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  1. KST Coatings, A Business Unit of The Sherwin-Williams Company...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    KST Coatings, A Business Unit of The Sherwin-Williams Company Jump to: navigation, search Name: KST Coatings, A Business Unit of The Sherwin-Williams Company Address: 101Prospect...

  2. Jian-Rong (Jeff) Li | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technologies | Blandine Jerome Jian-Rong (Jeff) Li Previous Next List Jeff Li Jian-Rong (Jeff) Li Formerly: Assistant Research Scientist, Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University Presently: Professor, Beijing University of Technology, China PhD in Chemistry, Nankai University Postdoc in Chemistry, Miami University and Texas A&M University EFRC research: Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and metal-organic polyhedra (MOPs) are newly developed molecule-based materials, constructed

  3. Limited Test Ban Treaty

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Detection System (USNDS), which monitors compliance with the international Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT). The LTBT, signed by 108 countries, prohibits nuclear testing in the...

  4. City of Banning, California (Utility Company) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Banning, California (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Banning City of Place: California Phone Number: (951) 922-3185 Website: www.ci.banning.ca.usindex.asp...

  5. Status and Impacts of State MTBE Bans

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes legislation passed in 16 states banning or restricting the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline. Analysis of the status and impact of these state MTBE bans is provided concerning the supply and potential price changes of gasoline.

  6. Mak-Ban E GEPP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Home Mak-Ban E GEPP General Information Name Mak-Ban E GEPP Facility Power Plant Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Coordinates 14.090304687028,...

  7. Mak-Ban Binary 1 GEPP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Home Mak-Ban Binary 1 GEPP General Information Name Mak-Ban Binary 1 GEPP Facility Power Plant Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Coordinates 14.087741209723,...

  8. Head of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Head of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) Preparatory Commission ... Home Library Press Releases Head of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty ...

  9. Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter ... Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban ...

  10. Statute- Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 to prohibit the sale, distribution, transfer, and export of elemental mercury, and for other purposes. Public Law 110-414, 110th Congress

  11. Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending state bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

  12. Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans Tancred Lidderdale Contents 1. Summary 2. MTBE Supply and Demand 3. Ethanol Supply 4. Gasoline Supply 5. Gasoline Prices A. Long-Term Equilibrium Price Analysis B. Short-Term Price Volatility 6. Conclusion 7. Appendix A. Estimating MTBE Consumption by State 8. Appendix B. MTBE Imports and Exports 9. Appendix C. Glossary of Terms 10. End Notes 11. References 1. Summary The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories

  13. Supporting the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowyer, Ted

    2014-11-20

    PNNL operates the only certified laboratory in the U.S. for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty's International Monitoring System (IMS).

  14. Supporting the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Bowyer, Ted

    2014-06-12

    PNNL operates the only certified laboratory in the U.S. for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty's International Monitoring System (IMS).

  15. NNSA Sites Host Head of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Sites Host Head of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) | National ... Home NNSA Blog NNSA Sites Host Head of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban ... NNSA Sites ...

  16. Preparations for Meeting New York and Connecticut MTBE Bans

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    In response to a Congressional request, the Energy Information Administration examined the progress being made to meet the bans on the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) being implemented in New York and Connecticut at the end of 2003.

  17. Head of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Preparatory Commission Visits NNSA's Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) for First Time | National Nuclear Security Administration Head of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) Preparatory Commission Visits NNSA's Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) for First Time | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our

  18. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases

  19. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty | National Nuclear Security Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Test Ban Treaty | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA

  20. Senate Rejects Test Ban Treaty | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Senate Rejects Test Ban Treaty | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs

  1. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  2. OSIRIS - Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy Software for On-Site Inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caffrey, Augustine J.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Egger, A. E.; Hall, Jeter C.; Kelly, S. M.; Krebs, K. M.; Kreek, S.; Jordan, David V.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Padgett, Stephen W.; Wharton, C. J.; Wimer, Nathan G.

    2015-06-01

    OSIRIS - Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy Software for On-Site Inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

  3. NNSA Sites Host Head of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    (CTBTO) | National Nuclear Security Administration Sites Host Head of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios

  4. Policy issues facing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and prospects for the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeney, J.

    1999-04-01

    This report is divided into the following 5 sections: (1) Background; (2) Major Issues Facing Ratification of CTBT; (3) Current Status on CTBT Ratification; (4) Status of CTBT Signatories and Ratifiers; and (5) CTBT Activities Not Prohibited. The major issues facing ratification of CTBT discussed here are: impact on CTBT of START II and ABM ratification; impact of India and Pakistan nuclear tests; CTBT entry into force; and establishment of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization.

  5. Selected Examples of LDRD Projects Supporting Test Ban Treaty Verification and Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, K.; Al-Ayat, R.; Walter, W. R.

    2015-02-23

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at the DOE National Laboratories was established to ensure the scientific and technical vitality of these institutions and to enhance the their ability to respond to evolving missions and anticipate national needs. LDRD allows the Laboratory directors to invest a percentage of their total annual budget in cutting-edge research and development projects within their mission areas. We highlight a selected set of LDRD-funded projects, in chronological order, that have helped provide capabilities, people and infrastructure that contributed greatly to our ability to respond to technical challenges in support of test ban treaty verification and nonproliferation.

  6. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty seismic monitoring: 2012 USNAS report and recent explosions, earthquakes, and other seismic sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, Paul G.

    2014-05-09

    A comprehensive ban on nuclear explosive testing is briefly characterized as an arms control initiative related to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The work of monitoring for nuclear explosions uses several technologies of which the most important is seismology-a physics discipline that draws upon extensive and ever-growing assets to monitor for earthquakes and other ground-motion phenomena as well as for explosions. This paper outlines the basic methods of seismic monitoring within that wider context, and lists web-based and other resources for learning details. It also summarizes the main conclusions, concerning capability to monitor for test-ban treaty compliance, contained in a major study published in March 2012 by the US National Academy of Sciences.

  7. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the relationship

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, Thomas Jr.

    2014-05-09

    The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the most important international security arrangement that we have that is protecting the world community and this has been true for many years. But it did not happen by accident, it is a strategic bargain in which 184 states gave up the right forever to acquire the most powerful weapon ever created in exchange for a commitment from the five states allowed to keep nuclear weapons under the NPT (U.S., U.K., Russia, France and China), to share peaceful nuclear technology and to engage in disarmament negotiations aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear stockpiles. The most important part of this is the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTBT); the thinking by the 184 NPT non-nuclear weapon states was and is that they understand that the elimination of nuclear weapon stockpiles is a long way off, but at least the NPT nuclear weapon states could stop testing the weapons. The CTBT has been ratified by 161 states but by its terms it can only come into force if 44 nuclear potential states ratify; 36 have of the 44 have ratified it, the remaining eight include the United States and seven others, most of whom are in effect waiting for the United States. No state has tested a nuclear weapon-except for complete outlier North Korea-in 15 years. There appears to be no chance that the U.S. Senate will approve the CTBT for ratification in the foreseeable future, but the NPT may not survive without it. Perhaps it is time to consider an interim measure, for the UN Security Council to declare that any future nuclear weapon test any time, anywhere is a 'threat to peace and security', in effect a violation of international law, which in today's world it clearly would be.

  8. Proceedings of the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, N. Jill

    1999-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, held 21-24 September 1999 in Las Vegas, Nevada. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Department of Defense (DoD), the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  9. A Discussion of Procedures and Equipment for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty On-Site Inspection Environmental Sampling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wogman, Ned A.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Payne, Rosara F.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Friese, Judah I.; Miley, Harry S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hanlen, Richard C.; Onishi, Yasuo; Hayes, James C.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2011-02-01

    This paper is intended to serve as a scientific basis to start discussions of the available environmental sampling techniques and equipment that have been used in the past that could be considered for use within the context of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) on-site inspections (OSI). This work contains information on the techniques, equipment, costs, and some operational procedures associated with environmental sampling that have actually been used in the past by the United States for the detection of nuclear explosions. This paper also includes a discussion of issues, recommendations, and questions needing further study within the context of the sampling and analysis of aquatic materials, atmospheric gases, atmospheric particulates, vegetation, sediments and soils, fauna, and drill-back materials.

  10. Limited Test Ban Treaty

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Satellite Carrying NNSA-provided Nuclear Detonation Detection Sensors http:www.nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasesafsatellite

  11. Drilling ban yields verdict

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nation, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews a lawsuit which is under appeal by the State of Michigan regarding a takings claim filed over a petroleum exploration site. The dispute arose as a result of a 1987 decision by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources forbidding the property owners from developing the mineral rights leased to Miller Brothers in the Huron/Manistee National Forest. This area is bisected by a trend of Silurian Niagaran reef complexes which has a known production history throughout the State. The dunes area of the national forest has been deemed a wilderness area. As a result of the State's decision, the courts have awarded a sum of 71 million dollars to the developer to cover damages and lost resources. The reserve estimates were taken from adjacent areas which showed that the Niagaran reefs are relatively consistent in their yield.

  12. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    30%2A en 20th Anniversary of U.S. Commitment to Science-based Stockpile Stewardship http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleases20th-anniversary-ssp-commitment

  13. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, James W., LTC

    2000-09-15

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), held 13-15 September 2000 in New Orleans, Louisiana. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Department of Defense (DoD), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  14. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Non-Proliferation Experiment: Results and Implications for Test Ban Treaties, Rockville, Maryland, April 19-21, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denny, Marvin D

    1994-01-01

    To address a critical verification issue for the current Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and for a possible future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Department of Energy sought to measure certain differences between an underground nuclear test and a chemical test in the same geology, so that other explosions could be identified. This was done in a field experiment code-named the NonProliferation Experiment (NPE).This comprehensive experiment was designed to determine the signatures of chemical explosions for a broad range of phenomena for comparison with those of previous nuclear tests. If significant differences can be measured, then these measures can be used to discriminate between the two types of explosions. In addition, when these differences are understood, large chemical explosions can be used to seismically calibrate regions to discriminate earthquakes from explosions. Toward this end, on-site and off-site measurements of transient phenomena were made, and on-site measurements of residual effects are in progress.Perhaps the most striking result was that the source function for the chemical explosion was identical to that of a nuclear one of about twice the yield. These proceedings provide more detailed results of the experiment.

  15. Mercury Ban Sum FS.pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

  16. Supply Impacts of an MTBE Ban

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the supply impacts of removing methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) from gasoline.

  17. The Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    land use plans, and regulatory agreements * Remote location * Low population density in surrounding area * No nearby major bodies of surface water * Existing rail line *...

  18. Mine seismicity and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiappetta, F.; Heuze, F.; Walter, W.; Hopler, R.; Hsu, V.; Martin, B.; Pearson, C.; Stump, B.; Zipf, K.

    1998-12-09

    Surface and underground mining operations generate seismic ground motions which are created by chemical explosions and ground failures. It may come as a surprise to some that the ground failures (coal bumps, first caves, pillar collapses, rockbursts, etc.) can send signals whose magnitudes are as strong or stronger than those from any mining blast. A verification system that includes seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide sensors is being completed as part of the CTBT. The largest mine blasts and ground failures will be detected by this system and must be identified as distinct from signals generated by small nuclear explosions. Seismologists will analyze the seismic records and presumably should be able to separate them into earthquake-like and non earthquake-like categories, using a variety of so-called seismic discriminants. Non-earthquake essentially means explosion- or implosion-like. Such signals can be generated not only by mine blasts but also by a variety of ground failures. Because it is known that single-fired chemical explosions and nuclear explosion signals of the same yield give very similar seismic records, the non-earthquake signals will be of concern to the Treaty verification community. The magnitude of the mine-related events is in the range of seismicity created by smaller nuclear explosions or decoupled tests, which are of particular concern under the Treaty. It is conceivable that legitimate mining blasts or some mine-induced ground failures could occasionally be questioned. Information such as shot time, location and design parameters may be all that is necessary to resolve the event identity. In rare instances where the legitimate origin of the event could not be resolved by a consultation and clarification procedure, it might trigger on On-Site Inspection (OSI). Because there is uncertainty in the precise location of seismic event as determined by the International Monitoring System (IMS), the OSI can cover an area of up to 1,000 squared kilometers. In active mining districts this area could include several different mining operations. So, an OSI could be disruptive both to the mining community and to the US Government which must host the foreign inspection team. Accordingly, it is in the best interest of all US parties to try and eliminate the possible occurrence of false alarms. This can be achieved primarily by reducing the ambiguity of mine-induced seismic signals, so that even if these remain visible to the IMS they are clearly consistent with recognizable mining patterns.

  19. Mak-Ban Binary 3 GEPP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  20. Mak-Ban Binary 2 GEPP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  1. Mak-Ban / Laguna Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    World Geothermal Power Generation 2001-2005. Proceedings of World Geothermal Congress; Turkey: World Geothermal Congress. List of existing Geothermal Resource Areas. Print PDF...

  2. Xenon monitoring and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowyer, Theodore W.

    2014-05-09

    How do you monitor (verify) a CTBT? It is a difficult challenge to monitor the entire world for nuclear tests, regardless of size. Nuclear tests 'normally' occur underground, above ground or underwater. Setting aside very small tests (let's limit our thinking to 1 kiloton or more), nuclear tests shake the ground, emit large amounts of radioactivity, and make loud noises if in the atmosphere (or hydroacoustic waves if underwater)

  3. Limited Test Ban Treaty Signed | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Signed | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home /

  4. Limited Test Ban Treaty | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home /

  5. Nuclear test ban treaty verification: Improving test ban monitoring with empirical and model-based signal processing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Harris, David B.; Gibbons, Steven J.; Rodgers, Arthur J.; Pasyanls, Michael E.

    2012-05-01

    In this approach, small scale-length medium perturbations not modeled in the tomographic inversion might be described as random fields, characterized by particular distribution functions (e.g., normal with specified spatial covariance). Conceivably, random field parameters (scatterer density or scale length) might themselves be the targets of tomographic inversions of the scattered wave field. As a result, such augmented models may provide processing gain through the use of probabilistic signal sub spaces rather than deterministic waveforms.

  6. Ban on USChina space-program ties means missed opportunities for NASA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, David

    2013-12-15

    Sino-US cooperation could stretch budgets and benefit both countries in space science and human flight.

  7. An Overview of Geothermal Development in Tiwi and Mak-Ban, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raasch, G.D.

    1980-12-16

    Commercial-scale geothermal development in the Philippines began i n 1972 with the completion of the discovery well in the southeastern portion of Luzon Island. A second geothermal anomaly was discovered i n 1975 on the southern flank of Mt . Makiling, forty miles south of Manila. Both fields are being developed and operated by Philippine Geothermal, Inc. (PGI) , a wholly-owned subsidiary of Union Oil Company of California. Currently the Philippines ranks second worldwide in installed geothermal-powered electrical generation capacity with 443 MW and PGI has developed 440 PW of the 443 MW country total. Additional generation capacity is planned or under construction in both fields. Over 1.9 billion kilowatt-hours of electrical power have been produced to date. This represents a savings of approximately three million barrels of imported fuel oil for power generation.

  8. Ohio's 11th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corporation Great Lakes WIND Network Intigral JW Great Lakes Wind LLC KST Coatings, A Business Unit of The Sherwin-Williams Company Meyers Roman Friedberg and Lewis LPA NASA...

  9. Cleveland, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc Ferro Corporation Great Lakes WIND Network JW Great Lakes Wind LLC KST Coatings, A Business Unit of The Sherwin-Williams Company Meyers Roman Friedberg and Lewis LPA NASA...

  10. Rapid Deployment Drilling System for on-site inspections under a Comprehensive Test Ban Preliminary Engineering Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maurer, W.C.; Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Cohen, J.H.; Heuze, F.E.; Butler, M.W.

    1996-09-01

    While not a new drilling technology, coiled-tubing (CT) drilling continues to undergo rapid development and expansion, with new equipment, tools and procedures developed almost daily. This project was undertaken to: analyze available technological options for a Rapid Deployment Drilling System (RDDS) CT drilling system: recommend specific technologies that best match the requirements for the RDDS; and highlight any areas where adequate technological solutions are not currently available. Postshot drilling is a well established technique at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Drilling provides essential data on the results of underground tests including obtaining samples for the shot zone, information on cavity size, chimney dimensions, effects of the event on surrounding material, and distribution of radioactivity.

  11. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Chia, Elbert E. M. (4) Das, Tanmoy (4) Gao, Yi (4) Ren, Jie (4) Si, Qimiao (4) Tai, ... Superconductors Yu, Rong ; Zhu, Jian-Xin ; Si, Qimiao Full Text Available May 2011 , ...

  12. Direct Observation of the Transition from Indirect to Direct...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Zhang, Yi ; Chang, Tay-Rong ; Zhou, Bo ; Cui, Yong-Tao ; Yan, Hao ; Liu, Zhongkai ; Schmitt, Felix ; Lee, James ; Moore, Rob ; Chen, Yulin ; Lin, Hsin ; Jeng, Horng-Tay ; ...

  13. A porous metal-organic framework with helical chain building...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    porous metal-organic framework with helical chain building units exhibiting facile transition from micro- to meso-porosity Previous Next List Jinhee Park , Jian-Rong Li , E....

  14. JLab Scientist Develops Portrait of a Gremlin | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientist Develops Portrait of a Gremlin Rongli Geng Rongli Geng zeros in on a defect inside this accelerator cavity with a long-distance microscope. When an expensive accelerator component designed for the International Linear Collider failed to perform as expected, Jefferson Lab scientists set out to find the root of the problem. What they discovered and the tool they used to make their discovery could have widespread applications in accelerator science. "You can see the cavity is about a

  15. Fermilab Today

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jan. 15, 2015 spacer Subscribe | Contact Us | Archive | Classifieds | Guidelines | Help Search GO spacer Calendar Have a safe day! Thursday, Jan. 15 2:30 p.m. Theoretical Physics Seminar (NOTE LOCATION) - WH3NE Speaker: Jared Evans, University Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Title: The Higgs, Flavor, and Large A-terms in Extended Gauge Mediation 3:30 p.m. Director's Coffee Break - WH2XO 4 p.m. Accelerator Physics and Technology Seminar - ICB Hermitage Speaker: Rong-Li Geng, Thomas Jefferson National

  16. Functional Mesoporous Metal-Organic Frameworks for the Capture of Heavy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Ions and Size-Selective Catalysis | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Functional Mesoporous Metal-Organic Frameworks for the Capture of Heavy Metal Ions and Size-Selective Catalysis Previous Next List Qian-Rong Fang, Da-Qian Yuan, Julian Sculley, Jian-Rong Li, Zheng-Bo Han, and Hong-Cai Zhou, Inorg. Chem., 2010, 49 (24), pp 11637-11642 DOI: 10.1021/ic101935f Abstract Image Abstract: By using Zn4O(CO2)6 as secondary building units (SBUs)

  17. 2010 | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Blandine Jerome 2010 Previous Next List Functional Mesoporous Metal-Organic Frameworks for the Capture of Heavy Metal Ions and Size-Selective Catalysis Abstract Image Qian-Rong Fang, Da-Qian Yuan, Julian Sculley, Jian-Rong Li, Zheng-Bo Han, and Hong-Cai Zhou, Inorg. Chem., 2010, 49 (24), pp 11637-11642 DOI: 10.1021/ic101935f Abstract: By using Zn4O(CO2)6 as secondary building units (SBUs) and two extended ligands containing amino functional groups, TATAB and BTATB (TATAB =

  18. Uncertainty quantification for discrimination of nuclear events...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    nuclear-test-ban treaty Prev Next Title: Uncertainty quantification for discrimination of nuclear events as violations of the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty ...

  19. Metal-Organic Frameworks for Separations | Center for Gas

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    SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Metal-Organic Frameworks for Separations Previous Next List Jian-Rong Li , Julian Sculley , and Hong-Cai Zhou, Chem. Rev., 2012, 112 (2), pp 869-932 DOI: 10.1021/cr200190s Journal Cover This article is part of the 2012 Metal-Organic Frameworks special issue.

