qian Yu b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Qian

    Quantifying air pollution removal by green roofs in Chicago Jun Yang a,c,*, Qian Yu b , Peng Gong c t The level of air pollution removal by green roofs in Chicago was quantified using a dry deposition model. The result showed that a total of 1675 kg of air pollutants was removed by 19.8 ha of green roofs in one year

  14. 24897Federal Register / Vol. 62, No. 88 / Wednesday, May 7, 1997 / Proposed Rules 1 Petition for review pending, GS Roofing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for review pending, GS Roofing Products Company, Inc., et al. v. Surface Transportation Board, No. 97­107 (8: In a decision in GS Roofing Products Company, Inc., Beazer West, Inc., D/B/ A Gifford Hill & Company, Bean., Docket No. 41230 (STB served Mar. 11, 1997) (GS Roofing), 1 we reviewed a fact- specific complaint

  15. HOUGH-TRANSFORM AND EXTENDED RANSAC ALGORITHMS FOR AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF 3D BUILDING ROOF PLANES FROM LIDAR DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    HOUGH-TRANSFORM AND EXTENDED RANSAC ALGORITHMS FOR AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF 3D BUILDING ROOF PLANES reconstruction methods, the techniques allowing the detection of 3D building roof planes are of crucial even if this plane does not always represent a roof plane. So the proposed extension allows harmonizing

  16. A new method for modelling roofing materials emissions on the city scale: Application for zinc in the city of Crteil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 A new method for modelling roofing materials emissions on the city scale: Application for zinc as an important source of environmental pollution. Roofing materials, in particular the metallic ones Directive (2000/60 CE), an accurate evaluation of contaminant flows from roofs is thus required on the city

  17. Assessment of technologies for constructing self-drying low-slope roofs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, D.M.; Desjarlais, A.O.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Issues associated with removing excessive moisture from low-slope roofs have been assessed. The economic costs associated with moisture trapped in existing roofs have been estimated. The evidence suggests that existing moisture levels cause approximately a 40% overall reduction in the R-value of installed roofing insulation in the United States. Excess operating costs are further increased by a summertime heat transfer mode unique to wet insulation, caused by the daily migration of water within the roof. By itself, this effect can increase peak electrical demand for air conditioning by roughly 15 W/m{sup 2} of roofing, depending on the type of insulation. This effect will increase peak demand capacity required of utilities in any geographic region (e.g., 900 MW in the South). A simple formula has been derived for predicting the effect that self-drying roofs can have upon time-averaged construction costs. It is presumed that time-averaged costs depend predominantly upon (1) actual service life and (2) the likelihood that the less expensive recover membranes can be installed safely over old roofs. For example, an increase in service life from 15 to 20 years should reduce the current cost of roofing ($12 billion/year) by 21%. Another simple formula for predicting the reroofing waste volume indicates that an increase in service life from 15 to 20 years might reduce the current estimated 0.4 billion ft{sup 3}/year of waste by 25%. A finite-difference computer program has been used to study the flow of heat and moisture within typical existing roofs for a variety of US climates. Nearly all publicly available experimental drying data have been consulted. The drying times for most existing low-slope roofs in the United States are controlled largely climate and the permeability of the structural deck to water vapor.

  18. Transporting Dry Ice

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Requirements for Shipping Dry Ice IATA PI 904 Source: Reg of the Day from ERCweb 2006 Environmental Resource Center | 919-469-1585 | webmaster@ercweb.com http:...

  19. Ice Drilling Gallonmilkjugs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saffman, Mark

    Ice Drilling Materials · Gallonmilkjugs · Syringes,largeand small · Pitchers · Spraybottles · 13x9? ·Isitbettertosquirtthewaterslowlyorasquicklyaspossible? ·Doestherateatwhichyousquirtthewaterchangethediameteroftheholes? ·Doesthetypeof`drill

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: ICED

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Paper Presented at American Society of Mechanical Engineers' (ASME) 2012 Internal Combustion Engine Division (ICED) Conference On August 28, 2013, in CRF, Energy, Energy...

  1. Mobile Ice Nucleus Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Kok, G. L.

    2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This first year report presents results from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study to assess the flow and temperature profiles within the mobile ice nucleus spectrometer.

  2. CX-008978: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Parking Garage Gutter Replacement and Installation of Roof Ice Melt System CX(s) Applied: B2.3, B2.5 Date: 08/01/2012 Location(s): West Virginia Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  3. Melting efficiency in fusion welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuerschbach, P.W.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic to our knowledge of the science of welding is an understanding of the melting efficiency, which indicates how much of the heat deposited by the welding process is used to produce melting. Recent calorimetric studies of GTAW, PAW, and LBW processes have measured the net heat input to the part thereby quantifying the energy transfer efficiency and in turn permitting an accurate determination of the melting efficiency. It is indicated that the weld process variables can dramatically affect the melting efficiency. This limiting value is shown to depend on the weld heat flow geometry as predicted by analytical solutions to the heat flow equation and as demonstrated by the recent empirical data. A new dimensionless parameter is used to predict the melting efficiency and is shown to correlate extremely well with recent empirical data. This simple prediction methodology is notable because it requires only a knowledge of the weld schedule and the material properties in order to estimate melting efficiency. 22 refs., 16 figs.

  4. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL 104, NO C7, PAGES 15,66915,677, JULY 15, 1999 An energyconserving thermodynamic model of sea ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bitz, Cecilia

    of internal brine­pocket melting on surface ablation. Sea ice models that parameterize latent heat storage in brine pockets often fail to reduce the energy required for surface ablation in proportion leads to reduced heat conduction, less internal brine­pocket melting, and more surface ablation. 1

  5. Ice particle size matters | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ice particle size matters Ice particle size matters Released: May 04, 2014 Fine-tuning cloud models for improved climate predictions The Science Arctic clouds are widespread and...

  6. Use of roof temperature modeling to predict necessary conditions for locating wet insulation with infrared thermography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, K.W.

    1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In low-sloped roofing systems using porous insulation, the presence of water can significantly degrade thermal performance. For this reason, it is desirable to develop a reliable method for detecting the presence of water in a roofing system. Because of the different thermal characteristics of wet and dry insulation, there is often a surface temperature differential between areas containing wet insulation and areas containing dry insulation. Under the right circumstances, the areas of wet insulation can be detected by means of infrared sensing techniques. These techniques have already gained widespread acceptance, but there is still some uncertainty as to what are appropriate environmental conditions for viewing. To better define the conditions under which infrared techniques can distinguish between areas of wet and dry insulation, a one-dimensional, transient heat transfer model of a roofing system was developed. The model considers conduction through the roof, insolation on the surface, radiant exchange between the roof and sky, convective heat transfer between the roof and air, and the influence of trapped moisture on the thermal properties of the insulation. A study was undertaken using this model to develop an easily-applied technique for prediction of necessary conditions for locating wet roof insulation using infrared thermography.

  7. Investigation of factors influencing infrared roof moisture surveys using a mathematical model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, K.W.; Courville, G.E.; Childs, P.W.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In low sloped roofing systems using porous insulation, the presence of water can significantly degrade thermal performance. Because of the different thermal characteristics of wet and dry insulation, there is often a surface temperature differential between areas of wet and dry insulation. Under the right circumstances, the areas of wet insulation can be detected by means of infrared sensing techniques. To better define the conditions under which infrared techniques can distinguish between areas of wet and dry insulation, a mathematical model was developed. This model is a one-dimensional, transient heat transfer model of a roofing system. The model considers conduction through the roof, insolation, radiant exchange between roof and sky, convective heat transfer between the roof and air, and the influence of moisture trapped in insulation. For one particular roof system, a parametric study was undertaken using this model to determine the influence of moisture content, outside air temperature, wind speed, insolation, sky temperature, and other factors on the roof surface temperature. Preliminary recommendations for employing thermal sensing techniques to locate wet insulation are developed.

  8. Investigation of factors influencing infrared roof moisture surveys using a mathematical model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, K.W.; Courville, G.E.; Childs, P.W.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In low sloped roofing systems using porous insulation, the presence of water can significantly degrade thermal performance. Because of the different thermal characteristics of wet and dry insulation, there is often a surface temperature differential between areas of wet and dry insulation. Under the right circumstances, the areas of wet insulation can be detected by means of infrared sensing techniques. To better define the conditions under which infrared techniques can distinguish between areas of wet and dry insulation, a mathematical model was developed. This model is a one-dimensional, transient heat transfer model of a roofing system. The model considers conduction through the roof, insulation, radiant exchange between roof and sky, convective heat transfer between the roof and air, and the influence of moisture trapped in insulation. For one particular roof system, a parametric study was undertaken using this model to determine the influence of moisture content, outside air temperature, wind speed, insulation, sky temperature, and other factors on the roof surface temperature. Preliminary recommendations for employing thermal sensing techniques to locate wet insulation are developed. 11 references, 12 figures.

  9. Quantum Fisher Information as the Convex Roof of Variance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sixia Yu

    2013-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum Fisher information places the fundamental limit to the accuracy of estimating an unknown parameter. Here we shall provide the quantum Fisher information an operational meaning: a mixed state can be so prepared that a given observable has the minimal averaged variance, which equals exactly to the quantum Fisher information for estimating an unknown parameter generated by the unitary dynamics with the given observable as Hamiltonian. In particular we shall prove that the quantum Fisher information is the convex roof of the variance, as conjectured by Toth and Petz based on numerical and analytical evidences, by constructing explicitly a pure-state ensemble of the given mixed state in which the averaged variance of a given observable equals to the quantum Fisher information.

  10. A Supersolid Skin Covering both Water and Ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Chang Q

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mysterious nature and functionality of water and ice skins remain baffling to the community since 1859 when Farady firstly proposed liquid skin lubricating ice. Here we show the presence of supersolid phase that covers both water and ice using Raman spectroscopy measurements and quantum calculations. In the skin of two molecular layers thick, molecular undercoordination shortens the H-O bond by ~16% and lengthens the OH nonbond by ~25% through repulsion between electron pairs on adjacent O atoms, which depresses the density from 0.92 for bulk ice to 0.75 gcm-3. The O:H-O cooperative relaxation stiffens the H-O stretching phonon from 3200/3150 cm-1 to the same value of 3450 cm-1 and raises the melting temperature of both skins by up to ~310 K. Numerical derivatives on the viscosity and charge accumulation suggests that the elastic, polarized, and thermally stable supersolid phase makes the ice frictionless and water skin hydrophobic and ice like at room temperature.

  11. Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and Oriented Strand Board Roof Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grin, A.; Smegal, J.; Lstiburek, J.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990's to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated moisture related incidents reported anecdotally that raise potential concerns about the overall hygrothermal performance of these systems. The incidents related to rainwater leakage and condensation concerns. Condensation concerns have been extensively studied by others and are not further discussed in this report. This project involved hygrothermal modeling of a range of rainwater leakage and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs using spray foam insulation. All of the roof assemblies modeled exhibited drying capacity to handle minor rainwater leakage. All field evaluation locations of in-service residential roofs had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. Explorations of eleven in-service roof systems were completed. The exploration involved taking a sample of spray foam from the underside of the roof sheathing, exposing the sheathing, then taking a moisture content reading. All locations had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. One full-roof failure was reviewed, as an industry partner was involved with replacing structurally failed roof sheathing. In this case the manufacturer's investigation report concluded that the spray foam was installed on wet OSB based on the observation that the spray foam did not adhere well to the substrate and the pore structure of the closed cell spray foam at the ccSPF/OSB interface was indicative of a wet substrate.

  12. The Effects of Infrared-Blocking Pigments and Deck Venting on Stone-Coated Metal Residential Roofs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, William A [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field data show that stone-coated metal shakes and S-mission tile, which exploit the use of infraredblocking color pigments (IrBCPs), along with underside venting reduce the heat flow penetrating the conditioned space of a residence by 70% compared with the amount of heat flow penetrating roofs with conventional asphalt shingles. Stone-coated metal roof products are typically placed on battens and counter-battens and nailed through the battens to the roof deck. The design provides venting on the underside of the metal roof that reduces the heat flow penetrating a home. The Metal Construction Association (MCA) and its affiliate members installed stone-coated metal roofs with shake and S-mission tile profiles and a painted metal shake roof on a fully instrumented attic test assembly at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Measurements of roof, deck, attic, and ceiling temperatures; heat flows; solar reflectance; thermal emittance; and ambient weather were recorded for each of the test roofs and also for an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventional pigmented and direct nailed asphalt shingle roof. All attic assemblies had ridge and soffit venting; the ridge was open to the underside of the stone-coated metal roofs. A control assembly with a conventional asphalt shingle roof was used for comparing deck and ceiling heat transfer rates.

