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1

Synthetic Datasets Rong Huang, Rada Chirkova, Yahya Fathi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Synthetic Datasets Rong Huang, Rada Chirkova, Yahya Fathi 1 Introduction Datasets may be generated will define symmetric synthetic dataset and two types of non-symmetric synthetic datasets that has some introduce symmetric synthetic dataset, its structure and the properties of the associated views. In Section

Young, R. Michael

2

Norway: Ban on Advertising and Promotion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

use in the 20th century Norway). Thesis. Oslo: Departementof Tobacco Products etc. (Norway) Oslo: National Council onin its advertising over the Norway: Ban on Advertising and

Bjartveit, Kjell; World Health Organization

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Country report on advertising and promotion bans - Croatia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Country report on advertising and promotion bans – Croatiaand promotion bans – Croatia Dr Vlasta Hrabak-Zerbajicbeen grown and consumed in Croatia. In the last century the

Hrabak-Zerbajic, Dr. Vlasta

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Computational Study for Workforce Scheduling and Routing Problems J. Arturo Castillo-Salazar, Dario Landa-Silva and Rong Qu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computational Study for Workforce Scheduling and Routing Problems J. Arturo Castillo-Salazar, Dario Landa-Silva and Rong Qu Automated Scheduling, Optimisation and Planning (ASAP) Research Group, School.K. {psxjaca, dario.landasilva, rong.qu}@nottingham.ac.uk Keywords: Workforce Scheduling and Routing

Landa-Silva, Dario

5

North Slope export ban in repealed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Senate and House both approve a bill lifting the 20-year-old ban on exports from the North Slope. The importance of this action is described.

NONE

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Energy Impact of Secure Computation on a Handheld Device # Zhiyuan Li + Rong Xu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and mobile computing. Many architectural and software e#orts have been initiated to improve the energy eEnergy Impact of Secure Computation on a Handheld Device # Zhiyuan Li + Rong Xu Department#oading is an important approach to save the energy consumption while improving perfor­ mance for wireless networked

Li, Zhiyuan

7

Data Quality Assessment via Robust Clustering Rong Duan Tom Au Wei Jiang  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and manufacturing processes. For 1 #12;example, although total quality management (TQM) principles and techniquesData Quality Assessment via Robust Clustering Rong Duan Tom Au Wei Jiang AT&T Research Labs to improve the quality of decision making, data quality is long time ignored in many practices so

Fisher, Kathleen

8

Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending state bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Graphene Edge Lithography Guibai Xie, Zhiwen Shi, Rong Yang, Donghua Liu, Wei Yang, Meng Cheng, Duoming Wang, Dongxia Shi,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graphene Edge Lithography Guibai Xie, Zhiwen Shi, Rong Yang, Donghua Liu, Wei Yang, Meng Cheng: Fabrication of graphene nanostructures is of importance for both investigating their intrinsic physical approach for graphene nanostructures. Compared with conventional lithographic fabrication techniques

Zhang, Guangyu

10

Supporting the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

PNNL operates the only certified laboratory in the U.S. for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty's International Monitoring System (IMS).

Bowyer, Ted

2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

11

Supporting the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

PNNL operates the only certified laboratory in the U.S. for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty's International Monitoring System (IMS).

Bowyer, Ted

2014-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

12

The in-comprehensive test ban  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The author examines why the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban (CTB) treaty might not make it through the political minefields. Negotiators at the 60-nation U.N. The conference on Disarmament in Geneva reached an impasse, prompted by India`s assertions that the treaty was an inadequate document that perpetuated {open_quotes}nuclear apartheid{close_quotes} while violating India`s sovereignty. Because the Conference on Disarmament-often called the {open_quotes}Geneva Conference{close_quotes} or the {open_quotes}CD{close_quotes}-operates by consensus, India was able to veto the adoption of the treaty, which the conference had planned to transmit to the United Nations in early September. Australia saved the treaty with a last minute decision to bypass the Geneva Conference and take the CTB directly to the General Assembly in the form of a resolution. Some 127 nations co-sponsored Australia`s resolution, to which the treaty draft was attached. The General Assembly endorsed the treaty by a vote of 158 to three. India, Bhutan, and Libya voted against it. Despite the overwhelming vote, the treaty`s long-range outlook is uncertain. On the day of the vote, India`s chief test-ban negotiator, declared that India would {open_quotes}never sign this unequal treaty because Article XIV of the treaty, which requires that all 44 nuclear-capable nations who also belong to the Conference on Disarmament must sign and ratify the treaty. That requirement was viewed as contrary to international law because it denied India`s right of voluntary consent to an international treaty, thus violating India`s sovereignty.

Johnson, R. [Disarmament Intelligence Review, London (United Kingdom)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Improvement of Power-Performance Efficiency for High-End Computing Rong Ge, Xizhou Feng, Kirk W. Cameron  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Earth Simulator requires 18 megawatts of power. Petaflop systems may require 100 megawatts of power[2], nearly the output of a small power plant (300 megawatts). At $100 per megawatt ($.10 per kilowatt), peakImprovement of Power-Performance Efficiency for High-End Computing Rong Ge, Xizhou Feng, Kirk W

Freeh, Vincent

14

Power and Energy Profiling of Scientific Applications on Distributed Systems Xizhou Feng, Rong Ge, Kirk W. Cameron  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.e. cost in power usage over time) will vary by application. For example, it costs 535 joules of energy system power consumption focus on building-wide power usage [6]. Such studies do not separate individualPower and Energy Profiling of Scientific Applications on Distributed Systems Xizhou Feng, Rong Ge

Feng, Xizhou

15

Power and Energy Profiling of Scientific Applications on Distributed Systems Xizhou Feng, Rong Ge, Kirk W. Cameron  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in power usage over time) will vary by application. For example, it costs 535 joules of energy to execute consumption focus on building-wide power usage [6]. Such studies do not separate individual systemsPower and Energy Profiling of Scientific Applications on Distributed Systems Xizhou Feng, Rong Ge

Ge, Rong

16

The Social Costs of an MTBE Ban in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

349 The Social Costs of an MTBE Ban in California REFERENCESD.E. Rolston. “Impacts of MTBE on California Groundwater. ”Environmental Assessment of MTBE, Vol. 4. A. Keller et al. ,

Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

CURRICULUM VITAE XUEGANG (JEFF) BAN, Ph.D.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-based Autonomous Vehicle Navigation Systems B.S. Automotive Engineering July 1997 Tsinghua University, P. R. China Book Chapters 1. Hao, P.*, Sun, Z.*, Ban, X., Guo, D.*, and Ji, Q., 2013. Vehicle index estimation

Ban, Xuegang "Jeff"

18

UN Security Council: Iran violating ban on nuclear weapons programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UN Security Council: Iran violating ban on nuclear weapons programs 7 September 2011 Denouncement comes after International Atomic Energy Agency submits a report claiming Iran continues to make advances weaponization of its nuclear program. The United States, Germany, France and Britain joined forces in exposing

19

Gamma-Ray Bursts Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 1963  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lecture 18 Gamma-Ray Bursts #12;Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 1963 First Vela satellite pair launched and their predecessors, Vela 4, discovered the first gamma-ray bursts. The discovery was announced by Klebesadel, Strong, and Olson (ApJ, 182, 85) in 1973. #12;First Gamma-Ray Burst The Vela 5 satellites functioned from July, 1969

Harrison, Thomas

20

Trading Puts and CDS on Stocks with Short Sale Ban Sophie Xiaoyan Ni and Jun Pan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

not perform differently from the middle group. Within the sample of banned stocks with CDS traded and using in banned stocks and the trading of options and CDS. Within the sample of banned stocks with exchange traded options, stocks whose put-call ratios are in the top quintile underperform the middle group by 2.13% and 4

Gabrieli, John

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rong ban kst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Bio-inspired Active Soft Orthotic Device for Ankle Foot Pathologies Yong-Lae Park, Bor-rong Chen, Diana Young, Leia Stirling,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bio-inspired Active Soft Orthotic Device for Ankle Foot Pathologies Yong-Lae Park, Bor-rong Chen the design of an active soft ankle- foot orthotic device powered by pneumatic artificial muscles for treating assistance without restricting degrees of freedom at the ankle joint. Three pneumatic artificial muscles

Napp, Nils

22

Active Modular Elastomer Sleeve for Soft Wearable Assistance Robots Yong-Lae Park, Bor-rong Chen, Carmel Majidi, Robert J. Wood, Radhika Nagpal, and Eugene Goldfield  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Active Modular Elastomer Sleeve for Soft Wearable Assistance Robots Yong-Lae Park, Bor-rong Chen orthotic device performs motion sensing and production of assistive forces with a mod- ular, pneumatically and physical dependency [2]. Assistive technologies such as electrically powered pros- thetics [3], [4], [5

Park, Yong-Lae

23

National security and the comprehensive test ban treaty  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For nearly three years now, the US, UK, and USSR have been working on the draft of a treaty that would ban all nuclear explosions (both peaceful applications and weapon tests) and institute verification and monitoring provisions to ensure compliance with the treaty. The status of the draft treaty is summarized. The question, Is a CTBT really in the interest of US national security. is analyzed with arguments used by both proponents and opponents of the CTBT. It is concluded that there are arguments both for and against a CTBT, but, for those whose approach to national security can be expressed as peace through preparedness, the arguments against a CTBT appear persuasive. (LCL)

Landauer, J.K.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Mak-Ban / Laguna Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey,(MonasterLowell Point,ECO Auger11.Spain:&Maitland,Mak-Ban / Laguna

25

Mak-Ban Binary 1 GEPP | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey,(MonasterLowell Point,ECO Auger11.Spain:&Maitland,Mak-Ban / Laguna1

26

Mak-Ban Binary 2 GEPP | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey,(MonasterLowell Point,ECO Auger11.Spain:&Maitland,Mak-Ban /

27

Mak-Ban Binary 3 GEPP | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey,(MonasterLowell Point,ECO Auger11.Spain:&Maitland,Mak-Ban /3 GEPP

28

Mak-Ban E GEPP | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey,(MonasterLowell Point,ECO Auger11.Spain:&Maitland,Mak-Ban /3 GEPPGEPP

29

E-Print Network 3.0 - animal movement bans Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ideas from the future generation Summary: discussing the health risks of wild bird trade to both human and animal populations. In 2005, an initial ban... from the future...

30

A chronology of Comprehensive Test Ban proposals, negotiations, and debates: 1945--1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is a compilation of the comprehensive test ban proposals, negotiations and debates which took place between July, 1945 and October, 1993.

Pounds, T.J.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

An Empirical Investigation of the Welfare Effects of Banning Wholesale Price Discrimination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

legislation, which bans wholesale price discrimination, in awhere manufacturers wholesale price discriminate amongNo. 92-466 (1993); for wholesale pharmaceutics see http://

Villas-Boas, Sofia B

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

Not Available

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

The social costs of an MTBE ban in California (Long version)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ethanol, Non-oxy Case D'( p) MTBE Case D(p) U.S. Supply S(p)NO. 932 THE SOCIAL COSTS OF AN MTBE BAN IN CALIFORNIA (LONGMTBE .

Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Comparison of the Ca+HF(DF) and Sr+HF(DF) reaction dynamics Rong Zhang, David J. Rakestraw,a) Kenneth G. McKendrick,b) and Richard N. Zare  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comparison of the Ca+HF(DF) and Sr+HF(DF) reaction dynamics Rong Zhang, David J. Rakestraw family, Ca and Sr with rovibrationally selected HF or DF, has been carried out under single-collision conditions. A thermal beam of the alkaline earth atoms, Ca or Sr, is fired into a low-pressure gas of HF

Zare, Richard N.

35

Understanding the Rate of Clean Up for Oil Zones after a Gel Treatment R.S. Seright, SPE, New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, W. Brent Lindquist, SPE, and Rong Cai,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SPE 112976 Understanding the Rate of Clean Up for Oil Zones after a Gel Treatment R.S. Seright, SPE, New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, W. Brent Lindquist, SPE, and Rong Cai, Stony Brook at the 2008 SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium held in Tulsa, Oklahoma, U.S.A., 19­23 April 2008. This paper

New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

36

Possible energy effects of a US ban on Libyan oil imports  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under current slack market conditions, a ban on trade with Libya is not likely to have a major impact on US oil supplies or prices. Current US oil imports from Libya are small, and oil is readily available from other sources. Libya could experience a temporary loss of oil revenues until it found new customers. Tight market conditions - unlikely in 1982 - would maximize the potential adverse effects on the United States and minimize those on Libya. US oil companies - both those producing and refining Libyan oil - are more likely to feel the adverse effects of a trade ban than the United States as a whole. Although a ban would probably prevent direct imports of Libyan oil from entering the United States, some Libyan oil could still enter the country as products refined elsewhere.

Peach, J.D.

1982-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

37

Free Trade in Oil and Natural Gas, The Case for Lifting the Ban on U.S. Energy Exports  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Not only should the US lift its ban on exporting oil and natural gas in light of today’s economic and political climate, but it was wrong to ever ban such exports in the first place. The US should cease to view its energy resources as a purely...

Griffin, James M.; Gause, F. Gregory

38

Top UN officials call on hold-out States to ratify treaty banning nuclear tests  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Top UN officials call on hold-out States to ratify treaty banning nuclear tests 29 August 2011 War, hundreds of nuclear weapon tests left behind a devastating legacy for local citizens and their natural environment," he said in a message marking the International Day against Nuclear Tests. "Current

39

Policy issues facing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and prospects for the future  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is divided into the following 5 sections: (1) Background; (2) Major Issues Facing Ratification of CTBT; (3) Current Status on CTBT Ratification; (4) Status of CTBT Signatories and Ratifiers; and (5) CTBT Activities Not Prohibited. The major issues facing ratification of CTBT discussed here are: impact on CTBT of START II and ABM ratification; impact of India and Pakistan nuclear tests; CTBT entry into force; and establishment of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization.

Sweeney, J.

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Land cover dynamics following a deforestation ban in northern Costa Rica This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Land cover dynamics following a deforestation ban in northern Costa Rica This article has been) 034017 (9pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/3/034017 Land cover dynamics following a deforestation ban.iop.org/ERL/8/034017 Abstract Forest protection policies potentially reduce deforestation and re

DeFries, Ruth S.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rong ban kst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Comprehensive test ban treaty international monitoring system security threats and proposed security attributes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To monitor compliance with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), a sensing network, referred to as the International Monitoring System (IMS), is being deployed. Success of the IMS depends on both its ability to preform its function and the international community`s confidence in the system. To ensure these goals, steps must be taken to secure the system against attacks that would undermine it; however, it is not clear that consensus exists with respect to the security requirements that should be levied on the IMS design. In addition, CTBT has not clearly articulated what threats it wishes to address. This paper proposes four system-level threats that should drive IMS design considerations, identifies potential threat agents, and collects into one place the security requirements that have been suggested by various elements of the IMS community. For each such requirement, issues associated with the requirement are identified and rationale for the requirement is discussed.

Draelos, T.J.; Craft, R.L.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Using Landsat imagery to map forest change in southwest China in response to the national logging ban and ecotourism development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ban and ecotourism development Jodi S. Brandt a, , Tobias Kuemmerle b,c , Haomin Li d , Guopeng Ren e government has legislated strong forest protection and fostered the growth of ecotourism-based economic periods of forestry policy and ecotourism development from 1974 to 2009. Our analysis showed that logging

Radeloff, Volker C.

43

Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty seismic monitoring: 2012 USNAS report and recent explosions, earthquakes, and other seismic sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A comprehensive ban on nuclear explosive testing is briefly characterized as an arms control initiative related to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The work of monitoring for nuclear explosions uses several technologies of which the most important is seismology-a physics discipline that draws upon extensive and ever-growing assets to monitor for earthquakes and other ground-motion phenomena as well as for explosions. This paper outlines the basic methods of seismic monitoring within that wider context, and lists web-based and other resources for learning details. It also summarizes the main conclusions, concerning capability to monitor for test-ban treaty compliance, contained in a major study published in March 2012 by the US National Academy of Sciences.

Richards, Paul G. [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, 61 Route 9W, Palisades, NY 10964 (United States)

2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

44

Machine Learning and Data Mining for Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Monitoring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is gaining renewed attention in light of growing worldwide interest in mitigating risks of nuclear weapons proliferation and testing. Since the International Monitoring System (IMS) installed the first suite of sensors in the late 1990's, the IMS network has steadily progressed, providing valuable support for event diagnostics. This progress was highlighted at the recent International Scientific Studies (ISS) Conference in Vienna in June 2009, where scientists and domain experts met with policy makers to assess the current status of the CTBT Verification System. A strategic theme within the ISS Conference centered on exploring opportunities for further enhancing the detection and localization accuracy of low magnitude events by drawing upon modern tools and techniques for machine learning and large-scale data analysis. Several promising approaches for data exploitation were presented at the Conference. These are summarized in a companion report. In this paper, we introduce essential concepts in machine learning and assess techniques which could provide both incremental and comprehensive value for event discrimination by increasing the accuracy of the final data product, refining On-Site-Inspection (OSI) conclusions, and potentially reducing the cost of future network operations.

Russell, S; Vaidya, S

2009-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

45

Near-term implications of a ban on new coal-fired power plants in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large numbers of proposed new coal power generators in the United States have been cancelled, and some states have prohibited new coal power generators. We examine the effects on the U.S. electric power system of banning the construction of coal-fired electricity generators, which has been proposed as a means to reduce U.S. CO{sub 2} emissions. The model simulates load growth, resource planning, and economic dispatch of the Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator (ISO), Inc., Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), and PJM under a ban on new coal generation and uses an economic dispatch model to calculate the resulting changes in dispatch order, CO{sub 2} emissions, and fuel use under three near-term (until 2030) future electric power sector scenarios. A national ban on new coal-fired power plants does not lead to CO{sub 2} reductions of the scale required under proposed federal legislation such as Lieberman-Warner but would greatly increase the fraction of time when natural gas sets the price of electricity, even with aggressive wind and demand response policies. 50 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Adam Newcomer; Jay Apt [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

46

The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the relationship  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the most important international security arrangement that we have that is protecting the world community and this has been true for many years. But it did not happen by accident, it is a strategic bargain in which 184 states gave up the right forever to acquire the most powerful weapon ever created in exchange for a commitment from the five states allowed to keep nuclear weapons under the NPT (U.S., U.K., Russia, France and China), to share peaceful nuclear technology and to engage in disarmament negotiations aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear stockpiles. The most important part of this is the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTBT); the thinking by the 184 NPT non-nuclear weapon states was and is that they understand that the elimination of nuclear weapon stockpiles is a long way off, but at least the NPT nuclear weapon states could stop testing the weapons. The CTBT has been ratified by 161 states but by its terms it can only come into force if 44 nuclear potential states ratify; 36 have of the 44 have ratified it, the remaining eight include the United States and seven others, most of whom are in effect waiting for the United States. No state has tested a nuclear weapon-except for complete outlier North Korea-in 15 years. There appears to be no chance that the U.S. Senate will approve the CTBT for ratification in the foreseeable future, but the NPT may not survive without it. Perhaps it is time to consider an interim measure, for the UN Security Council to declare that any future nuclear weapon test any time, anywhere is a 'threat to peace and security', in effect a violation of international law, which in today's world it clearly would be.

Graham, Thomas Jr. [7609 Glenbrook Rd., Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States)

2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

47

KST Coatings, A Business Unit of The Sherwin-Williams Company | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpInc Place: EdenOverview JumpJessi3bl'sJustin,KDOT OsborneKPC

48

Proceedings of the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, held 21-24 September 1999 in Las Vegas, Nevada. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Department of Defense (DoD), the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Warren, N. Jill [Editor

1999-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

49

A Discussion of Procedures and Equipment for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty On-Site Inspection Environmental Sampling and Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper is intended to serve as a scientific basis to start discussions of the available environmental sampling techniques and equipment that have been used in the past that could be considered for use within the context of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) on-site inspections (OSI). This work contains information on the techniques, equipment, costs, and some operational procedures associated with environmental sampling that have actually been used in the past by the United States for the detection of nuclear explosions. This paper also includes a discussion of issues, recommendations, and questions needing further study within the context of the sampling and analysis of aquatic materials, atmospheric gases, atmospheric particulates, vegetation, sediments and soils, fauna, and drill-back materials.

Wogman, Ned A.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Payne, Rosara F.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Friese, Judah I.; Miley, Harry S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hanlen, Richard C.; Onishi, Yasuo; Hayes, James C.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Measurement of 37Ar to support technology for On-site Inspection under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On-Site Inspection (OSI) is a key component of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Measurements of radionuclide isotopes created by an underground nuclear explosion are a valuable signature of a Treaty violation. Argon-37 is produced from neutron interaction with calcium in soil, 40Ca(n,{\\alpha})37Ar. For OSI, the 35-day half-life of 37Ar provides both high specific activity and sufficient time for completion of an inspection before decay limits sensitivity. This paper presents a low-background internal-source gas proportional counter with an 37Ar measurement sensitivity level equivalent to 45.1 mBq/SCM in whole air.

C. E. Aalseth; A. R. Day; D. A. Haas; E. W. Hoppe; B. J. Hyronimus; M. E. Keillor; E. K. Mace; J. L. Orrell; A. Seifert; V. T. Woods

2010-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

51

http://www.swissinfo.org/eng/search/detail/Bird_flu_ban_remains_despite_migration_shift.html?siteSect=881& sid=7420407&cKey=1168586962000  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, warmer than average temperatures in the Atlantic and Mediterranean ­ all pumping heat into the atmosphere_flu_ban_remains_despite_migration_shift.html?siteSect=881& sid=7420407&cKey=1168586962000 Monday 05.03.2007 Climate warning resonates in Switzerland weather heralded a bumper year for bugs and ticks. He said a cold snap in February or March would still

Alvarez, Nadir

52

Limited Test Ban Treaty  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNationalRestart of the Review of theOFFICEACMEFUTURE MOBILITYMarchUnitedrLead9/%2A en

53

Hyperbolic Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation Guodong Rong  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. A novel hyperbolic CVT energy is defined, and the relationship between minimizing this energy in computational ge- ometry, and has a wide usage in different areas in geometric mod- eling, computer graphics strategies, such as minimizing the total cutting edge length and matching the cut graph with the feature

Jin, Miao

54

Proceedings of the Symposium on the Non-Proliferation Experiment: Results and Implications for Test Ban Treaties, Rockville, Maryland, April 19-21, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To address a critical verification issue for the current Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and for a possible future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Department of Energy sought to measure certain differences between an underground nuclear test and a chemical test in the same geology, so that other explosions could be identified. This was done in a field experiment code-named the NonProliferation Experiment (NPE).This comprehensive experiment was designed to determine the signatures of chemical explosions for a broad range of phenomena for comparison with those of previous nuclear tests. If significant differences can be measured, then these measures can be used to discriminate between the two types of explosions. In addition, when these differences are understood, large chemical explosions can be used to seismically calibrate regions to discriminate earthquakes from explosions. Toward this end, on-site and off-site measurements of transient phenomena were made, and on-site measurements of residual effects are in progress.Perhaps the most striking result was that the source function for the chemical explosion was identical to that of a nuclear one of about twice the yield. These proceedings provide more detailed results of the experiment.

Denny, Marvin D

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Proceedings of the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), held 13-15 September 2000 in New Orleans, Louisiana. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Department of Defense (DoD), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Nichols, James W., LTC [Editor

2000-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

56

Cat. B tipo ricerca ban  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

titoli e c oria B ­ Tip coordinam sso il Diparti Roma "La S Alessandri Art. 2 novo, ed im essere rinno

Guidoni, Leonardo

57

VAN DEN BAN-SCHLICHTKRULL-WALLACH ASYMPTOTIC ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ec. Norm. Sup. Pisa 22, 107–112. [NS]. E. Nelson, F. Stinespring, Representations of elliptic operators in an enveloping. algebra, Amer. J. of Math. 81, 547–560.

58

Evaluating California's handheld cell phone use ban.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Driver inattention has long been an issue for traffic safety advocates. Drivers may only briefly look away to change the radio station, answer a phone… (more)

Stewart, Amy Kathleen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Banning, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 EastMaine: EnergyAustin EnergyBacliff,BallengerEnergyNIES07. It is classified

60

Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0,InformationU.S. Crude Oil31 E n e

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rong ban kst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Intelligent Cloud Capacity Management Yexi Jiang, Chang-Shing Perng, Tao Li, Rong Chang  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in resource idling and unnecessary utility costs. The unused hardware not only causes under-utilized capital consumption is a major cost: the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that the energy usage}@us.ibm.com Abstract--Cloud computing as a service promises many busi- ness benefits. The cost to pay is that it also

Li, Tao

62

Self-adaptive Cloud Capacity Planning Yexi Jiang, Chang-shing Perng, Tao Li, Rong Chang  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

costs. Unused hardware not only causes under-utilized capital, but also results in more early purchase}@us.ibm.com Abstract--The popularity of cloud service spurs the increas- ing demands of cloud resources to the cloud a new method for cloud capacity planning with the goal of fully utilizing the physical resources, as we

Li, Tao

63

Theoretical Cluster Studies on the Catalytic Sulfidation of MoO3 Xue-Rong Shi,,,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, State Key Laboratory of Coal ConVersion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (HDN) processes and exhibit also high activity for methanation and for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and sulfur adsor- bates as well as hydrogen

64

Semi-Supervised Learning in Inferring Mobile Device Locations Rong Duan , Olivia Hong, Guangqin Ma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With the development of mobility technology, location information has become collectible by various positioning, and ecology, etc. With the development of mobile technology, the capability of locating mobile devices and the other is mobile network position technology. Satellite position technology, commonly known as Global

Greenberg, Albert

65

Automated Known Problem Diagnosis with Event Traces , Ji-Rong Wen1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

has less freedom to cut a deal because of competing political factions." The disarmament debate caught

Murphy, Robert F.

66

AHP15: Rgyal rong Tibetan Life, Language, and Folklore in Rgyas bzang Village  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

about three to four kilometers away from the village from April to October. They live in a tsha gdan38 tent near big caves. They milk cows and make butter, cheese, and yogurt. They make a small pool by some trees, creating a cool, humid environment... to pigs. Photograph Thirty. The bang ma is a room where such items as meat, butter, and lard are stored. Photograph Thirty-one. An 'o zom 'milk bucket'. Photograph Thirty-Two. Village women carry firewood home. Photograph Thirty-three. A spal par...

G.yu 'brug; Stuart, C K

67

SonarWatch: Appropriating the Forearm as a Slider Bar Rong-Hao Liang  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- ocedure. d to the Capacitive Touch Sensor Ultrasonic Rangefinder Micro-processor on Arduino Mini Figure 1 outputs are re- trieved by the Arduino Mini platform 2.2 Gesture recognition Our gesture recognition with an ultrasonic rangefinder and a capacitive touch sensor. Sensor outputs are re- trieved by the Arduino Mini

Ouhyoung, Ming

68

Approximation Power of Re nable Vectors of Functions y Rong-Qing Jia and Qingtang Jiang  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of functions in a compact form, which can be easily applied to concrete problems. Let IR denote the set of real ; : : : ; #30; r ) T be an r #2; 1 vector of compactly supported functions in L p (IR s ) (1 #20; p #20; 1;) and describe approximation schemes that achieve the optimal approximation order. We also give a self

Jiang, Qingtang

69

Jian-Rong (Jeff) Li | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region serviceMission Statement Titan Target ChamberTechnologies |

70

Mine seismicity and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface and underground mining operations generate seismic ground motions which are created by chemical explosions and ground failures. It may come as a surprise to some that the ground failures (coal bumps, first caves, pillar collapses, rockbursts, etc.) can send signals whose magnitudes are as strong or stronger than those from any mining blast. A verification system that includes seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide sensors is being completed as part of the CTBT. The largest mine blasts and ground failures will be detected by this system and must be identified as distinct from signals generated by small nuclear explosions. Seismologists will analyze the seismic records and presumably should be able to separate them into earthquake-like and non earthquake-like categories, using a variety of so-called seismic discriminants. Non-earthquake essentially means explosion- or implosion-like. Such signals can be generated not only by mine blasts but also by a variety of ground failures. Because it is known that single-fired chemical explosions and nuclear explosion signals of the same yield give very similar seismic records, the non-earthquake signals will be of concern to the Treaty verification community. The magnitude of the mine-related events is in the range of seismicity created by smaller nuclear explosions or decoupled tests, which are of particular concern under the Treaty. It is conceivable that legitimate mining blasts or some mine-induced ground failures could occasionally be questioned. Information such as shot time, location and design parameters may be all that is necessary to resolve the event identity. In rare instances where the legitimate origin of the event could not be resolved by a consultation and clarification procedure, it might trigger on On-Site Inspection (OSI). Because there is uncertainty in the precise location of seismic event as determined by the International Monitoring System (IMS), the OSI can cover an area of up to 1,000 squared kilometers. In active mining districts this area could include several different mining operations. So, an OSI could be disruptive both to the mining community and to the US Government which must host the foreign inspection team. Accordingly, it is in the best interest of all US parties to try and eliminate the possible occurrence of false alarms. This can be achieved primarily by reducing the ambiguity of mine-induced seismic signals, so that even if these remain visible to the IMS they are clearly consistent with recognizable mining patterns.