  20. Lipophilic Bisphosphonates as Dual Farnesyl/Geranylgeranyl Diphosphate

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Synthase Inhibitors: An X-ray and NMR Investigation (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Lipophilic Bisphosphonates as Dual Farnesyl/Geranylgeranyl Diphosphate Synthase Inhibitors: An X-ray and NMR Investigation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lipophilic Bisphosphonates as Dual Farnesyl/Geranylgeranyl Diphosphate Synthase Inhibitors: An X-ray and NMR Investigation Authors: Zhang, Yonghui ; Cao, Rong ; Yin, Fenglin ; Hudock, Michael P. ; Guo, Rey-Ting ; Krysiak, Kilannin ;

  1. Isostructural Metal-Organic Frameworks Assembled from Functionalized

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diisophthalate Ligands through a Ligand-Truncation Strategy | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Isostructural Metal-Organic Frameworks Assembled from Functionalized Diisophthalate Ligands through a Ligand-Truncation Strategy Previous Next List Yangyang Liu, Jian-Rong Li, Wolfgang M. Verdegaal, Tian-Fu Liu, Hong-Cai Zhou, Chem. Eur. J., 19: 5637-5643 (2013) DOI: 10.1002/chem.201203297 nfig001.gif Four isostructural metal-organic frameworks

  2. Bridging-ligand-substitution strategy for the preparation of

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    metal-organic polyhedra | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Bridging-ligand-substitution strategy for the preparation of metal-organic polyhedra Previous Next List Jian-Rong Li & Hong-Cai Zhou, Nature Chemistry 2, 893-898 (2010) DOI: 10.1038/nchem.803 Abstract: Metal-organic polyhedra-discrete molecular architectures constructed through the coordination of metal ions and organic linkers-have recently attracted considerable attention due to

  3. Highly Potent Bactericidal Activity of Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Highly Potent Bactericidal Activity of Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks Previous Next List Wenjuan Zhuang, Daqiang Yuan, Jian-Rong Li, Zhiping Luo, Hong-Cai Zhou, Sajid Bashir, Jingbo Liu, Adv. Healthcare Mater., 1, 225-238 (2012) DOI: 10.1002/adhm.201100043 Abstract: Recent outbreaks of bacterial infection leading to human fatalities have been a motivational force for us to develop antibacterial agents with

  4. Highly porous metal-organic framework sustained with 12-connected

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nanoscopic octahedra | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Highly porous metal-organic framework sustained with 12-connected nanoscopic octahedra Previous Next List Weigang Lu , Daqiang Yuan , Trevor A. Makal , Zhangwen Wei , Jian-Rong Li and Hong-Cai Zhou, Dalton Trans., 2013,42, 1708-1714, DOI: 10.1039/C2DT32479B Graphical abstract: Highly porous metal-organic framework sustained with 12-connected nanoscopic octahedra Abstract: Two

  5. Publications | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technologies | Blandine Jerome Publications Previous Next List Statistics on the EFRC publications can be found on ReseacherID 2016 2016 Pyrazolate-Based Porphyrinic Metal-Organic Framework with Extraordinary Base-Resistance Pyrazolate-Based Porphyrinic Metal-Organic Framework with Extraordinary Base-Resistance Wang, Kecheng; Lv, Xiu-Liang; Feng, Dawei; Li, Jian; Chen, Shuangming; Sun, Junliang; Song, Li; Xie, Yabo; Li, Jian-Rong; and Zhou, Hong-Cai. Pyrazolate-Based Porphyrinic

  6. Pyrazolate-Based Porphyrinic Metal-Organic Framework with Extraordinary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Base-Resistance | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Pyrazolate-Based Porphyrinic Metal-Organic Framework with Extraordinary Base-Resistance Previous Next List Wang, Kecheng; Lv, Xiu-Liang; Feng, Dawei; Li, Jian; Chen, Shuangming; Sun, Junliang; Song, Li; Xie, Yabo; Li, Jian-Rong; and Zhou, Hong-Cai. Pyrazolate-Based Porphyrinic Metal-Organic Framework with Extraordinary Base-Resistance. J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 138, 914-919 (2016). DOI:

  7. Robust Metal-Organic Framework with An Octatopic Ligand for Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Adsorption and Separation: Combined Characterization by Experiments and Molecular Simulation | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Robust Metal-Organic Framework with An Octatopic Ligand for Gas Adsorption and Separation: Combined Characterization by Experiments and Molecular Simulation Previous Next List Wenjuan Zhuang, Daqiang Yuan, Dahuan Liu, Chongli Zhong, Jian-Rong Li, and Hong-Cai Zhou, Chem. Mater., 2012, 24 (1), pp 18-25 DOI:

  8. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Guo, Rong" Name Name ORCID Search Authors Type: All Book/Monograph Conference/Event Journal Article Miscellaneous Patent Program Document Software Manual Technical Report Thesis/Dissertation Subject: Identifier Numbers: Site: All Alaska Power Administration, Juneau, Alaska (United States) Albany Research Center (ARC), Albany, OR (United States) Albuquerque Complex - NNSA Albuquerque Operations Office, Albuquerque, NM (United States) Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, Amarillo,

  9. Study of a scattering shield in a high heat load monochromator (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Study of a scattering shield in a high heat load monochromator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Study of a scattering shield in a high heat load monochromator Authors: Huang, Rong ; Meron, Mati [1] ; HWMRI) [2] + Show Author Affiliations (UC) [UC ( Publication Date: 2014-02-04 OSTI Identifier: 1091969 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Nucl. Instrum. Methods A; Journal Volume: 716; Journal Issue: 07, 2013 Research Org:

  10. 2016 | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Blandine Jerome 2016 Previous Next List Pyrazolate-Based Porphyrinic Metal-Organic Framework with Extraordinary Base-Resistance Pyrazolate-Based Porphyrinic Metal-Organic Framework with Extraordinary Base-Resistance Wang, Kecheng; Lv, Xiu-Liang; Feng, Dawei; Li, Jian; Chen, Shuangming; Sun, Junliang; Song, Li; Xie, Yabo; Li, Jian-Rong; and Zhou, Hong-Cai. Pyrazolate-Based Porphyrinic Metal-Organic Framework with Extraordinary Base-Resistance... Continue reading ... Mar 3, 2016 Minute-MOFs:

  11. Y-12 entered the 1990s and encountered major difficulties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric testing had been banned since 1963, when the Limited Test Ban Treaty was signed by all countries having nuclear weapons as well as many non-nuclear countries. On a side ...

  12. Before the House Subcommittee on Energy and Power, Committee on Energy and Commerce

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Subject: History of U.S Ban on Crude Oil Exports By: Adam Sieminski, Administrator Energy Information Administration

  13. Proceedings of the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (Conference) | SciTech Connect 1st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Proceedings of the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban

  14. Direct Observation of the Transition from Indirect to Direct Bandgap in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atomically Thin Epitaxial MoSe2 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Direct Observation of the Transition from Indirect to Direct Bandgap in Atomically Thin Epitaxial MoSe2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Direct Observation of the Transition from Indirect to Direct Bandgap in Atomically Thin Epitaxial MoSe2 Authors: Zhang, Yi ; Chang, Tay-Rong ; Zhou, Bo ; Cui, Yong-Tao ; Yan, Hao ; Liu, Zhongkai ; Schmitt, Felix ; Lee, James ; Moore, Rob ; Chen, Yulin ; Lin, Hsin ; Jeng, Horng-Tay

  15. Zirconium-Metalloporphyrin PCN-222: Mesoporous Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with Ultrahigh Stability as Biomimetic Catalysts | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Zirconium-Metalloporphyrin PCN-222: Mesoporous Metal-Organic Frameworks with Ultrahigh Stability as Biomimetic Catalysts Previous Next List Dawei Feng, Zhi-Yuan Gu, Jian-Rong Li, Hai-Long Jiang, Zhangwen Wei, Hong-Cai Zhou, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 51: 10307-10310 (2012) DOI: 10.1002/anie.201204475 mcontent.gif Abstract: Extremely stable MOFs with different open

  16. Methane storage in advanced porous materials | Center for Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Methane storage in advanced porous materials Previous Next List Trevor A. Makal, Jian-Rong Li, Weigang Lu and Hong-Cai Zhou, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2012,41, 7761-7779 DOI: 10.1039/C2CS35251F Abstract: The need for alternative fuels is greater now than ever before. With considerable sources available and low pollution factor, methane is a natural choice as petroleum replacement in cars and other mobile applications. However,

  17. Pore Surface Engineering with Controlled Loadings of Functional Groups via

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Click Chemistry in Highly Stable Metal-Organic Frameworks | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Pore Surface Engineering with Controlled Loadings of Functional Groups via Click Chemistry in Highly Stable Metal-Organic Frameworks Previous Next List Hai-Long Jiang , Dawei Feng , Tian-Fu Liu , Jian-Rong Li , and Hong-Cai Zhou, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2012, 134 (36), pp 14690-14693 DOI: 10.1021/ja3063919 Abstract Image Abstract Reactions of ZrCl4 and

  18. Porous materials with pre-designed single-molecule traps for CO2 selective

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    adsorption | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Porous materials with pre-designed single-molecule traps for CO2 selective adsorption Previous Next List Jian-Rong Li, Jiamei Yu, Weigang Lu, Lin-Bing Sun, Julian Sculley, Perla B. Balbuena & Hong-Cai Zhou, Nature Communications 4, Article number: 1538, 2013, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2552 ncomms2552.html Abstract: Despite tremendous efforts, precise control in the synthesis of porous materials with

  19. Carbon dioxide capture-related gas adsorption and separation in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    metal-organic frameworks | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Carbon dioxide capture-related gas adsorption and separation in metal-organic frameworks Previous Next List Jian-Rong Li, Yuguang Ma, M. Colin McCarthy, Julian Sculley, Jiamei Yu, Hae-Kwon Jeong, Perla B. Balbuena, Hong-Cai Zhou, Coord. Chem. Rev., 255, 1791-1823 (2011) DOI: 10.1016/j.ccr.2011.02.012 Abstract: Reducing anthropogenic CO2 emission and lowering the concentration of

  20. Confinement of Metal-Organic Polyhedra in Silica Nanopores | Center for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Confinement of Metal-Organic Polyhedra in Silica Nanopores Previous Next List Lin-Bing Sun, Jian-Rong Li, Weigang Lu, Zhi-Yuan Gu, Zhiping Luo, and Hong-Cai Zhou, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2012, 134 (38), pp 15923-15928 DOI: 10.1021/ja3063925 Abstract Image Abstract: Metal-organic polyhedra (MOPs) have been incorporated into silica nanopores for the first time. Three MOPs with identical geometries but different ligand

  1. Cooperative Template-Directed Assembly of Mesoporous Metal-Organic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frameworks | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Cooperative Template-Directed Assembly of Mesoporous Metal-Organic Frameworks Previous Next List Lin-Bing Sun, Jian-Rong Li, Jinhee Park, and Hong-Cai Zhou, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2012, 134 (1), pp 126-129 DOI: 10.1021/ja209698f Abstract Image Abstract: Despite great efforts, the development of a reliable way to assemble mesoporous metal-organic frameworks (mesoMOFs) remains a challenge. In this work,

  2. Design and Synthesis of Nucleobase-Incorporated Metal-Organic Materials |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Design and Synthesis of Nucleobase-Incorporated Metal-Organic Materials Previous Next List Zhang, Muwei; Lu, Weigang; Li, Jian-Rong; Bosch, Mathieu; Chen,Ying-Pin; Liu, Tian-Fu; Liu, Yangyang; Zhou, Hong-Cai. Design and Synthesis of Nucleobase-Incorporated Metal-Organic Materials. Inorg. Chem. Front., 1, 159-162 (2015). DOI: 10.1039/c3qi00042g design&synthesis Abstract: Two nucleobase-incorporated

  3. Design and synthesis of nucleobase-incorporated metal-organic materials |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Design and synthesis of nucleobase-incorporated metal-organic materials Previous Next List Muwei Zhang, Weigang Lu, Jian-Rong Li, Mathieu Bosch, Ying-Pin Chen, Tian-Fu Liu, Yangyang Liu and Hong-Cai Zhou, Inorg. Chem. Front., 1, 159-162 (2014) DOI: 10.1039/C3QI00042G GA Abstract: Two nucleobase-incorporated metal-organic materials were designed, synthesized and structurally characterized. PCN-530 is among the

  4. Hong-Cai (Joe) Zhou | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technologies | Blandine Jerome Hong-Cai (Joe) Zhou Previous Next List Hongcai (Joe) Zhou Hong-Cai (Joe) Zhou Professor of Chemistry, Texas A&M University Email: zhou [at] chem.tamu.edu Phone: 979-845-4034 EFRC research: Within the CGS, the Zhou group develops novel synthesis routes for MOFs and PPNs. EFRC publications: Wang, Kecheng; Lv, Xiu-Liang; Feng, Dawei; Li, Jian; Chen, Shuangming; Sun, Junliang; Song, Li; Xie, Yabo; Li, Jian-Rong; and Zhou, Hong-Cai. Pyrazolate-Based Porphyrinic

  5. Reversible Alteration of CO2 Adsorption upon Photochemical or Thermal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Treatment in a Metal-Organic Framework | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Reversible Alteration of CO2 Adsorption upon Photochemical or Thermal Treatment in a Metal-Organic Framework Previous Next List Jinhee Park , Daqiang Yuan , Khanh T. Pham , Jian-Rong Li , Andrey Yakovenko , and Hong-Cai Zhou, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2012, 134 (1), pp 99-102 DOI: 10.1021/ja209197f Abstract Image Abstract: A metal-organic framework (MOF) for reversible

  6. Tuning the Formations of Metal-Organic Frameworks by Modification of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ratio of Reactant, Acidity of Reaction System, and Use of a Secondary Ligand | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Tuning the Formations of Metal-Organic Frameworks by Modification of Ratio of Reactant, Acidity of Reaction System, and Use of a Secondary Ligand Previous Next List Qian Gao, Ya-Bo Xie, Jian-Rong Li, Da-Qiang Yuan, Audrey A. Yakovenko, Ji-Hong Sun, and Hong-Cai Zhou, Cryst. Growth Des., 2012, 12 (1), pp 281-288 DOI: 10.1021/cg201059d

  7. A Highly Porous and Robust (3,3,4)-Connected Metal-Organic Framework

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Assembled with a 90° Bridging-Angle Embedded Octacarboxylate Ligand | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Highly Porous and Robust (3,3,4)-Connected Metal-Organic Framework Assembled with a 90° Bridging-Angle Embedded Octacarboxylate Ligand Previous Next List Weigang Lu, Daqiang Yuan, Trevor A. Makal, Jian-Rong Li, Dr. Hong-Cai Zhou, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 51: 1580-1584 (2012) DOI: 10.1002/anie.201106615 Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

  8. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) (Conference) | SciTech Connect 2nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) These proceedings

  9. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Non-Proliferation Experiment: Results

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Implications for Test Ban Treaties, Rockville, Maryland, April 19-21, 1994 (Conference) | SciTech Connect Symposium on the Non-Proliferation Experiment: Results and Implications for Test Ban Treaties, Rockville, Maryland, April 19-21, 1994 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Proceedings of the Symposium on the Non-Proliferation Experiment: Results and Implications for Test Ban Treaties, Rockville, Maryland, April 19-21, 1994 To address a critical verification issue for the current

  10. State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    By the end of 2005, 25 states had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some state laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). Annual Energy Outlook 2006 assumes that all state MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

  11. Arms Control and nonproliferation technologies: Technology options and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban, Second quarter (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Control and nonproliferation technologies: Technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban, Second quarter Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Arms Control and nonproliferation technologies: Technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban, Second quarter This newsletter contains reprinted papers

  12. Uncertainty quantification for discrimination of nuclear events as

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    violations of the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Uncertainty quantification for discrimination of nuclear events as violations of the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty « Prev Next » Title: Uncertainty quantification for discrimination of nuclear events as violations of the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty Authors: Sloan, Jamison ; Sun, Yunwei Search DOE PAGES for author "Sun, Yunwei" Search DOE PAGES for ORCID

  13. Impact of Renewable Fuels Standard/MTBE Provisions of S. 517 Requested by Sens. Daschle & Murkowski

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    Additional analysis of the impact of the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban provisions of S. 517.

  14. The search for an underground nuclear test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, David

    2015-02-15

    In a month-long exercise, the on-site inspection capabilities of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization were put to the test.

  15. Long-Term Changes in Gas- and Particle-Phase Emissions from On...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon deer07ban-weiss.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES): Phase 2 Status Report Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) DOE's ...

  16. Readout on Today's Meeting Between U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon | Department of Energy on Today's Meeting Between U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu and U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon Readout on Today's Meeting Between U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu and U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon June 5, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis On the occasion of World Environment Day, U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu and United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon met today in Washington to discuss progress on energy and climate issues. The

  17. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    this year. Companies decisions to eliminate MTBE have been driven by State bans due to water contamination concerns, continuing liability exposure from adding MTBE to gasoline,...

  18. Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    in 2006. Companies' decisions to eliminate MTBE have been driven by State bans due to water contamination concerns, continuing liability exposure from adding MTBE to gasoline,...

  19. MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY FROM: SUBJECT: ARUNAVA MAJUMDAR

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    implemented appropriate process improvements and procedures to assure no contaminated material is inadvertently released. Continuation of the suspension policy, which bans...

  20. Livermore scientist, engineers train to be inspectors for test...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    scientist, engineers train to be inspectors for test ban treaty organization | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing...

  1. A new era of nuclear test verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auer, Matthias; Prior, Mark K.

    2014-09-01

    The global network of sensors commissioned to monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has proven capable of that task and more.

  2. NNSA Labs host U.S. and Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Head of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) Preparatory Commission Visits NNSA's Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) for First Time NNSA sites take home 15...

  3. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Petroleum, companies decisions to eliminate MTBE have been driven by State bans due to water contamination concerns and the potential for increased liability exposure due to the...

  4. Bay Area national labs team to tackle long-standing automotive...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Head of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) Preparatory Commission Visits NNSA's Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) for First Time NNSA sites take home 15...

  5. Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In addition to banning the export of elemental mercury from the United States as of January 1, 2013, the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (MEBA) required DOE to establish a facility for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury.

  6. Readout on Today's Meeting Between U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu and

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon | Department of Energy On the occasion of World Environment Day, U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu and United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon met today in Washington to discuss progress on energy and climate issues. The two leaders agreed on the global nature of our energy, climate and economic challenges, and the urgent need for action to address them. Secretary Chu and Secretary-General Ban reviewed opportunities for international cooperation and

  7. Readout on Today's Meeting Between U.S. Energy Secretary Steven...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The two leaders agreed on the global nature of our energy, climate and economic challenges, and the urgent need for action to address them. Secretary Chu and Secretary-General Ban ...

  8. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    by Author Zheng, Y. (216) Ban, Y. (183) Gao, Y. (183) Ma, T. (183) Wang, Z. (183) Yang, Y. (181) Chen, H. S. (175) Wang, M. (172) Liu, H. (151) Huang, X. T. (148) Wang, D....

  9. Search for: All records | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    O. ; Ambrose, D. J. ; An, F. F. ; An, Q. ; Bai, J. Z. ; Ban, Y. ; Becker, J. ; Bennett, J. V. ; et al Full Text Available March 2013, American Physical Society Evidence for...

  10. High-Rate, High-Capacity Binder-Free Electrode

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC High-Rate, High-Capacity Binder-Free Electrode Patent: PCT-09-41 Chunmei Ban ...

  11. Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... In 2006, the Gulf of Mexico Energy Security Act imposed yet a third ban on drilling through 2022 on tracts in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico that are within 125 miles of Florida, east ...

  12. President Reagan Calls for a National Spent Fuel Storage Facility...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    The Reagan Administration announces a nuclear energy policy that anticipates the establishment of a facility for the storage of high-level radioactive waste and lifts the ban on ...

  13. Statement from Secretary Moniz on the Occasion of the 2015 Conference on

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Facilitating Entry into Force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty | Department of Energy NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 In 1992, the United States government voluntarily implemented a moratorium on nuclear explosive testing-a policy that has been observed ever since, by four presidential administrations, both Democrat and Republican. Four years later, the United States was the first country to sign the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) when it opened for signature.

  14. Impact of Limitations on Access to Oil and Natural Gas Resources in the Federal Outer Continental Shelf (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. offshore is estimated to contain substantial resources of both crude oil and natural gas, but until recently some of the areas of the lower 48 states Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) have been under leasing moratoria. The Presidential ban on offshore drilling in portions of the lower 48 OCS was lifted in July 2008, and the Congressional ban was allowed to expire in September 2008, removing regulatory obstacles to development of the Atlantic and Pacific OCS.

  15. Effect of coal and coke qualities on blast furnace injection and productivity at Taranto

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M.; Eichinger, F.; Rafi, M.

    1995-12-01

    Injection rates at Taranto blast furnaces Nos. 2 and 4, for more than 16 months, was maintained above 175 kg/thm. Monthly average injection rate for two months stabilized above 190 kg/thm. This performance was possible due to the very high combined availabilities of Taranto blast furnaces and the KST injection system. Based upon this experience the quantitative relationships between coke/coal and blast furnace operational parameters were studied and are shown graphically. During this period due to coke quality changes, injection rate had to be reduced. The effect of using coke breeze in coke/ferrous charge as well as coal blend was also evaluated. Permeability of the furnace was found to be directly affected by O{sub 2} enrichment level, while at a high PCI rate no correlation between actual change in coke quality and permeability could be established. The future of PCI technology lies in better understanding of relationships between material specifications and blast furnace parameters of which permeability is of prime importance.

  16. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Mathematics --

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy, science, and technology for the research community -- hosted by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Department of Energy B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Bahrami, Majid (Majid Bahrami) - School of Engineering Science, Simon Fraser University Ban, Xuegang "Jeff" (Xuegang "Jeff" Ban) - Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Barkan, Christopher P.L. (Christopher P.L. Barkan) -

  17. On the increase of the non-uniform scaling of the magnetic field variations before the M{sub w}9.0 earthquake in Japan in 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skordas, E. S.

    2014-06-01

    By applying Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) to the time series of the geomagnetic data recorded at three measuring stations in Japan, Rong et al. in 2012 recently reported that anomalous magnetic field variations were identified well before the occurrence of the disastrous Tohoku M{sub w}9.0 earthquake that occurred on 11 March 2011 in Japan exhibiting increased non-uniform scaling behavior. Here, we provide an explanation for the appearance of this increase of non-uniform scaling on the following grounds: These magnetic field variations are the ones that accompany the electric field variations termed Seismic Electric Signals (SES) activity which have been repeatedly reported that precede major earthquakes. DFA as well as multifractal DFA reveal that the latter electric field variations exhibit scaling behavior as shown by analyzing SES activities observed before major earthquakes in Greece. Hence, when these variations are superimposed on a background of pseudosinusoidal trend, their long range correlation propertiesquantified by DFAare affected resulting in an increase of the non-uniform scaling behavior. The same is expected to hold for the former magnetic field variations. This explanation is strengthened by recent findings showing that the fluctuations of the order parameter of seismicity exhibited an unprecedented minimum almost two months before the Tohoku earthquake occurrence which is characteristic for an almost simultaneous emission of Seismic Electric Signals activity.