  13. Validation of the thermal effect of roof with the Spraying and green plants in an insulated building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru; Ojima, Toshio

    2004-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, roof-spraying and rooftop lawns have proven effective on roofs with poor thermal insulation. However, the roofs of most buildings have insulating material to provide thermal insulation during the winter. The effects of insulation has not previously been quantified. In this study, the authors collected measurements of an insulated building to quantify the thermal effects of roof-spraying and rooftop lawns. Roof-spraying did not significantly reduce cooling loads and required significant amounts of water. The conclusion is that roof spraying is not suitable for buildings with well-insulated roofs. Rooftop lawns, however, significantly stabilized the indoor temperature while additionally helping to mitigate the heat island phenomenon.

  14. Reionization on ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. C. Dudley; M. Imanishi; P. R. Maloney

    2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The case for substantial far infrared ice emission in local ultraluminous infrared galaxies, expected based on the presence of mid-infrared ice absorption in their spectra and the known far infrared optical properties of ice, is still largely unsupported by direct observation owing to insufficient far infrared spectral coverage. Some marginal supportive evidence is presented here. A clear consequence of far infrared ice emission is the need to extend the range of redshifts considered for submillimeter sources. This is demonstrated via the example of HDF 850.1. The solid phase of the ISM during reionization may be dominated by ice, and this could lead to the presence of reionization sources in submillimeter source catalogs. Submillimeter sources not detected at 24 micron in the GOODS-N field are examined. Two candidate reionization sources are identified at 3.6 micron through possible Gunn-Peterson saturation in the Z band.

  15. Fatal accidents involving roof falls in coal mining, 1996--1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication presents information on fatalities involving roof and rib falls that occurred in coal mining operations from January 1996 through December 1998. It includes statistics for the fatalities, as well as abstracts, best practices and illustrations. Conclusion statements have been substituted for best practices where no Title 30 Code of Regulations violations were cited during the accident investigation. From January 1996 through December 1998, 36 miners died at coal operations from accidents classified as roof falls. The information in the report is based on statistics taken from the 1996 through 1998 MSHA Fatal Illustration Programs: Roof Fall Fatalities by District.

  16. Fatal accidents involving roof falls in coal mining, 1996--1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication presents information on fatalities involving roof and rib falls that occurred in coal mining operations from January 1996 through December 1998. It includes statistics for the fatalities, as well as abstracts, best practices and illustrations. Conclusion statements have been substituted for best practices where no Title 30 Code of Regulations violations were cited during the accident investigation. From January 1996 through December 1998, 36 miners died at coal operations from accidents classified as roof falls. The information in the report is based on statistics taken from the 1996 through 1998 MSHA Fatal Illustration Programs: Roof Fall Fatalities by District.

  17. Condensation Risk of Mechanically Attached Roof Systems in Cold Climate Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pallin, Simon B [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A white roof, cool roof, is constructed to decrease thermal loads from solar radiation, therefore saving energy by decreasing the cooling demands. Unfortunately, cool roofs with mechanically attached membrane, have shown to have a higher risk of intermediate condensation in the materials below the membrane in certain climates (Ennis & Kehrer, 2011) and in comparisons with similar construction with a darker exterior surface (Bludau, Zirkelbach, & Kuenzel, 2009). As a consequence, questions have been raised regarding the sustainability and reliability of using cool roof membranes in Northern U.S. climate zones. A white roof surface reflects more of the incident solar radiation in comparisons with a dark surface, which makes a distinguished difference on the surface temperature of the roof. However, flat roofs with either a light or dark surface and if facing a clear sky, are constantly losing energy to the sky due to the exchange of infrared radiation. This phenomenon exists both during the night and the day. During the day, if the sun shines on the roof surface, the exchange of infrared radiation typically becomes insignificant. During nights and in cold climates, the temperature difference between the roof surface and the sky can deviate up to 20 C (Hagentoft, 2001) which could result in a very cold surface temperature compared to the ambient temperature. Further, a colder surface temperature of the roof increases the energy loss and the risk of condensation in the building materials below the membrane. In conclusion, both light and dark coated roof membranes are cooled by the infrared radiation exchange during the night, though a darker membrane is more heated by the solar radiation during the day, thus decreasing the risk of condensation. The phenomenon of night time cooling from the sky and the lack of solar gains during the day is not likely the exclusive problem concerning the risk of condensation in cool roofs with mechanically attached membranes. Roof systems with thermoplastic membranes are prone to be more effected by interior air intrusion into the roof construction; both due to the wind induced pressure differences and due to the flexibility and elasticity of the membrane (Molleti, Baskaran, Kalinger, & Beaulieu, 2011). Depending on the air permeability of the material underneath the membrane, wind forces increase the risk of fluttering (also referred as billowing) of the thermoplastic membrane. Expectably, the wind induced pressure differences creates a convective air flow into the construction i.e. Page 2 air intrusion. If the conditions are right, moisture from the exchanging air may condensate on surfaces with a temperature below dew-point. The definite path of convective airflows through the building envelope is usually very difficult to determine and therefore simplified models (K nzel, Zirkelbach, & Scfafaczek, 2011) help to estimate an additional moisture loads as a result of the air intrusion. The wind uplifting pressure in combination with wind gusts are important factors for a fluttering roof. Unfortunately, the effect from a fluctuating wind is difficult to estimate as this is a highly dynamic phenomenon and existing standards (ASTM, 2011a) only take into account a steady state approach i.e. there is no guidance or regulations on how to estimate the air intrusion rate. Obviously, a more detailed knowledge on the hygrothermal performance of mechanically attached cool roof system is requested; in consideration to varying surface colors, roof air tightness, climate zones and indoor moisture supply.

  18. Life Cycle of Sea-Ice Frazil, or grease ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    of Sea Ice away from surface, long crystals as congelation ice (frozen on from below) Brine Channels within the ice (~width of human hair) Brine rejected from ice (4-10psu), but concentrates in brine from AWI #12;Brine Volume and Salinity From Thomas and Dieckmann 2002, Science .... adapted from papers

  19. Very ice rich permafrost Moderately ice rich permafrost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruess, Roger W.

    TK lake Very ice rich permafrost Permafrost forest Moderately ice rich permafrost Open Bog Open Fen characteristics (mainly ice content) and burn severity determine trajectories of ecosystem succession post in the presence of moderately ice rich permafrost but have high resilience only under low burn severity in very

  20. Ice Cream with a Heart Create a new Clemson Ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    Ice Cream with a Heart Contest! Create a new Clemson Ice Cream flavor! Raise money for your favorite charity! Win a free Clemson Ice Cream party for your organization! Enter at www organizations. The contest is called Ice Cream with a Heart and its purpose is to help student organizations

  1. Improving the System Life of Basic Oxygen and Electric Arc Furnace Hoods, Roofs, and Side Vents

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes the benefits of a high-performance aluminum bronze alloy to basic oxygen furnace and electric arc furnace components such as hoods, roofs, and side vents.

  2. Green Roof Water Harvesting and Recycling Effects on Soil and Water Chemistry and Plant Physiology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laminack, Kirk Dickison

    2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    pressures put on fresh water supplies in urban ecosystems. Alternative irrigation sources can include grey water, sewage effluent (black water) and harvested rainwater which can be a) water captured from an impervious roof and b) stormwater captured from...

  3. INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-ENV-01 Envelope Insulation; Roofing; Fenestration (Page 1 of 3)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-ENV-01 Envelope ­ Insulation; Roofing; Fenestration (Page 1 of 3:__________________________________ Brand Name:_______________________________ Thickness (inches):_________________________ Thermal:_______________________________ Thickness (inches):_________________________ Thermal Resistance (R-Value):_________________ Perimeter

  4. Determination of immediate roof at mines of the Kutahya-Omerler coal basin, Turkey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Konak; T. Onargan; C.O. Aksoy; H. Kose; C. Tatar; C. Pamukcu [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Department of Mining Engineering

    2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The estimation of the relations between excavation height, longwall advance rate, convergence around a longwall in the roof-soil direction, and load distribution on support is reported, that are of specific importance for selecting support type. The principal attention is focused on determination of the immediate roof height that depends on the mobility characteristics of overlying rocks and governs mainly the stopping convergence and load intensity on the support. Numerical modeling, laboratory and field experiments are undertaken in this study, which included evaluation of composition and physicomechanical properties of rocks, assessment of stress-strain state of rock mass and of the immediate roof height, measurements of disintegration and bulking factor of overlying rocks, convergence of stopping floor and roof, and loads on hydraulic legs of supports. The study parameters obtained by different methods for the Omerler Mine are presented.

  5. Income Tax Deduction for Solar-Powered Roof Vents or Fans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Indiana allows taxpayers to take a deduction on solar-powered roof fans (or vent, also sometimes called an attic fan) installed in a home that the taxpayer owns or leases. The deduction is for 50%...

  6. Reflections on Cambridge: Cambridge University from the roof of King's College Chapel - 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macfarlane, Alan

    Film taken from the roof of the famous chapel, with Alan Macfarlane a Fellow of the College explaining a few of the sights. Filmed in summer 2009 by Xu Bei....

  7. Preservation of early wrought iron trusses : the 1848 roof of the Cochituate gatehouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferriss, Lori (Lori E.)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis investigates the historic significance, structural condition, and preservation challenges of the wrought iron roof trusses of the Cochituate aqueduct's inlet gatehouse as the possible earliest surviving example ...

  8. Sustainable Roofscapes: Developing a green roof implementation model for Tucson, AZ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, Noah

    Sustainable Roofscapes: Developing a green roof implementation model for Tucson, AZ BRENT JACOBSEN Advisor: Dr. Margaret Livingston School of Landscape Architecture and Planning College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture Special Acknowledgements: The University of Arizona, Technology and Research

  9. TASK 2.5.7 FIELD EXPERIMENTS TO EVALUATE COOL-COLORED ROOFING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    ) demonstrated that white barrel and white flat tiles reduced cooling energy consumption by 22% of the base load the exterior face of the roof sheathing and the underside of the tile. The greater the tile's profile

  10. An ice shelf breakup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fahnestock, M. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1996-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Glaciers and ice sheets are controlled by the climate and must change if the conditions that led to their current configurations are changing. These ice masses exist at the interface between the atmosphere, which provides sustaining snowfall and thermal regulation, and the land, which provides a stable base and in many cases the elevation required to reach suitably cold conditions. Ice sheets and glaciers are distributed around the globe and can serve as potential indicators of past climate variability and current climatic trends. 9 refs.

  11. The Ross Sea Response to Evolving Ocean-Ice Interactions in a Changing Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiederwohl, Christina 1980-

    2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    decade (1994–2007) mostly (50%) from larger melt water inputs from the Pine Island (17.7 km^3 per decade) and Dotson (14.8 km^3 per decade) glaciers. Two decades of steady (1978-2000) strengthening of sea ice productivity (200 km^3 per decade) within...

  12. Evolution of supra-glacial lakes across the Greenland Ice Sheet 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sundal, Aud

    2008-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We used 268 cloud-free Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images spanning the melt seasons 2003 and 2005-2007 to study the seasonal evolution of supra-glacial lakes in three different regions of the Greenland ice sheet. Lake area...