Chiappetta, F. [Blasting Analysis International, Allentown, PA (United States); Heuze, F.; Walter, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hopler, R. [Powderman Consulting Inc., Oxford, MD (United States); Hsu, V. [Air Force Technical Applications Center, Patrick AFB, FL (United States); Martin, B. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States); Pearson, C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stump, B. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Zipf, K. [Univ. of New South Wales (Australia)

1998-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

71

Xenon monitoring and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

How do you monitor (verify) a CTBT? It is a difficult challenge to monitor the entire world for nuclear tests, regardless of size. Nuclear tests 'normally' occur underground, above ground or underwater. Setting aside very small tests (let's limit our thinking to 1 kiloton or more), nuclear tests shake the ground, emit large amounts of radioactivity, and make loud noises if in the atmosphere (or hydroacoustic waves if underwater)

Bowyer, Theodore W. [Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

72

The Social Costs of an MTBE Ban in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

85 MTBE is more soluble in water than BTEX, which means thatlong as BTEX plumes; and California Regional Water QualityMTBE than BTEX dissolves in a given quantity of water. This

Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Science Advice to Presidents: From Test Bans to SDI  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

May 27, 1957, Dwight D. Eisen­ hower Papers, Diary Series,military matters. As Eisen­ hower explained in his nationalthe proposal and Eisen­ hower asking the group "to think

Greb, G Allen

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Limited Test Ban Treaty Signed | National Nuclear Security Administration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6, 2011Liisa O'Neill About Us Liisa O'Neill

75

The Social Costs of an MTBE Ban in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Gasoline. ” Annual Energy Outlook 2000. DOE/EIA-0383,in Gaso- line. ” Annual Energy Outlook 2000. DOE/EIA-0383,MTBE in Gasoline,” Annual Energy Outlook 2000, 2001a. Mazur,

Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Limited Test Ban Treaty | National Nuclear Security Administration  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNational NuclearhasAdministration77NuclearSecurityAdministrator |Life Extension|

77

Senate Rejects Test Ban Treaty | National Nuclear Security Administration  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNational Nuclearhas 'Natitude'Security AdministrationNuclearFY13Under Budget

78

Statute - Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartment of Energyof the AmericasDOE-STD-3020-2005CodeErnestMacondo(SeptemberStatute -

79

City of Banning, California (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin:Energy InformationLake SouthChroma ATEEnergyAugusta, KansasAztec,California

80

The Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 requires  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf11-161-LNGInternationalTechnology Validation Technology ValidationTexas CleanMercury

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rong ban kst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Functional Analysis of Cardiac MR Images using SPHARM Heng Huanga, Li Shenb, James Forda, Fillia Makedona, Rong Zhangc  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Functional Analysis of Cardiac MR Images using SPHARM Modeling Heng Huanga, Li Shenb, James Forda relationship with stages of disease. At the same time, Further author information: (Send correspondence to Heng Huang) Heng Huang: E-mail: hh@cs.dartmouth.edu, Telephone: 1 603 646 1694 Li Shen: lshen

Huang, Heng

82

c-Myc degradation induced by DNA damage results in apoptosis of CHO Man-Rong Jiang1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of UV41 cells by TC treatment. Further analysis showed that degradation of the c-Myc protein in TC, MG132, reduced both the degradation of c-Myc and apoptosis in TC-treated UV41 cells. Expression-Myc degradation induced by DNA damage in the presence of TC contributes to induction of apoptosis of UV41 cells

Tian, Weidong

83

Improvement of Power-Performance Efficiency for High-End Computing Rong Ge, Xizhou Feng, Kirk W. Cameron  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of thousands of power hungry components will lead to intolerable operating costs and failure rates. High to quantify and compare the power-performance efficiency for parallel Fourier transform and matrix transpose numbers of power-hungry commercial components (e.g. Itanium) in clusters of SMPs to achieve high

Ge, Rong

84

SonarWatch: Appropriating the Forearm as a Slider Bar Rong-Hao Liang1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by the Arduino Mini platform, which can be also attached on the watchband. Raw data is transfered to the server://www.xbox.com/kinect/ Capacitive Touch Sensor Ultrasonic Rangefinder Micro-processor on Arduino Mini Figure 1: Sonar- trieved by the Arduino Mini platform 2.2 Gesture recognition Our gesture recognition procedure

Ouhyoung, Ming

85

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid degradation genes Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

degradation, necessitating a gene inactivation... ). Several genes involved in steroid degradation were cloned by functional complementation of different UV... , a kstD gene...

86

"Sex in Marriage is a Divine Gift": For whom ? Evidence from the Manila contraceptive ban  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that family resources are important constraints in the accumulation of child human capital. This idea lies inputs of the child human capital accumulation process. Hence, a ma- jor challenge for estimating and quality in devel- oping countries by estimating the effect of family size on child education in urban

Boyer, Edmond

87

Ban on US–China space-program ties means missed opportunities for NASA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sino-US cooperation could stretch budgets and benefit both countries in space science and human flight.

Kramer, David

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

88

Shuo Wen Jie Zi -- Dianzi Ban: Digital Recension of the Eastern Han Chinese Grammaticon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

18 gao, $Lj gbt, ft hhn, #i hho, flftibg, § jss, ISjur, MHDZ: 74760.100. 4929 330.141 hho /yo/ (081.19); hu. 1 u hhm

Cook, Richard Jr.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

3.6 AMENDMENT 41 GIFT BAN Highlights of Independent Ethics Commission's Position Statement on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

legislators, government employees and their immediate family from accepting gifts worth more than $50. In its, on the basis that there is "lawful consideration of equal or greater value" exchanged: · Scholarships granted computers, telephones, staff, etc.); o Government time is not used for the preparation or delivery

90

A Report on Smoking Advertising and Promotion Bans in The lslamic Republic of Iran  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

increase tobacco use in the Islamic Republic of Iran.The Islamic Republic of Iran Ministry of Health and MedicalCommittee Islamic Republic of Iran World Health Organization

World Health Organization; Ministry of Health and Medical Education Deputy of Health

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

The social costs of an MTBE ban in California (Condensed version)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Focus: Phasing Out MTBE in Gasoline," Annual Energyand P. J. Bartholomae, "MTBE and Benzene Plume Behavior: ASoil Sediment & Groundwater MTBE Special Issue, March, 43-

Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Should local anesthetics be banned during treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis with botulinum toxin A?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hyperhidrosis. Needle-free anesthesia as an alternative toBenohanian A. Needle- free anesthesia: A promising techniquefree lidocaine injection (jet anesthesia). The injectate,

Benohanian, Antranik

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

The 1994 Net Ban Constitutional Amendment: a case study of marine fisheries management in Florida  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On November 8, 1994 the Florida electorate voted 2,876,091 to 1,135,110 in favor of proposed amendment #3 to the state constitution. The amendment effectively reallocated the state's nearshore fisheries to predominantly recreational "hook and line...

Grimes, Shepherd Russell

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Improvement of Urban Environmental Sanitation Services (UESS) in Ban Hatsady Tai, Vientiane City, Lao PDR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Public Works and Transport Institute (PTI), Vientiane, Lao PDR 2 Asian Institute of Technology (AIT Tai, Vientiane City (Lao PDR) is currently being implemented by the Public Works and Transport supply, storm water drainage, and sanitation and solid waste management) in a comprehensive manner. Using

Richner, Heinz

95

Ban Bi Thng cho Bi thng cho nhn vin l g?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vic. Ví d: au lng khi b té ngã, b bng do hóa cht bn vào da, b thng trong tai nn xe hi khi i giao hàng làm vic: Chi tr nu vic quý v không c hng lng do chn thng ngn cn quý v làm công vic thông thng trong

96

Livermore scientist, engineers train to be inspectors for test ban treaty  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6, 2011LiisaInnovationorganization | National Nuclear

97

High Precision Site-selective Growth of SWNTs and its Applications Rong Xiang, Shinya Aikawa, Erik Einarsson, Junichiro Shiomi, Shigeo Maruyama  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

imaging of the SAM formation process, we clearly reveal the effect of wettability on the density of SWNTs-assembled monolayer (SAM) and then selectively removing the SAM by ultraviolet (UV) light, the catalyst can be dip images of SWNTs grown in the regions where OTS were selectively removed, suggesting the location

Maruyama, Shigeo

98

Ultra-sensitive strain sensors based on piezoresistive nanographene films Jing Zhao, Congli He, Rong Yang, Zhiwen Shi, Meng Cheng et al.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­3 Along with the relentless pursuit of low-cost and miniatur- ized devices, different candidate materials characteristics of nanographene films, which indicates our results provide a different rout toward ultra advantages in scalable devices fabrication via top-down approaches, which is com- patible with existing

Zhang, Guangyu

99

An Integrated Web Resource for Cotton Alan R. Gingle,* Hongyu Yang, Peng W. Chee, O. Lloyd May, Junkang Rong, Daryl T. Bowman,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Integrated Web Resource for Cotton Alan R. Gingle,* Hongyu Yang, Peng W. Chee, O. Lloyd May Cotton Diversity Database'' (http://cotton.agtec.uga.edu) is a Web resource for cotton (Gossypium spp to begin with a cotton accession and obtain all available data. The phenotypic data displays include

Chee, Peng W.

100

RESOLUTION NO. 2013-93 A RESOLUTION OF THE CITY COUNCIL OF THE CITY OF BANNING UPDATING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

'S INTERNAL "RENEWABLE PORTFOLIO STANDARDS ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM AND RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES PROCUREMENT PLAN and Renewable Energy Resources Procurement Plan; and WHEREAS, the California Energy Commission ("CEC") recently to adopt a Cost Limitations Policy that limits the impact that the State of California's Renewable

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rong ban kst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Rapid Deployment Drilling System for on-site inspections under a Comprehensive Test Ban Preliminary Engineering Design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While not a new drilling technology, coiled-tubing (CT) drilling continues to undergo rapid development and expansion, with new equipment, tools and procedures developed almost daily. This project was undertaken to: analyze available technological options for a Rapid Deployment Drilling System (RDDS) CT drilling system: recommend specific technologies that best match the requirements for the RDDS; and highlight any areas where adequate technological solutions are not currently available. Postshot drilling is a well established technique at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Drilling provides essential data on the results of underground tests including obtaining samples for the shot zone, information on cavity size, chimney dimensions, effects of the event on surrounding material, and distribution of radioactivity.

Maurer, W.C.; Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Cohen, J.H. [Maurer Engineering, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Heuze, F.E.; Butler, M.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

acoustic microscopy risswachstumsstudien: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Zhang; Rong-Gen Cai 2004-11-18 8 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Acoustic Daylight: passive acoustic imaging Geosciences Websites Summary: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN...

103

acoustic microscopy: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Zhang; Rong-Gen Cai 2004-11-18 8 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Acoustic Daylight: passive acoustic imaging Geosciences Websites Summary: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN...

104

E-Print Network 3.0 - asymptotically anti-de sitter Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Instituto Superior Tcnico, Universidade Tcnica de Lisboa Collection: Mathematics ; Physics 2 Null particle solutions in three-dimensional (anti-) de Sitter Rong-Gen...

105

artificial intelligence based: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Introduction Qu, Rong 14 An artificial intelligence approach to model-based gas lift troubleshooting Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: AN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE...

106

Computational Study for the Workforce Scheduling and Routing J. Arturo Castillo-Salazar1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computational Study for the Workforce Scheduling and Routing Problem J. Arturo Castillo-Salazar1 , Dario Landa-Silva1 and Rong Qu1 1Automated Scheduling, Optimisation and Planning (ASAP) Research Group.landasilva, rong.qu}@nottingham.ac.uk Keywords: Employee Scheduling, Workforce Optimization, Personnel Routing

Qu, Rong

107

A NEW TRAPPING FACILITY FOR PRECISION EXPERIMENTS ON LOW ENERGY BEAM G. Ban, G. Darius, P. Delahaye, D. Durand, X. Flechard, M. Herbane, M. Labalme, E. Lienard,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Frequency Quadrupole Cooler Buncher[1] (RFQCB) was designed to handle beams with high emittance ions will be stored nearly at rest in a thin volume defined by the electric field of the transparent been performed with an off-line thermo-ionic source and an ECR source on the LIMBE facility at CIRIL

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

108

Applications of large eddy simulation methods to gyrokinetic turbulence A. Ban Navarro, B. Teaca, F. Jenko, G. W. Hammett, T. Happel, and ASDEX Upgrade Team  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Applications of large eddy simulation methods to gyrokinetic turbulence A. Bañón Navarro, B. Teaca~non Navarro,1,a) B. Teaca,2,3,4 F. Jenko,1,4 G. W. Hammett,4,5 T. Happel,1 and ASDEX Upgrade Team1 1 Max

Hammett, Greg

109

TITLE  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

t l o m l Laberatoy, and i r c t f t c k-st U b e r r b v t o r UN U.S. Dlpart- m t ef Enrgy. ( I n prrprratlon.3 U.S. Ruclarr k g u t i t o v C e r l r t o n . W t . Mbltlrr f...

110

Posters about Ecology and the Environment Before and During the 1970s  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Reach of Children [DDT ban] Photo by Eli Leon CircaNext Pelican you See [DDT ban] [artist unknown] Limerickto ban the widely-used pesticide DDT. The pelican poster was

Cushing, Lincoln

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Tobacco Policy in Municipal Buildings, 2001  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WINNEBAGO County Banned in all buildings Cities County WOODCounty Banned in all buildings WOOD Cities MENASHA NEENAHBanned in some but not all buildings County ARPIN AUBURNDALE

Department of Population Health Sciences Center for Health Policy and Program Evaluation,

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Combinatorial Mathematicians based in Britain.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Geoffrey M. Kent Cohen, Prof. D. E. RHUL Cohen, Prof. Stephen D. Glasgow Constable, Robin L. St. Andrews Galbraith, Dr. Steven RHUL Gao, Rong Essex Gardiner, Dr. Tony D. Birmingham Gasieniec, Leszek Liverpool

113

Combinatorial Mathematicians based in Britain. Adamaszek, Anna Warwick  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Constable, Robin L. St. Andrews Cook, Gary Sussex Cook, Prof. R.J. Sheffield Cooley, Oliver Birmingham #12 Friedetzky, Dr. Tom Durham G Galbraith, Dr. Steven RHUL Gao, Rong Essex Gardiner, Dr. Tony D. Birmingham

114

Combinatorial Mathematicians based in Britain.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cohen, Dr. Stephen D. Glasgow Constable, Robin L. St. Andrews Cook, Dr. R.J. Sheffield Cooper, Dr. Colin Forbes, A.D. Open G Galbraith, Dr. Steven RHUL Garcia, Paul Open Gao, Rong Essex Gardiner, Dr. Tony D

115

Combinatorial Mathematicians based in Britain.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cohen, Dr. Stephen D. Glasgow Constable, Robin L. St. Andrews Cook, Prof. R.J. Sheffield Cooley, Oliver Fountoulakis, Dr. N. Birmingham G Galbraith, Dr. Steven RHUL Gao, Rong Essex Gardiner, Dr. Tony D. Birmingham

116

Segmentation of 3D Meshes through Spectral Clustering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2 , 2/ , ji eji D W - = 2/12/1 -- = WLLO L : diagonal matrix of W 's row sums Normalization PG '04Segmentation of 3D Meshes through Spectral Clustering Rong Liu, Hao Zhang GrUVi Lab, Simon Fraser

Zhang, Richard "Hao"

117

Multiple locus genealogies and phenotypic characters reappraise the causal agents of apple ring rot in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in China Chao Xu & Chunsheng Wang & Liangliang Ju & Rong Zhang & Alan R. Biggs & Eiji Tanaka & Bingzhi Li@163.com A. R. Biggs Kearneysville Tree Fruit Research and Education Center, West Virginia University, P

Biggs, Alan R.

118

Space-time power schedule for distributed MIMO links without instantaneous channel state information at the transmitting nodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have proposed a space–time optimal power schedulingin [4]–[7]. In [4], a space-only (i.e. , time-invariant)are all and . Scheme A5 space-only schemes. Here, RONG et

Rong, Yue; Hua, Yingbo; Swami, Ananthram; Swindlehurst, A. Lee

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

YouProve: Authenticity and Fidelity in Mobile Sensing Peter Gilbert  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Egypt, and Libya is difficult. Due to logistical obstacles, govern- ment bans, and reprisals against

120

PACIFIC NORTHWEST NATIONAL LABORATORY'S CENTER FOR GLOBAL SECURITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Treaty The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty puts a cap on the development of nuclear weapons by banning nuclear weapon testing. The Treaty Organization will verify the ban on nuclear tests, operating the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Wednesday, December 14, 2011 10 a.m. ­ 11:30 a.m. in the Battelle

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rong ban kst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Finding a Middle Ground in the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The 2001 UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage bans the commercial exploitation of underwater cultural heritage. Despite this ban, “commercial exploitation” is not formally defined in the Convention and the only...

Gongaware, Laura Lynn

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

122

Resource Use Efficiency Dr. Ernst von Weizscker  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LEED building #12;Energy efficiency From incandescent light bulbs to solid state lighting #12;Modern make it happen? CAFE standards Building codes Banning incandescent light bulbs Banning water wasting

Keller, Arturo A.

123

A low power, reconfigurable fabric body area network for healthcare applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Body Area Networks (BANs) are gaining prominence for their capability to revolutionize medical monitoring, diagnosis and treatment. This thesis describes a BAN that uses conductive fabrics (e-textiles) worn by the user to ...

Desai, Nachiket Venkappayya

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

E-Print Network 3.0 - air force landfill Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Driving Forces towards Materials... lack of Waste-to-Energy capacity. 12;9 Austria As Germany, but Ban in force already in 2002. Landfill... Landfill Ban in force already in...

125

CdTe Photovoltaics: Real and Perceived EHS Risks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-making Processes: g Cd/ton Zn (% Cd/Zn) Roast/leach/electrowinning process: 0.2 (0.008 %) Roast/blast furnace Basin: The effect of banning Cd products Cd Use & Disposal in the Rhine Basin: The effect of banning Cd products "So, the ultimate effect of banning Cd products and recycling 50% of disp

Ohta, Shigemi

126

NET-VISA: Network Processing Vertically Integrated Seismic Analysis by Nimar S. Arora, Stuart Russell,*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the International Monitoring System (IMS), a global sensor network developed for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban the IMS output. Introduction The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), which bans all nuclear the risks of nuclear weapons proliferation and testing. To monitor compliance with the treaty, the Prepara

Russell, Stuart

127

Identify the Problem: Reduce Waste By  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aims to reduce waste by banning plastic bags in light of the California state law AB 2449 which Primary energy Plastic uses 23% less Paper uses 80% less Solid waste Plastic contributes 76% less AbioticIdentify the Problem: Reduce Waste By Banning Plastic Bag Use Define Goal: Is the ban the most

Iglesia, Enrique

128

Ogmios 24  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

malochislennykh narodov Rossii ("languages of ethnic minorities of Russia"), 67 of which have been reviewed in considerable detail in the recent "Red Book" (Yazyki Narodov Rossii - Krasnaya Kniga), edited by V. P. Neroznak - Moscow 2002: ISBN 5-87444- 149... long fingers in a half-split log. As Odysseus did to the Cyclops, though, the woodcutter makes sure of his escape by giving a false name: as he leaves, he tells the powerless sprite that he is called B?lt?r, "Last Year". K?çk?ra: K?st?, x#2;rap...

Ostler, Nicholas D M

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Ultraviolet selective silicon photodiode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(' silicon surfa&(& that n&ost of t h&) phologeneraied hole-el( & tron pairs are k&st by surface rccornbinai ion before being nolle&. trxl hy a pr). jun?i, ion. The major cause of surl'a&. e re?omhination is probably due Io lifetim(. shortening ol' Lhe... drpth corresponded to a high& r shor4wav? length rcsponsiv- ity tlirough liis ( xperimcnial diodes with junction dcpl ha ol'0. -'I to 2 0 pm. I indmayer and Allison [4I] I'abri&. ated n+-p solar cells with junction &lcpths of approximately 0. 1, 0. 15...

Chintapalli, Koteswara Rao

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Fast Bounded Online Gradient Descent Algorithms for Scalable Kernel-Based Online Learning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Zhao zhao0106@ntu.edu.sg Jialei Wang jl.wang@ntu.edu.sg Pengcheng Wu wupe0003@ntu.edu.sg Rong Jin rongjin@cse.msu.edu Steven C.H. Hoi chhoi@ntu.edu.sg School of Computer Engineering, Nanyang, they are neither computa- tionally efficient due to their intensive budget maintenance strategy nor effective due

Jin, Rong

131

Appl. Math. J. Chinese Univ. 2008, 23(2): 197-201  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for unit root in autoregressive time series with GARCH errors YANG Xiao-rong ZHANG Li-xin Abstract. In this article, the unit root test for AR(p) model with GARCH errors is considered. The Dickey-Fuller test. Recently, nonstationary autoregressive model with GARCH errors have received increasing attention

Zhang, Li-Xin

132

AN ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION FOR THE NUMBER OF KEKULE STRUCTURES OF BENZENOID CHAINS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the plane results in a graph such as that illustrated in Figures 1(a) and 1(b). In organic chemistry [6], Fu-ji & Rong-si [8], Artemi [1], Yamaguchi [14]. A whole recent book [5] is devoted to Kekule impose upon C\\, C >··, Cm the following conditions to reflect the underlying chemistry: (i) Every C

Bodro�a-Pantiæ, Olga

133

Integrity Insight Ingenuity Pioneering Business Learning and Discovery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gross Rong Gu Nathan Hagge Jennifer Haldeman Amanda Ham Erica Hansen Nicole Hanson Joseph Hartman Jeff Waltke Kimberly Williams Audra Wilson Robert Wirth Noah Witkowicz Micah Wythers Andrew Young Yanyan Zhu Williams Noah Witkowicz Kathryn Zuckweiler #12;Freshman High Scholars These students have achieved a grade

Farritor, Shane

134

Energy Impact of Secure Computation on a Handheld Device Zhiyuan Li  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Impact of Secure Computation on a Handheld Device Zhiyuan Li Rong Xu Department of Computer is an important approach to save the energy consumption while improving perfor- mance for wireless networked. In this paper, we measure the energy con- sumption characteristics of multimedia applications on a handheld

Li, Zhiyuan

135

RDOCK: Refinement of Rigid-body Protein Docking Predictions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RDOCK: Refinement of Rigid-body Protein Docking Predictions Li Li,1 Rong Chen,1 and Zhiping Weng1 RDOCK for refining unbound predictions generated by a rigid-body docking algorithm ZDOCK, which has been, RDOCK represents the simplest approach toward refining unbound docking predictions. Despite its simplic

Weng, Zhiping

136

Mechanism of tungsten-dependent acetylene hydratase from quantum chemical calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanism of tungsten-dependent acetylene hydratase from quantum chemical calculations Rong hydratase is a tungsten-dependent enzyme that cata- lyzes the nonredox hydration of acetylene metalloenzyme cluster approach Tungsten is the heaviest metal in biology and plays prominent roles in carbon

Liao, Rongzhen

137

Oct 8, 2004 Segmentation of 3D Meshes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

matrix W using exponential kernel 2 , 2/ , ji eji D W - = 2/12/1 -- = WLLO L : diagonal matrix of W 'sOct 8, 2004 sfsdfsfd 1 Segmentation of 3D Meshes through Spectral Clustering Rong Liu, Hao Zhang Gr

Toronto, University of

138

Electronic Supplementary Material Scalable preparation of porous silicon nanoparticles and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and their application for lithium-ion battery anodes Mingyuan Ge1 , Jiepeng Rong1 , Xin Fang1 , Anyi Zhang1 , Yunhao Lu2. The term PV is of the order of 10­5 eV, and TS is of the order of the thermal energy, which is much smaller

Zhou, Chongwu

139

Volume 170, number 5,6 CHEMICAL PHYSICS LETTERS 20 July 1990 Nature of the red emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the chemical oxygen iodine laser system Ruiping Huang `, Rong Zhang ' and Richard N. Zare Deparfmenfof at 703 nm is observed when a heated metal wire is placed downstream of an O,( `A& generator used in the chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) system. The O2(`4) isproduced by bubbling Cl, through an alkaline

Zare, Richard N.

140

Enhanced activity and stability of Pt catalysts on functionalized graphene sheets for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction Rong Kou a , Yuyan Shao a , Donghai Wang a , Mark H. Engelhard a , Ja Hun Kwak a higher electrochemical surface area and oxygen reduction activity with improved stability as compared with the commercial catalyst. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical

Aksay, Ilhan A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rong ban kst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

6644 Chem. Commun., 2013, 49, 6644--6646 This journal is c The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013 Cite this: Chem. Commun., 2013,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and low-background strategy for fluorescence catalytic biosensors Ting Fu,a Xu-Hua Zhao,a Hua-Rong Bai body, especially to children.14,15 Although several DNAzyme-based fluorescence catalytic bio- sensors samples to ensure large signal to back- ground ratios (SBR) to counteract background interference

Tan, Weihong

142

Solution Ionic Strength Engineering As a Generic Strategy to Coat Graphene Oxide (GO) on Various Functional Particles and Its  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, such as lithium-ion battery electrode materials,2-4 corrosion inhib- itor,5,6 photocatalysts,7 solar cells,8 Functional Particles and Its Application in High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) Batteries Jiepeng Rong as an example for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery application with superior performance. Particles of different

Zhou, Chongwu

143

Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Bent-Core Mesogen-Jacketed Liquid Crystalline Polymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Xiaofang Chen,, Kishore K. Tenneti, Christopher Y. Li,*, Yaowen Bai, Rong Zhou, Xinhua Wan, Xinghe Fan compared to their random coil counterparts. Macromolecular chain rigidity can be induced by helical chain et al.2,3 In this system, mesogenic units are laterally attached to the backbone. As evidenced

Wan, Xin-hua

144

1 Edoardo Airoldi Harvard University 2 Mark Alber University of Notre Dame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

University 31 Rong Chen Rutgers University 32 Duan Chen Michigan State University 33 Zhan Chen Michigan state Mary Ann Horn National Science Foundation 75 Langhua Hu Michigan state university 76 He Huang Purdue1 Edoardo Airoldi Harvard University 2 Mark Alber University of Notre Dame 3 Edward Allen Wake

Levy, Doron

145

The Conscience of the Governor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

her. "1 know I'm the w-rong man to tell them but 1'm the only one VIDO understands. What else can I do but try?" "Nothing," said Eartha. She watched the focus of his eyes lengthen as he stared out througtl the colonnade. l'he Council Chamber had...

David, Glen

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Understanding the Interaction between Interests, Conversations and Friendships in Facebook  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Understanding the Interaction between Interests, Conversations and Friendships in Facebook Qirong the Interaction between Interests, Conversations and Friendships in Facebook Qirong Ho Rong Yan Rajat Raina Eric P 15213 Facebook, 10 Hacker Way, Menlo Park CA 94025 Abstract In this paper, we explore salient questions

147

Polymer solar cell by blade coating Yu-Han Chang a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polymer solar cell by blade coating Yu-Han Chang a , Shin-Rong Tseng a , Chun-Yu Chen a , Hsin Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, Republic of China b Department of Electrical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, Republic of China c Department of Applied Chemistry

148

Theor Appl Genet DOI 10.1007/s00122-011-1649-x  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. tomentosum were used to iden- tify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling Wber quality traits. A total quality from a wild Hawaiian cotton, Gossypium tomentosum Zhengsheng Zhang · Junkang Rong · Vijay N of 28 QTLs for Wber quality traits were identi- Wed (P

Chee, Peng W.

149

State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

By the end of 2005, 25 states had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some state laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). Annual Energy Outlook 2006 assumes that all state MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Directory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Link 14-Utah State 14-Utah State High Temperature Properties of Nuclear Materials PI: Heng Ban- Utah State University Collaborators: ... (Properties) 91913 11:17 AM 91913...

151

Joseph Lipman Vita - Department of Mathematics, Purdue University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chunsheng Ban Pramathanath Sastry Weiming Huang Kyungho Oh I-Chiau Huang Tonghang Zhou (with D. Arapura) Suresh Nayak Hung-Jen Chiang-Hsieh

152

Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Standard for Residential Lighting in Chile, 2010 USResidential General Service Lighting in Chile Virginie E.focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale

Letschert, Virginie E.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Native American Heritage Month Celebration at the DOE Headquarters...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

and religions were banned as part of a forced assimilation policy that attacked the political, social, and cultural identities of Native Americans in the United States. Through...

154

jp406381g 1..7  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Guang Feng,* , Jose Leobardo Ban u elos, Gernot Rother, Pasquale F. Fulvio, Sheng Dai, , and Peter T. Cummings* ,, Department of Chemical and...

155

Contacts for the Assistant General Counsel for International...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Treaty (NPT) and Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT); International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); IAEA nuclear safeguards regimes Diana Clark 202-586-3417 JoAnn Williams...

156

America's Pesticides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DDT (top) was America's poisnons pes- ticicefor years.our health. The infamous DDT began to raise health concernsand another decade before DDT was completely banned in the

Chan, Elton

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

A new era of nuclear test verification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The global network of sensors commissioned to monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has proven capable of that task and more.

Auer, Matthias; Prior, Mark K.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Electric Bike Use in China and Their Impacts on the Environment, Safety, Mobility and Accessibility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

benefits! and! costs! of! electric! bikes! are! relative!would! otherwise! use! if! electric! bikes! were! banned. !That! is,! if! an! electric! bike! user! would! otherwise!

Cherry, Christopher

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

E-Print Network 3.0 - accident proneness Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Centre de mathmatiques Collection: Mathematics 6 Did California's hand-held cell phone ban reduce Nicholas E. Burger Summary: , the type of driver who may be...

160

Russian Scientist to Join Purdue Research Efforts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

... verification of compliance to nuclear test ban treaties, structure of the earth, ... included efforts to enhance the capability of detecting nuclear explosions (he ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rong ban kst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Empirical Evidence on the Role of Non Linear Wholesale Pricing and Vertical Restraints on Cost Pass-Through  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Welfare E?ects of Banning Wholesale Price Discrimination,”non linear contracts when wholesale price discrimination ison the role of non- linear wholesale pricing and vertical

Celine, Bonnet; Dubois, Pierre; Villas-Boas, Sofia B.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric nuclear tests Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of peaceful uses of nuclear Summary: concerns included the prohibition on atmospheric nuclear testing included in the 1963 Limited Test Ban... on cratering, radiation, and...

163

Regulatory Takings and Environmental Regulation in NAFTA's Chapter 11  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

oxygenates (ethanol and MTBE), and that it was possible forof the gasoline additive MTBE, which uses Methanol as anand regu- lations banning MTBE expropriated parts of its

Aisbett, Emma; Karp, Larry; McAusland, Carol

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

supercomputer | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

J Liu SX Mao J Zhang C Ban CM Wang Capabilities: Spectroscopy and Diffraction NMR and EPR Cell Isolation and Systems Analysis Deposition and Microfabrication Microscopy...

165

Cascade | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

J Liu SX Mao J Zhang C Ban CM Wang Capabilities: Spectroscopy and Diffraction NMR and EPR Cell Isolation and Systems Analysis Deposition and Microfabrication Microscopy...

166

TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES USING THE APSA FORMAT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Treaties U.S. Department of State. 1963. Nuclear Weapons Test Ban, 5 August. TIAS no. 5433. U.S. Treaties

167

E-Print Network 3.0 - arms reduction treaty Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

on fissile material security , the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty , cooperative threat reduction, and others... Threat Reduction Agency , Fort Belvoir, Virginia Outline: 1....

168

Review of Strategies and Technologies for Demand-Side Management on Isolated Mini-Grids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

include low wattage water heaters that run overnight anduse the low wattage water heaters, in conjunction with solarspace heaters and water heaters were banned by village

Harper, Meg

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Three approaches to economical photovoltaics: conformal Cu2S, organic luminescent films, and PbSe nanocrystal superlattices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

keep shale ban until fracking alternative emerges. Business-farmers see threat from fracking. The New York Times,Agbroko. S.Africa imposes fracking moratorium in karoo.

Carbone, Ian Anthony

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

U.S. cuts UNESCO funding after Palestinian membership vote  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

resources." Ban said he had no further comment, although he noted "the urgency of a negotiated solution;Yes: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh

171

Livermore scientist, engineers train to be inspectors for test...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

scientist, engineers train to be inspectors for test ban treaty organization | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing...

172

E-Print Network 3.0 - alexandri steindachner pisces Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cueva del... n de una nueva especie de Mollienisia capturada en Ban os del Azufre, Tabasco (Pisces, Poeciliidae... -Balderas, S. (1999). Cyprinodon bobmilleri: new species of...

173

E-Print Network 3.0 - artisanal tunisian fermented Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

have successfully averted bans on raw-milk cheesemaking... the fermentation of milk, a process that has historically depended upon bacteria naturally found in raw milk......

174

Bulletin of Tibetology: Volume 3 Number 1 : Full issue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). 2. These districts are: gnya' nang, skyid grong, rong shar, rdf,(lng dza', shtl dkar, glint skyes. ~. The Full Assembly consists of: all the government officials exeept the Regent and the Ministers of State (bka' blon); all the acting and retired... OK, SIKKIM 21 FEBRLARY 1966 PRINTED BY THE MANAGER, SIKKIM DARBAR PRESS AND PUBLISHED BY THE DIRECTOR NAMGYAL INS1ITUTE OF TIBETOLOGY, GANGTOK. ( . , t • CONTENTS THE GLOTTAL STOP AND GLOTTAL CONSTRICTION IN LEPCHA R. K. SPRIGG Page 5 TAX...