  18. WOSMIP II- Workshop on Signatures of Medical and Industrial Isotope Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, Murray; Achim, Pascal; Auer, M.; Bell, Randy; Bowyer, Ted W.; Braekers, Damien; Bradley, Ed; Briyatmoko, Budi; Berglund, Helena; Camps, Johan; Carranza, Eduardo C.; Carty, Fitz; DeCaire, Richard; Deconninck, Benoit; DeGeer, Lars E.; Druce, Michael; Friese, Judah I.; Hague, Robert; Hoffman, Ian; Khrustalev, Kirill; Lucas, John C.; Mattassi, G.; Mattila, Aleski; Nava, Elisabetta; Nikkinin, Mika; Papastefanou, Constantin; Piefer, Gregory R.; Quintana, Eduardo; Ross, Ole; Rotty, Michel; Sabzian, Mohammad; Saey, Paul R.; Sameh, A. A.; Safari, M.; Schoppner, Michael; Siebert, Petra; Unger, Klaus K.; Vargas, Albert

    2011-11-01

    Medical and industrial fadioisotopes are fundamental tools used in science, medicine and industry with an ever expanding usage in medical practice where their availability is vital. Very sensitive environmental radionuclide monitoring networks have been developed for nuclear-security-related monitoring [particularly Comprehensive Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) compliance verification] and are now operational.

  19. Exporting Alaskan North Slope crude oil: Benefits and costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy study examines the effects of lifting the current prohibitions against the export of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) crude. The study concludes that permitting exports would benefit the US economy. First, lifting the ban would expand the markets in which ANS oil can be sold, thereby increasing its value. ANS oil producers, the States of California and Alaska, and some of their local governments all would benefit from increased revenues. Permitting exports also would generate new economic activity and employment in California and Alaska. The study concludes that these economic benefits would be achieved without increasing gasoline prices (either in California or in the nation as a whole). Lifting the export ban could have important implications for US maritime interests. The Merchant Marine Act of 1970 (known as the Jones Act) requires all inter-coastal shipments to be carried on vessels that are US-owned, US-crewed, and US-built. By limiting the shipment of ANS crude to US ports only, the export ban creates jobs for the seafarers and the builders of Jones Act vessels. Because the Jones Act does not apply to exports, however, lifting the ban without also changing US maritime law would jeopardize the jobs associated with the current fleet of Jones Act tankers. Therefore the report analyzes selected economic impacts of several maritime policy alternatives, including: Maintaining current law, which allows foreign tankers to carry oil where export is allowed; requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on Jones Act vessels; and requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on vessels that are US-owned and US-crewed, but not necessarily US-built. Under each of these options, lifting the export ban would generate economic benefits.

  20. International environmental justice: Geo-political implications of the Basel agreement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padgett, D.

    1995-12-01

    The 1994 Basel Convention concluded with a historical agreement to immediately ban the export of hazardous wastes for disposal from member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to non-OECD nations. The OECD nations account for approximately 98 percent of the world`s toxic waste generation. As of December 31, 1997, exports of wastes for recycling will be illegal. For many years, industrialized nations have shipped hazardous wastes to developing nations under the guise of recycling. The ban will make 90 percent of current shipments unlawful. The United States was among the industrialized OCED nations declining to partake in the agreement. In March 1994, the Waste Export and Import Control Act was introduced to Congress by a concerned coalition of Representatives. The bill would ban all exports of toxic wastes except to those nations. Critics have argued that the nature of the Agreement makes it unenforceable under certain conditions. Applied geographical techniques are employed to reveal regions where the effectiveness of the waste ban may be challenged. Formulas are developed to determine the cost-benefit ratio for non-OECD nations involved in significant levels of toxic waste trade. Political and historical analyses are applied in order to clarify the U.S. opposition to the ban. A list of predictions is offered with the future of hazardous waste transhipments within the context of the world`s ever-changing geo-political sphere. Suggestions for improving the effectiveness and enforceability of the Basel Agreement are offered for discussion.

  1. Comparison of Radionuclide Ratios in Atmospheric Nuclear Explosions and Nuclear Releases from Chernobyl and Fukushima seen in Gamma Ray Spectormetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friese, Judah I.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Lucas, Dawn D.

    2013-05-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) has remote radionuclide monitoring followed by an On Site Inspection (OSI) to clarify the nature of a suspect event. An important aspect of radionuclide measurements on site is the discrimination of other potential sources of similar radionuclides such as reactor accidents or medical isotope production. The Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear reactor disasters offer two different reactor source term environmental inputs that can be compared against historical measurements of nuclear explosions. The comparison of whole-sample gamma spectrometry measurements from these three events and the analysis of similarities and differences are presented. This analysis is a step toward confirming what is needed for measurements during an OSI under the auspices of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

  2. Lead-based paint assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorie, C.; Cowdery, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    In 1977, The US consumer product safety commission banned the use of lead-based paint (LBP) in all industries, except the maritime industry which still has certain privileged uses. Unfortunately for property and building owners, the ban did not come soon enough. In response to this heightened awareness, several environmental market sectors addressing the issues have emerged. These include: residential; soil; commercial; water; and structures. The first and most important step in addressing the concerns posed by the existence of lead based contamination is to quantify the amount of lead-based product, to determine the location of the lead based product and the extent, if any, of lead based contamination, and to make recommendations for the remediation or abatement of the lead product and resultant contamination. In narrowing the focus of these issues, this paper discusses lead-based paint assessment; preparing and organizing the assessment, the regulatory considerations, assessment methodology, and presentation of results.

  3. Web Application Design Using Server-Side JavaScript

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hampton, J.; Simons, R.

    1999-02-01

    This document describes the application design philosophy for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Research & Development Web Site. This design incorporates object-oriented techniques to produce a flexible and maintainable system of applications that support the web site. These techniques will be discussed at length along with the issues they address. The overall structure of the applications and their relationships with one another will also be described. The current problems and future design changes will be discussed as well.

  4. Update of Summer Reformulated Gasoline Supply Assessment for New York and Connecticut

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01

    In October 2003, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) published a review of the status of the methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban transition in New York (NY) and Connecticut (CT) that noted significant uncertainties in gasoline supply for those states for the summer of 2004. To obtain updated information, EIA spoke to major suppliers to the two states over the past several months as the petroleum industry began the switch from winter- to summer-grade gasoline.

  5. QER- Comment of Diane Kolakoski 1

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    I am opposed to proposed pipeline. It is wrong to take private and protected land for the profit of a polluting, greedy private industry and require us to pay the bill through a proposed tariff. Money should be spent instead on conserving energy and renewable energy. No to fracking. No to environmentally damaging corporations. Stay out of Deerfield. Out of Massachusetts. Ban fracking altogether. Diane Kolakoski

  6. Cisco Systems Funds "Whisker" Growth Research at the ALS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cisco Systems Funds "Whisker" Growth Research at the ALS Print Lead-free components have been increasingly used in electronics manufacturing since the European Union passed its 2003 Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS), which banned the use of certain hazardous materials in electrical and electronic equipment. To ensure the long-term reliability of mission-critical equipment such as networking hardware, a significant amount of research and development must be undertaken

  7. Preliminary report on LLNL mine seismicity deployment at the Twentymile Coal Mine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter, W.R.; Hunter, S.L.; Glenn, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the preliminary results of a just completed experiment at the Twentymile Coal Mine, operated by the Cyprus Amax Coal Company near Oak Creek, CO. The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data from roof caves associated with long-wall mining activities and to use this data to help determine the effectiveness with which these events can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions under a future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

  8. MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline Contents * Introduction * Federal gasoline product quality regulations * What are oxygenates? * Who gets gasoline with oxygenates? * Which areas get MTBE? * How much has been invested in MTBE production capacity? * What does new Ethanol capacity cost? * What would an MTBE ban cost? * On-line information resources * Endnotes * Summary of revisions to this analysis Introduction The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased

  9. BetterBuildings: Data and Evaluation Peer Exchange Call Data Aggregation Strategies for Evaluation and Reporting, June 9, 2011

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9, 2011 BetterBuildings: Data and Evaluation Peer Exchange Call Data Aggregation Strategies for Evaluation and Reporting * Austin Energy * San Jose * Maine * Sustainability Institute, Charleston SC * Santa Barbara County * Michigan Attendees Notes * Utility won't share data, contractors banned from sharing information (privacy concerns) but can contract homeowner  Program has set installation packages, will have receipt from utility  CA may offer rebates to homeowners to incent them to

  10. MRAP MONTICELLO PROJECTS FEDERAL FACILITY AGREEMENT REPORT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    MRAP MONTICELLO PROJECTS FEDERAL FACILITY AGREEMENT REPORT May/June 2005 Report Period: May 1 -June 30, 2005 DOE Project Coordinator: Art Kleinrath HIGHLIGHTS DOE constmction, as identified in the Millsite Restoration Plan, was substantially completed on June 3. Seeding of disturbed areas was completed on June 15. MSG DOE completed constmction of the permeable reactive treatment cell and initiated operations in June. The cell is an enhancement to the existing pe1meable reactive ban*ier and was

  11. U.S. President Bill Clinton,

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    " Today, I am announcing my decision to negotiate a true zero-yield comprehensive test ban. " U.S. President Bill Clinton, August 11, 1995 The Path Forward 8 Timeline of U.S. Stockpile Stewardship Innovation 7 Global Nuclear Security 6 Science: Research, Development, and Technology 4 Transitioning to Stockpile Stewardship 3 Test-Based Stewardship and the Cold War 2 Presidential Decisions on Stockpile Stewardship 1 Deterrence and the Life Extension Program 5 The National Defense

  12. Commercial Nuclear Reprocessing in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherrill, Charles Leland; Balatsky, Galya Ivanovna

    2015-09-09

    The short presentation outline: Reprocessing Overview; Events leading up to Carter’s Policy; Results of the decision; Policy since Nuclear Nonproliferation Act. Conclusions reached: Reprocessing ban has become an easy and visible fix to the public concern about proliferation, but has not completely stopped proliferation; and, Reprocessing needs to become detached from political considerations, so technical research can continue, regardless of the policy decisions we decide to take.

  13. Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-16

    Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

  14. The Honorable Ernest Moniz

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Honorable Ernest Moniz Secretary of Energy United States Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 7901 \Nest Mar r'!s Street Indianapolis, indiana 46231 VIA ELECTRONIC MAIL TO The.Secretarv@hg.doe.gov ORIGINAL TO FOLLOW BY US POSTAL SERVICE December 12, 2014 Re: Notification Under Section S(g)(2)(B) of Public Law No. 110- 414, The Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 Dear Mr. Secretary: The purpose of this letter is to provide you with a notification,. in accordance with

  15. NREL Bolsters Batteries with Nanotubes - News Feature | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Bolsters Batteries with Nanotubes June 11, 2014 This photo shows a scientist in a white lab coat and with her right arm in a glove box. The glove box has a busy collection of plastic containers. Enlarge image NREL Scientist Chunmei Ban assembles a lithium-ion battery in the materials lab at the Solar Energy Research Facility at NREL. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL Researchers at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are turning to extremely tiny tubes and rods

  16. STARS no star on Kauai

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, M.

    1993-04-01

    The island of Kuai, home to the Pacific Missile Range Facility, is preparing for the first of a series of Star Wars rocket launches expected to begin early this year. The Strategic Defense Initiative plans 40 launches of the Stategic Target System (STARS) over a 10-year period. The focus of the tests appears to be weapons and sensors designed to combat multiple-warhead ICBMs, which will be banned under the START II Treaty that was signed in January. The focus of this article is to express the dubious value of testing the STARS at a time when their application will not be an anticipated problem.

  17. PUBL414.PS

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2 STAT. 4341 PUBLIC LAW 110-414-OCT. 14, 2008 Public Law 110-414 110th Congress An Act To prohibit the sale, distribution, transfer, and export of elemental mercury, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE. This Act may be cited as the ''Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008''. SEC. 2. FINDINGS. Congress finds that- (1) mercury is highly toxic to humans, ecosystems, and wildlife; (2)

  18. Distribution of neptunium and plutonium in New Mexico lichen samples (Usnea arizonica) contaminated by atmospheric fallout

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Oldham, Jr., Warren J.; Hanson, Susan K.; Lavelle, Kevin B.; Miller, Jeffrey L.

    2015-08-30

    In this study, the concentrations of 237Np, 239Pu and 240Pu were determined in lichen samples (Usnea arizonica) that were collected from ten locations in New Mexico between 2011 and 2013 using isotope dilution inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS). The observed isotopic ratios for 237Np/239Pu and 240Pu/239Pu indicate trace contamination from global and regional fallout (e.g. Trinity test and atmospheric testing at the Nevada Test Site). The fact that actinide contamination is detected in recent lichen collections suggests continuous re-suspension of fallout radionuclides even 50 years after ratification of the Limited Test Ban Treaty.

  19. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    golden anniversary for space-based treaty verification October 22, 2013 Los Alamos celebrates 50-year anniversary of launch of first pair of 'Watchmen' LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Oct. 22, 2013-Fifty years ago this month, Los Alamos National Laboratory sensor technology lifted off into space to help verify that world Superpowers were abiding by the newly signed Limited Test Ban Treaty-a pledge by the United States, the former Soviet Union and the United Kingdom to refrain from testing nuclear weapons in

  20. 3-D Earth model more accurately pinpoints explosions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3-D Earth model more accurately pinpoints explosions 3-D Earth model more accurately pinpoints explosions The purpose of this model is to assist the U.S. Air Force and the international Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization with more accurately locating all types of explosions. October 25, 2013 A one-dimensional velocity profile with depth plotted within a three-dimensional Earth. The colors are compressional wave velocity in km/s. The rays are examples coming from a pseudo station

  1. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Big Hole Drilling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Big Hole Drilling NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Big Hole Drilling The need to drill large-diameter holes at the Nevada National Security Site resulted from the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), signed by President John F. Kennedy in Moscow on August 5, 1963. The LTBT prohibited testing nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, underwater and in outer space. As a result, scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy weapons laboratories had to relocate all

  2. High-Rate, High-Capacity Binder-Free Electrode

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC High-Rate, High-Capacity Binder-Free Electrode Patent: PCT-09-41 Chunmei Ban Zhuangchun Wu Anne Dillon National Renewable Energy Laboratory PCT: 09-41 Binderfree electrode 2 Outline  What is the technology  Why it is better than other technologies  How far away from market  Technical details  Market analysis National Renewable Energy Laboratory PCT: 09-41 Binderfree electrode 3

  3. Hyperion 5113/A Infrasound Sensor Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merchant, Bion John

    2015-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated an infrasound sensor, the 5113/A manufactured by Hyperion. These infrasound sensors measure pressure output by a methodology developed by the University of Mississippi. The purpose of the infrasound sensor evaluation was to determine a measured sensitivity, transfer function, power, self-noise, and dynamic range. The 5113/A infrasound sensor is a new revision of the 5000 series intended to meet the infrasound application requirements for use in the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO).

  4. Hardware design document for the Infrasound Prototype for a CTBT IMS station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breding, D.R.; Kromer, R.P.; Whitaker, R.W.; Sandoval, T.

    1997-11-01

    The Hardware Design Document (HDD) describes the various hardware components used in the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) Infrasound Prototype and their interrelationships. It divides the infrasound prototype into hardware configurations items (HWCIs). The HDD uses techniques such as block diagrams and parts lists to present this information. The level of detail provided in the following sections should be sufficient to allow potential users to procure and install the infrasound system. Infrasonic monitoring is a low cost, robust, and effective technology for detecting atmospheric explosions. Low frequencies from explosion signals propagate to long ranges (few thousand kilometers) where they can be detected with an array of sensors.

  5. Introduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    July 26, 1957, a safety experiment called Pascal-A was detonated in an underground hole at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), now known as the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The test, although successful, brought the issue of drilling to the forefront. The need to drill large-diameter holes at the NTS resulted from the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), signed by President John F. Kennedy in Moscow on August 5, 1963. The LTBT prohibited testing nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, underwater, and in

  6. 3-D Earth model more accurately pinpoints explosions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3-D Earth model more accurately pinpoints explosions 3-D Earth model more accurately pinpoints explosions The purpose of this model is to assist the U.S. Air Force and the international Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization with more accurately locating all types of explosions. October 25, 2013 A one-dimensional velocity profile with depth plotted within a three-dimensional Earth. The colors are compressional wave velocity in km/s. The rays are examples coming from a pseudo station

  7. A golden anniversary for space-based treaty verification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A golden anniversary for space-based treaty verification A golden anniversary for space-based treaty verification Fifty years ago this month, LANL sensor technology lifted off into space to help verify that world Superpowers were abiding by the newly signed Limited Test Ban Treaty. October 22, 2013 Los Alamos National Laboratory researcher Richard Belian performs a final check of the Vela V-B satellite prior to its launch in April 1970. Vela V-B was the last of the Vela twin satellites launched

  8. R. S. Driof, Process Demlopnant Dranch, Production Division

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    S. Driof, Process Demlopnant Dranch, Production Division 7 i 7; I; $ " k>JSTI'IC AT TIE Cif~iICAL CCNSTXICTIOS COXi'O+TIO:? P$IX)T PIGIT-JUL'I 31, 19% Chemico ban fouzd tw proossses, b&h involving the initial H2SOl lwc:?, sutisfoctory. On.3 process (rerun) produces a U-Cu precipitate r&ich is ralsachad; the U and Cu can ba s+paratzd by various nothods. The second process (sts~~~ise) ?rucipitn?es co?ps~ and thee uranium. &j- ditioml 1abnretorJ xork is being dona so that thase

  9. MB3a Infrasound Sensor Evaluation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merchant, Bion J.; McDowell, Kyle D.

    2014-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated a new infrasound sensor, the MB3a, manufactured by Seismo Wave. These infrasound sensors measure pressure output by a methodology developed by researchers at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and the technology was recently licensed to Seismo Wave for production and sales. The purpose of the infrasound sensor evaluation was to determine a measured sensitivity, transfer function, power, self-noise, dynamic range, seismic sensitivity, and self- calibration ability. The MB3a infrasound sensors are being evaluated for potential use in the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty Organization (CTBTO).

  10. Stratospheric ozone protection: The Montreal Protocol and Title VI of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babst, C.R. III

    1993-08-01

    The stratospheric ozone layer protects the surface of the Earth from harmful ultraviolet (UV-B) radiation, which has been causally linked to skin cancer and cataracts, suppression of the human immune system, damage to crops and aquatic organisms, the formation of ground-level zone and the rapid weathering of outdoor plastics. In recent years, scientists have observed a significant deterioration of the ozone layer, particularly over the poles, but increasingly over populated regions as well. This deterioration has been attributed to the atmospheric release of certain man-made halocarbons, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. Once used extensively as propellants for aerosol sprays (but generally banned for such purposes since 1978), CFCs are widely used today as refrigerants, foams and solvents. All of these chlorinated (CFC, methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride) and brominated (halon) compounds are classified for regulatory purposes as Class I substances because of their significant ozone-depleting potential. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), developed as alternatives to CFCs and halons for many different applications, have been classified for regulatory purposes as Class II substances because of their relatively less destructive impact on stratospheric ozone. This paper describes the following regulations to reduce destruction of the ozone layer: the Montreal Protocol; Title VI of the Clean air Act Amendments of 1990; Accelerated Phase-out schedules developed by the countries which signed the Montreal Protocol; Use restrictions; Recycling and Emission reduction requirements; Servicing of motor vehicle air conditions; ban on nonessential products; labeling requirements; safe alternatives. 6 refs.

  11. Regulations Related to the Outer Continental Shelf Moratoria and Implications of Not Renewing the Moratoria (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    From 1982 through 2008, Congress annually enacted appropriations riders prohibiting the Minerals Management Service (MMS) of the U.S. Department of the Interior from conducting activities related to leasing, exploration, and production of oil and natural gas on much of the federal Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). Further, a separate executive ban (originally put in place in 1990 by President George H.W. Bush and later extended by President William J. Clinton through 2012) also prohibited leasing on the OCS, with the exception of the Western Gulf of Mexico, portions of the Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico, and Alaska. In combination, those actions prohibited drilling along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, and in portions of the central Gulf of Mexico. The Gulf of Mexico Energy Security Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-432) imposed yet a third ban on drilling through 2022 on tracts in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico that are within 125 miles of Florida, east of a dividing line known as the Military Mission Line, and in the Central Gulf of Mexico within 100 miles of Florida.

  12. The earth is in your hands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Browner, C.M.

    1995-08-01

    Earth Day 25 is a time to reflect on how mankind is doing in protecting their environment. Twenty-five years ago, in the wake of the first Earth Day, the US has created, virtually from scratch, the most advanced system of environmental protection in the world. In the course of a very short history--a mere quarter-century--man has made tremendous progress. Their skies and rivers are cleaner. And US environmental expertise and technology are in demand throughout the world. In the years since the first Earth Day, EPA banned lead in gasoline, lowering lead levels in the air by more than 90 percent and protecting millions of children from harm. Dangerous and widely used pesticides were banned. Unsafe local garbage dumps all over the nation were closed and recycling has become a household habit. American towns have been provided with substantial funding for wastewater treatment--the second biggest public works effort in US history, resulting in cleaner rivers all over the US. All cars and trucks now have standards for fuel economy, set by EPA, that allow consumers to choose a car for its energy efficiency. And EPA has played an important role in ensuring that companies and others comply with their environmental laws or face stiff penalties. Perhaps most important, the nation has gained a new understanding. More Americans than ever understand that to ensure a good quality of life they must act as responsible stewards of their air, their water, and their land.

  13. Software enhancements to the IVSEM model of the CTBTO IMS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damico, Joseph P.