  13. The Trade-off between Solar Reflectance and Above-Sheathing Ventilation for Metal Roofs on Residential and Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL] [ORNL; Kriner, Scott [Metal Construction Association, Glenview, IL] [Metal Construction Association, Glenview, IL; Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alternative to white and cool-color roofs that meets prescriptive requirements for steep-slope (residential and non-residential) and low-slope (non-residential) roofing has been documented. Roofs fitted with an inclined air space above the sheathing (herein termed above-sheathing ventilation, or ASV), performed as well as if not better than high-reflectance, high-emittance roofs fastened directly to the deck. Field measurements demonstrated the benefit of roofs designed with ASV. A computer tool was benchmarked against the field data. Testing and benchmarks were conducted at roofs inclined at 18.34 ; the roof span from soffit to ridge was 18.7 ft (5.7 m). The tool was then exercised to compute the solar reflectance needed by a roof equipped with ASV to exhibit the same annual cooling load as that for a direct-to-deck cool-color roof. A painted metal roof with an air space height of 0.75 in. (0.019 m) and spanning 18.7 ft (5.7 m) up the roof incline of 18.34 needed only a 0.10 solar reflectance to exhibit the same annual cooling load as a direct-to-deck cool-color metal roof (solar reflectance of 0.25). This held for all eight ASHRAE climate zones complying with ASHRAE 90.1 (2007a). A dark heat-absorbing roof fitted with 1.5 in. (0.038 m) air space spanning 18.7 ft (5.7 m) and inclined at 18.34 was shown to have a seasonal cooling load equivalent to that of a conventional direct-to-deck cool-color metal roof. Computations for retrofit application based on ASHRAE 90.1 (1980) showed that ASV air spaces of either 0.75 or 1.5 in. (0.019 and 0.038 m) would permit black roofs to have annual cooling loads equivalent to the direct-to-deck cool roof. Results are encouraging, and a parametric study of roof slope and ASV aspect ratio is needed for developing guidelines applicable to all steep- and low-slope roof applications.

  14. Designing for effective stationkeeping in ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nørvåg, Kjetil

    Designing for effective stationkeeping in ice CeSOS Highlights and AMOS Visions Conference DP Ice loads Ice #12;Effective stationkeeping in ice 1. Effective ship design. 2. An effective Ice Management system. 3. Effective strategies for the DP control system to compensate ice forces. #12;Ice

  15. Laboratory measurements of the drying rates of low-slope roofing systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desjarlais, A.O.; Kyle, D.M.; Childs, P.W.; Christian, J.E.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The service life of a roofing system typically ends when excessive amounts of water have entered the system. Roofing professionals determine whether the existing failed roofing system can be repaired or salvaged by recovering. A key element in this decision is whether the accumulated water will be able to leave the roofing system in a time frame that will prevent irreparable structural damage. There are several combined heat and mass transfer models that can be used to predict drying times for low-slope roofing systems. Very little experimental data exists that can be used to validate the performance of these models. To satisfy these needs, a series of laboratory experiments has been performed. Five test panels, comprised of a plywood deck, four types of roofing insulation, and a single ply membrane were installed in a climate simulator. The test panels were outfitted with temperature sensors and heat flux transducers, and were mounted on load cells. Water was added to the test panels and they were subjected to external diurnal cycles representative of summer and winter conditions for a southern US continental climate. The load cells supplied continuous records of the weights of the test panels; these data were used to compute the drying rates of the test panels. When these experiments were completed, the test panels were ``recovered`` with different thicknesses of insulation and the environmental conditions were reapplied to the test panels. This paper reports on the design and performance of these experiments. The data compiled during these tests supply insight into the effects of meteorological conditions, insulation R-value, insulation water vapor permeance, and roof recover on the rate that water will be removed from low-slope roofing systems.

  16. Analysis of DOE s Roof Savings Calculator with Comparison to other Simulation Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Huang, Yu (Joe) [White Box Technologies; Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Mellot, Joe [The Garland Company; Sanyal, Jibonananda [ORNL; Childs, Kenneth W [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs the latest web technologies and usability design to provide an easy input interface to an annual simulation of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim. Building defaults were assigned based on national averages and can provide estimated annual energy and cost savings after the user selects nothing more than building location. In addition to cool reflective roofs, the RSC tool can simulate multiple roof and attic configurations including different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance surfaces, HVAC duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple layers of building materials, ceiling and deck insulation levels, and other parameters. A base case and energy-efficient alternative can be compared side-by-side to generate an energy/cost savings estimate between two buildings. The RSC tool was benchmarked against field data for demonstration homes in Ft. Irwin, CA. However, RSC gives different energy savings estimates than previous cool roof simulation tools so more thorough software and empirical validation proved necessary. This report consolidates much of the preliminary analysis for comparison of RSC s projected energy savings to that from other simulation engines.

  17. Global ice sheet modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). Institute for Quaternary Studies

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed.

  18. Ice Formation in Gas-Diffusion Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dursch, Thomas

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the University of California. Ice Formation in Gas-Diffusionsub-freezing conditions, ice forms in the gas-diffusionstrategies exist to prevent ice formation, there is little

  19. Dry melting of high albite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anovitz, L.M.: Blencoe, J.G.

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of albitic melts are central to thermodynamic models for synthetic and natural granitic liquids. The authors have analyzed published phase-equilibrium and thermodynamic data for the dry fusion of high albite to develop a more accurate equation for the Biggs free energy of this reaction to 30 kbar and 1,400 C. Strict criteria for reaction reversal were sued to evaluate the phase-equilibrium data, and the thermodynamic properties of solid and liquid albite were evaluated using the published uncertainties in the original measurements. Results suggest that neither available phase-equilibrium experiments nor thermodynamic data tightly constrain the location of the reaction. Experimental solidus temperatures at 1 atm range from 1,100 to 1,120 C. High-pressure experiments were not reversed completely and may have been affected by several sources of error, but the apparent inconsistencies among the results of the various experimentalists are eliminated when only half-reversal data are considered. Uncertainties in thermodynamic data yield large variations in permissible reaction slopes. Disparities between experimental and calculated melting curves are, therefore, largely attributable to these difficulties, and there is no fundamental disagreement between the available phase-equilibrium and thermodynamic data for the dry melting of albite. Consequently, complex speciation models for albitic melts, based on the assumption that these discrepancies represent a real characteristic of the system, are unjustified at this time.

  20. Condition Assessment Survey (CAS) Program. Deficiency standards and inspections methods manual: Volume 5, 0.05 Roofing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    General information is presented for asset determinant factor/CAS repair codes/CAS cost factors; guide sheet tool & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; and system work breakdown structure. Deficiency standards and inspection methods are presented for built-up membrane; single- ply membrane; metal roofing systems; coated foam membrane; shingles; tiles; parapets; roof drainage system; roof specialties; and skylights.

  1. Global Cooling: Policies to Cool the World and Offset Global Warming from CO2 Using Reflective Roofs and Pavements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    widely used building energy-efficiency standards, includingaddress cool roofs in building energy-efficiency standardsworldwide. Building energy-efficiency standards typically

  2. Building America Webinar: High-Performance Enclosure Strategies, Part I: Unvented Roof Systems and Innovative Advanced Framing Strategies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar, held on February 12, 2015, focused on methods to design and build roof and wall systems for high performance homes that optimize energy and moisture performance.

  3. Building America Webinar: High-Performance Enclosure Strategies, Part I: Unvented Roof Systems and Innovative Advanced Framing Strategies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the February 12, 2015, Building America webinar, High-Performance Enclosure Strategies, Part I: Unvented Roof Systems and Innovative Advanced Framing Strategies.

  4. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance Part I: Analysis of roofing product databases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sleiman, Mohamad

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coating on clay roofing tiles. Philosophical Magazine. 90:metal and glazes applied to tiles. Metal. Can be shaped tomaterial. Shingle, slate, or tile. Pieces that fit together

  5. Building American Webinar: High-Performance Enclosure Strategies, Part I: Unvented Roof Systems and Innovative Advanced Framing Strategies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar, held on February 12, 2015, focused on methods to design and build roof and wall systems for high performance homes that optimize energy and moisture performance.

  6. Ice Heating Up Cold Clouds | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ice Heating Up Cold Clouds Ice Heating Up Cold Clouds Released: October 04, 2011 In a heated battle, ice crystals win the competition for cloud water vapor The mighty cloud ice...

  7. Coherent radar ice thickness measurements over the Greenland ice sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gogineni, S. Prasad; Tammana, Dilip; Braaten, David A.; Leuschen, C.; Legarsky, J.; Kanagaratnam, P.; Stiles, J.; Allen, C.; Jezek, K.; Akins, T.

    2001-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We developed two 150-MHz coherent radar depth sounders for ice thickness measurements over the Greenland ice sheet. We developed one of these using connectorized components and the other using radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs). Both...

  8. Homogeneous ice nucleation evaluated for several water models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Espinosa; E. Sanz; C. Valeriani; C. Vega

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we evaluate by means of computer simulations the rate for ice homogeneous nucleation for several water models such as TIP4P, TIP4P/2005,TIP4P/ICE, and mW (following the same procedure as in Sanz et al. [J. Am. Chem. Soc.135, 15008 (2013)]) in a broad temperature range. We estimate the ice-liquid interfacial free-energy, and conclude that for all water models {\\gamma} decreases as the temperature decreases. Extrapolating our results to the melting temperature, we obtain a value of the interfacial free-energy between 25 and 32 mN/m in reasonable agreement with the reported experimental values. Moreover, we observe that the values of {\\gamma} depend on the chosen water model and this is a key factor when numerically evaluating nucleation rates, given that the kinetic prefactor is quite similar for all water models with the exception of the mW (due to the absence of hydrogens). Somewhat surprisingly the estimates of the nucleation rates found in this work for TIP4P/2005 are slightly higher than those of the mW model, even though the former has explicit hydrogens. Our results suggest that it may be possible to observe in computer simulations spontaneous crystallization of TIP4P/2005 at about 60 K below the melting point.

  9. Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spray polyurethane foams (SPFs) have advantages over alternative insulation methods because they provide air sealing in complex assemblies, particularly roofs. Spray foam can provide the thermal, air, and vapor control layers in both new and retrofit construction. Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell SPF insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990s to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated incidents of failures (either sheathing rot or SPF delamination) that raise some general concerns about the hygrothermal performance and durability of these systems. The primary risks for roof systems are rainwater leaks, condensation from diffusion and air leakage, and built-in construction moisture. This project directly investigated rain and indirectly investigated built-in construction moisture and vapor drives. Research involved both hygrothermal modeling of a range of rain water leakage scenarios and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs. Other variables considered were climate zone, orientation, interior relative humidity, and the vapor permeance of the coating applied to the interior face of open cell SPF.

  10. Technique for continuous high-resolution analysis of trace substances in firn and ice cores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roethlisberger, R.; Bigler, M.; Hutterli, M.; Sommer, S.; Stauffer, B.; Junghans, H.G.; Wagenbach, D.

    2000-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The very successful application of a CFA (Continuous flow analysis) system in the GRIP project (Greenland Ice Core Project) for high-resolution ammonium, calcium, hydrogen peroxide, and formaldehyde measurements along a deep ice core led to further development of this analysis technique. The authors included methods for continuous analysis technique. The authors included methods for continuous analysis of sodium, nitrate, sulfate, and electrolytical conductivity, while the existing methods have been improved. The melting device has been optimized to allow the simultaneous analysis of eight components. Furthermore, a new melter was developed for analyzing firn cores. The system has been used in the frame of the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) for in-situ analysis of several firn cores from Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, and for the new ice core drilled at Dome C, Antarctica.

  11. A Prototype Roof Deck Designed to Self-Regulate Deck Temperature and Reduce Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A prototype roof and attic assembly exploits the use of radiation, convection and insulation controls to reduce its peak day heat transfer by almost 85 percent of the heat transfer crossing a conventional roof and attic assembly. The assembly exhibits attic air temperatures that do not exceed the maximum daily outdoor ambient temperature. The design includes a passive ventilation scheme that pulls air from the soffit and attic into an inclined air space above the roof deck. The design complies with fire protection codes because the air intake is internal and closed to the elements. Field data were benchmarked against an attic computer tool and simulations made for new and retrofit constructions in hot, moderate and cold climates to gauge the cost of energy savings and potential payback.

  12. A Prototype Roof Deck Designed to Self-Regulate Deck Temperature and Reduce Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A prototype roof and attic assembly exploits the use of radiation, convection and insulation controls to reduce the heat transfer penetrating its roof deck by almost 85% of the heat transfer crossing a conventional roof and attic assembly. The assembly exhibited attic air temperatures that did not exceed the peak day outdoor ambient temperature. The design includes a passive ventilation scheme that pulls air from the soffit and attic into an inclined air space above the deck. The design complies with fire protection codes because the air intake is internal and closed to the elements. Field data were benchmarked against an attic computer tool and simulations made for new and retrofit home constructions in hot, moderate and cold climates to access economics for the assembly.