Namgyal Institute of Tibetology

1966-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

175

Journal of Machine Learning Research ? (2004) ?-?? Submitted 9/03; Published ??/04 Support Vector Machine Soft Margin Classifiers: Error  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.qiang@student.cityu.edu.hk Yiming Ying ymying@cityu.edu.hk Ding-Xuan Zhou mazhou@math.cityu.edu.hk Department of Mathematics City for a classifier f : X Y is defined to be the c 2004 Di-Rong Chen, Qiang Wu, Yiming Ying, and Ding-Xuan Zhou. #12;Chen, Wu, Ying, and Zhou probability of the event {f(X) = Y}: R(f) := Prob {f(X) = Y} = X P(Y = f

Ying, Yiming

176

A new route for energy efficiency diagnosis and potential analysis of energy consumption from air-conditioning system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 A new route for energy efficiency diagnosis and potential analysis of energy consumption from air-conditioning system Rong-Jiang Ma Nan-Yang Yu PhD candidate Professor School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong... in buildings is to save energy without compromising comfort, health and productivity levels. In other words, the idea is to consume less energy while providing equal or improved building services, that is, being more energy efficient (Pérez-Lombard et al...

Ma,R.J.; Yu,N.Y.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Abstracts EuroDendro 2004 [P] Poster [L] Lecture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in written sources. One of the major items of the celebration program is the reconstruction of the Vilnius sylvestris L. Mature trees were preferred. An average length of tree ring sequences of the measured samples establishing dating and cross-dating of the coffins. Ban Bo Kri Cave and Ban Rai Rock shelters were the study

178

EN Official Journal of the European Communities4. 8. 1999 L 204/1 (Acts adopted pursuant to Title V of the Treaty on European Union)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

's contribution to the promotion of the early entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT consistent with international law may be undertaken to accel- erate the ratification process in order Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) as an important step to promoting nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament

Sussex, University of

179

"Maximum recycling of Material and Energy, Minimum of Landfilling"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in "Recycling". "Waste-to-Energy" is now defined as Recycling, when energy efficiency is > 0,65 Prevention Reuse Recycling and Waste-to Energy? #12;6 European Policies on Landfill Ban The EU Landfill Directive The amount Ban decided upon in 2000, in force in 2005. A very strong effect, with a strong increase of Waste-to-Energy

Columbia University

180

STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENCY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE ENTRY INTO FORCE OF THE COMPREHENSIVE NUCLEAR-TEST-BAN TREATY September 21-23 2005, New York Statement the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty opened for signature, it marked an important step in the global effort to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Nearly ten years on, stopping the spread of these terrible

Sussex, University of

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181

geoffrey iwata phy h190phy h190  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

through 2014 Effectively bans the manufacturing and importing of most current incandescent light bulbsmost current incandescent light bulbs Rationale: 22% of US electricity consumption due to lighting Wikipedia.org #12;What are the Light Bulb Wars Should incandescent bulbs be banned from production? ? #12

Budker, Dmitry

182

Putting the Genie Back in the Bottle: The Science of Nuclear Non-Proliferation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Putting the Genie Back in the Bottle: The Science of Nuclear Non-Proliferation Jerry Gilfoyle Physics Department, University of Richmond, Virginia Outline: 1. Some Bits of History. 2. Nuclear Weapons 101. 3. The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. 4. Testing The Test Ban Treaty. 5. Why should you care

Gilfoyle, Jerry

183

Xenon diffusion studies with prompt gamma activation analysis Carlos A. Rios Perez Justin D. Lowrey  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to predicting how this gas will enter the atmosphere after a below ground nuclear weapons test. Radioxenon monitoring is a vital part of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) International Monitoring Monitoring System of the Comprehen- sive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) Organization uses seismic

Deinert, Mark

184

COUNCIL JOINT ACTION 2006/243/CFSP of 20 March 2006  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) in the area of training Nuclear- Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 10 September Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION, Having regard to the Treaty

Sussex, University of

185

ENABLING DEPARTMENT-SCALE SUPERCOMPUTING DAVID S. GREENBERGy, WILLIAM E. HARTz, AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Since the United States is also reducing its manufacturing base for nuclear weapons components in maintaining the safety, reliability, performance, and availabilityof the nuclear stockpile. On September 24, 1996, President Clinton signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, agreeing to a zero-yield test ban 33

186

Readout on Today's Meeting Between U.S. Energy Secretary Steven...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Ban Ki-moon met today in Washington to discuss progress on energy and climate issues. The two leaders agreed on the global nature of our energy, climate and...

187

High-Rate, High-Capacity Binder-Free Electrode  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

electrode 4 Why it is better than other technologies Carbon Nanotubes Composite Materials C. Ban, Z. Wu, LChen, Y. Yan and A.C. Dillon Adv. Mat., 2010 Vol22,...

188

Evaluating electronic waste recycling systems : the influence of physical architecture on system performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many different forms of electronic waste recycling systems now exist worldwide, and the amount of related legislation continues to increase. Numerous approaches have been proposed including landfill bans, extended producer ...

Fredholm, Susan (Susan A.)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

2 Women's Livelihoods in a Transnational Social Space  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of time to avail of medical treatment and natal care available in the cities. Rarely does the husband states as a response to physical abuse of Nepalese women in the Middle East. This controversial ban

Richner, Heinz

190

Use of open source information and commercial satellite imagery for nuclear nonproliferation regime compliance verification by a community of academics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In this study, the availability and use of commercial satellite imagery systems, commercial computer codes for satellite imagery analysis, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)verification International Monitoring System (IMS), publicly available information...

Solodov, Alexander

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

191

Cultured men, uncultured women : an exploration of the gendered hierarchy of taste governing Afghan radio  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

After years of strict bans on the media, local radio in post-Taliban Afghanistan is undergoing an intense period of reconstruction. This thesis uses a multi-sited ethnographic investigation to examine local Afghan radio's ...

Kamal, Sarah

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Modeling of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2007. 12. A Numerical Investigation into the Anomalous Slight NOx Increase when Burning Biodiesel: A New (Old) Theory, George A. Ban-Weiss, J.Y. Chen, Bruce A. Buchholz, Robert...

193

Marijuana National Forest: Encroachment on California Public Lands for Cannabis Cultivation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Disease Registry - ToxFAQs™: DDT, DDE, and DDD." ATSDR Home.Disease Registry - ToxFAQs™: DDT, DDE, and DDD." ATSDR Home.Diphenyl-Trichloroethane (DDT). DDT was banned in the United

Mallery, Mark

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

9/18/09 2:30 PMYour Newz -LifeCoach: alternative activities for Labradors -Similar news Page 1 of 4http://www.yournewz.com/similar/12592136/2009/08/25/category=0/source=0/0/LifeCoach:+alternative+activities+for+Labradors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

] Categories Arts and Culture (803) Movies (829) Television (749) Music (513) More categories... Automobiles as a potential alternative to its prison camps in Cuba. Pakistan Lifts Longtime Ban on Political Activities

Temple, Blake

195

Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in carbon nanotube Josephson Junctions, Phys. Rev. Lett. ,45 Fig. 3-1 (a) Schematic diagram of Josephson junction. (b)An SEM image of a xviii graphene Josephson junction

Bao, Wenzhong

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Edward J. Balistreri Curriculum Vitae October 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Fields: International Economics and Public Economics M.A., Economics, University of Colorado (1993) B M. Worley (2009) `Mercury: the good, the bad, and the export ban,' Resources Policy 34(4), 195 ­ 204

197

BSG policy memo Page 1 Killer robots  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BSG policy memo Page 1 Killer robots: Regulate, don't ban Executive summary Lethal Autonomous direction for LAWS is clearly needed. While there is widespread opposition to LAWS--or `killer robots

Wallace, Mark

198

Not All Carbon Credits are Created Equal: The Constitutional and the Cost of Regional Cap-and-Trade Market Linkage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

could package their prod- ucts in non-plastic containers. 43caused by banning plastic containers fell on in-statetheir milk in plastic, nonreturnable containers, and the law

Howland, Juliet

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Industrial Relations in Britain under New Labour, 1997-2010: a post mortem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for strike action was curta iled by a range of devices. The grounds for acceptable strike action were narrowed by ex cluding secondary and overtly political strikes. Strike procedures were constrained by limiting the use of pickets, by banning union...

Brown, William

2011-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

200

Development of an Open-Source Smart Energy House for K-12 Education  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

around the world, incandescent lighting are becoming banned, because of the low efficiency. For example, through European commission regulation 244/2009 [4], re- cently all sales of incandescent light became

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rong ban kst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a heat pump cooling system, thereby alleviating peak electricity consumption and associated emissions substituting for banned fluorocarbon refrigerants, coping with carbon costing and reducing water consumptionINTERNATIONAL ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT FOUNDATION Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling

202

Hapa Baby  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

up to him. They both said hello and stood there. "What havefront of the TV, littered with Ban chan. "Annie-ya? Hello?Hello?" "Yes. I didn’ t hang up." "At least say Happy New

Kowach, Melody Anne

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Three Essays In Applied Microeconometrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is effective at reducing the targeted behavior. Combined with findings that show cell phone bans do not reduce traffic accidents and casualties, I further discuss other factors and behavioral responses that may counteract the reduction in observed usage. Next...

Cheng, Cheng

2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

204

Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury | Department...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (MEBA) (Public Law No. 110-414) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to establish a facility for the long-term management and storage of elemental...

205

/ www.sciencexpress.org / 16 September 2004 / Page 1/ 10.1126/science.1104420 Editors Note: Politicians are fond of touting research and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

incentives totaling $4.1 billion through 2009 to spur the use of clean renewable energy and energy our energy needs. I will lift the ban on federal funding of research on stem cell lines created after

206

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as certainly as the end of the Cold War and the subsequent Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban have caused drastic the maintenance of the nuclear weapons stockpile. During the latter half of this century, the United States has

207

Russophonia: Towards a Transnational Conception of Russian-Language Literature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nuclear weapons. The poem hinges on the dual meaning of the Russian word for “test,”nuclear testing (just as “test ban” in English refers most directly to weapons

Caffee, Naomi Beth

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

(x) + cos 2 (x) 6= 1 and Other NonIdentities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

function 1 Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative is designing and maintaining nuclear weapons for the United States. Due to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, there are no live tests. If ASCI gets it wrong

Stevenson, D. E. "Steve"

209

Nonproliferation through delegation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gaseous diffusion), and nuclear weapon test site. However,half of all US nuclear weapon tests were less than 20kt and1998. Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and

Brown, Robert Louis

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

12 E N G I N E E R I N G & S C I E N C E N O . 2 1 9 9 7 Volume LX, Number 2,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on to their nuclear weapons just in case they have to blow up an approaching asteroid. Are they playing politics of their opposition to the Comprehen- sive Test Ban treaty, the Chinese have declared that they would like to hold

211

What is obesity and what is its impact? 23 How is weight controlled? Is obesity `in our genes'? 45  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and parents? Or should governments intervene, slapping on `fat taxes' or banning fast food advertisements indicated, are from the Wellcome Trust's Medical Photographic Library. The Wellcome Trust is an independent

Rambaut, Andrew

212

Nonlethal Self-Defense, (Almost Entirely) Nonlethal Weapons, and the Rights to Keep and Bear Arms and Defend Life  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

near the same force to stun guns and to irritant sprays.the self-defense arguments against gun bans do apply to suchthemselves nonlethally with stun guns ought to be protected—

Volokh, Eugene

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

18 OCTOBER 2013 VOL 342 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org294 NEWS OF THE WEEK  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of protecting NASA against industrial and military spy- ing by China. But the real reason was a blanket ban Haitians. Genomic stud- ies and an independent U.N. report left littl

214

Cross-functional environmental initiatives : addressing Restriction of Hazardous Substance (RoHS) technical challenges at Sun Microsystems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The European Union (EU) passed the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive, effective January 2006, banning the sale of electronics equipment containing lead and five other hazardous substances into EU countries. ...

Greenlaw, Tamara

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Supplement 22, Part 5, Parasite-Subject Catalogue, Parasites: Arthropoda and Miscellaneous Phyla  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(64) , 37-67 Rattus rattus: Lelydorp, Surinam Rattus rattus frugivorus: Brokubaka, Surinam Afrolistrophorus mediolineatus sp. n. Fain, ?., 1976, Acta Zool. et Path. Antverpi- ensia (64), 37-67 bandicoot rat: Ban Thenon, 18 Km NW Kieng- Kwang...

Zidar, Judith A.; Shaw, Judith H.; Hanfman, Deborah T.; Kirby, Margie D.; Rayburn, Jane D.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Hood, Martha W.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Life cycle analysis of waste management options for EBI in Quebec  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quebec has issued a mandate requiring all waste management facilities to ban the landfilling of organic waste by 2020. EBI is considering Anaerobic Digestion as one of its alternative options, but is uncertain if it is the ...

Wilson, Jaclyn D

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Converting Centrifugal Chillers to HCFC-123  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper describes the effect that the issue of ozone depletion has on the owners and operators of large commercial water chillers that currently use chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) for refrigeration. The production ban of CFC's mandated...

Siebert, B.

218

Tax Measurement and Lag'don Tax  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). 2. These districts are: gnya' nang, skyid grong, rong shar, rdf,(lng dza', shtl dkar, glint skyes. ~. The Full Assembly consists of: all the government officials exeept the Regent and the Ministers of State (bka' blon); all the acting and retired... TAX MEASUREMENT AND LAG'DON TAX -WANGCHEN SURlCHANG Since in any discussion of taxes (in Tibetan: khr«l) aD understanding of the units involved is a prerequisite, I Ihall describe these before dealing with the actual taxes. The basic unit...

Surkhang, Wangchen

1966-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

219

Bulletin of Tibetology: Volume 33 Number 2 Number 2 : Full issue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pa from Bhotadesa who are usually named Bhotia or Bhutia entered by the 16th century in the Tista and the Rangit Valleys in search of better livelihood. Prior to them, the Lepcha of different ethnic group had entered from the eastern part... which happens to be commonly spoken language in Sikkim, is a broken speech with its lien to Sanskrit and Magadhi Prakrit. 3. An regards the relation between the Rong ILepcha) Language and Sanskrit a close study is required. With this context a few...

Namgyal Institute of Tibetology

220

Statuary Metals in Tibet and the Himalayas: History, Tradition and Modern Use  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the remaining ones being wood, stone, clay, papier-mtkh~ and ivory. As it was not always possible to distinguish with certainty betwen Tibetan and Nepalese images, owing to the activities of Newar sculptors in all parts of Tibet for many centuries, some... as not to exhaust the supply, but the people of sNye-mo also picked up loose bits on the mining site in order to sell them for their own gain (Ronge. 1978: 148). 'Jam-dpal-rdo-rje specifically mentions "malachi tel! (Tib.: spang) and "azurite" (Tib...

Bue, Erberto Lo

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rong ban kst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Bulletin of Tibetology: Volume 27 Numbers 1-3 : Full issue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

them for publication in this paper. Of the 378 free-standing statues examined, 331 were of metal, the remaining ones being wood, stone, clay, papier-mtkh~ and ivory. As it was not always possible to distinguish with certainty betwen Tibetan... administratiOn mined the colourful minerals only once a year. apparently so as not to exhaust the supply, but the people of sNye-mo also picked up loose bits on the mining site in order to sell them for their own gain (Ronge. 1978: 148). 'Jam...

Namgyal Institute of Tibetology

1991-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

222

Impact of Limitations on Access to Oil and Natural Gas Resources in the Federal Outer Continental Shelf (released in AEO2009)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The U.S. offshore is estimated to contain substantial resources of both crude oil and natural gas, but until recently some of the areas of the lower 48 states Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) have been under leasing moratoria. The Presidential ban on offshore drilling in portions of the lower 48 OCS was lifted in July 2008, and the Congressional ban was allowed to expire in September 2008, removing regulatory obstacles to development of the Atlantic and Pacific OCS.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Effect of coal and coke qualities on blast furnace injection and productivity at Taranto  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Injection rates at Taranto blast furnaces Nos. 2 and 4, for more than 16 months, was maintained above 175 kg/thm. Monthly average injection rate for two months stabilized above 190 kg/thm. This performance was possible due to the very high combined availabilities of Taranto blast furnaces and the KST injection system. Based upon this experience the quantitative relationships between coke/coal and blast furnace operational parameters were studied and are shown graphically. During this period due to coke quality changes, injection rate had to be reduced. The effect of using coke breeze in coke/ferrous charge as well as coal blend was also evaluated. Permeability of the furnace was found to be directly affected by O{sub 2} enrichment level, while at a high PCI rate no correlation between actual change in coke quality and permeability could be established. The future of PCI technology lies in better understanding of relationships between material specifications and blast furnace parameters of which permeability is of prime importance.

Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M. [ILVA, Taranto (Italy); Eichinger, F.; Rafi, M.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

1988 Wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1988 and spatial patterns for 1988. It is the third in a series of reports that investigate the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1988 annual, winter, and summer periods. Temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 35 sites over a 10-year (1979--1988) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites, with greater spatial coverage, over a 7-year (1982--1988) period. The 10-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data available that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. Sen's median trend estimate and Kendall's seasonal tau (KST) test are calculated for each ion species concentration and deposition at each site in both subsets.

Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.; Bittner, E.A.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

1988 Wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1988 and spatial patterns for 1988. It is the third in a series of reports that investigate the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1988 annual, winter, and summer periods. Temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 35 sites over a 10-year (1979--1988) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites, with greater spatial coverage, over a 7-year (1982--1988) period. The 10-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data available that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. Sen`s median trend estimate and Kendall`s seasonal tau (KST) test are calculated for each ion species concentration and deposition at each site in both subsets.

Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.; Bittner, E.A.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Implications of Qualitative Restrictions in International Agricultural Trade.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will be in autarky after implementing the hormone ban. The price in the EC will rise from P w to PEC ' Producer surplus increases by area "A' while consumer surplus falls by area '~ + B." (See Appendix for definitions of producer and consumer surplus.) Area "B... estimates be tween - 2.80 and - 3.60. By limiting the quantity available in the EC, the hor mone ban will lead to an increase in price (to PEC in Figure 1) and changes in producer and consumer surplus. To measure these effects, it is necessary to know...

Peterson, E. Wesley F.; Henry, Guy; Paggi, Mechel

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

something simple, something sleazy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the slightest dissent was immediately banned. Several had been banned even before she had started her "great purge", because they "couldn't be trusted". I made a mental note to be more careful in the future, and checked my GMail, trying to banish the image... realized that I had left my computer on, and the gun out. I found my wife at my desk, with her laptop, her hands typing furiously on the two keyboards, eyes darting between screens. My question died on my lips; I had left Gmail open, and the screen saver...

2011-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

228

Recent USGS Publications, Information, and Products that may be of interest to Texas Miscellaneous Announcements and Information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/9/14 Miscellaneous Announcements and Information NOAA, Partners Predict an Average 'Dead Zone' for Gulf of Mexico://www.usgs.gov/newsroom/article.asp?ID=3916 Austin Coal-Tar Sealant Ban Leads to Decline in PAHs http/usgs_top_story/earth-week-a-tributary-to-water/ Technical Announcement USGS Releases New National Produced Waters Geochemical Database http

Mukhtar, Saqib

229

STAFF SENATE Minutes Smithfield Room at IVTSCC, Thursday, September 15, 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.M. Attending: Susan Archer, Jeff Burr, Sarah Castle, Joseph Goodman, Lori Greiner, Velva Groover, Jennifer-O'Brien, Amy Tunison, Beverly Williams, and Patricia Williams. Excused: Anna Hawthorne, Maxine Lyons, Allison, and portable "bleacher chairs" being banned from Lane Stadium. Patricia Williams, Staff Senate representative

Virginia Tech

230

Courses: Economics (ECON) Page 291Sonoma State University 2010-2011 Catalog eCOn 321 lABOr eCOnOMiCS (4)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Prerequisite: ECON 205. eCOn 322 urBAn eCOnOMiCS (4) An exploration of issues facing communities and regions resources and the control of pollution. Topics include: energy, water, minerals, forests, air pollution, international trade, aggregate demand and supply, com- parative statics, post-Keynesian economics, and recent

Ravikumar, B.

231

Human-Centered Sustainable Product Design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and elsewhere) !!Automobiles !! Packaging !! Waste electronics and appliances (e.g., WEEE) !! Hazardous substance bans (e.g., RoHS) !! Chemical hazard reporting (e.g. REACH) ·!Greenhouse gas reduction treaties and targets !!Kyoto Protocol !!U.S. city and state initiatives (e.g., California) Regulatory Drivers #12

Agogino, Alice M.

232

Seasonal Variability in Anthropogenic Halocarbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ozone depleting potential and as hazards to human health, they are also of concern due to their positive banned by the Montreal Protocol with a minimal number of exceptions for critical purposes in a few-12). For example, studies measuring halocarbons in off-gas from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills report

Cohen, Ronald C.

233

1 Copyright 2012 by ASME Proceedings of the ASME 2012 Summer Heat Transfer Conference  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to restrict the idling time, e.g., the state of California has already banned trucks from idling over five systems (FCPS); v) solar energy systems (SES); and vi) thermal energy storage systems (TESS, weight (the heavier is the system, the lower is the cargo capacity), emission, and, noise level. Truck

Bahrami, Majid

234

The Earth Institute, Columbia University12 annual donor report 2010 13 at the turn of the century, world leaders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Earth Institute, Columbia University12 annual donor report 2010 13 at the turn of the century-General Ban Ki-moon at the Earth Institute's State of the Planet Conference in March 2010. "They of humanity are at stake." The Millennium Villages project, a partnership between the Earth Institute

235

Pornography, equality, and evolutionary psychology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to equal respect is upheld because a ban on pornography will result in the subordination of men. This claim will be defended with a Marxist argument that uses premises from evolutionary psychology. I will conclude that the liberal state can uphold both...

Plizga, Robert Stefan

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

1 INTRODUCTION Almost 70% of the Europe's population live in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and streets (Couloignier 1998, Tupin et al. 1996), mapping ur ban demarcation (Weber 1995), mapping urban air pollution (Wald & Baleynaud 1999 ; Basly et al. 1999). Nevertheless the number of studies using SAR data, F. Cauneau, T. Ranchin and L. Wald Groupe Télédétection & Modélisation Ecole des Mines de Paris BP

Boyer, Edmond

237

Yale University Policy Campus and Workplace Violence Prevention  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

background checks. This expansion of our background verification requirement takes effect January 1, 2010. Prohibition of Weapons The University specifically prohibits the possession of weapons by any faculty or staff, whether or not the owner is licensed to carry such weapon. This ban includes keeping a weapon

238

U.S. Playground Equipment Manufacturer and Purchaser Perceptions of Treated Wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

U.S. Playground Equipment Manufacturer and Purchaser Perceptions of Treated Wood Todd F. Shupe treated wood might cut life short for our children. "EPA chops down potential killer", 24 Hour News 8, Florida, after his bill to ban arsenic-treated wood from Florida's public playgrounds failed to pass

239

Neurophysiologic Basis for Cochlear and Auditory Brainstem Implants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

subjected 13 individuals with the House type of cochlear implants to an extensive battery of audiologic (Michelson, 1971) and W. House (House & Ur- ban, 1973). But before that, other investigators had shown (Simmons, 1966). It was, however, Dr. William House who intro- duced cochlear implants as a means

O'Toole, Alice J.

240

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; September 2013. Other requests shall be referred to NAVFAC EXWC or ESTCP.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Weiss, LBNL Nathan Finch, NAVFAC EXWC Craig Wray, LBNL Mark de Ogburn, NAVFAC Atlantic Woody Delp, LBNL Hashem Akbari, LBNL Scott Smaby, NAVFAC EXWC Ronnen Levinson, LBNL Bret Gean, NAVFAC EXWC SEI Group, Inc. #12 ESTCP Number: EW-200813 September 2013 Peter Ly, NAVFAC EXWC George Ban-Weiss, LBNL Nathan Finch, NAVFAC

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rong ban kst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Painting or Renovating Your Home: By Rachel Adell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Painting or Renovating Your Home: By Rachel Adell In 1978, the federal government banned lead to renovate or repaint a home built before 1978, the lead must be removed by a certified contractor who certificate. Prepare for the renovation. Depending on where the work takes place, you may need to make

Liskiewicz, Maciej

242

Protecting the African elephant: A dynamic bioeconomic model of ivory trade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Protecting the African elephant: A dynamic bioeconomic model of ivory trade G. Cornelis van Kooten Accepted 25 May 2008 Available online 7 July 2008 Keywords: Economics Elephant conservation Ivory trade ban on the protection of the African elephant (Laxadonta africana). The model consists of four ivory exporting regions

243

Efficient Techniques for Dynamic Vehicle Anna Petrovskaya and Sebastian Thrun  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.stanford.edu Summary. Fast detection of moving vehicles is crucial for safe autonomous ur- ban driving. We present the vehicle detection algorithm developed for our entry in the Urban Grand Challenge, an autonomous driving.S. Government has organized a series of competitions for autonomous vehicles in order to encourage research

244

Risk, Uncertainty and Environmental Regulation 1. Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

movements leading to ban on DDT and establishment of EPA. #12;Why Pesticides? · Silent Spring not just about DDT, not even primarily about DDT. · But DDT was the most widely pesticide used in USA post WWII. · Therefore attention focused here. · Why were we using so much DDT in America (more so than other countries

Callender, Craig

245

How Do We Advise the Pest Control Industry in the Post-Organochlorine Era?1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

errors in Silent Spring, but in many ways Rachel Carson underestimated the hazards of DDT and certain of DDT and to review DDT for suspension. The notices of cancellation for DDT, as well as aldrin, dieldrin, mirex, and the herbicide 2,4,5-T, were, of course, appealed. After lengthy hearings, EPA banned DDT

Standiford, Richard B.

246

Landfills a thing of the past in Germany where advanced waste management By Evridiki Bersi -Kathimerini  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Landfills a thing of the past in Germany where advanced waste management rules By Evridiki Bersi but that day has already come in Germany. On June 1, 2005, Germany imposed a ban on traditional garbage dumps, replacing them with one of the most advanced waste-management systems in the world. In the 1970s, Germany

Columbia University

247

CCPPolicyBriefing Resale Price  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CCPPolicyBriefing Sept 2010 Resale Price Maintenance W: www.uea.ac.uk/ccp T: +44 (0)1603 593715 A: UEA, Norwich, NR4 7TJ Resale Price Maintenance and Restrictions on Dominant Firm and Industry-Wide Adoption BACKGROUND In June 2007, the nearly 100-year-old ban on retail price maintenance was overturned

Feigon, Brooke

248

Group-based Ad-hoc Network for Multimedia Communications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Group-based Ad-hoc Network for Multimedia Communications \\ Koichiro Ban and Hamid Gharavi National is concerned with evaluating ad-hoc networks for group-oriented tactical operations. For such operations, a cellular-based ad-hoc network architecture has been constructed for real-time multimedia communications

249

This is an author-deposited version published in: http://oatao.univ-toulouse.fr/ Eprints ID: 6230  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Ivory Coast, Africa) results of the construction of the Taabo dam on the Ban- dama River. The changes towns and industries, and leaching from agricultural land). The average concentra- tions of nutrients to reduce agricultural fertilizers. Keywords: Conflicts over Water Use; Pollution; Tropical Lake; Lake

Mailhes, Corinne

250

Thermal Decomposition of Dichlorosilane Investigated by Pulsed Laser Powered Homogeneous Pyrolysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of vacuum flash pyrolysis of SiH 2Cl2. Ban and Gilbert6 observed SiCl2 by mass spectrometry under sili- conThermal Decomposition of Dichlorosilane Investigated by Pulsed Laser Powered Homogeneous Pyrolysis powered homogeneous pyrolysis of dichlorosilane are reported. Pyrolyses at temperatures of 1350 to 1700 K

Swihart, Mark T.

251

Travel Behavior 101 and Intro to Types of Evidence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Communities Planning Act of 2008 Targets for per capita GHG emissions reduction from cars and trucks region 8% 13% San Diego 7% 13% #12;Sustainable Communities Strategies #12;How do we know what will work.g. Remote parking Support facilities Comfort e.g. Cell phone ban Improved design Crime prevention #12

Handy, Susan L.

252

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE IV C2-633 Colloque C2, suppl. au Journal de Physique 11, Vol. 1, septembre 1991  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, by Ti metal. Under optimized deposition conditions, a very hard titanium carbide with a polynucleatedBans cedex 2, France Abstract : Titanium carbide and nitride coatings can be deposited at a moderate carbide substrate.The process was therefore optimized from a morphological, structural,and solid

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

253

Determining Minimum Habitat Areas Habitat Corridors for Cougars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ambiental por un portodo de 100 af~x Usando los pardmeW~ nu~ vtabl~ el mo~lo pmaice r~osgos de extinci6n muy impacto hunum~ Dentro de la cadena montago~ los pumas se ban extingutdo re. ctontemente en un frasmento de

Beier, Paul

254

Tyndall Briefing Note No. 35 Tyndall Briefing Note No. 35 April 2009  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, especially in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia. Primarily this is a problem of distribution to human-induced climate change), the use of food crops for biofuels, higher energy prices, export bans, an equitable trade regime, as well as widespread recognition and action on climate change. We also need

Watson, Andrew

255

Fracking: An Industry Under Pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

benefit analysis on natural gas fracking, and calculatednatural-gas-drilling-technique/ • http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/images/ stories/large/2012/08/20/figure_2_hori- zontal-fracking-natural gas and oil, both central tenets of the energy indus- try, banning fracking

Melville, Jo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Session XXX 2009 Organisation RFID to Enhance Environmental Protection & Sustainability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

points. Issues are identified via reports Or, alerted in real-time Issue investigation by inspectors Forests cover 30% of Liberia Previously, up to 20% GDP from forestry Timber was a major contributor to 14For - project timeline 2003 - End of civil war, UN Security Council ban on timber export 2006 - All former

257

To: Deans, Directors and Department Heads From: Jack K. Colby, Assistant Vice Chancellor for Facilities Operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in North Carolina landfills. The General Assembly recognizes electronics as recyclable and recovery, please utilize the campus resources below to properly manage all materials banned from landfill disposal purchase at the monthly surplus sale. Non-functional electronics will be recycled. Facilities Operations

258

Counties with Established Counties without Established  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

San Saba Shackelford Somervell Starr Stephens + - Burn Ban is ONLY during a Red Flag Warning day Val Verde Uvalde Upton Upshur Tyler Trinity Travis Tom Green Titus ThrockmortonTerry Terrell Tarrant Taylor Swisher Sutton Stonewall Sterling Stephens Starr Somervell Smith Sherman Shelby Shackelford

259

Other editions: Mobile | RSS | E-Newsletters | Facebook | Twitter | Text Alerts Find it: Jobs | Cars | Homes | Rentals | Dating | Classifieds | Deals | Directories | 802 Shopping Comments(3) Recommend Print this page E-mail this article Share  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

versions -- click here. More News Headlines Burlington parking ban tonight; recycling canceled Wednesday If you make less than $45K/Year, you may qualify for a grant to go back to school. Learn more Pet Owners! You need this Do you own a cat or dog? Stop going to the store! Get your pet's food delivered

Bongard, Josh

260

Automobile Repair Shop In 1987, the Alaska Health Project has performed an audit of an automobile  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Part 268). 2) Disposal in a authorized high-temperature incinerator. 3) Disposal to an authorized assumes incineration is the disposal method. If the waste is disposed of in a landfill or by recycling, costs may be reduced. However, considering the new solvent ban on land disposal incineration

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rong ban kst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Three Essays on International Agricultural Trade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the port of Salvador as well as an increase in exports and producer revenues for the country. Finally, in Chapter IV, the impacts of the 2005 FMD outbreak on the Brazilian meat market was examined. The imposition of an import ban by Russia on Brazilian...