    2011-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) developed the Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model (IVSEM) to estimate the performance of the International Monitoring System (IMS) operated by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). IVSEM was developed in several phases between 1995 and 2000. The model was developed in FORTRAN with an IDL-based user interface and was compiled for Windows and UNIX operating systems. Continuing interest in this analysis capability, coupled with numerous advances in desktop computer hardware and software since IVSEM was written, enabled significant improvements to IVSEM run-time performance and data analysis capabilities. These improvements were implemented externally without modifying the FORTRAN executables, which had been previously verified. This paper describes the parallelization approach developed to significantly reduce IVSEM run-times and the new test setup and analysis tools developed to facilitate better IVSEM operation.

  14. Future prospects for compression ignition fuel in California : fuel-related implications of possible pathways to mitigation of public health threats.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberhardt, J. J.; Rote, D. M.; Saricks, C. L.; Stodolsky, F.

    1999-04-08

    This paper documents methods and results of an investigation of the options for and year 2010 consequences of possible new limitations on the use of diesel fuel in California, USA. California's Air Resources Board will undertake a risk management process to determine steps necessary to protect the health and safety of the public from carcinogenic species resident on diesel combustion exhaust particles. Environmental activist groups continue to call for the elimination of diesel fuel in California and other populous states. It is the declared intention of CARB not to ban or restrict diesel fuel, per se, at this time. Thus, two ''mid-course'' strategies now appear feasible: (1) Increased penetration of natural gas, LPG, and possibly lower alcohols into the transportation fuels market, to the extent that some Cl applications would revert to spark-ignition (SI) engines. (2) New specifications requiring diesel fuel reformulation based on more detailed investigation of exhaust products of individual diesel fuel constituents.

  15. How Common are Noise Sources on the Crash Arc of Malaysian Flight 370

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenimore, Edward E.; Kunkle, Thomas David; Stead, Richard J.

    2014-10-21

    Malaysian Flight 370 disappeared nearly without a trace. Besides some communication handshakes to the INMASAT satellite, the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty monitoring system could have heard the aircraft crash into the southern Indian Ocean. One noise event from Cape Leeuwin has been suggested by Stead as the crash and occurs within the crash location suggested by Kunkle at el. We analyze the hydrophone data from Cape Leeuwin to understand how common such noise events are on the arc of possible locations where Malaysian Flight 370 might have crashed. Few other noise sources were found on the arc. The noise event found by Stead is the strongest. No noise events are seen within the Australian Transportation Safety Board (ATSB) new search location until the 10th strongest event, an event which is very close to the noise level.

  16. Evaluation of Two Guralp Preamplifiers for GS21 Seismometer Application.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merchant, Bion J.; Slad, George William

    2015-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated two Guralp preamplifiers for use with a GS21 seismometer application. The two preamplifiers have a gain factor of 61.39. The purpose of the preamplifier evaluation was to determine a measured gain factor, transfer function, total harmonic distortion, self-noise, application passband, dynamic range, seismometer calibration pass-through, and to comment on any issues encountered during the evaluation. The test results included in this report were in response to static, tonal, and dynamic input signals. The Guralp GS21 preamplifiers are being evaluated for potential use in the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty Organization (CTBTO). Test methodologies used were based on IEEE Standards 1057 for Digitizing Waveform Recorders and 1241 for Analog to Digital Converters

  17. Parallel Radioisotope Collection and Analysis in Response to the Fukushima Release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, Vincent T.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Biegalski, S.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Miley, Harry S.; Morris, Scott J.

    2013-05-01

    Two independent air samplers were operated at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in parallel during the collection of samples from the Fukushima reactor releases. One system is an automated aerosol collection and analysis unit, while the other was a manual sampler of higher daily air volume. The samples collected each day showed excellent correlation in radionuclide activity, although some variations were seen. These variations illustrate the reproducibility of the air sample radionuclide measurements made by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty International Monitoring System (IMS) and show a simple way to acquire useful parallel samples for scientific purposes. In particular, a party wishing to have a “copy” of a sample acquired by the verification regime of the treaty could employ this method and have results similar to the IMS station at low cost and even higher sensitivity.

  18. Distribution of neptunium and plutonium in New Mexico lichen samples (Usnea arizonica) contaminated by atmospheric fallout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldham, Jr., Warren J.; Hanson, Susan K.; Lavelle, Kevin B.; Miller, Jeffrey L.

    2015-08-30

    In this study, the concentrations of 237Np, 239Pu and 240Pu were determined in lichen samples (Usnea arizonica) that were collected from ten locations in New Mexico between 2011 and 2013 using isotope dilution inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS). The observed isotopic ratios for 237Np/239Pu and 240Pu/239Pu indicate trace contamination from global and regional fallout (e.g. Trinity test and atmospheric testing at the Nevada Test Site). The fact that actinide contamination is detected in recent lichen collections suggests continuous re-suspension of fallout radionuclides even 50 years after ratification of the Limited Test Ban Treaty.

  19. Mine locations: Kazakhstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, Bradley A

    2008-01-01

    Upon accepting this internship at Los Alamos National Laboratory, I was excited but a bit nervous because I was placed into a field I knew nothing about and did not incorporate my mechanical engineering background. However, I stayed positive and realized that experience and education can come in many forms and that this would be a once in a lifetime opportunity. The EES-II Division (which stands for Earth and Environmental Sciences, Geophysics division) concentrates on several topics, including Nuclear Treaty Verification Seismology. The study of this is extremely important in order to monitor countries that have nuclear capability and make sure they follow the rules of the international comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty. Seismology is only one aspect of this monitoring and EES-II works diligently with many other groups here at Los Alamos and across the world.

  20. Arms control and nonproliferation technologies: The non-proliferation experiment. First quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staehle, G.; Stull, S.; Talaber, C.

    1994-05-01

    In this issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies we present the initial findings of the recent Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), conducted by the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site. Through an introduction and pictorial walk-through, Marv Denny and Jay Zucca of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory describe the overall experiment. This is followed by scientific and technical abstracts of the complex suite of experiments and analyses, which were presented at the Symposium on Non-Proliferation Experiment Results and Implications for Test Ban Treaties, April 19--21, 1994. Questions regarding the ongoing analysis and conclusions from the NPE should be directed to Leslie Casey in the Office of Research and Development within the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security of DOE. Her phone number is 202-586-2151.

  1. Special lecture in memory of Glenn Theodore Seaborg (19 April 1912 - 25 February 1999) Glenn T. Seaborg's multi-faceted career

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Darleane C.

    2001-11-01

    Glenn Theodore Seaborg (1912-1999) was a world-renowned nuclear chemist, a Nobel Laureate in chemistry in 1951, co-discoverer of plutonium and nine other transuranium elements, Chairman of the US Atomic Energy Commission from 1961-71, scientific advisor to ten US presidents, active in national and international professional societies, an advocate for nuclear power as well as for a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty, a prolific writer, an avid hiker, environmentalist, and sports enthusiast. He was known and esteemed not only by chemists and other scientists throughout the world, but also by lay people, politicians, statesmen, and students of all ages. This memorial includes a brief glimpse of Glenn Seaborg's early life and education, describes some of his major contributions to nuclear science over his long and fruitful career, and highlights his profound influence on nuclear science, both in the US and in the international community.

  2. IDC Re-Engineering Phase 2 System Requirements Document V1.3.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, James M.; Burns, John F.; Satpathi, Meara Allena

    2015-12-01

    This System Requirements Document (SRD) defines waveform data processing requirements for the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). The IDC applies, on a routine basis, automatic processing methods and interactive analysis to raw International Monitoring System (IMS) data in order to produce, archive, and distribute standard IDC products on behalf of all States Parties. The routine processing includes characterization of events with the objective of screening out events considered to be consistent with natural phenomena or non-nuclear, man-made phenomena. This document does not address requirements concerning acquisition, processing and analysis of radionuclide data but includes requirements for the dissemination of radionuclide data and products.

  3. Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-13

    This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

  4. Special Lecture in Memory of Glenn Theodore Seaborg (19 April 1912 - 25 February 1999) Glenn T. Seaborg's Multi-faceted Career

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Darleane C.

    2001-11-01

    Glenn Theodore Seaborg (1912-1999) was a world-renowned nuclear chemist, a Nobel Laureate in chemistry in 1951, co-discoverer of plutonium and nine other transuranium elements, Chairman of the US Atomic Energy Commission from 1961-71, scientific advisor to ten US presidents, active in national and international professional societies, an advocate for nuclear power as well as for a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty, a prolific writer, an avid hiker, environmentalist, and sports enthusiast. He was known and esteemed not only by chemists and other scientists throughout the world, but also by lay people, politicians, statesmen, and students of all ages. This memorial includes a brief glimpse of Glenn Seaborg's early life and education, describes some of his major contributions to nuclear science over his long and fruitful career, and highlights his profound influence on nuclear science, both in the US and in the international community.

  5. Scope and verification of a Fissile Material (Cutoff) Treaty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hippel, Frank N. von

    2014-05-09

    A Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT) would ban the production of fissile material - in practice highly-enriched uranium and separated plutonium - for weapons. It has been supported by strong majorities in the United Nations. After it comes into force, newly produced fissile materials could only be produced under international - most likely International Atomic Energy Agency - monitoring. Many non-weapon states argue that the treaty should also place under safeguards pre-existing stocks of fissile material in civilian use or declared excess for weapons so as to make nuclear-weapons reductions irreversible. This paper discusses the scope of the FMCT, the ability to detect clandestine production and verification challenges in the nuclear-weapons states.

  6. MHWMF Part I Permit Modifications

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    M Owner: U P K Owner: U 1 K The U.S. Administ south of and Blue Avenue, the comp MISSOURI U.S. Departm P.O. Box 41 Kansas City, U.S. Genera 1500 E. Ban Kansas City, Department tration (GSA downtown K e River Road and on the n plex and the HAZARDO PER ment of Ene 0202 , MO 64141 al Services A nnister Road , MO 64131 t of Energy ( A) comprise Kansas City, d, on the sout north by a w GSA occupi OUS WAST RMIT NUM PER ergy 1-0202 Administratio -3088 FACILIT 1500-2000 E Kansas C T28N, R33 North Lat

  7. Alternatives to Diesel Fuel in California - Fuel Cycle Energy and Emission Effects of Possible Replacements Due to the TAC Diesel Particulate Decision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher L. Saraicks; Donald M. Rote; Frank Stodolsky; James J. Eberhardt

    2000-05-01

    Limitations on petroleum-based diesel fuel in California could occur pursuant to the 1998 declaration by California's Air Resources Board (CARB) that the particulate matter component of diesel exhaust is a carcinogen, therefore a toxic air contaminant (TAC) subject to the state's Proposition 65. It is the declared intention of CARB not to ban or restrict diesel fuel, per se, at this time. Assuming no total ban, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) explored two feasible ''mid-course'' strategies, each of which results in some degree of (conventional) diesel displacement. In the first case, with substantial displacement of compression ignition by spark ignition engines, diesel fuel is assumed admissible for ignition assistance as a pilot fuel in natural gas (NG)-powered heavy-duty vehicles. Gasoline demand in California increases by 32.2 million liters (8.5 million gallons) per day overall, about 21 percent above projected 2010 baseline demand. Natural gas demand increases by 13.6 million diesel liter (3.6 million gallon) equivalents per day, about 7 percent above projected (total) consumption level. In the second case, ressionignition engines utilize substitutes for petroleum-based diesel having similar ignition and performance properties. For each case we estimated localized air emission plus generalized greenhouse gas and energy changes. Fuel replacement by di-methyl ether yields the greatest overall reduction in NOx emissions, though all scenarios bring about PM10 reductions relative to the 2010 baseline, with greatest reductions from the first case described above and the least from fuel replacement by Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel. Economic implications of vehicle and engine replacement were not formally evaluated.

  8. Alternatives to conventional diesel fuel-some potential implications of California's TAC decision on diesel particulate.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberhardt, J. J.; Rote, D. M.; Saricks, C. L.; Stodolsky, F.

    1999-08-10

    Limitations on the use of petroleum-based diesel fuel in California could occur pursuant to the 1998 declaration by California's Air Resources Board (CARB) that the particulate matter component of diesel exhaust is a carcinogen, therefore a toxic air contaminant (TAC) subject to provisions of the state's Proposition 65. It is the declared intention of CARB not to ban or restrict diesel fuel, per se, at this time. Assuming no total ban, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) explored two feasible ''mid-course'' strategies. (1) Increased penetration of natural gas and greater gasoline use in the transportation fuels market, to the extent that some compression-ignition (CI) applications revert to spark-ignition (SI) engines. (2) New specifications requiring diesel fuel reformulation based on exhaust products of individual diesel fuel constituents. Each of these alternatives results in some degree of (conventional) diesel displacement. In the first case, diesel fuel is assumed admissible for ignition assistance as a pilot fuel in natural gas (NG)-powered heavy-duty vehicles, and gasoline demand in California increases by 32.2 million liters per day overall, about 21 percent above projected 2010 baseline demand. Natural gas demand increases by 13.6 million diesel liter equivalents per day, about 7 percent above projected (total) consumption level. In the second case, compression-ignition engines utilize substitutes for petroleum-based diesel having similar ignition and performance properties. For each case we estimated localized air emission plus generalized greenhouse gas and energy changes. Economic implications of vehicle and engine replacement were not evaluated.

  9. Alternatives to diesel fuel in California - fuel cycle energy and emission effects of possible replacements due to the TAC diesel particulate decision.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saricks, C. L.; Rote, D. M.; Stodolsky, F.; Eberhardt, J. J.

    1999-12-03

    Limitations on petroleum-based diesel fuel in California could occur pursuant to the 1998 declaration by California's Air Resources Board (CARB) that the particulate matter component of diesel exhaust is a carcinogen, therefore a toxic air contaminant (TAC) subject to the state's Proposition 65. It is the declared intention of CARB not to ban or restrict diesel fuel per se, at this time. Assuming no total ban, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) explored two feasible mid-course strategies, each of which results in some degree of (conventional) diesel displacement. In the first case, with substantial displacement of compression-ignition by spark-ignition engines, diesel fuel is assumed admissible for ignition assistance as a pilot fuel in natural gas (NG)-powered heavy-duty vehicles. Gasoline demand in California increases by 32.2 million liters (8.5 million gallons) per day overall, about 21% above projected 2010 baseline demand. Natural gas demand increases by 13.6 million diesel liter (3.6 million gallon) equivalents per day, about 7% above projected (total) consumption level. In the second case, compression-ignition engines utilize substitutes for petroleum-based diesel having similar ignition and performance properties. For each case the authors estimated localized air emission plus generalized greenhouse gas and energy changes. Fuel replacement by di-methyl ether yields the greatest overall reduction in NOX emissions, though all scenarios bring about PM{sub 10} reductions relative to the 2010 baseline, with greatest reductions from the first case described above and the least from fuel replacement by Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel. Economic implications of vehicle and engine replacement were not formally evaluated.

  10. A Perspective on Long-Term Recovery Following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident - 12075

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, S.Y.

    2012-07-01

    The tragic events at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station began occurring on March 11, 2011, following Japan's unprecedented earthquake and tsunami. The subsequent loss of external power and on-site cooling capacity severely compromised the plant's safety systems, and subsequently, led to core melt in the affected reactors and damage to spent nuclear fuel in the storage pools. Together with hydrogen explosions, this resulted in a substantial release of radioactive material to the environment (mostly Iodine-131 and Cesium- 137), prompting an extensive evacuation effort. The latest release estimate places the event at the highest severity level (Level 7) on the International Nuclear Event Scale, the same as the Chernobyl accident of 1986. As the utility owner endeavored to stabilize the damaged facility, environmental contamination continued to propagate and affect every aspect of daily life in the affected region of Japan. Elevated levels of radioactivity (mostly dominated by Cs-137 with the passage of time) were found in soil, drinking water, vegetation, produce, seafood, and other foodstuffs. An estimated 80,000 to 90,000 people were evacuated; more evacuations are being contemplated months after the accident, and a vast amount of land has become contaminated. Early actions were taken to ban the shipment and sale of contaminated food and drinking water, followed by later actions to ban the shipment and sale of contaminated beef, mushrooms, and seafood. As the event continues to evolve toward stabilization, the long-term recovery effort needs to commence - a process that doubtless will involve rather complex decision-making interactions between various stakeholders. Key issues that may be encountered and considered in such a process include (1) socio-political factors, (2) local economic considerations, (3) land use options, (4) remediation approaches, (5) decontamination methods, (6) radioactive waste management, (7) cleanup levels and options, and (8) government policies, among others. This paper offers a perspective on this likely long and arduous journey toward establishing a 'new normal' that will ultimately take shape. Toward this end, it is important to evaluate the 'optimization' process advocated by the international community in achieving long-term recovery from this particularly fateful event in Fukushima. In the process, experience and lessons learned from past events will be fully evaluated and considered. (author)

  11. Special Issue for the 9th International Conference on Carbonaceous Particles in the Atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strawa, A.W.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Puxbaum, H.

    2009-12-11

    Carbonaceous particles are a minor constituent of the atmosphere but have a profound effect on air quality, human health, visibility and climate. The importance of carbonaceous particles has been increasingly recognized and become a mainstream topic at numerous conferences. Such was not the case in 1978, when the 1st International Conference on Carbonaceous Particles in the Atmosphere (ICCPA), or ''Carbon Conference'' as it is widely known, was introduced as a new forum to bring together scientists who were just beginning to reveal the importance and complexity of carbonaceous particles in the environment. Table 1 lists the conference dates, venues in the series as well as the proceedings, and special issues resulting form the meetings. Penner and Novakov (Penner and Novakov, 1996) provide an excellent historical perspective to the early ICCPA Conferences. Thirty years later, the ninth in this conference series was held at its inception site, Berkeley, California, attended by 160 scientists from 31 countries, and featuring both new and old themes in 49 oral and 83 poster presentations. Topics covered such areas as historical trends in black carbon aerosol, ambient concentrations, analytic techniques, secondary aerosol formation, biogenic, biomass, and HULIS1 characterization, optical properties, and regional and global climate effects. The conference website, http://iccpa.lbl.gov/, holds the agenda, as well as many presentations, for the 9th ICCPA. The 10th ICCPA is tentatively scheduled for 2011 in Vienna, Austria. The papers in this issue are representative of several of the themes discussed in the conference. Ban-Weiss et al., (Ban-Weiss et al., accepted) measured the abundance of ultrafine particles in a traffic tunnel and found that heavy duty diesel trucks emit at least an order of magnitude more ultrafine particles than light duty gas-powered vehicles per unit of fuel burned. Understanding of this issue is important as ultrafine particles have been shown to adversely affect human health (Lighty et al., 2000; Pope and Dockery, 2006). Gan et al. (Gan et al., accepted) examined the indoor air quality aboard submarines and found that the diesel particulate matter concentrations exceeded the EPA 24 hour standard. Claeys et al. (Claeys et al., accepted) studied the importance and sources of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in remote marine environment during a period of high biological activity. Methanesulphonate was the major SOA compound detected and there was no evidence for SOA from isoprene. The optical properties of gasoline and diesel vehicle particulate emissions and their relative contribution to radiative forcing was studied by Strawa et al. (Strawa et al., accepted).

  12. Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2007-09-25

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  13. Phase II: Field Detector Development For Undeclared/Declared Nuclear Testing For Treaty Verfiation Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriz, M.; Hunter, D.; Riley, T.

    2015-10-02

    Radioactive xenon isotopes are a critical part of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) for the detection or confirmation of nuclear weapons tests as well as on-site treaty verification monitoring. On-site monitoring is not currently conducted because there are no commercially available small/robust field detector devices to measure the radioactive xenon isotopes. Xenon is an ideal signature to detect clandestine nuclear events since they are difficult to contain and can diffuse and migrate through soils due to their inert nature. There are four key radioxenon isotopes used in monitoring: 135Xe (9 hour half-life), 133mXe (2 day half-life), 133Xe (5 day half-life) and 131mXe (12 day half-life) that decay through beta emission and gamma emission. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a leader in the field of gas collections and has developed highly selective molecular sieves that allow for the collection of xenon gas directly from air. Phase I assessed the development of a small, robust beta-gamma coincidence counting system, that combines collection and in situ detection methodologies. Phase II of the project began development of the custom electronics enabling 2D beta-gamma coincidence analysis in a field portable system. This will be a significant advancement for field detection/quantification of short-lived xenon isotopes that would not survive transport time for laboratory analysis.

  14. Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2010-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  15. Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation at the Norbo Underground Nuclear Test in U8c, Nevada Nuclear Security Site, and the Impact on Stability of the Ground Surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawloski, G A

    2012-06-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Containment Program performed a review of nuclear test-related data for the Norbo underground nuclear test in U8c to assist in evaluating this legacy site as a test bed for application technologies for use in On-Site Inspections (OSI) under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. This request is similar to one made for the Salut site in U8c (Pawloski, 2012b). Review of the Norbo site is complicated because the test first exhibited subsurface collapse, which was not unusual, but it then collapsed to the surface over one year later, which was unusual. Of particular interest is the stability of the ground surface above the Norbo detonation point. Proposed methods for on-site verification include radiological signatures, artifacts from nuclear testing activities, and imaging to identify alteration to the subsurface hydrogeology due to the nuclear detonation. Aviva Sussman from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has also proposed work at this site. Both proposals require physical access at or near the ground surface of specific underground nuclear test locations at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and focus on possible activities such as visual observation, multispectral measurements, and shallow and deep geophysical surveys.