  13. Convex Hulls of Varieties and Entanglement Measures Based on the Roof Construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobias J. Osborne

    2004-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we study the problem of calculating the convex hull of certain affine algebraic varieties. As we explain, the motivation for considering this problem is that certain pure-state measures of quantum entanglement, which we call polynomial entanglement measures, can be represented as affine algebraic varieties. We consider the evaluation of certain mixed-state extensions of these polynomial entanglement measures, namely convex and concave roofs. We show that the evaluation of a roof-based mixed-state extension is equivalent to calculating a hyperplane which is multiply tangent to the variety in a number of places equal to the number of terms in an optimal decomposition for the measure. In this way we provide an implicit representation of optimal decompositions for mixed-state entanglement measures based on the roof construction.

  14. Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    like Brazil, has strong programs on energy efficiency, andenergy savings due to cool roofs for the median climate in Brazil,energy savings due to cool roofs for the median climate in Brazil,

  15. Library of Science & Medicine Roof Replacement and Related Work December 11, 2000 DSR # 0059-00 BSH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Library of Science & Medicine Roof Replacement and Related Work December 11, 2000 DSR # 0059-00 BSH in sufficient de- tail to facilitate continued evaluation of Applications for Payment and progress reports of Science & Medicine Roof Replacement and Related Work December 11, 2000 DSR # 0059-00 BSH b. Submittals. c

  16. Instability leading to coal bumps and nonlinear evolutionary mechanisms for a coal-pillar-and-roof system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    Instability leading to coal bumps and nonlinear evolutionary mechanisms for a coal mechanisms of the mechanical system that is composed of the stiff hosts (roof and floor) and the coal pillar using catastrophe theory. It is assumed that the roof is an elastic beam and the coal pillar is a strain

  17. INSTANTANEOUS FREQUENCY VERSUS TIME FOR 7 BUILDINGS B.0466 Los Angeles, 15250 Ventura Blvd., Roof (13th floor) (pp. 7)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    APPENDIX B INSTANTANEOUS FREQUENCY VERSUS TIME FOR 7 BUILDINGS B.0466 Los Angeles, 15250 Ventura.5455 Los Angeles, 16000 Ventura Blvd., Roof (13th floor) (pp. 11) B.5457 Los Angeles, 8436 West 3rd ST., Roof (10th floor) (pp. 16) #12;#12;B.0466­1 Appendix B.0466 LOS ANGELES, 15250 VENTURA BLVD. Table B

  18. Hail ice impact on composite structures at glancing angles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Funai, Sho

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    investigation of high velocity ice impacts on woven carbon/and ice sphere. .by trailing ice fragments. ..

  19. Scaling of economic benefits from Green Roof implementation in Washington, DC.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niu, H.; Clark, C. E.; Zhou, J.; Adriaens, P.; Environmental Science Division; Dalian Univ. of Technology; Univ. of Michigan

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Green roof technology is recognized for mitigating stormwater runoff and energy consumption. Methods to overcome the cost gap between green roofs and conventional roofs were recently quantified by incorporating air quality benefits. This study investigates the impact of scaling on these benefits at the city-wide scale using Washington, DC as a test bed because of the proposed targets in the 20-20-20 vision (20 million ft{sup 2} by 2020) articulated by Casey Trees, a nonprofit organization. Building-specific stormwater benefits were analyzed assuming two proposed policy scenarios for stormwater fees ranging from 35 to 50% reduction for green roof implementation. Heat flux calculations were used to estimate building-specific energy savings for commercial buildings. To assess benefits at the city scale, stormwater infrastructure savings were based on operational savings and size reduction due to reduced stormwater volume generation. Scaled energy infrastructure benefits were calculated using two size reductions methods for air conditioners. Avoided carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide (NOx), and sulfur dioxide emissions were based on reductions in electricity and natural gas consumption. Lastly, experimental and fugacity-based estimates were used to quantify the NOx uptake by green roofs, which was translated to health benefits using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency models. The results of the net present value (NPV) analysis showed that stormwater infrastructure benefits totaled $1.04 million (M), while fee-based stormwater benefits were $0.22-0.32 M/y. Energy savings were $0.87 M/y, while air conditioner resizing benefits were estimated at $0.02 to $0.04 M/y and avoided emissions benefits (based on current emission trading values) were $0.09 M-0.41 M/y. Over the lifetime of the green roof (40 years), the NPV is about 30-40% less than that of conventional roofs (not including green roof maintenance costs). These considerable benefits, in concert with current and emerging policy frameworks, may facilitate future adoption of this technology.

  20. In situ thermal performance of APP modified bitumen roof membranes coated with reflective coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, J.D.; Smith, T.L. (National Roofing Contractors Association, Rosemont, IL (United States)); Christian, J.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-faceted field research program regarding seven atactic polypropylene (APP) modified bitumen membrane roof systems and four reflective coatings began in 1991. This long-term project is evaluating the performance of various APP modified bitumen membranes (both coated and uncoated), the comparative performance of coating application soon after membrane installation versus preweathering, coating performance, and aspects of recoating. This paper is a progress report on the in situ thermal performance of the various types of coatings compared to the thermal performance of the exposed membrane. The thermal performance of an adjacent ballasted ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) roofing system is also described.

  1. In situ thermal performance of APP modified bitumen roof membranes coated with reflective coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, J.D.; Smith, T.L. [National Roofing Contractors Association, Rosemont, IL (United States); Christian, J.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-faceted field research program regarding seven atactic polypropylene (APP) modified bitumen membrane roof systems and four reflective coatings began in 1991. This long-term project is evaluating the performance of various APP modified bitumen membranes (both coated and uncoated), the comparative performance of coating application soon after membrane installation versus preweathering, coating performance, and aspects of recoating. This paper is a progress report on the in situ thermal performance of the various types of coatings compared to the thermal performance of the exposed membrane. The thermal performance of an adjacent ballasted ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) roofing system is also described.

  2. Safety aspects of EB melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hainz, L.C. [Hainz Engineering Services, Inc., Albany, OR (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron Beam melting technology, along with other vacuum metallurgical technologies, requires special attention to safety involving operation and maintenance of the EB furnace and systems. Although the EB industry has been relatively accident free, the importance of safety awareness and compliance becomes increasingly important. It is very important to provide a safe work environment for employees and economically important to protect the equipment from damage and potential downtime. Safety and accident prevention directly affects overhead costs by keeping accident insurance rates at a minimum. Routine safety requirements will be reviewed and safety aspects requiring extra attention will be addressed. Safety improvements and experiences of furnace users will be shared as examples.

  3. Changes in black carbon deposition to Antarctica from two ice core records, A.D. 1850-2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Climate and Environment CRC, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia, [5] Australian Nuclear. (2007). In the cold room, previously cut one meter ice core sticks of 3x3cm, are melted continuously on a heated melter head specifically designed to eliminate contamination from the atmosphere

  4. TARSHA-KURDI, F., LANDES, T., GRUSSENMEYER, P., (2008). Extended RANSAC algorithm for automatic detection of building roof planes from Lidar data.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    detection of building roof planes from Lidar data. The Photogrammetric Journal of Finland. Vol. 21, n°1, 2008, pp.97-109. EXTENDED RANSAC ALGORITHM FOR AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF BUILDING ROOF PLANES FROM LIDAR the detection of 3D building roof planes are of crucial importance. For this purpose, this paper studies

  5. Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Pavement Snow Melting

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pavement Snow Melting Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us HomeBasic Search About Publications Advanced Search New Hot Docs News Related...

  6. Effect of roof slope and thickness on the performance of a saltstone vault

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, A.D.; Lam, Poh-Sang; Hsu, R.H.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the Savannah River Site, low-level radioactive decontaminated salt solution is mixed with slag, flyash, and cement to form a grout-like material called ``Saltstone.`` The Saltstone is poured into concrete vaults constructed at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The SDF is designed for the release of contaminants in a slow, controlled manner over thousands of years. The impact of SDF on groundwater has been studied in a radiological performance assessment (PA). Groundwater models were used to predict the fluid flow and contaminant transport at SDF. The models predicted a spatial contaminant concentration distribution in groundwater as a function of time. This study focuses on the roof configuration of Saltstone vault, with special interests in cost-effectiveness. We conducted a study to evaluate the effect of roof slope and thickness on the performance of a Saltstone vault. Four roof configurations were simulated. The tool used for the simulation was ECLIPSE, a finite-difference petroleum reservoir engineering code with an environmental tracer option. Nitrate was used as the ``tracer`` contaminant. In this study, ECLIPSE solves the two-phase two-dimensional flow and transport problem up to 10,000 years. This paper describes a modeling study used to evaluate roof design options for the Saltstone vault.

  7. Laying the Foundation for a Solar America: The Million Solar Roofs Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strahs, G.; Tombari, C.

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technology Program embarks on the next phase of its technology acceptance efforts under the Solar America Initiative, there is merit to examining the program's previous market transformation effort, the Million Solar Roofs Initiative. Its goal was to transform markets for distributed solar technologies by facilitating the installation of solar systems.

  8. Ten Years at the Calif. Energy Commission White Roofs to Cool your Building, your City and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Ten Years at the Calif. Energy Commission & White Roofs to Cool your Building, your City and (this" 32" 37" 42" 50" CEC Max Screen Area (1400 in2 or ~57.4 diagonal inches) Energy Star 3.0 TVs (10 is new !) Cool the World Arthur H. Rosenfeld, Former Commissioner California Energy Commission

  9. EPIC-RoofNet: An Experimental Testbed for Solar-powered Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nasipuri, Asis

    EPIC-RoofNet: An Experimental Testbed for Solar-powered Wireless Sensor Networks Amitangshu Pal experiments on solar-powered sensor nodes. Due to constraints in cost and size, the solar panels of solar energy available at such solar-powered sensor nodes can be highly unpredictable and at times

  10. The case for cool roofs Ronnen Levinson, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, RMLevinson@LBL.gov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the electrical grid by reducing late-afternoon peak power demand. Widespread use of cool roofs can lower outdoor (e.g., better retention of plasticizers and incorporation of biocides) and, therefore, are expected, because the pigments are responsible for only a small fraction of the product cost. Only for high

  11. Countries Commit to White Roofs, Potentially Offsetting the Emissions of Over 300 Power Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    India, Mexico, and the United States have signed up to join the Cool Roofs Working Group, which was announced yesterday in Abu Dhabi at the second Clean Energy Ministerial -- a high-level global forum to promote policies and programs that advance clean energy technology, to share lessons learned and best practices and to encourage the transition to a global clean energy economy.

  12. HEAT TRANSFERS IN A DOUBLE SKIN ROOF VENTILATED BY NATURAL CONVECTION IN SUMMER TIME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 HEAT TRANSFERS IN A DOUBLE SKIN ROOF VENTILATED BY NATURAL CONVECTION IN SUMMER TIME P. H and the sheet metal: This is ventilation by natural convection. The remaining conductive heat from the sheet or in tropical and arid countries. In this work, radiation, convection and conduction heat transfers

  13. 32 IAEI NEWS March.April 2009 www.iaei.org still on the roof

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    of a PV system, we need to look at one more component usually located on the roof. This is the PV source source-circuit combiner is found on larger residen- tial systems and on most large commercial systems. PV Need Combiner The rated output voltage of the PV modules and the inverter dc input characteristics

  14. Development of a new roof bolt technology to improve gate-road performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caggiano, V.; Rauch, G.; Beck, K.-D.; Chen, J. [Hilti, Inc. (United States)

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hilti has developed, in conjunction with Foundation Coal, a self-drilling bolt that cuts roof bolting times. The system uses a wet, self-drilling, hollow bolt technology with a self-contained resin cartridge. The resin is dispensed using an injection adapter that provides the high pressure water needed to dispense the resin. The OneStep roof bolt contains an axially shifting mixer that ensures the resin is properly mixed as it exits the water ports near the end of the bolt near the drill head. This eliminates the opportunity for plastic materials to interface between the strata and the bolt. In 2004 the OneStep Bolt was successfully installed in DSK's Prosper Haniel Colliery in Germany, achieving a 42% reduction in single-boom roof bolt cycle time and a 36% reduction in twin-boom roof bolt cycle time. Foundation Coal will be installing 2000 6 ft active bolts in one of the North Appalachian longwall locations. 1 fig.