Costa, Rafael

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

262

LRB Steven Shapin: At the Amsterdam http://www.lrb.co.uk/v28/n08/print/shap01_.html 1 of 10 2/4/2008 11:06 AM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

House: A Cultural History by Markman Ellis Buy this book I went to a coffee house this morning. I had books, paintings or whale oil at a candle auction. The clientele was fairly specific, then the outrageous price of the latte did. No one was smoking ­ it's banned ­ and many of the customers were women

Shapin, Steven

263

Leakage from Sub-national Climate Initiatives: The Case of California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

77 Massachusetts Avenue MIT E19-411 Cambridge MA 02139-4307 (USA) Location: 400 Main Street economies, including integration of electricity markets. Measures that will prevent leakage from California electricity and legislation ban- ning "resource shuffling". Under a cap-and-trade policy without measures

264

Friday 5 January 2001 earth: Meteors come in with a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Earth from space could be mistaken for nuclear bomb tests, say seismologists of the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute. This could present problems for monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), which aims to halt the testing of all nuclear weapons. Läslo Evers and Hein Haak detected

Evers, Läslo G.

265

Putting the Genie Back in the Bottle: The Science of Nuclear Non-Proliferation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Some Bits of History. 2. Nuclear Weapons 101. 3. The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. 4. Testing The TestPutting the Genie Back in the Bottle: The Science of Nuclear Non-Proliferation Jerry Gilfoyle Physics Department, University of Richmond, Virginia Outline: 1. Some Bits of History. 2. Nuclear Weapons

Gilfoyle, Jerry

266

REGIONAL OBSERVATIONS OF MINING BLASTS BY THE GSETT-3 SEISMIC MONITORING SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of testing of any nuclear explosive devices in all environments is the goal of the Comprehensive Test Ban throughout the world. The goal of this system is the detection of any nuclear test. In preparation an international framework under which all nations can agree to stop the testing of nuclear explosions

267

39 Recent highlights Introduction In New York on 24 September 1996 President  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was the first head of state to sign the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (ctbt) on behalf of the United nuclear test in July 1945, called Trinity, and the subsequent development and testing of nuclear weapons. In this 50-year period over 2000 nuclear tests have been conducted. The signature of the us was followed

Haak, Hein

268

Forecasting with Historical Data or Process Knowledge under Misspecification: A Comparison  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

States' ban on nuclear testing, a nuclear engineer is faced with lack of data, and hence must rely of nuclear stockpiles, or the climate next century, forecasting on all scales has become a crucial part engineer may use historical traffic volume data to predict upcoming flow; a nuclear scientist may use

Steinwart, Ingo

269

Seismological Evidence for a Low-Yield Nuclear Test on 12 May 2010 in North Korea  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

E Seismological Evidence for a Low-Yield Nuclear Test on 12 May 2010 in North Korea by Miao Zhang. INTRODUCTION Three nuclear tests (in 2006, 2009, and 2013) conducted by the Democratic People's Republic.g., the U. S. Geological Survey [USGS] and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization [CTBTO

Wen, Lianxing

270

141A. Le Pichon et al. (eds.), Infrasound Monitoring for Atmospheric Studies, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4020-9508-5, Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tool during the early proliferation of nuclear weapon technologies after WWII when nuclear tests were, and nuclear testing generally went underground. Interest in infrasound as a moni- toring tool waned as interest in global seismology increased. In 1996, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) opened

Vernon, Frank

271

CATALYSTS: CONSERVATION: A weekly series on what's driving growth in difficult times The greening of the jobscape  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-maintenance landscaping using native plants, butterfly gardens and rainwater irrigation. Staff use fuel-efficient trucks and bike- powered trailers to haul materials, and gasoline-powered tools are banned at the four to alternative fuels and cleaner technologies. Many types of work - such as consultants who assess your home

Walters, Bradley B.

272

Global seismic monitoring as probabilistic inference Nimar S. Arora  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global seismic monitoring as probabilistic inference Nimar S. Arora Department of Computer Science of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), primarily through detection and localization of seismic events. We nuclear explosions. A global network of seismic, radionuclide, hydroacoustic, and infrasound sensors

Russell, Stuart

273

BANip: enabling remote healthcare monitoring with Body Area Networks1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for patients that aggregates healthcare services from collaborative care centers. Our service platform Area Network (BAN) to remote healthcare center. Introduction Information and Communication Technology of 2.5/3G wireless technology even takes healthcare further to mobile healthcare (m-health) which

Widya, Ing

274

MARINE TURTLES IN THE COMOROS FEDERAL ISLAMIC REPUBLIC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MARINE TURTLES IN THE COMOROS FEDERAL ISLAMIC REPUBLIC : Their Status and Recommendations a Gainesville, Florida 32611 U.S.A. Phone: (904) 373-4480 FAX : (904) 392-3704 #12;Mortimer: Comoros Turtles Banning the Harvest of Turtles 18 #12;Mortimer: Comoros Turtles -- i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONED) Page

Prestwich, Ken

275

Optimization of the tunability of barium strontium titanate films via epitaxial stresses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization of the tunability of barium strontium titanate films via epitaxial stresses Z.-G. Ban The tunability of epitaxial barium strontium titanate films is analyzed theoretically using a phenomenological.1063/1.1524310 I. INTRODUCTION Thin films of barium strontium titanate (BaxSr1 xTiO3, BST have long been recognized

Alpay, S. Pamir

276

Putting the Genie Back in the Bottle: The Science of Nuclear Non-Proliferation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Outline: 1. Some Bits of History. 2. Nuclear Weapons 101. 3. The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. 4. Testing Physics Department, University of Richmond, Virginia Outline: 1. Some Bits of History. 2. Nuclear Weapons. #12;Some Bits of History US develops and uses nuclear weapons on Japan at the end of World War II

Gilfoyle, Jerry

277

Presentations to the Library 6th October 2012 16th October 2013  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spring 2012. Developing U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy and International Law: The Approach of the Obama: Specification, Estimation and Testing, 2013. Peter Jones Standing Strong: Stories of Courage and Activism, 2012 of the Comparative Test Ban Treaty. Offprint from Houston Journal of International Law, v.32 no. 1 Fall 2009

Oxford, University of

278

ARCHIVED MATERIAL This page is no longer being reviewed/updated.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

specific measures for cases of non-compliance, such as the Nuclear Weapons Free Zone (NWFZ) treaties, such as with the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the U.N. is the depository of the treaty. In the Millennium Declaration. Article 12 in the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) indicates procedures to be followed in case of non

Sussex, University of

279

Putting the Genie Back in the Bottle: The Science of Nuclear Non-Proliferation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Richmond, Virginia Outline: 1. Some Bits of History. 2. Nuclear Weapons 101. 3. The Comprehensive Test Ban Physics Department, University of Richmond, Virginia Outline: 1. Some Bits of History. 2. Nuclear Weapons Colloquium - January 20, 2012 ­ p. #12;Some Bits of History US develops and uses nuclear weapons on Japan

Gilfoyle, Jerry

280

THE EUROPEAN UNION Brussels, 13 June 2003  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Chemical Weapons Convention, Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, Safeguards budget line) 10354/1/03 REV 1 (en) DG E VIII 3 EN #12;On nuclear weapons proliferation: 4. Rapid of the Basic Principles for an EU Strategy against Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction Delegations

Sussex, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rong ban kst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

The Adaptive Bleaching Hypothesis: Experimental Tests of Critical Assumptions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to elevated tem- perature, (2) bleached adult hosts can acquire algal symbi- onts with an apparently dose of environmental factors including low (Goreau, 1964) and high (Nakano et al., 1997) salinity, low and high levels of illumination--especially ultraviolet radiation (Ban- aszak and Trench, 1995; Lesser and Shick, 1989), disease

Buffalo, State University of New York

282

Sbartai, A.; Namour, P.; Errachid, A.; Krejci, J.; Sejnohov, R.; Renaud, L.; Larbi Hamlaoui, M.;1 Loir, A.-S.; Garrelie, F.; Donnet, C.; Soder, H.; Audouard, E.; Granier, J.; Jaffrezic-Renault N., (2012)2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

toxic compounds must be banned, such as "heavy16 metals", in particular mercury impregnation or films (DPASV) determinations, at the nanomolar level, of the four heavy metal ions of the European5 Water. It was shown that the four heavy metals could be detected simultaneously in the10 concentration ratio usually

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

283

THE EFFECT OF DOMESTIC WORK ON GIRLS' SCHOOLING: EVIDENCE FROM EGYPT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 THE EFFECT OF DOMESTIC WORK ON GIRLS' SCHOOLING: EVIDENCE FROM EGYPT Ragui Assaad, Deborah Levison, and Nadia Zibani forthcoming in Feminist Economics (2010) ABSTRACT In Egypt, girls' work to ban labor force work of children will have practically no effect on girls' education in Egypt, while

Levinson, David M.

284

WOSMIP II- Workshop on Signatures of Medical and Industrial Isotope Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Medical and industrial fadioisotopes are fundamental tools used in science, medicine and industry with an ever expanding usage in medical practice where their availability is vital. Very sensitive environmental radionuclide monitoring networks have been developed for nuclear-security-related monitoring [particularly Comprehensive Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) compliance verification] and are now operational.

Matthews, Murray; Achim, Pascal; Auer, M.; Bell, Randy; Bowyer, Ted W.; Braekers, Damien; Bradley, Ed; Briyatmoko, Budi; Berglund, Helena; Camps, Johan; Carranza, Eduardo C.; Carty, Fitz; DeCaire, Richard; Deconninck, Benoit; DeGeer, Lars E.; Druce, Michael; Friese, Judah I.; Hague, Robert; Hoffman, Ian; Khrustalev, Kirill; Lucas, John C.; Mattassi, G.; Mattila, Aleski; Nava, Elisabetta; Nikkinin, Mika; Papastefanou, Constantin; Piefer, Gregory R.; Quintana, Eduardo; Ross, Ole; Rotty, Michel; Sabzian, Mohammad; Saey, Paul R.; Sameh, A. A.; Safari, M.; Schoppner, Michael; Siebert, Petra; Unger, Klaus K.; Vargas, Albert

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Evolutionary Computing for Detection of Retentive Structures in Coastal Waters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,robillia,poty,fonlupt}@lil.univ-littoral.fr, Abstract-- The demography of anchovy fishes in the Gulf of Biscay seems to be related to the presence of so- called "retentive" hydrodynamical structures, that keep fish eggs and larvae in a favorable environment be used to decide fishing quotas or bans for the sake of preserving the natural resource. We propose two

Fernandez, Thomas

286

Luxottica Group is a leader in premium, luxury and sports eyewear with approximately 7,000 optical and sun retail stores in North America, Asia-Pacific, China, South Africa, Latin America and Europe, and a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with approximately 7,000 optical and sun retail stores in North America, Asia-Pacific, China, South Africa, Latin America and Europe, and a strong, well-balanced brand portfolio. Owned brands include Ray-Ban, the world markets, including LensCrafters, Pearle Vision and ILORI in North America, OPSM and Laubman & Pank in Asia

Schettini, Raimondo

287

Green Films Available for Checkout2Week Checkout for Classroom, Mee ng or Home Viewing To borrow films, contact: Joan Chadde (4873341 or jchadde@mtu.edu at 115 MTU Great Lakes Research Center OR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with toxic chemicals, in order to produce cheap food. MTU Frackna on (77 min.) In FrackNa on journalist fracking. McAleer uncovers fracking facts suppressed by environmental ac vists, and he talks with rural Americans whose livelihoods are at risk if fracking is banned. Emo ons run high but the truth runs deep. MTU

288

Vietnam Vet Runs to Raise Money for USCBL Mike Felker served as a medic with the First Marine Division in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

June 2008 Vietnam Vet Runs to Raise Money for USCBL Mike Felker served as a medic with the First money for the U.S. Campaign to Ban Landmines. Participating in the Philadelphia Vietnam Veterans #12;Over 100 students gathered at Zot Restaurant in dowtown Philadelphia to raise money for demining

Plotkin, Joshua B.

289

A Bayesian method with empirically fitted priors for the evaluation of environmental radioactivity: application to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Keywords: a priori knowledge; Bayesian statistics; CTBT; environmental1/22 A Bayesian method with empirically fitted priors for the evaluation of environmental to the effective presence of a radionuclide is still widely made on the basis of a classic hypothesis test. However

290

Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL), Short Papers, Sofia, Bulgaria, August 2013, pp. 816821.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

forum is a relatively new problem. We seek to improve Anand et al.'s (2011) approach to debate stance for a two­sided topic discussed in an online debate forum (e.g., ``Should abortion be banned?''), determine in Fig­ ure 1, where the author is for abortion. Second, while customer reviews are typically written

Ng, Vincent

291

Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL), Short Papers, Sofia, Bulgaria, August 2013, pp. 816--821.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

forum is a relatively new problem. We seek to improve Anand et al.'s (2011) approach to debate stance-sided topic discussed in an online debate forum (e.g., "Should abortion be banned?"), determine which in Fig- ure 1, where the author is for abortion. Second, while customer reviews are typically written

Ng, Vincent

292

Forensic Seismology and the Comprehensive  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Forensic Seismology and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty David Bowers and Neil D. Selby discrimination methods, underground explosion source, earthquake source Abstract One application of forensic facing the forensic seismologist is to discriminate between the many thousands of earthquakes

Jellinek, Mark

293

DC WRRC Report No. 170 Program ReportAnnual  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the Bay's ecosystem; There have been agreements on fisheries management, wetland, and toxics reduction as a result of the phosphate detergent ban and tighter sewage treatment plant controls. - Feasibility Study surrounding and underlying a wetland, as well as the driving force or hydraulic gradients in the area

District of Columbia, University of the

294

Exporting Alaskan North Slope crude oil: Benefits and costs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy study examines the effects of lifting the current prohibitions against the export of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) crude. The study concludes that permitting exports would benefit the US economy. First, lifting the ban would expand the markets in which ANS oil can be sold, thereby increasing its value. ANS oil producers, the States of California and Alaska, and some of their local governments all would benefit from increased revenues. Permitting exports also would generate new economic activity and employment in California and Alaska. The study concludes that these economic benefits would be achieved without increasing gasoline prices (either in California or in the nation as a whole). Lifting the export ban could have important implications for US maritime interests. The Merchant Marine Act of 1970 (known as the Jones Act) requires all inter-coastal shipments to be carried on vessels that are US-owned, US-crewed, and US-built. By limiting the shipment of ANS crude to US ports only, the export ban creates jobs for the seafarers and the builders of Jones Act vessels. Because the Jones Act does not apply to exports, however, lifting the ban without also changing US maritime law would jeopardize the jobs associated with the current fleet of Jones Act tankers. Therefore the report analyzes selected economic impacts of several maritime policy alternatives, including: Maintaining current law, which allows foreign tankers to carry oil where export is allowed; requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on Jones Act vessels; and requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on vessels that are US-owned and US-crewed, but not necessarily US-built. Under each of these options, lifting the export ban would generate economic benefits.

Not Available

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Comparison of Radionuclide Ratios in Atmospheric Nuclear Explosions and Nuclear Releases from Chernobyl and Fukushima seen in Gamma Ray Spectormetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) has remote radionuclide monitoring followed by an On Site Inspection (OSI) to clarify the nature of a suspect event. An important aspect of radionuclide measurements on site is the discrimination of other potential sources of similar radionuclides such as reactor accidents or medical isotope production. The Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear reactor disasters offer two different reactor source term environmental inputs that can be compared against historical measurements of nuclear explosions. The comparison of whole-sample gamma spectrometry measurements from these three events and the analysis of similarities and differences are presented. This analysis is a step toward confirming what is needed for measurements during an OSI under the auspices of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

Friese, Judah I.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Lucas, Dawn D.

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

296

Director`s series on proliferation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two essays are included in this booklet. Their titles are ``The Dynamics of the NPT Extension Decision`` and ``North Korea`s Nuclear Gambit.`` The first paper discusses the conference to be held in 1995 to review the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) which will decide whether the treaty shall continue in force indefinitely, or shall be extended for an additional fixed period or periods. Topics relevant to this discussion are: Arms control issues, the nuclear test ban, the limited test ban treaty, the French nuclear testing moratorium, former Soviet nuclear weapons, Iraq, North Korea, nuclear-weapon-free zones, security, controls on nuclear weapon materials, peaceful uses of nuclear energy, safeguards, politics, and organizational and procedural issues. The second paper examines short, medium, and long term issues entailed in Korea`s nuclear proliferation. Topics considered include: Korean unification, North Korean politics, the nuclear issue as leverage, and the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty.

Bailey, K.C. [ed.

1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

297

Alternative treaty monitoring approaches using ultra-low background measurement technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty includes a network of stations and laboratories for collection and analysis of radioactive aerosols. Alternative approaches to IMS operations are considered as a method of enhancing treaty verification. Ultra-low background (ULB) detection promises the possibility of improvements to IMS minimum detectable activities (MDAs) well below the current approach, requiring MDAp30 mBq/m3 of air for 140Ba, or about 106 fissions per daily sample.

Miley, Harry S.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Fast, James E.; Hayes, James C.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Seifert, Allen

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Formal analysis of device authentication applications in ubiquitous computing.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Authentication between mobile devices in ad-hoc computing environments is a challenging problem. Without pre-shared knowledge, existing applications rely on additional communication methods, such as out-of-band or location-limited channels for device authentication. However, no formal analysis has been conducted to determine whether out-of-band channels are actually necessary. We answer this question through formal analysis, and use BAN logic to show that device authentication using a single channel is not possible.

Shin, Dongwan (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Claycomb, William R.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Worried About High N Prices? Keith A Kelling and Larry G Bundy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.S. natural gas prices · Record increase in world nitrogen capacity · China's ban on urea imports · Collapse Nitrate Nitric AcidAmmonia Natural Gas Anhydrous Ammonia (NH3) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Liquid Urea (UR) Prill gas prices NYMEX Natural Gas Prices 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Jan-99 Apr-99 Jul-99 O ct-99 Jan-00 Apr

Balser, Teri C.

300

Tribal Values of Taxation Within the Tribalist Economic Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rd, 2006, various tribal groups signed a declaration seeking "a ban on uranium mining, processing, enrichment, fuel use, and weapons testing and deployment, and nuclear waste dumping on indigenous lands."59 Tribal leaders have discussed... that may occur in the operation of such facilities. An example of economic development contrary to the tribalist economic theory is extraction of uranium and other minerals intended for creation of nuclear energy and other energy development. On Dec. 3...

EagleWoman, Angelique A. (Wambdi A. WasteWin)

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rong ban kst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Locating Pleistocene refugia: Comparing phylogeographic and ecological niche model predictions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York, United States of America, 2 International Rice Research Institute, Los Ban˜os, Laguna, Philippines, 3Natural History Museum & Biodiversity Research Center, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas.... Refugia identified in phylogeographic studies are shown as black outlines. Areas predicted to be refugia are in green, areas not predicted are in gray, and hatching indicates approximate locations of ice sheets [68]. Gray lines indicate present day...

Waltari, Eric; Hijmans, Robert J.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Nyá ri, Á rpá d S.; Perkins, Susan L.; Guralnick, Robert P.

2007-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

302

XVII JORNADAS DE PARALELISMO--ALBACETE, SEPTIEMBRE 2006 1 Procesamiento paralelo de imagenes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PC disponibles en el mercado) y permite obtener altos niveles de rendimiento con la calidad necesaria sistema AVIRIS de NA- SA. I. INTRODUCCI ´ON LA espectroscop´ia de im´agenes, tambi´en conocida co- mo para despliegues mili- tares de seguridad y defensa, planificaci´on y gesti´on ur- ban´istica, prevenci

Plaza, Antonio J.

303

nparticulier consulte un architecte pour la construc-tion d'une maison. Plusieurs options lui sont offertes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sont offertes : une maison de plain-pied ou à un étage, un patio, une terrasse et un garage. Ses goûts et son ban- quier lui dictent plusieurs contraintes : il faut qu'il y ait un étage ou une terrasse, mais pas les deux ; il faut qu'il y ait un garage ou un patio, mais pas les deux ; s'il y a un patio

Monasson, Rémi

304

Preliminary report on LLNL mine seismicity deployment at the Twentymile Coal Mine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the preliminary results of a just completed experiment at the Twentymile Coal Mine, operated by the Cyprus Amax Coal Company near Oak Creek, CO. The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data from roof caves associated with long-wall mining activities and to use this data to help determine the effectiveness with which these events can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions under a future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

Walter, W.R.; Hunter, S.L.; Glenn, L.A.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

QER- Comment of Diane Kolakoski 1  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

I am opposed to proposed pipeline. It is wrong to take private and protected land for the profit of a polluting, greedy private industry and require us to pay the bill through a proposed tariff. Money should be spent instead on conserving energy and renewable energy. No to fracking. No to environmentally damaging corporations. Stay out of Deerfield. Out of Massachusetts. Ban fracking altogether. Diane Kolakoski

306

Transgressing the Law: Karma, Theft and Its Punishment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was viewed as polluting the natural environment and to cause the displeasure of local deities and spirits. More recently, there has been a ban on the selling of cigarettes in the kingdom. Revue d’Etudes Tibétaines 50 Dharma, Laws and Happiness... in Bhutan – notably an emphasis on non-violence, peace loving and environmentally aware contented subject/citizens.3 This image and its reliance, in my opinion, on 1 Honorary Fellow, Social...

Whitecross, Richard W

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Cooling season study and economic analysis of a desiccant cooling system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This effect stems from using refrigerants which contain fluorocarbons. Fluorocarbons released into the atmosphere react with, and destroy, upper level ozone. As a result several alternative cooling processes have been proposed as replacements. One... of the detrimental effect fluorocarbons have on the environment, legislation has been passed banning their manufacture and sale. Refrigerants proposed as replacements, HFC 134a and HCFC-123, are more costly and less efficient than fluorocarbon , and their long...

Lee, James Howard

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Life Cycle cost Analysis of Waste Heat Operated Absorption Cooling Systems for Building HVAC Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

effect from CO2 emission resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels in utility power plants and the use of chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants, which is currently thought to affect depletion of the ozone layer. The ban on fluorocarbon fluids has been...LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS OF WASTE HEAT OPERATED ABSORPTION COOLING SYSTEMS FOR BUILDING HVAC APPLICATIONS V. Murugavel and R. Saravanan Refrigeration and Air conditioning Laboratory Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University...

Saravanan, R.; Murugavel, V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Potential impacts of tighter Forest Service log export restrictions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Federal law restricts the export of unprocessed timber cut from national forests in the western half of the United States. Also, purchasers of national forest timber are restricted from substituting timber harvested from federal lands for privately owned timber that they export. GAO reviewed the magnitude of and the potential impacts from extending the substitution restriction to cover third parties who subsequently acquire Forest Service timber from the original purchasers - an export industry practice commonly referred to as third-party substitution. According to the Forest Service and timber industry associations, third-party substitution approximates 100 million board feet annually in the western United States. They said that if the practice were banned, some companies could acquire national forest timber at lower prices because of decreased demand and competition, and the lower prices would result in less government revenues. Also, a ban could disrupt traditional log markets and business practices. The Forest Service believes it could not enforce a ban on third-party substitution without additional legal authority and staff.

Not Available

1985-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

310

Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

Hadder, G.R.

2000-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

311

Herd-level Risk Factors Associated with Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns and Distributions in Fecal Bacteria of Porcine Origin.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens, potentially increasing the risk to humans or negatively affecting animal well-being (WHO, 2003). For example, the ban on antimicrobial growth promoters in Denmark in the late 1990s was followed by an increase... that an unrepresentative sample of farms may have been obtained. Convenience sampling can lead to a variety of problems—in one study, samples from farms in two countries (the U.S. and Denmark) were included for comparison, even though the samples from these different...

Rollo, Susan Noble

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

312

Construction of a Shallow Underground Low-background Detector for a CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The International Monitoring System (IMS) is a verification component of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), and in addition to a series of radionuclide monitoring stations, contains sixteen radionuclide laboratories capable of verification of radionuclide station measurements. This paper presents an overview of a new commercially obtained low-background detector system for radionuclide aerosol measurements recently installed in a shallow (>30 meters water equivalent) underground clean-room facility at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Specifics such as low-background shielding materials, active shielding methods, and improvements in sensitivity to IMS isotopes will be covered.

Forrester, Joel B.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Miley, Harry S.; Myers, Allan W.; Overman, Cory T.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

RECONSTRUCTION POST-CONFLIT VIOLENCE ET POLITIQUE EN COTE D'IVOIRE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RECONSTRUCTION « POST-CONFLIT » VIOLENCE ET POLITIQUE EN COTE D'IVOIRE Richard Banégas* Marquée par plus 10 années de crise politico-militaire, la Côte d'Ivoire semble aujourd'hui renaître de ses cendres redéploiement de l'administration dans les régions du nord jusqu'alors sous contrôle des insurgés va bon train

Boyer, Edmond

314

MB3a Infrasound Sensor Evaluation.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated a new infrasound sensor, the MB3a, manufactured by Seismo Wave. These infrasound sensors measure pressure output by a methodology developed by researchers at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and the technology was recently licensed to Seismo Wave for production and sales. The purpose of the infrasound sensor evaluation was to determine a measured sensitivity, transfer function, power, self-noise, dynamic range, seismic sensitivity, and self- calibration ability. The MB3a infrasound sensors are being evaluated for potential use in the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty Organization (CTBTO).

Merchant, Bion J.; McDowell, Kyle D.

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Horizontal air trajectories in a geostrophic field with uniform horizontal shear  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

balloon A careful analysis of horizontal sir trgectories hse been made in s proJect by the Deyarheent of %%acrology, University of Oalifornts at Los Angeles by ~son P6g. The equations of horizontal, nonviscous motion were integrated numeric~ by a... Coriolis force (d3xcctad to the r3ght) is less tJ~ the presnue @radiant force, and the parhicle is accelerated In tbe direction cf the lavhcz force. Tn the second case, tbe velocity is @roster +ban tbe gecstrophie vclocity3 hence the Corlolis force...

Todsen, Marius

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Effects of bacitracin methylene disalicylate, bacitracin zinc, and virginiamycin in combination with new coccidiostats on the performance of commercial broiler chickens  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONVERSION TO 48 DAYS OF AGE IN COMMERCIAL BROILERS TREATMENTS NO. OF BIRDS FEED CONVERSION (FEED/WEIGHT) 2 WK 4 WK 6 WK 48 DAYS MAXIBAN MAXI BAN + BMD 400 400 1. 066 1 ' 518 1. 071 1. 473 1. 933 (1) 1. 950 (2) 1. 842 1. 852y 1. 991 2 031x 1... or in combination with bacitracin Zn when added to the diet affects males and females alike. There were no statis- tically significant differences between the treatments in feed conversion at 2, 4 and 6 weeks, or 48 days of age (Tables 18 and 19). However...

Ofori Bekoe, Kwadwo

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

A relation of measured deflections, pavement performance and soil characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

illaent of the rekuirenenta for tne degree of XLSTEk QF SCIENCE lkay 1967 Ma)or Sub)cata Civil Engineering A. 1KLATICM OP MEASUHEC LEFIECTIOMS ~ PAVEM: MT PEBFOiSIASCE ANC SOIL CHAHACTERISTICS A Thesis b? DANIEL E ~ BAN11A~ JR+ Approved... ~ Besearoh Projeot 8 as material for this theology Grateful acknowledgment is made to Charles J ~ geese, Kssooiate Pro- f'easer of Civil Engineering ~ for his enoouragement and helpful advioe in writing of this thesis. Speoial aoknowledgment is made...

Hanna, Daniel Nelson

1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Ansereg: The Grey Book  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

  same kind.  Some  of  our  folk do not practice  ansereg. Some endure the rite a few times, and set it aside. A rarer few gain a  taste for it, and the ritual garb is the most visible sign of that taste. The black  and  silver  were  once  the  livery... Noldor,  Thingol,  king  of  the  Sindar  Elves, banned its practice from Doriath when word of it came to his  court. And since that time the customs of ansereg have differed as the  dwellings  and  languages  of  our  people  have.  Of  the  Sindar  elves...

Tyellas

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Regulation of E2F-1 gene expression in human breast cancer cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

until they were banned in 1972 (35). Dioxins are also organochlorines that were found as contaminants in herbicides. Dioxin is the general name given to 210 organic compounds containing carbon, oxygen and hydrogen with one to eight chlorine atoms.... Only 17 of the 210 dioxins are known to be toxic. Dioxins can be created 15 naturally in trace quantities (e.g. volcanoes). They can also be created as unwanted by-products in numerous combustion processes (e.g. forest fires, cigarettes, bonfires...

Ngwenya, Sharon Khethiwe

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

320

The Black Legend and United States' attitudes in Cuba, 1898-1902  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. w!nism in America. The biases embodied i:! thc Bi a& k Legend, combined !'ith a gro!&ing sense oi national i tl and imper i al& sm, plavcd;& n&aj or ro! c in the written and verbal reports about Cuba and the Cu- bans. However, historical... at opinions in thc Uni 1. eil States. The United States almost from its inception as a sov- ereign nation had an interest in the island of Cuba. Long after the other Latin American countries had gained inde- pendence, Cuba remained in ?hat was termed...

Byrd, Judy Lynn

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rong ban kst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Oyster River CHILD STUDY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PICKUP !( !( ALL CAMPUS CONNECTOR ROUTES ARE FREE AND OPEN TO THE PUBLIC University of New Hampshire Information Center Mast Road Durham, New Hampshire (603) 862-2328 JULY 2013 § WEEKEND & WINTER BAN EVENING #12; PRINTING SERVICES ALUMNI CENTER GREGG HALL ��� ��� ��� ��� ��� � ��� ��� ������ ��� ��� ������ �� � ��� ���

New Hampshire, University of

322

Trouble in the Family: New Zealand's Anti-Nuclear Policy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or deny that a given vessel is carrying nuclear weapons, the port ban effectively barred most U.S. naval craft from docking in New Zealand's ports. Although New Zealand is small, remote, and not strategically located, the significance of this diplomatic.... The matter came to a head in February 1985 when New Zealand refused to accept a visit by the conventionally powered U.S. destroyer Buchanan, on the grounds that the ship might have been carrying nuclear weapons. This was the first test of New Zealand...

Hanson, F. Allen

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Actor-Network Theory’s take on archaeological types: becoming, material agency, and historical explanation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

materials and access to transport networks are needed (Peacock 1982, 119-120). Suitable clay would have been fairly omnipresent, but large quantities of wood for fuel and access to water would have posed more logistical problems. A lack of wood supply has... that sigillata was not geared towards use in ritual contexts or around temples, but not banned from these situations either (Willis 1998 and 2005, 7.2.6 and 12; Bird 2013 and Cool and Leary 2012 for (non-)uses of sigillata in religious and funerary contexts...