  16. Demonstration of alcohol as an aviation fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    A recently funded Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program (SERBEP) project with Baylor University will demonstrate the effectiveness of ethanols as an aviation fuel while providing several environmental and economic benefits. Part of this concern is caused by the petroleum industry. The basis for the petroleum industry to find an alternative aviation fuel will be dictated mainly by economic considerations. Three other facts compound the problem. First is the disposal of oil used in engines burning leaded fuel. This oil will contain too much lead to be burned in incinerators and will have to be treated as a toxic waste with relatively high disposal fees. Second, as a result of a greater demand for alkalites to be used in the automotive reformulated fuel, the costs of these components are likely to increase. Third, the Montreal Protocol will ban in 1998 the use of Ethyl-Di-Bromide, a lead scavenger used in leaded aviation fuel. Without a lead scavenger, leaded fuels cannot be used. The search for alternatives to leaded aviation fuels has been underway by different organizations for some time. As part of the search for alternatives, the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, has received a grant from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to improve the efficiencies of ethanol powered aircraft engines and to test other non-petroleum alternatives to aviation fuel.

  17. Glass composition development for stabilization of lead based paints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, J.C.

    1996-10-01

    Exposure to lead can lead to adverse health affects including permanent damage to the central nervous system. Common means of exposure to lead are from ingestion of lead paint chips or breathing of dust from deteriorating painted surfaces. The U.S. Army has over 101 million square feet of buildings dating to World War II or earlier. Many of these structures were built before the 1978 ban on lead based paints. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers CERL is developing technologies to remove and stabilize lead containing organic coatings. Promising results have been achieved using a patented flame spray process that utilizes a glass frit to stabilize the hazardous constituents. When the glass frit is sprayed onto the paint containing substrate, differences in thermal expansion coefficients between the frit and the paint results in spalling of the paint from the substrate surface. The removed fragments are then collected and remelted to stabilize the hazardous constituents and allow for disposal as non-hazardous waste. Similar successful results using a patented process involving microwave technology for paint removal have also been achieved. In this process, the painted surface is coated with a microwave coupling compound that when exposed to microwave energy results in the spalling of the hazardous paint from the surface. The fragments can again be accumulated and remelted for stabilization and disposal.

  18. Demonstration of base catalyzed decomposition process, Navy Public Works Center, Guam, Mariana Islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, A.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Brown, M.D.; Zacher, A.H.; Neuenschwander, G.N.; Wilcox, W.A.; Gano, S.R.; Kim, B.C.; Gavaskar, A.R.

    1996-02-01

    Base Catalyzed Decomposition (BCD) is a chemical dehalogenation process designed for treating soils and other substrate contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), pesticides, dioxins, furans, and other hazardous organic substances. PCBs are heavy organic liquids once widely used in industry as lubricants, heat transfer oils, and transformer dielectric fluids. In 1976, production was banned when PCBs were recognized as carcinogenic substances. It was estimated that significant quantities (one billion tons) of U.S. soils, including areas on U.S. military bases outside the country, were contaminated by PCB leaks and spills, and cleanup activities began. The BCD technology was developed in response to these activities. This report details the evolution of the process, from inception to deployment in Guam, and describes the process and system components provided to the Navy to meet the remediation requirements. The report is divided into several sections to cover the range of development and demonstration activities. Section 2.0 gives an overview of the project history. Section 3.0 describes the process chemistry and remediation steps involved. Section 4.0 provides a detailed description of each component and specific development activities. Section 5.0 details the testing and deployment operations and provides the results of the individual demonstration campaigns. Section 6.0 gives an economic assessment of the process. Section 7.0 presents the conclusions and recommendations form this project. The appendices contain equipment and instrument lists, equipment drawings, and detailed run and analytical data.

  19. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly ReportJanuary 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soelberg, Renae

    2015-01-01

    Highlights; Mike Worley and Shane Johnson visited INL Jan. 22 for an NSUF strategy discussion; Rory Kennedy attended a NSLS-2 Beamline Advisory Team meeting at Brookhaven; Provided a final cost estimate to the NSUF Program Office in support of the NEET/NSUF proposal, Metal-ceramic and metal-metal composites for extreme radiation and temperature environment: An in situ interface stability and mechanical behavior study by high energy x-ray diffraction with a synchrotron probe.; Assisted in the development of conceptual designs and performed a preliminary thermal hydraulic analysis for two NEET/NSUF proposals. The challenge for both experiments is to provide high (>1000 C and up to 1600 C)) specimen temperatures in a small space (0.5" diameter ATR Outboard A-position) without overheating the coolant. Several designs were analyzed and found to be feasible, although detailed design and analysis will be required after the projects are awarded; and A single USU TEM specimen is packaged and awaiting shipment from MFC to CAES. Once at CAES, SEM, TEM and LEAP analysis will be performed. Professor Ban has requested additional sub-samples to be made to take back to his laboratory at USU for thermal diffusivity studies.

  20. Thermoacoustic refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, S.L.; Hofler, T.J. )

    1992-12-01

    Shortly after their introduction, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) used as working fluids in a vapor compression (Rankine) refrigeration cycle became dominant in almost all small and medium-scale food refrigerator/freezer and building/residential air-conditioning applications. That situation is about to change dramatically and, at this moment, unpredictably. Two recent events are responsible for the new era in refrigeration that will dawn before the beginning of the 21st Century. The most significant of these is the international ban on the production of CFCs which were found to be destroying the Earth's protective ozone layer. The second event was the discovery of high temperature superconductors and the development of high speed and high density electronic circuits that require active cooling. It is the purpose of this article to introduce an entirely new approach to refrigeration that was first discovered in the early 1980s. This new approach-thermoacoustic refrigeration-uses high intensity sound waves to pump heat, with inert gases as the working fluid.

  1. Estimates of Radioxenon Released from Southern Hemisphere Medical isotope Production Facilities Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Schrom, Brian T.

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and Xe-133 data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of Xe-133 from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.81014 Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 1.21016 to 2.51016 Bq and estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 6.11013 to 3.61014 Bq. Although some releases from the facility in Argentina may reach these IMS sampling locations, the solution to the objective function is insensitive to the magnitude of those releases.

  2. Physiological effects following administration of Citrus aurantium for 28 days in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Deborah K.; Pellicore, Linda S.

    2012-06-15

    Background: Since ephedra-containing dietary supplements were banned from the US market, manufacturers changed their formulations by eliminating ephedra and replacing with other botanicals, including Citrus aurantium, or bitter orange. Bitter orange contains, among other compounds, synephrine, a chemical that is chemically similar to ephedrine. Since ephedrine may have cardiovascular effects, the goal of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of various doses of bitter orange extract and pure synephrine in rats. Method: Female SpragueDawley rats were dosed daily by gavage for 28 days with synephrine from two different extracts. One extract contained 6% synephrine, and the other extract contained 95% synephrine. Doses were 10 or 50 mg synephrine/kg body weight from each extract. Additionally, caffeine was added to these doses, since many dietary supplements also contain caffeine. Telemetry was utilized to monitor heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and QT interval in all rats. Results and conclusion: Synephrine, either as the bitter orange extract or as pure synephrine, increased heart rate and blood pressure. Animals treated with 95% synephrine showed minimal effects on heart rate and blood pressure; more significant effects were observed with the bitter orange extract suggesting that other components in the botanical can alter these physiological parameters. The increases in heart rate and blood pressure were more pronounced when caffeine was added. None of the treatments affected uncorrected QT interval in the absence of caffeine.

  3. Analysis of data from sensitive U.S. monitoring stations for the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biegalski, Steven R.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Hoffman, Ian; Keillor, Martin E.; Miley, Harry S.; Morin, Marc P.

    2012-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 9.0 magnitude undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan and subsequent tsunami waves triggered a major nuclear event at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. At the time of the event, units 1, 2, and 3 were operating and units 4, 5, and 6 were in a shutdown condition for maintenance. Loss of cooling capacity to the plants along with structural damage caused by the earthquake and tsunami resulted in a breach of the nuclear fuel integrity and release of radioactive fission products to the environment. Fission products started to arrive in the United States via atmospheric transport on March 15, 2011 and peaked by March 23, 2011. Atmospheric activity concentrations of 131I reached levels of 3.0 * 10*2 Bqm*3 in Melbourne, FL. The noble gas 133Xe reached atmospheric activity concentrations in Ashland, KS of 17 Bqm*3. While these levels are not health concerns, they were well above the detection capability of the radionuclide monitoring systems within the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

  4. Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation at the Salut Underground Nuclear Test in U20ak, Nevada National Security Site, and the Impact of Stability of the Ground Surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawloski, G A

    2012-04-25

    At the request of Jerry Sweeney, the LLNL Containment Program performed a review of nuclear test-related data for the Salut underground nuclear test in U20ak to assist in evaluating this legacy site as a test bed for application technologies for use in On-Site Inspections (OSI) under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Review of the Salut site is complicated because the test experienced a subsurface, rather than surface, collapse. Of particular interest is the stability of the ground surface above the Salut detonation point. Proposed methods for on-site verification include radiological signatures, artifacts from nuclear testing activities, and imaging to identify alteration to the subsurface hydrogeologogy due to the nuclear detonation. Sweeney's proposal requires physical access at or near the ground surface of specific underground nuclear test locations at the Nevada Nuclear Test Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site), and focuses on possible activities such as visual observation, multispectral measurements, and shallow, and deep geophysical surveys.

  5. Backyard waste management - problems and benefits of individuals managing their solid waste at home

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whalen, M.

    1995-05-01

    The problems and benefits of individuals managing their solid wastes at home are surveyed. The survey indicates that as the population rises people tend to burn only the combustible portions of their waste. Some communities have limited ordinances that ban the burning of raw garbage, but other municipalities allow residents to burn all of their wastestream, even though some materials are not combustible and cannot be burned. Potential environmental effects involve both the ash residue and the air emissions. While selected burning can reduce some of the environmental hazards these would probably only be marginally less than the impacts of burning it all. The study clearly indicates that the environmental problems of burn barrels are not insignificant. However, the attitudes and motivations of those who burn waste will have to be addressed by the communities that attempt or should attempt to control this problem. These include: avoidance of waste collection costs; availability of trash cartage services; and habit. Habit is probably as strong a motivation as cost avoidance and ease of collection combined. Residents have often burned trash for several generations and regard the practice as a {open_quotes}god-given right.{close_quotes}

  6. Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2006-09-19

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  7. Impacts of Increased Access to Oil & Natural Gas Resources in the Lower 48 Federal Outer Continental Shelf (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    This analysis was updated for Annual Energy Outlook 2009 (AEO): Impact of Limitations on Access to Oil and Natural Gas Resources in the Federal Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). The OCS is estimated to contain substantial resources of crude oil and natural gas; however, some areas of the OCS are subject to drilling restrictions. With energy prices rising over the past several years, there has been increased interest in the development of more domestic oil and natural gas supply, including OCS resources. In the past, federal efforts to encourage exploration and development activities in the deep waters of the OCS have been limited primarily to regulations that would reduce royalty payments by lease holders. More recently, the states of Alaska and Virginia have asked the federal government to consider leasing in areas off their coastlines that are off limits as a result of actions by the President or Congress. In response, the Minerals Management Service (MMS) of the U.S. Department of the Interior has included in its proposed 5-year leasing plan for 2007-2012 sales of one lease in the Mid-Atlantic area off the coastline of Virginia and two leases in the North Aleutian Basin area of Alaska. Development in both areas still would require lifting of the current ban on drilling.

  8. Visual Sample Plan (VSP) Statistical Software as Related to the CTBTOs On-Site Inspection Procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Milbrath, Brian D.

    2010-09-01

    In the event of a potential nuclear weapons test the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is commissioned to conduct an on-site investigation (OSI) of the suspected test site in an effort to find confirmatory evidence of the nuclear test. The OSI activities include collecting air, surface soil, and underground samples to search for indications of a nuclear weapons test - these indicators include radionuclides and radioactive isotopes Ar and Xe. This report investigates the capability of the Visual Sample Plan (VSP) software to contribute to the sampling activities of the CTBTO during an OSI. VSP is a statistical sampling design software, constructed under data quality objectives, which has been adapted for environmental remediation and contamination detection problems for the EPA, US Army, DoD and DHS among others. This report provides discussion of a number of VSP sample designs, which may be pertinent to the work undertaken during an OSI. Examples and descriptions of such designs include hot spot sampling, combined random and judgment sampling, multiple increment sampling, radiological transect surveying, and a brief description of other potentially applicable sampling methods. Further, this work highlights a potential need for the use of statistically based sample designs in OSI activities. The use of such designs may enable canvassing a sample area without full sampling, provide a measure of confidence that radionuclides are not present, and allow investigators to refocus resources in other areas of concern.

  9. LESSONS LEARNED IN AEROSOL MONITORING WITH THE RASA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forrester, Joel B.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Carty, Fitz; Comes, Laura; Eslinger, Paul W.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Litke, Kevin E.; Miley, Harry S.; Morris, Scott J.; Schrom, Brian T.; Van Davelaar, Peter; Woods, Vincent T.

    2011-09-14

    The Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) is an automated aerosol collection and analysis system designed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in the 1990's and is deployed in several locations around the world as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) required under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The RASA operates unattended, save for regularly scheduled maintenance, iterating samples through a three-step process on a 24-hour interval. In its 15-year history, much has been learned from the operation and maintenance of the RASA that can benefit engineering updates or future aerosol systems. On 11 March 2011, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake and tsunami rocked the eastern coast of Japan, resulting in power loss and cooling failures at the Daiichi nuclear power plants in Fukushima Prefecture. Aerosol collections were conducted with the RASA in Richland, WA. We present a summary of the lessons learned over the history of the RASA, including lessons taken from the Fukushima incident, regarding the RASA IMS stations operated by the United States.

  10. Regional seismic discrimination research at LLNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter, W.R.; Mayeda, K.M.; Goldstein, P.; Patton, H.J.; Jarpe, S.; Glenn, L.

    1995-10-01

    The ability to verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends in part on the ability to seismically detect and discriminate between potential clandestine underground nuclear tests and other seismic sources, including earthquakes and mining activities. Regional techniques are necessary to push detection and discrimination levels down to small magnitudes, but existing methods of event discrimination are mainly empirical and show much variability from region to region. The goals of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) regional discriminant research are to evaluate the most promising discriminants, improve the understanding of their physical basis and use this information to develop new and more effective discriminants that can be transported to new regions of high monitoring interest. In this report the authors discuss preliminary efforts to geophysically characterize the Middle East and North Africa. They show that the remarkable stability of coda allows one to develop physically based, stable single station magnitude scales in new regions. They then discuss progress to date on evaluating and improving physical understanding and ability to model regional discriminants, focusing on the comprehensive NTS dataset. The authors apply this modeling ability to develop improved discriminants including slopes of P to S ratios. They find combining disparate discriminant techniques is particularly effective in identifying consistent outliers such as shallow earthquakes and mine seismicity. Finally they discuss development and use of new coda and waveform modeling tools to investigate special events.

  11. Status report on new whole waveform discriminants and preliminary results (Deliverable {number_sign}12)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter, W.R.

    1995-06-01

    The Treaty Verification Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has made good progress during fiscal year 1995 on devising and testing whole seismic waveform modeling methods to identify seismic events using only a few stations. This research is carried out under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Research and Development Program (CTBTR and D) under task S4.3.4. For regions where the path is calibrated, this modeling can potentially identify and discriminate between clandestine underground nuclear events and other sources of seismic waves such as earthquakes and mine collapses. In regions where the path is not calibrated but is seismically active, the author is investigating the use of moderate to large earthquakes to obtain the necessary path calibration. Research has focused on improving whole waveform techniques for determining the source mechanism of moderate (magnitude greater than about 3.5) seismic events from a few three-component broadband sensors in regions where the paths are calibrated. Presently the author is also using these waveform techniques in new regions to test and improve path calibrations as well as to identify events. As part of this work, he has applied these waveform techniques to events of high monitoring interest with excellent results. In this report he discusses fitting three main types of events, explosions, earthquakes and mine collapses.

  12. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1996-10-01

    An extensive review is given of the US and Russian efforts on peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (PNE). The Soviet PNE program was many times larger than the US Plowshare program in terms of both the number of applications explored with field experiments and the extent to which they were introduced into industrial use. Several PNE applications, such as deep seismic sounding and oil stimulation, have been explored in depth and appear to have had a positive cost benefit at minimal public risk. Closure of runaway gas wells is another possible application where all other techniques fail. However, the fundamental problem with PNEs is the fact that, if they are to be economically significant, there must be widespread use of the technology, involving large numbers of sites, each of which presents a potential source of radioactivity to the environment and nearby communities. Russia now has more than 100 sites where significant high-level radioactivity has been buried. Experience over the last 20 years in US and in today`s Russia shows that it is virtually impossible to gain public acceptance of such applications of nuclear energy. In addition, PNEs also pose a difficult problem in the arms control area. Under a comprehensive test ban, any country conducting PNEs would, in appearance if not in fact, receive information useful for designing new nuclear weapons or maintaining an existing nuclear stockpile, information denied to the other parties to the treaty. 6 tabs, 10 figs.

  13. NetMOD version 1.0 user%3CU%2B2019%3Es manual.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merchant, Bion John

    2014-01-01

    NetMOD (Network Monitoring for Optimal Detection) is a Java-based software package for conducting simulation of seismic networks. Specifically, NetMOD simulates the detection capabilities of seismic monitoring networks. Network simulations have long been used to study network resilience to station outages and to determine where additional stations are needed to reduce monitoring thresholds. NetMOD makes use of geophysical models to determine the source characteristics, signal attenuation along the path between the source and station, and the performance and noise properties of the station. These geophysical models are combined to simulate the relative amplitudes of signal and noise that are observed at each of the stations. From these signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), the probability of detection can be computed given a detection threshold. This manual describes how to configure and operate NetMOD to perform seismic detection simulations. In addition, NetMOD is distributed with a simulation dataset for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) International Monitoring System (IMS) seismic network for the purpose of demonstrating NetMOD's capabilities and providing user training. The tutorial sections of this manual use this dataset when describing how to perform the steps involved when running a simulation.

  14. Aerial and ground-based inspections of mine sites in the Western U.S.-implications for on-site inspection overflights, under the CTBT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1997-07-01

    The verification regime of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) provides for the possibility of On-Site Inspections (OSI`s) to resolve questions concerning suspicious events which may have been clandestine nuclear tests. Overflights by fixed-wing or rotary-wing aircraft, as part of an OSI, are permitted by the Treaty. These flights are intended to facilitate the narrowing of the inspection area, from an initial permissible 1000 km{sup 2}, and to help select the locations to deploy observers and ground-based sensors (seismic, radionuclides, . . .) Because of the substantial amount of seismicity generated by mining operations worldwide, it is expected that mine sites and mine districts would be prime candidates for OSI`S. To gain experience in this context, a number of aerial and ground-based mine site inspections have been performed in the Western U.S. by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory since 1994. These inspections are part of a broad range of CTBT mining-related projects conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Laboratories. The various sites are described next, and inferences are made concerning CTBT OSI`S. All the mines are legitimate operations, with no implication whatsoever of any clandestine tests.

  15. Xe-135 Production from Cf-252

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. A. McGrath; T. P. Houghton; J. K. Pfeiffer; R. K. Hague

    2012-03-01

    135Xe is a good indicator that fission has occurred and is a valuable isotope that helps enforce the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Due to its rather short half life and minimal commercial interest, there are no known sources where 135Xe can be purchased. Readily available standards of this isotope for calibrating collection and analytical techniques would be very useful. 135Xe can be produced in the fissioning of actinide isotopes, or by neutron capture on 134Xe. Since the neutron capture cross section of 134Xe is 3 mB, neutron capture is a low yield, though potentially useful, production route. 135Xe is also produced by spontaneous fission of 252Cf. 252Cf has a spontaneous fission rate of about 6 x 1011 s-1g-1. The cumulative yield from the spontaneous fission of 252Cf is 4.19%; and the competing neutron capture reaction that depletes 135Xe in thermal reactor systems is negligible because the neutron capture cross-section is low for fast fission neutrons. At the INL, scientists have previously transported fission products from an electroplated 252Cf thin source for the measurement of nuclear data of short-lived fission products using a technique called He-Jet collection. We have applied a similar system to the collection of gaseous 135Xe, in order to produce valuable standards of this isotope.

  16. Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Patterson, Eileen F.; Sandoval, Marisa N.

    2011-09-13

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  17. Proceedings of the Monterey Containment Symposium, Monterey, California, August 26-28, 1981. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudson, B.C.; Jones, E.M.; Keller, C.E.; Smith, C.W.

    1983-02-01

    Since the Atmospheric Test Ban Treaty was signed in 1963, the United States has conducted all nuclear weapons tests underground. To meet US treaty responsibilities and to ensure public safety, the containment community must prevent any release of radioactive gases to the atmosphere. In the past two decades we have gained considerable insight into the scientific and engineering requirements for complete containment, but the papers and discussions at the Monterey Symposium indicate that a great deal remains to be done. Among papers included here, those dealing with mature topics will serve as reviews and introductions for new workers in the field. Others, representing first looks at new areas, contain more speculative material. Active research topics include propagation of stress waves in rocks, formation and decay of residual hoop stresses around a cavity, hydrofracture out of a cavity, formation of chimneys, and geologic and geophysical investigations of the Nevada Test Site. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Proceedings of the 2009 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetovsky, Marv A; Aguilar - Chang, Julio; Anderson, Dale; Arrowsmith, Marie; Arrowsmith, Stephen; Baker, Diane; Begnaud, Michael; Harste, Hans; Maceira, Monica; Patton, Howard; Phillips, Scott; Randall, George; Rowe, Charlotte; Stead, Richard; Steck, Lee; Whitaker, Rod; Yang, Xiaoning

    2009-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2009: Ground -Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2009 in Tucson, Arizona,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  19. Proceedings of the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetovsky, Marv A; Aguilar-chang, Julio; Arrowsmith, Marie; Arrowsmith, Stephen; Baker, Diane; Begnaud, Michael; Harste, Hans; Maceira, Monica; Patton, Howard; Phillips, Scott; Randall, George; Revelle, Douglas; Rowe, Charlotte; Stead, Richard; Steck, Lee; Whitaker, Rod; Yang, Xiaoning

    2008-09-23

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 23-25 September, 2008 in Portsmouth, Virginia. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  20. NetMOD Version 2.0 User?s Manual.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merchant, Bion J.