  15. Studies of Photovoltaic Roofing Systems at Wind Engineering and Fluids Laboratory at Colorado State University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the solar power market. As a result of our technology lead, SunPower is today a global leader in the market for solar power." In addition to SunPower Systems, over the years, Dr. Bienkiewicz and his team at WEFL have assisted other companies and inventors in development of various loose-laid and attached roofing systems

  16. TASK 2.5.7 FIELD EXPERIMENTS TO EVALUATE COOL-COLORED ROOFING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, William A [ORNL; Cherry, Nigel J [ORNL; Allen, Richard Lowell [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Ronnen, Levinson [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Akbari, Hashem [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Berhahl, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aesthetically pleasing dark roofs can be formulated to reflect like a highly reflective white roof in the near infrared portion of the solar spectrum. New paint pigments increase the near infrared reflectance of exterior finishes by minimizing the absorption of near-infrared radiation (NIR). The boost in the NIR reflectance drops the surface temperatures of roofs and walls, which in turn reduces cooling-energy use and provides savings for the homeowner and relief for the utilities. In moderate and hot climates, a roof surface with high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance was shown by Akbari et al. (2004) and by Parker and Sherwin (1998) to reduce the exterior temperature and produce savings in comfort cooling. The new cool color pigments can potentially reduce emissions of carbon dioxide, which in turn reduces metropolitan heat buildup and urban smog. The pigments can also help conserve water resources otherwise used to clean and process fuel consumed by fossil-fuel driven power plants. Cool roofs also result in a lower ambient temperature that further decreases the need for air conditioning, retards smog formation, and improves thermal comfort. Parker, Sonne and Sherwin (2002) demonstrated that white barrel and white flat tiles reduced cooling energy consumption by 22% of the base load used by an adjacent and identical home having direct nailed dark shingles. Part of the savings was due to the reflectance of the white tiles; however, another part was due to the mass of the tile and to the venting occurring within the double batten installation. With, Cherry and Haig (2009) have studied the influence of the thermal mass and batten space ventilation and have found that, referenced to an asphalt shingle system, it can be equivalent to an additional 28 points of solar reflectivity. The double batten arrangement has wooden counter battens laid vertically (soffit-to-ridge) against the roof deck, and then the conventional battens are laid horizontally across the counter battens, providing a nailing surface for the concrete tile. This double batten construction forms an inclined air channel running from the soffit to the ridge. The bottom surface of the channel is formed by the roof decking and is relatively flat and smooth. The top surface is created by the underside of the roofing tiles, and is designed to be an air permeable covering to alleviate the underside air pressure and minimize wind uplift on the tiles. The resulting air flows also have a cooling influence which further complicates prediction of the heat penetrating through the deck because an accurate measure of the airflow is required to predict the heat transfer. Measured temperatures and heat flows at the roof surface, within the attic and at the ceiling of the houses are discussed as well as the power usage to help gauge the benefit of cool-pigmented reflective roof products fitted with and without ventilation above the roof deck. Ventilation occurring above the deck is an inherent feature for tile roof assemblies, and is formed by an air space between the exterior face of the roof sheathing and the underside of the tile. The greater the tile s profile the greater is the effect of the ventilation which herein is termed above-sheathing ventilation (ASV). However, because of the complexity of the thermally induced flow, little credit is allowed by state and federal building codes. ASHRAE (2005) provides empirical data for the effective thermal resistance of plane air spaces. A -in. (0.0191-m) plane air space inclined at 45 with the horizontal has an RUS-0.85 (RSI-0.15) . Our intent is to help further deploy cool color pigments in roofs by conducting field experiments to evaluate the new cool-colored roofing materials in the hot climate of Southern California. The collected data will be used to showcase and market the performance of new cool-roof products and also to help formulate and validate computer codes capable of calculating the heat transfer occurring within the attic and the whole building. Field measures and computer predictions showed that the d

  17. Sustainable design for a subtropical green roof with local, recyclable substrates and native plant species 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huerta, Angelica

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    and recycled materials needs to be included as a means of minimizing environmental impacts and improving local economies. The goal of this research was to test for vegetation and substrate suitability for a subtropical climate green roof found in East Texas...

  18. Rainwater harvesting system with roof catchment, gutter, downspout, storage and drip irrigation system.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    Rainwater harvesting system with roof catchment, gutter, downspout, storage and drip irrigation:30 am systems: rain barrel, drip irrigation, stock watering Program: 8:30 am ­ 4:00 pm indoor usage system. Douglas County Conservation District and the Rural Water Authority of Douglas County Present: Who

  19. Thermal Performance of Exposed Composed Roofs in Very Hot Dry Desert Region in Egypt (Toshky)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khalil, M. H.; Sheble, S.; Morsey, M. S.; Fakhry, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is considered the major part of the building envelop which exposed to high thermal load due to the high solar intensity and high outdoor air temperature through summer season which reach to 6 months. In Egypt the thermal effect of roof is increased as one go...

  20. Image Content Engine (ICE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brase, J M

    2007-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Image Content Engine (ICE) is being developed to provide cueing assistance to human image analysts faced with increasingly large and intractable amounts of image data. The ICE architecture includes user configurable feature extraction pipelines which produce intermediate feature vector and match surface files which can then be accessed by interactive relational queries. Application of the feature extraction algorithms to large collections of images may be extremely time consuming and is launched as a batch job on a Linux cluster. The query interface accesses only the intermediate files and returns candidate hits nearly instantaneously. Queries may be posed for individual objects or collections. The query interface prompts the user for feedback, and applies relevance feedback algorithms to revise the feature vector weighting and focus on relevant search results. Examples of feature extraction and both model-based and search-by-example queries are presented.

  1. Ice Cover on the Great Lakes NATIONALOCEANIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ice Cover on the Great Lakes NATIONALOCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION U.S. D EPARTMENT OF COMM ER CE Great Lakes Ice Cover facts since 1973 - 94.7% ice coverage in 1979 is the maximum on record - 9.5% ice coverage in 2002 is the lowest on record - 11.5% ice coverage in 1998, a strong El Nino

  2. Engineering Notes Ice Shape Characterization Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tino, Peter

    Engineering Notes Ice Shape Characterization Using Self-Organizing Maps Stephen T. McClain Baylor. Introduction DURING the validation and verification of ice accretion codes, predicted ice shapes must be compared with experimental measurements of wind-tunnel or atmospheric ice shapes. Current methods for ice

  3. Hidden force floating ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang Q. Sun

    2015-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of the segmental specific-heat disparity of the hydrogen bond (O:H-O) and the Coulomb repulsion between oxygen ions, cooling elongates the O:H-O bond at freezing by stretching its containing angle and shortening the H-O bond with an association of larger O:H elongation, which makes ice less dense than water, allowing it to float.

  4. Ice Storm Supercomputer

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    "A new Idaho National Laboratory supercomputer is helping scientists create more realistic simulations of nuclear fuel. Dubbed 'Ice Storm,' this 2048-processor machine allows researchers to model and predict the complex physics behind nuclear reactor behavior. And with a new visualization lab, the team can see the results of its simulations on the big screen." For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  5. Greenland Ice Sheet Retreat Since the Little Ice Age

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beitch, Marci Jillian

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and I. Willis (2012), Greenland's shrinking ice cover: "fastfluctuations in southeast Greenland, Nat. Geosci. , 5(6),T. Decker (2011), Analysis of Greenland marine- terminating

  6. Ice Mass Balance Buoy: An Instrument to Measure and Attribute Changes in Ice Thickness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geiger, Cathleen

    Ice Mass Balance Buoy: An Instrument to Measure and Attribute Changes in Ice Thickness Jacqueline A the Ice Mass Balance buoy (IMB) in response to the need for monitoring changes in the thickness of the Arctic sea ice cover. The IMB is an autonomous, ice-based system. IMB buoys provide a time series of ice

  7. In-Depth Analysis of Simulation Engine Codes for Comparison with DOE s Roof Savings Calculator and Measured Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Huang, Yu (Joe) [White Box Technologies; Sanyal, Jibonananda [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL; Mellot, Joe [The Garland Company; Childs, Kenneth W [ORNL; Kriner, Scott [Green Metal Consulting, Inc.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) was developed through collaborations among Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), White Box Technologies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and the Environmental Protection Agency in the context of a California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research project to make cool-color roofing materials a market reality. The RSC website and a simulation engine validated against demonstration homes were developed to replace the liberal DOE Cool Roof Calculator and the conservative EPA Energy Star Roofing Calculator, which reported different roof savings estimates. A preliminary analysis arrived at a tentative explanation for why RSC results differed from previous LBNL studies and provided guidance for future analysis in the comparison of four simulation programs (doe2attic, DOE-2.1E, EnergyPlus, and MicroPas), including heat exchange between the attic surfaces (principally the roof and ceiling) and the resulting heat flows through the ceiling to the building below. The results were consolidated in an ORNL technical report, ORNL/TM-2013/501. This report is an in-depth inter-comparison of four programs with detailed measured data from an experimental facility operated by ORNL in South Carolina in which different segments of the attic had different roof and attic systems.

  8. Reduced Energy Consumption for Melting in Foundries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­ 336 ­ 007 TM 06 ­ 07 Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management Technical University at the Technical University of Denmark, DTU. The project has been financed by the Danish transmission system-melted, and hence reduce the energy consumption for melting in foundries. Traditional gating systems are known

  9. Purification of tantalum by plasma arc melting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, Paul S. (Santa Fe, NM); Korzekwa, Deniece R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purification of tantalum by plasma arc melting. The level of oxygen and carbon impurities in tantalum was reduced by plasma arc melting the tantalum using a flowing plasma gas generated from a gas mixture of helium and hydrogen. The flowing plasma gases of the present invention were found to be superior to other known flowing plasma gases used for this purpose.

  10. 2, 383397, 2008 Extreme surface melt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    surface snowmelt over high elevations (above 2000 m) of the Greenland ice sheet during summer of 2007Pa atmospheric thick- ness, and the net surface energy flux, linked in turn to southerly airflow over the ice10 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR, 1979­1987) and the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM

  11. An heuristic model for sea level due to the melting of small glaciers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigley, T.M.L. [Univ. Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)] [Univ. Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Raper, S.C.B. [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)

    1995-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ice melt from glaciers and small ice caps (GSICs) is an important component of past and future sea level rise. Projections made to date of future GSIC-derived sea level rise have used a simple model that has conceptual weaknesses, calibrated using data that have since been revised. Here the authors devise a more satisfactory model that accounts for regional variations in the altitudinal ranges of the world`s glaciers, calibrate it using recent data, and consider the implications for future sea level rise. Because of compensating factors, the new projections are similar to the earlier ones, but their methodological basis if far more sound. Wide uncertainties still remain. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. The contribution of glacier melt to streamflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaner, Neil; Voisin, Nathalie; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Ongoing and projected future changes in glacier extent and water storage globally have lead to concerns about the implications for water supplies. However, the current magnitude of glacier contributions to river runoff is not well known, nor is the population at risk to future glacier changes. We estimate an upper bound on glacier melt contribution to seasonal streamflow by computing the energy balance of glaciers globally. Melt water quantities are computed as a fraction of total streamflow simulated using a hydrology model and the melt fraction is tracked down the stream network. In general, our estimates of the glacier melt contribution to streamflow are lower than previously published values. Nonetheless, we find that globally an estimated 225 (36) million people live in river basins where maximum seasonal glacier melt contributes at least 10% (25%) of streamflow, mostly in the High Asia region.

  13. Nanotexturing of surfaces to reduce melting point.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, Ernest J.; Zubia, David (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX); Mireles, Jose (Universidad Aut%C3%94onoma de Ciudad Ju%C3%94arez Ciudad Ju%C3%94arez, Mexico); Marquez, Noel (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX); Quinones, Stella (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX)

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This investigation examined the use of nano-patterned structures on Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) material to reduce the bulk material melting point (1414 C). It has been found that sharp-tipped and other similar structures have a propensity to move to the lower energy states of spherical structures and as a result exhibit lower melting points than the bulk material. Such a reduction of the melting point would offer a number of interesting opportunities for bonding in microsystems packaging applications. Nano patterning process capabilities were developed to create the required structures for the investigation. One of the technical challenges of the project was understanding and creating the specialized conditions required to observe the melting and reshaping phenomena. Through systematic experimentation and review of the literature these conditions were determined and used to conduct phase change experiments. Melting temperatures as low as 1030 C were observed.