Van Oyen, Astrid

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

324

Makaha Valley, Hawaii: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey,(MonasterLowell Point,ECO Auger11.Spain:&Maitland,Mak-Ban /3

325

Makaha, Hawaii: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey,(MonasterLowell Point,ECO Auger11.Spain:&Maitland,Mak-Ban /3Makaha,

326

Makakilo City, Hawaii: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey,(MonasterLowell Point,ECO Auger11.Spain:&Maitland,Mak-Ban

327

Makani Power | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey,(MonasterLowell Point,ECO Auger11.Spain:&Maitland,Mak-BanPower Jump

328

Making Car Sharing and Car Clubs Work: Case Study Summaries | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey,(MonasterLowell Point,ECO Auger11.Spain:&Maitland,Mak-BanPower

329

Regulations Related to the Outer Continental Shelf Moratoria and Implications of Not Renewing the Moratoria (released in AEO2009)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

From 1982 through 2008, Congress annually enacted appropriations riders prohibiting the Minerals Management Service (MMS) of the U.S. Department of the Interior from conducting activities related to leasing, exploration, and production of oil and natural gas on much of the federal Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). Further, a separate executive ban (originally put in place in 1990 by President George H.W. Bush and later extended by President William J. Clinton through 2012) also prohibited leasing on the OCS, with the exception of the Western Gulf of Mexico, portions of the Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico, and Alaska. In combination, those actions prohibited drilling along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, and in portions of the central Gulf of Mexico. The Gulf of Mexico Energy Security Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-432) imposed yet a third ban on drilling through 2022 on tracts in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico that are within 125 miles of Florida, east of a dividing line known as the Military Mission Line, and in the Central Gulf of Mexico within 100 miles of Florida.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

Casey, Leslie A.

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

331

Radionuclide site survey report, Ashland, Kansas (RN-74). Final technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to validate that the Ashland, Kansas site will fulfill treaty requirements as set forth by the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization. The team performing the site survey followed accepted scientific methods in collecting air and soil samples near the proposed site. The samples were analyzed by the McClellan Central Laboratory and the results forwarded to AFTAC/TM for review. The team included meteorological and technical staff. Possible sources of radionuclides were examined, as well as meteorological conditions that might affect the validity of recorded data at the site. All necessary background information required by the Commission was researched and is included in the report. The analysis of the samples identifies all radionuclide isotopes and their sources that might affect future samples at the site. There are no significant findings that would prevent this site from meeting treaty requirements.

Walker, F.; Lucas, J.; Owen, M.; McKethan, E.M.; MacCartney, J.

1999-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

332

Automated particulate sampler field test model operations guide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Automated Particulate Sampler Field Test Model Operations Guide is a collection of documents which provides a complete picture of the Automated Particulate Sampler (APS) and the Field Test in which it was evaluated. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Automated Particulate Sampler was developed for the purpose of radionuclide particulate monitoring for use under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Its design was directed by anticipated requirements of small size, low power consumption, low noise level, fully automatic operation, and most predominantly the sensitivity requirements of the Conference on Disarmament Working Paper 224 (CDWP224). This guide is intended to serve as both a reference document for the APS and to provide detailed instructions on how to operate the sampler. This document provides a complete description of the APS Field Test Model and all the activity related to its evaluation and progression.

Bowyer, S.M.; Miley, H.S.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Pool octanes via oxygenates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasingly stringent antipollution regulations placed on automobile exhaust gases with consequent reduction or complete lead ban from motor gasoline result in octane shortage at many manufacturing sites. Attractive solutions to this problem, especially in conjunction with abundant methanol supplies, are the hydration and etherification of olefins contained in light product streams from cracking unit or produced by field gas dehydrogenation. A comparison is made between oxygenates octane-volume pool contributions and established refinery technologies. Process reviews for bulk manufacture of fuel-grade isopropanol (IPA), secondary butanol (SBA), tertiary butanol (TBA), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) are presented together with the characteristic investment and operating data. The implantation of these processes into a typical FCCU refinery complex with the resulting octane-pool improvement possibilities is descried.

Prezelj, M.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Parallel Radioisotope Collection and Analysis in Response to the Fukushima Release  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two independent air samplers were operated at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in parallel during the collection of samples from the Fukushima reactor releases. One system is an automated aerosol collection and analysis unit, while the other was a manual sampler of higher daily air volume. The samples collected each day showed excellent correlation in radionuclide activity, although some variations were seen. These variations illustrate the reproducibility of the air sample radionuclide measurements made by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty International Monitoring System (IMS) and show a simple way to acquire useful parallel samples for scientific purposes. In particular, a party wishing to have a “copy” of a sample acquired by the verification regime of the treaty could employ this method and have results similar to the IMS station at low cost and even higher sensitivity.

Woods, Vincent T.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Biegalski, S.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Miley, Harry S.; Morris, Scott J.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Discrimination of nuclear explosions against civilian sources based on atmospheric xenon isotopic activity ratios  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A global monitoring system for atmospheric xenon radioactivity is being established as part of the International Monitoring System that will be used to verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) once the treaty has entered into force. This paper studies isotopic activity ratios to support interpretation of observed atmospheric concentrations of 135Xe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 131mXe. The goal is to distinguish nuclear explosion sources from civilian releases. Simulations of nuclear explosions, empirical data for both test and reactor releases as well as observations by measurement stations of the International Noble Gas Experiment (INGE) are used to provide a proof of concept for the isotopic ratio based method for source discrimination.

Kalinowski, Martin B.; Axelssson, A.; Bean, Marc; Blanchard, X.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Brachet, G.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Peters, Jana; Pistner, Christoph; Raith, Maria; Ringbom, Anders; Saey, P. R.; Schlosser, C.; Stocki, Trevor J.; Taffary, T.; Ungar, R. Kurt

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

PCBs have declined more than DDT-group residues in Arctic ringed seals (Phoca hispida) between 1972 and 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mean DDT-group concentrations in the blubber of western Arctic ringed seals (Phoca hispida) sampled in 1981 were less than 1..mu..g.g/sup -1/ wet weight. Male seals had higher concentrations than did females. PCB concentrations were about half of those in a sample of the same population taken in 1972, when allowance was made for the variation of residue concentrations with age, sex, and condition. This decline probably results from the ban on PCB manufacture and use imposed in the early 1970s. Concentrations of DDT-group residues did not show any clear decline over the same interval, and the relative proportions of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE suggested that there is a continuing supply of DDT to the western Arctic. The most probable source of this is by atmospheric or water transport from the Far East, where DDT was used until at least the late 1970s.

Addison, R.F.; Zinck, M.E.; Smith, T.G.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Time dependences of atmospheric Carbon dioxide fluxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Understanding the lifetime of CO2 in the atmosphere is critical for predictions regarding future climate changes. A simple mass conservation analysis presented here generates tight estimations for the atmosphere's retention time constant. The analysis uses a leaky integrator model that combines the observed deficit (only less than 40% of CO2 produced from combustion of fossil fuels is actually retained in the atmosphere, while more than 60% is continuously shed) with the exponential growth of fossil fuel burning. It reveals a maximum characteristic time of less than 23 year for the transfer of atmospheric CO2 to a segregation sink. This time constant is further constrained by the rapid disappearance of 14C after the ban of atmospheric atomic bomb tests, which provides a lower limit of 18 years for this transfer. The study also generates evaluations of other CO2 fluxes, exchange time constants and volumes exchanged. Analysis of large harmonic oscillations of atmospheric CO2 concentration, often neglected in th...

DeSalvo, Riccardo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Arms control and nonproliferation technologies: The non-proliferation experiment. First quarter 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies we present the initial findings of the recent Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), conducted by the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site. Through an introduction and pictorial walk-through, Marv Denny and Jay Zucca of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory describe the overall experiment. This is followed by scientific and technical abstracts of the complex suite of experiments and analyses, which were presented at the Symposium on Non-Proliferation Experiment Results and Implications for Test Ban Treaties, April 19--21, 1994. Questions regarding the ongoing analysis and conclusions from the NPE should be directed to Leslie Casey in the Office of Research and Development within the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security of DOE. Her phone number is 202-586-2151.

Staehle, G.; Stull, S.; Talaber, C. [eds.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Special lecture in memory of Glenn Theodore Seaborg (19 April 1912 - 25 February 1999) Glenn T. Seaborg's multi-faceted career  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Glenn Theodore Seaborg (1912-1999) was a world-renowned nuclear chemist, a Nobel Laureate in chemistry in 1951, co-discoverer of plutonium and nine other transuranium elements, Chairman of the US Atomic Energy Commission from 1961-71, scientific advisor to ten US presidents, active in national and international professional societies, an advocate for nuclear power as well as for a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty, a prolific writer, an avid hiker, environmentalist, and sports enthusiast. He was known and esteemed not only by chemists and other scientists throughout the world, but also by lay people, politicians, statesmen, and students of all ages. This memorial includes a brief glimpse of Glenn Seaborg's early life and education, describes some of his major contributions to nuclear science over his long and fruitful career, and highlights his profound influence on nuclear science, both in the US and in the international community.

Hoffman, Darleane C.

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Products of motor burnout. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Montreal Protocol of 1987 effectively banned a long list of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) traditionally used in air conditioning and refrigeration applications. The refrigeration and air conditioning industries have responded by developing and testing new, alternative refrigerants that are less damaging to the atmosphere upon release. Despite a reputation for quality and reliability, air conditioning systems do occasionally fail. One of the more common failure modes in a hermetic system is a motor burnout. Motor burnouts can occur by various mechanisms. One of the most common scenarios is a locked motor rotor, which may result from a damaged bearing. The resulting electrical motor burnout is caused by overheating of the locked rotor and subsequent failure of the insulation. This is primarily a thermal breakdown process.

Hawley-Fedder, R.; Goerz, D.; Koester, C.; Wilson, M.

1996-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rong ban kst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

The Jasons: The Secret History of Science's Postwar Elite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This book is a history/profile of the group, called Jason, of academic scientists who advise the government. The book starts where the Manhattan Project ends -- with physicists trying to decide, having let the genie out of the bottle, how to get it back in again. One result of their attempts was Jason. Jason is 30 to 50 scientists who meet for six weeks every summer to answer questions for the government -- usually for the defense department or the intelligence community -- about national security issues. They specialize in studies for the Department of Energy on the technical backing for treaties to ban the bomb. Jason is unique, not only in this country, but in the world. The book is about the group's attempts to hold onto their scientific souls, remain independent, and still stay in business.

Finkbeiner, Ann (Johns Hopkins University) [Johns Hopkins University

2006-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

342

Proceedings of the Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring Symposium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the state-of-the-art in numerical simulations of nuclear explosion phenomenology with applications to test ban monitoring. We focused on the uniqueness of model fits to data, the measurement and characterization of material response models, advanced modeling techniques, and applications of modeling to monitoring problems. The second goal of the symposium was to establish a dialogue between seismologists and explosion-source code calculators. The meeting was divided into five main sessions: explosion source phenomenology, material response modeling, numerical simulations, the seismic source, and phenomenology from near source to far field. We feel the symposium reached many of its goals. Individual papers submitted at the conference are indexed separately on the data base.

Taylor, S.R.; Kamm, J.R. [eds.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Cold warriors target arms control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While disagreements over the conflict in Bosnia have strained US relations with Western Europe and Russia, these divisions will pale in comparison to the tensions that will arise if recent congressional arms control decisions become law. If the Republicans who dominate Congress are successful, a series of arms control agreements painstakingly negotiated by Republican and Democratic presidents could be consigned to the ash heap. This list includes the Start I and Start II nuclear reduction agreements, the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty and the ongoing negotiations to achieve a comprehensive test ban (CTB) by 1996. US leadership in the post-Cold War era will undermined as the international community, already skeptical about this country`s direction, will question the ability of the executive branch to surmount isolantionist impulses.

Isaacs, J.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

ab initio Electronic Transport Model with Explicit Solution to the Linearized Boltzmann Transport Equation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Accurate models of carrier transport are essential for describing the electronic properties of semiconductor materials. To the best of our knowledge, the current models following the framework of the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) either rely heavily on experimental data (i.e., semi-empirical), or utilize simplifying assumptions, such as the constant relaxation time approximation (BTE-cRTA). While these models offer valuable physical insights and accurate calculations of transport properties in some cases, they often lack sufficient accuracy -- particularly in capturing the correct trends with temperature and carrier concentration. We present here a general transport model for calculating low-field electrical drift mobility and Seebeck coefficient of n-type semiconductors, by explicitly considering all relevant physical phenomena (i.e. elastic and inelastic scattering mechanisms). We first rewrite expressions for the rates of elastic scattering mechanisms, in terms of ab initio properties, such as the ban...

Faghaninia, Alireza; Lo, Cynthia S

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Tank 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples obtained during the operation of mixer pumps in tank 241-AZ-101. The primary purpose of the mixer pump test (MPT) is to demonstrate that the two 300 horsepower mixer pumps installed in tank 241-AZ-101 can mobilize the settled sludge so that it can be retrieved for treatment and vitrification Sampling will be performed in accordance with Tank 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Data Quality Objective (Banning 1999) and Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis (Mulkey 1999). The sampling will verify if current air emission estimates used in the permit application are correct and provide information for future air permit applications.

TEMPLETON, A.M.

2000-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

346

Understand assumptions and know uncertainties: Boscovich and the motion of the Earth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The general prohibition of books advocating heliocentric theory put many progressive Jesuits in a difficult position. One of the most prominent Jesuit scientists of the 18th century, Rogerius Boscovich, was in particularly affected by conflicts between a beautifully simple theory of gravity by Newton, his Jesuit peripatetic education, Church doctrine and the lack of crucial experimental evidence for the motion of the Earth. I present the development of Boscovich's ideas prior to the lifting of the ban, and his retrospective considerations in later writings. These show that Boscovich's acceptance of the motion of the Earth was primarily driven by the existence of a working physical theory that also explained the motion of the Earth, and the lack of a consistent theory that supported any variation of a geocentric system.

Krajnovic, Davor

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

The Jasons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

I'm a free-lance science writer, and have written a history/profile of the group, called Jason, of academic scientists who advise the government. The book starts where the Manhattan Project ends -- with physicists trying to decide, having let the genie out of the bottle, how to get it back in again. One result of their attempts was Jason. Jason is 30 to 50 scientists who meet for six weeks every summer to answer questions for the government -- usually for the defense department or the intelligence community -- about national security issues. They specialize in studies for the Department of Energy on the technical backing for treaties to ban the bomb. Jason is unique, not only in this country, but in the world. The book is about the group's attempts to hold onto their scientific souls, remain independent, and still stay in business.

Professor Ann Finkbeiner

2006-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

348

Mine locations: Kazakhstan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Upon accepting this internship at Los Alamos National Laboratory, I was excited but a bit nervous because I was placed into a field I knew nothing about and did not incorporate my mechanical engineering background. However, I stayed positive and realized that experience and education can come in many forms and that this would be a once in a lifetime opportunity. The EES-II Division (which stands for Earth and Environmental Sciences, Geophysics division) concentrates on several topics, including Nuclear Treaty Verification Seismology. The study of this is extremely important in order to monitor countries that have nuclear capability and make sure they follow the rules of the international comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty. Seismology is only one aspect of this monitoring and EES-II works diligently with many other groups here at Los Alamos and across the world.

Perry, Bradley A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Sustainable Evolution in an Ever-Changing Environment: General Characterization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A complex interplay between the academic issue about generalization of the thermodynamics and the practical matter about setting standards for a sustainable evolution of both tailored devices and natural systems is considered. It is established that the measure for a sustainable evolution in an ever-changing environment appears as a Boltzmann-Gibbs weight. At the same time, this measure performs as a local thermodynamical potential which, at the expense of being released from the condition of entropy maximization, serves as grounds for a fundamental development of the idea of banning perpetuum mobile. It is proven that the best efficiency of each engine that operates reversibly never exceeds the efficiency of corresponding Carnot heat engine where the engine is free from necessity of a physical coupling to two heat reservoirs.

Maria K. Koleva

2009-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

350

STAG UK Newsletter Issue 5  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and pray some-one told me, but I don't know mwy Arabs.We have been asked lJY several of you if we could talw over gifts for various stars. I'm sorry to say this will be impossible, as our luggage weig?ht is res tricted, but if any of you would like... ?.. stune Dllcl Dust. :.m.k .i3ju~:r; ED EP I:30 DhlfL. It does not look likelyt110.t we will ever get to see the throe banned episodes uf star Trek on BBG television, as they 11o;ve recently said. so 9 (Again, L adding tho.-(; neitl~er will they...

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Development of lead-free solders for hybrid microcircuits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extensive work has been conducted by industry to develop lead-free solders for electronics applications. The driving force behind this effort is pressure to ban or tax the use of lead-bearing solders. There has been further interest to reduce the use of hazardous chemical cleaners. Lead-free soldering and low-residue, ``no clean`` assembly processing are being considered as solutions to these environmental issues. Most of the work has been directed toward commercial and military printed wiring board (PWB) technology, although similar problems confront the hybrid microcircuit (HMC) industry, where the development of lead-free HMC solders is generally lagging. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for designing a variety of critical, high reliability hybrid components for radars. Sandia has consequently initiated a project, as part of its Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing program, to develop low-residue, lead-free soldering for HMCs. This paper discusses the progress of that work.

Hosking, F.M.; Vianco, P.T.; Frear, D.R.; Robinson, D.G.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Alternatives to diesel fuel in California - fuel cycle energy and emission effects of possible replacements due to the TAC diesel particulate decision.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Limitations on petroleum-based diesel fuel in California could occur pursuant to the 1998 declaration by California's Air Resources Board (CARB) that the particulate matter component of diesel exhaust is a carcinogen, therefore a toxic air contaminant (TAC) subject to the state's Proposition 65. It is the declared intention of CARB not to ban or restrict diesel fuel per se, at this time. Assuming no total ban, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) explored two feasible mid-course strategies, each of which results in some degree of (conventional) diesel displacement. In the first case, with substantial displacement of compression-ignition by spark-ignition engines, diesel fuel is assumed admissible for ignition assistance as a pilot fuel in natural gas (NG)-powered heavy-duty vehicles. Gasoline demand in California increases by 32.2 million liters (8.5 million gallons) per day overall, about 21% above projected 2010 baseline demand. Natural gas demand increases by 13.6 million diesel liter (3.6 million gallon) equivalents per day, about 7% above projected (total) consumption level. In the second case, compression-ignition engines utilize substitutes for petroleum-based diesel having similar ignition and performance properties. For each case the authors estimated localized air emission plus generalized greenhouse gas and energy changes. Fuel replacement by di-methyl ether yields the greatest overall reduction in NOX emissions, though all scenarios bring about PM{sub 10} reductions relative to the 2010 baseline, with greatest reductions from the first case described above and the least from fuel replacement by Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel. Economic implications of vehicle and engine replacement were not formally evaluated.

Saricks, C. L.; Rote, D. M.; Stodolsky, F.; Eberhardt, J. J.

1999-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

353

Alternatives to Diesel Fuel in California - Fuel Cycle Energy and Emission Effects of Possible Replacements Due to the TAC Diesel Particulate Decision  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Limitations on petroleum-based diesel fuel in California could occur pursuant to the 1998 declaration by California's Air Resources Board (CARB) that the particulate matter component of diesel exhaust is a carcinogen, therefore a toxic air contaminant (TAC) subject to the state's Proposition 65. It is the declared intention of CARB not to ban or restrict diesel fuel, per se, at this time. Assuming no total ban, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) explored two feasible ''mid-course'' strategies, each of which results in some degree of (conventional) diesel displacement. In the first case, with substantial displacement of compression ignition by spark ignition engines, diesel fuel is assumed admissible for ignition assistance as a pilot fuel in natural gas (NG)-powered heavy-duty vehicles. Gasoline demand in California increases by 32.2 million liters (8.5 million gallons) per day overall, about 21 percent above projected 2010 baseline demand. Natural gas demand increases by 13.6 million diesel liter (3.6 million gallon) equivalents per day, about 7 percent above projected (total) consumption level. In the second case, ressionignition engines utilize substitutes for petroleum-based diesel having similar ignition and performance properties. For each case we estimated localized air emission plus generalized greenhouse gas and energy changes. Fuel replacement by di-methyl ether yields the greatest overall reduction in NOx emissions, though all scenarios bring about PM10 reductions relative to the 2010 baseline, with greatest reductions from the first case described above and the least from fuel replacement by Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel. Economic implications of vehicle and engine replacement were not formally evaluated.

Christopher L. Saraicks; Donald M. Rote; Frank Stodolsky; James J. Eberhardt

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

A solid phase extraction procedure for determination of triazine herbicides and polar metabolites in natural waters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atrazine and related triazine herbicides are used in great quantities throughout the world for pre-emergence weed control. In the central United States, for example, millions of kilograms of triazines are applied each year. In areas of heavy usage, surface water supplies are often affected by runoff of these substances and their transformation products. Therefore, a number of these compounds are routinely monitored in drinking water in the United States, particularly in agricultural areas such as the Mississippi river valley. There is also significant interest regarding the fate and transport of the triazine herbicides in the natural environment. In Europe, where groundwater is utilized for a high proportion of drinking water supplies, the EC has established more stringent limits than has the US EPA. Currently, the US limit is 3 {mu}g/L for atrazine; the European limit is 0.1 {mu}g/L for atrazine or any individual regulated pesticide, and 0.5 {mu}g/L for the sum of all pesticides. Because groundwater levels in agricultural areas were consistently above this limit, Germany banned the use of Atrazine in 1991, and has recommended banning the use of this herbicide throughout the European Community (EC). Clearly, a rugged method for determination of the triazine herbicides is desirable with detection limits in the part per trillion range. Because direct determination at these levels is not usually possible, sample enrichment techniques, such as solid phase extraction (SPE), must be employed. In this study, Porapak RDX Sep-Pak{reg_sign} cartridges were used for trace enrichment of triazines and metabolites.

Young, M.S. [Waters Corp., Milford, MA (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Classicality condition on a system's observable in a quantum measurement and relative-entropy conservation law  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the information flow on a system's observable $X$ corresponding to a positive-operator valued measure under a quantum measurement process $Y$ described by a completely positive instrument from the viewpoint of the relative entropy. We establish a sufficient condition for the relative-entropy conservation law which states that the averaged decrease in the relative entropy of the system's observable $X$ equals the relative entropy of the measurement outcome of $Y$, i.e. the information gain due to measurement. This sufficient condition is interpreted as an assumption of classicality in the sense that there exists a sufficient statistic in a joint successive measurement of $Y$ followed by $X$ such that the probability distribution of the statistic coincides with that of a single measurement of $X$ for the pre-measurement state. We show that in the case when $X$ is a discrete projection-valued measure and $Y$ is discrete, the classicality condition is equivalent to the relative-entropy conservation for arbitrary states. The general theory on the relative-entropy conservation is applied to typical quantum measurement models, namely quantum non-demolition measurement, destructive sharp measurements on two-level systems, a photon counting, a quantum counting, homodyne and heterodyne measurements. These examples except for the non-demolition and photon-counting measurements do not satisfy the known Shannon-entropy conservation law proposed by Ban~(M. Ban, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. \\textbf{32}, 1643 (1999)), implying that our approach based on the relative entropy is applicable to a wider class of quantum measurements.

Yui Kuramochi; Masahito Ueda

2015-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

356

A Perspective on Long-Term Recovery Following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident - 12075  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The tragic events at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station began occurring on March 11, 2011, following Japan's unprecedented earthquake and tsunami. The subsequent loss of external power and on-site cooling capacity severely compromised the plant's safety systems, and subsequently, led to core melt in the affected reactors and damage to spent nuclear fuel in the storage pools. Together with hydrogen explosions, this resulted in a substantial release of radioactive material to the environment (mostly Iodine-131 and Cesium- 137), prompting an extensive evacuation effort. The latest release estimate places the event at the highest severity level (Level 7) on the International Nuclear Event Scale, the same as the Chernobyl accident of 1986. As the utility owner endeavored to stabilize the damaged facility, environmental contamination continued to propagate and affect every aspect of daily life in the affected region of Japan. Elevated levels of radioactivity (mostly dominated by Cs-137 with the passage of time) were found in soil, drinking water, vegetation, produce, seafood, and other foodstuffs. An estimated 80,000 to 90,000 people were evacuated; more evacuations are being contemplated months after the accident, and a vast amount of land has become contaminated. Early actions were taken to ban the shipment and sale of contaminated food and drinking water, followed by later actions to ban the shipment and sale of contaminated beef, mushrooms, and seafood. As the event continues to evolve toward stabilization, the long-term recovery effort needs to commence - a process that doubtless will involve rather complex decision-making interactions between various stakeholders. Key issues that may be encountered and considered in such a process include (1) socio-political factors, (2) local economic considerations, (3) land use options, (4) remediation approaches, (5) decontamination methods, (6) radioactive waste management, (7) cleanup levels and options, and (8) government policies, among others. This paper offers a perspective on this likely long and arduous journey toward establishing a 'new normal' that will ultimately take shape. Toward this end, it is important to evaluate the 'optimization' process advocated by the international community in achieving long-term recovery from this particularly fateful event in Fukushima. In the process, experience and lessons learned from past events will be fully evaluated and considered. (author)

Chen, S.Y. [Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Proceedings of the 2009 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2009: Ground -Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2009 in Tucson, Arizona,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar - Chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Dale [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning ( David ) [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

358

Cofiring of coal and waste - an international perspective  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In recent years, cofiring of waste and coal was thought to offer an environmentally sound, economic approach to both waste remediation and energy production. As the quantity of waste being produced around the world increases so does the severity of the regulations controlling its disposal particularly in landfill sites. Space for landfilling is diminishing especially in the densely populated smaller countries. This together with landfill CO{sub 2} and methane emissions and potential groundwater pollution is leading to policy statements and legislation to increase the reuse and recycling of wastes. In many countries landfilling will soon not be considered as an option. In the USA the number of active landfills decreased from more than 6000 in 1986 to just below 4500 in 1993. The number of operating landfills will soon drop to below 4000. In Europe the pressure on landfill space is even greater. Tyre disposal in landfill is widely recognised as an environmental problem; the tyres are a fire hazard and serve as a breeding ground for insects. In the USA, most states have legislation governing tyre handling and disposal and 15 have banned them from landfills. By 1998 all scrap tyres must be recycled or otherwise disposed of by non-landfill methods.

Morrison, G.F. [IEA Coal Research, London (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

359

Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor; Sandoval, Marisa N. [Editor

2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

360

Polychlorinated biphenyls in coastal tropical ecosystems: Distribution, fate and risk assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) though banned still find use in most developing countries including Ghana. PCB congener residues in sediments in the coastal regions of Ghana were determined. Sediment samples (n=80) were collected between June 2008 and March 2009, extracted by the continuous soxhlet extraction using (1:1) hexane-acetone mixture for 24 h and analyzed with a CP 3800 gas chromatogram equipped with {sup 65}Ni electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and a mixed PCBs standard of the ICES 7 as marker, after clean-up. Validation of the efficiency and precision of the extraction and analytical methods were done by extracting samples spiked with 2 ppm ICES PCB standard and a certified reference material 1941b for marine sediments from NIST, USA, and analyzed alongside the samples. Total PCBs detected in sediments during the dry and wet seasons were, respectively, 127 and 112 {mu}g/kg dry weight (dw), with a mean concentration of 120 {mu}g/kg (dw). The composition of PCB homologues in the sediments were dominated by tri-, penta- and tetra-PCBs. There was no correlation between organic carbon (OC) of the sediments and total PCBs content. Risk assessments conducted on the levels indicated that PCB levels in sediments along the coastal region of Ghana poses no significant health risk to humans.

Dodoo, D.K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana); Essumang, D.K., E-mail: kofiessumang@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana); Jonathan, J.W.A.; Bentum, J.K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rong ban kst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Validating the Melusine Gamma Spectroscopy Tool  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technical report describes testing to evaluate the gamma spectroscopy tool, Melusine, under development by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The goal was to verify that the software can successfully be used to provide accurate results and statistical uncertainties for the detection of isotopes of interest and their activities. Of special interest were spectra similar to those produced by radionuclide stations that contribute to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization’s International Monitoring System. Two data sets were used to test Melusine’s capabilities. The first was the result of a multi-lab calibration effort based on neutron activations produced at the University of California at Davis. The second was taken from the Proficiency Test Exercises conducted by the CTBTO directly in 2005. In 37 of 42 cases, Melusine produced results in agreement with the best answer presently available, in most cases with calculated uncertainties comparable to or better than competing analyses. In fact, Melusine technically provided one more result than CTBTO’s PTE analyses that agreed with the “book answer” (Monte Carlo simulation). Despite these promising results, the Melusine software is still under development. Effort is especially needed to simplify its analysis process, improve stability, and provide user documentation. Some significant analysis tasks require further vetting, such as those to address summing effects. However, our test results indicate that Melusine’s calculations as presently implemented are sound and can be used to reliably analyze spectra from the CTBTO’s radionuclide stations.

Erikson, Luke E.; Keillor, Martin E.; Stavenger, Timothy J.

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

362

Impacts of Increased Access to Oil & Natural Gas Resources in the Lower 48 Federal Outer Continental Shelf (released in AEO2007)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This analysis was updated for Annual Energy Outlook 2009 (AEO): Impact of Limitations on Access to Oil and Natural Gas Resources in the Federal Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). The OCS is estimated to contain substantial resources of crude oil and natural gas; however, some areas of the OCS are subject to drilling restrictions. With energy prices rising over the past several years, there has been increased interest in the development of more domestic oil and natural gas supply, including OCS resources. In the past, federal efforts to encourage exploration and development activities in the deep waters of the OCS have been limited primarily to regulations that would reduce royalty payments by lease holders. More recently, the states of Alaska and Virginia have asked the federal government to consider leasing in areas off their coastlines that are off limits as a result of actions by the President or Congress. In response, the Minerals Management Service (MMS) of the U.S. Department of the Interior has included in its proposed 5-year leasing plan for 2007-2012 sales of one lease in the Mid-Atlantic area off the coastline of Virginia and two leases in the North Aleutian Basin area of Alaska. Development in both areas still would require lifting of the current ban on drilling.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Physiological effects following administration of Citrus aurantium for 28 days in rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Background: Since ephedra-containing dietary supplements were banned from the US market, manufacturers changed their formulations by eliminating ephedra and replacing with other botanicals, including Citrus aurantium, or bitter orange. Bitter orange contains, among other compounds, synephrine, a chemical that is chemically similar to ephedrine. Since ephedrine may have cardiovascular effects, the goal of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of various doses of bitter orange extract and pure synephrine in rats. Method: Female Sprague–Dawley rats were dosed daily by gavage for 28 days with synephrine from two different extracts. One extract contained 6% synephrine, and the other extract contained 95% synephrine. Doses were 10 or 50 mg synephrine/kg body weight from each extract. Additionally, caffeine was added to these doses, since many dietary supplements also contain caffeine. Telemetry was utilized to monitor heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and QT interval in all rats. Results and conclusion: Synephrine, either as the bitter orange extract or as pure synephrine, increased heart rate and blood pressure. Animals treated with 95% synephrine showed minimal effects on heart rate and blood pressure; more significant effects were observed with the bitter orange extract suggesting that other components in the botanical can alter these physiological parameters. The increases in heart rate and blood pressure were more pronounced when caffeine was added. None of the treatments affected uncorrected QT interval in the absence of caffeine.