    2015-10-01

    NetMOD ( Net work M onitoring for O ptimal D etection) is a Java-based software package for conducting simulation of seismic, hydracoustic, and infrasonic networks. Specifically, NetMOD simulates the detection capabilities of monitoring networks. Network simulations have long been used to study network resilience to station outages and to determine where additional stations are needed to reduce monitoring thresholds. NetMOD makes use of geophysical models to determine the source characteristics, signal attenuation along the path between the source and station, and the performance and noise properties of the station. These geophysical models are combined to simulate the relative amplitudes of signal and noise that are observed at each of the stations. From these signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), the probability of detection can be computed given a detection threshold. This manual describes how to configure and operate NetMOD to perform detection simulations. In addition, NetMOD is distributed with simulation datasets for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) International Monitoring System (IMS) seismic, hydroacoustic, and infrasonic networks for the purpose of demonstrating NetMOD's capabilities and providing user training. The tutorial sections of this manual use this dataset when describing how to perform the steps involved when running a simulation. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank the reviewers of this document for their contributions.

  1. Evolving perceptions of security - US National Security surveys 1993--1995. Progress report, September 30, 1995--November 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herron, K.G.; Jenkins-Smith, H.C.

    1996-06-01

    This study analyzes findings from a national survey of 2,490 randomly selected members of the US public conducted between September 30 and November 14, 1995. It provides an over time comparison of public perceptions about nuclear weapons risks and benefits and key nuclear policy issues between 1993 and 1995. Other areas of investigation include policy preferences regarding nuclear proliferation, terrorism, US/Russian nuclear cooperation, and personal security. Public perceptions of post-cold war security were found to be evolving in unexpected ways. The perceived threat of nuclear conflict involving the US had not declined, and the threat of nuclear conflict between other countries and fears of nuclear proliferation and terrorism had increased. Perceived risks associated with managing the US nuclear arsenal were also higher. Perceptions of external and domestic benefits from US nuclear weapons were not declining. Support was found for increasing funding for nuclear weapons safety, training, and maintenance, but most respondents favored decreasing funding for developing and testing new nuclear weapons. Strong support was evident for programs and funding to prevent nuclear proliferation and terrorism. Though skeptical that nuclear weapons can be eliminated, most respondents supported reducing the US nuclear arsenal, banning nuclear test explosions, and ending production of fissile materials to make nuclear weapons. Statistically significant relationships were found between perceptions of nuclear weapons risks and benefits and policy and spending preferences. Demographic variables and basic social and political beliefs were systematically related both to risk and benefit perceptions and policy and spending options.

  2. New Horizons and New Strategies in Arms Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, J. editor

    1998-12-04

    In the last ten years, since the break-up of the Soviet Union, remarkable progress in arms control and disarmament has occurred. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the completion of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and the Chemical Weapons Treaty (CWC) are indicative of the great strides made in the non- proliferation arena. Simultaneously, the Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF), the Conventional Forces Treaty in Europe (CFE), and the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties (START), all associated with US-Soviet Union (now Russia) relations have assisted in redefining European relations and the security landscape. Finally, it now appears that progress is in the offing in developing enhanced compliance measures for the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC). In sum, all of these achievements have set the stage for the next round of arms control activities, which may lead to a much broader, and perhaps more diffused multilateral agenda. In this new and somewhat unpredictable international setting, arms control and disarmament issues will require solutions that are both more creative and innovative than heretofore.

  3. LLNL`s partnership with selected US mines, for CTBT verification: A pictorial and some reflections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1996-01-01

    The verification of an upcoming Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) will involve seismic monitoring and will provide for on-site inspections which may include drilling. Because of the fact that mining operations can send out strong seismic signals, many mining districts in the US and abroad may come under special scrutiny. The seismic signals can be generated by the use of large quantities of conventional explosives, by the collapse of underground workings, or by sudden energy release in the ground such as in rock bursts and coal bumps. These mining activities may be the cause of false alarms, but may also offer opportunities for evasive nuclear testing. So in preparing for future verification of a CTBT it becomes important to address the mining-related questions. For the United States, these are questions to be answered with respect to foreign mines. But there is a good amount of commonality in mining methods worldwide. Studies conducted at US mine sites can provide good analogs of activities that may be carried out for overseas CTBT verification, save for the expected logistical impediments.

  4. Measurements of Worldwide Radioxenon Backgrounds - The "EU" Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowyer, Ted W.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Hayes, James C.; Forrester, Joel B.; Haas, Derek A.; Hansen, Randy R.; Keller, Paul E.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Lidey, Lance S.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Payne, Rosara F.; Saey, Paul R.; Thompson, Robert C.; Woods, Vincent T.; Williams, Richard M.

    2009-09-24

    Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), radioactive xenon (radioxenon) measurements are one of the principle techniques used to detect nuclear underground nuclear explosions, and specifically, the presence of one or more radioxenon isotopes allows one to determine whether a suspected event was a nuclear explosion or originated from an innocent source. During the design of the International Monitoring System (IMS), which was designed as the verification mechanism for the Treaty, it was determined that radioxenon measurements should be performed at 40 or more stations worldwide. At the time of the design of the IMS, however, very few details about the background of the xenon isotopes was known and it is now recognized that the backgrounds were probably evolving anyhow. This paper lays out the beginning of a study of the worldwide concentrations of xenon isotopes that can be used to detect nuclear explosions and several sources that also release radioxenons, and will have to be accounted for during analysis of atmospheric levels. Although the global concentrations of the xenon isotopes are the scope of a much larger activity that could span over several years, this study measures radioxenon concentrations in locations where there was either very little information or there was a unique opportunity to learn more about emissions from known sources. The locations where radioxenon levels were measured and reported are included.

  5. Scientific Meetings Database: A New Tool for CTBT-Related International Cooperation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapik, Jerzy F.; Girven, Mary L.

    1999-08-20

    The mission of international cooperation is defined in the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Ways and means of implementation were the subject of discussion during the International Cooperation Workshop held in Vienna in November 1998, and during the Regional Workshop for CTBTO International Cooperation held in Cairo, Egypt in June 1999. In particular, a database of ''Scientific and Technical Meetings Directly or Indirectly Related to CTBT Verification-Related Technologies'' was developed by the CTBTO PrepCom/PTS/International Cooperation section and integrated into the organization's various web sites in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy CTBT Research and Development Program. This database, the structure and use of which is described in this paper/presentation is meant to assist the CTBT-related scientific community in identifying worldwide expertise in the CTBT verification-related technologies and should help experts, particularly those of less technologically advanced States Signatories, to strengthen contacts and to pursue international cooperation under the Tredy regime. Specific opportunities for international cooperation, in particular those provided by active participation in the use and further development of this database, are presented in this paper and/or presentation.

  6. Pallet disposal: Current situation and opportunities for change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouffier, C.G.; Riall, B.W.; Downing, C.C.

    1996-12-31

    Most products are transported on wooden pallets at some time during their life. Used wooden pallets can be recycled or discarded. In Georgia, very few pallets are recycled. Many pallets that are currently landfilled could be reused or chipped for industrial fuel. Currently, resistance by new-pallet manufacturers to enter the repair market has kept this market from developing. Under several scenarios, it is economically feasible to run a chipper for waste pallets collected at or near a landfill to generate industrial fuel. A steady and sufficiently large supply of used pallets and a nearby customer for the industrial fuel are two basic requirements. Many Georgia counties or groups of counties could support a facility of this type. Wood waste-to-energy systems would be feasible in companies with: (1) a large wood waste stream, including pallets; (2) high energy usage; (3) high waste disposal costs; or (4) strong environmental concerns. Several Georgia industries, such as carpet mills and food processing, are good candidates for conversion to wood fuel. Changes could occur which would hasten the development of the wood fuel industry in Georgia. Large increases in the tipping fees or a ban of pallets from area landfills are two possibilities.

  7. Pilot-scale testing of paint-waste incineration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Operations at the U.S. Army depots generate large quantities of paint removal and application wastes. These wastes, many of which are hazardous, are currently disposed of off site. Off-site disposal of solids is often by landfilling, which will be banned or highly restricted in the future. Several research activities have been initiated by USATHAMA to evaluate alternative technologies for management of paint wastes. The project described in this report involved pilot-scale incineration testing of two paint wastes: spent plastic blast media and spent agricultural blast media (ground walnut shells). The objective of this task was to continue development of incineration as an alternative treatment technology for paint wastes through pilot-scale rotary-kiln incineration testing. The results of the pilot test were evaluated to assess how the paint waste characteristics and incinerator operating conditions affected the following: characteristics of ash residue volume reduction achieved, destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE's) for organic compound and characteristics of stack gases.

  8. Managing lead-based paint abatement wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, N.L.C.

    1994-12-31

    Renovation, remodeling, demolition, and surface preparation for painting, in addition to specified lead abatement, are all activities that have the potential to produce hazardous wastes if a property was painted with lead-based paint. Lead-based paint was used on residential structures until 1978, when most residential uses were banned by the Consumer Products Safety Council. Prior to the 1950s, paints for residential uses may have contained up to 50% lead by weight. Today, commercial and military paints may still contain lead and can be used on non-residential structures. The lead content of residential paints is limited to 0.06% lead (by weight) in the dried film. This paper provides an overview of some of the information needed to properly manage lead-based paint abatement wastes. The issues covered in this paper include waste classification, generator status, treatment, and land disposal restrictions. The author assumes that the reader is familiar with the provision of the Health and Safety Code and the California Code of Regulations that pertain to generation and management of hazardous wastes. Citations provided herein do not constitute an exhaustive list of all the regulations with which a generator of hazardous waste must comply.

  9. Stockpile stewardship past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Marvin L.

    2014-05-09

    The U.S. National Academies released a report in 2012 on technical issues related to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. One important question addressed therein is whether the U.S. could maintain a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear-weapons stockpile in the absence of nuclear-explosion testing. Here we discuss two main conclusions from the 2012 Academies report, which we paraphrase as follows: 1) Provided that sufficient resources and a national commitment to stockpile stewardship are in place, the U.S. has the technical capabilities to maintain a safe, secure, and reliable stockpile of nuclear weapons into the foreseeable future without nuclear-explosion testing. 2) Doing this would require: a) a strong weapons science and engineering program that addresses gaps in understanding; b) an outstanding workforce that applies deep and broad weapons expertise to deliver solutions to stockpile problems; c) a vigorous, stable surveillance program that delivers the requisite data; d) production facilities that meet stewardship needs. We emphasize that these conclusions are independent of CTBT ratification-they apply provided only that the U.S. continues its nuclear-explosion moratorium.

  10. Participatory health impact assessment for the development of local government regulation on hazard control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inmuong, Uraiwan; Rithmak, Panee; Srisookwatana, Soomol; Traithin, Nathathai; Maisuporn, Pornpun

    2011-07-15

    The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.

  11. Extreme Scale Computing to Secure the Nation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D L; McGraw, J R; Johnson, J R; Frincke, D

    2009-11-10

    Since the dawn of modern electronic computing in the mid 1940's, U.S. national security programs have been dominant users of every new generation of high-performance computer. Indeed, the first general-purpose electronic computer, ENIAC (the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), was used to calculate the expected explosive yield of early thermonuclear weapons designs. Even the U. S. numerical weather prediction program, another early application for high-performance computing, was initially funded jointly by sponsors that included the U.S. Air Force and Navy, agencies interested in accurate weather predictions to support U.S. military operations. For the decades of the cold war, national security requirements continued to drive the development of high performance computing (HPC), including advancement of the computing hardware and development of sophisticated simulation codes to support weapons and military aircraft design, numerical weather prediction as well as data-intensive applications such as cryptography and cybersecurity U.S. national security concerns continue to drive the development of high-performance computers and software in the U.S. and in fact, events following the end of the cold war have driven an increase in the growth rate of computer performance at the high-end of the market. This mainly derives from our nation's observance of a moratorium on underground nuclear testing beginning in 1992, followed by our voluntary adherence to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) beginning in 1995. The CTBT prohibits further underground nuclear tests, which in the past had been a key component of the nation's science-based program for assuring the reliability, performance and safety of U.S. nuclear weapons. In response to this change, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Science-Based Stockpile Stewardship (SBSS) program in response to the Fiscal Year 1994 National Defense Authorization Act, which requires, 'in the absence of nuclear testing, a progam to: (1) Support a focused, multifaceted program to increase the understanding of the enduring stockpile; (2) Predict, detect, and evaluate potential problems of the aging of the stockpile; (3) Refurbish and re-manufacture weapons and components, as required; and (4) Maintain the science and engineering institutions needed to support the nation's nuclear deterrent, now and in the future'. This program continues to fulfill its national security mission by adding significant new capabilities for producing scientific results through large-scale computational simulation coupled with careful experimentation, including sub-critical nuclear experiments permitted under the CTBT. To develop the computational science and the computational horsepower needed to support its mission, SBSS initiated the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative, later renamed the Advanced Simulation & Computing (ASC) program (sidebar: 'History of ASC Computing Program Computing Capability'). The modern 3D computational simulation capability of the ASC program supports the assessment and certification of the current nuclear stockpile through calibration with past underground test (UGT) data. While an impressive accomplishment, continued evolution of national security mission requirements will demand computing resources at a significantly greater scale than we have today. In particular, continued observance and potential Senate confirmation of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) together with the U.S administration's promise for a significant reduction in the size of the stockpile and the inexorable aging and consequent refurbishment of the stockpile all demand increasing refinement of our computational simulation capabilities. Assessment of the present and future stockpile with increased confidence of the safety and reliability without reliance upon calibration with past or future test data is a long-term goal of the ASC program. This will be accomplished through significant increases in the scientific bases that underlie the computational tools. Computer codes must be de

  12. REPORT OF THE ISS OSI INVITED MEETING, VIENNA, 24-27 MARCH, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeney, J J

    2009-04-17

    The International Scientific Studies project (ISS) was initiated in early 2008 with the objective of creating a series of activities aimed at application of modern scientific methods to improve the efficiency of analysis and the quality of verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). The ISS On-Site Inspection (OSI) Invited Meeting convened on March 24, 2009 with the objectives of gaining a better understanding of the phenomenology of underground nuclear explosions (UNE) for OSI purposes and to identify areas of interest to OSI that could benefit significantly from contributions by the general scientific community. Fifteen invited experts from four countries, along with fifteen members of the OSI Division of the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) met for four days at the Vienna International Center in an informal setting to discuss the application of observational methods, geophysical techniques, radionuclide measurement methods, environmental sampling methods, drilling techniques, and information management in the context UNE phenomena and OSI implementation. The meeting began with the identification and description of two general OSI scenarios, a vertical borehole emplacement and a horizontal tunnel emplacement, that serve as general examples of past UNE testing activities that can be used as a reference to identify UNE phenomena relevant for OSI observations. A significant portion of the first day of the meeting was spent in the description of the details of these scenarios and their implications for OSI observables. This discussion then served as a foundation for the discussions of the following three days in which OSI methods and technologies were evaluated in the context of UNE phenomenology and signatures. The methods and technologies discussed included visual observation from air and ground, radiation detection from the air, ground, and subsurface, ground-based and airborne geophysical observations and analysis, collection strategies for air, water, and solid samples, drilling concepts, and aspects of data fusion, information management, and modeling and simulation. The informal setting of the meeting provided a 'brainstorming' atmosphere and participation was excellent. One important aspect of this particular group was the very wide breadth of experience and expertise represented, ranging from those sharing their knowledge of UNE testing practice, radiological measurements and sampling, and knowledge of the underground effects of UNEs, to those with extensive experience in scientific and commercial geophysical measurements and surveys, to others with rich experience gained from several OSI field exercises, including the recent OSI Integrated Field Exercise in held in Kazakhstan in September 2008. During the workshop a number of topic areas relevant to OSI, explained in the list below, were identified that will benefit from collaboration with the international scientific community. Most of the topics represent the potential for studies of long-term interest, but some topics were identified that could be addressed, either by workshop participants or others known to the participants, that could be included as abstracts for submission to the ISS meeting taking place in June 2009. Items with topics that could be covered in the June meeting are annotated in the list. The meeting ended with the general understanding that ISS will not be completed with the June 2009 Conference. Rather, the ISS is considered as a long term project sponsoring relevant ongoing international scientific initiatives to expand and improve the verification capabilities of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty.

  13. Argon Collection And Purification For Proliferation Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Achey, R.; Hunter, D.

    2015-10-09

    In order to determine whether a seismic event was a declared/undeclared underground nuclear weapon test, environmental samples must be taken and analyzed for signatures that are unique to a nuclear explosion. These signatures are either particles or gases. Particle samples are routinely taken and analyzed under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) verification regime as well as by individual countries. Gas samples are analyzed for signature gases, especially radioactive xenon. Underground nuclear tests also produce radioactive argon, but that signature is not well monitored. A radioactive argon signature, along with other signatures, can more conclusively determine whether an event was a nuclear test. This project has developed capabilities for collecting and purifying argon samples for ultra-low-background proportional counting. SRNL has developed a continuous gas enrichment system that produces an output stream containing 97% argon from whole air using adsorbent separation technology (the flow diagram for the system is shown in the figure). The vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) enrichment system is easily scalable to produce ten liters or more of 97% argon within twelve hours. A gas chromatographic separation using a column of modified hydrogen mordenite molecular sieve has been developed that can further purify the sample to better than 99% purity after separation from the helium carrier gas. The combination of these concentration and purification systems has the capability of being used for a field-deployable system for collecting argon samples suitable for ultra-low-background proportional counting for detecting nuclear detonations under the On-Site Inspection program of the CTBTO verification regime. The technology also has applications for the bulk argon separation from air for industrial purposes such as the semi-conductor industry.

  14. Mining industry and US government cooperative research: Lessons learned and benefits to mining industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearson, D.C.; Stump, B.W.; Phillips, W.S.; Martin, R.; Anderson, D.P.

    1997-09-01

    Since 1994, various mines in the US have cooperated with research scientists at the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories to address issues related to verification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The CTBT requires that no country may conduct any nuclear explosion in the future. While the CTBT is a significant step toward reducing the global nuclear danger, verifying compliance with the treat requires that the monitoring system be able to detect, locate and identify much larger numbers of smaller amplitude seismic events than had been required previously. Large mining blasts conducted world-wide will be of sufficient amplitude to trigger the monitoring system at the lower threshold. It is therefore imperative that research into the range various blasting practices employed, the relationship of yield to seismic magnitude, and identification of anomalous blasting results be performed. This paper will describe a suite of experiments funded by the Department of Energy and conducted by the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories in cooperation with the US mining industry. Observations of cast blasting, underground long wall generated coal bumps, stoping, and explosively induced collapse of room and pillar panels will be presented. Results of these dual use experiments which are of interest to the mining community will be discussed. These include (1) variation of amplitude of seismic energy at various azimuths from cast blasts, (2) identification of the extent of back failure following explosive removal of pillars, and (3) the use of single fired shots for calibration of the monitoring system. The wealth of information and discovery described in this paper is a direct result of mutual cooperation between the US Government and the US Mining Industry.

  15. Parametric Grid Information in the DOE Knowledge Base: Data Preparation, Storage, and Access

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HIPP,JAMES R.; MOORE,SUSAN G.; MYERS,STEPHEN C.; SCHULTZ,CRAIG A.; SHEPHERD,ELLEN; YOUNG,CHRISTOPHER J.

    1999-10-01

    The parametric grid capability of the Knowledge Base provides an efficient, robust way to store and access interpolatable information which is needed to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. To meet both the accuracy and performance requirements of operational monitoring systems, we use a new approach which combines the error estimation of kriging with the speed and robustness of Natural Neighbor Interpolation (NNI). The method involves three basic steps: data preparation (DP), data storage (DS), and data access (DA). The goal of data preparation is to process a set of raw data points to produce a sufficient basis for accurate NNI of value and error estimates in the Data Access step. This basis includes a set of nodes and their connectedness, collectively known as a tessellation, and the corresponding values and errors that map to each node, which we call surfaces. In many cases, the raw data point distribution is not sufficiently dense to guarantee accurate error estimates from the NNI, so the original data set must be densified using a newly developed interpolation technique known as Modified Bayesian Kriging. Once appropriate kriging parameters have been determined by variogram analysis, the optimum basis for NNI is determined in a process they call mesh refinement, which involves iterative kriging, new node insertion, and Delauny triangle smoothing. The process terminates when an NNI basis has been calculated which will fir the kriged values within a specified tolerance. In the data storage step, the tessellations and surfaces are stored in the Knowledge Base, currently in a binary flatfile format but perhaps in the future in a spatially-indexed database. Finally, in the data access step, a client application makes a request for an interpolated value, which triggers a data fetch from the Knowledge Base through the libKBI interface, a walking triangle search for the containing triangle, and finally the NNI interpolation.