  14. Mechanism of sulfate segregation during glass melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Vienna, John D.; Ricklefs, Joel S.

    2005-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfate retention in glass during the vitrification process can be as low as 1/3 of the solubility limit, or can exceed the solubility limit if suspended in the glass in the form of droplets. This study is focused on the mechanism of incorporating and segregating sodium sulfate during the melting of an alkali-alumino-borosilicate glass batch. Batches were ramp heated at 4°C/min to temperatures ranging from 600°C to 1050°C and fractured for examination. Observation of the melts showed that as the batch temperature increases and the primary oxo-anionic, predominantly nitrate melt decomposes, the sulfate residue accumulates inside gas bubbles and is transported in them to the melt surface, where it remains segregated. The degree of sulfate incorporation into the final glass depends on the relative rates of sulfate dissolution in the borosilicate melt and sulfate lifting inside bubbles.

  15. ICE Pulse Oximeter Smart Alarm App Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huth, Michael

    ICE Pulse Oximeter Smart Alarm App Requirements 6 March 2012 Revision 0 for an Integrated Clinical Environment (ICE) pulse oximetry monitoring app that provides.2 References [Purpose: List all ICE standards, and other standards and references

  16. ICE Raids: Compounding Production, Contradiction, and Capitalism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reas, Elizabeth I

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is just a cheap way of boosting ICE ‘criminal alien’ arrestRegardless of whether or not ICE is motivated by maintainingWorkers in America: Factories and ICE Raids Produce Citizens

  17. Therapeutic Hypothermia: Protective Cooling Using Medical Ice...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Therapeutic Hypothermia: Protective Cooling Using Medical Ice Slurry Technology available for licensing: Proprietary method and equipment for making an ice slurry coolant to induce...

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: critical marginal ice zone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    marginal ice zone NASA Award for Marginal Ice Zone Observations and Process Experiment (MIZOPEX) On February 24, 2015, in Analysis, Climate, Modeling & Analysis, Monitoring, News,...

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: Marginal Ice Zone Observations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marginal Ice Zone Observations and Processes Experiment mission Sierra Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to Begin Flights Over Arctic Sea Ice On July 25, 2013, in Climate, Customers &...

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: Arctic sea ice

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Arctic sea ice Sierra Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to Begin Flights Over Arctic Sea Ice On July 25, 2013, in Climate, Customers & Partners, Global, Monitoring, News, News & Events,...

  1. ARM - Ice Cores

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006Datastreamstwrcam40m DocumentationJanuary 9, 2009 [Events, FeatureListGeneralPastIce Cores Outreach Home Room

  2. ARM - Measurement - Ice nuclei

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow,ice particleSize Distributiontypes ARMnuclei

  3. Energy-Efficient Melting and Direct Delivery of High Quality...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy-Efficient Melting and Direct Delivery of High Quality Molten Aluminum Energy-Efficient Melting and Direct Delivery of High Quality Molten Aluminum itmdelivery.pdf More...

  4. ITP Metal Casting: Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving Concepts and Opportunities for the Metal Casting Industry ITP Metal Casting: Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving Concepts and...

  5. alkali carbonate melts: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Glass Transition and Melting Behavior of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Composite, Studied by Materials Science Websites Summary: Glass Transition and Melting...

  6. Dynamics of ice shelf rift propagation and iceberg calving inferred from geodetic and seismic observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bassis, Jeremy N.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2. Ice Shelves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. Ice Rheology . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.vi Calving Glaciers and Ice

  7. MEAT, POULTRY, Still contains ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    MEAT, POULTRY, SEAFOOD Still contains ice crystals and feels as cold, and ground meats Refreeze Discard Poultry and ground poultry Refreeze Discard Variety meats may safely re-freeze foods that s:ll contain ice crystals or that have been

  8. Physics of the Lindemann melting rule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawson, Andrew C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the thermodynamics of melting for 74 distinct chemical elements including several actinides and rare earths. We find that the observed melting points are consistent with a linear relationship between the correlation entropy of the liquid and the Grueneisen constant of the solid, and that the Lindemann rule is well obeyed for the elements with simple structures and less well obeyed for the less symmetric more open structures. No special assumptions are required to explain the melting points of the rare earths or light actinides.

  9. Global Cooling: Policies to Cool the World and Offset Global Warming from CO2 Using Reflective Roofs and Pavements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Rosenfeld, Arthur; Elliot, Matthew

    2009-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing the solar reflectance of the urban surface reduce its solar heat gain, lowers its temperatures, and decreases its outflow of thermal infrared radiation into the atmosphere. This process of 'negative radiative forcing' can help counter the effects of global warming. In addition, cool roofs reduce cooling-energy use in air conditioned buildings and increase comfort in unconditioned buildings; and cool roofs and cool pavements mitigate summer urban heat islands, improving outdoor air quality and comfort. Installing cool roofs and cool pavements in cities worldwide is a compelling win-win-win activity that can be undertaken immediately, outside of international negotiations to cap CO{sub 2} emissions. We propose an international campaign to use solar reflective materials when roofs and pavements are built or resurfaced in temperate and tropical regions.

  10. Heat transfers in a double-skin roof ventilated by natural convection in summer time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biwole, Pascal; Pompeo, C

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The double-skin roofs investigated in this paper are formed by adding a metallic screen on an existing sheet metal roof. The system enhances passive cooling of dwellings and can help diminishing power costs for air conditioning in summer or in tropical and arid countries. In this work, radiation, convection and conduction heat transfers are investigated. Depending on its surface properties, the screen reflects a large amount of oncoming solar radiation. Natural convection in the channel underneath drives off the residual heat. The bi-dimensional numerical simulation of the heat transfers through the double skin reveals the most important parameters for the system's efficiency. They are, by order of importance, the sheet metal surface emissivity, the screen internal and external surface emissivity, the insulation thickness and the inclination angle for a channel width over 6 cm. The influence of those parameters on Rayleigh and Nusselt numbers is also investigated. Temperature and air velocity profiles on seve...

  11. Performance of 3-Sun Mirror Modules on Sun Tracking Carousels on Flat Roof Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraas, Dr. Lewis [JX Crystals, Inc.; Avery, James E. [JX Crystals, Inc.; Minkin, Leonid M [ORNL; Maxey, L Curt [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Hurt, Rick A [ORNL; Boehm, Robert F [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial buildings represent a near term market for cost competitive solar electric power provided installation costs and solar photovoltaic module costs can be reduced. JX Crystals has developed a carousel sun tracker that is prefabricated and can easily be deployed on building flat roof tops without roof penetration. JX Crystals is also developing 3-sun PV mirror modules where less expensive mirrors are substituted for two-thirds of the expensive single crystal silicon solar cell surface area. Carousels each with four 3-sun modules have been set up at two sites, specifically at Oak Ridge National Lab and at the University of Nevada in Las Vegas. The test results for these systems are presented.

  12. Roof and Attic Design Guidelines for new and retrofit Construction of Homes in Hot and Coild Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL] [ORNL; LaFrance, Marc [International Energy Agency] [International Energy Agency

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some guidelines for improving the energy efficiency of roofs and attics are presented and are based on the research of the DOE Building Technology. The results of combined analytical and experimental studies were used to benchmark computer tools, which in turn, were used to simulate homes in hot and cold climates. Adding floor and roof insulation, above deck ventilation, radiant barriers, cool color shingle, metal or tile roofs, sealing the attic floor, sealing the duct system and sealing the attic were simulated to compute the cost of energy savings. Results are prioritized to help building owners make an informed economic decision when contemplating roof and attic retrofits. Sealing the attic floor is a top retrofit option. The sealed attic approach and a new prototype roof assembly an insulated and ventilated roof are good options for retrofit work but have paybacks ranging from 15 to 25 years. A new sealed attic concept was simulated and computations show its simple payback is about 10 to 12 years in hot and cold climates; its first cost is significantly reduced from that of a spray foam approach. For new construction the best option is to keep the ducts out of the attic, make sure the attic floor is sealed and add at least code level of insulation to the ceiling.

  13. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Melting Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Principal Investigator Kent Peaslee; Co-PIà ƒ  ¢Ã ‚  € à ‚  ™ s: Von Richards, Jeffrey Smith

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Steel foundries melt recycled scrap in electric furnaces and typically consume 35-100% excess energy from the theoretical energy requirement required to pour metal castings. This excess melting energy is multiplied by yield losses during casting and finishing operations resulting in the embodied energy in a cast product typically being three to six times the theoretical energy requirement. The purpose of this research project was to study steel foundry melting operations to understand energy use and requirements for casting operations, define variations in energy consumption, determine technologies and practices that are successful in reducing melting energy and develop new melting techniques and tools to improve the energy efficiency of melting in steel foundry operations.

  14. Calculation of the convex roof for an open entangled harmonic oscillator system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landau, Mayer A.; Stroud, C. R. Jr. [Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We explicitly calculate the time dependence of entanglement via the convex roof extension for a system of noninteracting harmonic oscillators. These oscillators interact only indirectly with each other by way of a zero-temperature bath. The initial state of the oscillators is taken to be that of an entangled Schroedinger-cat state. This type of initial condition leads to superexponential decay of the entanglement when the initial state has the same symmetry as the interaction Hamiltonian.

  15. Entanglement detection and lower bound of convex-roof extension of negativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ming; Fei, Shao-Ming; 10.1088/1751-8113/45/3/035301

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a set of inequalities based on mean values of quantum mechanical observables nonlinear entanglement witnesses for bipartite quantum systems. These inequalities give rise to sufficient and necessary conditions for separability of all bipartite pure states and even some mixed states. In terms of these mean values of quantum mechanical observables a measurable lower bound of the convex-roof extension of the negativity is derived.

  16. Convex-roof extended negativity as an entanglement measure for bipartite quantum systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soojoon Lee; Dong Pyo Chi; Sung Dahm Oh; Jaewan Kim

    2003-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We extend the concept of the negativity, a good measure of entanglement for bipartite pure states, to mixed states by means of the convex-roof extension. We show that the measure does not increase under local quantum operations and classical communication, and derive explicit formulae for the entanglement measure of isotropic states and Werner states, applying the formalism presented by Vollbrecht and Werner [Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 64}, 062307 (2001)].

  17. Entanglement detection and lower bound of convex-roof extension of negativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ming Li; Tong-Jiang Yan; Shao-Ming Fei

    2011-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a set of inequalities based on mean values of quantum mechanical observables nonlinear entanglement witnesses for bipartite quantum systems. These inequalities give rise to sufficient and necessary conditions for separability of all bipartite pure states and even some mixed states. In terms of these mean values of quantum mechanical observables a measurable lower bound of the convex-roof extension of the negativity is derived.

  18. Research on the Effect of a Planting Roof on the Thermal Load of a Business Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, W.; Wu, J.; Wei, Y.; Gao, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Enve lope Technologies for Building Energy Efficiency Vol.II-4-2 Research on the Effect of a Planting Roof on the Thermal Load of a Business Building Weijie Zhang Jinshun Wu Yiran Wei Xudong Gao... ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Enve lope Technologies for Building Energy Efficiency Vol.II-4-2 room has been made and some theoretical relations between outdoor air temperature and indoor thermal load within certain region have been...