Hansen, Deborah K., E-mail: deborah.hansen@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, U.S. FDA/NCTR, 3900 NCTR Rd., Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); George, Nysia I. [Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, U.S. FDA/NCTR, 3900 NCTR Rd., Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)] [Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, U.S. FDA/NCTR, 3900 NCTR Rd., Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); White, Gene E. [Toxicological Pathology Associates, 3900 NCTR Rd., Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)] [Toxicological Pathology Associates, 3900 NCTR Rd., Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Pellicore, Linda S. [Office of New Drugs, U.S. FDA/Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20903 (United States)] [Office of New Drugs, U.S. FDA/Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20903 (United States); Abdel-Rahman, Ali; Fabricant, Daniel [Office of Nutrition, Labeling and Dietary Supplements, U.S. FDA/Center for Food Safety and Nutrition, HFS-810, College Park, MD 20740 (United States)] [Office of Nutrition, Labeling and Dietary Supplements, U.S. FDA/Center for Food Safety and Nutrition, HFS-810, College Park, MD 20740 (United States)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

364

Black Thunder Coal Mine and Los Alamos National Laboratory experimental study of seismic energy generated by large scale mine blasting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an attempt to better understand the impact that large mining shots will have on verifying compliance with the international, worldwide, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT, no nuclear explosion tests), a series of seismic and videographic experiments has been conducted during the past two years at the Black Thunder Coal Mine. Personnel from the mine and Los Alamos National Laboratory have cooperated closely to design and perform experiments to produce results with mutual benefit to both organizations. This paper summarizes the activities, highlighting the unique results of each. Topics which were covered in these experiments include: (1) synthesis of seismic, videographic, acoustic, and computer modeling data to improve understanding of shot performance and phenomenology; (2) development of computer generated visualizations of observed blasting techniques; (3) documentation of azimuthal variations in radiation of seismic energy from overburden casting shots; (4) identification of, as yet unexplained, out of sequence, simultaneous detonation in some shots using seismic and videographic techniques; (5) comparison of local (0.1 to 15 kilometer range) and regional (100 to 2,000 kilometer range) seismic measurements leading to determine of the relationship between local and regional seismic amplitude to explosive yield for overburden cast, coal bulking and single fired explosions; and (6) determination of the types of mining shots triggering the prototype International Monitoring System for the CTBT.

Martin, R.L.; Gross, D. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States); Pearson, D.C.; Stump, B.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Anderson, D.P. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

365

Underground Sources of Radioactive Noble Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is well known that radon is present in relatively high concentrations below the surface of the Earth due to natural decay of uranium and thorium. However, less information is available on the background levels of other isotopes such as 133Xe and 131mXe produced via spontaneous fission of either manmade or naturally occurring elements. The background concentrations of radioxenon in the subsurface are important to understand because these isotopes potentially can be used to confirm violations of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) during an On-Site Inspection (OSI). Recently, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) measured radioxenon concentrations from the subsurface at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS—formerly known as the Nevada Test Site) to determine whether xenon isotope background levels could be detected from spontaneous fission of naturally occurring uranium or legacy 240Pu as a result of historic nuclear testing. In this paper, we discuss the results of those measurements and review the sources of xenon background that must be taken into account during OSI noble gas measurements.

Hayes, James C.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Misner, Alex C.; Olsen, Khris B.; Woods, Vincent T.; Emer, Dudley

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Measurements of Worldwide Radioxenon Backgrounds - The "EU" Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), radioactive xenon (radioxenon) measurements are one of the principle techniques used to detect nuclear underground nuclear explosions, and specifically, the presence of one or more radioxenon isotopes allows one to determine whether a suspected event was a nuclear explosion or originated from an innocent source. During the design of the International Monitoring System (IMS), which was designed as the verification mechanism for the Treaty, it was determined that radioxenon measurements should be performed at 40 or more stations worldwide. At the time of the design of the IMS, however, very few details about the background of the xenon isotopes was known and it is now recognized that the backgrounds were probably evolving anyhow. This paper lays out the beginning of a study of the worldwide concentrations of xenon isotopes that can be used to detect nuclear explosions and several sources that also release radioxenons, and will have to be accounted for during analysis of atmospheric levels. Although the global concentrations of the xenon isotopes are the scope of a much larger activity that could span over several years, this study measures radioxenon concentrations in locations where there was either very little information or there was a unique opportunity to learn more about emissions from known sources. The locations where radioxenon levels were measured and reported are included.

Bowyer, Ted W.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Hayes, James C.; Forrester, Joel B.; Haas, Derek A.; Hansen, Randy R.; Keller, Paul E.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Lidey, Lance S.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Payne, Rosara F.; Saey, Paul R.; Thompson, Robert C.; Woods, Vincent T.; Williams, Richard M.

2009-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

367

Fission Product Ratios as Treaty Monitoring Discriminants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is currently under construction. The IMS is intended for monitoring of nuclear explosions. The radionuclide branch of the IMS monitors the atmosphere for short-lived radioisotopes indicative of a nuclear weapon test, and includes field collection and measurement stations, as well as laboratories to provide reanalysis of the most important samples and a quality control function. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington hosts the United States IMS laboratory, with the designation “RL16.” Since acute reactor containment failures and chronic reactor leakage may also produce similar isotopes, it is tempting to compute ratios of detected isotopes to determine the relevance of an event to the treaty or agreement in question. In this paper we will note several shortcomings of simple isotopic ratios: (1) fractionation of different chemical species, (2) difficulty in comparing isotopes within a single element, (3) the effect of unknown decay times. While these shortcomings will be shown in the light of an aerosol sample, several of the problems extend to xenon isotopic ratios. The result of the difficulties listed above is that considerable human expertise will be required to convert a simple mathematical ratio into a criterion which will reliably categorize an event as ‘reactor’ or ‘weapon’.

Miley, Harry S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Arthur, Richard J.

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

LESSONS LEARNED IN AEROSOL MONITORING WITH THE RASA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) is an automated aerosol collection and analysis system designed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in the 1990's and is deployed in several locations around the world as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) required under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The RASA operates unattended, save for regularly scheduled maintenance, iterating samples through a three-step process on a 24-hour interval. In its 15-year history, much has been learned from the operation and maintenance of the RASA that can benefit engineering updates or future aerosol systems. On 11 March 2011, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake and tsunami rocked the eastern coast of Japan, resulting in power loss and cooling failures at the Daiichi nuclear power plants in Fukushima Prefecture. Aerosol collections were conducted with the RASA in Richland, WA. We present a summary of the lessons learned over the history of the RASA, including lessons taken from the Fukushima incident, regarding the RASA IMS stations operated by the United States.

Forrester, Joel B.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Carty, Fitz; Comes, Laura; Eslinger, Paul W.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Litke, Kevin E.; Miley, Harry S.; Morris, Scott J.; Schrom, Brian T.; Van Davelaar, Peter; Woods, Vincent T.

2011-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

369

Production of 37Ar in The University of Texas TRIGA reactor facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The detection of {sup 37}Ar is important for on-site inspections for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty monitoring. In an underground nuclear explosion this radionuclide is produced by {sup 40}Ca(n,{alpha}){sup 37}Ar reaction in surrounding soil and rock. With a half-life of 35 days, {sup 37}Ar provides a signal useful for confirming the location of an underground nuclear event. An ultra-low-background proportional counter developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is used to detect {sup 37}Ar, which decays via electron capture. The irradiation of Ar gas at natural enrichment in the 3L facility within the Mark II TRIGA reactor facility at The University of Texas at Austin provides a source of {sup 37}Ar for the calibration of the detector. The {sup 41}Ar activity is measured by the gamma activity using an HPGe detector after the sample is removed from the core. Using the {sup 41}Ar/{sup 37}Ar production ratio and the {sup 41}Ar activity, the amount of {sup 37}Ar created is calculated. The {sup 41}Ar decays quickly (half-life of 109.34 minutes) leaving a radioactive sample of high purity {sup 37}Ar and only trace levels of {sup 39}Ar.

Egnatuk, Christine M.; Lowrey, Justin; Biegalski, S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Haas, Derek A.; Orrell, John L.; Woods, Vincent T.; Keillor, Martin E.

2011-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

370

Isotopic noble gas signatures released from medical isotope production facilities - Simulations and measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Journal article on the role that radioxenon isotopes play in confirming whether or not an underground explosion was nuclear in nature. Radioxenon isotopes play a major role in confirming whether or not an underground explosion was nuclear in nature. It is then of key importance to understand the sources of environmental radioxenon to be able to distinguish civil sources from those of a nuclear explosion. Based on several years of measurements, combined with advanced atmospheric transport model results, it was recently shown that the main source of radioxenon observations are strong and regular batch releases from a very limited number of medical isotope production facilities. This paper reviews production processes in different medical isotope facilities during which radioxenon is produced. Radioxenon activity concentrations and isotopic compositions are calculated for six large facilities. The results are compared with calculated signals from nuclear explosions. Further, the outcome is compared and found to be consistent with radioxenon measurements recently performed in and around three of these facilities. Some anomalies in measurements in which {sup 131m}Xe was detected were found and a possible explanation is proposed. It was also calculated that the dose rate of the releases is well below regulatory values. Based on these results, it should be possible to better understand, interpret and verify signals measured in the noble gas measurement systems in the International Monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

Saey, Paul R.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Ringbom, Anders

2010-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

371

Organochlorine pollutants in water, soils, and earthworms in the Guadalquivir River, Spain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Organochlorine compounds (insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) are known to maintain their stability in the aquatic environment for long periods. DDT and cyclodiene insecticides were used widely in Spain until their use was banned in 1976; DDT and its degradation products are still found in environmental samples. Since DDT has been legally restricted for use, lindane has become important as a substitute for DDT. This study has been carried out along Guadalquivir River, Spain. This river runs across an agricultural area where pesticides are used extensively. The Guadalquivir basin is the most economically important area of the South of the Iberian Peninsula; its economic importance stems from its proximity to a major metropolitan areas (Cordova, Seville), which indicates the presence of numerous urban, commercial, and industrial locations in the vicinity of the sampling stations. The purposes of this investigation are: (1) to determine the levels of organochlorine compounds in water, soils, and earthworms sampled in ten stations of the Guadalquivir River; (2) to evaluate biological accumulation of pollutants studied within the food webs; (3) to evaluate regional patterns and time trends of residues. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Hernandez, L.M.; Fernandez, M.A.; Gonzalez, M.J. (Institute of Organic Chemistry, Madrid (Spain))

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Long-term trends in DDT, PCBs, and chlordane in mussels from California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many contaminant programs have been established to study the geographical distributions and long-term trends of potential pollutants, but unfortunately, many have been short-lived because of economic cutbacks, providing limited information on long-term trends. The California State Mussel Watch program, however, has been continuously funded for the past 15 years. Several sites have been evaluated and were sampled often enough to obtain statistical resolution. Chlordane was evaluated at 29 stations, with 48% showing significant decreases over time; DDT was evaluated at 35 sites, with 43% showing significant declines; and PCBs were evaluated at 47 sites, with 21% showing significant drops over time. Both DDT and PCBs showed declines, corresponding to decreases in their concentrations in the effluent, at sites located in the vicinity of the Los Angeles County municipal sewage outfall. This long-term investigation indicates that, contrary to public opinion, the banning of DDT, chlordane, and PCBs by the USEPA has led to overall improvement in water quality.

Stephenson, M.D.; Tjeerdema, R.S. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

373

Occupational exposure to DDT among mosquito control sprayers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DDT, a broad action insecticide whose use is restricted or banned in most industrialized countries is still often used for vector control in many tropical and developing countries. Despite the fact that DDT is accumulative and persistant in the ecosystem use of such substitutes as malathion or propoxur is not popular because these increases costs by 3.4 to 8.5 fold. As such DDT is economically attractive to poorer countries. As far as can be ascertained no systemic poisoning has resulted from occupational exposure to DDT. Due to the large particle size, the amount of DDT inhaled by workers is far less than the amount reaching exposed portions of skin. As such occupational exposure is mainly dermal or tropical. Occupational exposure to DDT studies have been done before. The present study is an analysis of some characteristics, (i.e. age, body size, relationship between plasma vitamin A and DDE levels, and smoking habits), of occupational exposure to DDT among spraymen in a Zimbabwe population.

Nhachi, C.F.B.; Kasilo, O.J. (Univ. of Zimbabwe, Harare (Zimbabwe))

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An extensive review is given of the US and Russian efforts on peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (PNE). The Soviet PNE program was many times larger than the US Plowshare program in terms of both the number of applications explored with field experiments and the extent to which they were introduced into industrial use. Several PNE applications, such as deep seismic sounding and oil stimulation, have been explored in depth and appear to have had a positive cost benefit at minimal public risk. Closure of runaway gas wells is another possible application where all other techniques fail. However, the fundamental problem with PNEs is the fact that, if they are to be economically significant, there must be widespread use of the technology, involving large numbers of sites, each of which presents a potential source of radioactivity to the environment and nearby communities. Russia now has more than 100 sites where significant high-level radioactivity has been buried. Experience over the last 20 years in US and in today`s Russia shows that it is virtually impossible to gain public acceptance of such applications of nuclear energy. In addition, PNEs also pose a difficult problem in the arms control area. Under a comprehensive test ban, any country conducting PNEs would, in appearance if not in fact, receive information useful for designing new nuclear weapons or maintaining an existing nuclear stockpile, information denied to the other parties to the treaty. 6 tabs, 10 figs.

Nordyke, M.D.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Evolving perceptions of security - US National Security surveys 1993--1995. Progress report, September 30, 1995--November 14, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study analyzes findings from a national survey of 2,490 randomly selected members of the US public conducted between September 30 and November 14, 1995. It provides an over time comparison of public perceptions about nuclear weapons risks and benefits and key nuclear policy issues between 1993 and 1995. Other areas of investigation include policy preferences regarding nuclear proliferation, terrorism, US/Russian nuclear cooperation, and personal security. Public perceptions of post-cold war security were found to be evolving in unexpected ways. The perceived threat of nuclear conflict involving the US had not declined, and the threat of nuclear conflict between other countries and fears of nuclear proliferation and terrorism had increased. Perceived risks associated with managing the US nuclear arsenal were also higher. Perceptions of external and domestic benefits from US nuclear weapons were not declining. Support was found for increasing funding for nuclear weapons safety, training, and maintenance, but most respondents favored decreasing funding for developing and testing new nuclear weapons. Strong support was evident for programs and funding to prevent nuclear proliferation and terrorism. Though skeptical that nuclear weapons can be eliminated, most respondents supported reducing the US nuclear arsenal, banning nuclear test explosions, and ending production of fissile materials to make nuclear weapons. Statistically significant relationships were found between perceptions of nuclear weapons risks and benefits and policy and spending preferences. Demographic variables and basic social and political beliefs were systematically related both to risk and benefit perceptions and policy and spending options.

Herron, K.G.; Jenkins-Smith, H.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Aerial and ground-based inspections of mine sites in the Western U.S.-implications for on-site inspection overflights, under the CTBT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The verification regime of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) provides for the possibility of On-Site Inspections (OSI`s) to resolve questions concerning suspicious events which may have been clandestine nuclear tests. Overflights by fixed-wing or rotary-wing aircraft, as part of an OSI, are permitted by the Treaty. These flights are intended to facilitate the narrowing of the inspection area, from an initial permissible 1000 km{sup 2}, and to help select the locations to deploy observers and ground-based sensors (seismic, radionuclides, . . .) Because of the substantial amount of seismicity generated by mining operations worldwide, it is expected that mine sites and mine districts would be prime candidates for OSI`S. To gain experience in this context, a number of aerial and ground-based mine site inspections have been performed in the Western U.S. by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory since 1994. These inspections are part of a broad range of CTBT mining-related projects conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Laboratories. The various sites are described next, and inferences are made concerning CTBT OSI`S. All the mines are legitimate operations, with no implication whatsoever of any clandestine tests.

Heuze, F.E.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

LLNL`s partnership with selected US mines, for CTBT verification: A pictorial and some reflections  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The verification of an upcoming Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) will involve seismic monitoring and will provide for on-site inspections which may include drilling. Because of the fact that mining operations can send out strong seismic signals, many mining districts in the US and abroad may come under special scrutiny. The seismic signals can be generated by the use of large quantities of conventional explosives, by the collapse of underground workings, or by sudden energy release in the ground such as in rock bursts and coal bumps. These mining activities may be the cause of false alarms, but may also offer opportunities for evasive nuclear testing. So in preparing for future verification of a CTBT it becomes important to address the mining-related questions. For the United States, these are questions to be answered with respect to foreign mines. But there is a good amount of commonality in mining methods worldwide. Studies conducted at US mine sites can provide good analogs of activities that may be carried out for overseas CTBT verification, save for the expected logistical impediments.

Heuze, F.E.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Scientific Meetings Database: A New Tool for CTBT-Related International Cooperation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mission of international cooperation is defined in the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Ways and means of implementation were the subject of discussion during the International Cooperation Workshop held in Vienna in November 1998, and during the Regional Workshop for CTBTO International Cooperation held in Cairo, Egypt in June 1999. In particular, a database of ''Scientific and Technical Meetings Directly or Indirectly Related to CTBT Verification-Related Technologies'' was developed by the CTBTO PrepCom/PTS/International Cooperation section and integrated into the organization's various web sites in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy CTBT Research and Development Program. This database, the structure and use of which is described in this paper/presentation is meant to assist the CTBT-related scientific community in identifying worldwide expertise in the CTBT verification-related technologies and should help experts, particularly those of less technologically advanced States Signatories, to strengthen contacts and to pursue international cooperation under the Tredy regime. Specific opportunities for international cooperation, in particular those provided by active participation in the use and further development of this database, are presented in this paper and/or presentation.

Knapik, Jerzy F.; Girven, Mary L.

1999-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

379

Studies in support of an SNM cutoff agreement: The PUREX exercise  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On September 23, 1993, President Clinton, in a speech before the United Nations General Assembly, called for an international agreement banning the production of plutonium and highly enriched uranium for nuclear explosive purposes. A major element of any verification regime for such an agreement would probably involve inspections of reprocessing plants in Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty weapons states. Many of these are large facilities built in the 1950s with no thought that they would be subject to international inspection. To learn about some of the problems that might be involved in the inspection of such large, old facilities, the Department of Energy, Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation, sponsored a mock inspection exercise at the PUREX plant on the Hanford Site. This exercise examined a series of alternatives for inspections of the PUREX as a model for this type of facility at other locations. A series of conclusions were developed that can be used to guide the development of verification regimes for a cutoff agreement at reprocessing facilities.

Stanbro, W.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Libby, R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Segal, J. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

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381

Estimates of Radioxenon Released from Southern Hemisphere Medical isotope Production Facilities Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and Xe-133 data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of Xe-133 from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.8×1014 Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 1.2×1016 to 2.5×1016 Bq and estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 6.1×1013 to 3.6×1014 Bq. Although some releases from the facility in Argentina may reach these IMS sampling locations, the solution to the objective function is insensitive to the magnitude of those releases.

Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Schrom, Brian T.

2014-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

382

Use of the National Ignition Facility for defense, energy, and basic research science  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On January 15, 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) approved the Justification for Mission Need (JMN) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This action (Key Decision Zero, or KD0) commenced the conceptual design for the facility, which has resulted in a recently completed Conceptual Design Report (CDR). The JMN document defined the NIF mission elements to include laboratory fusion ignition and energy gain, weapons physics, and nuclear weapons effects testing research (NWET). NIF has a dual benefit by contributing to inertial fusion energy (IFE), industrial technology development, new basic science areas applying high power lasers, and training young scientists for future stewardship activities. For consideration of the next DOE action, Key Decision One (KD1), all mission elements of the NIF as stated in the JMN are consistent with and important to the US stockpile stewardship program, and are expected to continue to be in the vital interest of the United States for the long term. This document provides further information on the utility of NIF for stockpile stewardship, including support for a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and specific findings of four national workshops on the NIF utility for weapons physics, NWET, IFE and basic science research. The role of NIF for stockpile stewardship has been refined since a DOE meeting in Albuquerque, NM Feb. 1--2, 1994. The possible compliance of NIF research with anticipated CTBT and NPT limitations was discussed at the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in Washington, DC on March 8, 1994.

Logan, B.G.

1994-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

A look behind the arms control agenda at the US-Russian and Sino-US summits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When President Bill Clinton met in New York with Russian President Boris Yeltsin on October 23 and Chinese President Jiang Zemin the following day, the leaders discussed a broad spectrum of arms control issues-including START II ratification, limits on Russian conventional weapons in the Caucasus, the nuclear test ban treaty, nuclear exports to Iran and NATO expansion. The crisis in Bosnia, however, dominated the administration`s pre- and post-summit briefings as well as the media`s coverage of the meetings. On October 20, the Arms Control Association (ACA) held a news conference to highlight the key arms control issues involved in the two sets of talks. Because these vital national security issues were virtually ignored by the press, the ACA press briefing remains the most comprehensive coverage of the full range of issues that were, in fact, addressed at the mini-summits. Panel speakers included Spurgeon M. Keeny, Jr., ACA president and executive director and former deputy director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency; Jack Mendelsohn, ACA deputy director and a former member of the US SALT II and START I delegations; Stanley Resor, ACA board chairman and former chief US delegate to the Mutual and Balanced Force Reduction talks, former defense undersecretary for policy and former secretary of the Army; and William Dircks, director of the Atlantic Council`s Program on Nuclear Policy and former deputy director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Extended excerpts from their remarks follow.

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Routine inspection effort required for verification of a nuclear material production cutoff convention  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On 27 September 1993, President Clinton proposed {open_quotes}... a multilateral convention prohibiting the production of highly enriched uranium or plutonium for nuclear explosives purposes or outside of international safeguards.{close_quotes} The UN General Assembly subsequently adopted a resolution recommending negotiation of a non-discriminatory, multilateral, and internationally and effectively verifiable treaty (hereinafter referred to as {open_quotes}the Cutoff Convention{close_quotes}) banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons. The matter is now on the agenda of the Conference on Disarmament, although not yet under negotiation. This accord would, in effect, place all fissile material (defined as highly enriched uranium and plutonium) produced after entry into force (EIF) of the accord under international safeguards. {open_quotes}Production{close_quotes} would mean separation of the material in question from radioactive fission products, as in spent fuel reprocessing, or enrichment of uranium above the 20% level, which defines highly enriched uranium (HEU). Facilities where such production could occur would be safeguarded to verify that either such production is not occurring or that all material produced at these facilities is maintained under safeguards.

Dougherty, D.; Fainberg, A.; Sanborn, J.; Allentuck, J.; Sun, C.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

CTBT on-site inspections  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On-site inspection (OSI) is a critical part of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The OSI verification regime provides for international inspectors to make a suite of measurements and observations on site at the location of an event of interest. The other critical component of the verification regime is the International Monitoring System (IMS), which is a globally distributed network of monitoring stations. The IMS along with technical monitoring data from CTBT member countries, as appropriate, will be used to trigger an OSI. After the decision is made to carry out an OSI, it is important for the inspectors to deploy to the field site rapidly to be able to detect short-lived phenomena such as the aftershocks that may be observable after an underground nuclear explosion. The inspectors will be on site from weeks to months and will be working with many tens of tons of equipment. Parts of the OSI regime will be tested in a field exercise in the country of Jordan late in 2014. The build-up of the OSI regime has been proceeding steadily since the CTBT was signed in 1996 and is on track to becoming a deterrent to someone considering conducting a nuclear explosion in violation of the Treaty.

Zucca, J. J. [Principal Deputy, Global Security Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States)

2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

386

Impending U.S. lighting standards will boost market for halogen-infrared lamps: New product line expanding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many of the incandescent floodlights and spotlights manufactured today will not meet lighting efficiency standards taking effect in the US in 1995. As these models cease production, demand will grow for higher efficiency units to fill this huge market, which now totals about 100 million lamps per year. One prime contender is a new class of halogen lamps that use a spectrally selective coating to reflect heat back onto the filament, reducing the amount of electricity needed to generate light. GE Lighting`s Halogen-IR line is the only series of such lamps currently available to replace the conventional floodlights and spotlights that will be banned by the new standards. Other manufacturers may adopt the technology, however, and the Japanese producer Ushio already sells in the US a line of smaller halogen lamps with a similar heat-reflective coating. In terms of efficacy and lifetime, Halogen-IR lamps out perform standard incandescents and standard halogens, but fall far short of fluorescent, metal halide, and high-pressure sodium sources. These other lighting systems are more appropriate and cost-effective than incandescents for many ambient lighting applications. For accent lighting and other tasks that are best suited to incandescent lighting, however, the Halogen-IR lamp is often a superior choice.

Sardinsky, R.; Shepard, M.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

387

New Horizons and New Strategies in Arms Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the last ten years, since the break-up of the Soviet Union, remarkable progress in arms control and disarmament has occurred. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the completion of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and the Chemical Weapons Treaty (CWC) are indicative of the great strides made in the non- proliferation arena. Simultaneously, the Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF), the Conventional Forces Treaty in Europe (CFE), and the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties (START), all associated with US-Soviet Union (now Russia) relations have assisted in redefining European relations and the security landscape. Finally, it now appears that progress is in the offing in developing enhanced compliance measures for the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC). In sum, all of these achievements have set the stage for the next round of arms control activities, which may lead to a much broader, and perhaps more diffused multilateral agenda. In this new and somewhat unpredictable international setting, arms control and disarmament issues will require solutions that are both more creative and innovative than heretofore.

Brown, J. editor

1998-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

388

Stockpile stewardship past, present, and future  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. National Academies released a report in 2012 on technical issues related to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. One important question addressed therein is whether the U.S. could maintain a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear-weapons stockpile in the absence of nuclear-explosion testing. Here we discuss two main conclusions from the 2012 Academies report, which we paraphrase as follows: 1) Provided that sufficient resources and a national commitment to stockpile stewardship are in place, the U.S. has the technical capabilities to maintain a safe, secure, and reliable stockpile of nuclear weapons into the foreseeable future without nuclear-explosion testing. 2) Doing this would require: a) a strong weapons science and engineering program that addresses gaps in understanding; b) an outstanding workforce that applies deep and broad weapons expertise to deliver solutions to stockpile problems; c) a vigorous, stable surveillance program that delivers the requisite data; d) production facilities that meet stewardship needs. We emphasize that these conclusions are independent of CTBT ratification-they apply provided only that the U.S. continues its nuclear-explosion moratorium.

Adams, Marvin L., E-mail: mladams@tamu.edu [Institute for National Security Education and Research, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3133 (United States)

2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

389

Proceedings of the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 23-25 September, 2008 in Portsmouth, Virginia. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar-chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Revelle, Douglas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

390

Seismic reflection imaging of underground cavities using open-source software  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) includes provisions for an on-site inspection (OSI), which allows the use of specific techniques to detect underground anomalies including cavities and rubble zones. One permitted technique is active seismic surveys such as seismic refraction or reflection. The purpose of this report is to conduct some simple modeling to evaluate the potential use of seismic reflection in detecting cavities and to test the use of open-source software in modeling possible scenarios. It should be noted that OSI inspections are conducted under specific constraints regarding duration and logistics. These constraints are likely to significantly impact active seismic surveying, as a seismic survey typically requires considerable equipment, effort, and expertise. For the purposes of this study, which is a first-order feasibility study, these issues will not be considered. This report provides a brief description of the seismic reflection method along with some commonly used software packages. This is followed by an outline of a simple processing stream based on a synthetic model, along with results from a set of models representing underground cavities. A set of scripts used to generate the models are presented in an appendix. We do not consider detection of underground facilities in this work and the geologic setting used in these tests is an extremely simple one.

Mellors, R J

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

391

NetMOD version 1.0 user%3CU%2B2019%3Es manual.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NetMOD (Network Monitoring for Optimal Detection) is a Java-based software package for conducting simulation of seismic networks. Specifically, NetMOD simulates the detection capabilities of seismic monitoring networks. Network simulations have long been used to study network resilience to station outages and to determine where additional stations are needed to reduce monitoring thresholds. NetMOD makes use of geophysical models to determine the source characteristics, signal attenuation along the path between the source and station, and the performance and noise properties of the station. These geophysical models are combined to simulate the relative amplitudes of signal and noise that are observed at each of the stations. From these signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), the probability of detection can be computed given a detection threshold. This manual describes how to configure and operate NetMOD to perform seismic detection simulations. In addition, NetMOD is distributed with a simulation dataset for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) International Monitoring System (IMS) seismic network for the purpose of demonstrating NetMOD's capabilities and providing user training. The tutorial sections of this manual use this dataset when describing how to perform the steps involved when running a simulation.

Merchant, Bion John

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Preliminary analysis of the International Data Centre pipeline.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The International Data Centre of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization relies on automatic data processing as the first step in identifying seismic events from seismic waveform data. However, more than half of the automatically identified seismic events are eliminated by IDC analysts. Here, an IDC dataset is analyzed to determine if the number of automatically generated false positives could be reduced. Data that could be used to distinguish false positives from analyst-accepted seismic events includes the number of stations, the number of phases, the signal-to-noise ratio, and the pick error. An empirical method is devised to determine whether an automatically identified seismic event is acceptable, and the method is found to identify a significant number of the false positives in IDC data. This work could help reduce seismic analyst workload and could help improve the calibration of seismic monitoring stations. This work could also be extended to address identification of seismic events missed by automatic processing.

Gauthier, John Henry

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Demonstration of base catalyzed decomposition process, Navy Public Works Center, Guam, Mariana Islands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Base Catalyzed Decomposition (BCD) is a chemical dehalogenation process designed for treating soils and other substrate contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), pesticides, dioxins, furans, and other hazardous organic substances. PCBs are heavy organic liquids once widely used in industry as lubricants, heat transfer oils, and transformer dielectric fluids. In 1976, production was banned when PCBs were recognized as carcinogenic substances. It was estimated that significant quantities (one billion tons) of U.S. soils, including areas on U.S. military bases outside the country, were contaminated by PCB leaks and spills, and cleanup activities began. The BCD technology was developed in response to these activities. This report details the evolution of the process, from inception to deployment in Guam, and describes the process and system components provided to the Navy to meet the remediation requirements. The report is divided into several sections to cover the range of development and demonstration activities. Section 2.0 gives an overview of the project history. Section 3.0 describes the process chemistry and remediation steps involved. Section 4.0 provides a detailed description of each component and specific development activities. Section 5.0 details the testing and deployment operations and provides the results of the individual demonstration campaigns. Section 6.0 gives an economic assessment of the process. Section 7.0 presents the conclusions and recommendations form this project. The appendices contain equipment and instrument lists, equipment drawings, and detailed run and analytical data.