  16. Guidance on the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of synthetic organic chemicals including 209 known isomers, each with from 1 to 10 chlorine atoms on a biphenyl ring. PCBs have a number of desirable properties for industrial applications including thermal stability, flame retardance, and low vapor pressure. Because of these properties, PCBs were widely used as dielectric fluid in electrical equipment such as utility transformers and capacitors. PCBs were also extensively used in hydraulic fluid and heat transfer fluid, in gaskets, as additives in cutting oils and lubricant, and in a variety of other uses. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 in response to emerging information about the adverse health effects of PCBs and their persistence in the environment. In addition, TSCA directed the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to prescribe methods for disposal of PCBS, require marking of PCBs with warning labels, and control their use. The TSCA regulations allow continued use of PCBs provided that the use is totally enclosed and does not pose a risk to human health or the environment. However, at the end of their useful life, all PCB materials must be disposed of according to the TSCA regulations. This guidance document uses graphics and flow charts where possible to present the TSCA regulations according to management activities such as use, storage, disposal, and spill cleanup. The document is designed to be read on an as-needed basis; that is, each chapter can stand alone or may be read in combination with others to help the reader determine the regulations relevant to his or her individual situation and needs. Every attempt has been made to include the requirements of other statutes and regulations that apply to PCB materials and provide references for the reader to consult for additional information.

  17. CTBT technical issues handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zucca, J.J.

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to give the nonspecialist in nuclear explosion physics and nuclear test monitoring an introduction to the topic as it pertains to a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The authors have tried to make the handbook visually oriented, with figures paired to short discussions. As such, the handbook may be read straight through or in sections. The handbook covers four main areas and ends with a glossary, which includes both scientific terms and acronyms likely to be encountered during CTBT negotiations. The following topics are covered: (1) Physics of nuclear explosion experiments. This is a description of basic nuclear physics and elementary nuclear weapon design. Also discussed are testing practices. (2) Other nuclear experiments. This section discusses experiments that produce small amounts of nuclear energy but differ from explosion experiments discussed in the first chapter. This includes the type of activities, such as laser fusion, that would continue after a CTBT is in force. (3) Monitoring tests in various environments. This section describes the different physical environments in which a test could be conducted (underground, in the atmosphere, in space, underwater, and in the laboratory); the sources of non-nuclear events (such as earthquakes and mining operations); and the opportunities for evasion. (4) On-site inspections. A CTBT is likely to include these inspections as an element of the verification provisions, in order to resolve the nature of ambiguous events. This chapter describes some technical considerations and technologies that are likely to be useful. (5) Selecting verification measures. This chapter discusses the uncertain nature of the evidence from monitoring systems and how compliance judgments could be made, taking the uncertainties into account. It also discusses how to allocate monitoring resources, given the likelihood of testing by various countries in various environments.

  18. On-Site Inspection RadioIsotopic Spectroscopy (Osiris) System Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caffrey, Gus J.; Egger, Ann E.; Krebs, Kenneth M.; Milbrath, B. D.; Jordan, D. V.; Warren, G. A.; Wilmer, N. G.

    2015-09-01

    We have designed and tested hardware and software for the acquisition and analysis of high-resolution gamma-ray spectra during on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The On-Site Inspection RadioIsotopic Spectroscopy—Osiris—software filters the spectral data to display only radioisotopic information relevant to CTBT on-site inspections, e.g.,132I. A set of over 100 fission-product spectra was employed for Osiris testing. These spectra were measured, where possible, or generated by modeling. The synthetic test spectral compositions include non-nuclear-explosion scenarios, e.g., a severe nuclear reactor accident, and nuclear-explosion scenarios such as a vented underground nuclear test. Comparing its computer-based analyses to expert visual analyses of the test spectra, Osiris correctly identifies CTBT-relevant fission product isotopes at the 95% level or better.The Osiris gamma-ray spectrometer is a mechanically-cooled, battery-powered ORTEC Transpec-100, chosen to avoid the need for liquid nitrogen during on-site inspections. The spectrometer was used successfully during the recent 2014 CTBT Integrated Field Exercise in Jordan. The spectrometer is controlled and the spectral data analyzed by a Panasonic Toughbook notebook computer. To date, software development has been the main focus of the Osiris project. In FY2016-17, we plan to modify the Osiris hardware, integrate the Osiris software and hardware, and conduct rigorous field tests to ensure that the Osiris system will function correctly during CTBT on-site inspections. The planned development will raise Osiris to technology readiness level TRL-8; transfer the Osiris technology to a commercial manufacturer, and demonstrate Osiris to potential CTBT on-site inspectors.

  19. What does the NPT`s history tell us about its future?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokolski, H.

    1995-12-31

    Although the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty`s (NPT) original objectives, which were first presented by the Irish in 1958, were quite limited and sound, new more sweeping objectives were added to NPT negotiations in the mid 1960s that have proved to be odds with the treaty`s original aims. Unless these more sweeping objectives to end {open_quotes}the nuclear arms race{close_quotes} between the U.S. and Russia and to promote the {open_quotes}fullest{close_quotes} international development of civilian nuclear weapons capabilities will become more difficult. Indeed, those most concerned about stopping the superpower arms race in NPT negotiations actually believed that all nations had a right to acquire nuclear weapons and would be better off having them is a neighbor proliferated or if nuclear disarmament between the superpowers was not achieved fairly soon. Those interested in developing civilian nuclear power (including those interested in developing plutonium-fueled reactors), meanwhile opposed proposals for intrusive inspections and, initially, even argued for sharing {open_quotes}peaceful{close_quotes} nuclear explosive technology. Some of these views are beginning to enjoy a revival. The elements of the nuclear non-proliferation regime are described and their contribution to a world-wide nonproliferation ethic is evaluated. Problems with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the international safeguards system, multilateral suppliers agreements, export controls, and bi-lateral arrangements are highlighted; and prospects for alleviating these problems are discussed. Specific issues considered include the recent framework agreement with North Korea, the impact of a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty on non-proliferation, the U.S. proposed fissile material cutoff, the upcoming NPT Review Conference, and the situation in the Former Soviet Union.

  20. Oxygen-enriched coincineration of MSW and sewage sludge: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-01-01

    Federal regulations banning ocean dumping of sewage sludge coupled with stricter regulations on the disposal of sewage sludge in landfills have forced municipalities, especially those in the northeast United States, to consider alternate methods for disposal of this solid waste. Coincineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) and sludge has proven to be economically attractive for both Europe and Japan, but has not yet proven to be a viable sludge disposal technology in the United States because of a history of operational problems in existing facilities. The most prevalent problem in coincinerating MSW and a dewatered sewage sludge (15 to 25% solids) is incomplete sludge combustion. Incomplete sludge combustion is primarily a function of sludge particle size, occurring when the surface of the sludge particle dries and hardens, while the inner mass is unaffected. This phenomenon is commonly referred to in the industry as the {open_quotes}hamburger effect.{close_quotes} In an effort to promote technology development in this area, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. teamed with the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate a new process being developed for the disposal of a dewatered sewage sludge, {open_quotes}Oxygen-Enriched Coincineration of MSW and Sewage Sludge.{close_quotes} This report provides a comprehensive summary of the pilot demonstration test program for oxygen-enriched coincineration of MSW and sewage sludge. This report describes the pilot test facility, instrumentation, and methods of data collection and data analyses; describes how the tests were executed; and discusses the test results. Recommendations for the future development of this technology in the current marketplace are also provided.

  1. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Volume1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723).DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations:Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho;Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  2. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723). DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 15001508), and DOEs NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations: Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOEs Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  3. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Summary and Guide for Stakeholders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723). DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 15001508), and DOEs NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations: Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOEs Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  4. A case study: Environmental benefit plan for Blydenburgh Landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, J.M.; Druback, G.W.

    1995-12-31

    The Town of Islip, New York, encompasses 285 square kilometers (110 square miles) along the southern shore of Suffolk County, Long Island. The Town relied upon Blydenburgh Landfill for the disposal of its estimated 290 kilotonnes per year (320,000 tons per year) of municipal solid waste (MSW) without having to contract for off-Long Island hauling and disposal. In 1983, the Long Island Landfill Law was enacted and effectively banned landfilling of raw garbage on most of Long Island after December 18, 1990. The act precluded the economic development of new landfill capacity for the Town. Blydenburgh Landfill was projected to reach capacity in early 1987 and close. To conserve landfill capacity for residential use, the Town prohibited commercial haulers from the landfill in the fall of 1986. In response, the Mobro barge departed Long Island City on March 22, 1987 loaded with commercial MSW that was no longer accepted at the Blydenburgh site. Negative publicity surrounded the Mobro barge and the continuing need to provide for waste disposal. In response, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) and the Town`s Resource Recovery Agency entered into an Order on Consent on May 12, 1987. This allowed for continued operations and a vertical MSW {open_quotes}piggyback{close_quotes} expansion on top of a closed and capped portion of the existing 181,000 square meter (44.8 acre) landfill mound. In addition, the Order on Consent permitted construction of a separate 12,000 square meter (3.0 acre) ash residue vertical piggyback expansion adjacent to the MSW piggyback expansion. Both expansions were designed for and constructed on top of existing landfilled MSW.

  5. Human health safety evaluation of cosmetics in the EU: A legally imposed challenge to science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pauwels, M.; Rogiers, V.

    2010-03-01

    As stated in the European legislation, cosmetic products present on the European market must be safe for the consumer. Safety evaluation of the products is carried out by a qualified safety assessor who needs to consider potential exposure scenarios next to the physicochemical and toxicological profiles of all composing ingredients. Whereas, until recently, the tools to determine the toxicological profile of cosmetic ingredients mainly consisted of animal experiments, they have now been narrowed down substantially by the legally imposed animal testing ban on cosmetic ingredients, taken up in the Cosmetic Products Directive (76/768/EEC). This Directive, however, is not a stand-alone piece of European legislation, since as well directly as indirectly it is influenced by a complex web of related legislations. Vertical legislations deal with different categories of chemicals, including dangerous substances, biocides, plant protection products, food additives, medicinal products, and of course also cosmetics. Horizontal legislative texts, on the contrary, cover more general fields such as protection of experimental animals, consumer product safety, misleading of consumers, specific provisions for aerosols, and others. Experience has learnt that having a general overview of these related legislations is necessary to understand their impact on the cosmetic world in general terms and on cosmetic safety evaluation in particular. This goes for a variety of concerned parties, including national and European regulators/agencies, contract laboratories, raw material suppliers, cosmetic companies, research and educational centers. They all deal with a number of aspects important for the quality and toxicity of cosmetics and their ingredients. This review summarises the most relevant points of the legislative texts of different types of product categories and emphasises their impact on the safety evaluation of cosmetics.

  6. Seismic signals from underground cavity collapses and other mining-related failures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter, W.R.; Heuze, F.; Dodge, D.

    1997-07-01

    The sudden collapse of man-made underground cavities have generated seismic signals as large as magnitude 5.4. Collapses are just one of the many types of mining associated seismicity including coalbumps and rockbursts which need to be identified and distinguished from potential clandestine nuclear explosions under the recently signed Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Collapses, coalbumps and rockbursts are of concern for seismically monitoring a CTBT for a number of reasons. First, they can look like explosions when using some seismic discriminant measures, such M{sub s}:m{sub b}, M{sub o}: m{sub b}, regional P/S ratios and depth. Second, underground nuclear explosions themselves produce cavities that might collapse, possibly aiding in the detection of a clandestine event. Finally, because all mine-related events occur in the vicinity of underground cavities, they may come under special scrutiny because of the concern that very large, specially constructed cavities could be used to evasively decouple a clandestine test. For these reasons mine-related seismicity in both active and former mining regions have the potential to be false alarms under a CTBT. We are investigating techniques to identify collapses, either directly via waveform modeling, or indirectly by combining several seismic discriminants. We are also investigating the source mechanisms of coalbumps and collapses to better understand the performance of seismic discriminants for these events. In particular we have found similarities in point source models of some longwall coalbumps, room- and-pillar mine collapses and NTS nuclear explosion cavity collapses. In order to understand coalbumps we are analyzing events from central Utah recorded at regional distances in Utah and Nevada including at the auxiliary station ELK. Some of these have anomalous, explosion- like high frequency P/S ratios. We are combining this new study with results from previous field work done in 1995 at a Colorado long-wall coal mining operation. Similarly to longwall coal mines in Utah and elsewhere, this Colorado mine completely excavates a 3m high coal seam in 250 m wide panels leaving the material above unsupported. The roof material above the excavated seam eventually collapses resulting in seismic events.

  7. Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie E.; McNeil, Michael A.; Leiva Ibanez, Francisco Humberto; Ruiz, Ana Maria; Pavon, Mariana; Hall, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) have been chosen as part of Chile's national energy efficiency action plan. As a first MEPS, the Ministry of Energy has decided to focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale of inefficient bulbs, effectively phasing out the use of incandescent lamps. Following major economies such as the US (EISA, 2007) , the EU (Ecodesign, 2009) and Australia (AS/NZS, 2008) who planned a phase out based on minimum efficacy requirements, the Ministry of Energy has undertaken the impact analysis of a MEPS on the residential lighting sector. Fundacion Chile (FC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with the Ministry of Energy and the National Energy Efficiency Program (Programa Pais de Eficiencia Energetica, or PPEE) in order to produce a techno-economic analysis of this future policy measure. LBNL has developed for CLASP (CLASP, 2007) a spreadsheet tool called the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS) that allows for evaluation of costs and benefits at the consumer level but also a wide range of impacts at the national level, such as energy savings, net present value of savings, greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reductions and avoided capacity generation due to a specific policy. Because historically Chile has followed European schemes in energy efficiency programs (test procedures, labelling program definitions), we take the Ecodesign commission regulation No 244/2009 as a starting point when defining our phase out program, which means a tiered phase out based on minimum efficacy per lumen category. The following data were collected in order to perform the techno-economic analysis: (1) Retail prices, efficiency and wattage category in the current market, (2) Usage data (hours of lamp use per day), and (3) Stock data, penetration of efficient lamps in the market. Using these data, PAMS calculates the costs and benefits of efficiency standards from two distinct but related perspectives: (1) The Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) calculation examines costs and benefits from the perspective of the individual household; and (2) The National Perspective projects the total national costs and benefits including both financial benefits, and energy savings and environmental benefits. The national perspective calculations are called the National Energy Savings (NES) and the Net Present Value (NPV) calculations. PAMS also calculate total emission mitigation and avoided generation capacity. This paper describes the data and methodology used in PAMS and presents the results of the proposed phase out of incandescent bulbs in Chile.

  8. Tank 241-AX-104 upper vadose zone cone penetrometer demonstration sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FIELD, J.G.

    1999-02-02

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) is the primary document describing field and laboratory activities and requirements for the tank 241-AX-104 upper vadose zone cone penetrometer (CP) demonstration. It is written in accordance with Hanford Tank Initiative Tank 241-AX-104 Upper Vadose Zone Demonstration Data Quality Objective (Banning 1999). This technology demonstration, to be conducted at tank 241-AX-104, is being performed by the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) Project as a part of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval Program (EM-30) and the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) Tanks Focus Area. Sample results obtained as part of this demonstration will provide additional information for subsequent revisions to the Retrieval Performance Evaluation (RPE) report (Jacobs 1998). The RPE Report is the result of an evaluation of a single tank farm (AX Tank Farm) used as the basis for demonstrating a methodology for developing the data and analyses necessary to support making tank waste retrieval decisions within the context of tank farm closure requirements. The RPE includes a study of vadose zone contaminant transport mechanisms, including analysis of projected tank leak characteristics, hydrogeologic characteristics of tank farm soils, and the observed distribution of contaminants in the vadose zone in the tank farms. With limited characterization information available, large uncertainties exist as to the nature and extent of contaminants that may exist in the upper vadose zone in the AX Tank Farm. Traditionally, data has been collected from soils in the vadose zone through the installation of boreholes and wells. Soil samples are collected as the bore hole is advanced and samples are screened on site and/or sent to a laboratory for analysis. Some in-situ geophysical methods of contaminant analysis can be used to evaluate radionuclide levels in the soils adjacent to an existing borehole. However, geophysical methods require compensation for well casing interference and soil moisture content and may not be successful in some conditions. In some cases the level of interference must be estimated due to uncertainties regarding the materials used in well construction and soil conditions, Well casing deployment used for many in-situ geophysical methods is relatively expensive and geophysical methods do not generally provide real time values for contaminants. In addition, some of these methods are not practical within the boundaries of the tank farm due to physical constraints, such as underground piping and other hardware. The CP technologies could facilitate future characterization of vadose zone soils by providing vadose zone data in near real-time, reducing the number of soil samples and boreholes required, and reducing characterization costs.

  9. Using multicast in the global communications infrastructure for group communication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, Deborah A.

    1999-07-30

    International Monitoring System (IMS) stations and the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization generate data and products that must be transmitted to one or more receivers. The application protocols used to transmit the IMS data and IDC products will be CD-x and IMS-x and the World Wide Web (WWW). These protocols use existing Internet applications and Internet protocols to send their data. The primary Internet applications in use are electronic mail (e-mail) and the file transfer protocol (ftp). The primary Internet communication protocol in use is the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), which provides reliable delivery to the receiver. These Internet applications and protocol provide unicast (point-to-point) communication. A message sent using unicast has a single recipient; any message intended for more than one recipient must be sent to each recipient individually. In the current design, the IDC and the National Data Centres (NDC's) provide data forwarding to the appropriate receivers. The overhead associated with using unicast to transmit messages to multiple receivers either directly or through a forwarder increases linearly with the number of receivers. In addition, using a forwarding site introduces possible delays and possible points of failure in the path to the receivers. Reliable multicast provides communication services similar to TCP but for a group of receivers. The reliable multicast protocol provides group membership services and message delivery ordering. If an IMS station were to send its data using reliable multicast instead of unicast, only sites that are members of the multicast group would receive the data at approximately the same time. This might provide an efficient means of disseminating station data or IDC data products to all receivers and eliminate or greatly reduce the need for data forwarding. Several commercial and research reliable multicast protocols exist for the Internet. Each of these protocols is designed to serve a specific community of users and applications. The author has undertaken a study to determine if reliable multicasting is appropriate for use in the Global Communication Infrastructure (GCI).

  10. REPORT OF ON-SITE INSPECTION WORKSHOP-16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeney, J J

    2009-07-07

    The central issue addressed by this workshop was the task of making the on-site inspection (OSI) part of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty verification system operationally ready at entry into force of the Treaty. It is recognized, and this was emphasized by the 2008 OSI Integrated Field Exercise (IFE), that it is not possible to develop every part of the OSI regime simultaneously. Therefore, it is necessary to prioritize the approach to OSI readiness. The reviews of the IFE have pointed to many elements of OSI readiness that still need development. The objective of this workshop was to provide priorities for the path forward for Working Group B to consider. Several critical areas have been identified that are related to the development of OSI readiness: (1) Technology development: Priorities are radionuclide and noble gas sampling and analysis, visual observation, multispectral/infrared imaging methods, active seismic methods and the recognition of the importance of signatures. (2) Organizational development: Priorities are health and safety, the Operations Support Centre, the Equipment Storage and Maintenance Facility, information technology data flow and communications. (3) Resources: The expertise to develop key parts of the OSI regime is not available within the current OSI Division staff. To develop these aspects of the regime will require more staff or supplements to the staff with cost-free experts or other means. Aspects of the system that could benefit from more staff include radionuclide and noble gas detection methods, data flow and communications, visual observation, multispectral/infrared methods and health and safety. As the path forward, participants of this workshop recognized a need to optimize the development of OSI priorities. The outcome of this workshop is to suggest for consideration an operational approach to OSI readiness that utilizes results of an evaluation of the relative effectiveness of OSI elements versus their relative maturity. By integrating such an assessment with considerations of integrated operational capabilities and the anticipated level of inspection team self-sufficiency and measurable milestone criteria, a set of priorities for OSI development can be developed. Once these priorities have been established, the Policy Making Organs can decide upon the milestones, strategic plan and action plan to serve as guidance for implementation by the Provisional Technical Secretariat. The suggested operational approach is as follows: (1) Assess the relative effectiveness (importance) of OSI elements versus their relative maturity; (2) Determine the anticipated level of self-sufficiency; (3) Define measurable milestone criteria; and (4) Result: Milestones for OSI readiness.

  11. Landfill reduction experience in The Netherlands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scharff, Heijo

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • ‘Zero waste’ initiatives never consider risks, side effects or experience of achieved low levels of landfill. • This paper provides insight into what works and what not. • Where strong gradients in regulations and tax occur between countries, waste will find its way to landfills across borders. • Strong landfill reduction can create a fierce competition over the remaining waste to be landfilled resulting in losses. • At some point a public organisation should take responsibility for the operation of a ‘safety net’ in waste management. - Abstract: Modern waste legislation aims at resource efficiency and landfill reduction. This paper analyses more than 20 years of landfill reduction in the Netherlands. The combination of landfill regulations, landfill tax and landfill bans resulted in the desired landfill reduction, but also had negative effects. A fierce competition developed over the remaining waste to be landfilled. In 2013 the Dutch landfill industry generated €40 million of annual revenue, had €58 million annual costs and therefore incurred an annual loss of €18 million. It is not an attractive option to prematurely end business. There is a risk that Dutch landfill operators will not be able to fulfil the financial obligations for closure and aftercare. Contrary to the polluter pays principle the burden may end up with society. EU regulations prohibiting export of waste for disposal are in place. Strong differentials in landfill tax rate between nations have nevertheless resulted in transboundary shipment of waste and in non-compliance with the self-sufficiency and proximity principles. During the transformation from a disposal society to a recycling society, it is important to carefully plan required capacity and to guide the reorganisation of the landfill sector. At some point, it is no longer profitable to provide landfill services. It may be necessary for public organisations or the state to take responsibility for the continued operation of a ‘safety net’ in waste management. Regulations have created a financial incentive to pass on the burden of monitoring and controlling the impact of waste to future generations. To prevent this, it is necessary to revise regulations on aftercare and create incentives to actively stabilise landfills.