  19. PURIFICATION OF IRIDIUM BY ELECTRON BEAM MELTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohriner, Evan Keith [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purification of iridium metal by electron beam melting has been characterized for 48 impurity elements. Chemical analysis was performed by glow discharge mass spectrographic (GDMS) analysis for all elements except carbon, which was analyzed by combustion. The average levels of individual elemental impurities in the starting powder varied from 37 g/g to 0.02 g/g. The impurity elements Li, Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pd, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Ce, Tl, Pb, and Bi were not detectable following the purification. No significant change in concentration of the elements Ti, V, Zr, Nb, Mo, and Re was found. The elements B, C, Al, Si, Cr, Fe, Ru, Rh, and Pt were partially removed by vaporization during electron beam melting. Langmuir's equation for ideal vaporization into a vacuum was used to calculate for each impurity element the expected ratio of impurity content after melting to that before melting. Equilibrium vapor pressures were calculated using Henry's law, with activity coefficients obtained from published data for the elements Fe, Ti, and Pt. Activity coefficients were estimated from enthalpy data for Al, Si, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zr, Nb, Mo, and Hf and an ideal solution model was used for the remaining elements. The melt temperature was determined from measured iridium weight loss. Excellent agreement was found between measured and calculated impurity ratios for all impurity elements. The results are consistent with some localized heating of the melt pool due to rastering of the electron beam, with an average vaporization temperature of 3100 K as compared to a temperature of 2965 K calculated for uniform heating of the melt pool. The results are also consistent with ideal mixing in the melt pool.

  20. Roof system effects on in-situ thermal performance of HCFC polyisocyanurate insulation. [Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, J.E.; Desjarlais, A.O.; Courville, G.; Graves, R.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industry-produced, permeably-faced, experimental polyisocyanurate (PIR) laminated boardstock foamed with several different hydrochlorofluorcarbons (HCFCS) is undergoing in-situ testing at the Building Envelopes Research User Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The overall objective of this research is to determine the long term thermal performance differences between PIR foamed with CFC-11 and PIR foamed with HCFC-123, HCFC-14lb and blends of HCFCs. Boards from the same batch were installed in outdoor test facilities and instrumented in part to determine if the insulation thermal performance aging characteristics are dependent on how they are handled and installed in the field. One of the major contributions of this research is the field validation of an accelerated thermal aging procedure. The laboratory measurements of the apparent thermal conductivity (k) of 10-mm-thick slices conducted over a period of less than a year are used to predict the k of 38-50-mm-thick PIR laminated board stock for 12--20 years after production. In situ thermal performance measurements of these well characterized three-year-old boards under white and under black ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) membranes are compared with the accelerated aging procedure and with boards from the same batch in different roofing systems: mechanically attached EPDM, fully adhered EPDM, and built-up roof (BUR). The comparison indicates that this accelerated aging procedure should be seriously considered for providing in-service thermal performance information to building owners and roofing contractors.

  1. Roof system effects on in-situ thermal performance of HCFC polyisocyanurate insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, J.E.; Desjarlais, A.O.; Courville, G.; Graves, R.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industry-produced, permeably-faced, experimental polyisocyanurate (PIR) laminated boardstock foamed with several different hydrochlorofluorcarbons (HCFCS) is undergoing in-situ testing at the Building Envelopes Research User Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The overall objective of this research is to determine the long term thermal performance differences between PIR foamed with CFC-11 and PIR foamed with HCFC-123, HCFC-14lb and blends of HCFCs. Boards from the same batch were installed in outdoor test facilities and instrumented in part to determine if the insulation thermal performance aging characteristics are dependent on how they are handled and installed in the field. One of the major contributions of this research is the field validation of an accelerated thermal aging procedure. The laboratory measurements of the apparent thermal conductivity (k) of 10-mm-thick slices conducted over a period of less than a year are used to predict the k of 38-50-mm-thick PIR laminated board stock for 12--20 years after production. In situ thermal performance measurements of these well characterized three-year-old boards under white and under black ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) membranes are compared with the accelerated aging procedure and with boards from the same batch in different roofing systems: mechanically attached EPDM, fully adhered EPDM, and built-up roof (BUR). The comparison indicates that this accelerated aging procedure should be seriously considered for providing in-service thermal performance information to building owners and roofing contractors.

  2. Effect of the open roof on low frequency acoustic propagation in street canyons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richoux, Olivier; Pelat, Adrien; Félix, Simon; Lihoreau, Bertrand

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an experimental, numerical and analytical study of the effect of open roof on acoustic propagation along a 3D urban canyon. The experimental study is led by means of a street scale model. The numerical results are performed with a 2D Finite Difference in Time Domain approach adapted to take into account the acoustic radiation losses due to the street open roof. An analytical model, based on the modal decomposition of the pressure field in a horizontal plane mixed with a 2D image sources model to describe the attenuation along the street, is also proposed. Results are given for several frequencies in the low frequency domain (1000-2500 Hz). The comparison of the three approaches shows a good agreement until f=100 Hz at full scale, the analytical model and the 2D numerical simulation adapted to 3D permit to modelize the acoustic propagation along a street. For higher frequency, experimental results show that the leakeage, due to the street open roof, is not anymore uniformly distributed on a...

  3. Global simulations of ice nucleation and ice supersaturation with an improved cloud scheme in the Community

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gettelman, Andrew

    and supersaturation in CAM. The new model is able to reproduce field observations of ice mass and mixed phase cloud are sensitive to the parameterization of ice clouds. These results indicate that ice clouds are potentiallyGlobal simulations of ice nucleation and ice supersaturation with an improved cloud scheme

  4. Assimilation of Ice Concentration in an IceOcean Model R. W. LINDSAY AND J. ZHANG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jinlun

    are now available to determine the ice drift velocity. In addition, the drift of the pack ice can CoAssimilation of Ice Concentration in an Ice­Ocean Model R. W. LINDSAY AND J. ZHANG Polar Science October 2004, in final form 27 June 2005) ABSTRACT Ice concentration is a critical parameter of the polar

  5. Sea-ice thickness measurement based on the dispersion of ice swell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -year pack ice, although other char- acteristics (Young's modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson coefficientSea-ice thickness measurement based on the dispersion of ice swell David Marsana) ISTerre, CNRS propagating in the Arctic sea ice cover is exploited in order to locally measure the ice thickness

  6. Electrical properties of saline ices and ice-silicate mixtures: geophysical and astrobiological consequences (Invited)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stillman, David E.

    MR22A-05 Electrical properties of saline ices and ice-silicate mixtures: geophysical) electrical-properties measurements of laboratory- produced saline ice, salt hydrates, and ice-silicate cutoff. In ice-silicate mixtures, brine channels are evident above the eutectic temperature only when

  7. 2011-12 PROSPECTUS2011-12 PROSPECTUS WESLEYAN MEN'S ICE HOCKEYWESLEYAN MEN'S ICE HOCKEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Devoto, Stephen H.

    - ponents in its inaugural season. Former bench boss Dave Snyder, in whose honor the Wesleyan ice rink2011-12 PROSPECTUS2011-12 PROSPECTUS WESLEYAN MEN'S ICE HOCKEYWESLEYAN MEN'S ICE HOCKEY #12....................................Chris Potter/Jeff Gilarde Men's Ice Hockey..............Chris Potter Women's Ice Hockey.........Jodi Mc

  8. Mathematics of Sea Ice K. M. Golden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden, Kenneth M.

    , the sharp decline of the summer Arc- tic sea ice pack is probably the most dramatic. For example, the area and 1990's. While global climate models generally predict de- clines in the polar sea ice packs over the 21, such as the growth and decay of seasonal ice, the evolu- tion of ice pack reflectance, and biomass build

  9. 4, 709732, 2007 Ice-shelf ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    OSD 4, 709­732, 2007 Ice-shelf ­ ocean interactions at Fimbul Ice Shelf M. R. Price Title Page published in Ocean Science Discussions are under open-access review for the journal Ocean Science Ice-shelf ­ ocean interactions at Fimbul Ice Shelf, Antarctica from oxygen isotope ratio measurements M. R. Price 1

  10. Climate Change and Variability Lake Ice, Fishes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    #12;Climate Change and Variability Lake Ice, Fishes and Water Levels John J. Magnuson Center to everything else." #12;The Invisible Present The Invisible Place Magnuson 2006 #12;Ice-on Day 2007 Peter W. Schmitz Photo Local Lake Mendota #12;Ice Breakup 2010 Lake Mendota March 20 #12;March 21 Ice Breakup 2010

  11. SILICATE MELT PROPERTIES AND VOLCANIC Youxue Zhang,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Youxue

    SILICATE MELT PROPERTIES AND VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS Youxue Zhang,1,2 Zhengjiu Xu,2 Mengfan Zhu,1 2007. [1] Knowledge about the properties of silicate melts is needed by volcanologists and petrologists and diffusivity of volatile components in silicate melts, silicate melt viscosity, and the fragmentation condition

  12. Consequences of diffusive reequilibration for the interpretation of melt inclusions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langmuir, Charles H.

    are commonly used to interpret melting and melt extraction processes. These interpretations, however, often-diffusing elements with high mineral/melt partition coefficients are modified rapidly, particularly in small inclusions. Because minerals have very different Dmineral/melt for the various elements, the effects

  13. Critical Mechanisms for the Formation of Extreme Arctic Sea-Ice Extent in the Summers of 2007 and 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Xiquan; Zib, Benjamin J.; Xi, Baike; Stanfield, Ryan; Deng, Yi; Zhang, Xiangdong; Lin, B.; Long, Charles N.

    2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A warming Arctic climate is undergoing significant e 21 nvironmental change, most evidenced by the reduction of Arctic sea-ice extent during the summer. In this study, we examine two extreme anomalies of September sea-ice extent in 2007 and 1996, and investigate the impacts of cloud fraction (CF), atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV), downwelling longwave flux (DLF), surface air temperature (SAT), pressure and winds on the sea-ice variation in 2007 and 1996 using both satellite-derived sea-ice products and MERRA reanalysis. The area of the Laptev, East Siberian and West Chukchi seas (70-90oN, 90-180oE) has experienced the largest variation in sea-ice extent from year-to-year and defined here as the Area Of Focus (AOF). The record low September sea-ice extent in 2007 was associated with positive anomalies 30 of CF, PWV, DLF, and SAT over the AOF. Persistent anti-cyclone positioned over the Beaufort Sea coupled with low pressure over Eurasia induced easterly zonal and southerly meridional winds. In contrast, negative CF, PWV, DLF and SAT anomalies, as well as opposite wind patterns to those in 2007, characterized the 1996 high September sea-ice extent. Through this study, we hypothesize the following positive feedbacks of clouds, water vapor, radiation and atmospheric variables on the sea-ice retreat during the summer 2007. The record low sea-ice extent during the summer 2007 is initially triggered by the atmospheric circulation anomaly. The southerly winds across the Chukchi and East Siberian seas transport warm, moist air from the north Pacific, which is not only enhancing sea-ice melt across the AOF, but also increasing clouds. The positive cloud feedback results in higher SAT and more sea-ice melt. Therefore, 40 more water vapor could be evaporated from open seas and higher SAT to form more clouds, which will enhance positive cloud feedback. This enhanced positive cloud feedback will then further increase SAT and accelerate the sea-ice retreat during the summer 2007.

  14. The Impact of Above-Sheathing Ventilation on the Thermal and Moisture Performance of Steep-Slope Residential Roofs and Attics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, W.; Karagiozis, A.; Wilson, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE IMPACT OF ABOVE-SHEATHING VENTILATION ON THE THERMAL AND MOISTURE PERFORMANCE OF STEEP-SLOPE RESIDENTIAL ROOFS AND ATTICS William (Bill) Miller Research Scientist Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee Joe Wilson Product... Manager Metro Roof Products Oceanside, California Achilles Karagiozis Research Scientist Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee ABSTRACT Field studies were conducted on several attic assemblies having stone-coated metal shake roofs...

  15. Ultra slow EB melting to reduce reactor cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worcester, S.A.; Woods, C.R.; Galer, G.S.; Propst, R.L.

    1989-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for making an electron beam melted fuel element liner material from sponge zirconium, the process comprising: electron beam melting sponge zirconium at a melting rate of less than 1 inch per hour to form an electron beam melted zirconium material containing less than 300 ppm iron, less than 400 ppm oxygen, and less than 5 ppm aluminum; and alloying the electron beam melted zirconium in a vacuum arc furnace with 0.1-2.0 weight percent of tin.

  16. An experimental and theoretical study of the ice accretion process during artificial and natural icing conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirby, Mark Samuel

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Real-time measurements of ice growth during artificial and natural icing conditions were conducted using an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. This technique allows ice thickness to be measured with an accuracy of ?0.5 mm; ...