Schmidt, A.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Brown, M.D.; Zacher, A.H.; Neuenschwander, G.N.; Wilcox, W.A.; Gano, S.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Kim, B.C.; Gavaskar, A.R. [Battelle Columbus Div., OH (United States)] [Battelle Columbus Div., OH (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

CTBT Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories has developed a computer based model called IVSEM (Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model) to estimate the performance of a nuclear detonation monitoring system. The IVSEM project was initiated in June 1994, by Sandia`s Monitoring Systems and Technology Center and has been funded by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (DOE/NN). IVSEM is a simple, top-level, modeling tool which estimates the performance of a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring system and can help explore the impact of various sensor system concepts and technology advancements on CTBT monitoring. One of IVSEM`s unique features is that it integrates results from the various CTBT sensor technologies (seismic, infrasound, radionuclide, and hydroacoustic) and allows the user to investigate synergy among the technologies. Specifically, IVSEM estimates the detection effectiveness (probability of detection) and location accuracy of the integrated system and of each technology subsystem individually. The model attempts to accurately estimate the monitoring system`s performance at medium interfaces (air-land, air-water) and for some evasive testing methods such as seismic decoupling. This report describes version 1.2 of IVSEM.

Edenburn, M.W.; Bunting, M.L.; Payne, A.C. Jr.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Visual Sample Plan (VSP) Statistical Software as Related to the CTBTO’s On-Site Inspection Procedure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the event of a potential nuclear weapons test the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is commissioned to conduct an on-site investigation (OSI) of the suspected test site in an effort to find confirmatory evidence of the nuclear test. The OSI activities include collecting air, surface soil, and underground samples to search for indications of a nuclear weapons test - these indicators include radionuclides and radioactive isotopes Ar and Xe. This report investigates the capability of the Visual Sample Plan (VSP) software to contribute to the sampling activities of the CTBTO during an OSI. VSP is a statistical sampling design software, constructed under data quality objectives, which has been adapted for environmental remediation and contamination detection problems for the EPA, US Army, DoD and DHS among others. This report provides discussion of a number of VSP sample designs, which may be pertinent to the work undertaken during an OSI. Examples and descriptions of such designs include hot spot sampling, combined random and judgment sampling, multiple increment sampling, radiological transect surveying, and a brief description of other potentially applicable sampling methods. Further, this work highlights a potential need for the use of statistically based sample designs in OSI activities. The use of such designs may enable canvassing a sample area without full sampling, provide a measure of confidence that radionuclides are not present, and allow investigators to refocus resources in other areas of concern.

Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Milbrath, Brian D.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Proceedings of the Monterey Containment Symposium, Monterey, California, August 26-28, 1981. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the Atmospheric Test Ban Treaty was signed in 1963, the United States has conducted all nuclear weapons tests underground. To meet US treaty responsibilities and to ensure public safety, the containment community must prevent any release of radioactive gases to the atmosphere. In the past two decades we have gained considerable insight into the scientific and engineering requirements for complete containment, but the papers and discussions at the Monterey Symposium indicate that a great deal remains to be done. Among papers included here, those dealing with mature topics will serve as reviews and introductions for new workers in the field. Others, representing first looks at new areas, contain more speculative material. Active research topics include propagation of stress waves in rocks, formation and decay of residual hoop stresses around a cavity, hydrofracture out of a cavity, formation of chimneys, and geologic and geophysical investigations of the Nevada Test Site. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Hudson, B.C. [comp.] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [comp.; Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Jones, E.M. [comp.] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [comp.; Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Keller, C.E. [comp.] [Field Command (DNA), Kirtland Air Force Base, NM (United States)] [comp.; Field Command (DNA), Kirtland Air Force Base, NM (United States); Smith, C.W. [comp.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [comp.; Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Visual inspection for CTBT verification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On-site visual inspection will play an essential role in future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification. Although seismic and remote sensing techniques are the best understood and most developed methods for detection of evasive testing of nuclear weapons, visual inspection can greatly augment the certainty and detail of understanding provided by these more traditional methods. Not only can visual inspection offer ``ground truth`` in cases of suspected nuclear testing, but it also can provide accurate source location and testing media properties necessary for detailed analysis of seismic records. For testing in violation of the CTBT, an offending party may attempt to conceal the test, which most likely will be achieved by underground burial. While such concealment may not prevent seismic detection, evidence of test deployment, location, and yield can be disguised. In this light, if a suspicious event is detected by seismic or other remote methods, visual inspection of the event area is necessary to document any evidence that might support a claim of nuclear testing and provide data needed to further interpret seismic records and guide further investigations. However, the methods for visual inspection are not widely known nor appreciated, and experience is presently limited. Visual inspection can be achieved by simple, non-intrusive means, primarily geological in nature, and it is the purpose of this report to describe the considerations, procedures, and equipment required to field such an inspection.

Hawkins, W.; Wohletz, K.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Sandia technology. Volume 13, number 2 Special issue : verification of arms control treaties.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear deterrence, a cornerstone of US national security policy, has helped prevent global conflict for over 40 years. The DOE and DoD share responsibility for this vital part of national security. The US will continue to rely on nuclear deterrence for the foreseeable future. In the late 1950s, Sandia developed satellite-borne nuclear burst detection systems to support the treaty banning atmospheric nuclear tests. This activity has continued to expand and diversify. When the Non-Proliferation Treaty was ratified in 1970, we began to develop technologies to protect nuclear materials from falling into unauthorized hands. This program grew and now includes systems for monitoring the movement and storage of nuclear materials, detecting tampering, and transmiting sensitive data securely. In the late 1970s, negotiations to further limit underground nuclear testing were being actively pursued. In less than 18 months, we fielded the National Seismic Station, an unattended observatory for in-country monitoring of nuclear tests. In the mid-l980s, arms-control interest shifted to facility monitoring and on-site inspection. Our Technical On-site Inspection Facility is the national test bed for perimeter and portal monitoring technology and the prototype for the inspection portal that was recently installed in the USSR under the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces accord. The articles in the special issue of Sundiu Technology describe some of our current contributions to verification technology. This work supports the US policy to seek realistic arms control agreements while maintaining our national security.

Not Available

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Dangerous Waste Sampling and Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes sampling and analytical requirements needed to meet state and federal regulations for dangerous waste (DW). The River Protection Project (RPP) is assigned to the task of storage and interim treatment of hazardous waste. Any final treatment or disposal operations, as well as requirements under the land disposal restrictions (LDRs), fall in the jurisdiction of another Hanford organization and are not part of this scope. The requirements for this Data Quality Objective (DQO) Process were developed using the RPP Data Quality Objective Procedure (Banning 1996), which is based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process (EPA 1994). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the DW DQO. Federal and state laws and regulations pertaining to waste contain requirements that are dependent upon the composition of the waste stream. These regulatory drivers require that pertinent information be obtained. For many requirements, documented process knowledge of a waste composition can be used instead of analytical data to characterize or designate a waste. When process knowledge alone is used to characterize a waste, it is a best management practice to validate the information with analytical measurements.

MULKEY, C.H.

1999-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

400

Evaluation of HFC-245ca for commercial use in low pressure chillers. Final report, Volume I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Federal regulations banned the production of CFC-11 on January 1, 1996. HCFC-123, the only commercial alternative, will be limited to service applications after January 1, 2020 and will be eliminated from production on January 1, 2030. HFC-245ca has been identified as a potential replacement for CFC-11 in retrofit applications and for HCFC-123 in new chillers, but the marginal flammability of HFC-245ca is a major obstacle to its commercial use as a refrigerant in the United States. This report assesses the commercial viability of HFC-245ca based on its experimental performance in a direct drive low pressure centrifugal chiller exclusive of its flammability characteristics. Three different impeller diameters were tested in the chiller, with all impellers having identical discharge blade angles. Experimental work included tests in a 200 ton 3 stage direct drive chiller with 3 impeller sets properly sized for each of three refrigerants, CFC-11, HCFC-123, and HFC-245ca. The commercial viability assessment focused on both retrofit and new product performance and cost.

Keuper, E.F. [Trane Co., LaCrosse, WI (United States)] [Trane Co., LaCrosse, WI (United States)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rong ban kst" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

2006-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

402

Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

403

Extreme Scale Computing to Secure the Nation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the dawn of modern electronic computing in the mid 1940's, U.S. national security programs have been dominant users of every new generation of high-performance computer. Indeed, the first general-purpose electronic computer, ENIAC (the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), was used to calculate the expected explosive yield of early thermonuclear weapons designs. Even the U. S. numerical weather prediction program, another early application for high-performance computing, was initially funded jointly by sponsors that included the U.S. Air Force and Navy, agencies interested in accurate weather predictions to support U.S. military operations. For the decades of the cold war, national security requirements continued to drive the development of high performance computing (HPC), including advancement of the computing hardware and development of sophisticated simulation codes to support weapons and military aircraft design, numerical weather prediction as well as data-intensive applications such as cryptography and cybersecurity U.S. national security concerns continue to drive the development of high-performance computers and software in the U.S. and in fact, events following the end of the cold war have driven an increase in the growth rate of computer performance at the high-end of the market. This mainly derives from our nation's observance of a moratorium on underground nuclear testing beginning in 1992, followed by our voluntary adherence to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) beginning in 1995. The CTBT prohibits further underground nuclear tests, which in the past had been a key component of the nation's science-based program for assuring the reliability, performance and safety of U.S. nuclear weapons. In response to this change, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Science-Based Stockpile Stewardship (SBSS) program in response to the Fiscal Year 1994 National Defense Authorization Act, which requires, 'in the absence of nuclear testing, a progam to: (1) Support a focused, multifaceted program to increase the understanding of the enduring stockpile; (2) Predict, detect, and evaluate potential problems of the aging of the stockpile; (3) Refurbish and re-manufacture weapons and components, as required; and (4) Maintain the science and engineering institutions needed to support the nation's nuclear deterrent, now and in the future'. This program continues to fulfill its national security mission by adding significant new capabilities for producing scientific results through large-scale computational simulation coupled with careful experimentation, including sub-critical nuclear experiments permitted under the CTBT. To develop the computational science and the computational horsepower needed to support its mission, SBSS initiated the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative, later renamed the Advanced Simulation & Computing (ASC) program (sidebar: 'History of ASC Computing Program Computing Capability'). The modern 3D computational simulation capability of the ASC program supports the assessment and certification of the current nuclear stockpile through calibration with past underground test (UGT) data. While an impressive accomplishment, continued evolution of national security mission requirements will demand computing resources at a significantly greater scale than we have today. In particular, continued observance and potential Senate confirmation of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) together with the U.S administration's promise for a significant reduction in the size of the stockpile and the inexorable aging and consequent refurbishment of the stockpile all demand increasing refinement of our computational simulation capabilities. Assessment of the present and future stockpile with increased confidence of the safety and reliability without reliance upon calibration with past or future test data is a long-term goal of the ASC program. This will be accomplished through significant increases in the scientific bases that underlie the computational tools. Computer codes must be de

Brown, D L; McGraw, J R; Johnson, J R; Frincke, D

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

404

REPORT OF THE ISS OSI INVITED MEETING, VIENNA, 24-27 MARCH, 2009  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The International Scientific Studies project (ISS) was initiated in early 2008 with the objective of creating a series of activities aimed at application of modern scientific methods to improve the efficiency of analysis and the quality of verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). The ISS On-Site Inspection (OSI) Invited Meeting convened on March 24, 2009 with the objectives of gaining a better understanding of the phenomenology of underground nuclear explosions (UNE) for OSI purposes and to identify areas of interest to OSI that could benefit significantly from contributions by the general scientific community. Fifteen invited experts from four countries, along with fifteen members of the OSI Division of the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) met for four days at the Vienna International Center in an informal setting to discuss the application of observational methods, geophysical techniques, radionuclide measurement methods, environmental sampling methods, drilling techniques, and information management in the context UNE phenomena and OSI implementation. The meeting began with the identification and description of two general OSI scenarios, a vertical borehole emplacement and a horizontal tunnel emplacement, that serve as general examples of past UNE testing activities that can be used as a reference to identify UNE phenomena relevant for OSI observations. A significant portion of the first day of the meeting was spent in the description of the details of these scenarios and their implications for OSI observables. This discussion then served as a foundation for the discussions of the following three days in which OSI methods and technologies were evaluated in the context of UNE phenomenology and signatures. The methods and technologies discussed included visual observation from air and ground, radiation detection from the air, ground, and subsurface, ground-based and airborne geophysical observations and analysis, collection strategies for air, water, and solid samples, drilling concepts, and aspects of data fusion, information management, and modeling and simulation. The informal setting of the meeting provided a 'brainstorming' atmosphere and participation was excellent. One important aspect of this particular group was the very wide breadth of experience and expertise represented, ranging from those sharing their knowledge of UNE testing practice, radiological measurements and sampling, and knowledge of the underground effects of UNEs, to those with extensive experience in scientific and commercial geophysical measurements and surveys, to others with rich experience gained from several OSI field exercises, including the recent OSI Integrated Field Exercise in held in Kazakhstan in September 2008. During the workshop a number of topic areas relevant to OSI, explained in the list below, were identified that will benefit from collaboration with the international scientific community. Most of the topics represent the potential for studies of long-term interest, but some topics were identified that could be addressed, either by workshop participants or others known to the participants, that could be included as abstracts for submission to the ISS meeting taking place in June 2009. Items with topics that could be covered in the June meeting are annotated in the list. The meeting ended with the general understanding that ISS will not be completed with the June 2009 Conference. Rather, the ISS is considered as a long term project sponsoring relevant ongoing international scientific initiatives to expand and improve the verification capabilities of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty.

Sweeney, J J

2009-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

405

Compatibility of technologies with regulations in the waste management of H-3, I-129, C-14, and Kr-85. Part II. Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Waste forms of /sup 3/H, /sup 129/I, /sup 14/C, and /sup 85/Kr separated from fuel reprocessing streams and procedures for managing them were analyzed regarding compliance with regulations. Transportation of these wastes in certain DOT-specification packagings would be permissible, but some of these packagings may not be acceptable in some disposal situations. Transportation of gaseous /sup 85/Kr in a currently certified cylinder is possible, but a fuel reprocessor may wish to ship larger quantities per package. Disposal of tritium using a package designed by a DOE contractor and shallow land burial, in accord with the regulations of 10 CFR 61, seems practicable. Although 10 CFR 61 permits shallow land burial of /sup 129/I, the concentration limit requires distribution in a volume that may seem impractical to commercial fuel reprocessors. The concentration limit of 10 CFR 61 for shallow land burial of /sup 14/C requires distribution in a lesser, although still large, volume. For both /sup 129/I and /sup 14/C, management as high-level waste offers the advantage of smaller volumes. Similar advantages may be offered by greater confinement or non-near surface concepts for disposal. The concrete waste forms developed for these nuclides may not meet technical criteria being formulated for geologic disposal. The lack of accommodation of /sup 85/Kr at disposal facilities makes storage of the gaseous form at the fuel reprocessing plant, followed by dispersal after partial decay, seem attractive. Ocean disposal of /sup 129/I and /sup 14/C by the rules of the International Atomic Energy Agency-London Ocean Dumping Convention offers advantages over shallow land burial: higher allowed concentrations, resulting in smaller volumes and fewer packages. These rules, however, thwart ocean disposal of /sup 85/Kr since gaseous forms are banned, and for solid forms, concentration limits would require distribution of radioactivity in very large volumes. 80 references.

Trevorrow, L.E.; Kolba, V.M.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Steindler, M.J.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Complete oxidation of CO, ethanol, and ethyl acetate over copper oxide supported on titania and ceria modified titania  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Titania and titania modified with 3 and 12 {mu}mol Ce/m{sup 2} surface area of the titania were prepared and were used as supports for copper oxide. Preparations with 3 and 12 {mu}mol CuO{sub x}/m{sup 2} surface area of the support were tested for the combustion of CO, ethyl acetate, and ethanol. The results show that the Ce-doped titania surface is good as support for CuO{sub x} and that the cerium not only enhances the activity of the copper species, but also stabilizes the surface area of the TiO{sub 2} support in the presence of copper oxide. Additions of Al, K, and La are also found to stabilize the TiO{sub 2} support but, compared with Ce, these elements do not to the same extent enhance the activity of the copper species. Acetaldehyde is observed to ban an intermediate in the combustion of both ethanol and ethyl acetate over Cu-Ce-Ti-O catalysts. Since acetaldehyde is more harmful than any of the reactants and also is photochemically active, it is in applications important to assure that the combustion is complete. Cu-Ce-Ti-O catalysts show good performance not only for feeds without water vapor, but also for humid feeds. Although the concentrations of intermediates are affected by the addition of water, there is little effect on the temperature required for obtaining complete conversion to carbon dioxide and water. Characterization with XRD, FT-Raman, TPR, and XPS indicates that the dispersed copper species are in the form of patches or a bidimensional layer which interacts with the surface of the support. When the content of cerium and copper is low, other types of dispersed copper species are present, which possibly are monomers or dimers. The copper species are predominantly Cu{sup 2+} species.

Larsson, P.O. [Perstorp AB (Sweden)] [Perstorp AB (Sweden); Andersson, A. [Univ. of Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering II] [Univ. of Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering II

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Regional or global WEEE recycling. Where to go?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? Source and Destination countries involved in the movement of WEEE have been studied. ? Legislation, facilities and EPR are presented in Source and Destination countries. ? Mostly Destination countries do not have EPR established and have informal facilities. ? Source countries: good technology, EPR established and mostly WEEE regulation enacted. ? Regional WEEE recycling should be under global standards for Sources and Destinations. - Abstract: If we consider Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) management, we can see the development of different positions in developed and developing countries. This development started with the movement of WEEE from developed countries to the developing countries. However, when the consequences for health and the environment were observed, some developing countries introduced a ban on the import of this kind of waste under the umbrella of the Basel Convention, while some developed countries have been considering a regional or global WEEE recycling approach. This paper explores the current movements between Source and Destination countries, or the importers and exporters, and examines whether it is legal and why illegal traffic is still rife; how global initiatives could support a global WEEE management scheme; the recycling characteristics of the source an destination countries and also to ascertain whether the principle of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) has been established between the different stakeholders involved in WEEE management. Ultimately, the Full Extended Producer Responsibility is presented as a possible solution because the compensation of the environmental capacity for WEEE recycling or treatment could be made by the contribution of extra responsibility; and also generating an uniform standard for processing WEEE in an environmentally sound manner could support the regional or international solution of WEEE and also improve the performance of the informal sector.

Li, Jinhui, E-mail: jinhui@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), School of the Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lopez N, Brenda N.; Liu, Lili; Zhao, Nana; Yu, Keli; Zheng, Lixia [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), School of the Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

408

Oxygen-enriched coincineration of MSW and sewage sludge: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Federal regulations banning ocean dumping of sewage sludge coupled with stricter regulations on the disposal of sewage sludge in landfills have forced municipalities, especially those in the northeast United States, to consider alternate methods for disposal of this solid waste. Coincineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) and sludge has proven to be economically attractive for both Europe and Japan, but has not yet proven to be a viable sludge disposal technology in the United States because of a history of operational problems in existing facilities. The most prevalent problem in coincinerating MSW and a dewatered sewage sludge (15 to 25% solids) is incomplete sludge combustion. Incomplete sludge combustion is primarily a function of sludge particle size, occurring when the surface of the sludge particle dries and hardens, while the inner mass is unaffected. This phenomenon is commonly referred to in the industry as the {open_quotes}hamburger effect.{close_quotes} In an effort to promote technology development in this area, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. teamed with the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate a new process being developed for the disposal of a dewatered sewage sludge, {open_quotes}Oxygen-Enriched Coincineration of MSW and Sewage Sludge.{close_quotes} This report provides a comprehensive summary of the pilot demonstration test program for oxygen-enriched coincineration of MSW and sewage sludge. This report describes the pilot test facility, instrumentation, and methods of data collection and data analyses; describes how the tests were executed; and discusses the test results. Recommendations for the future development of this technology in the current marketplace are also provided.

none,

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Evaluation of soil radioactivity data from the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since 1951, 933 nuclear tests have been conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and test areas on the adjacent Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR). Until the early 1960s. the majority of tests were atmospheric, involving detonation of nuclear explosive devices on the ground or on a tower, suspended from a balloon or dropped from an airplane. Since the signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty in 1963, most tests have been conducted underground, although several shallow subsurface tests took place between 1962 and 1968. As a result of the aboveground and near-surface nuclear explosions, as well as ventings of underground tests, destruction of nuclear devices with conventional explosives, and nuclear-rocket engine tests, the surface soil on portions of the NTS has been contaminated with radionuclides. Relatively little consideration was given to the environmental effects of nuclear testing during the first two decades of operations at the NTS. Since the early 1970s, however, increasingly strict environmental regulations have forced greater attention to be given to contamination problems at the site and how to remediate them. One key element in the current environmental restoration program at the NTS is determining the amount and extent of radioactivity in the surface soil. The general distribution of soil radioactivity on the NTS is already well known as a result of several programs carried out in the 1970s and 1980s. However, questions have been raised as to whether the data from those earlier studies are suitable for use in the current environmental assessments and risk analyses. The primary purpose of this preliminary data review is to determine to what extent the historical data collected at the NTS can be used in the characterization/remediation process.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Summary and Guide for Stakeholders  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723). DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations: Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

Not Available

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Volume 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723). DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations: Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

Not Available

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

On-site Inspection Agency (OSIA) FY 1998-2003 program objective memorandum (POM)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Arms control is an integral part of our country`s national security strategy. Arms control ensures confidence in compliance through effective inspection, monitoring, and verification; and, ultimately, contributes to a more stable and calculable balance of power. The full and faithful implementation of existing arms control agreements, followed by ratification of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START II) and Chemical Weapons (CW) Agreements remains an important element of the Administration`s national security policy. With the entry into force (ElF) of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) in the first quarter 1w 1995, ElF of START II planned for late 1w 1996, ElF of the Open Skies (OS) Treaty and the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) planned for 1w 1997, and ElF of the Chemical Weapons Bilateral Destruction Agreement (CW BDA) now planned for 1w 1998, OSIA POM resources have been adjusted to support the significantly expanded missions associated with these Treaties in the outyears. The OSIA continues its efforts to carry out the inspection, escort, and monitoring provisions of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) and Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaties, as well as to maintain a standby status for the Nuclear Test Ban Treaties (NTBT). With the advent of new missions, OSIA is playing an expanding role in providing support to the Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program and Safeguards, Transparency, and Irreversibility (STI) Agreements. Other missions include support for the Biological Weapons (BW) Program and the Technical Equipment Inspections (TEl) Program, Executive Agent for the Defense Treaty Inspection Readiness Program (DTIRP), and the United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) on fraq. Our latest mission involves providing support for the Bosnia Peace Plan initiative.

NONE

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Comparative DNA microarray analysis of human monocyte derived dendritic cells and MUTZ-3 cells exposed to the moderate skin sensitizer cinnamaldehyde  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The number of studies involved in the development of in vitro skin sensitization tests has increased since the adoption of the EU 7th amendment to the cosmetics directive proposing to ban animal testing for cosmetic ingredients by 2013. Several studies have recently demonstrated that sensitizers induce a relevant up-regulation of activation markers such as CD86, CD54, IL-8 or IL-1{beta} in human myeloid cell lines (e.g., U937, MUTZ-3, THP-1) or in human peripheral blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells (PBMDCs). The present study aimed at the identification of new dendritic cell activation markers in order to further improve the in vitro evaluation of the sensitizing potential of chemicals. We have compared the gene expression profiles of PBMDCs and the human cell line MUTZ-3 after a 24-h exposure to the moderate sensitizer cinnamaldehyde. A list of 80 genes modulated in both cell types was obtained and a set of candidate marker genes was selected for further analysis. Cells were exposed to selected sensitizers and non-sensitizers for 24 h and gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results indicated that PIR, TRIM16 and two Nrf2-regulated genes, CES1 and NQO1, are modulated by most sensitizers. Up-regulation of these genes could also be observed in our recently published DC-activation test with U937 cells. Due to their role in DC activation, these new genes may help to further refine the in vitro approaches for the screening of the sensitizing properties of a chemical.

Python, Francois [Experimental Product Safety, Procter and Gamble Co., Cosmital SA, Marly (Switzerland); Goebel, Carsten [Product Safety, Human Safety Assessment, Procter and Gamble Service GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Aeby, Pierre [Experimental Product Safety, Procter and Gamble Co., Cosmital SA, Marly (Switzerland)], E-mail: pierre_aeby@bluewin.ch

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

414

Reduction of risk to the marine environment from oilfield chemicals - balancing environmental and technical needs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study argues that the regulation of offshore use of hazardous chemicals for oilfield stimulation and Completion applications is an important but not a total solution to reduce marine pollution from offshore sources. The aim of the study is to demonstrate that for a complete solution, chemical reformulation must be considered hand-in-band with improved operational practices to provide a maximum effect on overall risk reduction. The study is directed at one major service company`s approach to the whole issue of chemical management in the 1990s, based mainly on North Sea experience in cementing, drilling fluid and stimulation activities. Oilfield chemicals are incorporated into a fluid design to solve a specific technical problem in a well, such as well completion, stimulation and damage removal. While it is desirable to replace all the harmful chemicals, the practicalities of doing so are limited if the industry is to continue to produce efficiently. Other alternatives need consideration. By their very chemistry, some chemicals have primary active ingredients which may be harmful if discharged into the environment. Improving the characteristics of chemicals to marine life requires the change of previously acceptable products, such as the elimination of banned materials as well as incorporating components with reduced toxicity and greater biodegradability. The idealistic goal is the immediate replacement of all chemicals by nontoxic, biodegrade alternatives; the practical solution is replacement reformulation where possible and the improved isolation the oilwell and marine environments through improvements in continuous-mix technology along with reduction of the chemicals by better job design.

O`Neill, J.E.; Hill, D.G.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

415

CTBT technical issues handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this handbook is to give the nonspecialist in nuclear explosion physics and nuclear test monitoring an introduction to the topic as it pertains to a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The authors have tried to make the handbook visually oriented, with figures paired to short discussions. As such, the handbook may be read straight through or in sections. The handbook covers four main areas and ends with a glossary, which includes both scientific terms and acronyms likely to be encountered during CTBT negotiations. The following topics are covered: (1) Physics of nuclear explosion experiments. This is a description of basic nuclear physics and elementary nuclear weapon design. Also discussed are testing practices. (2) Other nuclear experiments. This section discusses experiments that produce small amounts of nuclear energy but differ from explosion experiments discussed in the first chapter. This includes the type of activities, such as laser fusion, that would continue after a CTBT is in force. (3) Monitoring tests in various environments. This section describes the different physical environments in which a test could be conducted (underground, in the atmosphere, in space, underwater, and in the laboratory); the sources of non-nuclear events (such as earthquakes and mining operations); and the opportunities for evasion. (4) On-site inspections. A CTBT is likely to include these inspections as an element of the verification provisions, in order to resolve the nature of ambiguous events. This chapter describes some technical considerations and technologies that are likely to be useful. (5) Selecting verification measures. This chapter discusses the uncertain nature of the evidence from monitoring systems and how compliance judgments could be made, taking the uncertainties into account. It also discusses how to allocate monitoring resources, given the likelihood of testing by various countries in various environments.

Zucca, J.J. [ed.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Compliance with the Clean Air Act Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program requirements at U.S. DOE Oak Ridge Reservation Facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program of the Clean Air Act (CAA) requires promulgation of regulations to reduce and prevent damage to the earth's protective ozone layer. Regulations pursuant to Title VI of the CAA are promulgated in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at Title 40 CFR, Part 822. The regulations include ambitious production phaseout schedules for ozone depleting substances (ODS) including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform under 40 CFR 82, Subpart A. The regulations also include requirements for recycling and emissions reduction during the servicing of refrigeration equipment and technician certification requirements under Subpart F; provisions for servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners under Subpart B; a ban on nonessential products containing Class 1 ODS under Subpart C; restrictions on Federal procurement of ODS under Subpart D; labeling of products using ODS under Subpart E; and the Significant New Alternatives Policy Program under Subpart G. This paper will provide details of initiatives undertaken at US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Facilities for implementation of requirements under the Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program. The Stratospheric Ozone Protection Plans include internal DOE requirements for: (1) maintenance of ODS inventories; (2) ODS procurement practices; (3) servicing of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment; (4) required equipment modifications or replacement; (5) technician certification training; (6) labeling of products containing ODS; (7) substitution of chlorinated solvents; and (8) replacement of halon fire protection systems. The plans also require establishment of administrative control systems which assure that compliance is achieved and maintained as the regulations continue to develop and become effective.

Humphreys, M.P.; Atkins, E.M.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

A crust and upper mantle model of Eurasia and North Africa for Pn travel time calculation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We develop a Regional Seismic Travel Time (RSTT) model and methods to account for the first-order effect of the three-dimensional crust and upper mantle on travel times. The model parameterization is a global tessellation of nodes with a velocity profile at each node. Interpolation of the velocity profiles generates a 3-dimensional crust and laterally variable upper mantle velocity. The upper mantle velocity profile at each node is represented as a linear velocity gradient, which enables travel time computation in approximately 1 millisecond. This computational speed allows the model to be used in routine analyses in operational monitoring systems. We refine the model using a tomographic formulation that adjusts the average crustal velocity, mantle velocity at the Moho, and the mantle velocity gradient at each node. While the RSTT model is inherently global and our ultimate goal is to produce a model that provides accurate travel time predictions over the globe, our first RSTT tomography effort covers Eurasia and North Africa, where we have compiled a data set of approximately 600,000 Pn arrivals that provide path coverage over this vast area. Ten percent of the tomography data are randomly selected and set aside for testing purposes. Travel time residual variance for the validation data is reduced by 32%. Based on a geographically distributed set of validation events with epicenter accuracy of 5 km or better, epicenter error using 16 Pn arrivals is reduced by 46% from 17.3 km (ak135 model) to 9.3 km after tomography. Relative to the ak135 model, the median uncertainty ellipse area is reduced by 68% from 3070 km{sup 2} to 994 km{sup 2}, and the number of ellipses with area less than 1000 km{sup 2}, which is the area allowed for onsite inspection under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, is increased from 0% to 51%.

Myers, S; Begnaud, M; Ballard, S; Pasyanos, M; Phillips, W S; Ramirez, A; Antolik, M; Hutchenson, K; Dwyer, J; Rowe, C; Wagner, G

2009-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

418

Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Volume1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723).DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations:Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho;Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

Not Available

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

REPORT OF ON-SITE INSPECTION WORKSHOP-16  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The central issue addressed by this workshop was the task of making the on-site inspection (OSI) part of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty verification system operationally ready at entry into force of the Treaty. It is recognized, and this was emphasized by the 2008 OSI Integrated Field Exercise (IFE), that it is not possible to develop every part of the OSI regime simultaneously. Therefore, it is necessary to prioritize the approach to OSI readiness. The reviews of the IFE have pointed to many elements of OSI readiness that still need development. The objective of this workshop was to provide priorities for the path forward for Working Group B to consider. Several critical areas have been identified that are related to the development of OSI readiness: (1) Technology development: Priorities are radionuclide and noble gas sampling and analysis, visual observation, multispectral/infrared imaging methods, active seismic methods and the recognition of the importance of signatures. (2) Organizational development: Priorities are health and safety, the Operations Support Centre, the Equipment Storage and Maintenance Facility, information technology data flow and communications. (3) Resources: The expertise to develop key parts of the OSI regime is not available within the current OSI Division staff. To develop these aspects of the regime will require more staff or supplements to the staff with cost-free experts or other means. Aspects of the system that could benefit from more staff include radionuclide and noble gas detection methods, data flow and communications, visual observation, multispectral/infrared methods and health and safety. As the path forward, participants of this workshop recognized a need to optimize the development of OSI priorities. The outcome of this workshop is to suggest for consideration an operational approach to OSI readiness that utilizes results of an evaluation of the relative effectiveness of OSI elements versus their relative maturity. By integrating such an assessment with considerations of integrated operational capabilities and the anticipated level of inspection team self-sufficiency and measurable milestone criteria, a set of priorities for OSI development can be developed. Once these priorities have been established, the Policy Making Organs can decide upon the milestones, strategic plan and action plan to serve as guidance for implementation by the Provisional Technical Secretariat. The suggested operational approach is as follows: (1) Assess the relative effectiveness (importance) of OSI elements versus their relative maturity; (2) Determine the anticipated level of self-sufficiency; (3) Define measurable milestone criteria; and (4) Result: Milestones for OSI readiness.