  12. Examination of the role of nuclear deterrence in the 21st century: a systems analysis approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martz, Joseph C; Stevens, Patrice A; Branstetter, Linda; Hoover, Edward; O' Brien, Kevin; Slavin, Adam; Caswell, David

    2010-01-01

    Until very recently, an evaluation of US policy regarding deterrence and the role of its nuclear weapons arsenal as a deterrent has been largely absent in the public debate. With President's Obama embrace of a goal of a future world without nuclear weapons, issues of nuclear policy and deterrence have just recently risen to the forefront of policy discussions. The traditional role of US nuclear weapons-to deter the use of nuclear weapons by other states-endures, but is no longer unique nor even predominant. In an increasingly multi-polar world, the US now faces growing risks of nuclear weapons proliferation; the spread of weapons of mass destruction generally to non-state, substate and transnational actors; cyber, space, economic, environmental and resource threats along with the application of numerous other forms of 'soft power' in ways that are inimical to national security and to global stability. What concept of deterrence should the US seek to maintain in the 21st Century? That question remains fluid and central to the current debate. Recently there has been a renewed focusing of attention on the role of US nuclear weapons and a national discussion about what the underlying policy should be. In this environment, both the United States and Russia have committed to drastic reductions in their nuclear arsenals, while still maintaining forces sufficient to ensure unacceptable consequence in response to acts of aggression. Further, the declared nuclear powers have maintained that a limited nuclear arsenal continues to provide insurance against uncertain developments in a changing world. In this environment of US and Russian stockpile reductions, all declared nuclear states have reiterated the central role which nuclear weapons continue to provide for their supreme national security interests. Given this new environment and the challenges of the next several decades, how might the United States structure its policy and forces with regard to nuclear weapons? Many competing objectives have been stated across the spectrum of political, social, and military thought. These objectives include goals of ratification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, recommitment to further downsizing of the nuclear arsenal, embracing a long-term goal of the elimination of nuclear weapons, limitations on both the production complex and upgrades to nuclear weapons and delivery systems, and controls and constraints to limit proliferation of nuclear materials and weapons, particularly to rogue states and terrorist groups.

  13. Investigation of CTBT OSI Radionuclide Techniques at the DILUTED WATERS Nuclear Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baciak, James E.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Keillor, Martin E.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Seifert, Allen; Emer, Dudley; Floyd, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a verification regime that includes the ability to conduct an On-Site Inspection (OSI) will be established. The Treaty allows for an OSI to include many techniques, including the radionuclide techniques of gamma radiation surveying and spectrometry and environmental sampling and analysis. Such radioactivity detection techniques can provide the smoking gun evidence that a nuclear test has occurred through the detection and quantification of indicative recent fission products. An OSI faces restrictions in time and manpower, as dictated by the Treaty; not to mention possible logistics difficulties due to the location and climate of the suspected explosion site. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the possible source term an OSI will encounter and the proper techniques that will be necessary for an effective OSI regime. One of the challenges during an OSI is to locate radioactive debris that has escaped an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) and settled on the surface near and downwind of ground zero. To support the understanding and selection of sampling and survey techniques for use in an OSI, we are currently designing an experiment, the Particulate Release Experiment (PRex), to simulate a small-scale vent from an underground nuclear explosion. PRex will occur at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The project is conducted under the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) funded by the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA). Prior to the release experiment, scheduled for Spring of 2013, the project scheduled a number of activities at the NNSS to prepare for the release experiment as well as to utilize the nuclear testing past of the NNSS for the development of OSI techniques for CTBT. One such activitythe focus of this reportwas a survey and sampling campaign at the site of an old UNE that vented: DILUTED WATERS. Activities at DILUTED WATERS included vehicle-based survey, in situ measurements with high-purity germanium (HPGe) and hand-held LaBr3 systems, soil sampling with a variety of tools, and laboratory gamma spectrometric analysis of those samples. A further benefit of the measurement campaign was to gain familiarity with the many logistical aspects of performing radiological field work at NNSS ahead of the PRex. Many practical lessons concerning the proper methodologies and logistics of using the surveying and sampling equipment were noted. These Lessons Learned are compiled together in Appendix A. The vehicle-based survey was successful in that it found a previously unknown hotspot (determined to be 232Th) while it demonstrated that a better method for keeping a serpentine track without staking was needed. Some of the soil sampling equipment was found to be impractical for the application, though core sampling would not be the correct way to take soil samples for a fresh vent deposit (as opposed to an old site like DILUTED WATERS). Due to the sites age, 137Cs was the only fission radioisotope identified, though others were searched for. While not enough samples were taken and analyzed to definitively link the 137Cs to DILUTED WATERS as opposed to other NNSS activities, results were consistent with the historical DILUTED WATERS plume. MDAs were compared for soil sampling and in situ measurements.

  14. Primer on Use of Multi-Spectral and Infra Red Imaging for On-Site Inspections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, J R

    2010-10-26

    The purpose of an On-Site Inspection (OSI) is to determine whether a nuclear explosion has occurred in violation of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and to gather information which might assist in identifying the violator (CTBT, Article IV, Paragraph 35) Multi-Spectral and Infra Red Imaging (MSIR) is allowed by the treaty to detect observables which might help reduce the search area and thus expedite an OSI and make it more effective. MSIR is permitted from airborne measurements, and at and below the surface to search for anomalies and artifacts (CTBT, Protocol, Part II, Paragraph 69b). The three broad types of anomalies and artifacts MSIR is expected to be capable of observing are surface disturbances (disturbed earth, plant stress or anomalous surface materials), human artifacts (man-made roads, buildings and features), and thermal anomalies. The purpose of this Primer is to provide technical information on MSIR relevant to its use for OSI. It is expected that this information may be used for general background information, to inform decisions about the selection and testing of MSIR equipment, to develop operational guidance for MSIR use during an OSI, and to support the development of a training program for OSI Inspectors. References are provided so readers can pursue a topic in more detail than the summary information provided here. The following chapters will provide more information on how MSIR can support an OSI (Section 2), a short summary what Multi-Spectral Imaging and Infra Red Imaging is (Section 3), guidance from the CTBT regarding the use of MSIR (Section 4), and a description of several nuclear explosion scenarios (Section 5) and consequent observables (Section 6). The remaining sections focus on practical aspects of using MSIR for an OSI, such as specification and selection of MSIR equipment, operational considerations for deployment of MISR equipment from an aircraft, and the conduct of field exercises to mature MSIR for an OSI. Finally, an appendix provides detail describing the magnitude and spatial extent of the surface shock expected from an underground nuclear explosion. If there is a seismic event or other data to suggest there has been a nuclear explosion in violation of the CTBT, an OSI may be conducted to determine whether a nuclear explosion has occurred and to gather information which may be useful in identifying the party responsible for conducting the explosion. The OSI must be conducted in the area where the event that triggered the inspection request occurred, and the inspected area must not exceed 1,000 square kilometers, or be more than 50 km on aside (CTBT Protocol, Part II, Paragraphs 2 and 3). One of the guiding principles for an inspection is that it be effective, minimally intrusive, timely, and cost-effective [Hawkins, Feb 1998]. In that context, MSIR is one of several technologies that can be used during an aircraft overflight to identify ground regions of high interest in a timely and cost-effective manner. This allows for an optimized inspection on the ground. The primary purpose for MSIR is to identify artifacts and anomalies that might be associated with a nuclear explosion, and to use the location of those artifacts and anomalies to reduce the search area that must be inspected from the ground. The MSIR measurements can have additional utility. The multi-spectral measurements of the ground can be used for terrain classification, which can aid in geological characterization of the Inspected Area. In conditions of where light smoke or haze is present, long-wave infrared imaging can provide better imaging of the ground than is possible with standard visible imagery.

  15. REGULATORY STRATEGIES TO MINIMIZE GENERATION OF REGULATED WASTES FROM CLEANUP, CONTINUED USE OR DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR FACILITIES CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) - 11198

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowry, N.

    2010-11-05

    Disposal costs for liquid PCB radioactive waste are among the highest of any category of regulated waste. The high cost is driven by the fact that disposal options are extremely limited. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) regulations require most liquids with PCBs at concentration of {ge} 50 parts-per-million to be disposed by incineration or equivalent destructive treatment. Disposal fees can be as high as $200 per gallon. This figure does not include packaging and the cost to transport the waste to the disposal facility, or the waste generator's labor costs for managing the waste prior to shipment. Minimizing the generation of liquid radioactive PCB waste is therefore a significant waste management challenge. PCB spill cleanups often generate large volumes of waste. That is because the removal of PCBs typically requires the liberal use of industrial solvents followed by a thorough rinsing process. In a nuclear facility, the cleanup process may be complicated by the presence of radiation and other occupational hazards. Building design and construction features, e.g., the presence of open grating or trenches, may also complicate cleanup. In addition to the technical challenges associated with spill cleanup, selection of the appropriate regulatory requirements and approach may be challenging. The TSCA regulations include three different sections relating to the cleanup of PCB contamination or spills. EPA has also promulgated a separate guidance policy for fresh PCB spills that is published as Subpart G of 40 CFR 761 although it is not an actual regulation. Applicability is based on the circumstances of each contamination event or situation. Other laws or regulations may also apply. Identification of the allowable regulatory options is important. Effective communication with stakeholders, particularly regulators, is just as important. Depending on the regulatory path that is taken, cleanup may necessitate the generation of large quantities of regulated waste. Allowable options must be evaluated carefully in order to reduce compliance risks, protect personnel, limit potential negative impacts on facility operations, and minimize the generation of wastes subject to TSCA. This paper will identify critical factors in selecting the appropriate TSCA regulatory path in order to minimize the generation of radioactive PCB waste and reduce negative impacts to facilities. The importance of communicating pertinent technical issues with facility staff, regulatory personnel, and subsequently, the public, will be discussed. Key points will be illustrated by examples from five former production reactors at the DOE Savannah River Site. In these reactors a polyurethane sealant was used to seal piping penetrations in the biological shield walls. During the intense neutron bombardment that occurred during reactor operation, the sealant broke down into a thick, viscous material that seeped out of the piping penetrations over adjacent equipment and walls. Some of the walls were painted with a PCB product. PCBs from the paint migrated into the degraded sealant, creating PCB 'spill areas' in some of these facilities. The regulatory cleanup approach selected for each facility was based on its operational status, e.g., active, inactive or undergoing decommissioning. The selected strategies served to greatly minimize the generation of radioactive liquid PCB waste. It is expected that this information would be useful to other DOE sites, DOD facilities, and commercial nuclear facilities constructed prior to the 1979 TSCA ban on most manufacturing and uses of PCBs.

  16. OSI Passive Seismic Experiment at the Former Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeney, J J; Harben, P

    2010-11-11

    On-site inspection (OSI) is one of the four verification provisions of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Under the provisions of the CTBT, once the Treaty has entered into force, any signatory party can request an on-site inspection, which can then be carried out after approval (by majority voting) of the Executive Council. Once an OSI is approved, a team of 40 inspectors will be assembled to carry out an inspection to ''clarify whether a nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of Article I''. One challenging aspect of carrying out an on-site inspection (OSI) in the case of a purported underground nuclear explosion is to detect and locate the underground effects of an explosion, which may include an explosion cavity, a zone of damaged rock, and/or a rubble zone associated with an underground collapsed cavity. The CTBT (Protocol, Section II part D, paragraph 69) prescribes several types of geophysical investigations that can be carried out for this purpose. One of the methods allowed by the CTBT for geophysical investigation is referred to in the Treaty Protocol as ''resonance seismometry''. This method, which was proposed and strongly promoted by Russia during the Treaty negotiations, is not described in the Treaty. Some clarification about the nature of the resonance method can be gained from OSI workshop presentations by Russian experts in the late 1990s. Our understanding is that resonance seismometry is a passive method that relies on seismic reverberations set up in an underground cavity by the passage of waves from regional and teleseismic sources. Only a few examples of the use of this method for detection of underground cavities have been presented, and those were done in cases where the existence and precise location of an underground cavity was known. As is the case with many of the geophysical methods allowed during an OSI under the Treaty, how resonance seismology really works and its effectiveness for OSI purposes has yet to be determined. For this experiment, we took a broad approach to the definition of ''resonance seismometry''; stretching it to include any means that employs passive seismic methods to infer the character of underground materials. In recent years there have been a number of advances in the use of correlation and noise analysis methods in seismology to obtain information about the subsurface. Our objective in this experiment was to use noise analysis and correlation analysis to evaluate these techniques for detecting and characterizing the underground damage zone from a nuclear explosion. The site that was chosen for the experiment was the Mackerel test in Area 4 of the former Nevada Test Site (now named the Nevada National Security Site, or NNSS). Mackerel was an underground nuclear test of less than 20 kT conducted in February of 1964 (DOENV-209-REV 15). The reason we chose this site is because there was a known apical cavity occurring at about 50 m depth above a rubble zone, and that the site had been investigated by the US Geological Survey with active seismic methods in 1965 (Watkins et al., 1967). Note that the time delay between detonation of the explosion (1964) and the time of the present survey (2010) is nearly 46 years - this would not be typical of an expected OSI under the CTBT.

  17. Geologic Assessment of the Damage Zone from the Second Test at Source Physics Experiment-Nevada (SPE-N)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, M. J.; Huckins-Gang, H. E.; Prothro, L. B.; Reed, D. N.

    2012-12-01

    The National Center for Nuclear Security, established by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), is conducting a series of explosive tests at the Nevada National Security Site that are designed to increase the understanding of certain basic physical phenomena associated with underground explosions. These tests will aid in developing technologies that might be used to detect underground nuclear explosions in support of verification activities for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The initial project is a series of explosive tests, known collectively as the Source Physics Experiment-Nevada (SPE-N), being conducted in granitic rocks. The SPE-N test series is designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves. The results will help advance the seismic monitoring capability of the United States by improving the predictive capability of physics-based modeling of explosive phenomena. The first SPE N (SPE-N-1) test was conducted in May 2011, using 100 kg of explosives at the depth of 54.9 m in the U 15n source hole. SPE-N-2 was conducted in October 2011, using 1,000 kg of explosives at the depth of 45.7 m in the same source hole. The SPE-N-3 test was conducted in the same source hole in July 2012, using the same amount and type of explosive as for SPE-N-2, and at the same depth as SPE-N-2, within the damage zone created by the SPE-N-2 explosion to investigate damage effects on seismic wave propagation. Following the SPE-N-2 shot and prior to the SPE-N-3 shot, the core hole U-15n#10 was drilled at an angle from the surface to intercept the SPE-N-2 shot point location to obtain information necessary to characterize the damage zone. The objective was to determine the position of the damage zone near the shot point, at least on the northeast, where the core hole penetrated it, and obtain information on the properties of the damaged medium. Geologic characterization of the post-SPE-N-2 core hole included geophysical logging, a directional survey, and geologic description of the core to document visual evidence of damage. Selected core samples were provided to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for measurement of physical and mechanical properties. A video was also run in the source hole after it was cleaned out. A significant natural fault zone was encountered in the angle core hole between 5.7 and 7.5 m from the shot point. However, several of the fractures observed in the core hole are interpreted as having been caused by the explosion. The fractures are characterized by a fresh, mechanically broken look, with uncoated and very irregular surfaces. They tend to terminate against natural fractures and have orientations that differ from the previously defined natural fracture sets; they are common starting at about 5.4 m from the shot point. Within about 3.3 m of the shot point to the end of the recovered core at 1.6 m from the shot point, some of the core samples are softer and lighter in color, but do not appear to be weathered. It is thought this could be indicative of the presence of distributed microfracturing.

  18. New York Marcellus Shale: Industry boom put on hold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mercurio, Angelique

    2012-01-16

    Key catalysts for Marcellus Shale drilling in New York were identified. New York remains the only state in the nation with a legislative moratorium on high-volume hydraulic fracturing, as regulators and state lawmakers work to balance the advantages of potential economic benefits while protecting public drinking water resources and the environment. New York is being particularly careful to work on implementing sufficiently strict regulations to mitigate the environmental impacts Pennsylvania has already seen, such as methane gas releases, fracturing fluid releases, flowback water and brine controls, and total dissolved solids discharges. In addition to economic and environmental lessons learned, the New York Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) also acknowledges impacts to housing markets, security, and other local issues, and may impose stringent measures to mitigate potential risks to local communities. Despite the moratorium, New York has the opportunity to take advantage of increased capital investment, tax revenue generation, and job creation opportunities by increasing shale gas activity. The combination of economic benefits, industry pressure, and recent technological advances will drive the pursuit of natural gas drilling in New York. We identify four principal catalysts as follows: Catalyst 1: Pressure from Within the State. Although high-volume hydraulic fracturing has become a nationally controversial technology, shale fracturing activity is common in every U.S. state except New York. The regulatory process has delayed potential economic opportunities for state and local economies, as well as many industry stakeholders. In 2010, shale gas production accounted for $18.6 billion in federal royalty and local, state, and federal tax revenues. (1) This is expected to continue to grow substantially. The DEC is under increased pressure to open the state to the same opportunities that Alabama, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Kansas, Louisiana, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, West Virginia, and Wyoming are pursuing. Positive labor market impacts are another major economic draw. According to the Revised Draft SGEIS on the Oil, Gas and Solution Mining Regulatory Program (September 2011), hydraulic fracturing would create between 4,408 and 17,634 full-time equivalent (FTE) direct construction jobs in New York State. Indirect employment in other sectors would add an additional 29,174 FTE jobs. Furthermore, the SGEIS analysis suggests that drilling activities could add an estimated $621.9 million to $2.5 billion in employee earnings (direct and indirect) per year, depending upon how much of the shale is developed. The state would also receive direct tax receipts from leasing land, and has the potential to see an increase in generated indirect revenue. Estimates range from $31 million to $125 million per year in personal income tax receipts, and local governments would benefit from revenue sharing. Some landowner groups say the continued delay in drilling is costing tens of thousands of jobs and millions of dollars in growth for New York, especially in the economically stunted upstate. A number of New York counties near Pennsylvania, such as Chemung, NY, have experienced economic uptick from Pennsylvania drilling activity just across the border. Chemung officials reported that approximately 1,300 county residents are currently employed by the drilling industry in Pennsylvania. The Marcellus shale boom is expected to continue over the next decade and beyond. By 2015, gas drilling activity could bring 20,000 jobs to New York State alone. Other states, such as Pennsylvania and West Virginia, are also expected to see a significant increase in the number of jobs. Catalyst 2: Political Reality of the Moratorium. Oil and gas drilling has taken place in New York since the 19th century, and it remains an important industry with more than 13,000 currently active wells. The use of hydraulic fracturing in particular has been employed for decades. Yet, as technological advancements have enabled access to gas in areas where drilling is not common practice, public concern has ballooned. Opponents argue that more oversight is necessary to protect the environment and public health, while supporters believe the industry is already adequately regulated. Although it is important for New York to complete a thorough environmental and regulatory review, an extended ban could lead to litigation by property owners who have been stripped of the ability to lease their mineral rights. Other states are moving forward by implementing legislative guidelines or rules created by commissions to ensure that resources are developed safely. One of the most controversial issues in other states to date has revolved around the public disclosure of chemical additives in drilling fluid. While the industry is hesitant to reveal trade secrets, the public and many officials want the security of knowing what chemicals are pumped into the ground. Industry transparency could help mitigate the public concern and controversy that is delaying a lift of the moratorium. Currently, at least five other states have set chemical disclosure rules. Arkansas, Michigan, Montana, Texas, and Wyoming require disclosure of the chemical components of drilling fluid. Colorado has the most stringent rules, requiring not just the disclosure of the additives but of their concentrations as well. As more states continue to allow hydraulic fracturing, New York will likely lift the moratorium and instead implement more stringent regulations that help to alleviate public concern surrounding hydraulic fracturing. This will allow the state to safely pursue the expansive opportunities offered by the Marcellus shale without falling behind economically. Catalyst 3: Energy and Infrastructure Benefits. Natural gas provides a key source of energy in the Northeast. The DEC estimates the Marcellus shale gas resource potential to be between 168-516 Tcf. Even at the low end of this range, Marcellus alone could supply seven years of total U.S. energy consumption, and it would provide a local resource for New York. One report suggests that savings from lower natural gas costs would result in an average annual savings of $926 per household. (4) Industry growth is leading to lower natural gas and electric power prices, while decreasing reliance on Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) imports and enhancing domestic energy security. This makes development of the resources an even more attractive commitment to New York. In addition, the natural gas business is predominantly regional in scope. Drilling companies would be required to build new pipelines for gas development in New York, therefore State regulators face valuable ancillary benefits of natural gas development such as infrastructure improvements. Catalyst 4: Technology Improvements. Lastly, the moratorium itself does not prevent the use of alternative drilling technologies, such as non-hydraulic fracturing, for shale gas production. Developers are already using new systems in Texas and Canada, as well as in France where hydraulic fracturing is banned country-wide. Commercial viability of these new technologies could ultimately provide an alternative to jumpstart shale drilling in New York if necessary. The potential benefits from development of the Marcellus shale in New York are undeniable, though regulators are still working to balance the need to stimulate the economy with environmental protection and public health. Since closing the public comment period in January, the DEC has signaled that much more work is needed, making no promises to near-term completion. While, neighboring states are feeling the economic benefits of drilling, the political environment and the recession continues adding pressure to the process in New York state.