  17. Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 56, No. 199, 2010 805 Enhancement factors for grounded ice and ice shelves inferred

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gagliardini, Olivier

    shelves inferred from an anisotropic ice-flow model Ying MA,1 Olivier GAGLIARDINI,1 Catherine RITZ,1 on the actual state of stress and strain rate. Within an ice sheet, grounded-ice parts and ice shelves have of ice anisotropy on the flow of grounded ice and ice shelves. For this purpose, a full

  18. Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 00, No. 000, 0000 1 Enhancement factors for grounded ice and ice shelves1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durand, Gaël

    shelves1 inferred from an anisotropic ice flow model2 Ying MA,1 Olivier GAGLIARDINI,1 Catherine RITZ,1 of stress and strain-rate. Within an ice sheet, grounded ice parts and ice shelves have com-11 pletely of ice anisotropy on the flow of grounded ice and ice shelves. To this pur-14 pose, a full

  19. Method of forming clathrate ice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hino, Toshiyuki (Tokyo, JP); Gorski, Anthony J. (Lemont, IL)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of forming clathrate ice in a supercooled water-based liquid contained in a vessel is disclosed. Initially, an oscillator device is located in the liquid in the vessel. The oscillator device is then oscillated ultrasonically so that small crystals are formed in the liquid. These small crystals serve as seed crystals for ice formation in the liquid and thereby prevent supercooling of the liquid. Preferably, the oscillating device is controlled by a thermostat which initiates operation of the oscillator device when the temperature of the liquid is lowered to the freezing point. Thereafter, the operation of the oscillator device is terminated when ice is sensed in the liquid by an ice sensor.

  20. Method of forming calthrate ice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hino, T.; Gorski, A.J.

    1985-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of forming clathrate ice in a supercooled water-based liquid contained in a vessel is disclosed. Initially, an oscillator device is located in the liquid in the vessel. The oscillator device is then oscillated ultransonically so that small crystals are formed in the liquid. Thes small crystals serve as seed crystals for ice formation in the liquid and thereby prevent supercooling of the liquid. Preferably, the oscillating device is controlled by a thermostat which initiates operation of the oscillator device when the temperature of the liquid is lowered to the freezing point. Thereafter, the operation of the oscillator device is terminated when ice is sensed in the liquid by an ice sensor.

  1. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Melting Efficiency in Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Schwam

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This project addressed multiple aspects of the aluminum melting and handling in die casting operations, with the objective of increasing the energy efficiency while improving the quality of the molten metal. The efficiency of melting has always played an important role in the profitability of aluminum die casting operations. Consequently, die casters need to make careful choices in selecting and operating melting equipment and procedures. The capital cost of new melting equipment with higher efficiency can sometimes be recovered relatively fast when it replaces old melting equipment with lower efficiency. Upgrades designed to improve energy efficiency of existing equipment may be well justified. Energy efficiency is however not the only factor in optimizing melting operations. Melt losses and metal quality are also very important. Selection of melting equipment has to take into consideration the specific conditions at the die casting shop such as availability of floor space, average quantity of metal used as well as the ability to supply more metal during peaks in demand. In all these cases, it is essential to make informed decisions based on the best available data.

  2. Text-Alternative Version of Building America Webinar: High-Performance Enclosure Strategies, Part 1: Unvented Roof Systems and Innovative Advanced Framing Strategies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar, held on February 12, 2015, focused on methods to design and build roof and wall systems for high performance homes that optimize energy and moisture performance.

  3. amorphous water ice: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    artificial and natural icing conditions MIT - DSpace Summary: Real-time measurements of ice growth during artificial and natural icing conditions were conducted using an...

  4. amery ice shelf: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    artificial and natural icing conditions MIT - DSpace Summary: Real-time measurements of ice growth during artificial and natural icing conditions were conducted using an...

  5. amorphous ice transition: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    artificial and natural icing conditions MIT - DSpace Summary: Real-time measurements of ice growth during artificial and natural icing conditions were conducted using an...

  6. antarctica larsen ice: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    artificial and natural icing conditions MIT - DSpace Summary: Real-time measurements of ice growth during artificial and natural icing conditions were conducted using an...

  7. alpine deep ice: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    artificial and natural icing conditions MIT - DSpace Summary: Real-time measurements of ice growth during artificial and natural icing conditions were conducted using an...

  8. airborne ice sounding: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    artificial and natural icing conditions MIT - DSpace Summary: Real-time measurements of ice growth during artificial and natural icing conditions were conducted using an...

  9. Sensitive response of the Greenland Ice Sheet to surface melt drainage over soft bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bougamont, M H; Christoffersen,P.; Hubbard, A. L.; Fitzpatrick, A. A.; Doyle, S. H.; Carter, S. P.

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    by detailed energy balance observations. The Cryosphere 6, 199-209, doi:doi:10.5194/tc-6-199-2012 (2012). ... by frictional and geothermal heating accumulates at the 136 bed over the course of winter and is released together with the first SGL drainage 137 events. With either one of these factors included, our model was able to reproduce the 138 2010 spring...

  10. Melting Ice and Tangled Nets: Litigation and Conservation Policy in the US, Australia, and Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaffer, Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Why the US, Canada, and Australia?13Model………………………..16 B. Canada, Australia, and CollaborativeMaritimus Conservation in  Canada: An Ecological Basis for 

  11. Scrap uranium recycling via electron beam melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKoon, R.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A program is underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to recycle scrap uranium metal. Currently, much of the material from forging and machining processes is considered radioactive waste and is disposed of by oxidation and encapsulation at significant cost. In the recycling process, uranium and uranium alloys in various forms will be processed by electron beam melting and continuously cast into ingots meeting applicable specifications for virgin material. Existing vacuum processing facilities at LLNL are in compliance with all current federal and state environmental, safety and health regulations for the electron beam melting and vaporization of uranium metal. One of these facilities has been retrofitted with an auxiliary electron beam gun system, water-cooled hearth, crucible and ingot puller to create an electron beam melt furnace. In this furnace, basic process R&D on uranium recycling will be performed with the goal of eventual transfer of this technology to a production facility.

  12. A model for melting of confined DNA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Werner, E; Ambjörnsson, T; Mehlig, B

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When DNA molecules are heated they denature. This occurs locally so that loops of molten single DNA strands form, connected by intact double-stranded DNA pieces. The properties of this "melting" transition have been intensively investigated. Recently there has been a surge of interest in this question, caused by experiments determining the properties of partially bound DNA confined to nanochannels. But how does such confinement affect the melting transition? To answer this question we introduce, and solve a model predicting how confinement affects the melting transition for a simple model system by first disregarding the effect of self-avoidance. We find that the transition is smoother for narrower channels. By means of Monte-Carlo simulations we then show that a model incorporating self-avoidance shows qualitatively the same behaviour and that the effect of confinement is stronger than in the ideal case.

  13. Use of the finite element method to predict roof collapse and subsidence resulting from the underground gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jegbefume, E.U.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The plane strain two-dimensional finite element model employing the method of negative reaction loading was used to model roof collapse and subsidence that result from underground coal gasification. Subsidence results from a preliminary finite element model were compared with those from a theoretical model having identical assumptions. The finite element model was extended to include dry zones of rock around the cavity resulting from the underground gasification. The model was further extended to include thermal loading, thermal softening and roof collapse. Roof collapse initiation and growth were modelled by examining the portion of the roof immediately above the cavity. A creep program utilizing the method incremental strains was developed and run in conjunction with the Pafec 70 + program. The overburden rock was treated as a linear viscoelastic material having deformation parameters of the generalized Kelvin model. Finally, the finite element model was used to carry out a case history study of subsidence and roof collapse of an underground gasification field experiment in Wyoming.

  14. Rock melting tool with annealer section

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bussod, Gilles Y. (Santa Fe, NM); Dick, Aaron J. (Oakland, CA); Cort, George E. (Montrose, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A rock melting penetrator is provided with an afterbody that rapidly cools a molten geological structure formed around the melting tip of the penetrator to the glass transition temperature for the surrounding molten glass-like material. An annealing afterbody then cools the glass slowly from the glass transition temperature through the annealing temperature range to form a solid self-supporting glass casing. This allows thermally induced strains to relax by viscous deformations as the molten glass cools and prevents fracturing of the resulting glass liner. The quality of the glass lining is improved, along with its ability to provide a rigid impermeable casing in unstable rock formations.

  15. Pressurized melt ejection into scaled reactor cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarbell, W.W.; Pilch, M.; Brockmann, J.E.; Ross, J.W.; Gilbert, D.W.

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes four tests performed in the High-Pressure Melt Streaming Program (HIPS) using linear-scaled cavities of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant. These experiments were conducted to study the phenomena involved in high-pressure ejection of core debris into the cavity beneath the reactor pressure vessel. One-tenth and one-twentieth linear scale models of reactor cavities were constructed and instrumented. The first test used an apparatus constructed of alumina firebrick to minimize the potential interaction between the ejected melt and cavity material. The remaining three experiments used scaled representations of the Zion nuclear plant geometry, constructed of prototypic concrete composition.

  16. Method and apparatus for melting metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Alan F.; Schechter, Donald E.; Morrow, Marvin Stanley

    2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for melting metals uses microwave energy as the primary source of heat. The metal or mixture of metals are placed in a ceramic crucible which couples, at least partially, with the microwaves to be used. The crucible is encased in a ceramic casket for insulation and placed within a microwave chamber. The chamber may be evacuated and refilled to exclude oxygen. After melting, the crucible may be removed for pouring or poured within the chamber by dripping or running into a heated mold within the chamber. Apparent coupling of the microwaves with softened or molten metal produces high temperatures with great energy savings.

  17. A novel technique for the production of cool colored concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul; Wood, Kurt; Skilton, Wayne; Petersheim, Jerry

    2009-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The widespread use of solar-reflective roofing materials can save energy, mitigate urban heat islands and slow global warming by cooling the roughly 20% of the urban surface that is roofed. In this study we created prototype solar-reflective nonwhite concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing materials using a two-layer spray coating process intended to maximize both solar reflectance and factory-line throughput. Each layer is a thin, quick-drying, pigmented latex paint based on either acrylic or a poly(vinylidene fluoride)/acrylic blend. The first layer is a titanium dioxide rutile white basecoat that increases the solar reflectance of a gray-cement concrete tile from 0.18 to 0.79, and that of a shingle surfaced with bare granules from 0.06 to 0.62. The second layer is a 'cool' color topcoat with weak near-infrared (NIR) absorption and/or strong NIR backscattering. Each layer dries within seconds, potentially allowing a factory line to pass first under the white spray, then under the color spray. We combined a white basecoat with monocolor topcoats in various shades of red, brown, green and blue to prepare 24 cool color prototype tiles and 24 cool color prototypes shingles. The solar reflectances of the tiles ranged from 0.26 (dark brown; CIELAB lightness value L* = 29) to 0.57 (light green; L* = 76); those of the shingles ranged from 0.18 (dark brown; L* = 26) to 0.34 (light green; L* = 68). Over half of the tiles had a solar reflectance of at least 0.40, and over half of the shingles had a solar reflectance of at least 0.25.

  18. CEBAF Center Roof Work to Impact Parking Lot, Loading Dock Area | Jefferson

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C o . C l a r k C o'IUHopper c omputeLab Roof

  19. NOAA Technical Memorandum GLERL-135 Great Lakes Ice Cover Climatology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ____________________________________________________________________________ Great Lakes Ice Cover Climatology Update: Winters 2003, 2004, and 2005 Raymond A. Assel NOAA, Great..................................................................................................6 DATES OF FIRST (LAST) ICE AND ICE DURATION. .............................................................7 SEASONAL PROGRESSION OF ICE COVER

  20. Ross Ice Shelf in situ radio-frequency ice attenuation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor Barrella; Steven Barwick; David Saltzberg

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have measured the in situ average electric field attenuation length for radio-frequency signals broadcast vertically through the Ross Ice Shelf. We chose a location, Moore Embayment, south of Minna Bluff, known for its high reflectivity at the ice-sea interface. We confirmed specular reflection and used the return pulses to measure the average attenuation length from 75-1250 MHz over the round-trip distance of 1155 m. We find the average electric field attenuation length to vary from 500 m at 75 MHz to 300 m at 1250 MHz, with an experimental uncertainty of 55 to 15 m. We discuss the implications for neutrino telescopes that use the radio technique and include the Ross Ice Shelf as part of their sensitive volume.