Sweeney, J J

2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

420

Using the DOE Knowledge Base for Special Event Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The DOE Knowledge Base is a library of detailed information whose purpose is to support the United States National Data Center (USNDC) in its mission to monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). One of the important tasks which the USNDC must accomplish is to periodically perform detailed analysis of events of high interest, so-called "Special Events", to provide the national authority with information needed to make policy decisions. In this paper we investigate some possible uses of the Knowledge Base for Special Event Analysis (SEA), and make recommendations for improving Knowledge Base support for SEA. To analyze an event in detail, there are two basic types of data which must be used sensor-derived data (wave- forms, arrivals, events, etc.) and regiohalized contextual data (known sources, geological characteristics, etc.). Cur- rently there is no single package which can provide full access to both types of data, so for our study we use a separate package for each MatSeis, the Sandia Labs-developed MATLAB-based seismic analysis package, for wave- form data analysis, and ArcView, an ESRI product, for contextual data analysis. Both packages are well-suited to pro- totyping because they provide a rich set of currently available functionality and yet are also flexible and easily extensible, . Using these tools and Phase I Knowledge Base data sets, we show how the Knowledge Base can improve both the speed and the quality of SEA. Empirically-derived interpolated correction information can be accessed to improve both location estimates and associated error estimates. This information can in turn be used to identi~ any known nearby sources (e.g. mines, volcanos), which may then trigger specialized processing of the sensor data. Based on the location estimate, preferred magnitude formulas and discriminants can be retrieved, and any known blockages can be identified to prevent miscalculations. Relevant historic events can be identilled either by spatial proximity searches or through waveform correlation processing. The locations and waveforms of these events can then be made available for side-by-side comparison and processing. If synthetic modeling is thought to be warranted, a wide variety of rele- vant contextu~l information (e.g. crustal thickness and layering, seismic velocities, attenuation factors) can be retrieved and sent to the appropriate applications. Once formedj the synthetics can then be brought in for side-by-side comparison and fhrther processing. Based on our study, we make two general recommendations. First, proper inter-process communication between sensor data analysis software and contextual data analysis sofisvare should be developed. Second, some of the Knowl- edge Base data sets should be prioritized or winnowed to streamline comparison with observed quantities.

Armstrong, H.M.; Harris, J.M.; Young, C.J.

1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

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421

Surface-wave calibration studies for improved monitoring of a CTBT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Seismic calibration of the International Monitoring System (IMS) and other key monitoring stations is critical for effective verification of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Detection, location, and identification all depend upon calibration of source and path effects to ensure maximum efficiency of the IMS to monitor at small magnitudes. This project gathers information about the effects of source and propagation on surface waves for key monitoring areas in central Asia with initial focus on western China. Source calibration focuses on surface-wave determinations of focal depth and seismic moment, M{sub o}, for key earthquakes, which serve as calibration sources in location studies and for developing regional magnitude scales. The authors present a calibration procedure for Lg attenuation, which exploits an empirical relationship between M{sub o} and 1-Hz Lg amplitude for stable and tectonic continental regions. The procedure uses this relationship and estimates of M{sub o} to predict Lg amplitudes at a reference distance of 10 km from each calibrated source. Path-specific estimates of Q{sub o} in the power-law formula of Q (Q = Q{sub o}f{sup {zeta}}) are made using measurements of 1-Hz Lg amplitudes observed at the station and amplitudes predicted for the reference distance. Nuttli`s formula for m{sub b}(Lg) is thus calibrated for the source region of interest, and for paths to key monitoring stations. Path calibration focuses on measurement of surface-wave group velocity dispersion curves in the period range of 5 to 50 s. Concentrating on the Lop Nor source region initially, they employ broadband data recorded at CDSN stations, regional event (M > 4.0), and source-receiver path lengths from 200 to 2000 km. Their approach emphasizes path-specific calibration of key stations and source regions and will result in a family of regionally appropriate phase-match filters, designed to extract fundamental mode surface-wave arrivals for each region of interest. They characterize and quantify regional variability in surface wave dispersion measurements by creating slowness residual maps for a given period and set of paths, and by performing variogram analysis by wave type (Love and Rayleigh Waves), wave period, and station. Results from the slowness residual maps yield point measurements which form the raw input for kriged correction surfaces appropriate to specific source regions. The variogram analysis yields correlation lengths used for smoothing in the kriging process.

Patton, H.J.; Jones, L.E.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

422

Seismic Characterization of Coal-Mining Seismicity in Utah for CTBT Monitoring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Underground coal mining (down to {approx}0.75 km depth) in the contiguous Wasatch Plateau (WP) and Book Cliffs (BC) mining districts of east-central Utah induces abundant seismicity that is monitored by the University of Utah regional seismic network. This report presents the results of a systematic characterization of mining seismicity (magnitude {le} 4.2) in the WP-BC region from January 1978 to June 2000-together with an evaluation of three seismic events (magnitude {le} 4.3) associated with underground trona mining in southwestern Wyoming during January-August 2000. (Unless specified otherwise, magnitude implies Richter local magnitude, M{sub L}.) The University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS) undertook this cooperative project to assist the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in research and development relating to monitoring the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The project, which formally began February 28, 1998, and ended September 1, 2000, had three basic objectives: (1) Strategically install a three-component broadband digital seismic station in the WP-BC region to ensure the continuous recording of high-quality waveform data to meet the long-term needs of LLNL, UUSS, and other interested parties, including the international CTBT community. (2) Determine source mechanisms--to the extent that available source data and resources allowed--for comparative seismic characterization of stress release in mines versus earthquakes in the WP-BC study region. (3) Gather and report to LLNL local information on mine operations and associated seismicity, including ''ground truth'' for significant events. Following guidance from LLNL's Technical Representative, the focus of Objective 2 was changed slightly to place emphasis on three mining-related events that occurred in and near the study area after the original work plan had been made, thus posing new targets of opportunity. These included: a magnitude 3.8 shock that occurred close to the Willow Creek coal mine in the Book Cliffs area on February 5, 1998 (UTC date), just prior to the start of this project; a magnitude 4.2 shock on March 7,2000 (UTC date), in the same area as the February 5 event; and a magnitude 4.3 shock that occurred on January 30,2000 (UTC and local date), associated with a panel collapse at the Solvay trona mine in southwestern Wyoming. This is the same mine in which an earlier collapse event of magnitude 5.2 occurred in February 1995, attracting considerable attention from the CTBT community.

Arabasz, W J; Pechmann, J C

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Evaluation of the sensitizing potential of antibiotics in vitro using the human cell lines THP-1 and MUTZ-LC and primary monocyte?derived dendritic cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the 7th amendment to the EU cosmetics directive foresees a complete ban on animal testing, alternative in vitro methods have been established to evaluate the sensitizing potential of small molecular weight compounds. To find out whether these novel in vitro assays are also capable to predict the sensitizing potential of small molecular weight drugs, model compounds such as beta-lactams and sulfonamides – which are the most frequent cause of adverse drug reactions – were co-incubated with THP-1, MUTZ-LC, or primary monocyte?derived dendritic cells for 48 h and subsequent expression of selected marker genes (IL-8, IL-1?, CES1, NQO1, GCLM, PIR and TRIM16) was studied by real time PCR. Benzylpenicillin and phenoxymethylpenicillin were recognized as sensitizing compounds because they are capable to induce the mRNA expression of these genes in moDCs and, except for IL-8, in THP-1 cells but not in MUTZ-LC. Ampicillin stimulated the expression of some marker genes in moDCs and THP-1 cells. SMX did not affect the expression of these genes in THP-1, however, in moDCs, at least PIR was enhanced and there was an increase of the release of IL-8. These data reveal that novel in vitro DC based assays might play a role in the evaluation of the allergenic potential of novel drug compounds, but these systems seem to lack the ability to detect the sensitizing potential of prohaptens that require metabolic activation prior to sensitization and moDCs seem to be superior with regard to the sensitivity compared with THP-1 and MUTZ-3 cell lines. -- Highlights: ? We tested the sensitizing potential of small molecular weight drugs in vitro. ? In vitro assays were performed with moDCs and THP-1 cells. ? Beta-lactam antibiotics can be recognized as sensitizing compounds. ? They affect the expression of metabolic enzymes, cytokines and transcription factors. ? Sulfamethoxazole has no measurable effect on THP-1 cells and moDCs.

Sebastian, Katrin, E-mail: ksebastian@ukaachen.de [Department of Dermatology and Allergology, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)] [Department of Dermatology and Allergology, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Ott, Hagen [Department of Dermatology and Allergology, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)] [Department of Dermatology and Allergology, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Zwadlo-Klarwasser, Gabriele [IZKF (BIOMAT), RWTH Aachen University Hospital, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)] [IZKF (BIOMAT), RWTH Aachen University Hospital, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Skazik-Voogt, Claudia; Marquardt, Yvonne; Czaja, Katharina; Merk, Hans F.; Baron, Jens Malte [Department of Dermatology and Allergology, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)] [Department of Dermatology and Allergology, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) have been chosen as part of Chile's national energy efficiency action plan. As a first MEPS, the Ministry of Energy has decided to focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale of inefficient bulbs, effectively phasing out the use of incandescent lamps. Following major economies such as the US (EISA, 2007) , the EU (Ecodesign, 2009) and Australia (AS/NZS, 2008) who planned a phase out based on minimum efficacy requirements, the Ministry of Energy has undertaken the impact analysis of a MEPS on the residential lighting sector. Fundacion Chile (FC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with the Ministry of Energy and the National Energy Efficiency Program (Programa Pais de Eficiencia Energetica, or PPEE) in order to produce a techno-economic analysis of this future policy measure. LBNL has developed for CLASP (CLASP, 2007) a spreadsheet tool called the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS) that allows for evaluation of costs and benefits at the consumer level but also a wide range of impacts at the national level, such as energy savings, net present value of savings, greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reductions and avoided capacity generation due to a specific policy. Because historically Chile has followed European schemes in energy efficiency programs (test procedures, labelling program definitions), we take the Ecodesign commission regulation No 244/2009 as a starting point when defining our phase out program, which means a tiered phase out based on minimum efficacy per lumen category. The following data were collected in order to perform the techno-economic analysis: (1) Retail prices, efficiency and wattage category in the current market, (2) Usage data (hours of lamp use per day), and (3) Stock data, penetration of efficient lamps in the market. Using these data, PAMS calculates the costs and benefits of efficiency standards from two distinct but related perspectives: (1) The Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) calculation examines costs and benefits from the perspective of the individual household; and (2) The National Perspective projects the total national costs and benefits including both financial benefits, and energy savings and environmental benefits. The national perspective calculations are called the National Energy Savings (NES) and the Net Present Value (NPV) calculations. PAMS also calculate total emission mitigation and avoided generation capacity. This paper describes the data and methodology used in PAMS and presents the results of the proposed phase out of incandescent bulbs in Chile.

Letschert, Virginie E.; McNeil, Michael A.; Leiva Ibanez, Francisco Humberto; Ruiz, Ana Maria; Pavon, Mariana; Hall, Stephen

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Examination of the role of nuclear deterrence in the 21st century: a systems analysis approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Until very recently, an evaluation of US policy regarding deterrence and the role of its nuclear weapons arsenal as a deterrent has been largely absent in the public debate. With President's Obama embrace of a goal of a future world without nuclear weapons, issues of nuclear policy and deterrence have just recently risen to the forefront of policy discussions. The traditional role of US nuclear weapons-to deter the use of nuclear weapons by other states-endures, but is no longer unique nor even predominant. In an increasingly multi-polar world, the US now faces growing risks of nuclear weapons proliferation; the spread of weapons of mass destruction generally to non-state, substate and transnational actors; cyber, space, economic, environmental and resource threats along with the application of numerous other forms of 'soft power' in ways that are inimical to national security and to global stability. What concept of deterrence should the US seek to maintain in the 21st Century? That question remains fluid and central to the current debate. Recently there has been a renewed focusing of attention on the role of US nuclear weapons and a national discussion about what the underlying policy should be. In this environment, both the United States and Russia have committed to drastic reductions in their nuclear arsenals, while still maintaining forces sufficient to ensure unacceptable consequence in response to acts of aggression. Further, the declared nuclear powers have maintained that a limited nuclear arsenal continues to provide insurance against uncertain developments in a changing world. In this environment of US and Russian stockpile reductions, all declared nuclear states have reiterated the central role which nuclear weapons continue to provide for their supreme national security interests. Given this new environment and the challenges of the next several decades, how might the United States structure its policy and forces with regard to nuclear weapons? Many competing objectives have been stated across the spectrum of political, social, and military thought. These objectives include goals of ratification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, recommitment to further downsizing of the nuclear arsenal, embracing a long-term goal of the elimination of nuclear weapons, limitations on both the production complex and upgrades to nuclear weapons and delivery systems, and controls and constraints to limit proliferation of nuclear materials and weapons, particularly to rogue states and terrorist groups.

Martz, Joseph C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stevens, Patrice A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Branstetter, Linda [SNL; Hoover, Edward [SNL; O' Brien, Kevin [SNL; Slavin, Adam [SNL; Caswell, David [STANFORD UNIV

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Tank 241-AX-104 upper vadose zone cone penetrometer demonstration sampling and analysis plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) is the primary document describing field and laboratory activities and requirements for the tank 241-AX-104 upper vadose zone cone penetrometer (CP) demonstration. It is written in accordance with Hanford Tank Initiative Tank 241-AX-104 Upper Vadose Zone Demonstration Data Quality Objective (Banning 1999). This technology demonstration, to be conducted at tank 241-AX-104, is being performed by the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) Project as a part of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval Program (EM-30) and the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) Tanks Focus Area. Sample results obtained as part of this demonstration will provide additional information for subsequent revisions to the Retrieval Performance Evaluation (RPE) report (Jacobs 1998). The RPE Report is the result of an evaluation of a single tank farm (AX Tank Farm) used as the basis for demonstrating a methodology for developing the data and analyses necessary to support making tank waste retrieval decisions within the context of tank farm closure requirements. The RPE includes a study of vadose zone contaminant transport mechanisms, including analysis of projected tank leak characteristics, hydrogeologic characteristics of tank farm soils, and the observed distribution of contaminants in the vadose zone in the tank farms. With limited characterization information available, large uncertainties exist as to the nature and extent of contaminants that may exist in the upper vadose zone in the AX Tank Farm. Traditionally, data has been collected from soils in the vadose zone through the installation of boreholes and wells. Soil samples are collected as the bore hole is advanced and samples are screened on site and/or sent to a laboratory for analysis. Some in-situ geophysical methods of contaminant analysis can be used to evaluate radionuclide levels in the soils adjacent to an existing borehole. However, geophysical methods require compensation for well casing interference and soil moisture content and may not be successful in some conditions. In some cases the level of interference must be estimated due to uncertainties regarding the materials used in well construction and soil conditions, Well casing deployment used for many in-situ geophysical methods is relatively expensive and geophysical methods do not generally provide real time values for contaminants. In addition, some of these methods are not practical within the boundaries of the tank farm due to physical constraints, such as underground piping and other hardware. The CP technologies could facilitate future characterization of vadose zone soils by providing vadose zone data in near real-time, reducing the number of soil samples and boreholes required, and reducing characterization costs.

FIELD, J.G.

1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

427

Primer on Use of Multi-Spectral and Infra Red Imaging for On-Site Inspections  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of an On-Site Inspection (OSI) is to determine whether a nuclear explosion has occurred in violation of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and to gather information which might assist in identifying the violator (CTBT, Article IV, Paragraph 35) Multi-Spectral and Infra Red Imaging (MSIR) is allowed by the treaty to detect observables which might help reduce the search area and thus expedite an OSI and make it more effective. MSIR is permitted from airborne measurements, and at and below the surface to search for anomalies and artifacts (CTBT, Protocol, Part II, Paragraph 69b). The three broad types of anomalies and artifacts MSIR is expected to be capable of observing are surface disturbances (disturbed earth, plant stress or anomalous surface materials), human artifacts (man-made roads, buildings and features), and thermal anomalies. The purpose of this Primer is to provide technical information on MSIR relevant to its use for OSI. It is expected that this information may be used for general background information, to inform decisions about the selection and testing of MSIR equipment, to develop operational guidance for MSIR use during an OSI, and to support the development of a training program for OSI Inspectors. References are provided so readers can pursue a topic in more detail than the summary information provided here. The following chapters will provide more information on how MSIR can support an OSI (Section 2), a short summary what Multi-Spectral Imaging and Infra Red Imaging is (Section 3), guidance from the CTBT regarding the use of MSIR (Section 4), and a description of several nuclear explosion scenarios (Section 5) and consequent observables (Section 6). The remaining sections focus on practical aspects of using MSIR for an OSI, such as specification and selection of MSIR equipment, operational considerations for deployment of MISR equipment from an aircraft, and the conduct of field exercises to mature MSIR for an OSI. Finally, an appendix provides detail describing the magnitude and spatial extent of the surface shock expected from an underground nuclear explosion. If there is a seismic event or other data to suggest there has been a nuclear explosion in violation of the CTBT, an OSI may be conducted to determine whether a nuclear explosion has occurred and to gather information which may be useful in identifying the party responsible for conducting the explosion. The OSI must be conducted in the area where the event that triggered the inspection request occurred, and the inspected area must not exceed 1,000 square kilometers, or be more than 50 km on aside (CTBT Protocol, Part II, Paragraphs 2 and 3). One of the guiding principles for an inspection is that it be effective, minimally intrusive, timely, and cost-effective [Hawkins, Feb 1998]. In that context, MSIR is one of several technologies that can be used during an aircraft overflight to identify ground regions of high interest in a timely and cost-effective manner. This allows for an optimized inspection on the ground. The primary purpose for MSIR is to identify artifacts and anomalies that might be associated with a nuclear explosion, and to use the location of those artifacts and anomalies to reduce the search area that must be inspected from the ground. The MSIR measurements can have additional utility. The multi-spectral measurements of the ground can be used for terrain classification, which can aid in geological characterization of the Inspected Area. In conditions of where light smoke or haze is present, long-wave infrared imaging can provide better imaging of the ground than is possible with standard visible imagery.

Henderson, J R

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

428

Geologic Assessment of the Damage Zone from the Second Test at Source Physics Experiment-Nevada (SPE-N)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Center for Nuclear Security, established by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), is conducting a series of explosive tests at the Nevada National Security Site that are designed to increase the understanding of certain basic physical phenomena associated with underground explosions. These tests will aid in developing technologies that might be used to detect underground nuclear explosions in support of verification activities for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The initial project is a series of explosive tests, known collectively as the Source Physics Experiment-Nevada (SPE-N), being conducted in granitic rocks. The SPE-N test series is designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves. The results will help advance the seismic monitoring capability of the United States by improving the predictive capability of physics-based modeling of explosive phenomena. The first SPE N (SPE-N-1) test was conducted in May 2011, using 100 kg of explosives at the depth of 54.9 m in the U 15n source hole. SPE-N-2 was conducted in October 2011, using 1,000 kg of explosives at the depth of 45.7 m in the same source hole. The SPE-N-3 test was conducted in the same source hole in July 2012, using the same amount and type of explosive as for SPE-N-2, and at the same depth as SPE-N-2, within the damage zone created by the SPE-N-2 explosion to investigate damage effects on seismic wave propagation. Following the SPE-N-2 shot and prior to the SPE-N-3 shot, the core hole U-15n#10 was drilled at an angle from the surface to intercept the SPE-N-2 shot point location to obtain information necessary to characterize the damage zone. The objective was to determine the position of the damage zone near the shot point, at least on the northeast, where the core hole penetrated it, and obtain information on the properties of the damaged medium. Geologic characterization of the post-SPE-N-2 core hole included geophysical logging, a directional survey, and geologic description of the core to document visual evidence of damage. Selected core samples were provided to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for measurement of physical and mechanical properties. A video was also run in the source hole after it was cleaned out. A significant natural fault zone was encountered in the angle core hole between 5.7 and 7.5 m from the shot point. However, several of the fractures observed in the core hole are interpreted as having been caused by the explosion. The fractures are characterized by a “fresh,” mechanically broken look, with uncoated and very irregular surfaces. They tend to terminate against natural fractures and have orientations that differ from the previously defined natural fracture sets; they are common starting at about 5.4 m from the shot point. Within about 3.3 m of the shot point to the end of the recovered core at 1.6 m from the shot point, some of the core samples are softer and lighter in color, but do not appear to be weathered. It is thought this could be indicative of the presence of distributed microfracturing.

Townsend, M. J.; Huckins-Gang, H. E.; Prothro, L. B.; Reed, D. N.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

OSI Passive Seismic Experiment at the Former Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On-site inspection (OSI) is one of the four verification provisions of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Under the provisions of the CTBT, once the Treaty has entered into force, any signatory party can request an on-site inspection, which can then be carried out after approval (by majority voting) of the Executive Council. Once an OSI is approved, a team of 40 inspectors will be assembled to carry out an inspection to ''clarify whether a nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of Article I''. One challenging aspect of carrying out an on-site inspection (OSI) in the case of a purported underground nuclear explosion is to detect and locate the underground effects of an explosion, which may include an explosion cavity, a zone of damaged rock, and/or a rubble zone associated with an underground collapsed cavity. The CTBT (Protocol, Section II part D, paragraph 69) prescribes several types of geophysical investigations that can be carried out for this purpose. One of the methods allowed by the CTBT for geophysical investigation is referred to in the Treaty Protocol as ''resonance seismometry''. This method, which was proposed and strongly promoted by Russia during the Treaty negotiations, is not described in the Treaty. Some clarification about the nature of the resonance method can be gained from OSI workshop presentations by Russian experts in the late 1990s. Our understanding is that resonance seismometry is a passive method that relies on seismic reverberations set up in an underground cavity by the passage of waves from regional and teleseismic sources. Only a few examples of the use of this method for detection of underground cavities have been presented, and those were done in cases where the existence and precise location of an underground cavity was known. As is the case with many of the geophysical methods allowed during an OSI under the Treaty, how resonance seismology really works and its effectiveness for OSI purposes has yet to be determined. For this experiment, we took a broad approach to the definition of ''resonance seismometry''; stretching it to include any means that employs passive seismic methods to infer the character of underground materials. In recent years there have been a number of advances in the use of correlation and noise analysis methods in seismology to obtain information about the subsurface. Our objective in this experiment was to use noise analysis and correlation analysis to evaluate these techniques for detecting and characterizing the underground damage zone from a nuclear explosion. The site that was chosen for the experiment was the Mackerel test in Area 4 of the former Nevada Test Site (now named the Nevada National Security Site, or NNSS). Mackerel was an underground nuclear test of less than 20 kT conducted in February of 1964 (DOENV-209-REV 15). The reason we chose this site is because there was a known apical cavity occurring at about 50 m depth above a rubble zone, and that the site had been investigated by the US Geological Survey with active seismic methods in 1965 (Watkins et al., 1967). Note that the time delay between detonation of the explosion (1964) and the time of the present survey (2010) is nearly 46 years - this would not be typical of an expected OSI under the CTBT.

Sweeney, J J; Harben, P

2010-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

430

Geologic Assessment of the Damage Zone from the Second Test at Source Physics Experiment-Nevada (SPE-N)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS), established by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, is conducting a series of explosive tests at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS; formerly the Nevada Test Site) that are designed to increase the understanding of certain basic physical phenomena associated with underground explosions. These tests will aid in developing technologies that might be used to detect underground nuclear explosions in support of verification activities for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The initial NCNS project is a series of explosive tests, known collectively as the Source Physics Experiment at the NNSS (SPE-N), being conducted in granitic rocks at the Climax stock in northern Yucca Flat. The SPE-N test series is designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves. The data will be used to improve the predictive capability of calculational models for detecting and characterizing underground explosions. The first SPE-N test (SPE-N-1) was a “calibration” shot conducted in May 2011, using 100 kilograms (kg) of explosives at the depth of 54.9 meters (m) (180 feet [ft]) in the U-15n source hole. SPE-N-2 was conducted in October 2011, using 1,000 kg of explosives at the depth of 45.7 m (150 ft) in the same source hole. Following the SPE-N-2 test, the core hole U-15n#10 was drilled at an angle from the surface to intercept the SPE-N-2 shot point location to obtain information necessary to characterize the damage zone. The desire was to determine the position of the damage zone near the shot point, at least on the northeast side, where the core hole penetrated it. The three-dimensional shape and symmetry of the damage zone are unknown at this time. Rather than spherical in shape, the dimensions of the damage zone could be influenced by the natural fracture sets in the vicinity. Geologic characterization of the borehole included geophysical logging, a directional survey, and geologic description of the core to document visual evidence of damage. Selected core samples were provided to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for laboratory tests (to be reported by SNL). A significant natural fault zone was encountered in the U-15n#10 angle core hole between the drilled depths of 149 and 155 ft (straight-line distance or range station [RS] from the shot point of 7.5 to 5.7 m). However, several of the fractures observed in the U-15n#10 hole are interpreted as having been caused by the explosion. These fractures are characterized by a “fresh,” mechanically broken look, with uncoated and very irregular surfaces. They tend to terminate against natural fractures and have orientations that differ from the previously defined natural fracture sets. The most distant fracture from the shot point that could be interpreted as having been caused by the explosion was seen at approximately RS 10.0 m. No other possibly explosion-induced fractures are apparent above the fault, but are common starting at RS 5.4 m, which is below the fault. It is unknown how the fault zone might have affected the propagation of seismic waves or how the materials in the fault zone (altered granite, breccia, gouge) were affected by the explosion. From RS 3.3 m to the end of the recovered core at RS 1.6 m, some of the core samples are softer and lighter in color, but do not appear to be weathered. It is thought this could be indicative of the presence of distributed microfracturing.

,

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

431

The Effects of Heterogeneities on Seismic Wave Propagation in the Climax Stock  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty requires the ability to detect low-yield (less than 150kton) nuclear events. This kind of monitoring can only be done seismically on a regional scale (within 2000km). At this level, it is difficult to distinguish between low-yield nuclear events and non-nuclear events of similar magnitude. In order to confidently identify a nuclear event, a more detailed understanding of nuclear seismic sources is needed. In particular, it is important to know the effects of local geology on the seismic signal. This study focuses on P-wave velocity in heterogeneous granitoid. The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is currently performing low-yield tests with chemical explosives at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The exact test site was chosen to be in the Climax Stock, a cretaceous granodiorite and quartz-monzonite pluton located in Area 15 of the NNSS. It has been used in the past for the Hard Hat and Pile Driver nuclear tests, which provided legacy data that can be used to simulate wave propagation. The Climax Stock was originally chosen as the site of the SPE partly because of its assumed homogeneity. It has since been discovered that the area of the stock where the SPE tests are being performed contains a perched water table. In addition, the stock is known to contain an extensive network of faults, joints, and fractures, but the exact effect of these structural features on seismic wave velocity is not fully understood. The SPE tests are designed to seismically capture the explosion phenomena from the near- to the far-field transition of the seismic waveform. In the first SPE experiment, 100kg of chemical explosives were set off at a depth of 55m. The blast was recorded with an array of sensors and diagnostics, including accelerometers, geophones, rotational sensors, short-period and broadband seismic sensors, Continuous Reflectometry for Radius vs. Time Experiment, Time of Arrival, Velocity of Detonation, and infrasound sensors. The focus of this study is two-fold: (1) the geophone array that was focused over the SPE shot and (2) a high-resolution seismic profile that was recently acquired at the field site. The geophone array was placed radially around the SPE shot in five directions with 100m spacing and out to a distance of 2 km. The high-resolution profile was about 475m in length with station and shot spacing of 5m using a 7000lb mini-vibe as a source. In both data sets, the first arrivals will be used to develop velocity models. For the geophone array, 1-D P-wave velocity models will be developed to determine an average apparent velocity of the Climax Stock. The high-resolution data will be used to develop a 2-D P-wave velocity model along the seismic profile. This is in an effort to elucidate the water table in more detail and provide additional information on the near-surface structure. These results will be used in the overall modeling effort to fully characterize the test bed and develop a physics-based model to simulate seismic energy from the SPE events.

Hagan Webb, C., Snelson, C. M., White, R., Emmitt, R., Barker, D., Abbott, R., Bonal, N.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Investigation of CTBT OSI Radionuclide Techniques at the DILUTED WATERS Nuclear Test Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a verification regime that includes the ability to conduct an On-Site Inspection (OSI) will be established. The Treaty allows for an OSI to include many techniques, including the radionuclide techniques of gamma radiation surveying and spectrometry and environmental sampling and analysis. Such radioactivity detection techniques can provide the “smoking gun” evidence that a nuclear test has occurred through the detection and quantification of indicative recent fission products. An OSI faces restrictions in time and manpower, as dictated by the Treaty; not to mention possible logistics difficulties due to the location and climate of the suspected explosion site. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the possible source term an OSI will encounter and the proper techniques that will be necessary for an effective OSI regime. One of the challenges during an OSI is to locate radioactive debris that has escaped an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) and settled on the surface near and downwind of ground zero. To support the understanding and selection of sampling and survey techniques for use in an OSI, we are currently designing an experiment, the Particulate Release Experiment (PRex), to simulate a small-scale vent from an underground nuclear explosion. PRex will occur at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The project is conducted under the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) funded by the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA). Prior to the release experiment, scheduled for Spring of 2013, the project scheduled a number of activities at the NNSS to prepare for the release experiment as well as to utilize the nuclear testing past of the NNSS for the development of OSI techniques for CTBT. One such activity—the focus of this report—was a survey and sampling campaign at the site of an old UNE that vented: DILUTED WATERS. Activities at DILUTED WATERS included vehicle-based survey, in situ measurements with high-purity germanium (HPGe) and hand-held LaBr3 systems, soil sampling with a variety of tools, and laboratory gamma spectrometric analysis of those samples. A further benefit of the measurement campaign was to gain familiarity with the many logistical aspects of performing radiological field work at NNSS ahead of the PRex. Many practical lessons concerning the proper methodologies and logistics of using the surveying and sampling equipment were noted. These Lessons Learned are compiled together in Appendix A. The vehicle-based survey was successful in that it found a previously unknown hotspot (determined to be 232Th) while it demonstrated that a better method for keeping a serpentine track without staking was needed. Some of the soil sampling equipment was found to be impractical for the application, though core sampling would not be the correct way to take soil samples for a fresh vent deposit (as opposed to an old site like DILUTED WATERS). Due to the site’s age, 137Cs was the only fission radioisotope identified, though others were searched for. While not enough samples were taken and analyzed to definitively link the 137Cs to DILUTED WATERS as opposed to other NNSS activities, results were consistent with the historical DILUTED WATERS plume. MDAs were compared for soil sampling and in situ measurements.

Baciak, James E.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Keillor, Martin E.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Seifert, Allen; Emer, Dudley; Floyd, Michael

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z